Sonic 2024 Operation Manual

Sonic 2024 Operation Manual
SONIC 2024/2022
BROADBAND MULTIBEAM ECHOSOUNDERS
Operation Manual V5.0
Revision 001 (15May2014)
Part No. 96000001
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COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright © 2008, R2Sonic LLC. All rights reserved
Ownership of copyright
The copyright in this manual and the material in this manual (including without limitation the text, artwork, photographs,
images, or any other material in this manual) is owned by R2Sonic LLC. The copyright includes both the print and
electronic version of this manual.
Copyright license
R2Sonic LLC is solely responsible for the content of this manual. Neither this manual, nor any part of this manual, may be
copied, translated, distributed or modified in any manner without the express written approval of R2Sonic LLC.
Permissions
You may request permission to use the copyright materials in this manual by writing to support@r2sonic.com
Authorship
This manual (Sonic 2024/2022 Operation Manual), and all of the content therein, written by:
R2Sonic LLC
5307 Industrial Oaks Blvd, Suite 120
Austin, Texas 78735
USA
Telephone: +1 (512) 891.0000
Version Printing History
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•
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June 2008
July 2008
Aug/Sep 2008
December 2008
June 2009
April 2010
August 2010
April 2011
January 2012
April 2012
February 2014
Version 1.1/1.2
Version 1.3
Version 1.4
Version 1.5
Version 1.6
Version 2.0
Version 3.0
Version 3.1
Version 4.0
Version 4.1
Version 5.0
R2Sonic LLC reserves the right to amend or edit this manual at any time. R2Sonic LLC offers no implied warranty
concerning the information in this manual. R2Sonic LLC shall not be held liable for any errors within the manual.
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Table of Contents
1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 19
1.1
Outline of Equipment............................................................................................................ 19
1.2
How to use this Manual ........................................................................................................ 20
1.2.1
2
3
SONIC SPECIFICATIONS ....................................................................................................... 21
2.1
Sonic 2024 System Specification........................................................................................... 21
2.2
Sonic 2022 System Specification ........................................................................................... 21
2.3
Sonic 2024 Dimensions and Weights .................................................................................... 21
2.4
Sonic 2022 Dimensions and Weights .................................................................................... 22
2.5
Sonic 2024/Sonic 2022 Electrical Interface........................................................................... 22
2.6
Sonic 2024/2022 Ping Rates (SV = 1500.00m/sec) ............................................................... 22
2.7
Acoustic Centre ..................................................................................................................... 23
SONIC 2024/2022 SONAR HEAD INSTALLATION – Surface Vessel .......................................... 25
3.1
Sonic 2024/2022 Receive Module Installation ..................................................................... 25
3.1.1
Mounting the Sonic 2024/2022 Receive Module ......................................................... 26
3.1.2
Receive Module ............................................................................................................ 26
3.1.3
Mounting the Projector ................................................................................................ 27
3.1.4
Correct Orientation of the Sonic 2024 and Sonic 2022 ................................................ 29
3.1.5
Deck Test Prior to Deployment .................................................................................... 29
3.2
4
Standard of Measurement ........................................................................................... 20
Sonar Head Installation Guidelines ...................................................................................... 31
3.2.1
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 31
3.2.2
Over-the-Side mount .................................................................................................... 31
3.2.3
Moon Pool Mount ........................................................................................................ 32
3.2.4
Hull Mount.................................................................................................................... 32
3.2.5
ROV Mounting .............................................................................................................. 32
SONIC 2024/2022 SONAR INTERFACE MODULE (SIM) INSTALLATION and INTERFACING........ 33
4.1
Sonar Interface Module (SIM) .............................................................................................. 33
4.1.1
Physical installation ...................................................................................................... 33
4.1.2
Electrical and Interfacing .............................................................................................. 34
4.1.3
Serial Communication .................................................................................................. 38
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4.1.4
Time and PPS input ....................................................................................................... 38
4.1.5
Motion Input ................................................................................................................. 39
4.1.6
SVP input ....................................................................................................................... 39
OPERATION OF THE SONIC 2024/2022 VIA SONIC CONTROL ................................................ 41
5.1
Installing Sonic Control Graphical User Interface ................................................................. 41
5.2
Hot Keys ................................................................................................................................ 41
5.3
Network Setup....................................................................................................................... 42
5.3.1
Initial Computer setup for Communication .................................................................. 42
5.3.2
Discover Function.......................................................................................................... 43
5.3.3
Configuring Network Communication .......................................................................... 45
5.4
Sensor Setup (Serial and Ethernet Interfacing) ..................................................................... 47
5.4.1
GPS ................................................................................................................................ 47
5.4.2
Motion........................................................................................................................... 47
5.4.3
Heading ......................................................................................................................... 47
5.4.4
SVP ................................................................................................................................ 48
5.4.5
Message displays .......................................................................................................... 48
5.4.6
Trigger in / Trigger out .................................................................................................. 48
5.5
Sonar Settings (Hotkey: F2) ................................................................................................... 49
5.5.1
Frequency (kHz) ............................................................................................................ 50
5.5.2
Ping Rate Limit .............................................................................................................. 51
5.5.3
Sector Coverage ............................................................................................................ 51
5.5.4
Sector Rotate ................................................................................................................ 52
5.5.5
Minimum Range Gate (m)............................................................................................. 53
5.5.6
Bottom Sampling........................................................................................................... 53
5.5.7
Mission Mode ............................................................................................................... 54
5.5.8
IMAGERY ....................................................................................................................... 55
5.5.9
Roll Stabilize .................................................................................................................. 57
5.5.10
Dual Head Mode (Also see Appendix VII, Section 13.9) ............................................... 58
5.5.11
TruePix™, Snippets, Water Column Enable and Intensity Enable................................. 60
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5.6
Ocean Setting ....................................................................................................................... 61
5.6.1
Absorption: 0 – 200 dB/km .......................................................................................... 61
5.6.2
Spreading Loss: 0 – 60 dB ............................................................................................. 61
5.6.3
Time Variable Gain ....................................................................................................... 62
5.7
Installation Settings .............................................................................................................. 65
5.7.1
Projector Orientation ................................................................................................... 65
5.7.2
Projector Z Offset (m) ................................................................................................... 65
5.7.3
Head Tilt........................................................................................................................ 65
5.8
Status .................................................................................................................................... 66
5.9
Tools | Firmware Update...................................................................................................... 69
5.9.1
5.10
Firewall and Virus Checker Issues................................................................................. 71
Help....................................................................................................................................... 71
5.10.1
Help Topics ................................................................................................................... 71
5.10.2
Options ......................................................................................................................... 71
5.10.3
Remote Assistance ....................................................................................................... 72
5.10.4
About Sonic Control...................................................................................................... 72
5.11
Display settings..................................................................................................................... 73
5.12
Imagery................................................................................................................................. 74
5.12.1
5.13
TruePix™ and Water Column........................................................................................ 74
Main Operation Parameters ................................................................................................. 75
5.13.1
Range: 0 – 1200 metres ................................................................................................ 75
5.13.2
RangeTrac™ – Sonic Control automatically sets correct range .................................... 77
5.13.3
Power: 191 – 221 dB..................................................................................................... 77
5.13.4
Pulse Length: 15µsec – 1000µsec ................................................................................. 77
5.13.5
Gain: 1 – 45 ................................................................................................................... 78
5.13.6
Depth Gates: GateTrac™ .............................................................................................. 78
5.14
Ruler...................................................................................................................................... 81
5.15
Save Settings......................................................................................................................... 82
5.16
Operating Sonic Control on a second computer ................................................................... 82
5.16.1
Two computer setup .................................................................................................... 82
5.16.2
Changing back to one computer .................................................................................. 83
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SONIC 2024/2022 THEORY OF OPERATION .......................................................................... 85
6.1
Sonic 2024/2022 Sonar Head Block Diagram ....................................................................... 85
6.2
Sonic 2024/2022 Transmit (Normal Operation Mode) ......................................................... 86
6.3
Sonic 2024/2022 Receive (Normal Operation Mode) ........................................................... 87
6.4
Sonic 2024/2022 Sonar Interface Module (SIM) Block Diagram........................................... 89
6.4.1
7
Appendix I: R2Sonic I2NS Components and Operation ......................................................... 91
7.1
Components .......................................................................................................................... 91
7.2
Connection diagram .............................................................................................................. 92
7.3
Installation ............................................................................................................................ 93
7.3.1
The IMU and GPS antennas .......................................................................................... 93
7.3.2
INS BNC – TNC Connections .......................................................................................... 93
7.3.3
I2NS DB9 Connections................................................................................................... 94
7.4
8
Sonar Interface Module (SIM) Block Diagram............................................................... 89
Setup in Sonic Control ........................................................................................................... 95
7.4.1
Network Setup .............................................................................................................. 95
7.4.2
Applanix Group 119 specific to R2Sonic SIMINS ........................................................... 96
7.4.3
Sensor Setup ................................................................................................................. 97
7.4.4
INS Monitor (Alt+I) ........................................................................................................ 97
7.5
Measuring IMU Offsets ......................................................................................................... 99
7.6
I2NS Physical Specifications ................................................................................................ 101
7.7
I2NS Drawings ..................................................................................................................... 103
7.7.1
I2NS IMU ..................................................................................................................... 103
7.7.2
I2NS Sonar Interface Module (SIM) ............................................................................ 104
APPENDIX II: Multibeam Survey Suite Components ........................................................... 105
8.1
Auxiliary Sensors and Components ..................................................................................... 105
8.2
Differential Global Positioning System................................................................................ 105
8.2.1
Installation .................................................................................................................. 105
8.2.2
GPS Calibration............................................................................................................ 106
8.3
Gyrocompass ....................................................................................................................... 107
8.3.1
8.4
Gyrocompass Calibration Methods............................................................................. 107
The Motion Sensor .............................................................................................................. 112
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8.5
8.5.1
CTD Probes ................................................................................................................. 114
8.5.2
Time of Flight Probe ................................................................................................... 115
8.5.3
XBT Probes .................................................................................................................. 115
8.6
9
Sound Velocity Probes ........................................................................................................ 113
The sound velocity cast ....................................................................................................... 116
8.6.1
Time of Day ................................................................................................................. 116
8.6.2
Fresh water influx ....................................................................................................... 116
8.6.3
Water Depth ............................................................................................................... 116
8.6.4
Distance ...................................................................................................................... 116
8.6.5
Deploying and recovering the Sound Velocity Probe ................................................. 116
APPENDIX III: Multibeam Surveying .................................................................................. 119
9.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 119
9.2
Survey Design ..................................................................................................................... 119
9.2.1
Line Spacing ................................................................................................................ 119
9.2.2
Line Direction.............................................................................................................. 119
9.2.3
Line Run-in .................................................................................................................. 120
9.3
Record Keeping ................................................................................................................... 120
9.3.1
Vessel Record ............................................................................................................. 120
9.3.2
Daily Survey Log.......................................................................................................... 121
10 APPENDIX IV: Offset Measurements.................................................................................. 125
10.1
Lever Arm Measurement – Offsets ..................................................................................... 125
10.2
Vessel Reference System .................................................................................................... 125
10.3
Measuring Offsets .............................................................................................................. 126
10.3.1
Sonic 2024 Acoustic Centre ........................................................................................ 126
10.3.2
Horizontal Measurement ........................................................................................... 126
10.3.3
Vertical Measurement ................................................................................................ 127
11 APPENDIX V: The Patch Test.............................................................................................. 129
11.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 129
11.2
Orientation of the Sonic 2024/2022 Sonar Head ............................................................... 129
11.3
Patch Test Criteria .............................................................................................................. 130
11.3.1
Latency Test ................................................................................................................ 130
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11.3.2
Roll Test ....................................................................................................................... 131
11.3.3
Pitch Test ..................................................................................................................... 132
11.3.4
Yaw Test ...................................................................................................................... 133
11.4
Solving for the Patch Test.................................................................................................... 134
11.5
History ................................................................................................................................. 134
11.6
Basic data collection criteria ............................................................................................... 135
11.7
Patch Test data collection error areas ............................................................................... 135
11.7.1
Positioning .................................................................................................................. 135
11.7.2
Feature chosen for test .............................................................................................. 135
11.7.3
Water depth ............................................................................................................... 136
11.7.4
Use predefined survey lines ....................................................................................... 136
11.7.5
Speed .......................................................................................................................... 136
11.7.6
Vessel line up .............................................................................................................. 136
11.7.7
Pole variability............................................................................................................ 136
11.8
Improving the Patch Test and Patch Test results .............................................................. 137
11.8.1
Need to collect sufficient data ................................................................................... 137
11.8.2
Individually solving values .......................................................................................... 138
11.9
Truthing the patch test ....................................................................................................... 138
12 APPENDIX VI: Basic Acoustic Theory .................................................................................. 139
12.1
Introduction......................................................................................................................... 139
12.2
Sound Velocity ..................................................................................................................... 139
12.2.1
Salinity ......................................................................................................................... 141
12.2.2
Temperature ............................................................................................................... 141
12.2.3
Refraction Errors ......................................................................................................... 141
12.3
Transmission Losses ............................................................................................................ 142
12.3.1
Spreading Loss............................................................................................................. 142
12.3.2
Absorption................................................................................................................... 143
12.3.3
Reverberation and Scattering ..................................................................................... 147
13 APPENDIX VII: Sonic 2024/2022 Mounting: Sub-Surface (ROV/AUV) .................................. 149
13.1
Installation Considerations ................................................................................................. 149
13.1.1
Ethernet wiring considerations ................................................................................... 150
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13.2
Data Rates .......................................................................................................................... 150
13.3
ROV Installation Examples.................................................................................................. 151
13.4
Power Requirements .......................................................................................................... 153
13.4.1
Common mode noise rejection .................................................................................. 155
13.4.2
SIM Power connections .............................................................................................. 156
13.5
SIM Installation – ROV ........................................................................................................ 157
13.6
SIM Installation – AUV ........................................................................................................ 158
13.7
SIM Board Physical Installation .......................................................................................... 159
13.8
SIM Stack LED Status Indicators ......................................................................................... 159
13.8.1
SIM Board Dimensional Information .......................................................................... 160
13.8.2
SIM Board Images ....................................................................................................... 161
13.9
Dual Sonar Head ................................................................................................................. 163
13.9.1
Dual Head Installation ................................................................................................ 163
13.9.2
Operation.................................................................................................................... 163
14 APPENDIX VIII: R2Sonic Control Commands ....................................................................... 165
14.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 165
14.2
General Notes ..................................................................................................................... 165
14.2.1
Ethernet Port Numbers .............................................................................................. 165
14.2.2
Type Definitions .......................................................................................................... 165
14.2.3
Command Packet Format ........................................................................................... 165
14.3
Head Commands, Binary Format........................................................................................ 166
14.4
SIM Commands, Binary Format .......................................................................................... 169
14.5
GUI Commands, Binary Format .......................................................................................... 170
14.6
Command Examples Sent to the Sonar Head and SIM ....................................................... 171
15 APPENDIX IX: R2Sonic Uplink Data Formats ....................................................................... 173
15.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 173
15.2
General Notes ..................................................................................................................... 173
15.3
Port Numbers...................................................................................................................... 173
15.4
Type Definitions .................................................................................................................. 173
15.5
Ethernet Data Rates ........................................................................................................... 174
15.6
Bathymetry Packet Format................................................................................................. 175
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15.7
Snippet Format .................................................................................................................... 178
15.8
Water Column (WC) Data Format....................................................................................... 180
15.9
Acoustic Image (AI) Data Format ........................................................................................ 183
15.10 TruePix™ Data Format ........................................................................................................ 185
15.11 Head Status Format ............................................................................................................ 187
15.12 SIM Status Data Format ...................................................................................................... 189
15.13 Device Status Format .......................................................................................................... 191
15.14 Data Playback Using Bit-Twist ............................................................................................ 193
15.14.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 193
15.14.2 Capturing Data ............................................................................................................ 193
15.14.3 Editing Data ................................................................................................................. 194
15.14.4 Data Playback .............................................................................................................. 195
16 APPENDIX X: Drawings...................................................................................................... 197
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List of Figures
Figure 1: Sonic 2024/2022 Block Diagram............................................................................................ 19
Figure 2: Sonic 2024 Acoustic Centre ................................................................................................... 23
Figure 3: Sonic 2024 Acoustic Centre as Mounted............................................................................... 23
Figure 4: Sonic 2022 Acoustic Centre ................................................................................................... 24
Figure 5: Sonic 2022 Acoustic Centre as Mounted............................................................................... 24
Figure 6: Sonic 2024 and Sonic 2022 on the mounting frame ............................................................. 25
Figure 7: Top side of Receive Module .................................................................................................. 26
Figure 8: Receive Module Face............................................................................................................. 26
Figure 9: Seated connectors (Sonic 2024 on left and Sonic 2022 on right) ........................................ 26
Figure 10: Connector wiggle - back and forth NOT up and down ........................................................ 26
Figure 11: Receive Module with cables connected .............................................................................. 27
Figure 12: Sonic 2024 Projector ........................................................................................................... 27
Figure 13: Position the insulating bushing, then wrap threads with Teflon tape, then secure with flat
washer, locking washer and then nut. ................................................................................................. 27
Figure 14: Projector Stand-off .............................................................................................................. 28
Figure 15: Mounting the projector ....................................................................................................... 28
Figure 16: View of the mounted Projector; NB. Connector is facing protective fin............................. 28
Figure 17: SV Probe mounted in block ................................................................................................. 28
Figure 18: Correct Orientation of the Sonic 2024 and the Sonic 2022 ................................................ 29
Figure 19: Typical over-the-side mount ............................................................................................... 31
Figure 20: Sonar Interface Module (SIM) ............................................................................................. 33
Figure 21: Removal of trim to expose securing holes .......................................................................... 34
Figure 22: SIM Interfacing Physical Connections ................................................................................. 35
Figure 23: SIM Interfacing Guide (from label on top of the SIM)......................................................... 35
Figure 24: SIM IEC mains connection and deck lead Amphenol connector ......................................... 36
Figure 25: Impulse connector ............................................................................................................... 36
Figure 26: Projector cable configuration .............................................................................................. 37
Figure 27: TTL input/output (PPS and Sync In/Out) schematic ............................................................ 38
Figure 28: Sonic Control Icon on desktop............................................................................................. 41
Figure 29: Sonic Control 2000 .............................................................................................................. 41
Figure 30: Windows XP Internet Properties ......................................................................................... 42
Figure 31: IP and Subnet mask setup ................................................................................................... 43
Figure 32: Sonic Control Network setup .............................................................................................. 44
Figure 33: Set INS IP ............................................................................................................................. 44
Figure 34: Set IP Time Expired .............................................................................................................. 44
Figure 35: Command prompt-ipconfig/all ............................................................................................ 45
Figure 36: Sensor communication settings .......................................................................................... 47
Figure 37: Trigger In/Out Options ........................................................................................................ 48
Figure 38: Sonar Operation Settings window....................................................................................... 49
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Figure 39: Operating Frequency Selection........................................................................................... 50
Figure 40: UHR frequency available ..................................................................................................... 50
Figure 41: Ping Rate Limit .................................................................................................................... 51
Figure 42: Sector Coverage .................................................................................................................. 52
Figure 43: Sector Rotate ...................................................................................................................... 52
Figure 44: Bottom Sampling Modes .................................................................................................... 53
Figure 45: Example of going from normal to Quad mode ................................................................... 54
Figure 46: Indication of Bottom Sampling Mode ................................................................................. 54
Figure 47: Normal Mission Mode selections ....................................................................................... 54
Figure 48: Mission Mode with the FLS Option installed ...................................................................... 54
Figure 49: Enable Acoustic Image in the wedge display ...................................................................... 55
Figure 50: FLS Wide mode ................................................................................................................... 56
Figure 51: Imagery palette selection in Display Options ..................................................................... 56
Figure 52: Stealth mode single Ping button ......................................................................................... 56
Figure 53: Roll Stabilize ........................................................................................................................ 57
Figure 54: Dual Head Mode ................................................................................................................. 58
Figure 55: Dual Head Mode active ....................................................................................................... 58
Figure 56: Load Settings menu selection ............................................................................................. 59
Figure 57: Loading an .ini file ............................................................................................................... 59
Figure 58: Default dual head Network settings ................................................................................... 59
Figure 59: TruePix™ image of wreck debris and sea grass .................................................................. 60
Figure 60: Ocean Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 61
Figure 61: TVG Curve Concept ............................................................................................................. 62
Figure 62: The angular acoustic wave front will strike each receive element at a different time ...... 64
Figure 63: Installation Settings............................................................................................................. 65
Figure 64: Status Options ..................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 65: Status Message ................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 66: Real-time Status Window ................................................................................................... 67
Figure 67: Select Tools; Firmware Update ........................................................................................... 69
Figure 68: The Browse button will open the current GUI's directory.................................................. 69
Figure 69: Select correct update .bin file ............................................................................................. 70
Figure 70: A batch file will automatically load the upgrade file .......................................................... 70
Figure 71: The start of a firmware update. A series of dots represents the update progress. .......... 70
Figure 72: Firmware update completed, the window will close automatically and the Update window
will show successful completion .......................................................................................................... 70
Figure 73: The Help Menu.................................................................................................................... 71
Figure 74: Installed Options ................................................................................................................. 71
Figure 75: Remote Assistance .............................................................................................................. 72
Figure 76: Remote Assistance window ................................................................................................ 72
Figure 77: About, provides the GUI version......................................................................................... 72
Figure 78: Display Settings ................................................................................................................... 73
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Figure 79: Imagery Settings .................................................................................................................. 74
Figure 80: Operating parameter buttons ............................................................................................. 75
Figure 81: Range setting represented in the wedge display ................................................................ 76
Figure 82: Graphical concept of the Wedge Display ............................................................................ 76
Figure 83: RangeTrac enabled .............................................................................................................. 77
Figure 84: Transmit Pulse ..................................................................................................................... 78
Figure 85: Enable Gates ........................................................................................................................ 78
Figure 86: Manual and GateTrac selections ......................................................................................... 78
Figure 87: Manually adjust the gate slope ........................................................................................... 79
Figure 88: Gate width tolerance toggle ................................................................................................ 79
Figure 89: GateTrac enabled; Gate min and max control is disabled .................................................. 79
Figure 90: GateTrac: Depth + Slope enabled, manual gate controls are disabled. .............................. 80
Figure 91: GateTrac: Depth + Slope enabled and tracking a steep slope............................................. 80
Figure 92: Graphical representation of depth gate .............................................................................. 81
Figure 93: Ruler Function ..................................................................................................................... 81
Figure 94: Change in GUI IP .................................................................................................................. 83
Figure 95: SONIC 2024 Sonar Head Block Diagram .............................................................................. 85
Figure 96: Transmit pattern.................................................................................................................. 86
Figure 97: Receive pattern with Transmit pattern ............................................................................... 87
Figure 98: Sonar Interface Module Block Diagram .............................................................................. 89
Figure 99: R2Sonic I2NS Main Components (not including antennas and cables)............................... 91
Figure 100: GNSS Antennas .................................................................................................................. 91
Figure 101: INS connections ................................................................................................................. 92
Figure 102: INS SIM block diagram....................................................................................................... 92
Figure 103: INS BNC & TNC Connections.............................................................................................. 93
Figure 104: PPS Out - PPS In ................................................................................................................. 93
Figure 105: Com 1 and Com 2 on SIMINS for POS MV serial data ....................................................... 94
Figure 106: POSView Serial port setup ................................................................................................. 94
Figure 107: Network Settings SIMINS .................................................................................................. 95
Figure 108: Cannot Change IP, waiting on msg 32 ............................................................................... 95
Figure 109: Set IP time expired, cannot change IP ............................................................................... 95
Figure 110: Sensor setup for SIMINS .................................................................................................... 97
Figure 111: INS Monitor ....................................................................................................................... 97
Figure 112: IMU Reference indicators.................................................................................................. 99
Figure 113: POSView Lever Arm setup ............................................................................................... 100
Figure 114: View of installation with the entered offsets .................................................................. 100
Figure 115: IMU Drawing.................................................................................................................... 103
Figure 116: I2NS SIM Drawing ............................................................................................................ 104
Figure 117: Gyrocompass Calibration method 1 ................................................................................ 109
Figure 118: Gyro Calibration Method 2.............................................................................................. 110
Figure 119: Gyro Calibration Method 2 example ............................................................................... 111
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Figure 120: Idealised concept of Gyro Calibration Method 2 ............................................................ 111
Figure 121: CTD Probe ....................................................................................................................... 114
Figure 122: Time of Flight SV probe ................................................................................................... 115
Figure 123: Deploying a sound velocity probe via a winch or A - Frame ........................................... 118
Figure 124: Rough log, kept during survey operations...does not need to be neat, but must contain
all pertinent information ................................................................................................................... 123
Figure 125: Smooth log; information copied from real-time survey log ........................................... 124
Figure 126: Vessel Horizontal and Vertical reference system ........................................................... 126
Figure 127: Sonic 2024/2022 Acoustic Centre ................................................................................... 126
Figure 128: Sonic 2024/2022 axes of rotation ................................................................................... 129
Figure 129: Latency Data collection ................................................................................................... 130
Figure 130: Roll data collection.......................................................................................................... 131
Figure 131: Roll data collections ........................................................................................................ 131
Figure 132: Pitch data collections ...................................................................................................... 132
Figure 133: Yaw data collection ......................................................................................................... 133
Figure 134: In 1822 Daniel Colloden used an underwater bell to calculate the speed of sound under
water in Lake Geneva, Switzerland at 1435 m/Sec, which is very close to recent measurements. .. 139
Figure 135: Concept of refraction due to different sound velocities in the water column ............... 140
Figure 136: Sound velocity profile ..................................................................................................... 140
Figure 137: Refraction Error indication.............................................................................................. 141
Figure 138: Concept of Spherical Spreading ...................................................................................... 142
Figure 139: Concept of Cylindrical Spreading .................................................................................... 143
Figure 140: Single Head ROV Installation scheme A .......................................................................... 151
Figure 141: Single Head ROV Installation scheme B (Preferred) ....................................................... 151
Figure 142: Dual Head ROV Installation scheme A ............................................................................ 152
Figure 143: Dual Head ROV Installation scheme B (Preferred) ......................................................... 152
Figure 144: Sonic 2024 power supply current waveform. Peak current is 1.770A at 48V. Sonar
settings: pulse width = 100us, Tx Power = 221dB, Freq = 400 kHz. ................................................... 154
Figure 145: Sonic 2022 power supply current waveform. Peak current is 1.340A at 48V. Sonar
setting: pulse width = 100us, Tx Power = 221dB, Freq = 400 kHz. .................................................... 154
Figure 146: Inrush current to 2024 head during power up, 20 ms window. ..................................... 154
Figure 147: Inrush current to the 2024 head during power up, 1 second window. .......................... 155
Figure 148: Power supply choke installation on 48VDC power ......................................................... 155
Figure 149: SIM Controller Power Connections................................................................................. 156
Figure 150: J6 Connector on SIM Controller board ........................................................................... 156
Figure 151: ROV installation block diagram with the SIM top-side ................................................... 157
Figure 152: ROV installation block diagram with the SIM controller board mounted in the vehicle
electronics bottle and GPS (ZDA or UTC formats) and PPS signals are supplied by top-side equipment
........................................................................................................................................................... 157
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Figure 153: ROV installation block diagram with the SIM controller board mounted in the vehicle
electronics bottle. GPS (ZDA or UTC formats) and PPS signals are supplied by the vehicle time
system. ............................................................................................................................................... 157
Figure 154: Typical wiring. GPS (ZDA or UTC formats) and PPS signals are supplied by the vehicle
time system ........................................................................................................................................ 158
Figure 155: SIM Board Stack............................................................................................................... 158
Figure 156: SIM Stack height .............................................................................................................. 158
Figure 157: SIM Controller Board installation dimensions................................................................. 160
Figure 158: SIM Stack Outline ............................................................................................................ 160
Figure 159: Assembled SIM Boards .................................................................................................... 161
Figure 160: SIM Boards height ........................................................................................................... 161
Figure 161: Default .ini settings file .................................................................................................... 163
Figure 162: Dual head IP and UDP defaults........................................................................................ 163
Figure 163: Dual-sonar head ping modes........................................................................................... 164
Figure 164: Dual Head - Dual SIM external interfacing ...................................................................... 164
Figure 165: Wireshark Capture Options ............................................................................................. 194
Figure 166: Sonic 2024/2022 Projector .............................................................................................. 198
Figure 167: Sonic 2024 Receive Module ............................................................................................ 199
Figure 168: Sonic 2022 Receive Module ............................................................................................ 200
Figure 169: Sonic 2024 Mounting Bracket Drawing 1 ........................................................................ 201
Figure 170: Sonic 2024 Mounting Bracket Drawing 2 ........................................................................ 202
Figure 171: Sonic 2022 Mounting Bracket Drawing 1 ........................................................................ 203
Figure 172: Sonic 2022 Mounting Bracket Drawing 2 ........................................................................ 204
Figure 173: Sonic 2024/2022 Mounting Bracket Flange .................................................................... 205
Figure 174: SIM Box Drawing ............................................................................................................. 206
Figure 175: SIM Stack Outline ............................................................................................................ 207
Figure 176: R2Sonic Deck lead minimum connector passage dimensions ........................................ 208
Figure 177: I2NS IMU Dimensions ...................................................................................................... 209
Figure 178: I2NS SIM Dimensions....................................................................................................... 210
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List of Tables
Table 1: Metric to Imperial conversion table....................................................................................... 20
Table 2: System Specification .............................................................................................................. 21
Table 3: Component Dimensions and Mass ........................................................................................ 21
Table 4: Electrical Interface................................................................................................................. 22
Table 5: Ping Rate table ....................................................................................................................... 22
Table 6: Deck Lead Pin Assignment (Gigabit Ethernet and Power) ..................................................... 36
Table 7: DB-9M RS-232 Standard Protocol .......................................................................................... 38
Table 8: SIM DB-9M Serial pin assignment .......................................................................................... 38
Table 9: I2NS Dimensions and Mass .................................................................................................. 101
Table 10: Electrical Specifications ...................................................................................................... 101
Table 11: Gyro Calibration Method 2 computation........................................................................... 111
Table 12: Absorption Values for Seawater and Freshwater at 400 kHz and 200 kHz........................ 144
Table 13: Operating Frequency - water temperature - absorption ................................................... 146
Table 14: Systems Power Requirements ........................................................................................... 153
Table 15: SIM Gigabit switch speed indicators .................................................................................. 159
List of Graphs
Graph 1: Depth errors due to incorrect roll alignment..................................................................... 131
Graph 2: Position errors as a result of pitch misalignment; error can be either negative or positive
........................................................................................................................................................... 132
Graph 3: Along track position error caused by 0.5° error in yaw patch test ..................................... 133
Graph 4: Along-track position error caused by 1.0° error in yaw patch test error............................ 134
Graph 5: Seawater Absorption (Salinity 35ppt) ................................................................................. 145
Graph 6: Freshwater Absorption ....................................................................................................... 145
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Outline of Equipment
The R2Sonic Sonic 2024 and Sonic 2022 Multibeam Echosounder (MBES) is based on fifth generation
Sonar Architecture that networks all of the modules and embeds the processor and controller in the
sonar head’s Receive Module to make for a very simple installation. The Sonic Control Graphical
User Interface (GUI) is a simple program that can be installed on any Windows based computer and
allows the surveyor to control the operating parameters of the Sonic 2024/2022. Sonic Control
communicates with the Sonar Interface Module (SIM) via Ethernet. The SIM supplies power to the
sonar head, synchronises multiple heads, time tags sensor data, relays commands to the sonar head,
and routes the raw multibeam data to the customer’s Data Collection Computer (DCC).
