appendix 3.1 overheating modelling and climate change adaptation

appendix 3.1 overheating modelling and climate change adaptation
APPENDIX 3.1
OVERHEATING MODELLING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
REPORT
25 JULY 2013
QUEEN ELIZABETH II HOSPITAL
T ECHNOLOGY STRATEGY BOARD
DESIGN FOR FUTURE CLIMATE:
ADAPTING BUILDINGS PROGRAMME
SUBMITTED TO
PENOYRE AND PRASAD LLP
28-42 BANNER STREET
LONDON EC1Y 8QE
PREPARED BY
PROFESSOR RAJAT GUPTA
DR HU DU AND M ATT GREGG
LOW CARBON BUILDING GROUP
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
OXFORD BROOKES UNIVERSITY
HEADINGTON CAMPUS
GIPSY LANE, OXFORD OX3 0BP
T EL: 01865 484049
FAX: 01865 483298
rgupta@brookes.ac.uk
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Summary
This report provides climate change adaption measures for Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
development. The report firstly reviews relevant adaption measures from TSB: Design for
future climate projects, research outcomes of ‘Adaptation and Resilience to a changing
Climate (ARCC)’ programme and other publications. Based on the existing knowledge of the
measures, a range of climate change adaptation measures for comfort, construction and
management of water are suggested for QEII Hospital project. Adaption measures for
comfort were tested by dynamic modelling in building simulation software IES VE and
adaption measures for construction and water were given based on empirical experience.
The performances of eleven individual adaptation measures for designing for comfort were
tested on the IES model of Queen Elizabeth II Hospital using Design Summer Year data.
The most effective individual measures for avoiding overheating are:




external shutters
window film
white painted surfaces
triple glazing
Into order to conduct cost benefit analysis, the energy implications of adaptation measures
considered in this study and measures which have already been included in the building
design were modelled using Test Reference Year data. It is found that:




