# 複式光學顯微鏡(Compound light microscope)的構造

```複式光學顯微鏡 (Compound light microscope)的構造
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1. 鏡座 (Base)
2. 鏡柱 (Pillar)
3. 鏡臂 (Arm)
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4. 鏡筒 (Observation tube)
A. 鏡筒固定鈕 (Observation
tube clamping knob)：鏡筒

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5. 接目鏡 (Eyepiece)：10 ×，右眼有測微尺 (micrometer)
8. 旋轉盤(Revolving nosepiece)
9. 接物鏡 (Objectives )：4 ×，10 ×，40 ×
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10. 載物台 (Stage)
11. 玻片夾 (Slide holder)
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12a. 玻片左右移動調節鈕(Slid holder Y-axis feed knob)
12b. 玻片上下移動調節鈕(Slid holder X-axis feed knob)
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16. 燈 (Lamp)
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17. 電源開關 (Power switch)
18. 照明器亮度調節鈕 (Light intensity adjustment knob)
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Total magnification
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-- The size of the specimen image for observation is obtained by
multiplying the eyepiece magnification by the objective
magnification. This value is referred to as total magnification.
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19. 集光器 (Condenser)：A condenser focuses the light source on the
specimen so that each of its points is evenly illuminated.
20. 光圈調整環(Aperture iris diaphragm ring)：It is used to open and close
the condenser.
21. 濾片(Filter )
22. 集光器調整鈕 (Condenser height adjustment knob)：The condenser is
usually used in highest position.
Total magnification of specimen ＝ the magnification of objective
× the magnification of eyepiece
Example: Eyepiece (10 ×)
×
Objective (40 ×) = 400 ×
Using the microscope
1. Use the lowest magnification of objective lens
(4×) to find the target on the specimen
(1) Connect the power cord
(2) Turn the lamp on. Rotating the light intensity
(3) Engage the 4× objective in the light path.
(4) Place the specimen on the stage.
(5) Rotate the coarse adjustment knob to let the
stage up to the highest position.
(6) Observing the specimen through the
eyepieces, slowly rotate the coarse
adjustment knob in the opposite direction
to lower the stage. When coarse focusing
of the specimen is obtained, rotate the fine
(7) Adjust the interpupillary distance and the
diopter.
(8) Adjust the aperture iris diaphragm to have
a suitable light of the sight.
2. Switch the middle magnification of objective lens (10×) to find the
target on the specimen
(1) The target was moved to the center of
the field.
- There is one diopter adjustment ring
around the left ocular tube, cover the
left eye and focus your microscope
using the fine knob. Now uncover the
left eye and cover the right one. Use
the diopter adjustment ring to bring the
specimen into focus.
(2) Hold and rotate the revolving nosepiece
to switch the objectives to the 10×
objective.
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3. Switch the high magnification of objective lens (40×) to find the
target on the specimen
(3) Observing the specimen through the
eyepieces, slowly rotate the fine
focus.
(4) Adjust the aperture iris diaphragm to
have a suitable light of the sight.
Attention for operating microscope
1.
Carry the microscope by two hands, one hand holds the Arm
and the other hold the Base.
(2) Hold and rotate the revolving nosepiece to switch the
objectives to the 40× objective.
2.
Each student has his own microscope, if it is break or miss
component, tell the teach or research assistants immediately.
(3) Observing the specimen through the eyepieces, slowly rotate the
3.
When you clean the objective lens or eyepiece, use the Len
paper to clean it and wipe it with the same direction
(4) Adjust the aperture iris diaphragm to have a suitable light of the
sight.
4.
Do not rotate the Fine adjustment knob toward the same
direction over 2 circles and, it will break. If you still can’t
see “object” clearly, go back to the lowest magnification and
do the procedure again.
(1) The target was moved to the center of the field.
 Gradually change the magnification of objective 4X, 10X, 40X.
 If the target is lost under the higher magnification, should go back to the lower magnification, in accordance with the steps to re‐find it.
Observation of the hair structure
5. After observation the specimen, please
(1) lock the screw of body tube, (2)
lower the stage to the bottom, (3)
rotate the empty part on the revolving
nosepiece to aim at the center (round
hole) of Stage, (4) rotate the light
intensity control knob twist to the
lowest number, and turn off the power,
(5) take off the plug of power supply,
and (6) cover the dust-proof coat.
1. Prepare a wet mount slide of your own hair.
2. Use the microscope to observe the hair structure and record its
characteristics including color, thickness, texture.
Hair structure
 The medulla is a honeycomb keratin structure with air
spaces within it.

 The cortex gives flexibility and tensile strength to hair
and contains melanin (giving hair its color).
 The cuticle is made from 6 to 11 layers of overlapping
semi-transparent scales (which make the hair
waterproof and allow it to be stretched). Someone with
thick, coarse hair will have more overlapping layers of
cuticles than someone with fine hair.
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