複式光學顯微鏡 (Compound light microscope)的構造 5 1. 鏡座 (Base) 2. 鏡柱 (Pillar) 3. 鏡臂 (Arm) 7 4 6 A 3 4. 鏡筒 (Observation tube) A. 鏡筒固定鈕 (Observation tube clamping knob)：鏡筒 歸位，螺絲必須旋緊。 8 9 2 5. 接目鏡 (Eyepiece)：10 ×，右眼有測微尺 (micrometer) 6. 調整兩眼距離 (Interpupillary distance adjustment) 7. 視差校正調整(Diopter adjustment ring) 8. 旋轉盤(Revolving nosepiece) 9. 接物鏡 (Objectives )：4 ×，10 ×，40 × 1 廠牌：Olympus CX21 廠牌：Nikon 11 10 13 10. 載物台 (Stage) 11. 玻片夾 (Slide holder) 12a 12b 14 15 12a. 玻片左右移動調節鈕(Slid holder Y-axis feed knob) 12b. 玻片上下移動調節鈕(Slid holder X-axis feed knob) 13. 調節輪 (Adjustment knob) 14. 粗調節輪 (Coarse adjustment knob) 15. 細調節輪 (Fine adjustment knob) 16 16. 燈 (Lamp) 18 17. 電源開關 (Power switch) 18. 照明器亮度調節鈕 (Light intensity adjustment knob) 17 Total magnification 22 19 -- The size of the specimen image for observation is obtained by multiplying the eyepiece magnification by the objective magnification. This value is referred to as total magnification. 20 21 19. 集光器 (Condenser)：A condenser focuses the light source on the specimen so that each of its points is evenly illuminated. 20. 光圈調整環(Aperture iris diaphragm ring)：It is used to open and close the condenser. 21. 濾片(Filter ) 22. 集光器調整鈕 (Condenser height adjustment knob)：The condenser is usually used in highest position. Total magnification of specimen ＝ the magnification of objective × the magnification of eyepiece Example: Eyepiece (10 ×) × Objective (40 ×) = 400 × Using the microscope 1. Use the lowest magnification of objective lens (4×) to find the target on the specimen (1) Connect the power cord (2) Turn the lamp on. Rotating the light intensity adjustment knob to scale “4~5”. (3) Engage the 4× objective in the light path. (4) Place the specimen on the stage. (5) Rotate the coarse adjustment knob to let the stage up to the highest position. (6) Observing the specimen through the eyepieces, slowly rotate the coarse adjustment knob in the opposite direction to lower the stage. When coarse focusing of the specimen is obtained, rotate the fine adjustment knob to adjust to precise focus. (7) Adjust the interpupillary distance and the diopter. (8) Adjust the aperture iris diaphragm to have a suitable light of the sight. • Adjusting the Interpupillary Distance 2. Switch the middle magnification of objective lens (10×) to find the target on the specimen (1) The target was moved to the center of the field. • Adjusting the Diopter - There is one diopter adjustment ring around the left ocular tube, cover the left eye and focus your microscope using the fine knob. Now uncover the left eye and cover the right one. Use the diopter adjustment ring to bring the specimen into focus. (2) Hold and rotate the revolving nosepiece to switch the objectives to the 10× objective. 7 3. Switch the high magnification of objective lens (40×) to find the target on the specimen (3) Observing the specimen through the eyepieces, slowly rotate the fine adjustment knob to adjust to precise focus. (4) Adjust the aperture iris diaphragm to have a suitable light of the sight. Attention for operating microscope 1. Carry the microscope by two hands, one hand holds the Arm and the other hold the Base. (2) Hold and rotate the revolving nosepiece to switch the objectives to the 40× objective. 2. Each student has his own microscope, if it is break or miss component, tell the teach or research assistants immediately. (3) Observing the specimen through the eyepieces, slowly rotate the fine adjustment knob to adjust to precise focus. 3. When you clean the objective lens or eyepiece, use the Len paper to clean it and wipe it with the same direction (4) Adjust the aperture iris diaphragm to have a suitable light of the sight. 4. Do not rotate the Fine adjustment knob toward the same direction over 2 circles and, it will break. If you still can’t see “object” clearly, go back to the lowest magnification and do the procedure again. (1) The target was moved to the center of the field. Gradually change the magnification of objective 4X, 10X, 40X. If the target is lost under the higher magnification, should go back to the lower magnification, in accordance with the steps to re‐find it. Observation of the hair structure 5. After observation the specimen, please (1) lock the screw of body tube, (2) lower the stage to the bottom, (3) rotate the empty part on the revolving nosepiece to aim at the center (round hole) of Stage, (4) rotate the light intensity control knob twist to the lowest number, and turn off the power, (5) take off the plug of power supply, and (6) cover the dust-proof coat. 1. Prepare a wet mount slide of your own hair. 2. Use the microscope to observe the hair structure and record its characteristics including color, thickness, texture. Hair structure The medulla is a honeycomb keratin structure with air spaces within it. 角質層 皮質 髓質 The cortex gives flexibility and tensile strength to hair and contains melanin (giving hair its color). The cuticle is made from 6 to 11 layers of overlapping semi-transparent scales (which make the hair waterproof and allow it to be stretched). Someone with thick, coarse hair will have more overlapping layers of cuticles than someone with fine hair.
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