Triple glazing can reduce energy consumption at current climate;
Better insulation may cause more cooling energy consumption in a warm future
climate;
Measures for avoiding overheating may increase heating energy consumption in
winter and total annual energy consumption;
The measures which have been included in the design (better insulation, better
glazing, exposed ceiling and night-time ventilation) could reduce the energy
consumption significantly.
The energy saving/penalty were fed into cost benefit analysis. This would help clients and
designers understand the cost benefit of each adaptation measures, and make decisions on
uptake of adaptation measures.
This report is provided for Penoyre and Prasad LLP as information for the Technology Strategy
Board’s Design for Future Climate: Adapting Buildings project, application number: 13782-86214.
1
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Contents
Summary ............................................................................................................................. 1
Contents .............................................................................................................................. 2
1
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 4
1.1
Queen Elizabeth (QE) II Hospital project................................................................. 4
1.2
UKCP09 and weather data for building simulation .................................................. 5
1.3
Overheating metrics ................................................................................................ 8
1.3.1
Dry bulb temperature and overheating hours ................................................... 8
1.3.2
Operative temperature and overheating percentage ........................................ 8
1.3.3
PMV and PPD.................................................................................................. 9
1.3.4
Adaptive comfort limit....................................................................................... 9
1.3.5
Overheating metrics for this project................................................................ 11
2
Review of relevant adaptation reports...................................................................... 13
2.1
Design for future climate report (Gething 2010) .................................................... 13
2.2
ARCC research outcomes .................................................................................... 15
2.2.1
DeDeRHECC project ..................................................................................... 15
2.2.2
SNACC project .............................................................................................. 16
2.3
3
TSB: Design for future climate: Adapting building projects .................................... 16
Designing for comfort................................................................................................ 20
3.1
Modelling of the performance base model ............................................................ 23
3.1.1
Overheating analysis ..................................................................................... 23
3.1.2
Energy consumption of base model ............................................................... 31
3.1.3
Energy consumption of alterative models....................................................... 33
3.2
Modelling of the overheating performance of individual adaptation measures ....... 37
3.2.1
High albedo surface ....................................................................................... 37
3.2.2
Window and film technologies........................................................................ 38
3.2.3
Ventilation ...................................................................................................... 39
3.2.4
Shading ......................................................................................................... 40
3.3
4
5
Designing for construction ....................................................................................... 46
4.1
Wind load .............................................................................................................. 46
4.2
Wind driven rain .................................................................................................... 47
Designing to manage water....................................................................................... 48
5.1
2
Modelling of the energy performance of adaptation measures .............................. 44
Flood..................................................................................................................... 48
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
5.2
Water conservation ............................................................................................... 50
5.2.1
Low water use fittings .................................................................................... 50
5.2.2
Rainwater catchment system ......................................................................... 50
5.3
Energy for hot water system ................................................................................. 51
6
Green landscape and infrastructure ......................................................................... 52
7
Summary of adaptation measures ............................................................................ 54
References ........................................................................................................................ 56
Appendix 1 Constructions layers in base model ............................................................ 58
Appendix 2 Zone names and zone information .............................................................. 60
3
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
1 Introduction
1.1 Queen Elizabeth (QE) II Hospital project
The New QEII Hospital is a substantial re-provision of the existing hospital at the QEII site in
Welwyn Garden City, bringing together existing and new services in a new purpose built
facility. The New QEII is part of a wider estate and service reorganisation strategy by NHS
Hertfordshire and is a major component of this process, as the existing QEII Hospital
building reaches the end of its useful life.
The New QEII will accommodate a new local A&E department with Rapid Assessment Unit,
a large Diagnostic Imaging department including MRI, CT, X-Ray and Ultrasound imaging.
The largest element of the new facility will be the Outpatients department encompassing
many of the existing services on site. Other services to be provided at the New QEII include:
Children’s services, Therapies, the Vicki Adkins Breast Clinic and a Day Treatment suite.
Figure 1 Location of QEII Hospital and exiting site
The New QEII will be located on the existing main car parking area (Figure 1), which is to the
north of the existing hospital buildings. A small amount of demolition of existing structures is
required to create an open area large enough for the new building.
4
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Figure 2 QEII hospital ground floor plan (Penoyre&Prasad 2011)
The project is a new 8000 sqm purpose built healthcare facility which is made up of three “L”
shaped clinical wings (Figure 2) arranged around a central soft-landscaped courtyard to
maximise day lighting, natural ventilation and access to green external spaces.
1.2 UKCP09 and weather data for building simulation
To investigate the impacts of climate change on buildings, four assumptions were made to
choose suitable weather data. They are location, time periods, carbon emission scenarios
and risk percentiles.
The latitude and longitude of QEII Hospital project are 51.783N, 0.188W. The UKCP09 5km
by 5km grid (5300215) covers the development area (Figure 3).
5
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Figure 3 UKCP09 5km grid for QEII Hospital project
UKCP09 provide projections for 7 time periods. For each time period, 30 years weather data
are made available. The authors select three time periods (Figure 4) to present short,
medium and long term climate condition. They represent a sample of future time slices
looking sufficiently far towards a time horizon likely to be of interest for the life span of
buildings currently under development and construction. The new buildings constructed
today will have replacement of building services assets typically every 15-20 years (short
term). The buildings themselves would have minor refurbishment at every 35-45 years
(medium term), and normally major refurbishments would occur in 60-100 years (long term).
Figure 4 Climate time scale diagram (climate periods cover 30 years of climate data)
UKCP09 offers climate projections based on three carbon emission scenarios (low, medium
and high). The authors decided to test building overheating risks based on the high carbon
emission scenario; because the buildings designed for high carbon emission would stand at
medium or low emission scenario.
Due to the probabilistic feature of UKCP09 projections, several risk levels were nominated
by the PROMETHEUS research group at Centre for Energy and the Environment, University
of Exeter who generated weather data for building simulation. By examining the process of
generating PROMETHEUS future weather data, the authors selected the 50 percentile
weather data to conduct simulation. PROMETHEUS used 2 steps to select Design Summer
Year (DSY). Firstly, they selected the fourth warmest year from 30-year period, then 12months at a certain percentile were selected based on month mean temperature ranking.
The warmth of 50 percentile DSY is equal to the level of warmth which traditional DSY’s
have. The level of warmth of 90 percentile DSY is significantly higher than traditional DSY's.
6
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
London Heathrow (51.48N, 0.45W) is the nearest location which has CIBSE historical
weather data available. The Design Summer Year for London is selected from 1983 to 2004.
The year with the third warmest April-August period during 1983 and 2004 is 1989 which is
the Design Summer Year.
Table 1 Weather data for overheating simulation
Location
Heathrow
Timelines
Baseline
Baseline2
Welwyn
Garden
City
Short term
(2030s)
Medium term
(2050s)
Long term
(2080s)
Name of weather
files
Description of weather data
CIBSE DSY 1989 (The year with third warmest AprilAugust period during 1983-2004)
The year with fourth warmest April-August period during
1961-1990, central estimation, high emission scenario
The year with fourth warmest April-August period during
2020-2049, central estimation, high emission scenario
The year with fourth warmest April-August period during
2040-2069, central estimation, high emission scenario
The year with fourth warmest April-August period during
2070-2099, central estimation, high emission scenario
LondonDSY05.fwt
cntr_Welwyn_DSY.ep
w
2030_Welwyn_a1fi_50
_percentile_DSY.epw
2050_Welwyn_a1fi_50
_percentile_DSY.epw
2080_Welwyn_a1fi_50
_percentile_DSY.epw
Based on the above, the weather data files in Table 1 were used for overheating analysis in
this report. Note that two baseline files were used for testing, CIBSE historical DSY and the
control DSY from PROMETHEUS data. The CIBSE weather data is for location of London
Heathrow and the PROMETHEUS weather data is for location of QEII hospital.
A brief comparison of all weather data above was made to show the increase of average
temperature during April-September period from baseline to 2080s. As shown in Figure 5,
the April-September average temperature increases 4.65 ⁰C from Prometheus baseline to
2080s.
19
18.54
18
16.79
17
⁰C 16
15.85
15.79
15
14
13.89
13
CIBSE baseline Prometheus
baseline 50%
Prometheus
2030s H 50%
Prometheus
2050s H 50%
Prometheus
2080s H 50%
Figure 5 Apr-Sept average temperatures (⁰C)
The numbers of hours of external temperature over 25, 26, 27 and 28 ⁰C during AprilSeptember period are illustrated in Figure 6. Both Figure 5 and Figure 6 indicate that a
warming climate will occur in the latter part of this century. Note that the numbers of hours
experiencing high temperature (>25 ⁰C) at 2030s is slightly less than the numbers of CIBSE
7
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
baselines, and the Apr-Sept average temperature at 2030s also slightly less than CIBSE
baselines’ average temperatures.
The temperatures of Prometheus baseline is significantly lower than CIBSE baseline. This is
due to the difference of timelines and locations.
Number of hours over 25 ⁰C
Number of hours over 26 ⁰C
Number of hours over 27 ⁰C
Number of hours over 28 ⁰ C
Number of hours
700
590
600
478
500
357
400
300
200
100
267
179
107
63
46 21
13 2
368
246
169
114
59
257
175
119
270
Prometheus
2030s H 50%
Prometheus
2050s H 50%
Prometheus
2080s H 50%
0
CIBSE baseline
Prometheus
baseline 50%
Figure 6 Number of hours over 25, 26, 27 and 28 ⁰C
1.3 Overheating metrics
‘Overheating’ is defined as an environmental condition which exceeds the upper limit of
thermal comfort standard. A thermal comfort standard is intended to help building designers
to provide an indoor climate in which occupants will feel comfortable. The definition of good
thermal comfort is important in buildings, not only for achieving comfort, but also because of
its influence in sustainability in terms of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.
To assess the performance of buildings in conditions of evolving climate change which is
expected to feature increased warming effects, one of the important things is to identify an
acceptable limit of thermal comfort. There are four thermal comfort metrics commonly used
by academics and practitioners. They are overheating hours, overheating percentage of
occupied hours, PMV/PPD and adaptive thermal comfort limits.
1.3.1
Dry bulb temperature and overheating hours
Health Technical Memorandum 03-01 – ‘Specialised ventilation in healthcare premises’ Part
A (Department of Health 2007) which deals with the design and installation of ventilation
systems for healthcare buildings recommends that internal dry bulb temperatures in patient
areas should not exceed 28 ⁰C for more than 50 hours per year. This is the only document
that highlights the overheating criterion for healthcare buildings.
1.3.2
Operative temperature and overheating percentage
Operative temperature is also called dry resultant temperature by British practitioners
previously. It combines the air temperature and the mean radiant temperature into a single
8
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
value to express their joint effect. To simplify the calculation of operative temperature, it is
equal to the average of air temperature and the mean radiant temperature. Operative
temperature is one of comfort criteria for HAVC design and overheating analysis
recommended by the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
In CIBSE Guide A (2006), the benchmark of overheating for an office is 1% annual occupied
hours over operative temperature of 28 ⁰C. The recommended outdoor weather data used
for assessing overheating is CIBSE Design Summer Year (CIBSE 2008). Note that the
hospital is not explicitly mentioned in connection with the criterion. CIBSE Guide A
recommends discussing these issues with the client.
1.3.3
PMV and PPD
International standards (ASHRAE 2004, ISO 2005) have been established to describe
comfortable internal thermal environments based on theoretical analysis of human heat