The Sonic 2024 and Sonic 2022 work on a user selectable frequency range of 200 kHz to 400 kHz so
it is adaptable to a wide range of survey depths and conditions. The user can adjust the operating
frequency, via the Sonic Control GUI, on the fly, without having to shut down the sonar system or
change hardware or halt recording data. The Sonic 2024/2022 has a user selectable opening angle,
from 10° to 160°, using all 256 beams; the desired opening angle can be selected on the fly without
a halt to data recording. The selected swath angle can also be rotated port or starboard, whilst
recording, to direct the highly concentrated beams towards the desired target. Both the opening
angle and swath rotation can be controlled via the mouse cursor.
Figure 1: Sonic 2024/2022 Block Diagram
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1.2 How to use this Manual
This manual is designed to cover all aspects of the installation and operation of the Sonic 2024 and
Sonic 2022. It is, therefore, recommended that the user read through the entire Operation Manual
before commencing the installation or use of the equipment.
1.2.1 Standard of Measurement
The Metric system of measurement is utilised throughout this manual; this includes temperature in
degrees Celsius.
METRIC
IMPERIAL
10mm (0.010m)
0.39 inches
100mm (0.100m)
3.9 inches
1000mm (1.0 metre)
39.4 inches
100 grams (0.100kg)
3.5 ounces
1000 grams (1.0 kilogram)
2.2 pounds
10° C
50°F
Table 1: Metric to Imperial conversion table
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2 SONIC SPECIFICATIONS
2.1 Sonic 2024 System Specification
System Feature
Frequency
Beamwidth – Across Track (at nadir)
Beamwidth – Along Track (at nadir)
UHR Beamwidth (at nadir)
Number of Beams
Swath Sector
UHR Swath Sector
Maximum Slant Range
Pulse Length
Pulse Type
Depth Rating
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Table 2: System Specification
Specification
400kHz / 200kHz
0.5°@ 400kHz / 1.0° @ 200kHz
1.0° @ 400kHz / 2.0° @ 200kHz
0.3° Across Track x 0.6° Along Track
256
10° to 160° (user selectable)
10° to 60° (user selectable)
1200 metres
15µSec – 1000µSec
Shaped Continuous Wave (CW)
100 metres (3000 metres optional)
-10° C to 40° C
-30° C to 55° C
2.2 Sonic 2022 System Specification
System Feature
Frequency
Beamwidth – Across Track (at nadir)
Beamwidth – Along Track (at nadir)
UHR Beamwidth (at nadir)
Number of Beams
Swath Sector
UHR Swath Sector
Maximum Slant Range
Pulse Length
Pulse Type
Depth Rating
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Specification
400kHz / 200kHz
1.0°@ 400kHz / 2.0° @ 200kHz
1.0° @ 400kHz / 2.0° @ 200kHz
0.6° Across Track x 0.6° Along Track
256
10° to 160° (user selectable)
10° to 60° (user selectable)
1200 metres
15µSec – 1000µSec
Shaped Continuous Wave (CW)
100 metres (3000 metres optional)
-10° C to 40° C
-30° C to 55° C
2.3 Sonic 2024 Dimensions and Weights
Component
Receiver Module
Projector
Sonar Interface Module (SIM)
I2NS Sonar Interface Module (SIM)
Receive module and Projector mass in water
Dimensions (L x W x D) / Dry Weight
480mm x 109mm x 190mm / 12.9kg
273mm x 108mm x 86mm / 3.3kg
280mm x 170mm x 60mm / 2.4kg
280mm x 170mm x 126.4mm / 4.2kg
5.9kg (Fresh)
Table 3: Component Dimensions and Mass
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2.4 Sonic 2022 Dimensions and Weights
Component
Receiver Module
Projector
Sonar Interface Module (SIM)
I2NS Sonar Interface Module (SIM)
Receive module and Projector mass in water
Dimensions (L x W x D) / Dry Weight
276mm x 109mm x 190mm / 7.7kg
273mm x 108mm x 86mm / 3.3kg
280mm x 170mm x 60mm / 2.4kg
280mm x 170mm x 126.4mm / 4.2kg
4.0kg (Fresh)
2.5 Sonic 2024/Sonic 2022 Electrical Interface
Item
Mains Power
Power Consumption (SIM and Sonar Head)
Power Consumption (Sonar Head Only)
Integrated Inertial Navigation System (I2NS)
Uplink/Downlink
Data Interface
Sync IN/OUT
GPS Timing
Auxiliary Sensors
Deck Cable Length
Table 4: Electrical Interface
Specification
90 – 260 VAC; 45 – 65 Hz
75 Watt (Sonic 2022: 54 Watt)
50W avg.; 90W Peak (Sonic 2022: 35W avg.; 70W
Peak)
38.4W (SIM and IMU with Antennas)
10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet
10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet
TTL
1PPS; RS232 NMEA
RS232 / Ethernet
15 metre (optional to 50 metres)
2.6 Sonic 2024/2022 Ping Rates (SV = 1500.00m/sec)
RANGE
2-7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
70
100
150
200
250
300
400
450
500
700
1000
1200
PING RATE
60.0
55.4
39.4
30.6
25.0
21.1
18.3
16.1
13.0
9.4
6.7
4.5
3.4
2.7
2.3
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.0
0.7
0.6
WARNING
THE RECEIVE MODULE IS FILLED WITH
OIL THAT WILL FREEZE TO A SOLID AT
-10°C. STORAGE BELOW THIS
TEMPERATURE (TO -30°C) IS POSSIBLE IF
THE HEAD IS SLOWLY THAWED OUT
PRIOR TO OPERATION.
Table 5: Ping Rate table
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2.7 Acoustic Centre
Figure 2: Sonic 2024 Acoustic Centre
Figure 3: Sonic 2024 Acoustic Centre as Mounted
Centre of Flange to Alongship offset = 0.182m (0.597ft)
Top of Flange to Z reference = 0.327m (1.073ft)
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Figure 4: Sonic 2022 Acoustic Centre
Figure 5: Sonic 2022 Acoustic Centre as Mounted
Centre of Flange to Alongship offset = 0.182m (0.597ft)
Top of Flange to Z reference = 0.327m (1.073ft)
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3 SONIC 2024/2022 SONAR HEAD INSTALLATION – Surface Vessel
The Sonic 2024/2022 can be installed on an over-the-side pole, through a moon pool, or as a
permanent hull mount. The light weight, small size, and low power consumption makes the Sonic
2024/2022 ideal for underwater vehicle (ROV and AUV) installations.
WARNING
DECK LEAD MINIMUM BEND RADIUS =
150MM
3.1 Sonic 2024/2022 Receive Module Installation
The Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head is mounted on the standard R2Sonic mounting frame as shown
below.
Figure 6: Sonic 2024 and Sonic 2022 on the mounting frame
If the Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head is not pre-mounted, the following guidelines must be followed
for proper operation of the system.
•
•
•
The Receive Module is orientated with the narrow part of the face towards the projector
(see above).
The projector is orientated with the connector towards the end with the protective fin.
The Projector must be mounted with the correct 35mm standoffs in place.
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3.1.1
Mounting the Sonic 2024/2022 Receive Module
Sonic 2024
Sonic 2024
Figure 7: Top side of Receive Module
Figure 8: Receive Module Face
Sonic 2022
Sonic 2022
3.1.2 Receive Module
The Receive Module has two connectors; the female connector is for the Projector cable, the male
connector is for the deck lead that goes to the SIM. There is a securing ‘ear’ on top of the Receive
Module to secure the cables with a cable tie or other similar securing methods. Seat the 0.439m
projector cable first. A light spray of silicone lubricant (3M Silicone Lubricant, 3M ID: 62-4678-49303) will aid in seating the connectors. Silicone grease is never to be used. The deck lead passes
through the hydrophone pole and then through the flange opening. Seat the deck lead after seating
the projector cable. ENSURE that all connections are tight with no visible gaps.
Figure 9: Seated connectors (Sonic 2024 on left and Sonic 2022 on right)
When inserting or removing
the connector, use a left to
right or back and forth
movement and never an up
and down movement.
Figure 10: Connector wiggle - back and forth NOT up and down
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Sonic 2024
Sonic 2022
Figure 11: Receive Module with cables connected
SV Probe block is secured, via screws, though the underside of the mounting frame
Prior to mounting the Receive Module, the block that holds the sound velocity probe must be
secured through the underside of the mounting bracket. Next, mount the Receive Module in the
mounting frame. This can be most easily done by putting the receive module face on a piece of
cardboard or other material and then lowing the mounting frame down with the threaded bolts
passing through the mounting frame. The threads, of the securing bolts, after passing through the
frame, must be wrapped with 2 wraps of Teflon™ tape. This is to prevent galling where the nut will
freeze on the bolt. Do not tighten beyond 17Newton metre (150 pound-inch or 12.5 pound-foot).
Figure 13: Position the insulating bushing, then wrap threads with Teflon tape, then secure with flat washer, locking
washer and then nut.
Figure 12: Sonic 2024 Projector
3.1.3 Mounting the Projector
The projector is secured to the frame with two, 35mm stand offs. The
stand-offs allow room for the Projector to Receive Module cable to be
run. A 6mm drive hex screw secures the projector through the standoff. The Projector’s connector faces towards the protection fin.
Connect the 0.439m interconnect cable’s female end to the Projector’s
male bulk head connector. When the connectors are mated, there
should be no visible gap between them. A very light spray of silicon
lubricant will aid seating the connector.
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Figure 14: Projector Stand-off
Sonic 2024
Figure 15: Mounting the projector
Sonic 2022
Figure 16: View of the mounted Projector; NB. Connector is facing protective fin
Figure 17: SV Probe mounted in block
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3.1.4 Correct Orientation of the Sonic 2024 and Sonic 2022
The Sonic 2024/2022 is designed to be installed with the projector facing forward, or towards the
bow. However, if the installation requires the projector to face aft, in Sonic Control, the user can
select the orientation to projector aft and this will re-orientate the data output to reflect the
projector orientation.
Figure 18: Correct Orientation of the Sonic 2024 and the Sonic 2022
3.1.5 Deck Test Prior to Deployment
It is highly recommended that the operation of the sonar be verified prior to putting the sonar or
vessel into the water. The deck test will test both the receiver and the transmitter.
3.1.5.1 Communications test
The first test is to ensure that computer, running Sonic Control, can communicate with both the
sonar head and the SIM.
•
•
•
•
•
Make sure that Sonic Control is installed in the root directory on the computer and not
under ProgramFiles nor on the desktop
Make sure all firewalls are off
Make sure all virus checkers are disabled
Verify the IP4 configuration for the network card being used for the sonar
Make sure that the files, in the Sonic Control directory, are not Read-only, or otherwise
protected by the operating system
3.1.5.2 Receiver rub test
This tests the receiver and the receive elements
•
•
•
•
Turn transmit power off by positioning the cursor over the Power button, then Shift + left
mouse button; this will set transmit power to 0
Reduce the range
Turn Acoustic Imagery on (under Settings | Displays)
Increase Gain to 30
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•
•
•
Have someone rub the receiver face, slowly, with their hand, along the face of the receiver.
Noise will be seen, in the display, that will correspond to the rubbing
If noise is not seen, try adjusting range or gain
If noise is not seen, check the Impulse connector, on the receiver
3.1.5.3 Transmitter test
This tests that the transmitter is transmitting
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Have someone position their ear close to the projector
Set ping rate (Settings | Sonar settings) to 2 Hz
Set pulse width to 100µsecs
Slowly bring up Power
A distinct ‘click’ should be heard at the 2 Hz ping rate
If no clicking is heard, increase pulse width and power
If no clicking is heard, check the projector cable connection
If no clicking is heard, open the Status window and check TX voltage (V); voltage should
increase / decrease with increase / decrease in Power
3.1.5.4 Problems with Deck Test
If there are any issues, with the Deck Test, please contact R2Sonic Support immediately. R2Sonic
Support can be contacted via email: R2Support@R2Sonic.com; telephone/SMS: +1.805.259.8142;
Skype: chaswbrennan
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3.2 Sonar Head Installation Guidelines
3.2.1 Introduction
The proper installation of the Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head is critical to the quality of data that will
be realised from the system. No matter the type of installation (hull mount, moon pool, or over-theside pole); the head must be in an area of laminar flow over the array. Any vibration or movement
of the sonar head, independent of vessel motion, will result in reduced swath coverage and noise in
the data. To this end, the head must be installed on as sturdy a mounting arrangement as possible;
fore and aft guys are NOT recommended as a means to obtain this stability.
The initial investigation of where to mount the sonar head should take into account any engines,
pumps, or other mechanical equipment that may not be operating at the time, but may be a cause
of vibration or noise when operating under normal survey conditions.
The structural stability of any decks, bulkheads, or superstructure, which will be employed when
mounting the sonar head, must be taken into account and strengthened if necessary.
3.2.2 Over-the-Side mount
The over-the-side mount is normally employed for shallow water survey vessels and/or temporary
survey requirements. The over-the-side mount consists of a frame structure that is attached to the
vessel’s hull or superstructure. A pole will be attached to the frame, normally through the use of
swivel flanges, flanges, or other means by which the head can be swung up when not in use and
deployed when needed. A similar mounting arrangement is the bow – mount, which is specialised
form of an over-the-side mount.
In order to ensure stability of the pole, it should have a securing arrangement as close to the water
line as possible. As stated above, the use of fore or aft guy wires
is strongly discouraged.
When the pole is in the ‘up’ position it should be secured so that
there is no or little movement that would be a strain on the
flanges or mount. The head should be washed with fresh water
as soon as possible and inspected for any damage or marine
growth. If the head is to remain in the ‘up’ position; a covering
should be put over the head that will protect it from the sun.
Figure 19: Typical over-the-side mount
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3.2.3 Moon Pool Mount
Deploying the sonar head through a moon pool is usually a more stable mounting arrangement than
an over-the-side pole. A moon pool is an area, within a vessel, that is open to the water. The sonar
head is normally mounted in such a way that it can be deployed and recovered through the moon
pool. The pole or structure that the sonar head is mounted on is normally shorter and sturdier than
an over-the-side mount; this can allow for higher survey speeds.
3.2.4 Hull Mount
The hull mount is the sturdiest of all possible ways to mount a sonar head. With a hull mount, the
sonar head is physically attached to the vessel’s hull. With this way of securing the sonar head,
there is no possibility of movement, outside that of the movement of the vessel.
There are disadvantages to the hull mount: the head cannot be inspected easily for marine growth
or damage; the vessel may be restricted in the depth of waters that can be surveyed, due to the
head being permanently attached to the hull.
A normal hull mount will also involve the fabrication of a fairing, on the hull, to ensure correct flow
patterns over the sonar head.
3.2.5 ROV Mounting
The Sonic 2024/2022 is ideal for undersea operations due to its compact size and low power
consumption. With all processing being done in the Receive Module, all that is required is to
provide Ethernet over single mode fibre optic communication, between the SIM and the Receive
Module. The 48VDC is supplied via the ROV’s own power distribution.
Please refer to Appendix VII for full details on ROV and AUV installation, interfacing and operation.
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4 SONIC 2024/2022 SONAR INTERFACE MODULE (SIM)
INSTALLATION and INTERFACING
4.1 Sonar Interface Module (SIM) 1
Figure 20: Sonar Interface Module (SIM)
The Sonar Interface Module is the communication centre for the Sonic 2024/2022 multibeam
system. The SIM receives commands from Sonic Control 2000 and passes the commands to the
sonar head. The SIM also receives the PPS and timing information, which is transferred to the sonar
head to accurately time stamp all bathymetry data in the sonar head. The data, from the sonar
head, passes through the SIM’s Gigabit switch and onto the data collection computer. Sound
velocity, from the probe located near the sonar head, and motion data are also interfaced to the
SIM to be passed onto the sonar head.
4.1.1 Physical installation
The 15 metre cable, from the Sonic 2024/2022 Receive Module, connects directly to the SIM via an
Amphenol ™ style connector. Therefore, the SIM must be located within 15 metres of the sonar
head (a 50 metre cable is an option). The SIM is not water or splash proof, so it must be installed in
a dry, temperature- controlled environment.
The SIM is small and light enough so as to be unobtrusive, but care needs to be taken that it is
secured in such a manner so that it will not fall or move whilst the vessel is at sea. The SIM can be
secured to a surface (horizontal or vertical) through the pass-through holes that are under the
corner trim pieces. The holes accept: #8-32 pan head, M4 pan head or M5 socket head cap screws.
The trim piece can be removed by hand to expose the securing holes.
1
For the I2NS SIM, please refer to Appendix I
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Pass through holes
Figure 21: Removal of trim to expose securing holes
4.1.2 Electrical and Interfacing
The SIM has four DB-9 male connectors on the front. The label, on the top, clearly shows all
connections. Beginning on the left front, the connections are: GPS, Motion, Heading, and Sound
Velocity. At present time the GPS time message (for timing), sound velocity, and motion (for roll
stabilisation) inputs are enabled. Next to each DB-9 are two vertical LEDs; the top LED responds to
the input data: Green – receiving data that is being decoded; Red – no connection; Orange –
receiving data that cannot be decoded (wrong baud rate or format setting in the Sonic Control
Sensor Settings menu). There is also a LED next to the on/off rocker switch, which is the head
connection indicator: Green – head on, Red – head power off or not connected, Orange – problems
with communications or if the sonar head current draw is below expected limits.
On the second row up are three BNC connections as well as three Ethernet connections. The BNC,
which is above the GPS DB-9, receives the one Pulse Per Second (PPS) from the GPS receiver. The
PPS, along with the GPS time information on the DB-9, is used to time stamp and synchronise all
data.
The two BNC connections, to the right of the Ethernet connectors, are used to receive and send
synchronisation triggers to and from other systems.
Mains voltage (90 – 260VAC) is input via the IEC connector. Above the connector is a rocker switch
which turns on the system.
The SIM outputs the bathymetry data (from the sonar head), via the Ethernet, on the Ethernet
connection marked DATA (as marked on the label on top of the SIM). All of the RJ45 Ethernet
connections are routed to the SIM’s internal Gigabit Ethernet switch.
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Figure 22: SIM Interfacing Physical Connections
Figure 23: SIM Interfacing Guide (from label on top of the SIM)
NB. Again, at the present time, the SIM only takes in the PPS, NMEA Time message, sound velocity
(at the sonar head) and motion data, but not heading information.
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Figure 24: SIM IEC mains connection and deck lead Amphenol connector
Figure 25: Impulse connector
Function
BI_DC+
BI_DCBI_DBBI_DB+
BI_DDBI_DD+
BI_DABI_DA+
Data Shield
Power +
Power Return
Impulse
Amphenol MS
Pin Number Pin Number
4
5
7
8
11
12
9
10
6
1
2
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
n/c
J,M
K,L
R2Sonic 10013A
Wire Colour
Blue
Black paired with Blue
Green
Black paired with Green
Brown
Black paired with Brown
Orange
Black paired with Orange
Drain Wire
Orange, Yellow (#18AWG)
Black, Blue (#18 AWG)
CAT 5
Blue
Blue/White
Green
Green/White
Brown
Brown/White
Orange
Orange/White
Table 6: Deck Lead Pin Assignment (Gigabit Ethernet and Power)
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Figure 26: Projector cable configuration
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4.1.3 Serial Communication
All serial interfacing is standard RS-232 protocol.
Pin Data
2
3
5
Receive
Transmit
Ground
Table 7: DB-9M RS-232 Standard Protocol
Pin Data
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4.1.4
Receive2
Receive
Transmit
+12VDC
Ground
N/C
+12VDC
N/C
Transmit2
Function
Secondary Serial Port
Primary Serial Input
Primary Serial Output
+12VDC Power
Data and Power Common
Not Connected
+12VDC Power
Not Connected
Secondary Serial Output
Table 8: SIM DB-9M Serial pin assignment
Time and PPS input
4.1.4.1 Connecting PPS and Time to the SIM
In order to provide the most accurate multibeam data possible, the Sonic 2024/2022 takes in the
GPS Pulse Per Second (PPS) and NMEA ZDA time message or an ASCII UTC message, which is
associated with the pulse, to accurately time stamp the Sonic 2024/2022 data. The data collection
software will take in the same PPS and time message to synchronise the computer clock and the
auxiliary sensor data.
The PPS is a TTL (transistor – transistor logic) pulse. The SIM box PPS input threshold is ≈ +1.35V
with about 0.14V of hysteresis. The PPS input rejects pulses narrower than about a microsecond to
reject high frequency cable reflections and ringing, but not all types of noise. The input pulse timing
needs to be stable, within about 100ppm, or the SIM box will reject the pulses and the LED will flash
red instead of green. The pulse is transmitted to the SIM and the data collection computer via a
coaxial cable (such as RG-58); the cable is terminated with BNC connectors so that it is easy to use a
‘T’ adaptor to parallel the PPS to different locations. Connect one end of the coaxial cable to the
GPS receiver’s PPS output (via a ‘T’ adaptor, if required) and the other end to the SIM BNC labelled
PPS. When a pulse is received, the LED next to the BNC connector will flash green at 1 Hz.
D31 provides ESD
(electrostatic discharge)
protection; it trips at
about +/- 35V
Figure 27: TTL input/output (PPS and Sync In/Out) schematic
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The standard time message is a NMEA sentence identified as $GPZDA and is expected to arrive after
the PPS. The time message will also, usually, go to the data collection computer, so the ZDA message
must either be split or output on two of the GPS receiver’s RS-232 ports.
4.1.4.2 Trimble UTC: UTC yy.mm.dd hh:mm:ss ab<CR><LF>"
Trimble GPS receivers provide the PPS time synchronisation message with an ASCII UTC string and
not the ZDA string. The SIM expects the UTC to arrive 0.5 seconds before the PPS. When interfacing
a Trimble GPS, use the UTC message and not the ZDA for timing information. If both the ZDA and
UTC are input, the UTC will take priority; the SIM will automatically ignore ZDA while receiving UTC.
The UTC status code (‘ab’) is ignored.
Setting up the time synchronisation is done through the Sonic Control software detailed in Section
5.4.
In that each of the SIM serial ports provides 12VDC on selected pins, it is not recommended to use a
fully wired serial interface cable as this may cause some GPS receivers to stop sending data. Use a
cable with only pins 2, 3 and 5 wired, if possible.
4.1.5 Motion Input
The roll component, of the motion data, is used for roll stabilisation. Supported formats and
connection are:
•
•
TSS1
IXSea TAH
Serial
Serial or Ethernet UDP ($PHOCT)
It is recommended to set the motion sensor to output the highest baud rate and highest update rate
possible, preferably 100 Hz or higher.
Connect the motion data to the DB-9 labelled Motion, on the SIM, or via Ethernet input to one of
the RJ45 AUX receptacles. Setting up the serial port or Ethernet parameters is done through Sonic
Control, which is covered in Section 5.4.
4.1.6
SVP input
4.1.6.1 Connecting the sound velocity probe
The sound velocity probe is used to provide the sound velocity at the sonar head, which is used for
the receive beam steering. It is not used for refraction correction; that must be accomplished in the
data collection software employing a full water depth sound velocity cast.
4.1.6.2 Valeport miniSVS
The miniSVS comes with a 15 metre cable. The cable carries both the DC power (8 – 29V DC) to the
probe and the data from the probe to the SIM. The miniSVS is set for a baud rate of 9600 and will
start outputting sound velocity (Format: <sp> xxxx.xxx m/sec) as soon as power is applied. The
miniSVS cable is terminated with a female DB-9 RS-232 connector; this is attached to the male DB-9
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RS-232 connector, on the SIM, marked SVP. The probe is powered through the SIM’s serial port
12VDC supply.
Setting up the SVP input is done through the Sonic Control software detailed in Section 5.4.
4.1.6.3 Other supported sound velocity formats
The SIM can also accept sound velocity in the below listed formats. Velocity (V) is parsed out of the
messages and all other values are ignored.
SeaBird: "TTT.TTTT,CC.CCCCC,SSSS.SSSS, VVVV.VVV (CR/LF)"
SeaBird + P:"TTT.TTTT,CC.CCCCC,PPPPP.PPP,SSSS.SSSS, VVVV.VVV (CR/LF)"
SVP-C: "VVVVVDDDDDTTTBBCCCC (CR/LF)"
SmartSV: " VVVV.VV (CR/LF)"
(39 chars)
(49 chars)
(21 chars)
(11 chars)
The last format (“VVVV.VV) is also accepted with a flexible width.
There is no setup to accept these other formats, merely set the baud rate and the SIM will automatically
parse the sound velocity.
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5 OPERATION OF THE SONIC 2024/2022 VIA SONIC CONTROL
The Sonic 2024/2022 multibeam echosounders are controlled by the Sonic Control software. The
Sonic Control GUI does not require a dedicated computer and is usually installed on the user’s data
collection computer.
5.1 Installing Sonic Control Graphical User Interface
Sonic Control is supplied on a CD or as an attached file. There is no installation program, merely
decompress the program to a folder in a root directory of the computer. Send the R2Sonic.exe to
the desktop as a short cut (right click on R2Sonic.exe and choose Send to -> Desktop (create
shortcut)). The computer must have the Windows .NET Framework installed. This can be
downloaded, for free, from the Microsoft web site (dotnetfix35.exe). NB. Do not install Sonic
Control under Windows’ Program Files or put all files on the Desktop.
Figure 28: Sonic Control Icon on desktop
Figure 29: Sonic Control 2000
5.2 Hot Keys
•
•
•
•
F2 – Brings up the Sonar Settings
Alt+Z – Returns sector to 0 rotation
Alt+X – Takes a snapshot of the GUI
Alt+I – Display INS Monitor
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5.3 Network Setup
All communication, between the Sonic 2024/2022 and the SIM and data collection computer is via
Ethernet. The first step in setting up the sonar system is to establish the correct Ethernet
parameters, which include the IP (Internet Protocol), Subnet Mask and UDP (User Datagram
Protocol)base port under Settings | Network settings.
5.3.1 Initial Computer setup for Communication
Prior to starting Sonic Control 2000 for the first time, the computer’s network parameters must be
set correctly to establish the first communication.
Open the computer’s network connections. Identify the NIC (Network Interface Card) that is being
used for the Sonic system and select Properties (usually by using the right mouse button context
menu, highlight the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and select properties. Select ‘Use the following IP
address’ and enter:
IP address:
10.0.1.102
Subnet mask: 255.0.0.0
Figure 30: Windows XP Internet Properties
Select Internet Protocol and then select Properties to enter the correct IP and Subnet mask.
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It is very important that the exact
settings, as shown in Figure 33, are
entered. This will allow initial
communications to be established
with the Sonic system; once
communication is established, the IP
address can be user configured.
WARNING
ALL COMPUTER
FIREWALLS MUST BE
DISABLED TO INSURE
COMMUNICATION.
Figure 31: IP and Subnet mask setup
5.3.2 Discover Function
The sonar head and the SIM have initial IP and UDP ports to establish communication (see below).
Communication will not be established until the serial number of sonar head and the SIM are
entered in the settings for Sonar 1, in the Sonic Control 2000 Network settings.
Use the Discover function to request the serial number information from all attached R2Sonic
equipment. The Discover function will automatically transfer the serial numbers to the correct field.
5.3.2.1 Default Network Configuration
Head IP:
10.0.0.86
BasePort: 65500
SIM:
10.0.0.99
BasePort: 65500
GUI:
10.0.1.102
BasePort: 65500
Bathy:
10.0.1.102
BasePort: 4000 (actual port 4000)
Snippets:
10.0.1.102
BasePort: 4000 (actual port 4006)
TruePix™:
10.0.1.102
BasePort: 4000 (actual port 4001)
Water Column: 10.0.1.102
BasePort: 4000 (actual port 4005)
INS:
10.0.0.44
No BasePort – Does not apply
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Figure 32: Sonic Control Network setup
Until the correct serial numbers are entered, there will be no communication. Once the correct
serial numbers are entered, click Apply and dots will be visible in the wedge display signifying
communication is established. Using Discover will guarantee that the serial numbers will be entered
correctly and verify Ethernet communication between devices.
5.3.2.2 INS Addressing
When using the I2NS system, the INS default IP is 10.0.0.44. Initially, the INS will not be ready to
receive an IP address. The ‘Set IP’ becomes active when the INS is ready to accept an IP (after one to
two minutes). When the time period, to set the IP address is over, the button changes to ‘Set IP
Expired’.
Figure 33: Set INS IP
Figure 34: Set IP Time Expired
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5.3.2.1 Network Broadcast to more than one computer
It is possible to send the bathymetry, TruePix and Water Column data to more than one computer
via a broadcast. The Subnet Mask will dictate the correct IP address to be used to broadcast. Using
the default Subnet Mask of 255.0.0.0, the Bathy, TruePix and Water Column IP would be
10.255.255.255. If the user sets a Subnet Mask of 255.255.0.0 the output IP would be 10.0.255.255.
5.3.3
Configuring Network Communication
• The network settings allow freedom in selecting IP numbers for various pieces of
equipment.
•
The most important settings to get right are the Subnet Mask (upper left corner of the
Network settings dialog) and the GUI IP number. If these numbers are wrong, the Sonic
Control program will not be able to configure the sonar head and SIM. The GUI IP number
and subnet mask, entered in the Network Settings dialog, is the IP address and subnet
mask assigned to the computer that is running the Sonic Control program.
•
To verify computer network setup run ipconfig/all from the command line or command
prompt.
Figure 35: Command prompt-ipconfig/all
•
The Sonic Control program is required to send networking configuration to the sonar head
and SIM whenever the sonar head and/or SIM are powered up.
•
If the GUI IP number and subnet mask are set correctly, the Discover button will list the
R2Sonic devices attached to the network. If the GUI IP number and/or subnet mask is set
wrong, Discover will not work and the sonar head and SIM will not configure.
•
Settings for Sonar 1:
Head IP: Any unique IP number within the network subnet.
Head BasePort: Any number between 49152 and 65535. Preferred is: 65500.
SIM IP: Any unique IP number within the network subnet.
SIM BasePort: Any number between 49152 and 65535. Preferred is: 65500.
GUI IP: Same IP number of the computer running the Sonic Control software.
GUI BasePort: Any number between 49152 and 65535. Preferred is: 65500.
Bathy IP: IP number of the computer running bathymetry data collection software.
Bathy BasePort: Base port number that the bathymetry data collection software requires.
TruePix™/Snippets IP: IP number of the computer running snippets data collection
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software.
TruePix™/Snippets BasePort: Base port number for Snippets, Snippets will be output on
a port, which is the base port plus 6. With a base port of 4000, Snippets will be on port
4006; TruePix™ will be on port 4001
Water Column IP: IP address of the computer to receive water column data
Water Column BasePort: Base port number for Water Column data; Water Column data
will be output on the base port plus 5. The default base port is 4000; Water Column data
will be on UDP 4005.