exchange with the environment calibrated using the results from experiments in special
climate-controlled laboratories or climate chambers. The ISO 7730 standard (ISO 2005)
suggests the use of Fanger’s Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) indices which express the mean
value of the votes of a large group of people on the ISO thermal sensation scale (+3=hot;
+2=warm; +1=slightly warm; 0=neutral; −1=slightly cool; −2=cool; −3=cold). The predicted
percentage dissatisfied (PPD) is the predicted percentage of dissatisfied people at each
PMV (Fanger 1970). As PMV changes away from zero in either the positive or negative
direction, PPD increases.
The PMV indices have been used to help setup the thermal comfort standard for cooling and
heating systems since the 1970s. CIBSE guide A (CIBSE 2006) lists heating and cooling
design criteria for different room types. The recommended comfort (operative) temperature
ranges correspond to a PMV of
0.25, and the temperature ranges may be widened by
approximately 1 °C at each end if a PMV of 0.5 is acceptable.
1.3.4
Adaptive comfort limit
Fanger (1982) indicated that people cannot adapt to preferring warmer or colder
environments, and therefore the same comfort conditions can likely be applied throughout
the world. However, it is thought that many people can acclimatize themselves by exposure
to hot or cold surroundings. A recent study (Heidari and Sharples 2002) shows that the
people of Iran could achieve comfort at higher indoor air temperatures than would be
recommended by international standards like ISO 7730, and, more importantly, the variability
of acceptable conditions at different times of the year. Therefore, the Adaptive Comfort
Model (ACM) has been developed as an alternative comfort limit.
The notion of ACM is that thermal comfort is related to climate and that occupants within
buildings are comfortable at a greater spread of indoor temperatures than predicted by the
PMV (de Dear and Brager 2002, Nicol and Humphreys 2002). By changing heating and
cooling systems sufficiently slowly, people will adjust their clothing to suit the weather. The
indoor comfort temperature will naturally change with the seasons. This idea, called an
‘adaptive algorithm’ (Nicol 1995), will significantly reduce energy use (Nicol and Humphreys
2002).
Adaptive comfort models include some variations of outdoor climate for determining indoor
thermal comfort. The adaptive comfort models commonly used by practitioners are American
9
Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) adaptive standard (ASHRAE 2004), European adaptive
standard BS EN 15251:2007 (British Standards Institution 2007) and the adaptive limits
mentioned in CIBSE Guide A (CIBSE 2006).
European and CIBSE adaptive comfort limits are based on a daily running mean outdoor
temperature (Equation 1), and the ANSI/ASHRAE adaptive comfort limits are based on
monthly mean outdoor air temperature (Equation 2). The daily running mean outdoor
temperature could be calculated by Equation 3.
For the last term of Equation 1, constant 2, 3 or 4 would be used for different levels of
comfort expectations. For a group with high level of comfort expectation (category I), such as
very sensitive and fragile occupants with special requirements like handicapped, sick, very
young children and elderly persons, constant 2 would be used. The constant 3 would be
used for new buildings with normal level of thermal expectation (category II), and constant 4
would be used for existing buildings with an acceptable, moderate level of thermal
expectation (category III).
Equation 1
Equation 2
Equation 3
Where
Comfort studies on different age groups (ages 21 to 84) in Denmark and the United States
were conducted by Fanger (1982), Langkilde (1979), Rohles and Johnson (1972). The
studies revealed that the thermal environments preferred by older people do not differ from
those preferred by younger people, because the low metabolism in older people is
compensated for by a lower evaporative loss (Collins and Hoinville 1980). However, the fact
that young and old people prefer the same thermal environment does not necessarily mean
that they are equally sensitive to cold or heat. In practice, the ambient temperature level in
the homes of older people is often higher than that for younger people (ASHRAE 2001).
Both ASHRAE and the European standard defined different adaptive standard limits for
different occupancies or building types.
McGilligan et al. (2011) introduced the concept of the Adaptive Comfort Degree-Day as a
means of comparing energy savings from Adaptive Comfort Model standards by quantifying
the extent to which the temperature limits of the thermal comfort zone of the Predicted Mean
Vote Model can be broadened. They also compared the potential energy saving from the
ASHRAE 55 standard and the BS EN 15251 standard (British Standards Institution 2007).
10 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
1.3.5
Overheating metrics for this project
In conclusion, overheating hours and overheating percentage are the most transparent and
efficient way to evaluate overheating. The PPD-PMV Index is well accepted by industry and
academia, however the usage of PPD-PMV need other factors, such as clothe and
metabolic rate. Adaptive comfort is an approach to develop sustainable thermal comfort
standards, potentially widening a currently-accepted thermal comfort range.
For this project, three overheating metrics are used to evaluate overheating risks of the base
model and they are summarized in following table.
Table 2 Assessment metrics
Source
Assessment metric
Criterion
Applicability
HTM03 (Department of
Health 2007)
Number of hours over dry
bulb temperature of 28 ⁰C
No more than 50
occupied hours
All spaces
CIBSE Guide A (CIBSE
2006)
Percentage of hours over
dry operative temperature of
28 ⁰C
No more than 1% of
occupied hours
Offices (Consulting
rooms)
BS EN 15251 (British
Standards Institution
2007)
Number of hours over
category I adaptive comfort
upper limit
No more than 5% (or
3%) of occupied hours
during a year
Naturally ventilated
spaces with operable
windows
The recommended criteria for BS EN 15251 adaptive comfort limit is not more than as
example 5% or 3% of occupied hours a day, a week, a month and a year. In this report, 5%
of occupied hours during a year were used as overheating criteria.
According to the BS EN ISO 15251 (British Standards Institution 2007) standard, the level of
thermal expectation for very sensitive and fragile occupants with special requirements like
handicapped, sick, very young children and elderly persons (category I) should be calculated
by equation 1, and the constant should be 2. Therefore the upper limit of the adaptive
thermal comfort can be calculated by equation 4.
Equation 4
Figure 7 illustrates the upper limits of adaptive thermal comfort zone of five time lines
mentioned above. Note that all temperature limits lie between 22 ⁰C and 28 ⁰C during AprilSeptember period, and the adaptive comfort limit is always lower than the 28 ⁰C threshold
even in 2080s. Therefore the criterion for adaptive comfort is 5% which is wider than the
CIBSE 1% criterion.
11 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
28
27
26
⁰C 25
24
23
22
CIBSE baseline
Prometheus baseline 50%
Prometheus 2050s H 50%
2080s
Prometheus 2030s H 50%
Figure 7 The upper limit of adaptive comfort zone
The distribution of adaptive thermal comfort upper limits is shown in Figure 8. For example,
about 64% (the highest red bar) of upper comfort limits lie between 24 and 25⁰C for
Prometheus baseline data (April-September period). For Prometheus 2080s weather data
(light blue bars), 34% of upper comfort limits lie between 25 and 26 ⁰C, and 33% of upper
comfort limits lie between 26 and 27 ⁰C. In general, the adaptive thermal comfort upper limits
in 2080s are higher than baseline’s adaptive thermal comfort upper limits.
70%
CIBSE baseline
60%
Prometheus baseline 50%
Prometheus 2030s H 50%
50%
40%
Prometheus 2050s H 50%
Prometheus 2080s H 50%
30%
20%
10%
0%
22⁰C-23⁰C
23⁰C-24⁰C
24⁰C-25⁰C
25⁰C-26⁰C
Figure 8 The distribution of adaptive thermal comfort upper limits
12 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
26⁰C-27⁰C
27⁰C-28⁰C
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
2 Review of relevant adaptation reports
This section reviewed relevant adaption measures from TSB: Design for future climate
projects, research outcomes of ‘Adaptation and Resilience to a changing Climate (ARCC)’
programme, and adaptation measures from other source.
2.1 Design for future climate report (Gething 2010)
To arrive at practical adaptation strategies, the generic adaptation measures (Table 3)
suggested by Gething (2010) were considered for QEII Hospital project.
Table 3 Generic adaptation measures (Gething 2010)
No.
Adaptation measures
1
Shading - manufactured
2
Shading - building form
3
Glass technologies
4
Film technologies
5
Green roofs/transpiration cooling
6
Shading - planting
7
Reflective materials
8
Conflict between maximising daylight and overheating
9
Secure and bug free night ventilation
10
Interrelationship with noise & air pollution
11
Interrelationship with ceiling height
12
Role of thermal mass in significantly warmer climate
13
Enhancing thermal mass in lightweight construction
14
Energy efficient/ renewable powered cooling systems
15
Groundwater cooling
16
Enhanced control systems - peak looping
Adaptation design challenge - keeping cool for spaces around buildings
17
Maximum temperature legislation
18
Built form - building to building shading
19
Access to external space -overheating relief
20
Shade from planting
21
Manufactured shading
22
Interrelationship with renewables
23
Shading parking/ transport infrastructure
24
Role of water - landscape/ swimming pools
Adaptation design challenge - keeping warm
25
Building fabric insulation standards
26
Relevance of heat reclaim systems
27
Heating appliance design for minimal heating
28
Energy efficient/ renewable powered cooling systems
Desi
gnin
g for
cons
truct
ion
Designing for comfort
Adaptation design challenge - keeping cool for internal spaces
29
Adaptation design challenge - Structural stability -below ground
Foundation design - subsidence/ heave/ soils/ regions
13 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
30
Underpinning
31
Retaining wall and slope stability
Adaptation design challenge - Structural stability -above ground
32
Lateral stability -wind loading standards
33
Loading from ponding
Adaptation design challenge - Fixings and weatherproofing
34
Fixing standards - walls, roofs
35
Detail design for extremes - wind - 3 step approach
36
Lightning strikes (storm intensity)
37
Tanking/ underground tanks in relation to water table- contamination, buoyancy, pressure
38
Detail design for extremes - rain -thresholds/ joints
Adaptation design challenge -Materials behaviour
39
Effect of extended wetting -permeability, rotting, weight
Effect of extended heat/ UV -drying out, shrinkage, expansion, de-lamination, softening,
reflection, admittance, colour fastness
40
41
Performance in extremes - wind - air tightness, strength, suction/ pressure
42
Performance in extremes - rain
Adaptation design challenge - work on site
43
Temperature limitations for building processes
44
Stability during construction
45
Inclement winter weather -rain (reduced freezing?)
46
Working conditions -Site accommodation
Working conditions - internal conditions in incomplete/ unserviced buildings (overlap with
robustness in use)
47
Designing to manage water
Adaptation design challenge - Water supply/ conservation
48
Low water use fittings
49
Grey water storage
50
Rain water storage
51
Alternatives to water based drainage
52
Pools as irrigation water storage
53
Limits to development
54
Water-intensive construction processes
Adaptation design challenge - Drainage external/building related
55
Drain design
56
SUDS and soak away design
57
Gutter/ roof/ upstand design
Adaptation design challenge - Flood Avoidance/ Resistance/ resilience
58
Environment Agency guidance -location, infrastructure
59
Combination effects -wind + rain + sea level rise
60
Flood defence – permanent
61
Flood defence - temporary -products etc
62
Evacuation/ self sufficiency
63
Flood tolerant construction
64
Flood tolerant products and materials
65
Post-flood recovery measures
14 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Designing for landscape
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Adaptation design challenge - Landscape
66
Plant selection - drought resistance vs cooling effect of transpiration
67
Changes to ecology
68
Irrigation techniques
69
Limitations on use of water features -mosquitoes etc
70
Role of planting and paving in modifying micro climate & heat island effect
71
Failsafe design for extremes -water
72
Firebreaks
The above measures for designing for comfort are investigated in section 3. Sections 4, 5
and 6 discuss adaptation measures for construction, managing water and landscape
respectively. A summary of all adaptation measures for QEII Hospital project were given in
section 7.
2.2 ARCC research outcomes
2.2.1
DeDeRHECC project
The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funded 18 different
research consortia, which is brought together within the Adaptation and Resilience to a
Changing Climate (ARCC) Coordination Network. Among the 18 research consortia, only
‘Design & Delivery of Robust Hospital Environments in a Changing Climate’ (DeDeRHECC)
project is to investigate the adaptation for hospitals. The project is collaborated between
Cambridge University (lead), Loughborough University, Leeds University and the Open
University.
Lomas et al. (2012) at Loughborough and Cambridge University are responsible for the
building design, refurbishment strategies, environmental monitoring and modelling. They
predicted the future thermal comfort of a ward in Bradford Royal Infirmary under three
refurbishment options using simulation software IES.
Table 4 The characteristics of existing and proposed refurbishment options for Ward 9 (Lomas et al.
2012)
The three refurbishment options comprise insulation, shading and improved natural
ventilation. Detailed information is given in the table above. The adaptive comfort standard
BS EN 15251 was used as a basis for evaluation. Their refurbishment option 1 could ensure
that in extreme temperature years the wards remain comfortable right through to the 2080s
and option 2 could reduce the overheated hours further. The option 3 (introducing of radiant
cooling) ensures that overheating is eliminated entirely, but will have first cost, maintenance
and energy demand implications which the passive options do not have. In contrast, there
15 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
are a greater number of hours outside comfort zone by the 2050s for the ward without
refurbishment.
2.2.2
SNACC project
The Suburban Neighbourhood Adaptation for a Changing Climate (SNACC) project is
another project funded by EPSRC. The SNACC project involves a multi-disciplinary team of
academic partners from University of the West of England, Oxford Brookes University, and
Heriot-Watt University, as well as stakeholder partners (Bristol City, Oxford City and
Stockport Councils, and White Design) and expert consultant, Arup. The SNACC team
(Gupta and Gregg 2012) at Oxford Brookes University reviewed range of passive adaptation
measures which can be used to negative impacts of climate change on English homes. They
are:






Internal insulation
Cavity wall insulation
External insulation
High albedo exterior
Exposed thermal mass
Louvered shading on glazing
They found that though some adaptation measures were effective in reducing overheating
hours and even more so when combined into packages, no measures were able to entirely
eliminate the risk of overheating in English home, especially in the 2080s.
2.3 TSB: Design for future climate: Adapting building projects
The Technology Strategy Board Design for Future Climate: Adapting Buildings program has
funded 50 projects in 2 phases in 2010 and 2011. Among the 50 projects, there are 5
projects in type of hospital or care home. They are:





British trimmings extra care home
Extra Care 4 Exeter
Great Ormond Street Hospital
Edge Lane TIME (To Improve Mental health and learning disabilities Environments)
project
Queen Elizabeth II hospital (this project).
All measures which have been implemented in the projects are summarized in following
tables. The additional measures which are suggested to be implemented in the later could
be found in their final reports.
Table 5 Adaptation measures implemented in Extra Care 4 Exeter
Adaptation
category
Comfort
Project name: ExtraCare4Exeter




Cross flow ventilation design
Actuated window system to shut down in the event of a fire
Enclosed secure courtyard design provides secure means for
occupants to open windows and ventilate during the day and at
night
Passivhaus super-insulated and air tight envelope, compact design
16 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital








Water





Construction







Management



Heavyweight construction
Minimise internal heat loads
Cooling effect of external spaces including green roofs and
courtyard planting
MVHR System
Cold drinking points
Oversized gutters and downpipes
SUDS attenuation system
Rainwater storage crate system, underground swale irrigation
system
Green roof to community building to reduce surface runoff and
reduce peak flow rate
Careful landscaping and planting
Specify passivhaus certified windows and doors for severe
weather rating
The roof to the single story element of the building is designed to
be constructed from timber with a green roof system.
The roof of the 5 storey element is also of timber construction but
roof covering has been specified as sheet metal profile with robust
fixings to eaves and verge.
Stooled ends be incorporated into any cills
Overhangs such as parapet cappings, cills, etc. are a minimum of
35mm forward of the face of the render with a vertical leg of at
least 40mm (for cills) or 75mm for cappings
Utilize a silicone resin based render finish
Training for care and maintenance staff on how the building
heating and ventilation systems work
Simple to understand and use, operation manuals
Monitoring and record internal temperatures of flats by staff to
identify 'problem' flats in a heat wave
Training for care staff on the effects of climate change and how to
manage heat stress in people
Regular health checks of occupants to determine vulnerability to
heat stress
Encourage occupants to use the garden, café and cool spaces;
dress appropriately for temperature
Regular training for occupants on heat stress and how to manage
flats effectively
Table 6 Adaptation measures implemented in Edge Lane TIME project
Adaptation
category
Comfort
Project name: Edge Lane TIME project





Shading – planting
Reflective materials
Secure and bug free night ventilation
Interrelationship with noise & air pollution
Access to external space - overheating relief
17 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital



Building fabric insulation standards
Relevance of heat reclaim systems
Plant selection - drought resistance vs cooling effect of
transpiration
Role of planting and paving in modifying micro climate & heat
island effect

Water

Low water use fittings
Landscape


Shading parking/ transport infrastructure
Environment Agency guidance - location, infrastructure
Table 7 Adaptation measures implemented in British trimmings extra care
Adaptation category Project name: British trimmings extra care
Comfort







Thermal mass
Natural Ventilation(cross ventilation in communal area)
Ventilation stacks in flats
Smoke Control
Shading
Renewable Energy Options
Green Roofs
Water


Storm water
Rainwater harvesting
Construction


Foundations & ground stability
Building shell
Landscape









Green Infrastructure
Conserve & diversify significant habitats
Establish Sustainable Green Structure
Resilient Shading Structures
Root Protection to Building Foundations
Multi-Use of Hard Surfaces
Gardens Designed For Adaptation
Utilize Water For Cooling
‘Cool’ Paving
Table 8 Adaptation measures implemented in Great Ormond Street Hospital
Adaptation
category
Project name: Great Ormond Street Hospital
Comfort



Installation of thermally efficient internal blinds
Increase openable area for mixed mode system
Installation of external shading
Water



SUDS
Rainwater harvesting and grey water recycling
Water efficient appliances
18 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital




Water re-use
Borehole
Separation of surface / foul water systems
Re-design the roof drainage system for predicted increase in
rainfall and/or greenroof installation

Construction



Select roof materials and façade finishes based on good UV
resistance
Raising of assets / waterproofing
Design façade to exposure category 2
Detail building corners and interfaces of façade and roof with the
expectation of higher wind speeds
Managment