•
Settings for Sonar 2:
All entries must be zero. Serial numbers are left blank.
•
Once networking is set up, Sonic Control will automatically connect upon power up; there
is no need to go back into the Network Settings
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5.4 Sensor Setup (Serial and Ethernet Interfacing)
The Sonar system receives various data, on the SIM serial ports or via the Ethernet. Select Settings |
Sensor setting to setup the communications parameters.
Figure 36: Sensor communication settings
5.4.1 GPS
The GPS input is for the ZDA time message ($GPZDA) or Trimble UTC message, other NMEA
messages may be in the same string; it is not necessary to isolate the ZDA or UTC. In the GPS
receiver’s operation manual, there will be an entry that will detail which edge of the PPS pulse is
used for synchronisation; this will be either synch on rising edge, or synch on falling edge. Selecting
the correct polarity is vital for correct timing.
The firmware supports the ZDA integer part (HHMMSS) and accepts PPS pulses if they pass a basic
stability test: the last two pulses must be within 200ppm. If the PPS is unstable or absent, the SIM's
internal trained clock-runs with a high degree of accuracy.
The decoded time, from the bathymetry packet, is visible in the main display on the lower left along
with the cursor position information. If the displayed time is 01/01/1970 it indicates that timing is
not set up correctly.
5.4.2 Motion
The motion data is used for roll stabilisation. There are two accepted formats. For serial input,
either the TSS1 or the iXSea $PHOCT format is accepted. The iXSea $PHOCT format is also accepted
via an Ethernet connection.
The motion data should be at the highest possible baud rate, with the motion sensor configured for
the highest output possible; at a minimum 100Hz update.
5.4.3 Heading
Not currently enabled.
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5.4.4 SVP
This is used to set the communication for the sound velocity probe mounted on the sonar head.
5.4.5 Message displays
Not currently enabled; see Status Message.
5.4.6 Trigger in / Trigger out
Used to receive or send synchronisation TTL pulses. Output goes high when transmitter pings, goes
low after receiver has collected data.
Figure 37: Trigger In/Out Options
5.4.6.1 Trigger In
• The SIM Synch In input requires a TTL signal (0 to +5V)
• The minimum high level trigger point is +2.4V
• The trigger pulse width must be longer than 1µsec
• The sonar will ping 10.025msecs (±10µsecs) after receiving the trigger
5.4.6.2 Trigger Out
• Output is 0 to +5V
• If Trigger Out is set to Rising Edge, the output pulse is high during the receive period. If the
Trigger Out is set to Falling Edge the output pulse is low during the receive period.
In the lower portion, of the GUI, the colour indicator will indicate when the Trigger In is active by
turning from grey to green
. When the Trigger In mode is set to Manual, the colour
indicator will change to yellow
. Manual mode allows the sonar to ping every time an
external Ethernet command (PNGØ, 1) is received or, if in FLS mode, the Ping button is used.
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5.5 Sonar Settings (Hotkey: F2)
The Sonic 2024/2022 have many features that provide the user with the versatility to tailor the
system to any survey project; many of these features can be controlled either through the
Operation Settings or with the mouse cursor.
Figure 38: Sonar Operation Settings window
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5.5.1 Frequency (kHz)
The Sonic 2024/2022 operates on a user selectable frequency, from 200 kHz to 400 kHz, in 10 kHz
steps. The operating frequency can be changed on the fly; there is no need to stop recording data,
go offline, or load any firmware. The operating frequency is selected via the drop down menu next
to Frequency (kHz).
Figure 39: Operating Frequency Selection
5.5.1.1 700 kHz UHR
The optional UHR upgrade enables the sonar to operate at 700 kHz for Ultra High Resolution. If this
option is installed, there will be the added 700 kHz frequency, after 400, in the available frequency
list. If the upgrade is not installed there will be no listing of this frequency.
Figure 40: UHR frequency available
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The UHR upgrade requires a unique projector, which covers the normal 200 – 400 kHz frequency
range, but can also provide the necessary power to operate at 700 kHz. The projector is specially
labelled with a blue indicator on the end of the projector.
When 700 kHz is selected, the swath sector will automatically be reduced to 60°. The UHR upgrade
is intended for short range operation. In the UHR mode of operation, the across track beamwidth is
0.3° and the along track beamwidth is 0.6°: true Ultra High Resolution sonar.
5.5.1.2 UHR Operation Suggestions
When operating at the high 700kHz frequency it will be necessary to increase Power and Absorption
significantly (Absorption set to 200dB/km). Along with this will be a possible increase in Pulse
Length, Gain and Spreading Loss. As frequency increases so does the effect of attenuation and this
is why, when in UHR mode, the sonar operating settings need to be increased to increase the total
power going into the water and the higher gain needed to receive the attenuated signal. As stated
the UHR mode is for short range operation.
5.5.2 Ping Rate Limit
The Sonic 2024/2022 can transmit at a rate up to 60 Hz (60 pings per second), this is called the Ping
Rate. At times, it may be desirable to reduce the ping rate to reduce the collection software file size
or for other reasons. Highlight the box next to Ping Rate Limit and the ping rate limit drop down
box will be activated; select a predefined ping rate or enter a manual rate.
Figure 41: Ping Rate Limit
5.5.3 Sector Coverage
The Sonic 2024/2022 allows the user to select the swath sector from 10° to 160°. All 256 beams are
used, no matter what the selected sector coverage that is chosen. The smaller the sector, the
higher the sounding density is within that sector. Changing the Sector Coverage can be done on the
fly, with no need to stop recording data or to go offline.
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The Sector Coverage can also be controlled via
the mouse cursor, inside the wedge display.
Position the cursor on either of the straight sides
of the wedge; the cursor will change to a double
arrow and the sector can be reduced or
increased. When using the cursor to change the
sector coverage, the change only takes place
when the mouse button is released.
Figure 42: Sector Coverage
The sector angle will be numerically visible in the
lower left hand corner of the wedge display
while the mouse button is depressed.
5.5.4 Sector Rotate
The Sonic 2024/2022 has the capability to direct the selected sector to either port or starboard,
allowing the user to map vertical features, or areas of interest, with a high concentration of
soundings resulting from the compressed sector.
First, change the sector coverage to the desired opening angle; this will concentrate the 256 beams
within the sector, and then increase the Range setting.
Second, rotate the swath towards the feature to be mapped with high definition. This is done on
the fly, with no need to stop data recording or to go off line. When rotating, make sure to keep the
bottom detections within the confines of the range.
The sector can also be rotated using the mouse cursor, in
the wedge display. Position the cursor on the curved
bottom of the wedge; the cursor will change to a
horizontal double arrow, the wedge can now be rotated to
port or starboard. The angle of rotation is numerically
visible in the lower left hand corner of the wedge display
during rotation. A clockwise rotation is positive, an anticlockwise rotation is negative.
The change only takes place when the mouse button is
released. To return to a 0 rotation, use the Hotkey Alt+Z.
Figure 43: Sector Rotate
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5.5.5 Minimum Range Gate (m)
This provides a means to block out noise or interference close to the sonar head. Enter the range, in
metres, from the sonar head to establish the gate; anything within that range will be blocked. As a
safety precaution: This gate should not be used when working in very shallow water.
5.5.6 Bottom Sampling
There are two main options: Equiangular or Equidistant. The equiangular and equidistant modes are
further enhanced by the Dual/Quad mode, described below. In equidistant mode, all beams are
equally distributed, within the sector. There are limits to what the equidistant can do, based on
opening angle and bottom topography; it is best on flat sea floor and with an opening angle (Sector
Coverage) equal to, or less than, 130°.
Figure 44: Bottom Sampling Modes
5.5.6.1 Dual/Quad Mode
The Dual/Quad bottom sampling modes can be used with both equiangular and equidistant
sampling. The modes work by spatially distributing the acrosstrack bottom sampling, ping by ping.
The beam is slightly repositioned, in the acrosstrack direction, with each ping. This mode was
developed for ROV/AUV survey operations.
The Dual/Quad mode will work at all speeds; however, it is at slower speeds, that the Dual or Quad
modes will be more evident.
The Dual/Quad mode requires 16-May-2013 head firmware and 17-Oct-2013 GUI or more recent.
All firmware from the current, Head$16-may-2013-03-58-29 will have this feature available. All
GUIs, from 17Oct2013 and newer will support the Dual/Quad mode.
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Figure 45: Example of going from normal to Quad mode
5.5.6.2 Current Mode Display
The current Bottom Sampling Mode is shown in the main GUI window, in the lower right,
information area.
Figure 46: Indication of Bottom Sampling Mode
The BSM designations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
ea1 = Equiangular normal
ea2 = Equiangular dual
ea4 = Equiangular quad
ed1 = Equidistant normal
ed2 = Equidistant dual
ed4 = Equidistant quad
5.5.7 Mission Mode
The versatility, built into the Sonic 2024/2022, is further enhanced with the ability to adapt the
system to the nature of the survey task: normal survey, surveying a vertical feature or the optional
Forward Looking Sonar mode.
If the FLS option is not installed, the Mission Mode will only contain the Bathy functions.
Figure 47: Normal Mission Mode selections
Figure 48: Mission Mode
with the FLS Option installed
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•
•
•
•
•
Down, Bathy Norm: Normal bathymetry survey
Down, Bathy VFeature: With the ability to map vertical surfaces, without physically rotating
the sonar head, this Mission Mode provides improved detection methods tailored to
mapping vertical features. This specialised mode greatly reduces the corner ‘ringing’ seen in
older technology systems. When using Bathy VFeature, please use Equiangular bottom
sampling and not Equidistant.
Down ,FLS Narrow/Wide: One Forward Looking Sonar mode. No bathymetry output; this
setting is for imagery only.
Up, Bathy Norm; Up, Bathy VFeature: is the same as the above, but orientates the wedge
so it is pointing up (used primarily hull inspection type survey).
Up, FLS Narrow/Wide: Most common setting when using the optional FLS feature
The Mission Mode can be changed on the fly, with no need to stop recording data.
5.5.8
IMAGERY
5.5.8.1 Acoustic Image (Display only)
The wedge can display acoustic intensity. This will aid in setting the correct combination of
operating parameters (such as power, pulse width and gain). Enabling the Acoustic Intensity will
increase the network load.
Enable the wedge Acoustic Intensity under the Display options. The Brightness control, in the main
window, is used to set the intensity in the display. A good brightness setting, to start with, is 30dB.
Most users also prefer the 1 pixel bathy dot option (on the Display tab), when viewing the Acoustic
Image, in the display.
Figure 49: Enable Acoustic Image in the wedge display
5.5.8.2 Forward Looking Sonar
Forward looking mode can be in one of two configurations. FLS Wide uses the 20° projector within
the standard projector. FLS Narrow uses the 1° standard projector. The wide mode, using the 20°
projector, will have a lower source level, but is very good for near field use. The narrow mode
allows for full source level to be used (221dB), but is more critical in aiming towards the target due
to the 1° transmit pattern.
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Figure 50: FLS Wide mode
5.5.8.2.1 FLS Mode adjustments
In FLS mode, the Brightness button adjusts the image ‘gain’ up to 80dB. The colour palette is
selected in the Display options, under Acoustic Image.
Figure 51: Imagery palette selection in Display Options
The FLS grid visibility is set in the Display | Grid settings. When in FLS mode, the range rings are
turned on and off, by the Horizontal Grid Line selection. The angle markers (from nadir) are
controlled by the Vertical Grid Line selection.
5.5.8.2.2 Stealth Mode
The FLS can be operated in a stealth mode, where the only time the system transmits is when the
user manually triggers the sonar using the Ping button. In Sensor Settings, the ‘Trigger In’ option has
to be put to Manual (the TRG indicator colour will change to Yellow), simultaneously, the Ping
button will appear in the GUI. The only time an image will be updated, is when the user selects the
Ping button.
Figure 52: Stealth mode single Ping button
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5.5.9 Roll Stabilize
When a motion sensor is interfaced to the SIM, the data can be stabilised for the roll motion of the
vessel. With the advanced roll stabilisation, in the Sonic 2024/2022, there is no need to stop
recording or go off line to change between roll stabilised and non-stabilised mode, nor is there a
need to go into the data collection software and identify the data as roll stabilised. The R2Sonic roll
stabilisation has been developed based on recommended methods from various data collection
software companies.
Roll stabilisation only works within the 160° maximum sector, any swath rotation or large sector size
(opening angle) that attempts to go beyond the 160° limit will cause the system to stop roll
stabilisation.
As stated in the SIM interfacing, it is recommended that the motion data be at the highest update
rate possible.
Figure 53: Roll Stabilize
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5.5.10 Dual Head Mode (Also see Appendix VII, Section 13.9)
The selections are: Single Head, Simultaneous Ping or Alternating Ping. When the dual head mode is
selected, a second wedge display will be available in Sonic Control 2000.
When using dual heads, the sonar heads have to have exactly the same firmware installed. Use
the Status display to verify that both heads have the same firmware; if not, update the oldest
firmware sonar head to match the most current firmware sonar head.
Figure 54: Dual Head Mode
Figure 55: Dual Head Mode active
In dual head mode, certain controls: Range, Power, Pulse Length, and Gain set both sonar heads.
NB. For a dual head system, the Discover function will only list the systems. Discover does not autofill the serial numbers for a dual head system. Correct serial numbers must be entered by hand for
both systems.
5.5.10.1 Dual Head default settings
To make it easier to set up the system for dual head operation, there is a specific settings file that
can be loaded that will set all of the defaults for a dual head configuration. Under the File menu
selection, select Load Settings.
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Figure 56: Load Settings menu selection
The available settings files will be shown. There are three Factory Default initialisation files; one for
single head and two for dual head: dual head – dual SIM or dual head – single SIM.
Figure 57: Loading an .ini file
When the file is loaded, Sonic Control will be configured for dual head mode, this includes the
default network settings. If using only one SIM, the second SIM IP and BasePort must be set to zero.
When only one SIM is used for a dual
head system, the Sonar 2 SIM IP and
BasePort need to be set to 0. The Serial
Number must be left blank. This is the
DefaultSettingsDualHead_SingleSIM.ini
Figure 58: Default dual head Network settings
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5.5.11 TruePix™, Snippets, Water Column Enable and Intensity Enable
If the options TruePix™, Snippets or Water Column are installed (Help | Options, those features can
be turned on and off by ticking the box next to appropriate option enable. Intensity Enable will
output the bottom detection intensity value in the bathymetry packet; this is a standard feature.
5.5.11.1 TruePix™ Explained
TruePix™ is a new backscatter imagery process developed by R2Sonic to combine the advantages of
the traditional side scan record and Snippets, while eliminating their respective disadvantages.
Side scan records are:
•
•
•
•
Formed independently from Bottom detection
Compact
Inclusive of water column data in the Nadir region
Suitable for pairing of highlights and targets
Snippets records:
•
•
Suppress reverberation
Report angle of centre of snippets record for better colocation of backscatter and
bathymetry
TruePix™ possesses all of the above advantages and more.
The TruePix™ operation processes all beams into a single continuous times series record for both
the port and starboard regions. This continuous record contains intensity and angle values for every
point in the record (approximately 10,000). The range corresponds to the sample number times the
sample interval, (which is 1/sample rate) like a regular side scan; along with the angular information,
the point’s elevation and distance from nadir can be calculated.
On the Imagery tab, the user can select to store the Magnitude or the Magnitude + Angle data. The
Magnitude + Angle data option will provide the geolocated information; storing Magnitude data
provides only imagery.
Figure 59: TruePix™ image of wreck debris and sea grass
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5.6 Ocean Setting
Figure 60: Ocean Characteristics
Ocean Characteristics include Absorption and Spreading loss, which are the main components of the
Time Variable Gain (TVG) computation, and manual Sound Velocity (for receive beam steering).
5.6.1 Absorption: 0 – 200 dB/km
Absorption is influenced primarily by frequency and the chemical compounds of boric acid B(OH)3
and magnesium sulphate MgSO4.
It is highly recommended that the local absorption value be entered. If this is not known, a good online source is: http://resource.npl.co.uk/acoustics/techguides/seaabsorption/ 2
Appendix VI provides a table of absorption values based on operating frequency.
5.6.2 Spreading Loss: 0 – 60 dB
Spreading loss is the loss of intensity of a sound wave, due to dispersion of the wave front. It is a
geometrical phenomenon and is independent of frequency. The sound wave propagates in a
spherical manner, the area of the wave front increases as the square of the distance from the
source. Therefore, the sound intensity decreases with the square of the distance from the
projector. Spreading loss is not dependent on frequency.
Spreading loss is not a setting that normally needs to be changed except when surveying in deeper
depths. As spreading loss is not dependent on frequency, the setting is unaffected by a change in
operating frequency. A general default value of 20 – 30 is normally sufficient for most survey
conditions. However, the value should be increased when surveying into deeper depths (>100
metres)
NB. In very shallow water (2m or less) it may be more advantageous to use Fixed Gain. To put the
system into Fixed Gain enter zero (0) for both Spreading Loss and Absorption.
For more detailed information on absorption and spreading loss, please refer to Appendix VI Basic
Acoustic Theory.
2
Linked with the kind permission of the National Physical Laboratory; Teddington, United Kingdom TW11
0LW; NPL reserves the right to amend, edit or remove the linked web page at any time.
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5.6.3 Time Variable Gain
Absorption and spreading loss are the main components of the Time Variable Gain (TVG)
computation.
TVG Equation
TVG = 2*R* α/1000 + Sp*log(R) + G
α
R
Sp
G
= Absorption Loss db/km
= Range in metres
= Spreading loss coefficient
= Gain from Sonar Control setting
TVG is employed in underwater acoustics to compensate for the nature of the reflected acoustic
energy. When an acoustic pulse is transmitted in a wide pattern, the first returns will generally be
from the nadir region and very strong. As the receive window time lengthens, the weaker returns
are received. Using a fixed gain would apply either too much gain for the early returns or
insufficient gain for the later returns. The solution is to use TVG. The function of TVG is to increase
gain continuously throughout the receive cycle. Therefore, smaller gain corresponds with the first
returns (normally the strongest) and higher gain corresponds to the later returns (normally the
weakest). This function is represented in, what is called, the TVG curve.
5.6.3.1 TVG Curve
The TVG curve can be either shallow or steep depending mostly on the Absorption value to define
the shape of the curve. The Spreading Loss will determine the amplitude of the gain.
Figure 61: TVG Curve Concept
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5.6.3.2 Sound Velocity
The speed of sound, at the receiver’s face, is required to do the receive beam steering, which is
required for all flat array sonars. The angular acoustic wave front strikes each receive element, but
at a different time and phase depending on the angle of the return. By introducing a variable delay
to each receive element’s information, the phases can be aligned and the beam can be ‘steered’ in
the direction of the return. In order to accurately apply the correct delay, three factors have to be
known or measured: The physical distance between each receive element is known, the time of
reception at each receive element is measured, the speed of sound at the receiver face must be
known or measured (for this reason there is a sound velocity probe attached to the mounting
frame).
The beam steering can be accomplished, without a sound velocity probe, by entering in the correct
sound velocity for the area around the sonar head. To manually enter a sound velocity, check the
box for ‘Use Custom velocity’ and enter a velocity. The SVP indicator, in the GUI, will change from
Green to Yellow.
WARNING
The wrong sound velocity, at the sonar
head, will cause erroneous data. There are
currently no known post processing tools
to correct for this.
If the sound velocity is wrong, the beam steering will be in error. If the sound velocity is greater than
what it really is at the face of the receiver, the ranges will be shorter and thus the bottom will curve
up or ‘smile’. If the sound velocity is less than what it really is at the face of the receiver, the ranges
will be longer and the bottom will curve down or ‘frown’. This error can be confused with a
refraction error caused by the wrong water column sound velocity profile. The refraction error can
be corrected by entering the correct water column sound velocity profile, however; erroneous beam
steering cannot be corrected as it is part of the beam data.
Therefore, for accurate beam steering to take place, an accurate sound velocity must be provided to
the Sonic 2024/2022.
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Figure 62: The angular acoustic wave front will strike each receive element at a different time
As the wave progresses across the face, each receive element will see the wave at a slightly different
time and thus a slightly different phase. The formed beam is steered in the direction of the acoustic
wave by selectively adding delay to each receive element’s data until the data is coherent and in
phase. In the figure, above, receive element 1 would have the most delay applied, whereas receive
element 8 would have no delay; thus a ‘virtual array’ will be formed.
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5.7 Installation Settings
Figure 63: Installation Settings
5.7.1 Projector Orientation
The preferred orientation is with the projector facing forward. This configuration has been tested at
speeds up to 12 knots, with excellent results (hull and moon pool mounting). However, if
installation requires the projector to face aft, this setting is used to renumber the beams to reflect
the aft orientation
5.7.2 Projector Z Offset (m)
Using the standard R2Sonic mounting frame, the projector is mounted at a precise distance, relative
to the receive array, with a Z offset of 0.119m: the default. If the projector is not mounted in the
same vertical relationship to the receive array, an offset can be entered here to compensate for that
vertical offset.
The default Z offset value is 0.119m; this is the physical distance between the receive array ceramic
face and the centre point of the projector array (these are the two acoustic centres), as used with
the standard R2Sonic mounting frame (with 35mm projector standoffs). Do not change this value
unless the projector is mounted with a different vertical offset, relative to the receive array. Please
contact R2Sonic for further guidance on mounting the projector with a different vertical offset.
5.7.3 Head Tilt
If the sonar head is physically tilted to port or starboard, the tilt angle is entered here to rotate the
wedge and depth gates.
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5.8 Status
Figure 64: Status Options
The INS monitor is covered in Appendix I
The Status report provides a detailed list of the current system parameters in both the sonar head
and the SIM, including current version of installed firmware and serial input messages.
Figure 65: Status Message
The upper area reflects the sonar head status; the lower area reflects the SIM status. In the SIM
Status area, the real-time serial input data is shown. In the Head Status area, the received SIM
message, which contains the serial received serial data, is shown. The Head Status Response time
(µs) reflects the time required for a message (such as a time request) to go from the head to the SIM
and return. The Response time can be very useful in ROV installations to determine any latency
issues with the communication between the ROV and the SIM.
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It is quite normal that the SIM messages, in
the Head Status, differ from the Serial port
sensor data (in the SIM Status). The Head
Status reflects what is received at the head,
from the SIM.
Figure 66: Real-time Status Window
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5.9 Tools | Firmware Update
WARNING
ALL COMPUTER
FIREWALLS MUST BE
DISABLED. ALL VIRUS
CHECKERS MUST BE
DISABLED.
When R2Sonic issues a firmware update, it will be made available to the customer, allowing the
customer to update their system by themselves. There are two firmware updates possible: SIM
update and/or sonar head update. The update file will be designated either Simb$ (SIM) or Head$
(sonar head); the extension will be *.bin.
Prior to updating firmware, make sure that none of the computer’s other Ethernet ports are in use;
it may be necessary to shut down other sensors that use the Ethernet for data transfer. Connect the
SIM directly to the computer’s network interface card.
Place the update file in the Sonic Control directory, on the computer hard drive. Go to Tools |
Firmware Update; the files will be shown, if not use the browse button to search for the correct
upgrade file to down load to either the SIM or the sonar head. If there is an upgrade for both the
sonar head and the SIM, it is recommended to upgrade the SIM first. Updates are not fully installed
until the system has been power cycled
Figure 67: Select Tools; Firmware Update
Figure 68: The Browse button will open the current GUI's directory
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Figure 69: Select correct update .bin file
Figure 70: A batch file will automatically load the upgrade file
Once the Update button is clicked on, a batch file will automatically run and download the .bin to
the appropriate location.
Figure 71: The start of a firmware update. A series of dots represents the update progress.
Figure 72: Firmware update completed, the window will close automatically and the Update window will show
successful completion
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5.9.1 Firewall and Virus Checker Issues
A major problem can arise from having a firewall turned on (either Windows or third party) and
virus checkers. Having a firewall on will cause a window to pop up, from the firewall, during the
upgrade procedure requesting permission to run the upgrade; selecting yes (to allow) it proceeds.
The user will think the upgrade is good and power cycle the system; this is where the issue lies, the
upgrade is corrupted by the pop-up window and the system should not be power cycled until the
upgrade is performed again (once trained, the firewall or virus checker should not prompt again). If
a firewall or virus checker pop up window appears during the update: Do Not Power Cycle the
System. The firmware must be re-loaded.
5.10 Help
Figure 73: The Help Menu
5.10.1 Help Topics
Selecting Help Topics will bring up an electronic copy of the Operation Manual. This is the same as
the paper version of the Operation Manual.
5.10.2 Options
The Options display shows the upgrades that have been installed in the system. The installed
options are enabled or disabled, as required, in the Sonar Settings (except for the 3000m depth
rating upgrade); this display merely shows what is available for the system. Enabling an installed
option’s output is done in Sonar Settings.
Figure 74: Installed Options
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5.10.3 Remote Assistance
R2Sonic support can assist in setting up the system or trouble shooting the system, remotely, by
taking control of the customer’s computer. An internet connection is required.
Figure 75: Remote Assistance
When Remote Assistance is selected, a separate program will be launched that will allow R2Sonic
Support to remotely control the computer on which Sonic Control is installed. The Remote
Assistance window will contain an ID and Password. Contact R2 Support (+1.805.259.8142) and
provide the ID number and Password, this will allow support to connect to the computer and take
control of it to assist in setup up or trouble shooting. It is preferred that prior to starting the
Remote Assistance program that R2Sonic Support be notified via email: R2Support@r2sonic.com or
called, at the above number, to alert them that a Remote Assistance session is requested.
Remote Assistance uses TeamViewer™ software licensed
to R2Sonic. In the Remote Assistance window, there will
be the unique ID, which identifies the computer and the
password, which allows R2Sonic Support to take remote
control of the computer.
When activated, it is also possible to use the same
program to discuss the issue and transfer files to and
from the remote computer to assist resolving any issues.
Figure 76: Remote Assistance window
5.10.4 About Sonic Control
The About Sonic Control shows the version of Sonic Control that is being used. This can be of
importance if a GUI is used that does not match the features of the sonar firmware or the sonar
firmware does not match the features of the GUI.
Figure 77: About, provides the GUI version
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5.11 Display settings
The user can customise the colour scheme of Sonic
Control’s main window.
Dot Colors provides a means to view instantaneous
information by colouring the bottom detections dots for
the detection algorithm being employed when Magnitude
is selected.
Selecting Intensity provides a grey scale representation of
the return data’s acoustic strength. This Dot Color mode
can be very helpful in balancing the power, gain and pulse
length for optimal operation of the system. The Brightness
(dB) sets a base reference for the depiction of the acoustic
return strength.
Bathy-dot Size selection is either normal (1-pixel) or large
(3-pixel); default is large. Using the 1-pixel size is
recommended when viewing the Acoustic Imagery, in the
wedge display.
Figure 78: Display Settings
Under Draggable Sector Outline, the user can enable or
disable the feature to use the mouse cursor to change
opening angle and swath rotation.
Acoustic Image the Image Enable box turns the wedge’s
acoustic imagery on and off. The drop down, under Image
Enable, allows the user to select the colour palette for
wedge’s acoustic imagery.
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5.12 Imagery
On the Imagery Tab, the user can select the imagery data (TruePix™ and Water Column) formats for
logging. The maximum data size is shown to provide the user with an idea of what to expect when
storing imagery data. The user can also select to apply the bathy gate settings to the TruePix™ data.
Figure 79: Imagery Settings
5.12.1 TruePix™ and Water Column
The size of the TruePix™ and Water Column formats are given; the user can select either of the
formats (this would depend on the users’ end product). For TruePix™, if geolocated data is required,
the Magnitude+Angle format must be used.
Data rates for Water Column and TruePix are also affected by pulse width. Longer pulse widths will
reduce data rate approximately:
15-30us: 1/1 data rate
35-65us: 1/2 data rate
70-135us: 1/4 data rate
>= 140us: 1/8 data rate
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5.13 Main Operation Parameters
The main operating parameters of the Sonic 2024/2022 are controlled by the buttons in the lower
portion of the window.
Figure 80: Operating parameter buttons
To change a value, position the mouse cursor on the button then use the left mouse button to
decrease the value and the right mouse button to increase the value.
The right hand side of the panel provides system information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
W: Wedge sector (opening angle)
T: Sector Tilt angle
f: Operating frequency
c: Sound velocity at the sonar head
PR: Ping rate
BSM: Bottom Sampling Mode
D: Nadir depth
The lower left area displays the colour of the SIM communications LEDs, time, which is decoded
from the bathymetry packet and the current cursor position, relative to the sonar head. The angular
information is represented by theta Θ.
5.13.1 Range: 0 – 1200 metres
The Range setting sets the maximum slant range of the Sonic 2024/2022. The maximum slant range
determines how fast the Sonic 2024/2022 can transmit; this is the Ping Rate. What the range setting
is doing is telling the Sonic 2024/2022 the length of time that the receivers should be ‘listening’ for
the reflected acoustic energy. If the Range setting is too short, some of the returning energy will be
received during the subsequent receive period, i.e. out of sync, and will be seen as noise.
It is easy for the operator to maintain the correct Range setting by noting the bottom detection dots
relationship to the straight legs of the wedge display.
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Straight legs of the wedge represent
the Range setting; bottom detection
dots should be within this area
Figure 81: Range setting represented in the wedge display
Figure 82: Graphical concept of the Wedge Display
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5.13.2 RangeTrac™ – Sonic Control automatically sets correct range
RangeTrac™ removes the need to manually set the correct range; Sonic Control will determine the
correct range and maintain the range setting, no matter how rapidly the depth may change.
RangeTrac is enabled by selecting the box, next to RangeTrac, in Sonic Control.
Figure 83: RangeTrac enabled
The Range button will change to reflect that Sonic Control is operating in RangeTrac mode.
Sonic Control will continue to operate in RangeTrac mode until the user manually changes range or
RangeTrac is deselected.
When using RangeTrac, the user manually sets the range first and then turns on RangeTrac; from
that point on, there is no need for the user to adjust the Range setting. RangeTrac will automatically
set the correct Range for the water depth. RangeTrac will also optimise the ping rate for the
determined range.
There are no limits to RangeTrac as far as steepness of slope or amount of variability. RangeTrac can
be used simultaneously with GateTrac, in both the Depth and the Depth + Slope modes.
5.13.3 Power: 191 – 221 dB
The Power setting sets the source level of the transmit pulse; this is represented in Figure 60, below.
The Sonic 2024/2022 should be operated with sufficient power to enable good acoustic returns from
the sea floor. The value will change based on water depth, bottom composition, and operating
frequency. In general, higher power is better for getting decent bottom returns rather than using
receiver gain to obtain the returns. If the Power setting is too low, more receiver gain will need to
be used to capture the bottom returns; this can mean more extraneous noise will also be received.
The increase in noise will require more processing time; it is better to slightly increase the Power to
increase the strength of the bottom returns and, thus, allow for a lower receiver gain setting. If too
much power is used, the receivers can be over-driven (saturated); this will result in noisy data
and/or erroneous nadir depth readings. A good balance of source level (Power) and receiver gain is
the desired end. Shift – left click will turn transmitter power off (Power 0).