Improved water management
Leakage detection and elimination
Water metering
Education and awareness
Safe access plan
Note that shading and ventilation are the most common measures implemented in all
projects to tackling overheating issue under changing climate.
19 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3 Designing for comfort
The previous report (Gupta and Du 2012) identified future climate changes for the site of
Queen Elizabeth (QE) II Hospital project, e.g. Increase in maximum temperatures of 2.7 °C
by 2030s rising to 4.1 °C by the 2050s and 6.5°C by the 2080s; increase in summer mean
and minimum temperature of 2.1°C by 2030s rising to approximately 3.2°C by the 2050s and
approximately 5.1°C by the 2080s.
This report is focused on adaptation measures for comfort, construction and water. The
adaptation measures for water and construction are given based on empirical experience.
The adaptation measures for comfort were tested by numerical modelling of the hospital
building. The modelling of 11 individual adaptation measures was conducted in IES.
Note that due to the probabilistic feature of UKCP09 projections, several risk levels were
nominated by the research group who generated PROMETHEUS weather data for building
simulation. By examining the process of generating future weather data, the authors
selected the 50 percentile of high emission weather data as the inputs for building
performance simulation.
To design buildings without overheating issues under a future climate, the following steps
were conducted to develop adaptation measures for QEII Hospital project.
1. The performance of the base model was tested using three overheating metrics.
2. Adaptation measures for comfort mentioned in Design for Future Climate report
(Gething 2010) were considered.
3. The adaptation measures which are applicable for QEII Hospital project were
selected (highlighted Table 9).
4. To test the performance of these adaptation measures, detailed building level energy
models were built in the building thermal simulation package IES (This was done by
Building Services Design).
5. The performance of individual measures was tested on the building model. CIBSE
office overheating guidance was selected as evaluation metric for wards, because it
is an efficient and transparent, and it is widely used by practitioners. The CIBSE
guidance of overheating for offices is 1% annual occupied hours over operative
temperature of 28 ⁰C (CIBSE 2006).
20 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 9 Adaptation measures for comfort
Design opportunity (adaptation measure)
1
2
Shading - building form
Glass technologies
Adapted element
Keeping cool for internal spaces
Window
Overheating modelling in IES
1.1
Interstitial blinds
Not applicable at this stage of QEII Hospital project
1.2
Internal blinds or curtain
Window
IES model case 1
1.3
External fixed shades
Window
IES model case 2
1.4
External adjustable shading
Window
IES model case 3
2.1
Double glazing
Window
Considered in the base model
2.2
Triple glazing
Window
IES model case 4
2.1
Windows filming
Window
IES model case 5, 6
3.1
Green roof
Roof
Not implementable in IES VE
3
Green roofs/transpiration cooling
4
Shading - planting
4
Deciduous planting on south façade
Facade
Not implementable in IES VE
5
Reflective materials
5
Reflective coatings on external walls and roof
Wall/roof
IES model case 7, 8
6
Conflict between maximising daylight
and overheating
6
Adjust window size
Window
Not applicable at this stage of QEII Hospital project
7
Secure and bug free night ventilation
7
Secure and bug free night ventilation
Window
Considered in the base model
8.1
Acoustic
HVAC system
Not implementable in IES VE
8
Interrelationship
pollution
8.2
Air purifier
HVAC system
Not implementable in IES VE
8.3
Mechanical ventilation
HVAC system
IES model case 9-11
Adjust ceiling height
Wall
Not applicable at this stage of QEII Hospital project
9
with
noise
&
Interrelationship with ceiling height
air
9
21 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Design opportunity (adaptation measure)
10
Role of thermal mass in significantly
warmer climate
Adapted element
Overheating modelling in IES
10.1
Apply concrete floor
Floor
Considered in the base model
10.2
Apply concrete internal wall
Wall
Considered in the base model
10.3
Apply heavy weight external wall
Wall
Considered in the base model
11.1
Apply concrete staircase and fireplace
Internal space
Applied already
11.2
Install phase change material
Wall
Could implement in IES VE by using airconditioned cavity, however its accuracy is not
guaranteed
11
Enhancing thermal mass in lightweight
construction
12
Energy efficient/ renewable powered
cooling systems
12.1
Heat Recovery Ventilation (operation in
summer, when outdoor T> indoor T)
HVAC system
Not effective at current climate, may be
implemented at future
13
Groundwater cooling
13.1
Groundwater cooling
Space nearby
Not applicable for overheating modelling
14
Enhanced control systems - peak lopping
14.1
Enhanced control systems - peak lopping
HVAC system
Not applicable for overheating modelling
15
Maximum temperature legislation
15.1
Change building regulation
Building regulation
Apply adaptive thermal comfort limit
16
16.1
Keeping cool for spaces around buildings
building to building shading
Planning
Not applicable at this stage of QEII Hospital project
17.1
Access to external space
Not implementable in IES VE
18
Built form - building to building shading
Access to external space -overheating
relief
Shade from planting
18.1
Listed above
Listed above
19
Manufactured shading
19.1
Listed above
Listed above
20
Interrelationship with renewables
20.1
Listed above
Listed above
21
Shading parking/ transport infrastructure
Role of water - landscape/ swimming
pools
21.1
Shading parking/ transport infrastructure
Planning
Need review overheating metric for transportation
22.1
Role of water - landscape/ swimming pools
Landscape
Not implementable in IES VE
17
22
22 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Planning
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
The selected individual measures for QEII Hospital project (highlighted in grey in Table 9)
were categorised in 5 groups: high albedo surface, window and film, thermal mass of fabric,
ventilation and shading. The performance of these individual measures was tested based on
overheating percentages of 89 consulting rooms in QEII Hospital project.
To compare the performance of individual adaptation measures, the performance of base
model and base model settings are described in section 2.1. The more detailed information
of base model can be found in Appendix 1 and 2.
The performances of individual adaptation measures for QEII Hospital project and the
settings 11 individual adaptation measures are described in section 2.2.
3.1 Modelling of the performance base model
3.1.1
Overheating analysis
The IES model of QEII hospital for overheating analysis was created by Building Services
Design (Tysoe and Ahmad 2012). The model supplied has already included certain climate
change adaptation measures, such as double glazing, heavy weight constructions.
The detailed information of construction layers in the base model is attached in appendix 1.
The brief information of the base model is summarized in the following table.
Table 10 Opaque building material
Construction
elements
External wall
Ground floor
Roof
250mm ceiling
100mm ceiling
Door
Internal partition
EN ISO U-value
2
(W/m K)
0.2000
0.2074
0.1502
1.8341
2.2826
2.1944
1.6896
SBEM thermal capacity
2
(kJ/(m K)
134.07
45.86
200.00
176.40
97.02
22.79
79.20
Admittance
2
(W/m K)
4.4292
2.1887
5.5492
5.7239
5.6068
2.4136
3.4243
Table 11 Glazed building material
Construction elements
Double glazing
EN ISO U-value (including
2
frame) (W/m K)
1.5006
G-value
(BS EN 410)
0.4068
Visible light normal
transmittance
0.65
The building model has 461 zones in total which include 89 consulting rooms, 135 circulation
areas, 125 auxiliary ventilation areas, 39 specialist areas with medical machines and 73
areas for WC/Dirty utilities. Detailed information of zone thermal templates and size are
given in appendix 2. This report focuses on overheating analysis of the 89 consulting rooms
which don’t have a cooling system.
All building spaces have been modelled with an infiltration rate of 0.15 air change per hour.
Internal conditions (such as minimum fresh air ventilation rates, occupants, and lighting and
equipment gains) in the model were set according to NCM database.
In this report, the following table is given to highlight internal heat gain and ventilation rate of
the consulting area in QEII Hospital building model.
23 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 12 Heat gains
Thermal template
Lighting
Lighting sensible
(W/m2)
Circulation
10
0.45
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
Consulting room
10
0.45
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
General supply Extract
5
0.45
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
Specialist area/Imaging
10
0.45
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
5
0.45
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
WC/Dirty Utility
Thermal template
People
People sensible
(W/p)
People latent
(W/p)
Occupancy
Density
(m2/person)
Profile
(see table 15 & 16)
Circulation
90
60
30
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
Consulting room
90
60
10
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
General supply Extract
90
60
10
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
Specialist area/Imaging
90
60
10
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
90
60
10
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
WC/Dirty Utility
Thermal template
Miscellaneous
sensible
Consulting room
General supply Extract
Specialist area/Imaging
Profile
(see table 15 & 16)
Radiant fraction
0
/
15 W/m
2
0.22
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
10 W/m
2
0.22
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
15 W/m
2
0.22
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
0
/
Circulation
Miscellaneous
Profile
(see table 15 & 16)
Radiant fraction
WC/Dirty Utility
/
/
Table 13 Ventilation rate
Thermal template
Infiltration rate
(ACH)
Profile
Circulation
0.15
on
Consulting room
0.15
General supply Extract
0.15
Specialist area/Imaging
WC/Dirty Utility
Profile
(see table 15 &
16)
Auxiliary vent
/
/
on
/
/
on
10 l/s/person
BSD7to19
0.15
on
2 ACH
BSD7to19
0.15
on
/
/
The heating set point of the consulting area is 21 ⁰C with setback at 12 ⁰C at night time. The
heating and cooling profiles of other type zones are given in Table 14.
24 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 14 Heating and cooling settings
Thermal template
Heating profile
(see table 10 & 11)
Cooling profile
(see table 15 & 16)
Circulation
BSD Setback 18
off
Consulting room
BSD Setback 21
off
General supply Extract
BSD Setback 21
off
Specialist area/Imaging
BSD Setback 21
BSD7to19, setpoint 21 oC
WC/Dirty Utility
BSD Setback 18
off
The IES model was run with all the assumptions made above and the simulation results
were tested against three overheating metrics mentioned in section 1.3.5 (Table 2).
Overheated zones are highlighted in red in Table 17. The results in Table 17 indicate that BS
EN 15251 adaptive thermal comfort limit is the strictest benchmark for the future climate of
QEII hospital site. As CIBSE overheating benchmark (1% occupied hours over operative
temperature of 28 ⁰C) is widely used in building services industry, it is used in following
studies to test performance of adaptation measures. Figure 9 illustrated overheated zones
(in red) under 2050s climate condition based on CIBSE overheating benchmark.
Figure 9 Overheated zones in 2080s (CIBSE overheating benchmark)
25 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 15 Weekday profiles
Profile
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
BSD7to19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Heating setback 21
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
12
12
12
12
12
12
Heating setback 18
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
12
12
12
12
12
12
Off
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 16 Weekend and holiday profiles
Profile
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
BSD8to18 lunchbreak
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BSD7to19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Heating setback 21
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
12
12
12
12
12
12
Heating setback 18
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
12
12
12
12
12
12
Off
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
26 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 17 Overheating percentages of base models
Zone
Percentage of occupied hours over dry bulb
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 2.13% (50 of 2349 occupied
hours)
P
P
P
P
CIBSE
baseline 2030s 2050s 2080s
baseline
50%
H 50% H 50% H 50%
Percentage of occupied hours over operative
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 1%
Percentage of occupied hours over adaptive
comfort limits
Threshold of 5%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
0-ADMIN
1.2%
0.0%
0.9%
2.6%
6.1%
1.1%
0.0%
0.4%
2.2%
6.0%
4.0%
15.9%
7.5%
7.9%
13.0%
0-ADMIN MRI
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
1.7%
18.6%
4.4%
4.1%
7.3%
0-EXAM 1
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.3%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.3%
1.9%
16.0%
5.1%
5.2%
9.0%
0-EXAM 2
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.3%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
1.8%
2.0%
17.1%
4.5%
4.3%
7.8%
0-EXAM 3
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.3%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
1.7%
1.9%
16.6%
4.4%
4.0%
7.3%
0-EXAM 4
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.4%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
1.8%
1.7%
15.2%
4.5%
4.3%
7.8%
0-FAITH
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
2.0%
5.2%
0.7%
0.0%
0.1%
1.4%
4.4%
3.7%
21.9%
8.4%
7.8%
13.2%
0-HOTDESKS
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.2%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.4%
1.7%
10.2%
4.0%
4.5%
8.4%
0-INTRVW 1
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.9%
3.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.5%
2.4%
17.8%
4.9%
5.4%
9.3%
0-INTRVW 2
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
1.2%
3.7%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.4%
3.1%
26.3%
8.6%
7.5%
11.4%
0-OFFICE
1.4%
0.0%
1.5%
3.1%
6.9%
1.3%
0.0%
1.3%
2.9%
6.8%
4.7%
16.5%
9.5%
9.3%
14.6%
0-PALS
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
1.0%
3.4%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.2%
2.8%
24.0%
7.2%
6.4%
10.8%
0-POLICE
0.9%
0.0%
0.3%
2.1%
5.3%
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
1.8%
4.8%
4.7%
31.1%
16.3%
14.2%
16.2%
0-SINGLERM
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.1%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.3%
1.6%
7.5%
3.0%
4.0%
8.0%
0-TRIAGE 1
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.6%
1.6%
6.6%
2.6%
3.5%
7.9%
0-TRIAGE 2
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
1.0%
3.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.6%
1.7%
10.1%
3.7%
4.0%
8.0%
0-TRIAGE 3
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
0.9%
3.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
2.3%
1.7%
10.0%
3.6%
4.0%
7.7%
0-TRIAGE 4
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
2.0%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
1.4%
1.4%
9.7%
2.9%
3.2%
6.4%
0-TRIAGE 5
1.3%
0.0%
0.8%
2.8%
6.9%
1.1%
0.0%
0.2%
2.3%
6.5%
4.1%
12.4%
7.3%
8.1%
13.5%
0-TRIAGE 6
1.4%
0.0%
0.8%
2.7%
6.6%
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
2.3%
6.3%
4.0%
13.4%
7.1%
7.6%
12.9%
0-TRIAGE 7
1.3%
0.0%
0.8%
2.8%
6.8%
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
2.3%
6.4%
4.0%
12.5%
7.2%
8.0%
13.4%
0-TRIAGE 9
1.2%
0.0%
0.9%
2.8%
7.1%
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
2.3%
6.7%
4.0%
11.2%
7.4%
8.1%
13.7%
27 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Zone
Percentage of occupied hours over dry bulb
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 2.13% (50 of 2349 occupied
hours)
P
P
P
P
CIBSE
baseline 2030s 2050s 2080s
baseline
50%
H 50% H 50% H 50%
Percentage of occupied hours over operative
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 1%
Percentage of occupied hours over adaptive
comfort limits
Threshold of 5%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
0-WAIT 2
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
2.3%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
1.5%
1.4%
14.6%
3.4%
3.4%
7.3%
0-WC SR
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.7%
1-ADMIN 2
1.0%
0.0%
0.2%
1.4%
4.8%
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
0.9%
3.7%
2.4%
12.9%
5.4%
6.0%
10.0%
1-ADMINRET
0.7%
0.0%
0.2%
1.4%
4.2%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.5%
2.9%
7.8%
4.9%
6.3%
9.7%
1-C BASE 1
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
1.2%
3.8%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
2.5%
1.7%
13.5%
5.4%
5.4%
8.7%
1-C BASE 2
1.4%
0.0%
1.2%
3.0%
7.6%
1.3%
0.0%
0.5%
2.5%
7.4%
4.8%
15.6%
8.3%
8.8%
14.6%
1-C EXAM 1
0.9%
0.0%
0.7%
2.1%
5.6%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%
1.7%
4.6%
3.0%
15.4%
6.9%
7.2%
11.7%
1-C EXAM 10
1.1%
0.0%
1.0%
2.9%
6.9%
1.0%
0.0%
0.2%
2.2%
6.3%
4.3%
16.4%
8.3%
8.9%
14.3%
1-C EXAM 11
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
1.2%
4.1%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.7%
2.0%
10.5%
5.0%
5.9%
9.3%
1-C EXAM 12
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
1.1%
4.1%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.9%
2.1%
11.5%
4.9%
5.4%
9.1%
1-C EXAM 13
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.2%
1.6%
11.7%
3.7%
4.0%
8.1%
1-C EXAM 14
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.6%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
2.3%
1.5%
10.6%
3.6%
4.0%
8.3%
1-C EXAM 15
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
1.0%
3.7%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.6%
1.8%
11.5%
4.3%
4.6%
8.4%
1-C EXAM 16
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.0%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.0%
1.7%
11.5%
3.9%
4.1%
7.7%
1-C EXAM 17
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
1.2%
1.2%
11.5%
3.4%
3.5%
6.7%
1-C EXAM 19
1.0%
0.0%
1.1%
2.4%
6.0%
0.7%
0.0%
0.6%
2.0%
5.2%
3.6%
16.7%
8.2%
8.1%
13.1%
1-C EXAM 2
1.0%
0.0%
0.9%
2.4%
6.0%
0.7%
0.0%
0.5%
2.0%
5.4%
3.4%
15.5%
7.4%
7.6%
12.5%
1-C EXAM 20
1.3%
0.0%
1.2%
2.6%
6.6%
0.9%
0.0%
0.8%
2.2%
6.0%
3.6%
14.2%
7.3%
7.7%
12.9%
1-C EXAM 21
1.0%
0.0%
0.2%
1.5%
5.1%
0.9%
0.0%
0.1%
1.2%
4.4%
2.5%
7.2%
4.2%
5.7%
10.6%
1-C EXAM 22
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
2.0%
5.6%
1.0%
0.0%
0.1%
1.3%
4.6%
3.0%
11.8%
5.2%
6.4%
10.9%
1-C EXAM 3
0.7%
0.0%
0.5%
2.0%
5.2%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
1.2%
4.0%
2.9%
15.2%
6.6%
6.5%
11.3%
1-C EXAM 4
0.6%
0.0%
0.4%
1.7%
4.7%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
1.1%
3.6%
2.7%
14.7%
6.0%
6.1%
10.5%
1-C EXAM 5
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%
1.5%
4.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
1.0%
3.2%
2.4%
14.4%
5.7%
5.9%
10.0%
28 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Zone
Percentage of occupied hours over dry bulb
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 2.13% (50 of 2349 occupied
hours)
P
P
P
P
CIBSE
baseline 2030s 2050s 2080s
baseline
50%
H 50% H 50% H 50%
Percentage of occupied hours over operative
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 1%
Percentage of occupied hours over adaptive
comfort limits
Threshold of 5%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
1-C EXAM 6
1.4%
0.0%
1.0%
2.9%
7.0%
1.3%
0.0%
0.3%
2.3%
6.5%
4.6%
16.0%
7.7%
8.5%
14.0%
1-C EXAM 7
1.1%
0.0%
0.4%
2.3%
6.0%
0.8%
0.0%
0.2%
1.9%
5.6%
3.5%
15.7%
7.2%
7.7%
13.1%
1-C EXAM 9
1.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.2%
6.1%
0.7%
0.0%
0.2%
1.9%
5.5%
3.2%
15.3%
7.1%
7.6%
13.0%
1-ECHO
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
1.1%
3.9%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.9%
1.7%
7.7%
3.2%
3.9%
8.4%
1-HOLTER
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
0.9%
3.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
2.2%
1.6%
15.7%
4.4%
4.3%
8.8%
1-HOTDESK 1
0.9%
0.0%
0.3%
1.7%
4.9%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.9%
3.2%
3.0%
7.3%
5.1%
6.5%
10.2%
1-HOTDESK 2
0.7%
0.0%
0.1%
1.1%
4.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.9%
1.7%
10.7%
4.2%
4.9%
9.0%
1-INTERV 1
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
1.9%
4.9%
0.9%
0.0%
0.1%
1.2%
3.9%
3.3%
22.8%
7.9%
7.7%
11.5%
1-PRE ASS 1
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.8%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.8%