5.13.4 Pulse Length: 15µsec – 1000µsec
Pulse length determines the transmit pulse duration time. The Sonic 2024 pulse length range is
from 15µsec to 1000µsec. The pulse length does not affect the pulse amplitude, which is
determined by the Power setting. The general guide line is to maintain as short a pulse length as
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possible to optimise the resolution, but not so short as to weaken the transmit pulse. Generally, as
the water gets deeper the pulse length will have to be increased to get more ‘total’ power in the
water. The default pulse length will depend on the chosen operating frequency.
Figure 84: Transmit Pulse
5.13.5 Gain: 1 – 45
Receiver gain is in 2 dB steps from 1 to 45. This adjusts the gain of the sonar head receivers.
5.13.6 Depth Gates: GateTrac™
The depth gate allows the user to eliminate noise or other acoustic interference by the limits set in
the Minimum and Maximum Depth. There are manually selected gates, GateTrac: Depth and
GateTrac: Depth + Slope.
Gates are enabled by selecting the check box next to Enable Gates.
Figure 85: Enable Gates
Figure 86: Manual and GateTrac selections
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5.13.6.1 Gates Manual
The depth gates can also be changed using the mouse in the wedge display. Click and drag on either
depth gate; the cursor will change to a double arrow , drag the gate to the new depth and release
the mouse button. The depth gate position is visible in the lower left hand section of the display.
When the mouse button is released the gate will be updated in the Operation Parameters area.
To move both gates, simultaneously, use the right mouse button and both gates will move, keeping
the same relationship.
In Manual mode, the gate slope can be adjusted by using the Gate Slope button in the Operation
area. The gates can be tilted up to ±90°.
Figure 87: Manually adjust the gate slope
5.13.6.2 GateTrac: Depth
GateTrac: Depth will automatically adjust the gates, for water depth, based on the tolerance that is
selected by the control next to the gate drop-down menu. The tolerance is ± percentage of nadir
depth. Right click will increase the tolerance (up to ±90%); left click reduces the tolerance.
Figure 88: Gate width tolerance toggle
When GateTrac: Depth is enabled, the Gate Min and Gate Max buttons will be disabled, but the
Gate Slope button will still be active.
Figure 89: GateTrac enabled; Gate min and max control is disabled
If the soundings are visible, in the display then, when ‘GateTrac: Depth’ is enabled, the gates will
automatically jump to the soundings, with the selected tolerance. The user can use the Gate Slope
button to change the tilt of the gates, they will still automatically track the bottom, and the gate
slope will not change from what the user has selected.
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5.13.6.3 GateTrac: Depth + Slope
Depth and Slope GateTrac will automatically adjust the gates for the depth and the slope of the
bottom. When ‘GateTrac: Depth + Slope’ is enabled, the Gate Min and Max as well as the Gate
Slope buttons will be greyed out.
Figure 90: GateTrac: Depth + Slope enabled, manual gate controls are disabled.
Figure 91: GateTrac: Depth + Slope enabled and tracking a steep slope
5.13.6.4 Using Gates
If the minimum or maximum depth gate eliminates good data, the data are lost as it will not be
included in the Sonic 2024/2022 output. In the data collection software there will also be a form of
depth gates. If the data are eliminated there, it is more than likely that the data is flagged and not
really deleted, so it can be recovered.
The main reason to use the Sonic 2024/2022 depth gates is to eliminate interference of the bottom
detection process. Depending on bottom composition, multiple returns can occur. There will be a
secondary and possibly a tertiary return that arises from the initial bottom returns being reflected
by the water surface and then back up again to the receiver. These second and third returns can be
strong enough to influence the bottom detection process. Using the Sonic 2024/2022 depth gate
will enable the Sonic 2024/2022 to search only a small area of the entire beam for the bottom
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detection, therefore, only the area around where the energy from the actual bottom returns are will
be searched to derive a bottom detection. Although the user enters a depth for the gate setting, to
the Sonic 2024/2022 this is a time to start searching and a time to stop searching.
Figure 92: Graphical representation of depth gate
The above representation illustrates how the depth gate narrows down the bottom detection search
area (in time) to only the area where the true bottom is expected. If the Maximum Depth gate was
not in this location, the second return could be strong enough so as to influence the bottom
detection process.
Again, it must be borne in mind that if the depth gate is set such that true bottom detections are
‘gated out’; those data are lost entirely and cannot be recovered.
5.14 Ruler
The ruler or measuring tool can be used to obtain range and bearing information, within the GUI, by
using the mouse cursor. Use Ctrl + Left Mouse Button (LMB), the cursor will change to a cross and
can be dragged to the target (once the range and bearing is initiated, the Ctrl button can be
released. The Range and Bearing information is along the bottom of the Sonic Control window. To
remove, the Ruler use Ctrl + Double Click LMB.
Figure 93: Ruler Function
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5.15 Save Settings
When Sonic Control is launched, it will always load the default settings configuration file located in
the Sonic Control installation directory (CurrentSettings.ini). The default configuration file will save
any local configuration changes during operation of the system.
When a user defined configuration is saved, like dualhead.ini, Sonic Control will still use the default
configuration file to store local changes while operating the sonar. This is equivalent to copying the
default configuration file to a configuration file with another name.
When a user defined configuration is loaded, Sonic Control will use the default configuration file to
store local changes while operating the sonar. This is equivalent to copying the loaded configuration
file to the default configuration file.
5.16 Operating Sonic Control on a second computer
There may be circumstances where it is preferred to run Sonic Control on a different computer than
the computer where the data collection software is running. The user can change IP addresses as
well as UDP ports. By doing Discover (in Settings | Network Settings), the system looks for all
attached R2Sonic equipment, which will be identified by model and serial number. Once the serial
number is discovered, it is used to assign an IP and UDP port to the sonar head and the SIM, after
this is done, the IP and UDP ports can be changed.
5.16.1 Two computer setup
1) Set the data collection computer’s networking to IP address 10.0.1.102 as usual
2) Setup Sonic Control, on the data collection computer, as normal: do Discover and apply the
settings to establish communication with the system
3) Set the second computer’s networking to IP address 10.0.1.105 (using this as an example)
4) Load Sonic Control on the second computer, but do not connect the second computer to the
SIM until directed to below
5) Open Sonic Control on the second computer
6) Go to Settings | Network settings and change only the GUI IP address to 10.0.1.105 (see
illustration below)
7) Connect a LAN cable from the second computer to one of the free RJ45 ports on the SIM
(there will now be 2 Ethernet cables connected to the SIM)
8) On the data collection computer’s Sonic Control, go to Settings | Network Settings and
change only the GUI IP to the IP of the second computer: 10.0.1.105 (see illustration below)
9) Do not change any other IP or Port, only the IP for the GUI is to be changed
10) Select Apply: the GUI, on the data collection computer, will no longer update nor will it be
able to control the multibeam
11) On the second computer, open Sonic Control
12) Under Network settings, use Discover to obtain the serial numbers of the SIM and sonar
head and Apply; this computer now controls the Sonic system.
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13) This example used IP address 10.0.1.105, but any IP can be entered as long as it adheres to
the restrictions set by the subnet mask
Figure 94: Change in GUI IP
5.16.2
1)
2)
3)
4)
Changing back to one computer
Open Sonic Control on the data collection computer.
Change the GUI address to 10.0.1.102
On the second computer, change the GUI IP address back to 10.0.1.102 and Apply.
Sonic Control, on the data collection computer now controls the system.
Disconnect the second computer’s Ethernet cable from the SIM.
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6 SONIC 2024/2022 THEORY OF OPERATION
The Sonic 2024/2022 transmits a shaped continuous wave pulse at the user- selected frequency.
The transmit pulse is narrow in the alongtrack direction, but very wide in the across-track direction.
The reflected acoustic energy is received via the Sonic 2024/2022 receivers; within the Receive
Module the beams are formed and the bottom detection process takes place. The resultant bottom
detections (range and bearing) are then sent via Ethernet, through the deck lead, to the SIM. The
SIM then sends the data out to the Sonic Control software and the data collection software.
6.1 Sonic 2024/2022 Sonar Head Block Diagram
Receive Module
Projector
Receivers
Wet Controller
Beam Former
Bottom Detection
To SIM
Gigabit Ethernet
Transmitter Board
Transmitter Power
Supply
48 DCV from
SIM
Low Voltage Power
Supply
Med. Voltage Power
Supply
Figure 95: SONIC 2024 Sonar Head Block Diagram
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6.2 Sonic 2024/2022 Transmit (Normal Operation Mode)
The projector is comprised of a precisely arranged set of composite ceramics. The projector, itself,
can transmit over a wide frequency range, which makes it unique amongst multibeam
echosounders. A pulse, at the chosen operating frequency, excites the ceramics which converts the
electrical energy to acoustic energy. The pulse originates from the Wet Controller board in the
Receive Module, which is then passed onto the Transmitters and out to the Projector. The
amplitude of the pulse is set by the transmit Power setting in Sonic Control 2000; the Pulse Length
setting in Sonic Control 2000 determines how long the pulse excites the ceramics.
The projector’s transmit pattern ensonifies the seafloor in a very wide across-track, but narrow
along-track pattern as the vessel moves along the survey line. The across-track angle is 160°; the
along-track angle depends on frequency. The 400 kHz along-track pattern is 1°. The along-track
lengthens out to 2° at 200 kHz. This is the Normal Operating Mode and not extended Vertical
Mapping Mode.
Figure 96: Transmit pattern
Depending on the water conditions, sea floor composition and other factors, a portion of the
acoustic energy that strikes the seafloor will be reflected back towards the surface. The return
acoustic energy will strike the Sonic 2024/2022 receiver’s ceramics.
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6.3 Sonic 2024/2022 Receive (Normal Operation Mode)
The Projector is comprised of composite ceramics that convert electrical energy to acoustic energy.
The composite ceramics, in the Receive Module, convert the reflected acoustic energy back to
electrical energy. The small electrical voltage, generated by the ceramics, is amplified and then
passed onto the receivers. The output of the receivers goes directly to the Wet Controller board in
the Receive Module.
In general, the receive pattern is 130° (normal bathymetry survey) in the across-track. The alongtrack pattern depends on the frequency; from 23° at 400 kHz to 40° at 200 kHz.
Figure 97: Receive pattern with Transmit pattern
The Wet Controller board contains the FPGA that performs the beam forming and bottom detection
operation; time tags the data; and formats the sonar data for output back up to the SIM. The
bathymetry data is output as a Range and Bearing (from the sonar head’s acoustic centre) for each
beam. Other outputs include: side scan, beamformed imagery, and Snippets.
The output of the Wet Controller board is sent through the deck lead, to the SIM’s Gigabit switch
and onto the data collection computer though one of the SIM’s external RJ45 connections.
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6.4 Sonic 2024/2022 Sonar Interface Module (SIM) Block Diagram
SIM
Controller
Gigabit
Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Switch
48VDC
TTL - BNC
I/O Board
RS-232
Power Supply
90 – 260 VAC
Sonar
Connector
48VDC
To/From
Sonar Head
Figure 98: Sonar Interface Module Block Diagram
6.4.1
Sonar Interface Module (SIM) Block Diagram
6.4.1.1 SIM Power Requirement
The SIM operates within a voltage range of 90 to 260 VAC. The mains voltage is converted in the
various DC voltages required for the operation of the Sonic 2024/2022. Primarily, 48 VDC is sent to
the Receive Module to power the sonar head.
6.4.1.2 SIM Controller
The SIM Controller card primarily does time stamping of sensor data and deals with RS-232 and BNC
data.
6.4.1.3 SIM – Sonic Control 2000 interfacing
Sonic Control 2000 communicates with the SIM over the Gigabit Ethernet DATA RJ-45. Commands,
from Sonic Control 2000 are transmitted to the SIM and then to the Sonic 2024/2022. The Sonic
2024/2022 data passes through SIM to the data collection software.
6.4.1.4 SIM – RS-232 / Ethernet Interfacing
The SIM receives the GPS PPS and time message (NMEA ZDA), the sound velocity from the probe
near the sonar head and the motion sensor data (for roll stabilisation only). These data are routed
through the SIM Controller to the Ethernet switch for transmission to the sonar head.
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Appendix I R2Sonic I2NS™
7 Appendix I: R2Sonic I2NS Components and Operation
The R2Sonic I2NS (Inertial Navigation System) option integrates the Applanix Position and
Orientation System (POS/MV)’s POS Computing System (PCS) and Sonar topside units saving both
power and space while simplifying vessel mobilization. The setup of the R2Sonic INS is identical to
the setup of the Applanix POS/MV system; POSView (Version 7.60 or more recent) is necessary for
inputting offsets and configuring outputs. All of the data, both sonar and POS/MV are sent over the
one Ethernet cable to the data collection computer; eliminating the need for two network cards.
The information contained here does not detail the POSView software to set up the Applanix
POS/MV; that information is found in the Applanix POS/MV manual. The information provided here
covers the necessary setup of the R2Sonic I2NS components as relates to the R2Sonic SIM and Sonic
Control. Where necessary, certain steps in the POSView software are detailed.
The R2Sonic INS will work on all R2Sonic systems with SIM firmware: Simb$26-OCT-2013-15-5827.bin and head firmware: Head$16-Nov-2013-04-35-57.bin or more recent.
7.1 Components
The R2Sonic I2NS is comprised of the enhanced Sonar Interface Module (SIM), which contains the
Applanix boards and connections for the antennas and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Two
antennas (and cables) and one IMU (and cable) complete the physical INS components.
Figure 99: R2Sonic I2NS Main Components (not including antennas and cables)
Figure 100: GNSS Antennas
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7.2 Connection diagram
When using the INS, there is no need to provide inputs for the motion or the time stamp, as those
are provided internally, through the SIM’s Gigabit switch. The only serial connection is the sound
velocity probe that is on the sonar head. A PPS loop cable is required to go from the PPS out to the
PPS in.
Figure 101: INS connections
Figure 102: INS SIM block diagram
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7.3 Installation
7.3.1
The IMU and GPS antennas
The IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) housing should be secured by 4 M8 (5/16” in Imperial units)
screws. The IMU housing is depth rated to 15m. The IMU can be mounted close to or on the
Multibeam transducer itself. It is not necessary to mount the IMU at the vessel’s CoG (centre of
gravity), but if it is not mounted on the CoG, it is vitally important that very accurate IMU to CoG
offsets are input into POSView.
The GNSS antennas should be mounted rigidly with respect to each other as well as the IMU, with a
separation of at least 1m between the GPS antennas. The antennas should be mounted so that they
have a clear view of the sky.
The standard cables provided with the INS option are:
1x15m IMU cable
1xBNC jumper cable
2x8m GPS antenna cables
7.3.2
INS BNC – TNC Connections
There is one BNC connection for the
PPS out. The TNC connection next to it
is for the Primary Antenna. The
Secondary antenna connects to the
TNC connection on the end.
Figure 103: INS BNC & TNC Connections
The PPS Out is connected to the SIM PPS In, with a short
length of cable
Figure 104: PPS Out - PPS In
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7.3.3 I2NS DB9 Connections
The I2NS has two serial communication ports. These are standard DB9M serial connections that are
setup in the POSView software. Both ports are bi-directional and can be configured to receive RTCM
corrections or to output standard NMEA or binary serial data. For full information on the serial
ports, please refer to the POSView documentation.
Figure 105: Com 1 and Com 2 on SIMINS for POS MV serial data
In POSView, in the Input/Output Ports Set-up, only COM 1 and COM 2 are to be configured.
Figure 106: POSView Serial port setup
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7.4 Setup in Sonic Control
7.4.1 Network Setup
In the event that the Applanix IP address is lost and no connection can be made through POSView it
can be reset through the R2Sonic GUI. To change the IP address of the POS/MV, reboot the SIM box,
open the R2Sonic GUI and go to Settings>Network Settings and under “INS IP” enter the desired IP.
The POS/MV takes approximately 2 minutes to power on, once the POS is fully booted, the IP can be
set in the R2Sonic GUI. Once the POS is fully booted the user has 5 minutes to change the IP address
of the POS/MV. Attempting to change the IP address, outside of the 5 minute window, will result in
a warning that the SIM box must be rebooted before changing the INS IP.
0 minutes: turn on
0 to 1min: Button label is "Set IP wait" and button text is
greyed out. The INS IP cannot be updated during this
period. The GUI is waiting for the INS to send out
message 32.
After ≈ 1 - 2 mins: the GUI will allow changes to the INS IP
address. The actual time depends on when the GUI starts
receiving message 32 from the INS.
From ≈1min (2min) to 7min: INS IP address can be
changed. Button text turns from greyed out to black text
and says "Set IP".
After 7 min: INS won't accept change in IP address.
Button text color is greyed out and label says "Set IP
expired".
Figure 107: Network Settings SIMINS
Figure 108: Cannot Change IP, waiting on msg 32
Figure 109: Set IP time expired, cannot change IP
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7.4.2
Applanix Group 119 specific to R2Sonic SIMINS
Src: 10.0.0.44:65533
Dst: 10.255.255.255:5606
Applanix POS, Customer data
Group 119 (MV customer defined group)
Group start: $GRP
Group ID: 119 (MV customer defined group)
Byte count: 132
Time/Distance Fields:
Time 1: 358370.467027857 (UTC seconds of the week) (Thu 03:32:50.467028 UTC)
Time 2: 1091.53761465444 (POS seconds since power-on) (0.303205 hours)
Distance tag: 0 (POS distance)
Time types: 0x02
Distance type: 0x01
User ID: 1
Reserved: 00
PacketName: R2A0
PacketSize: 100
Reserved0: 0000
PpsTime: 358386 (GPS seconds of the week) (Thu 03:32:50.000000 UTC) (1395286370 Unix)
VesselLatitude: 30.2391284856087 (degrees)
VesselLongitude: -97.838843091206 (degrees)
VesselAltitude: 198.64372053742 (meters)
North position RMS error: 0.922135 (meters)
East position RMS error: 0.698561 (meters)
Down position RMS error: 1.10037 (meters)
VesselPitch: 0.00230865 (radians) (0.132276 degrees)
VesselRoll: 0.000915637 (radians) (0.052462 degrees)
VesselHeave: 0.0256301 (meters)
VesselHeading: 0.115629 (radians) (6.625050 degrees)
RmsErrorPitch: 0.0292523 (degrees)
RmsErrorRoll: 0.0292523 (degrees)
VesselSpeed: 0.063469 (meters/second)
RmsErrorHeading: 10.2586 (degrees)
GpsWeekNumber: 1784 (GPS weeks)
UTCTimeOffset: 16 (GPS-UTC seconds)
StatusB: 0x0189200d
StatusC: 0x00001000
StatusExtended: 0x00000100
Satellites: 9
Reserved1: 00
Reserved2: 0000
Checksum: 23896 (Good)
Group end: $#
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7.4.3 Sensor Setup
All of the required information (time message and motion data) from the INS stack, except for the
PPS, is transferred internally. However, in the Sensor setup the Interface type and Ethernet
configuration has to be set up to receive the internal information. The GPS and Motion interface
type is set to Ethernet. The IP that the POS/MV stack sends data out is 10.0.0.44 and uses UDP port
5606, which is unique for R2Sonic requirements. The POS/MV Ethernet data, going to the data
collection computer, is on the same IP (10.0.1.102), as the sonar data and uses the standard
POS/MV UDP 5602. If the data collection software requires the IP address of the ‘talker’, the
POS/MV stack outputs on IP 10.0.0.44.
Figure 110: Sensor setup for SIMINS
7.4.4 INS Monitor (Alt+I)
INS data can be monitor through the INS monitor. The INS monitor option is under Status.
The INS Monitor allows the user to
constantly monitor the values from the
INS.
In POSView, the user sets up the User
Accuracy (under Settings | Installation),
these values are used, by the INS Monitor,
if a value exceeds the entered user
accuracy, the reading will be in red, as
seen in the figure.
Figure 111: INS Monitor
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7.5 Measuring IMU Offsets
Horizontal
Reference
Vertical
Reference
Figure 112: IMU Reference indicators
Identify the COG of the vessel that point becomes the reference point of the INS offsets. The
POS/MV uses a right-hand Cartesian co-ordinate system therefore the lever arm offsets should be
measured as
+X = To Bow
+Y = To Starboard
+Z = Down
When using DGPS offsets should be measured to 5cm accuracy. When using RTK offsets should be
measured to 5mm accuracy.
Measure the offset from the reference point to the primary GPS antenna and record it in POSView in
the “ref. to Primary GPS Lever Arm” fields. There is no need to measure the offset of the second
antenna; the Applanix GAMS calibration will determine this X offset.
Measurement of the IMU COG is critical. The IMU has two reference points. On top of the IMU is
the horizontal reference for the X and Y measurement. The vertical Z reference is measured to the
reference point on the rear part of the IMU. After measuring the reference to IMU offsets, input the
values in the “Ref. to IMU Target” fields in POSView Be sure to check the box by “Enable Bare
IMU”, as seen below. NOTE: Some older versions of POSView will not have this option. If not, please
install the version preloaded on the R2Sonic CD that shipped with the Sonar.
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Figure 113: POSView Lever Arm setup
Use the View, when entering offsets, so that the
correct sign is confirmed. This figure represents
the physical installation, using the offsets that
are seen in the above figure.
Figure 114: View of installation with the entered offsets
If the Reference point chosen is NOT the COG of the vessel input the offsets from the ref to the COG
in the “Ref. to Centre of Rotation” fields. This step is extremely important for accurate heave
information to be reported.
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7.6 I2NS Physical Specifications
Table 9: I2NS Dimensions and Mass
Component
I2NS Sonar Interface Module (INS-SIM)
Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU)
GNSS Antenna
Dimensions (L x W x H) / Mass
280mm x 170mm x 126.4mm (top of cooling fins) / 4.17kg
161mm x 140mm x 110m / 2.2kg
Ø178mm x 73mm / 0.45kg
Table 10: Electrical Specifications
Item
INS (SIM, IMU & Antennas)
INS + Sonic 2024
INS + Sonic 2022
Specification
38.4w
88.4w
73.4w
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7.7 I2NS Drawings
7.7.1
I2NS IMU
Figure 115: IMU Drawing
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7.7.2
I2NS Sonar Interface Module (SIM)
Figure 116: I2NS SIM Drawing
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APPENDIX II: Multibeam Survey Suite
Components
8 APPENDIX II: Multibeam Survey Suite Components
8.1 Auxiliary Sensors and Components
A multibeam survey system is comprised of more components than just the Sonic 2024/2022
Multibeam Echosounder. These components are the auxiliary sensors, which are required to
provide the necessary information for a multibeam survey. This does not mean that these sensors
are a minor part of the survey system; each auxiliary sensor is required for any multibeam survey
operation. The required sensor data:
•
•
•
•
Position: Differential Global Positioning System Receiver
Heading: Gyrocompass
Attitude: Motion Sensor
Refraction correction: Sound Velocity Probe
Each of the individual sensors requires their own setup and operation procedures. The details,
discussed here, concerning the installation and calibration of the auxiliary sensors, is supplemental
to any and all manufacturer’s documentation.
8.2 Differential Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is well known to all surveyors. There was a period of time
when the GPS position was intentionally made less accurate; this was Selective Availability (SA).
When SA was enacted, the GPS position became too inaccurate for survey use. It was during this
period that the concept of differential corrections was established. Differential corrections were
derived from users monitoring the GPS position at a known survey point and computing the
corrections required to adjust the various pseudo ranges to make the GPS position agree with the
known survey position. If a vessel was operating within the local area and observing the same
satellite constellation, the derived pseudo range corrections could be applied on board to make for
a more accurate and consistent position. The corrections are normally transmitted over a radio link
and applied within the GPS receiver.
8.2.1 Installation
The first and foremost consideration when installing the DGPS system is the location of the
respective antennae. Both the GPS antenna and the differential antenna (if they are two separate
antennae) need to be mounted on the vessel in such a way so as to have a totally unobstructed view
of the sky.
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When installing the GPS antenna, the surveyor should be aware of the position of the stacks and
masts; in particular are davits or cranes that may be currently in a stored position, but will be in use
during survey operations. If mounting the antenna on a vessel that has helicopter landing facilities,
coordinate the placement of the antenna with the personnel in charge of helicopter operations.
When the location for the antennae has been determined the next step is determining how the
coaxial cable, connecting the antenna and the receiver, is to be run. The cables should be run in
such a manner so as to be protected from possible damage. Cables should not be run through
hatches or windows, if it can be avoided; if such runs are necessary, then a block or other such
obstruction should be placed so that the hatch or window will not close on the cable. If the cables
are to be suspended between two points, a rope or other line should be strung to carry the weight
of the cables. Cables should never be kinked; all cables have a minimum bending radius, if it is
known adhere to it, if it is not known, use common sense. Do not run cables in a manner that they
will become safety hazards on the vessel, causing personnel to trip or be caught on them. Avoid
running cables along voltage carrying lines.
It is important to mark the cables at both ends to denote what they are and to where they go.
The connection to the antenna may be required to be completely water proofed (depending on the
manufacturer’s recommendations) using electrical tape, with a secondary covering of selfamalgamated tape. Ensure that there are no air gaps in the tape; they will become a channel for
water. If a cable is to be run upwards from the antenna, form a drip loop by leaving slack in the
cable that will hang below the antenna connector. This will allow any water that flows down the
cable to collect and drip from the slack loop instead of running into the connector.
The cables, connectors and antennae should be inspected regularly for signs of damage, corrosion
or abuse. Any abrasions on the cable should be securely taped; if possible, a waterproof coating
should also be applied.
8.2.2 GPS Calibration
Prior to commencing survey operations, the accuracy of the Differential GPS position and
transformation to local datum should be determined. There are two main methods to determine
the accuracy of the DGPS position and data transformation. For both methods, a local land survey
benchmark is required.
8.2.2.1 Position Accuracy Determination Method 1
The GPS antenna is physically placed over the survey benchmark. The surveyor will ensure that the
antenna has a clear view. This is particularly important if the benchmark being used is in a dock area.
The surveyor will also ensure that, if a separate antenna is used to receive differential corrections,
that it is not blocked.
The GPS position data should be logged, in the data collection software, for not less than 15
minutes. The collected data can then be averaged, standard deviations determined, and compared
to the published position of the survey benchmark.
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The two main causes of error, in this area, are:
•
•
Wrong geodetic transformations being applied to the WGS-84 position derived from GPS.
Erroneous coordinates for the Differential reference station.
8.2.2.2 Position Accuracy Determination Method 2
This method is most easily accomplished during the gyrocompass calibration. The antenna remains
mounted on the vessel. The surveyor will set up on the known survey benchmarks; using standard
land survey techniques, the exact absolute position of the antenna can be determined. During the
period that the surveyor is ‘shooting in’ the GPS antenna, the GPS position will be logged on board,
the averaging and statistical analysis will be as above.
The surveyor will need to take numerous shots to also obtain an average, due to the possible
movement of the vessel while alongside.
8.3 Gyrocompass
Utmost care is required for the installation of the gyrocompass. The gyrocompass is a sensor that
cannot be situated randomly. The purpose of the gyrocompass is to measure the vessel’s heading.
In order to do this, the gyrocompass should be placed on the centre line running from the bow stem
to the midpoint of the stern. If it is not possible to place the gyrocompass on the centreline of the
vessel, it can be mounted on a parallel to the centre line.
All survey grade gyrocompasses will be plainly marked for alignment on the centre line. This
marking may be an etched line fore and aft on the mounting plate, or possibly metal pins on the
front and the back of the housing that point down. If no marking exists, then measuring the fore
and aft faces and finding the centre may be sufficient.
No matter how well the gyrocompass is placed, there exists a possible error between the true
vessel’s heading and the gyrocompass derived heading. Any new installation of a gyrocompass
should include a gyrocompass calibration. There are various methods to perform a gyrocompass
calibration; the best method employed will be determined by the location of the vessel, the time
allotted for the calibration and the resources at hand.
8.3.1 Gyrocompass Calibration Methods
After the installation of gyrocompass (henceforth termed gyro) on a vessel, that gyro should be
calibrated to ensure that the heading it determines is the true heading of the vessel.
If the error is large, the gyro can be physically rotated to align itself with the true vessel heading.
Small errors can be corrected, either by internal adjustment to the gyro, or in the software that
receives the gyro reading.
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8.3.1.1 Standard Land Survey Technique
One of the most accurate methods to determine the gyro error involves the use of standard
recognised land survey techniques. The time and equipment involved requires that a substantial
period be allotted for such a calibration.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
If possible, the vessel will be berthed alongside a quay or dock that has a survey
benchmark located in close proximity.
If a survey benchmark is not located close to the berth, then the surveyor will have
to run a transit from the nearest, suitable, local survey bench mark to establish a
point on the quay that has a well-defined position. From this point another point
should be established along the quay to form a baseline.
When the vessel comes alongside, all lines should be made as taut as possible. The
gyro should be allowed 2 hours to settle down after the vessel has come alongside.
The stern of the vessel should be measured, with a metal tape, to determine the
centre point of the stern. A survey reflector will be placed at this position. Another
survey reflector will be placed exactly at the bow. It will be verified that the
reflectors are accurately placed on the centre line of the vessel by either
measurements or survey techniques.
The surveyor will set up on one benchmark; a round of readings will be taken from
the benchmark to the fore and aft reflectors. Simultaneous to this, the survey
personnel will record the gyro heading as it is read by the survey computer. Any
variation between the digital output and the physical gyro reading should be
remedied prior to the commencement of readings. It is recommended that the
personnel on the vessel and the surveyors on the quay be in constant
communication to assist in coordinating the measurements.
One round of readings will be considered to be not less than 30 sets, a set being one
reading each from the bow and stern reflectors.
Upon completion of the round from benchmark one, the surveyor will move to
benchmark two and repeat the process.
Upon the completion of all rounds, from the two benchmarks, the vessel will turn
about. With the vessel, now heading on the reciprocal heading, the gyro will be
allowed at least 1 hour to settle down.
When the gyro has been given sufficient time to settle down, a further series of
range and bearing measurements will be made in exactly the same manner as
before.
When all readings are completed, the surveyor will calculate the azimuth between the two survey
reflectors for each set of readings. The azimuth readings will be compared with the headings taken
on board the vessel from the gyro itself. If there has been little or no movement of the vessel, an
average can be taken of the azimuths and for the gyro readings and compared. By calculating the
standard deviation of the readings, the surveyor can determine the degree of movement during the
recording process. If the deviation is greater than the stated accuracy of the gyro, the comparison
readings should be based on simultaneous time.
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If physical adjustments are required, they should be made and the calibration process repeated. If
the adjustment is determined to be minor and can be accounted for in the survey software, the
correction value should be entered and then verified using the calibration process. This check of the
calibration value can be an abbreviated version of the calibration process detailed above.
Figure 117: Gyrocompass Calibration method 1
•
•
•
•
•
•
Quayside Benchmarks have known geodetic positions.
Measure Range and Bearing to reflectors on vessel centre line.
Using Range and Bearing to reflectors, determine geodetic position for
reflectors.
Calculate bearing from stern reflector to bow reflector will give the true
heading of the vessel.
True heading of vessel is then compared to gyrocompass reading taken at
the same time as the Range and Bearing measurements.
Benchmarks do not have to be on the quay, but should be in a position to
give accurate Range and Bearing to the reflectors.
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8.3.1.2 Tape and Offset Method of Gyro Calibration
This method relies on measuring the offset distance from a baseline on the quay, with a known
azimuth, to a baseline that is established on the vessel. There are greater areas for error when using
this method, particularly in establishing a baseline with known azimuth.
A baseline is established on the quay as close as possible to the vessel's side. It is very important
that the azimuth of this baseline be as accurately determined as possible. The baseline should be of
a length that will exceed the baseline that is established on the vessel.
A baseline is established on the vessel that is parallel to the centre line of the vessel. It should not
be assumed that the side of the vessel is parallel to the centre line. This baseline should be on the
deck that faces the dock. The baseline on the vessel should be as long as possible, the longer the
better.
With the vessel secured alongside the quay, the vessel baseline will be compared to the quayside
baseline. Two points will be established on the quayside baseline that corresponds exactly to the
fore and aft positions on the vessel baseline. That is: the points that are established on the quayside
baseline should be normal to the points on the vessel baseline.
Figure 118: Gyro Calibration Method 2
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The example, below, will illustrate the math involved.
Figure 119: Gyro Calibration Method 2 example
A to A'
1.0 metres
B to B'
1.5 metres
Side a
5.0 metres
Side b
1.5 – 1.0 = 0.5 metres
Angle b'
Arctan 0.5/5.0 = 5.7°
Ship Azimuth = 270° + 5.7° = 275.7°
Table 11: Gyro Calibration Method 2 computation
Figure 120: Idealised concept of Gyro Calibration Method 2
In this example, the vessel heading for this set of readings is 275.7°; this would be compared to the
gyro reading recorded at the same time the offsets were measured.
In the above example, if the bow was further out from the quay than the stern, the angle b' would
be subtracted from the azimuth of the quay, i.e. 270° - 5.7° = 264.3°.
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8.4 The Motion Sensor
The motion sensor is used to determine the attitude of the vessel in terms of pitch, roll and heave.
Pitch is the movement of the bow going up and down. Roll is the movement of the port and
starboard side going up and down. Heave is the vessel going up and down.
The sonar head is physically attached to the vessel; as the vessel moves, so does the sonar head.
The motion sensor reports the movements of the vessel to the data collection software; the data
collection software, using the offsets to the motion sensor and to the sonar head, computes the
movement at the sonar head to correct the multibeam data for pitch, roll and heave.
One important aspect of the motion sensor is the sign convention used by the motion sensor as
compared to the sign convention used in the collecting software. The surveyor must be aware of
the convention that is used and what adjustments are necessary, if any, to ensure that the
convention is consistent with the data collection computer.
There exist two major areas of thought as to where the motion sensor should be situated. One
group believes that the motion sensor should go as close to the multibeam as possible, even if the
multibeam is mounted on an over-the-side pole. The second group believes the motion sensor
should be placed as close to the centre of rotation for the vessel as possible.
Placing the motion sensor on the hydrophone pole would seem to solve for all movement of the
pole itself, but in fact the motion sensor, mounted in this fashion, can provide false attitude
measurements. This is particularly true when there is significant roll; the motion sensor on the pole
can interpret a portion of this roll as heave, which is not true. By placing the motion sensor as close
to the centre of rotation (also called the centre of gravity) as possible, only the real heave of the
vessel will be measured. All software will solve for the motion of the sonar head, based on the
offsets that have been entered into the setup files for the vessel configuration; this is called a lever
arm adjustment. The other consideration is that the motion data is usually applied to the GPS
antenna. The GPS antenna is usually mounted high on the vessel, so any pitch or roll will induce a
large amount of movement in the GPS antenna thus providing a false position due to the antenna
movement. If the motion sensor is mounted on the hydrophone pole, it is reporting an exaggerated
motion because it is far from the centre of motion of the vessel; this exaggerated motion then
would be applied to the GPS antenna position and the vessel position computation would be in
error.
The other consideration is that the alignment of the motion sensor must be on or parallel to the
centre line of the vessel; it is essential to prevent ‘bleed-over’ of pitch and roll. If the motion sensor
is not aligned with the centre line, when the vessel rolls some of the roll will be seen as pitch as the
motion sensor’s accelerometers and gyros are not aligned with the axes of the vessel it is mounted
on. It is more difficult to obtain this precise alignment if the motion sensor is placed on the pole.
Mount the motion sensor as close to the centre of rotation (or centre of gravity as possible) and
perfectly aligned to the centre line of the vessel.
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The motion sensor should be mounted on as level a platform as possible. After mounting the
motion sensor, the actual 'mounting angles' should be measured. Some motion sensors contain
internal programs that can measure the mounting angles. Some data collection software packages
also include the capability to measure mounting angles. The mounting angles are the measured
degrees of the actual physical mounting of the motion sensor. This is to compensate for sloping or
warped decks. Many decks have some slope to them and this should be accounted for to ensure
that the pitch and roll values that the motion sensor derives is for vessel movement and not for its
physical mounting on the deck. The mounting angles should be measured prior to any multibeam
calibration and not changed after the calibration.
Prior to measuring the mounting angles, the vessel should be put in good trim by the engineer. On a
small vessel it is important that the angles be measured without undue influence from people
standing around. A false measurement can be induced by two people sitting on the gunwale having
a conversation while the measuring process is being completed. It is usually a good idea to have all
personnel leave a small vessel during the measuring process.
If the motion sensor mounting angles have been entered in the motion sensor or the data collection
software, they can only be changed prior to the multibeam calibration (patch test); they are not to
be changed after the patch test.
It is important to keep the motion sensor in mind when surveying. A motion sensor takes time to
'settle down' after a turn or a speed change and most of the settling down will depend on the heave
bandwidth that is entered into the motion sensor. Some motion sensors can take in position, speed
and heading data to assist them in the settling process. Depending on the degree of the turn or the
amount of the speed change a practical period of 2 minutes should be allowed for the motion
sensor to settle. It is prudent to plan the survey to allow for a long enough 'run-in' to the start of
data collection to allow the motion sensor time to settle and the heave normalise. If this is not
done, many times motion artefacts or erroneous depths will be seen at the beginning of line and the
processed data will not be correct.
Monitor the motion sensor (all data collection software provides a time series window to monitor
individual data) to ensure that it is operating properly.
8.5 Sound Velocity Probes
There are two basic types of sound velocity probes. One type measures the parameters of sound
velocity in water; those being Conductivity (Salinity), Temperature, and Depth (Pressure), these are
normally referred to as CTD probes. The other type of probe contains a small transducer and has a
reflecting plate, at a known distance from the transducer that reflects the sound, the time is
measured for this transmission and the sound velocity determined by that measurement; these are
called Time of Flight probes. There is third type, known as the Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT)
which is launched and as it passes through the water column sends back temperature readings
(through two very thin wires); it is not recovered, it is expendable.
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The CTD and Time of Flight probes store the data internally. The data is downloaded to a computer
after the probe is recovered.
8.5.1 CTD Probes
The CTD probe type of sound velocity probe has instruments to measure the conductivity of the
water, water temperature, and a pressure sensor to measure depth. The CTD probe is a good choice
if any of this information is also required; to obtain a velocity a formula must be used.
There are various formulae available that are based on the parameters that are recorded by the
CTD. The UNESCO algorithm is considered a universal standard and was put forth by C-T. Chen and
F.J. Millero in 1977. The Chen-Millero (and Li) equation is complex as is Del Grosso’s (1974) and
have been termed Refined. Simple formula, such as Mackenzie’s (1981), also yields good results.
When using a CTD, it is very important that the probe be allowed to sit, fully submerged, in the
water for a few minutes prior to deploying it; this is to allow the probe to reach equilibrium with the
water temperature It is also important that the tube, through which the water flows pass the
sensors, is checked for obstructions or marine growth.
Figure 121: CTD Probe
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8.5.2 Time of Flight Probe
The Time of Flight probe incorporates a transducer that transmits an acoustic pulse that reflects
back from a plate that it is at a very precise distance from the transducer. The two-way travel time
is measured, divided by 2, and the sound velocity determined. The Time of Flight probe is usually
considered more accurate for multibeam survey work.
The sound velocity probe that is mounted close to the Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head is a time of flight
probe.
Pressure sensor
for depth
Transducer
Reflecting
Plate
Figure 122: Time of Flight SV probe
8.5.3 XBT Probes
The XBT is a probe which free falls through the water column at a more or less constant speed (the
probe is designed to fall at a known rate so that the depth can be inferred) and measures the
temperature as it passes through the water column. Inside the probe is the thermograph, which is
attached to a spool of very fine wire. Two very small wires transmit the temperature data from the
probe back to a computer. The XBT is not recovered. XBT probes can be launched whilst underway
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and are used extensively by Navy and Defence forces for rapid determination of the sound velocity
without stopping the vessel.
8.6 The sound velocity cast
There are no set rules for when to take a measurement of the water column sound velocity.
Common sense is a good guideline. The conditions, detailed below, have a major influence as to
when to take a sound velocity cast.
8.6.1 Time of Day
Throughout the day the upper level sound velocity characteristic will change mainly due to solar
heating or cooling due to cloud cover or precipitation. Another main element of the time of day
changes is tides.
When working in tidally influenced areas, the sound velocity can change drastically due to a salt
wedge that moves in and out with the tide. The surveyor must be aware of the relationship of the
time of the tide to the salt wedge.
8.6.2 Fresh water influx
Any river, stream or runoff will drastically change the sound velocity through the introduction of
freshwater and also through a temperature difference.
8.6.3 Water Depth
The sound velocity cast should always be made in the deepest part of the survey area. The sound
velocity profile cannot be extrapolated to deeper depths as there are too many possible variables.
8.6.4 Distance
If the survey area is large, then it is quite possible that there will be differences across the range of
the survey area even in open water.
8.6.5 Deploying and recovering the Sound Velocity Probe
The guide lines for deploying and recovering the sound velocity probe are based on common sense,
but are sometimes ignored during the actual operation. The guidelines, below, are for a hand cast in
shallow water. The softline, used for the cast, should be marked to provide an indication of the
amount of line out.
8.6.5.1 Shallow water sound velocity cast / deployment by hand
1. Plan where the cast is to be made.
a. In a small area, deploy in the deepest part of the survey area.
b. Always do a cast prior to starting the survey.
2. Liaise with the captain or office of the watch with the plan position and time of deployment
and time required for the cast.
3. Prepare the probe for casting (some probes may need to be programmed prior to each
launch).
4. Secure the probe to the downline with a bowline knot or shackle.
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5. Secure the bitter end of the downline to the vessel.
6. Request permission, from the bridge or helm, to deploy and await their OK to launch.
a. Bridge or helm to ensure that the vessel is out of traffic.
b. Bridge or helm to assess wind and sea conditions and advise as to which side of
vessel the deployment should be made.
7. Put the probe in the water until it is totally covered and let it remain there for a period of
time to acclimate to the sea temperature. This is very important with a CTD type of probe,
but of less concern for a time-of-flight probe.
8. Verify the water depth.
9. Lower the probe at a constant rate; only the downcast should be used.
10. Try not to allow the probe to touch the bottom.
11. Recover the probe rapidly.
12. As soon as the probe is on deck, notify the bridge or helm that they are free to manoeuvre,
but remain in the area.
13. Rinse the probe with fresh water and dry thoroughly.
14. Download the cast and verify that it looks good.
15. Load the cast into the data collection software.
8.6.5.2 Deep Water Cast / Deployment by mechanical means
A cast in deeper water requires more preparation and planning. A deep water cast can be
considered to be any cast that is deployed via an ‘A’ Frame, winch, or other mechanical means.
Even a shallow water cast can fall under this definition when mechanical means are used.
One of the main concerns, in a deep water cast, is that the probe will not go straight down due to
the current flow or vessel drift due to wind and/or currents. This being the case, weights must be
used to ensure the cable (and probe) go as straight down as possible.
Unless the sound velocity probe is designed to have additional weight attached to it, no weights
should be attached to the sound velocity probe. The weights, which enable deployment as straight
as possible, are attached to the end of the cable. The probe should be attached to the cable
approximately 3 – 5 metres above the weights; if the weights hit the bottom this should provide
enough scope for the probe to land clear of the weights.
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Figure 123: Deploying a sound velocity probe via a winch or A - Frame
The other major consideration, when deploying a probe in deeper water, is that the vessel must be
stationary longer and will drift. If there is a large variation in depths, the depth where the probe
went in, may not be the same depth when the probe reaches the bottom. It is essential that enough
cable be deployed to ensure a full profile to the sea floor.
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APPENDIX III: Multibeam Surveying
9 APPENDIX III: Multibeam Surveying
9.1 Introduction
Multibeam surveying affords the surveyor with many advantages, but it also requires more thought
behind the survey itself.
9.2 Survey Design
Multibeam surveying survey planning is very different than single beam survey planning. The main
considerations are line spacing and line direction. In single beam surveying, lines are normally
spaced based on the scale of the desired chart. The line direction is normally at the discretion of the
surveyor. In multibeam surveying, the surveyor has to plan the survey carefully, with thought to
overlap between adjacent lines and the direction that those lines are run.
9.2.1 Line Spacing
The entire concept of multibeam surveying is based on the swath coverage that defines the
multibeam system. The survey lines should be designed so that there is 100% overlap in coverage
between adjacent lines. As swath width is a function of water depth, it follows that the spacing
between lines may not be constant. Looking at a chart of the survey area, the surveyor should be
able to determine the swath width that will be obtained and can design the line spacing accordingly.
A large overlap in swath coverage is required due to various factors. One prime factor is roll. As the
vessel rolls the swath coverage will vary in relation to this roll. If the vessel rolls to port (port-side
down), the swath coverage on the port side will be lessened, whereas the swath coverage on the
starboard side will increase. If there is not sufficient overlap in swath coverage there could be gaps
in coverage, between adjacent lines, due to the roll.
If the helmsman has problems keeping the vessel on the designated line, this could case gaps if the
vessel goes off line to opposite directions on adjacent lines.
Unexpected shallows will reduce the swath coverage. If the lines are designed with very little
overlap, a shallow area on the lines will see reduced swath coverage and the possibility of gaps
between the lines.
9.2.2 Line Direction
In single beam surveying, the usual practice is to survey normal to the contours. The concept is to
cut the contours at 90° to obtain the best definition of the slope. Multibeam survey is exactly
opposite of this; in multibeam survey the lines are planned to survey parallel to the contours.
Multibeam surveying can be likened to side scan surveying; the best definition is obtained when the
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slope is within the port or starboard swath coverage. There will be poor definition of the slope
covered by the nadir beams, as they act similar to a single beam echosounder.
In setting up the survey lines, if the lines were to run up and down slope, the spacing would have to
vary between the start and the end of the lines, as the swath coverage would vary due to the
change in water depth. The lines would not be parallel. By surveying along the contours, the depths
will remain more or less constant so that the spacing does not have to change from beginning to
end. However, the spacing between adjoining lines may vary due to increased or decreased depth.
9.2.3 Line Run-in
As was previously noted, it is good survey practice to allow the motion sensor and gyro time to
settle after making a turn. With this in mind, the surveyor should set up the survey lines so that an
adequate lead in, before the start of data recording, is allowed.
Extra lead in time allows the helmsman the opportunity to get on to the line and make any
adjustments that are necessary to counteract wind or current conditions. It is much better for the
vessel to be a little off of the planned survey line, but heading in a straight direction, rather than
‘fish-tailing’ back on forth across the line, trying to maintain zero offline.
Surveying into a beach may only allow very limited run-in, if the lines are also to be surveyed out
from the beach. In this case it may be better to design the lines so that they run parallel to the
beach. Of course, if it shallows greatly towards the beach, the lines should be run parallel to this
slope anyway as detailed above.
9.3 Record Keeping
It is essential that detailed records be kept of all aspects of the multibeam survey. The logging of all
details of the survey will greatly assist those in charge of processing the data. Maintaining a vessel
log, that reflects offsets, draft measurements, sound velocity profiles and etc.; will give the surveyor
a reference that can be easily accessed. The more information that is logged, the easier it will be
during processing and it will also provide the surveyor with a means to assess survey technique with
a view to improving the efficiency of the survey.
9.3.1 Vessel Record
A hardbound ledger book should be kept for the vessel record. The vessel record should include,
but is not limited to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Diagram of the vessel with measurements
All offsets
Daily draft measurements
Diary of sound velocity profiles
Surveyors / Operators
Equipment list
Equipment interface information
Diary reflecting dates of individual surveys
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The vessel record is meant to be a quick reference for general information that is required for
multibeam surveying. Some of the information does not change from survey to survey and should
go either in the front of the book or the back of the book. A section of pages can then be devoted to
the information that does change from survey to survey or day to day.
As an example:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Page 1
Page 2/5
Page 6/9
Pages 10/20
surveys
Pages 21/40
Pages 41/60
– Plan of the vessel with all vessel measurements
– Plan of the vessel with all offsets
– Equipment list and interfacing information
– Dates of individual surveys with listing of surveyors responsible for those
– Diary of draft measurements
–Diary of sound velocity measurements
As can be seen, this is a general reference which can provide dates and general details.
When naming surveys and sound velocities, a certain degree of logic in their naming will greatly
assist deciphering an individual event out of many events. In the case of sound velocity profiles, it is
common to name the profiles for the date that they were taken. A sound velocity profile taken on
04 July 2009 would be referred to as 20090704. If more than one profile is taken during the day,
then a letter suffix can be added: 20090704a, to separate the profiles, or a time of cast can be added
to the file name. Keep in mind that personnel, who were not on board during the data collection,
may need to reference the information; keeping it logical and chronological will help.
Ensure that many blank pages are kept for the various categories. When a book is filled, plainly
mark on the cover the inclusive dates that the vessel log covers. If possible, also mark this
information along the spine of the vessel log. These logs should be kept in a safe and dry place on
the vessel.
9.3.2 Daily Survey Log
The Daily Survey Log is where all the details of the survey are recorded: start/stop time of the lines,
line names, and line direction, speed of survey, and comments pertaining to that survey line. A copy
of the appropriate survey log should accompany all multibeam data along its path during processing.
Daily Survey Logs are of two types: rough and smooth. The smooth log is a sheet that is arranged in
rows and columns, where the appropriate survey information is entered, much like a spread sheet.
It can be a single sheet that is printed out on board, or it can be professionally produced pad of
sheets. The rough log is similar to the vessel log; it is normally a ledger book; the start/stop times,
line name, line direction and comments are entered line by line, usually on the right hand page as
they occur. The left hand page then is left for details of draft, sound velocity profile data, tides or
any other information that is pertinent to the lines that are detailed on the right hand page.
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A copy of the survey log is sent along with the multibeam data to processing and a copy is kept on
board the vessel.
An example of the information on a smooth log:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sensor offsets
Calibration offsets
Date
Survey name, area and surveyors
Name of sound velocity file
Name of tide file
Vessel name
Start/Stop time of survey line
Line name
Direction
Comments
Due to the nature of a single sheet type log, the information should be entered on each individual
sheet, even though many items do not change from one day to the next.
With the log book style of daily log the items that do not change can be listed on one page, so that
everything following that page will be under those parameters (offsets, vessel name etc.). The right
hand page will include the start/stop times, line name, direction and comments. The left hand page,
as noted above, is for additional information. A further advantage to using a log book is the space
available to sketch diagrams of the survey or other visual aids that might make the survey easier to
understand.
The surveyor uses a log book to record the data as it occurs. A daily survey log sheet can be created
in any word processor or spread sheet program. At a convenient time the surveyor can call a sheet
up, within the appropriate program, enter the data and print it out. This has many advantages, the
most obvious is that the daily log sheet is typed in and printed out making it very legible to read; it
can be stored down to memory, making a permanent record.
Although maintaining a good detailed log of daily survey events may be difficult to get used to, after
a short time the advantages will become obvious.
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Figure 124: Rough log, kept during survey operations...does not need to be neat, but must contain all pertinent
information
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Figure 125: Smooth log; information copied from real-time survey log
APPENDIX IV: Offset Measurements
10 APPENDIX IV: Offset Measurements
10.1 Lever Arm Measurement – Offsets
Each component or sensor that produces information, unique to its position, will have a point that is
considered the reference point of that sensor. The Sonic 2024/2022, the motion sensor, and the
GPS antenna will have a documented point from which to measure. The gyrocompass’ data is not
dependent on its position on the vessel so, therefore, does not require an offset measurement.
10.2 Vessel Reference System
When all equipment (Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head, motion sensor, gyrocompass and GPS) have been
permanently mounted, the physical offsets to a central reference point (CRP) must be measured.
The central reference point (CRP) or vessel reference point (VRP) is that point that the surveyor
chooses to be the origin for the X and Y grid that will define the horizontal relationship between all
of the sensors. The vertical or Z reference can be the water line or other logical vertical reference.
Generally, the CRP corresponds to the centre of gravity or rotation of the vessel. All of the sensors
must have their physical relationship to each other measured and entered into the data collection
software or the processing software.
All offsets, between sensors, are defined by an X, Y and Z offset from a reference (CRP or VRP) point.
The X axis runs athwartship, i.e. from the port side to the starboard side. The Y axis runs alongship
from the bow to the stern. The Z axis runs perpendicular through the reference. The origin can be
any point; the origin will remain the same for all sensors. Some surveyors take the GPS antenna as
the origin for all measurements, others take the sonar head itself, while others might take the
motion sensor (especially if it on the centre of rotation for the vessel). The sign convention is
standard for a Cartesian plane, translated to a vessel: starboard of the reference point is positive,
forward of the reference point is positive. The sign for Z may differ, depending on the data
collection or processing software.
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Figure 126: Vessel Horizontal and Vertical reference system
10.3 Measuring Offsets
The accurate measurement of offsets is vital to the accuracy of the survey data. If possible, the
vessel will be put on a hard stand so that it can be very accurately measured using standard land
survey equipment, such as a total station. However, this may not be possible and the offsets will
have to be measured using a tape and plumb-bob, which is detailed below.
10.3.1 Sonic 2024 Acoustic Centre
Please refer to the drawings appendix to obtain measurements, with reference to the system
offsets, when mounting on the Sonic mounting frame.
Figure 127: Sonic 2024/2022 Acoustic Centre
10.3.2 Horizontal Measurement
All measurements should be made with a metal tape measure. A cloth tape can stretch, it can also
be knotted or kinked, unknown to the persons making the measurements. At a minimum, two
people should be assigned to take the measurements; three people will work better with the third
person writing down the measurements. One person will be the holder and the other will be the
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reader. Starting at either the reference point or the sensor, the distance will be measured. When
either the reference point or the sensor is reached, the two people will reverse roles: the holder is
now the reader and the reader is the holder, the transverse is made back to the point of beginning,
but not using the same path. If reference marks were made on the first leg, they should not be used
on the second leg back. If the measurement from the sensor to the reference point, in one direction,
agrees with the measurement in the opposite direction, made by a different reader and holder, then
the offset is good. If there is a small disagreement in measurements, the two measurements can be
averaged. If there is a large disagreement then the process should be repeated. What is a small
disagreement? A few centimetres can be expected.
10.3.3 Vertical Measurement
To measure elevations or the Z offset, the use of a plumb bob is required. This can be something as
simple as a spanner tied to a length of line and lowered from one deck to the next. The plumb bob
will also allow for accurate measurements in the X and Y direction when transposing them from one
deck to the other.
The plumb bob works, of course, by gravity so generally points to the centre of the earth. This being
the case, if the vessel is not in good trim, i.e. has a list, the resting position of the plumb bob may not
be at the true vertical point under the place from which it is being held. This is very critical when
transposing X and Y measurements from one deck to another.
The draft of a vessel will not be constant. Prior to going out on a survey, the fuel and water may be
filled up, causing the vessel to settle lower in the water. Possibly less people are on board causing
the vessel to rise higher in the water. The main concept here is that the draft of the sonar head
changes. All X and Y offsets remain the same as long as the sensors are not moved, but the Z offset
changes constantly depending on the draft of the vessel.
If possible, the pole should be marked to show the depth of the head. Measuring up from the sonar
head’s acoustical reference, rings can be painted on the pole in 10 cm (or other) increments, with 2
cm hatching between rings. The surveyor may have to observe the pole over the course of a few
minutes to determine where the water line is and would then estimate the depth by interpolating
between the 10 cm depth rings.
Another method would be for the surveyor to initially measure from the sonar head’s acoustical
reference to the top of the hydrophone pole. This is the total pole measurement. At the start of a
survey day, the surveyor will go to the pole and measure from the top of the pole to the water line
(using the tape measure and plumb bob or similar weight), this is called the dry measurement.
Taking the dry measurement from the total pole measurement yields the wet measurement, which
is the draft of the sonar head. Due to wave motion, the surveyor may have to take a series of
measurements to ensure an accurate reading.
When the draft or Z of the sonar head is determined the Z for the GPS antenna and the motion
sensor can be adjusted accordingly, if the Z reference is the water line. In most data collection
software a Z shift, in relation to the water surface, can be entered in for the CRP, which will do the
vertical adjustment for all offsets
It is very important that when measuring the draft on small vessels that the person taking the
measurement does not unduly cause the vessel to list towards that side. Having someone counter
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balance the weight of the person taking the measurement is a good idea. This is also true of any
temporary list the vessel is experiencing. On small survey vessels, a person leaning over the side, to
take the draft measurement, can induce upwards, or exceeding a 10cm error in depth readings
during survey operation.
On some vessels it is advisable to take draft readings during the survey or immediately after
completion of the survey, as the draft will change that much.
All offset information should be recorded in the daily survey log and the vessel’s permanent survey
record.
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APPENDIX V: The Patch Test
11 APPENDIX V: The Patch Test
11.1 Introduction
The alignment of the Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head to the motion sensor and gyro is critical to the
accuracy of the determined depths. It is not possible to install the sonar head in exact alignment
with the motion sensor and gyro to the accuracy required (x.xx°). If GPS time synchronization is not
used, the latency of the position, as reported by the GPS, must also be measured during the
calibration. This being the case a multibeam calibration must be performed to measure the angular
misalignment between the Sonic 2024/2022 and the motion sensor and gyro and, if necessary, the
position latency; this is called the Patch Test.
The patch test is performed with each new installation or whenever a sensor is moved. In the case
of an over-the-side mount, a large number of calibration computations need to be performed to
determine how well the pole goes back into the same position each time it is deployed. With more
permanent mounting arrangements, a minimum of 5 separate patch tests should be conducted in
order to derive a standard deviation that would indicate the accuracy of the derived values.
The patch test involves collecting data over certain types of bottom terrain and processing the data
through a set of patch test tools. There are two primary methods of processing the data that are
currently used: an interactive graphical approach and an automatic, iterative surface match. Each of
these techniques has strengths and weaknesses and the preferred approach is dependent on the
types of terrain features available to the surveyor. All modern multibeam data collection software
packages contain a patch test routine. Please read the software manual for explicit information
regarding the requirements for that software’s patch test. The below criteria is, in general, the norm
for a patch test.
11.2 Orientation of the Sonic 2024/2022 Sonar Head
The orientation of the sonar head must be known in order to convert the measured slant ranges to
depths and to determine the position of each of the determined depths.
Any error in the measured roll of the
Sonic 2024/2022 sonar head can cause
substantial errors in the conversion from
slant range to depth. A roll error of 1°
on a 50 m slant range will cause a 0.6 m
error in the resulting depth. Any error in
the measured pitch of the Sonic
2024/2022 head will primarily have a detrimental effect on the accuracy of the positions that are
determined for each slant range/depth.
Figure 128: Sonic 2024/2022 axes of rotation
A pitch error of 1° will cause an along-track error in the position of 0.4 meter when the sonar head
is 25 meters above the seabed.
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11.3 Patch Test Criteria
The patch test requires collecting sounding data over two distinct types of sea floor topography; a
flat bottom is used for the roll computation whereas a steep slope or feature is used for the latency,
pitch, and yaw data collection.
Care must be taken that the sonar head covers the same area on both data collection runs, this may
not be the same as vessel position, especially with an over-the-side mount or if the sonar head
rotated. Only the latency data collection requires a different speed from normal survey speed.
The data collection for Latency, Pitch and Yaw should be done in as deep water as possible. This is
particularly true for the pitch computation due to the fact that in shallow water the angle of pitch
may not be easily determined due to a lack of resolution.
11.3.1 Latency Test
The vast majority of installations will incorporate GPS time synchronisation and, as such, no latency
is expected in the GPS position. However, it is necessary to complete at least one or two latency
tests to prove that the latency, for all practical purposes, is zero. Most patch test programs will not
yield zero latency, but the derived value would be so small so as to constitute a practical zero.
For the latency test, data is collected on a pre-defined line up a steep slope or over a well-defined
object (such as a rock or small wreck). The line is surveyed at survey speed up the slope, and then
surveyed again, in the same direction, but at a speed that should be half of the survey speed. If the
vessel cannot make way at half survey speed then the fast run will need to be taken at a higher
speed than normal survey speed and this can influence the latency test due to squat or settlement.
The main consideration is that one line should be twice the speed of the other.
Figure 129: Latency Data collection
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11.3.2 Roll Test
The data collection for roll has to be over a flat sea floor. One line is surveyed twice, in reciprocal
directions and at survey speed.
When the data, from the two data collections, are looked at in
profile, there will be two seafloors sloped in opposite
directions. Most patch test programs will go through a series of
iterations to determine when the difference between the two
surfaces is the smallest, and this is the roll offset.
Figure 131: Roll data collections
Roll is perhaps the most critical value in the patch test routine
as an error in roll will result in an error in sounding depths.
However, the computation to determine the roll misalignment is usually the easiest and most
consistent.
Figure 130: Roll data collection
Sounding Error due to +0.5° Roll Error in 20 metres depth
0.60
Depth Error in Metres
0.40
0.20
0.00
-80
-60
-40
-20
-0.20
0
20
40
60
80
-0.40
-0.60
Degrees from Nadir
Graph 1: Depth errors due to incorrect roll alignment
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11.3.3 Pitch Test
The pitch data collection is over the same type of sea floor as the latency data collection, i.e. steep
slope or feature on the sea floor. One line is surveyed, twice, in reciprocal directions at survey
speed. It is very critical that the sonar head passes over the same exact part of the slope on each
run.
A profile of the data will show two different slopes,
which represent the reciprocal data collections. The
patch test software goes through a series of
iterations of pitch angle corrections until the
difference between the two surfaces reaches a null.
Whatever the angle of correction, which results in
the minima or null, that angle will be reported as the
pitch misalignment.
Figure 132: Pitch data collections
A pitch error will result in a an along –track position error, which increases greatly with depth
Sounding Position Error (metres)
Position Errors due to Pitch
Alignment Errors
6
5
4
1.0° Error
3
0.75° Error
2
0.5° Error
1
0.25° Error
0
0
100
200
300
400
Water Depth (metres)
Graph 2: Position errors as a result of pitch misalignment; error can be either negative or positive
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11.3.4 Yaw Test
The yaw data collection and subsequent solving for the yaw offset is usually the most difficult of the
4 tests that comprise a patch test. This is especially true if a slope is used for the yaw computation; a
feature generally works much better. The reason for this is that the area that is used for the
computation is not directly under the vessel, but in the outer beams and the slope may not be
perfectly perpendicular in relation to the course of the vessel.
For the Yaw data collection two parallel lines are
used, with the vessel surveying in the same
direction on those lines. The lines are to be on
either side of a sea floor feature or over a slope.
The lines should be approximately 2 – 3 times
water depth in separation. A yaw error will result
in a depth position error, which increase with the
distance away from nadir.
Figure 133: Yaw data collection
Position Error with a Heading Error of 0.50°
6
4
Along-track Position Error in Metres
Water Depth
2
200 metres
150 metres
0
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
-2
100metre
50 metre
25 metres
10 metres
-4
-6
Angle from Nadir
Graph 3: Along track position error caused by 0.5° error in yaw patch test
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Position Error with a Heading Error of 1.0°
10
8
Along-track Position Error in Metres
6
-100
Water Depth
4
-50
200 metres
2
150 metres
0
100metre
-2
0
50
-4
-6
100
50 metre
25 metres
10 metres
-8
-10
Angle from Nadir
Graph 4: Along-track position error caused by 1.0° error in yaw patch test error
11.4 Solving for the Patch Test
Depending on the data collection software that is employed and how it solves for the patch test,
there will be a distinct order that the tests will be solved for, but this does not influence the data
collection for the patch test. In general, latency will be solved before pitch; roll will be solved for
before yaw. It is not uncommon that a larger than expected error in one of the tests will make it
necessary to go back and resolve for all previous values. This can be the case with a large yaw offset,
as this will influence to a greater degree the accuracy of the latency and pitch computations if done
using a slope.
The resultant patch test values are corrections that are entered in the data collection software and
not in the Sonic 2024/2022 software, as the values are used for process data.
11.5 History
Since the advent of commercial multibeam echosounders there has been the need to measure
the angular offsets between the multibeam sonar head and the auxiliary sensors that provide
attitude and heading information. Another measurement is made to determine the latency, in
the GPS receiver. Multibeam data is collected that is used to determine (1) latency, (2) roll offset,
(3) pitch offset and (4) heading or yaw offset
What has been developed is called the Patch Test; this is the multibeam calibration. During the
development of the data collection criteria, for the Patch Test, there has only been a basic
description for the manner of the data collection; providing little, if any, directions that would
help create a high degree of confidence in the results of the various tests. This section will
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address those very directions that will help create a highly accurate and statistically viable
result from the Patch Test.
11.6 Basic data collection criteria
Patch test data collection does not have to be in any set order, but the order that the values
are computed, in the data collection or processing software, will be in a distinct order.
Normally, Latency is the first value that is computed, followed by Roll, Pitch and Yaw (or
heading). The solving order is important, as will be seen below.
11.7 Patch Test data collection error areas
There are many common errors, or mistakes, made during the patch test data collection.
11.7.1 Positioning
The accuracy of the positioning system is a common area where errors arise. DGPS has, at best,
a variability of ± 0.50 metres, whereas RTK variability is ±0.05metres.
A recent article, by Mike Brissette, (MosaicHydro LTD, Canada) in Hydro International (‘Stop
Using DGPS’; Hydro International; Volume 16, Issue 7; Oct 2012) documents this issue very well:
http://www.mosaichydro.com/papers/M%20Brissette%20‐%20Stop%20Using%20DGPS.pdf
The article fully details the errors that can occur by using DGPS, instead of highly accurate
positioning for the Patch Test data collection. The error increases inversely with the water
depth,
i.e. the shallower the water, the larger the error that can be induced by using DGPS over more
accurate positioning.
However, many users do not have any better positioning capabilities than DGPS; how can they
still obtain valid patch test results without having centimetric accurate positioning? This is, in
large part, what this paper is concerned with. However, even with centimetric position, the
following should be followed.
11.7.2 Feature chosen for test
Where at all possible, for latency, pitch and heading data collection, a feature should be used
rather than a slope. Slopes tend to be too variable as opposed to a well‐defined feature such as
a wreck, rock outcrop or pipeline.
One of the other issues, with using a slope, is that many times the shallow end of the slope
does not allow sufficient area or depth for the vessel to come about and line up for the
reciprocal run; this does not allow sufficient time for the motion sensor to settle down nor for
the helmsman to find a steady course.
It has been found that when using a slope, for the pitch calibration, that the heading angular
offset can have a large influence. If the sonar head does not track exactly the same route, up
and down the slope, the heading offset will affect the pitch angular result.
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11.7.3 Water depth
The deeper the water, the better the result. In shallow water, DGPS wobble (as noted in the
Brissette paper), creates more relatively severe position errors. A corollary to this is that the
subtended angle is larger in shallow water, which can blur the definition of the object used, be
it a feature or slope. The shallower the water, the larger the subtended angle; the deeper the
water, the smaller the subtended angle and, therefore, the better the definition of the object
or slope.
11.7.4 Use predefined survey lines
The most important positioning issue is having the sonar head pass over the same exact
location in both of the survey data collections. This is especially true when using a highly
variable slope. One way to assist the helmsman is to give the helmsman a defined line to
navigate by. Just trying to go over the same track, without a line reference, does not work, as
it is the sonar head that has to pass over the same exact point; this accuracy cannot be
obtained just by using the grid display to steer the vessel.
When setting up the survey software, make sure that the sonar head is the steered reference
for all offline measurements. It does no good to have the vessel on the survey line, if the sonar
is mounted on the side of the vessel; it is the sonar that should be on the survey line.
11.7.5 Speed
When doing the latency data collection, the fast run should be at survey speed where, if there is
squat or settlement, it should have been previously measured and can be applied. Many times,
the fast run survey line is at a speed that is greater than the normal survey speed and induces
unknown squat and settlement errors into the computation.
11.7.6 Vessel line up
In order for the angular measurement to be accurate, the vessel should have sufficient time to
come on line and allow the motion sensor to ‘settle down’. Sufficient lead/run in should also
be allowed in order for the helmsman to find the proper heading so that vessel can maintain as
straight a course as possible.
11.7.7 Pole variability
The other issue, which is often overlooked, is the variability in the repeat position of a
deployable hydrophone pole. With any moveable mounting arrangement the pole should be
recovered and redeployed a few times, during data collection, to determine if it does, indeed,
go back into the same aspect every time that it is deployed. (It is a good idea, after redeploying
the head, to do a few figure 8 manoeuvres.)
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11.8 Improving the Patch Test and Patch Test results
Section 11.7 described areas that should be addressed to improve the results of the patch
test when collecting the data. Further improvement will come with the number of data
collections and the manner in which the patch test is computed.
11.8.1 Need to collect sufficient data
Too many times, surveyors will collect just a few lines of data for each test. One of the major
issues, detailed above, is the variability of the position accuracy of DGPS. Another issue,
detailed above, is the steering of the vessel during the data collection and the relationship of
the sonar head to the feature or slope on each data collection.
In order to overcome the variability of the DGPS positioning and vessel steering, it follows
that the more tests that are performed, the greater will be the reliability of the test results.
Below, is an example of a multibeam calibration, which included five data collections for each
test.
ROLL
0.73
PITCH
‐0.73
YAW
1.02
0.73
‐0.99
0.90
0.76
‐2.16
0.81
0.76
‐1.07
2.26
0.74
‐0.83
0.94
Pitch mean with erroneous value = ‐1.16 (SD = 0.58); without erroneous value of ‐2.16 = ‐0.91 (SD = 0.13) Yaw
mean with erroneous value = 1.19 (SD = 0.61); without erroneous value of 2.26 = 0.92 (SD = 0.08)
Consider the above patch test and what the result would have been if only two collections
were made and those were the ones that contained the highlighted values, which can
clearly be seen to be outside of the trend. Having more data to work with, a more reliable
result can be achieved.
The more data collected, the more evident will be any out of trend values that may reflect a
DGPS wobble, a steering issue, or variability of the positioning of the pole. Enough data
should be collected to provide a reliable statistical result, i.e. mean and standard deviation.
Collecting enough data to compute six of each test, allows the exclusion of any one ‘out of
trend’ result to yield a mean and standard deviation derived from five computations; this
would be a statistically viable sampling.
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11.8.2 Individually solving values
No matter what the solving order may be, each value should be computed independently. All
tests should be based on the mean of the previous test(s).
It is important to understand why a certain solving order is used in all survey software. Each
computation is based on the previous test result. This is the reason that latency is computed
before pitch and roll is computed before heading; the primary test (latency or roll) has a large
influence on the result for the secondary test (pitch and heading). The roll computation can
also have an influence on the pitch computation, primarily if the position of the sonar head, of
the reciprocal runs, was not coincident. The heading offset will also have an influence on the
pitch computation for the same reason.
Generally, multibeam surveys are conducted with very accurate time synchronisation using GPS
time and the Pulse Per Second. In this case, the latency test is used to prove the lack of latency
or that is sufficiently small enough so as to be of no consequence. Using accurate timing, it is
not necessary to collect more than two latency collections. This paper will concentrate on the
angular offset computations. However, if accurate timing is not used there should be the same
number of collections as with the other tests.
With a good number of individual tests, solve for one computation (i.e. only roll) and derive a
mean and standard deviation for that one test. Determine if the standard deviation is within
acceptable accuracy requirements, then use that derived mean to solve for the next
computation (i.e. pitch). As an example, using the results on page 7, the first step would be to
solve for Roll first, derive a Roll mean and then use that mean in all of the Pitch computations.
Find the mean and standard deviation for Pitch. Use the mean Roll and Pitch values to
determine the Heading offset.
In the above example, the roll mean, of the five tests, is 0.74°, with a standard deviation (δ) of
0.01°. The roll mean would now be used when determining the value for pitch. Use the roll
mean and solve all of the pitch computations; the pitch mean is ‐0.91° (excluding the out of
norm value), δ = 0.13°. The roll and pitch computed means are now used to solve for the
heading offset. The solved heading offset is 0.92°, δ = 0.08°.
If the heading offset had been 1.5° or greater, it would be advisable to re‐compute the pitch
offset, using the computed heading offset value. This is due, again, to the fact that if the sonar
head did not track the same exact position in the reciprocal runs, the heading offset will have
an influence on the pitch offset result.
11.9 Truthing the patch test
After deriving the values for roll, pitch and yaw, the values should be entered into the
appropriate areas in the data collection software. Ideally, find a singular object that can be
boxed in (running data collection lines, on all sides of the object) and process the data. The
object depiction, with all survey lines, should not vary from the object depiction from any one
line.
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APPENDIX VI: Basic Acoustic Theory
Figure 134: In 1822 Daniel Colloden used an underwater bell to calculate the speed of sound under water in Lake
Geneva, Switzerland at 1435 m/Sec, which is very close to recent measurements.
12 APPENDIX VI: Basic Acoustic Theory
12.1 Introduction
With multibeam, as with any echosounder, a main concern is: sound in water. Once the projector
transmits the acoustic energy into the water, many factors influence that energy’s velocity and
coherence. The major influence is the velocity of sound in water.
12.2 Sound Velocity
The major influence on the propagation of acoustic energy is the sound velocity of the water
column. As the acoustic pulse passes through the water column, the velocity and direction
(refraction) of the wave front will vary based on the water column sound velocity. If the sound
velocity, through the water column, is not accounted for in the data collection software the depths
and the depth location will be in error. For this reason, sound velocity casts are an oft repeated
routine during multibeam survey.
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Figure 135: Concept of refraction due to different sound velocities in the water column
The velocity of sound in water varies both horizontally and vertically. It cannot be assumed that the
velocity of sound in the water column remains constant over large areas or throughout the day in a
more local area. The main influences on sound velocity are: Conductivity (salinity), Temperature and
Depth (pressure).
1 ° C change in Temperature
1 ppt change in Salinity
100 m change in Depth (10 atm’s pressure)
=
=
=
4.0 m/sec change in velocity
1.4 m/sec change in velocity
1.7 m/sec change in velocity
Figure 136: Sound velocity profile
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12.2.1 Salinity
Generally, salinity ranges from 32 – 38 parts per thousand (ppt) in ocean water. A change in salinity
will create density changes, which affect the velocity of sound. As a general rule, a change in salinity
of only 1 ppt can cause a sound velocity change of 1.4m/sec. There are many influences on the
salinity concentration in sea water.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Evaporation
Precipitation
Fresh water influx from rivers
Tidal effects (salt wedges)
12.2.2 Temperature
Temperature is the major influence on sound velocity in water. A 1°C change is equal to
approximately a 4m/sec change in velocity. Once the upper layer is passed, the temperature
normally decreases until pressure becomes the more dominating influence on the velocity of sound,
which is approximately at 1000 metres. The normal influences on the temperature component of
sound velocity include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Solar heating
Night time cooling
Rain / run off
Upwelling
12.2.3 Refraction Errors
Refraction errors occur due to the wrong sound velocity profile being applied to the data. The error
increases away from nadir and, as such, is more apparent in the outer beams. The visual effect is
that the swath will curl up (smile) or curl down (frown). The actual representation is that the
soundings are either too shallow or too deep.
Figure 137: Refraction Error indication
At an angle of 45° in 10 meters of water, a ±10 meters per second velocity error will result in a depth
error on the order of ± 4.6 cm.
•
•
Convex (smiley face) = Sound velocity profile used higher than real profile
Concave (frown face) = Sound velocity profile used lower than real profile
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12.3 Transmission Losses
The transmission of an acoustic pulse is generally called a ‘ping’. When the projector sends out the
acoustic pulse many factors operate on that pulse as it moves through the water column to the
bottom and also on its return upward. The major influence of the water column sound velocity
characteristics was detailed above; this affects the speed of transmission (and return). There are
other influences that will affect acoustic energy in water and these are transmission losses.
12.3.1 Spreading Loss
Spreading loss does not represent a loss of energy, but refers to fact that the propagation of the
acoustic pulse is such that the energy is simply spread over a progressively larger surface area, thus
reducing its density. Spreading loss is not frequency dependent.
12.3.1.1 Spherical Spreading
Spherical spreading loss is the decrease in the source level if there are no boundaries (such as the
water surface or sea floor) to influence the acoustic energy; all of the acoustic energy spreads out
evenly, in all directions, from the source. The loss in intensity is proportional to the surface area of
the sphere. The intensity decreases as the inverse square of the range for spherical spreading. With
Spherical spreading, the transmission loss is given as: TL = 20log(R), where R is range
Point Source
of Acoustic
Energy
Figure 138: Concept of Spherical Spreading
12.3.1.2 Cylindrical Spreading
In reality the acoustic energy cannot propagate in all directions due to boundaries such as the sea
floor and the water surface; this give rise to Cylindrical Spreading. Cylindrical spreading is when the
acoustic energy encounters upper and lower boundaries and is ‘trapped’ within these boundaries;
the sound energy begins to radiate more horizontally away from the source. With Cylindrical
spreading the acoustic energy level decreases more slowly than with Spherical spreading. With
Cylindrical spreading, the transmission loss is given as: TL = 10log(R), where R is range.
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Figure 139: Concept of Cylindrical Spreading
12.3.2 Absorption
Absorption is frequency dependent and refers to the conversion of acoustic energy to heat when it
strikes chemically distinct molecules in the water column. Magnesium Sulphate MgSO4
predominates, with Boric Acid B(OH)3 playing a major part at lower frequencies. Temperature is also
an influence on absorption. Absorption is one of the key factors in the attenuation of the acoustic
energy based on frequency; the higher the frequency, the greater the absorption. The higher the
sonar operating frequency, the more rapid the vibration (or excitement) of the particles in the water
and this leads to the greater transference of acoustic energy; thus, the attenuation of the acoustic
wave. This is the reason why lower frequencies are used to obtain deeper data. At 400 kHz, the
normal seawater absorption is approximately 100 dB/km, whereas at 200kHz the absorption is
approximately 50 dB/km. These are values for normal sea water (with a salinity of 35 ppt). Fresh
water has little, if any salinity (<0.5ppt), so absorption is considerably less.
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The below table and charts illustrate how frequency, water temperature, and salinity affect
absorption
Seawater Absorption Values: Salinity = 35ppt, pH=8 3
dB/km
Temp (C)
Depth (m)
50
100
150
200
250
300
5°
400kHz
10° 15° 20°
25°
5°
97 100 111 130 154
96 100 110 128 153
96 99 110 128 152
95 99 109 127 151
95 98 109 126 150
95 98 108 125 149
Mean Value 96
99
200kHz
10°
15°
20° 25°
46
46
46
45
45
45
400m 44
110 127 152
45
56
55
55
55
54
54
53
55
68
67
66
66
66
65
64
66
80
79
78
78
77
77
76
78
89
88
88
87
86
86
84
87
Freshwater Absorption Values: Salinity = 0.5ppt, pH=7
dB/km
Temp (C)
Depth (m)
50
100
150
200
250
300
400kHz
15° 20°
5°
10°
65
65
65
65
65
64
55
54
54
54
54
54
46
46
45
45
45
45
Mean Value 65
54
45
25°
5°
10°
39
38
38
38
38
38
33
33
33
32
32
32
17
17
17
17
16
16
14
14
14
14
14
14
38
33
17
14
200kHz
15°
20° 25°
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Table 12: Absorption Values for Seawater and Freshwater at 400 kHz and 200 kHz
3
Equation used for computation is from: Ainslie M.A., McColm J.G., “A simplified formula for viscous and
chemical absorption in sea water”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 103(3), 1671-1672 as employed
on the NPL website, op cit.
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160
140
Frequency and Temperature Influence on Seawater
Absorption
120
Absorption dB/km
400kHz
100
200kHz
80
60
Mean values for water
depths from 50 metres to
300 metres (400 metres
for 200 kHz)
40
20
0
Degrees Celsuis
5°
10°
15°
20°
25°
Graph 5: Seawater Absorption (Salinity 35ppt)
70
Frequency and Temperature Influence on Freshwater
Absorption
60
400 kHz
Absorption dB/km
50
200 kHz
40
Mean values for
water depths
from 50 metres
to 300 metres
30
(
20
10
0
Degrees Celsius
5°
10°
15°
20°
25°
Graph 6: Freshwater Absorption
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Seawater Absorption dB/km
Freq. 10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C 30°C
200
55
67
80
89
92
210
57
69
82
94
98
220
59
71
85
97
104
230
61
74
88
101
109
240
63
76
91
105
115
250
65
78
94
109
120
260
67
80
96
113
125
270
69
82
99
116
130
280
71
84
101
120
134
290
73
86
104
123
139
300
75
88
106
126
143
310
78
91
108
129
148
320
80
93
111
132
152
330
82
95
113
135
156
340
85
97
115
138
160
350
87
99
118
141
164
360
90
102
120
143
168
370
92
104
122
146
171
380
95
106
125
149
175
390
98
109
127
152
179
400
100
111
129
154
182
700
213
207 4
214
235
270
Table 13: Operating Frequency - water temperature - absorption
4
At 700 kHz, there is an absorption dip, in this temperature range
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12.3.3 Reverberation and Scattering
The sea is not homogenous in nature. Everything from suspended dust particles to fish, from the sea
surface to the sea floor will scatter, that is reradiate, the acoustic energy. All of the effects of
individual scattering can be termed reverberation. The effect of reverberation is to lessen the
acoustic energy and this leads to transmission losses.
Reverberation is divided into three main areas: sea surface reverberation, bottom reverberation,
and volume reverberation (the body of water that the energy is passing through).
Both the sea surface and the sea bottom will reflect and scatter sound, thus affecting the
propagation of sound. Sea surface scattering is influenced by how rough the sea is (which is related
to wind velocity) and also the trapped air bubbles in the near surface region. The sea surface is also
a good reflector of acoustic energy; this can lead to second and even tertiary bottom returns as the
bottom return acoustic energy is reflected by the sea surface and is then reflected once more by the
sea bottom.
In the case of the sea floor, the strength of the scattering depends on the type of bottom
(composition and roughness), the grazing angle of the acoustic pulse and the operating frequency of
the sonar.
There is also bottom absorption based on the sea floor terrain and composition. Bottom absorption
is also dependent on the operating frequency of the sonar and the angle of incidence. Bottom
absorption will be greater for a higher frequency and large angle of incidence. It is more or less
intuitive that a mud bottom will absorb more of the acoustic energy than a rocky bottom. When the
acoustic energy is absorbed it means there is less that will be reflected back to the Sonic
2024/2022’s receivers. The surveyor must be aware of the bottom composition as adjustments can
be made to the Sonic 2024/2022 operating parameters to help compensate for the bottom
absorption.
In waters with a large sediment load, the suspended particles will scatter the sound wave, thus
leading to transmission loss. In the scattering process, there is also a degree of energy that it is
reflected (backscatter); this can be a cause for ‘noise’ in the sonar data. Again, the surveyor should
be aware of this condition and, if need be, change the operating parameters of the Sonic 2024/2022.
When discussing the changing of the operating parameters, it is generally a matter of increasing
transmit power or pulse length to get more total power into the water. In some circumstances,
increasing the Absorption value will allow the system to rapidly increase gain to capture the
reflected energy that has been dissipated by seafloor absorption or scattering in the water column.
As noted above many of the effects of absorption, scattering, and bottom absorption are frequency
dependent. With the Sonic 2024/2022, the operator can adjust the sonar frequency to optimise the
system for the survey conditions. This will take some trial and error; however, lower frequencies
tend to do best in areas of absorbent bottom and high sediment load (scatter).
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Appendix VII ROV and AUV Installation
13 APPENDIX VII: Sonic 2024/2022 Mounting: Sub-Surface
(ROV/AUV)
13.1 Installation Considerations
•
•
•
•
•
A 1000BASE-T link (best time sync accuracy) is preferred; however, with bathymetry only
information, 100BASE-T will work. 10BASE-T will also work, but is not recommended. Bathy
data requires 2 Mb/s data rate at a maximum ping rate of 60 pings/sec. For future
compatibility, please use 100BASE-T at minimum, Snippets will not work with 10BASE-T;
however, Snippets will work over a 100BASE-T link.
Average power, for a Sonic 2024 is 50W (1A), peak is 100W (2A); for a Sonic 2022 it is 35W
(0.73A), peak is 75W (1.5A). The peak power of 100W (75W) occurs just after transmit and
typically lasts for a few msecs (depends on transmitter power setting). If you use a separate
power supply for the sonar, we recommend using a 120 to 150W power source to supply the
head, but less if installing a Sonic 2022.
The sonar up/down link is all done through the Ethernet channel. Thus, no other hardware is
required except for the Ethernet media converters (copper to fibre, fibre to copper). As a
precaution, placing additional filtering on the output of the 48V supply to the sonar head is a
good idea to prevent vehicle electronic noise from getting into the sonar head. A common
mode choke, on the 48V line, is recommended. The Bourns (JW Miller) PM3700-50-RC
common mode choke works well (surface mount part). A Bourns 8102-RC choke, which is
easier to install (non-surface mount) can also be used.
The supplied deck cable is a special cable with Ethernet pairs which are rated to 3000 meters
water depth. Do not substitute this cable, as the Ethernet data pairs need to meet certain
important specifications. When terminating the Ethernet connections to your own
connector, the Ethernet twisted pairs need to terminate right at the connector pins,
maintaining the twist on the wires as close to the connector pins as possible. On the
bulkhead connector, use CAT5, or better Ethernet cable, from the connector, to the
Ethernet media converter. Use adjacent pins for each wire pair. If 100BASE (or 10BASE)
Ethernet is used, only the green and orange pairs are required. All four pairs, including blue
and brown, are only required when using gigabit Ethernet.
Using a connector with a pigtail spliced on to the deck leads’ Ethernet pairs has a low
probability of working. If the deck lead must be terminated to a pigtail, the pigtail length
must be as short as possible, probably no more than 7-8cm. There are no special
considerations for the power conductors other than the connector being able to handle
48VDC and 2 amperes. The drain (shield) wire does not need to be terminated.
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13.1.1 Ethernet wiring considerations
The sonar head and SIM use gigabit Ethernet ports. There are rules, regarding number of pairs of
wire to use, between different Ethernet ports, those rules are:
•
Gigabit to Gigabit
Need all four pairs. If only two pairs used, in an attempt to force the ports to 100BASE-T, the
ports will not negotiate and the result will be no connection. (As of the 16Nov2013 head
firmware, two pairs can be used; this will put the head in a 100BASE-T connection.) Sometimes
it's not obvious if a port is Gigabit enabled; the Status display shows the Ethernet connection
speed for the head. This is useful for troubleshooting connection issues.
•
Gigabit to 100BASE-T
Two pairs (green and orange on TIA/EIA-568-B wiring) can be used. Be sure to test this with a
modified patch cable (cut the brown and blue pairs) before committing to the chosen Ethernet
equipment as there may be surprises hidden in the equipment.
• 100BASE-T to 100BASE-T:
You can use two pairs (green and orange, T568B).
When connecting to the SIM, use either of the AUX Ethernet ports for the sonar head Ethernet
connection.
13.2 Data Rates
Bathy:
Snippets:
TruePix™:
≈800 kb/s max (bathy data is sent twice, to GUI and data acquisition computer)
≈11Mb/s max
≈ 5.5 Mb/s (magnitude +angle) max
≈ 3.5 Mb/s (magnitude) max
Water Column: ≈280 Mb/s max for magnitude only
≈560 Mb/s max for magnitude + phase
AI(FLS):
Depends on GUI wedge size; more information will be added
The data rate, for water column data, can be significantly reduced by increasing the pulse width. At
certain pulse widths, the receiver sampling rate halves, which will make the water column data rate
halve.
As an example:
Pulse width 15µsec - 30µsec: 65 kHz sample rate = Ethernet: 35 Mb/sec (amplitude) 280 Mb/s
(amplitude and phase)
Pulse width 35µsec - 70µsec: 32.5 kHz sample rate = Ethernet: 17.5 Mb/s (amplitude), 140 Mb/s
(amplitude and phase)
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13.3 ROV Installation Examples
Figure 140: Single Head ROV Installation scheme A
Figure 141: Single Head ROV Installation scheme B (Preferred)
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Figure 142: Dual Head ROV Installation scheme A
Figure 143: Dual Head ROV Installation scheme B (Preferred)
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13.4 Power Requirements
The basic over the side installation of the Sonic 2022 and 2024 systems consists of the sonar head,
projector, SIM box, sound velocity probe, and interconnecting cables. The sonar head, SIM, and
computer(s) communicate via 100BASE-T or 1000BASE-T (Gigabit) full duplex Ethernet.
Installation in an ROV requires an Ethernet media converter to convert copper to fibre optic and
back to copper media to accommodate long tethers. On shorter ROV tethers (less than 1000
metres), using impedance controlled twisted-pair copper wire and a DSL modem may be possible.
Remote or autonomous vehicles typically supply the 48 volt power to the sonar head, and if
required, the SIM Controller board.
Device
2024 with SIM
Power
95 to 260VAC, 75 W
2022 with SIM
95 to 260VAC, 54 W
SIM
2024 head
95 to 260VAC, 16.5 W
at 48V
1.05 A average
1.77 A peak after transmit
at 48V
0.70 A average
1.34 A peak
48V, 78mA (gigabit)
48V, 51mA (100BASE-T)
2022 head
SIM control
board
Conditions
2024 head connected to SIM, equivalent to
over the side installation.
Conditions: 30m range, Tx power = 215 dB,
pulse width = 50us.
2022 head connected to SIM, equivalent to
over the side installation.
Conditions: 30m range, Tx power = 215 dB,
pulse width = 50us.
No connections to SIM
30m range, Tx power = 215 dB, pulse width =
50us.
30m range, Tx power = 215 dB, pulse width =
50us.
No connections except Ethernet.
Table 14: Systems Power Requirements
In an ROV or AUV installation, the sonar head and SIM Controller board require 48VDC which is
supplied by the vehicle power system. The average power required is 50 watts for the 2024, 35
watts for the 2022. Just after transmit, an additional 50 watts is required to charge the transmit
capacitor bank for a brief period of time. See below figures for current waveforms. If a separate
power supply for the sonar is required, it should be rated for 120 to 150 watts or higher.
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Figure 144: Sonic 2024 power supply current waveform. Peak current is 1.770A at 48V. Sonar settings: pulse width =
100us, Tx Power = 221dB, Freq = 400 kHz.
Figure 145: Sonic 2022 power supply current waveform. Peak current is 1.340A at 48V. Sonar setting: pulse width =
100us, Tx Power = 221dB, Freq = 400 kHz.
Figure 146: Inrush current to 2024 head during power up, 20 ms window.
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Figure 147: Inrush current to the 2024 head during power up, 1 second window.
13.4.1 Common mode noise rejection
Common mode noise on the 48VDC power line to the sonar head should be minimized. The SIM
Controller board has a common mode choke on the power line to the sonar head. If sonar head
power is not supplied by the SIM Controller board, install a common mode choke on the sonar head
48VDC power line. A suitable common mode choke is JW Miller (Bourns) 8102-RC. This is available
from Digi-Key. See below figure for wiring details.
Figure 148: Power supply choke installation on 48VDC power
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13.4.2 SIM Power connections
Figure 149: SIM Controller Power Connections
The mating connector for J4:
Molex 43645-0800 (8-way Micro-FIT 3.0)
Molex 43030-0009 (socket contacts)
Molex 63819-0000 or 63811-2800 (crimping tool for socket contacts)
The mating connector for J6:
Amp 2-111623-4
Any 2mm 2x20 header connector may be used for this part.
1mm pitch ribbon cable is also required
Figure 150: J6 Connector on SIM Controller board
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13.5 SIM Installation – ROV
The SIM can be installed either top-side or in the vehicle. There are advantages to both methods
which depend on the multiplexer capabilities. For SIM installation in the vehicle, the SIM Controller
board may be removed from the SIM or supplied as an additional item. The SIM controller board
uses a PC/104 size format, but does not use the PC/104 bus.
Figure 151: ROV installation block diagram with the SIM top-side
Figure 152: ROV installation block diagram with the SIM controller board mounted in the vehicle electronics bottle and
GPS (ZDA or UTC formats) and PPS signals are supplied by top-side equipment
Figure 153: ROV installation block diagram with the SIM controller board mounted in the vehicle electronics bottle. GPS
(ZDA or UTC formats) and PPS signals are supplied by the vehicle time system.
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13.6 SIM Installation – AUV
The circuit boards, inside the SIM, can be supplied separately as shown in Fig 133. The three boards
use a PC/104 size format, but does not use the PC/104 bus. The three boards are the I/O board
where the customer connects time, motion and sound velocity sensors; SIM Controller board; and a
gigabit Ethernet switch.
It’s best that the SIM Controller board supply power to the sonar head as the controller board has a
common mode choke for the 48 VDC power to the sonar head and the SIM Controller board can
control power to sonar head. If the customer uses their own custom data acquisition software, a list
of commands for the sonar head and SIM are in Appendix VIII. The uplink data format is provided in
Appendix IX.
Figure 154: Typical wiring. GPS (ZDA or UTC formats) and PPS signals are supplied by the vehicle time system
Figure 155: SIM Board Stack
SIM board stacks:
Top board: I/O
Middle board: SIM controller
Bottom board: Gigabit, 5-Port, Ethernet
switch
BNC connector: GPS PPS input
SMB connectors: sync in and out
Figure 156: SIM Stack height
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13.7 SIM Board Physical Installation
1. Power requirements: 48VDC, 50 watts average, 100 watts peak.
2. 36VDC is absolute minimum working voltage; 52VDC is absolute maximum working voltage
3. All boards are static sensitive. People handling the boards should be properly grounded.
4. User has the option to use the I/O board or not. The I/O board is connected to the SIM
Controller Board via a ribbon connector (SIM Controller J6 and I/O board J14).
5. For an AUV setup, the Ethernet connections are not used on the I/O board. The Ethernet
connections are made directly to the Ethernet Switch board.
6. If the I/O board is not used, direct connections to J6, on the SIM Controller, can be made. One
level of static protection is removed if the I/O Board is not used; however, there is enough
protection for small static events on J6.
13.8 SIM Stack LED Status Indicators
On the I/O board (top board) with nothing connected except for power:
•
•
•
•
•
•
On power up, all the LEDs will first glow red for 0.5 second, then green for 0.5 second
Then, they will indicate the activity level of each input.
With no inputs, PPS, GPS, Motion, SVP LEDs will glow red.
Trigger (sync) out will glow green.
Heading and trigger (sync) in will be off.
Power will be orange (red and green on) if no head is connected.
On the SIM Controller board (middle board):
•
•
•
The first LED should be glowing red (not blinking). This indicates the 3.3V power supply is
working.
The fifth LED will blink a Morse code message. This indicates that the FPGA code is running.
All other LEDs are off.
The Gigabit switch board Ethernet Speed (bottom board):
Left LED Right LED
Status
OFF
OFF
No Link
ON
OFF
10Base-T
ON
ON
100Base-T
OFF
ON
1000Base-T
Table 15: SIM Gigabit switch speed indicators
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13.8.1 SIM Board Dimensional Information
Dimensions are given are in inches [millimetres]
Figure 157: SIM Controller Board installation dimensions
Figure 158: SIM Stack Outline
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13.8.2 SIM Board Images
Figure 159: Assembled SIM Boards
Figure 160: SIM Boards height
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13.9 Dual Sonar Head
13.9.1 Dual Head Installation
The R2Sonic family of multibeams can be installed in a dual head configuration, either pointing
inwards or directed outwardly, depending on the customer’s survey task. In dual head mode, the
individual sonar heads can either ping simultaneously (with frequency offset) or alternate pings
(same frequency). The dual head configuration is comprised of two sonar heads and either one or
two SIM boxes and one Sonic Control 2000. The same exact head firmware must be installed on the
sonar heads in order for Sonic Control to operate the sonar heads.
13.9.2 Operation
13.9.2.1 Load Dual Head Factory Default Settings
The factory default settings, for dual head mode, will populate the default IP addresses and UDP
ports for all systems. Go to File |Load Settings, there will be three .ini files; load the desired
DefaultSettingsDualHead initialisation file (Dual SIM or Single SIM).
Figure 161: Default .ini settings file
Go to Settings| Network settings to enter the serial numbers for the dual head system. If only one
SIM is used for both sonar heads, in Sonar 2 SIM network settings, set the IP and UDP BasePort to 0.
Settings, when only one SIM is used
for both heads. NB SIM Serial Number
must be blank. Use
DefaultSettingsDualHead_SingleSIM.in
Figure 162: Dual head IP and UDP defaults
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13.9.2.2 Dual Head – Same Frequency – Alternating ping
To operate the dual sonar heads on the same frequency it is necessary to coordinate the transmit
and receive periods so there is no interference. Operating in the ‘Ping-Pong’ mode will halve the
ping rate for each head, but the user gains identical acoustic resolution (such as backscatter) for
both sonar heads. Please see Section 5.5.10 for head synchronisation settings.
13.9.2.3 Dual Head – Dual Frequency – Simultaneous ping
Offsetting the operating frequencies, of both heads, allows the user to ping both heads
simultaneously. The amount of frequency separation depends mostly on the manner in which the
sonar heads have been installed and, to a lesser extent, environmental factors. Usually, the
maximum separation required is 40 – 80 kHz and can be less.
Figure 163: Dual-sonar head ping modes
13.9.2.4 Dual Head with Two SIM Boxes
If two SIM boxes are used, only one is the master or primary (SIM1). SIM1 will be the SIM to take in
all of the serial data as well as the PPS; SIM2 only provides power to the second sonar head. SIM2 is
connected to SIM1 via an Ethernet cable to one of the RJ45 ports on SIM1. In the figure, below, the
bottom SIM is the primary SIM1, which takes in all of the serial data as well as timing data. The
upper SIM is the secondary SIM2 that provides power to the sonar head and passes data to the
primary SIM.
Secondary SIM
Primary SIM
Figure 164: Dual Head - Dual SIM external interfacing
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Appendix VIII Sonic Control Commands
14 APPENDIX VIII: R2Sonic Control Commands
14.1 Introduction
This describes the commands sent from the user interface to the sonar head and SIM.
Head firmware version 14-Mar-2011 and SIM firmware version 08-Apr-2010 utilize the commands in
this document. Future versions of firmware will adhere to this format and may include additional
commands.
Older versions of head and SIM firmware are not compatible with this format.
14.2 General Notes
1. These formats are designed for easy 4-byte alignment. Be sure your compiler/linker doesn't
insert any extra padding between values. If necessary, use your compiler's "packed" directive.
2. All values have big-endian byte order. Your compiler may provide conversion functions such as
htonl, htons, ntohl, ntohs, however those assume integers so you'll need to be very careful with
floats.
3. u32 means unsigned integer, 32 bits.
f32 means IEEE-754 32-bit floating point.
4. All packets are UDP/IP datagrams.
5. It’s recommended that all commands be sent periodically, at a 1 to 0.5 Hz rate. This ensures that
the sonar head and SIM always have the proper settings should a power interruption occur.
14.2.1 Ethernet Port Numbers
Head & SIM status & command port = Baseport +2
GUI command port
= 53810 (fixed port number)
GUI remote command input port
= gui baseport + 7
14.2.2 Type Definitions
typedef unsigned int
u32;
f32;
typedef float
14.2.3 Command Packet Format
Pseudo C format for commands:
// *** BEGIN PACKET: COMMAND FORMAT 0 ***
u32
PacketName;
// 'CMD0'
// Command (for network efficiency, the packet can contain multiple commands,
// but ensure the IP datagram reaches the sonar unfragmented).
u32
x32
CommandName;
CommandValue;
// example 'RNG0' to set range
// a 4-byte value such as u32 or f32
// *** END PACKET: COMMAND FORMAT 0 ***
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14.3 Head Commands, Binary Format
Cmd Format
Units
Values
Description
ABS0
f32
dB/km
0 to 200
Absorption
AIB0
f32
dB
0 to 60
Acoustic image brightness
AIH0
u32
lines
0 = off
wedge radius in pixels
AUT0
u32
Flag bits
0x00000001 = auto power on
0x00000100 = auto gain on
0x00010000 = auto range on
BIE0
u32
BMAX
f32
metres
0 = off
1 = on
0 to 999
Acoustic imagery height. Set to
display wedge radius in pixels.
Head will return requested lines
or less, usually less. Larger
values will increase Ethernet
data rate.
[7:0] auto power (not functional)
[15:8] auto gain (not functional)
[23:16] auto range
[31:24] spare
Auto power/gain work in tandem,
thus both are enabled/disabled at
same time.
Bathy intensity enable
BMIN
f32
metres
0 to 500
BOS0
u32
DGA0
f32
metres
0 = Equiangle
1 = Equidistant
0 to 1200
DGB0
f32
metres
0 to 1200
depth gate max
DGO0
u32
DGS0
f32
radians
0x00000000 = gates off
0x00000001 = manual gates
0x0000ww02 = auto gates
0x0000ww03 = auto gate/slope
where ww = gate width in ±
percent of depth (5% to 90%)
-π/2 to +π/2
Depth gates control. Manual gates
mode require DGA0, DGB0, DGS0 to
be set. In auto gates mode, a
peak percentage value for gate
width must be supplied in bits
[15:8] in this command.
depth gate slope
DHM0
u32
Head sync mode
(single and dual head modes)
DYNA
u32
0 = single head
1 = master simultaneous, dual
2 = master alternating, dual
3 = slave simultaneous, dual
4 = slave alternating, dual
0xaabbbccc
aa = spare
bbb = slope control
ccc = depth control
ex: 0x003d0523 shows a bottom
at 5m depth which wobbles.
FILT
u32
FIL0
u32
FRQ0
f32
0 = off
1 = range
2 = depth
3 = range & depth
0 = single
1 = double
2 = quad
200000 to 400000, and 700000
Hz
Max range filter
Head default = 999
Deprecated 12 Dec 2011, see RGB0
Min range filter
Head default = 0
Deprecated 12 Dec 2011, see RGA0
Bottom sampling
depth gate min
Generates a moving simulated
bottom for testing auto gate
features.
Three control bits:
[0:0] = magnitude (0-f)
[1:1] = ∆ magnitude (0-f)
[2:2] = rate of change (0-f)
*DYNA is also supported as an
ASCII command (enter hex digits
without the ‘0x’)
FILT is deprecated. Do not use
(10 Mar 2011). Use DGO0, RGA0,
RGB0.
Bottom fill enhancement (High
Density mode.)
Frequency in Hz
Page 166 of 210
Version
5.0
Rev
Date
15-05-2014
Part No. 96000001
r001
Cmd Format
Units
Values
Description
GAN0
f32
1 to 45
Rcvr gain. gain in dB = setting *
2
IDCO
U32
Projector ID override, use for
emergency
PNG0
u32
1 = Bathy+FLS proj. (model
1004)
2 = UHR proj. (model 1006)
1 = emit one ping only
PRL0
f32
PRO0
u32
PROJ
u32
PRU0
u32
PRZ0
Manual ping. Each time this
command is sent, sonar will emit
one ping.
Ping rate limit user-value
Hz
0.1 to 60
f32
metres
0 = projector forward
1 = projector aft
0 = none
1 = narrow (1°)
2 = wide (20°) (only in FLS
mode)
0 = off
1 = on
-1.0 to +1.0
RET0
f32
radians
-45° to +45°
RGA0
f32
metres
0 to 500
RGB0
f32
metres
0 to 999
RGO0
u32
RNG0
f32
metres
0 = range gates off
1 = range gates on
2 to 1200
ROS0
u32
SER0
f32
radians
0 = off
1 = on
-70° to +70°
SEW0
f32
radians
10° to 160°
SNIP
u32
Snippets enable
SPR0
f32
STM0
U32
SVL0
f32
m/s
0 = off
1 = on
0 to 60
typically 20
0 = off
1 = on, normal mode
1250 to 1600
SVU0
u32
Sound velocity user-enable
TPG0
u32
TPM0
u32
TRG0
u32
TWIX
u32
0 = use SVP
1 = user value
0 = disable TruePix gates
1 = use bathy gate max
2 = use bathy gates min & max
0 = off
1 = mag only
2 = mag & angle
0 = free running
1 = external trigger, SIM
sync in
2 = standby, wait for PNG0
cmd.
0 = flat bottom
1 = vertical features
TXL0
f32
0 to 1000µs
Pulse length
seconds
Projector orientation
Projector type selector
Ping rate limit user-enable
Projector mounting Z offset
Default = 0.119
Receiver tilt
Min range filter, was BMIN
Head default = 0
Min range filter, was BMAX
Head default = 999
Range gate enable
Range
Roll stabilization enable
Sector rotate.
Wedge edges must not go beyond
±80°
Sector width
Spreading loss
Status display
Sound velocity user-value
TruePix gates
TruePix mode.
Ping trigger source. Required,
SIM command SYI0.
Bottom type
Page 167 of 210
Version
Date
5.0
Rev
15-05-2014
r001
Cmd Format
TXP0
f32
WCM0
u32
Units
dB//1µPa
Values
Description
0, 191 to 221
Transmitter power
0 = off
1 = mag only
2 = mag & phase
Water column data. warning, high
speed data, up to 70MB/s.
Page 168 of 210
Version
5.0
Rev
Date
15-05-2014
Part No. 96000001
r001
14.4 SIM Commands, Binary Format
Cmd
Format
Units
Values
Description
BDG0
u32
bps
BDH0
u32
bps
BDM0
u32
bps
BDS0
u32
bps
DBG0
u32
standard baud
300 to 115200
standard baud
300 to 115200
standard baud
300 to 115200
standard baud
300 to 115200
7 or 8
DBH0
u32
7 or 8
Heading data bits
DBM0
u32
7 or 8
Motion data bits
DBS0
u32
7 or 8
SVP data bits
DRG0
u32
GPS driver
DRH0
u32
DRM0
u32
DRS0
u32
ENG0
u32
ENH0
u32
ENM0
u32
ENS0
u32
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
IPG0
u32
GPS IP Address
IPM0
u32
Motion sensor IP Address
PAG0
u32
PAH0
u32
PAM0
u32
PAS0
u32
POG0
u32
PTG0
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
rates
GPS baud
rates
Heading baud
rates
Motion baud
rates
SVP baud
RS-232
Ethernet
RS232
Ethernet
RS-232
Ethernet
RS-232
Ethernet (not implemented)
off
on
off
on
off
on
off
on
GPS data bits
Heading driver (not implemented)
Motion driver
SVP driver
GPS serial port enable
Heading serial port enable
Heading data not used
Motion serial port enable
SVP serial port enable
GPS parity
u32
0 = none
1 = odd
2 = even
0 = none
1 = odd
2 = even
0 = none
1 = odd
2 = even
0 = none
1 = odd
2 = even
0 = rising
1 = falling
2 = sync on time message (no
PPS)
0 TO 65535
PTM0
u32
0 TO 65535
SBG0
u32
1,2
Motion sensor Ethernet port
number.
GPS stop bits
Heading parity
Motion parity
SVP parity
PPS edge. Sync on time message
will sync to the RS232 message;
PPS pulse is not used.
GPS Ethernet port number
Page 169 of 210
Version
Date
5.0
Rev
15-05-2014
r001
Cmd
Format
Units
Values
Description
SBH0
u32
1,2
Heading stop bits
SBM0
u32
1.2
Motion stop bits
SBS0
u32
1,2
SVP stop bits
SPO0
u32
STM0
u32
SYI0
u32
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
SYO0
u32
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
head power off
head power on
off
on, normal mode
off
rising edge trigger
falling edge trigger
0 = rises at
pulse, falls
1 = falls at
pulse, rises
2 = off
center
at end
center
at end
of
of
of
of
tx
rcv
tx
rcv
Sonar head power
Status data
Trigger in mode. Middle of
transmit pulse is offset by
+10ms from trigger edge.
Required, Head TRG) command
Trigger out mode
14.5 GUI Commands, Binary Format
These commands are provided to control various GUI functions remotely. Commands are sent to
GUI Baseport + 7
Cmd
Format
Units
Values
Description
ABS0
f32
dB/km
0 to 200
Absorption
DGA0
f32
metres
0 to 1200
Depth gate minimum
DGB0
f32
metres
0 to 1200
Depth gate maximum
DGS0
f32
degrees
-90° to +90°
Depth gate slope
GAN0
f32
1 to 45
PNG0
u32
1 = emit one ping only
RNG0
f32
metres
2 to 1200
Rcvr gain. Gain in dB = setting *
2
Manual ping. Each time this
command is sent, sonar emit one
ping. Sea TRG0 command
Range
SER0
f32
degrees
-70° to +70°
SEW0
f32
radians
10° to 160°
SPR0
f32
Spreading loss
TXP0
f32
dB/1µPa
0 to 60
typically 20
0, 191 to 221
WCR0
u32
0 = off
1 = on
WCR1
u32
Water column enable, head 1.
Equivalent to setting the water
column check box in the GUI
Water column enable, head 2.
Equivalent to setting the water
column check box in the GUI
Sector rotate.
Wedge edges must not go beyond
±80°
Sector width
Transmitter power
NB. The commands which set angle values are in degrees. This is different from angular commands
sent to the head, which are in radians
Page 170 of 210
Version
5.0
Rev
Date
15-05-2014
Part No. 96000001
r001
14.6 Command Examples Sent to the Sonar Head and SIM
Example of commands sent to the sonar head every two seconds. Columns after the command are
hex, integer, and floating point representations of the data sent for each command
PacketName: CMD0
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
Command:
ABS0
SPR0
SVL0
SVU0
RGO0
AUT0
RNG0
GAN0
FRQ0
TXP0
TXL0
SEW0
DGA0
DGB0
DGS0
DGO0
PRL0
PRU0
RET0
PRO0
PRZ0
SER0
BOS0
TWIX
PROJ
ROS0
DHM0
SNIP
BIE0
AIH0
AIB0
WCM0
TPM0
TPG0
TRG0
STM0
0x42a00000
0x41f00000
0x44bb8000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x41a00000
0x41500000
0x48c35000
0x433f0000
0x37a7c5ac
0x40060a92
0x40a8f312
0x410cca8f
0x00000000
0x00000001
0x3f800000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x3df3b646
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000001
0x00000001
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x40c00000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000000
0x00000002
1117782016
1106247680
1153138688
0
0
0
1101004800
1095761920
1220759552
1128202240
933741996
1074137746
1084814098
1091357327
0
1
1065353216
0
0
0
1039382086
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1086324736
0
0
0
0
2
80.000000
30.000000
1500.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
20.000000
13.000000
400000.000000
191.000000
0.000020
2.094395
5.279672
8.799453
0.000000
0.000000
1.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.119000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
6.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
Example of commands sent to the SIM every two seconds. Columns after the command are hex,
integer, and floating point representations of the data sent for each command
PacketName: CMD0
Command: ENG0 0x00000001
Command: BDG0 0x00002580
Command: DBG0 0x00000008
Command: DRG0 0x00000000
Command: PAG0 0x00000000
Command: SBG0 0x00000001
Command: POG0 0x00000001
Command: SYI0 0x00000000
Command: SYO0 0x00000000
Command: ENH0 0x00000001
Command: BDH0 0x00002580
Command: DBH0 0x00000008
Command: DRH0 0x00000000
Command: PAH0 0x00000000
Command: SBH0 0x00000001
Command: ENM0 0x00000001
Command: IPM0 0x0a00002f
Command: POM0 0x00001388
Command: BDM0 0x00009600
Command: DBM0 0x00000008
Command: DRM0 0x00000000
Command: PAM0 0x00000000
Command: SBM0 0x00000001
Command: ENS0 0x00000001
Command: BDS0 0x00002580
Command: DBS0 0x00000008
Command: DRS0 0x00000000
Command: PAS0 0x00000000
Command: SBS0 0x00000001
Command: SPO0 0x00000001
Command: STM0 0x00000002
1
9600
8
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
9600
8
0
0
1
1
167772207
5000
38400
8
0
0
1
1
9600
8
0
0
1
1
2
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
Page 171 of 210
Version
Date
5.0
Rev
15-05-2014
r001
Example of UDP/IP Ethernet packet of commands sent to the sonar head.
First 42 characters are Ethernet header information. Characters after 29h are commands
0000
0010
0020
0030
0040
0050
0060
0070
0080
0090
00a0
00b0
00c0
00d0
00e0
00f0
0100
0110
0120
0130
0140
00
01
00
53
4c
4f
47
51
4c
41
53
4c
54
5a
53
4f
4d
45
42
4d
47
50
40
56
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
4a
30
30
30
30
30
c2
7b
06
42
44
00
41
48
37
40
00
3f
00
3d
00
00
00
00
40
00
00
90
73
a1
a0
bb
00
a0
c3
a7
a8
00
80
00
f3
00
00
00
00
c0
00
00
43
40
ff
00
80
00
00
50
c5
f3
00
00
00
b6
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
3d
00
de
00
00
00
00
00
ac
12
00
00
00
46
00
01
00
00
00
00
00
00
80
01
53
53
41
47
54
53
44
44
50
50
53
54
52
53
41
57
54
53
e0
11
2c
50
56
55
41
58
45
47
47
52
52
45
57
4f
4e
49
43
50
54
81
00
df
52
55
54
4e
50
57
42
4f
55
4f
52
49
53
49
48
4d
47
4d
2e
00
c3
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
58
30
50
30
30
30
30
be
0a
43
41
00
00
41
43
40
41
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
88
00
4d
f0
00
00
50
3f
06
0c
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
08
01
44
00
00
00
00
00
0a
ca
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
66
30
00
00
00
00
00
92
8f
01
00
00
00
00
01
00
00
00
00
02
45
0a
41
53
52
52
46
54
44
44
50
52
50
42
50
44
42
41
54
54
00
00
42
56
47
4e
52
58
47
47
52
45
52
4f
52
48
49
49
50
52
.P..C=........E.
.@{s@........f..
.V.....,..CMD0AB
S0B...SPR0A...SV
L0D...SVU0....RG
O0....AUT0....RN
G0A...GAN0AP..FR
Q0H.P.TXP0C?..TX
L07...SEW0@...DG
A0@...DGB0A...DG
S0....DGO0....PR
L0?...PRU0....RE
T0....PRO0....PR
Z0=..FSER0....BO
S0....TWIX....PR
OJ....ROS0....DH
M0....SNIP....BI
E0....AIH0....AI
B0@...WCM0....TP
M0....TPG0....TR
G0....STM0....
Example of UDP/IP Ethernet packet of commands sent to the SIM.
First 42 characters are Ethernet header information. Characters after 29h are
commands.
0000
0010
0020
0030
0040
0050
0060
0070
0080
0090
00a0
00b0
00c0
00d0
00e0
00f0
0100
0110
0120
00
01
00
47
47
47
47
4f
48
48
48
4d
4d
4d
4d
53
53
53
4d
50
18
63
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
c2
7b
06
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0a
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
90
74
a2
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
41
40
ff
00
00
00
00
00
25
00
00
00
96
00
00
25
00
00
00
35
00
de
01
08
00
01
00
80
00
01
2f
00
00
01
80
00
01
02
00
80
01
42
44
53
53
45
44
50
45
50
44
50
45
44
50
53
e0
11
04
44
52
42
59
4e
42
41
4e
4f
42
41
4e
42
41
50
81
00
fa
47
47
47
49
48
48
48
4d
4d
4d
4d
53
53
53
4f
2e
00
f0
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
be
0a
43
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
88
00
4d
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
08
01
44
25
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
13
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
66
30
80
00
01
00
01
08
00
01
88
08
00
01
08
00
01
45
0a
45
44
50
50
53
42
44
53
49
42
44
53
42
44
53
53
00
00
4e
42
41
4f
59
44
52
42
50
44
52
42
44
52
42
54
.P..A5........E.
..{t@........f..
.c........CMD0EN
G0....BDG0..%.DB
G0....DRG0....PA
G0....SBG0....PO
G0....SYI0....SY
O0....ENH0....BD
H0..%.DBH0....DR
H0....PAH0....SB
H0....ENM0....IP
M0.../POM0....BD
M0....DBM0....DR
M0....PAM0....SB
M0....ENS0....BD
S0..%.DBS0....DR
S0....PAS0....SB
S0....SPO0....ST
M0....
Page 172 of 210
Version
5.0
Rev
Date
15-05-2014
Part No. 96000001
r001
Appendix IX: R2Sonic Data Format
15 APPENDIX IX: R2Sonic Uplink Data Formats
15.1 Introduction
This describes the data formats sent from the sonar head and SIM. Unless noted, the data packets
are sent from the sonar head. The formats are given in pseudo C.
Head firmware versions 13-Dec-2011, and newer, utilise the data formats in this document.
Previous head firmware versions back to 25-Mar-2010 only utilise data formats from sections 15.5
and 15.6 in this document. Future versions of firmware will adhere to this format and may include
additional information.
The data format, in older versions of sonar head firmware, is different than the format described in
this document and is unsupported.
15.2 General Notes
1. Each info or data section includes a name/size mini-header to allow the parser to easily skip
unneeded or unrecognized sections. These formats are designed for easy 4-byte alignment. Be
sure your compiler/linker doesn't insert any extra padding between values. If necessary, use
your compiler's "packed" directive.
2. All values have big-endian byte order. Your compiler may provide conversion functions such as
htonl, htons, ntohl, ntohs, however those assume integers so you'll need to be very careful with
floats.
3. u8, u16, u32 means unsigned integers of 8, 16, 32 bits.
s8, s16, s32 means signed integers of 8, 16, 32 bits.
f32 means IEEE-754 32-bit floating point.
4. All packets are UDP/IP datagrams
15.3 Port Numbers
Bathymetry data port = gui.Baseport + 0
TruePix data port
= tpd.Baseport + 1
Device status port
= gui.Baseport + 2
Acoustic Image data port = gui.Baseport + 3
Water Column data port = wcd.Baseport + 5
Snippets data port
= tpd.Baseport + 6
15.4 Type Definitions
typedef unsigned char u8;
typedef unsigned short u16;
typedef unsigned int u32;
typedef signed char s8;
typedef signed short s16;
typedef signed int s32;
typedef float
f32;
Page 173 of 210
Version
Date
5.0
Rev
15-05-2014
r001
15.5 Ethernet Data Rates
Bathymetry:
TruePix:
≈ 800 kb/s max (bathy data is sent twice, to GUI and data acquisition computer)
≈ 5.5 Mb/s (magnitude + angle) max
≈ 3.5 Mb/s (magnitude) max
Water Column: ≈ 560 Mb/s (magnitude + phase) max
≈280 Mb/s (magnitude) max
Snippets:
≈ 11 Mb/s max
Where Mb/s = megabits per second.
Page 174 of 210
Version
5.0
Rev
Date
15-05-2014
Part No. 96000001
r001
15.6 Bathymetry Packet Format
// *** BEGIN PACKET: BATHY DATA FORMAT 0 ***
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'BTH0'
// [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section H0: header
u16 H0_SectionName;
u16 H0_SectionSize;
u8
H0_ModelNumber[12];
u8
H0_SerialNumber[12];
u32 H0_TimeSeconds;
u32 H0_TimeNanoseconds;
u32 H0_PingNumber;
f32 H0_PingPeriod;
f32 H0_SoundSpeed;
f32 H0_Frequency;
f32 H0_TxPower;
f32 H0_TxPulseWidth;
f32 H0_TxBeamwidthVert;
f32 H0_TxBeamwidthHoriz;
f32 H0_TxSteeringVert;
f32 H0_TxSteeringHoriz;
u32 H0_TxMiscInfo;
f32 H0_RxBandwidth;
f32 H0_RxSampleRate;
f32 H0_RxRange;
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
u16
u16
H0_RxGain;
H0_RxSpreading;
H0_RxAbsorption;
H0_RxMountTilt;
H0_RxMiscInfo;
H0_reserved;
H0_Points;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'H0'
[bytes] size of this entire section
example "2024", unused chars are nulls
example "100017", unused chars are nulls
[seconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, integer part
[nanoseconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, fraction part
pings since power-up or reboot
[seconds] time between most recent two pings
[meters per second]
[hertz] sonar center frequency
[dB re 1 uPa at 1 meter]
[seconds]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
reserved for future use
[hertz]
[hertz] sample rate of data acquisition and signal processing
[meters] sonar range setting
[multiply by two for relative dB]
[dB (times log range in meters)]
[dB per kilometer]
[radians]
// reserved for future use
// reserved for future use (uncorrected pressure sensor reading in meters)
// number of bathy points
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// section R0: 16-bit bathy point ranges
u16
u16
f32
u16
u16
R0_SectionName;
R0_SectionSize;
R0_ScalingFactor;
R0_Range[H0_Points];
R0_unused[H0_Points & 1];
// 'R0'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// [seconds two-way] = R0_Range * R0_ScalingFactor
// ensure 32-bit section size
// section A0: bathy point angles, equally-spaced (present only during "equi-angle" spacing mode)
u16
u16
f32
f32
f32
A0_SectionName;
A0_SectionSize;
A0_AngleFirst;
A0_AngleLast;
A0_MoreInfo[6];
//
//
//
//
//
'A0'
[bytes] size of this entire section
[radians] angle of first (port side) bathy point, relative to array centerline, AngleFirst < AngleLast
[radians] angle of last (starboard side) bathy point
reserved for future use
// section A2: 16-bit bathy point angles, arbitrarily-spaced (present only during "equi-distant" spacing mode)
u16
u16
f32
f32
f32
u16
u16
A2_SectionName;
A2_SectionSize;
A2_AngleFirst;
A2_ScalingFactor;
A2_MoreInfo[6];
A2_AngleStep[H0_Points];
A2_unused[H0_Points & 1];
// 'A2'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// [radians] angle of first (port side) bathy point, relative to array centerline, AngleFirst < AngleLast
// reserved for future use
// [radians] angle[n] = A2_AngleFirst + (32-bit sum of A2_AngleStep[0] through A2_AngleStep[n]) * A2_ScalingFactor
// ensure 32-bit section size
// section I1: 16-bit bathy intensity (present only if enabled)
u16
u16
f32
u16
u16
I1_SectionName;
I1_SectionSize;
I1_ScalingFactor;
I1_Intensity[H0_Points];
I1_unused[H0_Points & 1];
// 'I1'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// [micropascals] intensity[n] = I1_Intensity[n]) * I1_ScalingFactor
// ensure 32-bit section size
// section G0: simple straight-line depth gates
u16
u16
f32
f32
f32
G0_SectionName;
G0_SectionSize;
G0_DepthGateMin;
G0_DepthGateMax;
G0_DepthGateSlope;
//
//
//
//
//
'G0'
[bytes] size of this entire section
[seconds two-way]
[seconds two-way]
[radians]
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// section G1: 8-bit gate positions, arbitrary paths (present only during "verbose" gate description mode)
u16 G1_SectionName;
u16 G1_SectionSize;
f32 G1_ScalingFactor;
struct
{
u8
RangeMin;
u8
RangeMax;
}
G1_Gate[H0_Points];
u16 G1_unused[H0_Points & 1];
// 'G1'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// [seconds two-way] = RangeMin * G1_ScalingFactor
// [seconds two-way] = RangeMax * G1_ScalingFactor
// ensure 32-bit section size
// section Q0: 4-bit quality flags
u16
u16
u32
Q0_SectionName;
// 'Q0' quality, 4-bit
Q0_SectionSize;
// [bytes] size of this entire section
Q0_Quality[(H0_Points+7)/8]; // 8 groups of 4 flags bits (phase detect, magnitude detect, reserved, reserved), packed left-to-right
// *** END PACKET: BATHY FORMAT 0 ***
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15.7 Snippet Format
// *** BEGIN PACKET: SNIPPET DATA FORMAT 0 ***
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'SNI0'
// may be zero in UDP, otherwise: [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section H0: header (present only in first snippet packet of each ping)
u16
u16
u8
u8
u32
u32
u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
u16
u16
f32
H0_SectionName;
H0_SectionSize;
H0_ModelNumber[12];
H0_SerialNumber[12];
H0_TimeSeconds;
H0_TimeNanoseconds;
H0_PingNumber;
H0_PingPeriod;
H0_SoundSpeed;
H0_Frequency;
H0_TxPower;
H0_TxPulseWidth;
H0_TxBeamwidthVert;
H0_TxBeamwidthHoriz;
H0_TxSteeringVert;
H0_TxSteeringHoriz;
H0_TxMiscInfo;
H0_RxBandwidth;
H0_RxSampleRate;
H0_RxRange;
H0_RxGain;
H0_RxSpreading;
H0_RxAbsorption;
H0_RxMountTilt;
H0_RxMiscInfo;
H0_reserved;
H0_Snippets;
H0_MoreInfo[6];
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'H0'
[bytes] size of this entire section
example "2024", unused chars are nulls
example "100017", unused chars are nulls
[seconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, integer part
[nanoseconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, fraction part
pings since power-up or reboot
[seconds] time between most recent two pings
[meters per second]
[hertz] sonar centre frequency
[dB re 1 uPa at 1 meter]
[seconds]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
reserved for future use
[hertz]
[hertz] sample rate of data acquisition and signal processing
[meters] sonar range setting
[multiply by two for relative dB]
[dB (times log range in meters)]
[dB per kilometer]
[radians]
reserved for future use
reserved for future use
number of snippets
reserved for future use
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// section S1: 16-bit snippet data (for network efficiency packet may contain several of these sections) (supports snippets up to 32K samples
by fragmenting
// at the IP level rather than by the application like 81xx)
u16 S1_SectionName;
u16 S1_SectionSize;
u32 S1_PingNumber;
u16 S1_SnippetNumber;
u16 S1_Samples;
u32 S1_FirstSample;
f32 S1_Angle;
f32 S1_ScalingFactorFirst;
f32 S1_ScalingFactorLast;
u32 S1_reserved;
u16 S1_Magnitude[S1_Samples];
S1_ScalingFactorLast)
u16 S1_unused[S1_Samples & 1];
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'S1'
[bytes] size of this entire section
pings since power-up or reboot
snippet number, 0 to H0_Snippets-1
number of samples in this snippet, sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate
first sample of this snippet relative to zero range, sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate
[radians] angle of this snippet, relative to array centerline
scaling factor at start of snippet, 0=ignore, use linear interpolation to get other values
scaling factor at end of snippet, 0=ignore
reserved for future use
[micropascals] = S1_Magnitude[n] * (linear interpolate between S1_ScalingFactorFirst and
// ensure 32-bit section size
// *** END PACKET: SNIPPET DATA FORMAT 0 ***
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15.8 Water Column (WC) Data Format
// *** BEGIN PACKET: WATER COLUMN (WC) DATA FORMAT 0 ***
// The water column data contains real-time beamformer 16-bit magnitude data
// (beam amplitude) and optional 16-bit split-array phase data (intra-beam
// direction). Maximum data rate is about 70 megabytes per second (assuming
// 256 beams, 68.4 kHz sample rate, and phase data enabled). The sample rate
// (and signal bandwidth) varies with transmit pulse width and range setting.
// Maximum ping data size is about 32 megabytes (assuming 256 beams of 32768
// samples, and phase data enabled), but max size may change in the future.
// The number of beamformed data samples normally extends somewhat further
// than the user's range setting.
//
// When the operator enables water column mode, each sonar ping outputs
// numerous 'WCD0' packets containing: one H0 header section, one A1 beam
// angle section, and many M1 or M2 data sections. The section order may
// change in the future, so plan for that in your data acquisition.
//
// Each M1 or M2 section contains a subset of the ping data. Its header
// indicates its size position to help you assemble the full ping array.
//
// You may wish to detect missing M1 or M2 data sections (perhaps a lost
// UDP packet), and then fill the gap with zeros or perhaps data from the
// previous ping (to reduce visual disturbances), and then increment an
// error counter for network health monitoring purposes.
//
// The water column data is basically in polar coordinates, so you may
// wish to geometrically warp it into the familiar wedge shape for display.
// Consider using OpenGL or Direct3D texture mapping.
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'WCD0'
// [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section H0: header (only one per ping)
u16 H0_SectionName;
u16 H0_SectionSize;
u8
H0_ModelNumber[12];
u8
H0_SerialNumber[12];
u32 H0_TimeSeconds;
u32 H0_TimeNanoseconds;
u32 H0_PingNumber;
f32 H0_PingPeriod;
f32 H0_SoundSpeed;
// 'H0'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// example "2024", unused chars are nulls
// example "100017", unused chars are nulls
// [seconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, integer part
// [nanoseconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, fraction part
// pings since power-up or reboot
// [seconds] time between most recent two pings
// [meters per second]
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f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
u16
u16
H0_Frequency;
H0_TxPower;
H0_TxPulseWidth;
H0_TxBeamwidthVert;
H0_TxBeamwidthHoriz;
H0_TxSteeringVert;
H0_TxSteeringHoriz;
H0_TxMiscInfo;
H0_RxBandwidth;
H0_RxSampleRate;
H0_RxRange;
H0_RxGain;
H0_RxSpreading;
H0_RxAbsorption;
H0_RxMountTilt;
H0_RxMiscInfo;
H0_reserved;
H0_Beams;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
[hertz] sonar center frequency
[dB re 1 uPa at 1 meter]
[seconds]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
reserved for future use
[hertz]
[hertz] sample rate of data acquisition and signal processing
[meters] sonar range setting
[multiply by two for relative dB]
[dB (times log range in meters)]
[dB per kilometer]
[radians]
reserved for future use
reserved for future use
number of beams
// section A1: float beam angles, arbitrarily-spaced (only one per ping)
u16 A1_SectionName;
u16 A1_SectionSize;
f32 A1_MoreInfo[6];
f32 A1_BeamAngle[H0_Beams];
angle
// 'A1'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// reserved for future use
// [radians] angle of beam relative to array centerline, ordered from port to starboard, first angle < last
// section M1: 16-bit magnitude data (present only during "magnitude-only" water column data mode, many per ping, you assemble them into
complete ping data)
u16 M1_SectionName;
u16 M1_SectionSize;
u32 M1_PingNumber;
f32 M1_ScalingFactor;
u32 M1_TotalSamples;
u32 M1_FirstSample;
u16 M1_Samples;
u16 M1_TotalBeams;
u16 M1_FirstBeam;
u16 M1_Beams;
u32 M1_reserved0;
u32 M1_reserved1;
struct
// 'M1'
// [bytes] size of this entire section
// pings since power-up or reboot
// reserved for future use
// range samples in entire ping, sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate
// first sample of this section
// number of samples in this section
// beams (always a multiple of 2) (typically columns in your memory buffer)
// first beam of this section (always a multiple of 2)
// number of beams in this section (always a multiple of 2)
// reserved for future use
// reserved for future use
{
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u16 magnitude;
} M1_Data[M1_Beams][M1_Samples];
// values 0 to 65535 map non-linearly (due to TVG scaling and possible gain compression) to signal amplitude
// magnitude data (typical example: 256 beams each containing 36 two-byte structs, 16 kilobytes)
// section M2: 16-bit magnitude and phase data (present only during "magnitude and phase" water column data mode, many per ping, you assemble
them into
// complete ping data)
u16 M2_SectionName;
u16 M2_SectionSize;
u32 M2_PingNumber;
f32 M2_ScalingFactor;
u32 M2_TotalSamples;
u32 M2_FirstSample;
u16 M2_Samples;
u16 M2_TotalBeams;
u16 M2_FirstBeam;
u16 M2_Beams;
u32 M2_reserved0;
u32 M2_reserved1;
struct
{
u16 magnitude;
s16 phase;
beamwidth
} M2_Data[M2_Beams][M2_Samples];
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'M2'
[bytes] size of this entire section
pings since power-up or reboot
reserved for future use
range samples in entire ping, sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate
first sample of this section
number of samples in this section
beams (always a multiple of 2) (typically columns in your memory buffer)
first beam of this section (always a multiple of 2)
number of beams in this section (always a multiple of 2)
reserved for future use
reserved for future use
// values 0 to 65535 map non-linearly (due to TVG scaling and possible gain compression) to signal amplitude
// values -32768 to +32767 map non-linearly (due to complex transfer function) to target angle within the
// magnitude and phase data (typical example: 256 beams each containing 36 four-byte structs, 36 kilobytes)
// *** END PACKET: WATER COLUMN (WC) DATA FORMAT 0 ***
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15.9 Acoustic Image (AI) Data Format
// *** BEGIN PACKET: ACOUSTIC IMAGE (AI) DATA FORMAT 0 ***
// The acoustic image data contains real-time beamformer 8-bit magnitude data
// (beam amplitude) that has been scaled to 8-bits by a user-selected
// brightness value, and compressed in range by an adjustable amount to
// reduce network bandwidth and processing. The data is called "samples"
// before compression and "bins" after compression. For example, 7200 samples
// of beamformer data (M0_TotalSamples) may be compressed to 600 bins
// (M0_TotalBins). The number of beamformed data samples normally extends
// somewhat further than the user's range setting. The AIH0 sonar command
// sets an upper limit to the number of compressed output bins. It's not a
// precise compression factor, so the number of bins is usually somewhat less
// than the AIH0 value. The maximum data rate with no compression is about
// 17.5 megabytes per second (assuming 256 beams).
//
// When the operator enables acoustic image mode, each sonar ping outputs
// numerous 'AID0' packets containing: one H0 header section, one A1 beam
// angle section, and many M0 data sections. The section order may change in
// the future, so plan for that in your data acquisition.
//
// Each M0 section contains a subset of the ping data. Its header indicates
// its size position to help you assemble the full ping array.
//
// You may wish to detect missing M0 data sections (perhaps a lost UDP
// packet), and then fill the gap with zeros or perhaps data from the
// previous ping (to reduce visual disturbances), and then increment an error
// counter for network health monitoring purposes.
//
// The acoustic image data is basically in polar coordinates, so you may wish
// to geometrically warp it into the familiar wedge shape for display.
// Consider using OpenGL or Direct3D texture mapping.
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'AID0'
// [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section H0: header (only one per ping)
u16
u16
u8
u8
u32
u32
u32
f32
H0_SectionName;
H0_SectionSize;
H0_ModelNumber[12];
H0_SerialNumber[12];
H0_TimeSeconds;
H0_TimeNanoseconds;
H0_PingNumber;
H0_PingPeriod;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'H0'
[bytes] size of this entire section
example "2024", unused chars are nulls
example "100017", unused chars are nulls
[seconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, integer part
[nanoseconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, fraction part
pings since power-up or reboot
[seconds] time between most recent two pings
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f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
u16
u16
H0_SoundSpeed;
H0_Frequency;
H0_TxPower;
H0_TxPulseWidth;
H0_TxBeamwidthVert;
H0_TxBeamwidthHoriz;
H0_TxSteeringVert;
H0_TxSteeringHoriz;
H0_TxMiscInfo;
H0_RxBandwidth;
H0_RxSampleRate;
H0_RxRange;
H0_RxGain;
H0_RxSpreading;
H0_RxAbsorption;
H0_RxMountTilt;
H0_RxMiscInfo;
H0_reserved;
H0_Beams;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
[meters per second]
[hertz] sonar center frequency
[dB re 1 uPa at 1 meter]
[seconds]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
[radians]
reserved for future use
[hertz]
[hertz] sample rate of data acquisition and signal processing
[meters]
[multiply by two for relative dB]
[dB (times log range in meters)]
[dB per kilometer]
[radians]
reserved for future use
reserved for future use
number of beams
// section A1: float beam angles, arbitrarily-spaced (only one per ping)
u16
u16
f32
f32
angle
A1_SectionName;
A1_SectionSize;
A1_MoreInfo[6];
A1_BeamAngle[H0_Beams];
//
//
//
//
'A1'
[bytes] size of this entire section
reserved for future use
[radians] angle of beam relative to array centerline, ordered from port to starboard, first angle < last
// section M0: 8-bit magnitude data (many per ping, you assemble them into complete ping data)
u16 M0_SectionName;
u16 M0_SectionSize;
u32 M0_PingNumber;
f32 M0_ScalingFactor;
u32 M0_TotalSamples;
u32 M0_TotalBins;
u32 M0_FirstBin;
u16 M0_Bins;
u16 M0_TotalBeams;
u16 M0_FirstBeam;
u16 M0_Beams;
u32 M0_reserved;
struct
{
u8 magnitude;
} M0_Data[M0_Beams][M0_Bins];
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'M0'
[bytes] size of this entire section
pings since power-up or reboot
reserved for future use
range samples (before compression) in entire ping, sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate
range bins (after compression) in entire ping (M0_TotalBins <= M0_TotalSamples)
first bin of this section
number of bins in this section
beams (always a multiple of 4) (typically columns in your memory buffer)
first beam of this section (always a multiple of 4)
number of beams in this section (always a multiple of 4)
reserved for future use
// values 0 to 255 map non-linearly (due to TVG scaling and possible gain compression) to signal amplitude
// magnitude data (typical example: 256 beams each containing 21 one-byte structs, 5376 bytes)
// *** END PACKET: ACOUSTIC IMAGE (AI) DATA FORMAT 0 ***
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15.10 TruePix™ Data Format
// *** BEGIN TRUEPIX DATA FORMAT 0 ***
// TruePix is like sidescan with 3D relief. Each sonar ping produces a port
// and starboard time-series of data samples at the sonar's sample rate. Each
// sample contains the signal's magnitude (like sidescan) and across-track
// target direction angle (like bathymetry). After collecting many pings of
// data along a survey line, you now have a large array of data points with
// range, direction, and brightness. Apply noise reduction, and render the
// data as a textured 3D surface.
//
// Two data formats are available: D0 provides magnitudes only, D1 provides
// magnitudes and direction angles. The GUI allows the user to choose the
// desired format.
//
// The sonar generates one TruePix data set per ping. Each data set is
// usually split into multiple UDP packets. The D0 or D1 header includes
// FirstSample and Samples values to help you reassemble the full data set.
//
// Someday you may be able to convert the 16-bit magnitude values to
// micropascals by applying a to-be-determined function involving the sample
// number and the MagnitudeScaling[] coefficients, but this conversion is not
// yet supported so these coefficients are zero. You can convert the
// direction angles from 16-bit values to radians by multiplying by
// AngleScalingFactor.
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'TPX0'
// may be zero in UDP, otherwise: [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section H0: header (present only in first packet of each ping)
u16 H0_SectionName;
// 'H0'
u16 H0_SectionSize;
// [bytes] size of this entire section
u8
H0_ModelNumber[12];
// example "2024", unused chars are nulls
u8
H0_SerialNumber[12];
// example "100017", unused chars are nulls
u32 H0_TimeSeconds;
// [seconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, integer part
u32 H0_TimeNanoseconds;
// [nanoseconds] ping time relative to 0000 hours 1-Jan-1970, fraction part
u32 H0_PingNumber;
// pings since power-up or reboot
f32 H0_PingPeriod;
// [seconds] time between most recent two pings
f32 H0_SoundSpeed;
// [meters per second]
f32 H0_Frequency;
// [hertz] sonar center frequency
f32 H0_TxPower;
// [dB re 1 uPa at 1 meter]
f32 H0_TxPulseWidth;
// [seconds]
f32 H0_TxBeamwidthVert;
// [radians]
f32 H0_TxBeamwidthHoriz;
// [radians]
f32 H0_TxSteeringVert;
// [radians]
f32 H0_TxSteeringHoriz;
// [radians]
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u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
u32
u32
f32
H0_TxMiscInfo;
H0_RxBandwidth;
H0_RxSampleRate;
H0_RxRange;
H0_RxGain;
H0_RxSpreading;
H0_RxAbsorption;
H0_RxMountTilt;
H0_RxMiscInfo;
H0_reserved;
H0_MoreInfo[6];
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
reserved for future use
[hertz]
[hertz] sample rate of data acquisition and signal processing
user setting [meters]
user setting [multiply by 2 for dB]
[dB (times log range in meters)]
[dB per kilometer]
[radians]
reserved for future use
reserved for future use
reserved for future use
// section D0: 16-bit magnitude data (present only during "magnitude only" mode)
u16 D0_SectionName;
// 'D0'
u16 D0_SectionSize;
// [bytes] size of this entire section
u32 D0_PingNumber;
// pings since power-up or reboot
u32 D0_TotalSamples;
// number of samples in entire time series (sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate)
u32 D0_FirstSample;
// first sample of this section relative to zero range
u16 D0_Samples;
// number of samples in this section
u16 D0_reserved;
// reserved for future use
f32 D0_MagnitudeScaling[8];
// to be determined, 0=ignore
struct
{
u16 PortMagnitude;
// [micropascals] = PortMagnitude * (tbd function of sample number and D0_MagnitudeScaling[8])
u16 StbdMagnitude;
// similar but starboard side
} D0_Data[D0_Samples];
// section D1: 16-bit magnitude and direction data (present only during "magnitude+direction" mode)
u16 D1_SectionName;
u16 D1_SectionSize;
u32 D1_PingNumber;
u32 D1_TotalSamples;
u32 D1_FirstSample;
u16 D1_Samples;
u16 D1_reserved;
f32 D1_MagnitudeScaling[8];
f32 D1_AngleScalingFactor;
struct
{
u16 PortMagnitude;
s16 PortAngle;
u16 StbdMagnitude;
s16 StbdAngle;
} D1_Data[D1_Samples];
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'D1'
[bytes] size of this entire section
pings since power-up or reboot
number of samples in entire time series (sample rate is H0_RxSampleRate)
first sample of this section relative to zero range
number of samples in this section
reserved for future use
to be determined, 0=ignore
//
//
//
//
[micropascals] = PortMagnitude * (tbd function of sample number and D1_MagnitudeScaling[8])
[radians from array centerline (positive towards starboard)] = PortAngle * D1_AngleScalingFactor
similar but starboard side
similar but starboard side
// *** END TRUEPIX DATA FORMAT 0 ***
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15.11 Head Status Format
// *** BEGIN PACKET: HEAD STATUS DATA FORMAT 0 ***
// Head Status data reports the status of the sonar head. This data is
// useful for troubleshooting. Data is sent to gui baseport + 2.
//
// Each section name consists of 4 characters. The fourth character
// indicates the number of 32-bit words following each section name.
// The forth character can be 1-9, A-Z; allowing up to 35 32-bit words.
// The number of words in each section may change at a later date. Be
// sure your program can parse the number of words.
// The order of the sections is not fixed.
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'STH0'
// [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section SER3: serial number
u32
u32
SER3_SectionName;
serial_number[3];
// 'SER3'
//
example "100117", unused chars are nuls
// section PRT3: part number
u32
u32
PRT3_SectionName;
part_number[3];
// 'PRT3'
//
example "15000001", unused chars are nuls
// section MDL3: model number
u32
u32
MDL3_SectionName;
model_number[3];
// 'MDL3'
//
example "2024", unused chars are nuls
// section FWV6: main controller firmware version
u32
u32
'FWV6';
version.i[6];
// main ctrl firmware version string
//
example "19-Dec-2011-17:19:29", unused chars are nuls
// section FWT6: internal transmitter firmware version
u32
u32
FWT6_SectionName;
tinytx.i[6];
// 'FWT6'
//
example "16-Aug-2011-17:19:29", unused chars are nuls
// section PRJ9: projector
u32
u32
PRJ9_SectionName;
serial_number[3]
// ‘PRJ9’
//
example “800456”, unused chars are nuls
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u32
u32
part_number[3];
model_number[3];
//
//
example “15000004”, unused chars are nuls
example “1004”, unused chars are nuls
// section OPT1: option settings
u32
u32
OPT1_SectionName
options
//
//
//
//
//
//
'OPT1'
truepix_snippets[0:0]
depth_rating[1:1]
forward_looking[2:2]
water_column[3:3]
ultra-high resolution[4:4]
0=off,
0=100m,
0=off,
0=off,
0=off,
1=on
1=3km
1=on
1=on
1=on
// section SENa: sensor data received from SIM
u32
u32
u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
SENa_SectionName;
gps.time.sec;
gps.time.nsec;
sensor.pitch;
sensor.roll;
sensor.heave;
sensor.heading;
sensor.velocity;
sensor.pdepth.uncal;
sensor.pdepth.cal;
sensor.fpgatemp;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
'SENa'
[seconds]unix time
[seconds = gps.time.nsec/(2^32)] unix time
[radians] mru pitch
[radians] mru roll
[meters] mru heave
heading (not implemented)
[m/s] sound velocity
[meters] depth uncalibrated
[meters] depth calibrated
[°C] FPGA temperature
//
//
//
//
'ADC3'
[volts] 48VDC power supply voltage
[amperes] 48V current
[volts] transmitter power supply voltage
// section ADC3: a/d converter
u32
f32
f32
f32
ADC3_SectionName;
adc.chan0;
adc.chan1;
adc.chan8;
// section ETH6; ethernet registers
u32
u32
u32
u32
u32
u8
ETH6_SectionName;
ethernet.speed;
erxpackets;
etxpackets;
erxoverflows;
mac.addr[8]
// 'ETH6'
//
[megabits/sec] link connect speed
//
[counts] ethernet receive packets
//
[counts] ethernet transmit packets
//
[counts] ethernet receive buffer overflows
//
mac address, use last 6 bytes, first 2 bytes are not used
// section TIM2; timers
u32
f32
f32
TIM2_SectionName
time.check;
time.spare;
// ‘TIM2’
//
[seconds]head to SIM roundtrip time response (must be less than 3ms)
//
[seconds] spare
// *** END PACKET: HEAD STATUS DATA FORMAT 0 ***
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15.12 SIM Status Data Format
// *** BEGIN PACKET: SIM STATUS DATA FORMAT 0 ***
// SIM Status data reports misc info from the SIM box. This data is
// useful for troubleshooting. Data is sent to gui baseport+2.
//
// Each section name consists of 4 characters. The fourth character
// indicates the number of 32-bit words following each section name.
// The forth character can be 1-9, A-Z; allowing up to 35 32-bit words.
// The number of words in each section may change at a later date. Be
// sure your program can parse the number of words.
// The order of the sections is not fixed.
u32
u32
u32
PacketName;
PacketSize;
DataStreamID;
// 'STS0'
// [bytes] size of this entire packet
// reserved for future use
// section SER3: serial number
u32
u32
SER3_SectionName;
serial_number[3];
// 'SER3'
//
example "100117", unused chars are nulls
// section PRT3: part number
u32
u32
PRT3_SectionName;
part_number[3];
// 'PRT3'
//
example "15000002", unused chars are nulls
// section MDL3: model number
u32
u32
MDL3_SectionName;
model_number[3];
// 'MDL3'
//
example "2024", unused chars are nulls
// section FWV6: firmware version
u32
u32
FWV6_SectionName;
version;
// 'FWV6'
//
example "15-Dec-2011-14:00:42", unused chars are nulls
// section LED1: SIM front panel LED status
u32
u32
LED1_SectionName;
led_status;
// 'LED1'
//
[00=off 01=undef 10=bad 11=good] flags for status LEDs
//
gps[1:0]
//
motion[3:2]
//
heading[5:4], not implemented
//
svp[7:6]
//
alt-gps[9:8], not implemented
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//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
alt-motion[11:10], not implemented
alt-heading[13:12], not implemented
alt-svp[15:14], not implemented
pps[17:16]
sync in[19:18]
sync out[21:20]
head on[23:22]
reserved[31:24]
// section SEN7: RS232 sensor values
u32
u32
u32
f32
f32
f32
f32
f32
SEN7_SectonName;
gps.time.sec;
gps.time.nsec;
mru.pitch;
mru.roll;
mru.heave;
0.0;
svp.velocity;
// 'SEN7'
//
[seconds] unix time
//
[seconds = gps.time.nsec/(2^32)] unix time
//
[radians] mru pitch value
//
[radians] mru roll value
//
[meters] mru heave
//
heading (not implemented)
//
[m/s] sound velocity
// section ADC2: a/d converter
u32
f32
f32
ADC2_SectonName;
adc.chan0;
adc.chan1;
// 'ADC2'
//
[volts] 48VDC power supply voltage
//
[amperes] 48V current to head
// section ETH6: ethernet registers
u32
u32
u32
u32
u32
u8
ETH6_SectonName;
ethernet.speed;
erxpackets;
etxpackets;
erxoverflows;
mac.addr[8]
// 'ETH6'
//
[megabits/sec] link speed
//
[counts] ethernet receive packets
//
[counts] ethernet transmit packets
//
[counts] ethernet receive buffer overflows
//
mac address, use last 6 bytes, first 2 bytes are not used
// *** END PACKET: SIM STATUS DATA FORMAT 0 ***
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15.13 Device Status Format
The device status packet contains the ConfigID number that was sent to the sonar head and SIM during IP configuration. This packet contains no survey
information and is ignored for data collection purposes. The R2DS packet is sent from the sonar head and SIM once per second to the sonar control
program IP address. The ConfigID received from the sonar head and SIM should be compared with the ConfigID number sent to the sonar head and SIM
during IP configuration. If there is a mismatch, the control
program should send IP configuration data to the sonar head
struct R2DS
// R2Sonic Device Status
and/or SIM to correct the issue.
{
u32
u32
u32
u32
} pkt;
PacketName;
SerialNumber[3];
ConfigID;
spare;
// 'R2DS'
// up to 12 ASCII chars, unused chars are zero
// from most recent R2DC packet
C structure of Device Status packet
0000
0010
0020
0030
0040
00
00
01
30
00
e0
34
66
31
00
81
04
ff
30
2e
6c
16
31
be
00
ff
00
88
00
de
00
00
32
00
00
50
11
20
00
c2
6e
00
00
90
92
00
00
40
0a
52
46
58
00
32
35
08
00
44
bd
00
56
53
01
45
0a
31
00
00
00
30
00
.......P
.4.l..2.
.f.....
0101....
..
..@ X..E.
n....V..
..R2DS10
..;.~...
0000
0010
0020
0030
0040
00
00
01
30
00
e0
34
66
30
00
81
02
ff
34
2e
75
7a
34
be
00
ff
00
88
00
de
00
00
32
00
00
50
11
20
00
c2
70
00
00
90
7c
00
00
40
0a
52
46
49
00
32
35
08
00
44
bd
00
63
53
01
45
0a
31
00
00
00
30
00
.......P
.4.u..2.
.f.z...
0044....
..
..@ I..E.
p|...c..
..R2DS10
..;.~...
Device status Ethernet packet example received from the sonar
head
Device status Ethernet packet example received from the SIM
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15.14 Data Playback Using Bit-Twist
15.14.1
Introduction
Note, the topics covered in this document require knowledge of Ethernet communication.
To test a data collection system, you can either use the actual hardware (sonar head) or use data
captured from the sonar head. Using Wireshark, uplink data from the sonar head can be captured,
filtered, and saved. Bit Twist, a console application, allows you to playback data. R2Sonic can supply
sample Ethernet captures of the sonar head uplink data. You may need to edit the destination MAC
and IP addresses of the captured data with Bit-Twiste, a console application. Wireshark and BitTwist both require Winpcap which is included in the Wireshark installation.
In the examples, the following IP addresses are used:
Sonar head: 10.0.0.86
Data collection computer: 10.0.1.102
The following programs are required:
To capture, filter, and save Ethernet data:
Wireshark: http://www.wireshark.org/
To playback and edit captured Ethernet data:
Bit-Twist: http://bittwist.sourceforge.net/
Using a 32-bit version of Wireshark will allow you to use a packet decoder for the sonar data
formats.
If you don’t want or need to install Wireshark, get Winpcap at:
Winpcap: http://www.winpcap.org/
15.14.2
Capturing Data
To capture data from the sonar head, use Wireshark. Set the max ping rate of the sonar to 1 to 5
pings per second so you won’t create huge capture files.
•
Capture sonar data. For high data rate traffic, set the following Wireshark Capture Options.
These options are found under the button (usually left most) “List the available capture
interfaces…”. These setting will remain for the session.
Buffer size: 50 megabytes
Uncheck “Update list of packets in real time”
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Figure 165: Wireshark Capture Options
This will reduce the processing load on Wireshark significantly.
•After capture, filter the data so only the desired sonar head data is displayed. A filter expression
like
“not(icmp.type == 3 or ip.src == 10.0.1.102)”
can be used to filter data coming from the data acquisition computer.
•Save using Save As, data type as “Wireshark/tcpdump/…- libpcap (*.pcap,*.cap)” (Wireshark
default). Select “Displayed” in Packet Range. You can select a data range in the Packet Range such
that the data packets aren’t truncated.
15.14.3
Editing Data
The MAC and IP addresses in the packets must match the data acquisition computer’s MAC and IP
addresses assigned to the network interface card (NIC). The data acquisition computer’s MAC and IP
addresses can be determined using ipconfig /all from the command line.
Editing the MAC and IP addresses must be done as separate operations using bittwiste.exe. The
following examples show the syntax for editing the destination MAC and IP address in the .pcap files
created by Wireshark.
Example to change destination MAC address using bittwiste.exe:
bittwiste -I in.pcap -O out.pcap -T eth -d 00:E0:12:7F:D2:1A
Example to change destination IP address using bittwiste.exe:
bittwiste -I in.pcap -O out.pcap -T ip -d 10.0.1.102
Where in.pcap is the input file and out.pcap is the output file.
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15.14.4
Data Playback
To playback data, use bittwist.exe. You can playback data on the same computer that the data
collection program resides on by simply connecting the sonar Ethernet port to an Ethernet switch.
The Ethernet switch is only to placate the NIC. You can also send data from a remote computer to
the data acquisition computer.
You need to determine the Ethernet interface number. Choose the interface that is connected to the
sonar system. To display Ethernet interfaces:
bittwist –d
To playback data:
bittwist -i 2 -l 0 out.pcap
This sends out.pcap to Ethernet interface 2 (-i 2) and loops continuously (-l 0). Use Ctrl-C to exit the
program.
If you don’t want to loop, use:
bittwist -i 2 out.pcap
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Appendix X – Drawings
16 APPENDIX X: Drawings
Drawing Index
Figure 159: Sonic 2024/2022 Projector ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 198
Figure 160: Sonic 2024 Receive Module ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 199
Figure 161: Sonic 2022 Receive Module ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 200
Figure 162: Sonic 2024 Mounting Bracket Drawing 1 ................................................................................................................................................................. 201
Figure 163: Sonic 2024 Mounting Bracket Drawing 2 ................................................................................................................................................................. 202
Figure 164: Sonic 2022 Mounting Bracket Drawing 1 ................................................................................................................................................................. 203
Figure 165: Sonic 2022 Mounting Bracket Drawing 2 ................................................................................................................................................................. 204
Figure 166: Sonic 2024/2022 Mounting Bracket Flange .............................................................................................................................................................. 205
Figure 167: SIM Box Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 206
Figure 168: SIM Stack Outline ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 207
Figure 169: R2Sonic Deck lead minimum connector passage dimensions .................................................................................................................................. 208
Figure 170: I2NS IMU Dimensions ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 209
Figure 171: I2NS SIM Dimensions ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 210
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Figure 166: Sonic 2024/2022 Projector
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Figure 167: Sonic 2024 Receive Module
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Figure 168: Sonic 2022 Receive Module
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Figure 169: Sonic 2024 Mounting Bracket Drawing 1
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Figure 170: Sonic 2024 Mounting Bracket Drawing 2
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Figure 171: Sonic 2022 Mounting Bracket Drawing 1
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Figure 172: Sonic 2022 Mounting Bracket Drawing 2
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Figure 173: Sonic 2024/2022 Mounting Bracket Flange
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Figure 174: SIM Box Drawing
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Figure 175: SIM Stack Outline
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Figure 176: R2Sonic Deck lead minimum connector passage dimensions
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Figure 177: I2NS IMU Dimensions
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Figure 178: I2NS SIM Dimensions
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