2.0%
16.9%
5.1%
5.2%
8.5%
1-PRE ASS 2
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.8%
3.2%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.1%
2.1%
16.9%
5.2%
5.2%
8.7%
1-PRE ASS 3
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
1.6%
4.6%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.9%
3.6%
2.5%
16.4%
5.8%
6.3%
10.2%
1-RECEPTN
0.8%
0.0%
0.2%
1.5%
4.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.8%
3.3%
2.9%
23.4%
8.5%
8.0%
11.5%
2-ADMIN 1
1.4%
0.0%
0.8%
2.4%
5.8%
1.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.9%
4.7%
4.3%
22.7%
8.3%
8.6%
12.6%
2-ADMIN 2
1.3%
0.0%
0.9%
2.6%
6.0%
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
1.9%
5.0%
4.8%
25.2%
11.6%
9.5%
14.6%
2-ADMIN 3
1.5%
0.0%
1.7%
3.1%
6.9%
1.3%
0.0%
1.2%
2.6%
6.7%
4.8%
20.2%
9.8%
9.6%
14.7%
2-C EXAM 01
1.5%
0.0%
1.4%
3.2%
7.7%
1.3%
0.0%
0.8%
2.9%
7.7%
6.5%
20.3%
11.4%
10.7%
17.2%
2-C EXAM 02
1.3%
0.0%
1.2%
2.9%
7.1%
1.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.4%
6.4%
5.6%
19.8%
9.7%
9.4%
15.4%
2-C EXAM 03
1.4%
0.0%
1.2%
3.0%
7.2%
1.2%
0.0%
0.4%
2.5%
6.8%
5.9%
19.8%
9.8%
9.6%
15.9%
2-C EXAM 05
1.8%
0.0%
1.6%
3.4%
8.4%
1.7%
0.0%
1.2%
3.4%
8.5%
7.2%
20.4%
11.5%
11.2%
18.1%
2-C EXAM 06
2.0%
0.0%
1.8%
3.9%
9.1%
1.7%
0.0%
1.4%
3.7%
9.6%
8.0%
20.7%
12.7%
12.7%
19.5%
2-C EXAM 07
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
2.1%
5.8%
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
1.4%
4.8%
3.1%
11.7%
5.4%
6.6%
11.1%
2-C EXAM 08
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
2.0%
5.7%
1.0%
0.0%
0.1%
1.3%
4.7%
2.9%
10.9%
5.2%
6.4%
11.0%
29 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Zone
Percentage of occupied hours over dry bulb
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 2.13% (50 of 2349 occupied
hours)
Percentage of occupied hours over operative
temperature of 28 ⁰C
Threshold of 1%
Percentage of occupied hours over adaptive
comfort limits
Threshold of 5%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
CIBSE
baseline
P
baseline
50%
P
2030s
H 50%
P
2050s
H 50%
P
2080s
H 50%
2-C EXAM 09
1.7%
0.0%
1.1%
2.9%
7.2%
1.5%
0.0%
0.7%
2.6%
7.2%
4.9%
8.0%
6.6%
8.6%
13.7%
2-C EXAM 10
1.4%
0.0%
0.9%
2.5%
6.6%
1.3%
0.0%
0.3%
2.0%
6.2%
4.0%
9.8%
5.9%
7.4%
12.4%
2-C EXAM 11
1.1%
0.0%
0.4%
2.2%
6.3%
1.0%
0.0%
0.2%
1.4%
5.1%
3.1%
10.0%
5.6%
6.8%
11.7%
2-C EXAM 12
1.1%
0.0%
0.2%
1.8%
5.4%
0.9%
0.0%
0.1%
1.1%
4.4%
2.6%
10.7%
5.2%
6.3%
10.7%
2-COUNSEL 1
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
3.2%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.0%
2.3%
17.3%
5.3%
5.4%
9.0%
2-COUNSEL 2
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
3.1%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.8%
2.4%
18.4%
5.3%
5.4%
9.1%
2-COUNSEL 3
0.7%
0.0%
0.1%
1.1%
4.0%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.8%
2.6%
18.4%
5.9%
6.0%
10.1%
2-COUNSEL 4
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
1.4%
4.3%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
3.2%
2.6%
18.7%
5.9%
6.2%
10.3%
2-CUB 1
1.0%
0.0%
0.4%
2.4%
5.9%
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
1.8%
5.1%
4.0%
23.7%
9.7%
8.8%
14.2%
2-CUB 2
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
2.0%
5.2%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
1.5%
4.3%
3.6%
23.9%
8.6%
8.1%
12.9%
2-CUB 3
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.9%
3.4%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
1.9%
2.7%
23.1%
6.5%
5.9%
10.3%
2-CUB 4
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.6%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.4%
2.5%
23.0%
5.8%
5.4%
9.6%
2-CUB 5
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.6%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.4%
2.5%
23.0%
5.8%
5.4%
9.5%
2-CUB 6
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
2.9%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.6%
2.6%
22.9%
6.2%
5.7%
10.1%
2-INFO
1.4%
0.0%
1.6%
3.2%
7.3%
1.1%
0.0%
1.2%
2.8%
7.2%
4.6%
14.4%
9.0%
9.0%
14.9%
2-INTERVW 1
0.9%
0.0%
0.2%
1.5%
4.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.9%
3.2%
3.0%
23.3%
7.4%
7.2%
11.0%
2-INTERVW 2
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
1.1%
4.0%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
2.8%
2.7%
17.7%
5.9%
6.3%
9.7%
2-INTERVW 3
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
1.9%
4.9%
0.8%
0.0%
0.1%
1.2%
4.0%
3.0%
17.6%
6.3%
6.8%
11.0%
3-ADMIN
0.8%
0.0%
0.2%
1.4%
4.3%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
3.1%
2.6%
20.3%
6.5%
6.4%
10.4%
3-HOTDESK 1
1.9%
0.0%
1.6%
3.5%
8.3%
1.6%
0.0%
1.3%
3.2%
8.6%
7.2%
25.8%
14.2%
13.0%
19.1%
3-STAFF
1.4%
0.0%
1.1%
2.7%
6.6%
1.0%
0.0%
0.3%
1.9%
6.0%
4.2%
11.2%
7.0%
8.3%
13.3%
30 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3.1.2
Energy consumption of base model
The IES energy model of QEII hospital is almost same as the model for overheating
analysis. The only difference is that energy model uses Test Reference Year data as it
represents the most ‘typical’ weather condition. The weather data files used for simulation
are listed in Table 18.
Table 18 Weather data for energy simulation
Location
Heathrow
Welwyn
Garden City
Timelines
Baseline
Medium term
(2050s)
Long term
(2080s)
Description of weather data
CIBSE TRY (1983-2004)
Prometheus 2040-2069 high
emission 50% TRY
Prometheus 2070-2099 high
emission 50% TRY
Name of weather files
LondonTRY05.fwt
2050_Welwyn_a1fi_50_percentile_TR
Y.epw
2080_Welwyn_a1fi_50_percentile_TR
Y.epw
Detailed energy consumption simulation results for base model are listed in following table.
Note that the heating is provided by a heat pump with CoP of 3.8. The cooling Seasonal
Energy Efficiency Ratio is 5 and delivery efficiency is 0.9516.
Table 19 Base model energy consumptions and loads
Base model energy data
Current
2050s
2080s
441.4
438.5
431.4
30.3
30.3
30.3
Total equip energy (MWh)
131.8
131.8
131.8
Total lights energy (MWh)
155.3
155.3
155.3
System auxiliary + DHW pumps energy (MWh)
28.6
28.6
28.6
System boilers DHW energy (MWh)
30.3
30.3
30.3
System chillers energy (MWh)
12.5
22.8
30.9
109.4
93.1
75.5
3.8
6.9
9.3
PV generated electricity (MWh)
-17.6
-31.5
-31.3
System electricity (MWh)
154.3
151.4
144.3
Room heating plant sensible load (MWh)
384.6
325.0
264.3
Auxiliary ventilation heating load (MWh)
31.2
28.9
22.5
Room cooling plant sensible load (MWh)
31.0
53.8
69.8
Auxiliary ventilation sensible cooling load (MWh)
25.9
47.5
69.4
1.3
5.0
4.8
61.0
111.4
150.9
Total electricity (MWh)
Total natural gas (MWh)
System boilers space conditioning energy (MWh)
Heat rejection fans/pumps energy (MWh)
Auxiliary ventilation latent cooling load (MWh)
Chillers load (MWh)
The distribution of energy usage is illustrated in following pie chart. Note that gas is only
used for providing domestic hot water in QEII hospital IES model. The gas consumption and
electricity consumption for equipment and lights would not change due to climate and
adaptation measures.
31 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Total energy consumption (471.7 MWh) exclusive of PV
Electricity by
lights, 155.3, 33%
Total gas
(by DHW
only),
30.3, 6%
Electricity by
equip, 131.8, 28%
Total electricity
94%
Electricity by
system, 154.3,
33%
Figure 10 Total energy consumption pie chart
Reducing electricity consumption for system would be one of key target for adaptation
meausre development. The makeup of system electricity consumption is illustrated in
following figure. Note that the electricity consumption for auxiliary energy and DHW pumps
would not change due to climate and adaption measures.
Electricity for system (MWh)
-17.6
-20
109.4
0
20
PV generated electricity
40
Heating
60
28.6
80
100
Auxiliary Energy + DHW pumps
120
Chillers
12.5 3.8
140
Heat rej fans/pumps
Figure 11 Electricity consumption details
As one of the benefits of increasing solar radiation under future climate, the electricity
generated by 170 m2 PV panel will increase, as illustrated in following figure.
PV generated electricity (MWh)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Base model
2050s
Figure 12 PV generated electricity
32 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
2080s
160
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3.1.3
Energy consumption of alterative models
The base model supplied Building Services Design (Tysoe and Ahmad 2012) has already
included a number of climate change adaptation measures, such as good insulation, glazing,
exposed thermal mass and night time purge ventilation. This section investigates the energy
implication of these measures compared with alterative measures.
Building control minimum U-value: Comparing with building control minimum requirement,
high performance building fabrics with lower U-values are used in the base model. Both Uvalues in the base model and building control minimum model are listed in Table 20.
Table 20 U-values of building fabrics in base model and building control minimum model
U-value (W/m2K) Base model Building control minimum
External walls
0.2
0.35
Roof
0.15
0.25
Floor
0.2
0.25
Glazing: high performance windows with a U-value of 1.3 W/m2K are used in the base
model. The original U-value of all windows in the alterative model is 2.2 W/m2K.
Thermal mass: The base model used 250mm concrete as a ceiling. An alternative ceiling
specification would be 12.5mm suspended plasterboard ceiling MF Casoline (thermal
conductivity 0.19W/mK, density 8 kg/m3) plus the 250mm concrete.
Night time purge ventilation: In the base model, some top hung windows were designed to
open at night time when indoor temperature is higher than 17⁰C. The locations of these
windows are highlighted in red in Figure 13. An alternative model without night time
ventilation was tested to compare the performance of night time ventilation.
Figure 13 Openable windows for night time ventilation (highlighted in red)
Solar control glass: In the base model, all windows were configured with G-value of 0.41.
Two alternative models with G-value of 0.61 windows were tested to compare the
33 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
performance of solar control glass (the base model). The 0.6 G-value windows could save
energy however it causes more overheating in natural ventilation spaces.
Tree shading: The tree plan is illustrated in Figure 14. To simplify the energy model, only
new planted trees near the south edge of the building were considered in the model (Figure
15). The specifications of the trees are:


Sorbus aria: Height = 8m Spread = 4m
Quercus palustris: Height = 12m Spread = 8m
Figure 14 Tree plan
Figure 15 Energy model of tree shading
34 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
The energy implications of alternative measures at current climate is illustrated in Figure 16.
The figure shows that better insulation (including wall, roof and windows) and nigh-time
ventilation could significantly reduce the energy consumption. The embedded energy
savings in the current building design are:




38.2 MWh by improving U-value roof and floor to 0.2 W/m2K and improving U-value
external wall to 0.15 W/m2K;
37.8 MWh by using windows with U-value of 1.3 W/m2K;
27.1 MWh by using exposed ceiling;
24.1 MWh by night-time ventilation.
In terms of solar control glass, better G-value (0.41) windows could reduce the overheating
percentage (as illustrated in Figure 17), but it increases the energy consumption comparing
the windows with G-value of 0.61 and the same U-value.
Figure 16 Energy implications of measures which have been included in the design
35 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Total system energy (MWh)
Average overheating percentage of 89 natural vent zones (%)
155
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
154
153
152
151
150
149
148
G-value of 0.41 for all
G-value of 0.41 for
G-value of 0.61 for all
windows
SE/SW facing windows
windows
G-value of 0.61 for
NE/NW facing windows
Average overheating percentage (%)
Total system energy (MWh)
Figure 17 System energy consumption and average overheating percentage at current climate
The modelling results of trees show that trees have positive impact on reducing cooling load,
but they increase heating load in other seasons. The total impact is minimal.
36 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3.2 Modelling of the overheating performance of individual adaptation
measures
3.2.1
High albedo surface
By reducing irradiative gains, high albedo surface (light-coloured roof and external wall) can
reduce interior air temperature, peak cooling demand. It also helps reduces the urban heat
island effect. Two types of paint were tested in IES.
Description of measures


White paint: paint outside surface of roof and external wall in white colour.
Cream paint: paint outside surface of roof and external wall in cream colour.
Note that all the settings of base model are reported in Overheating metrics and base IES
model report. The settings of white and cream paint surface are suggested by Halewood and
Wilde (2010).
Implementation of adaptation measure in IES:
Table 21 Implementations of high albedo surface in IES
Settings
Base model
Outside surface emissivity
Outside surface solar absorptance
White paint
Cream paint
0.9
0.87
0.2
0.4
0.9
0.7 for external wall
0.5 for roof
Results:
The percentages of annual occupied hours over operative temperature 28 ⁰C of 89
consulting rooms in QEII Hospital project were calculated in building thermal simulation
software. The average value of overheating percentages of 89 consulting at current, 2050s
and 2080s are listed in following table. The results shows that the white paint does help
relieve overheating issue now and in future.
Table 22 Overheating percentages of adaptation measures
Time lines
Base model
Cream paint
White paint
Current
0.70%
0.70%
0.60%
2050s
1.20%
1.20%
1.10%
2080s
4.00%
3.80%
3.60%
37 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3.2.2
Window and film technologies
Reflective solar film, also known as "mirror" film, is designed to ward off the sun's glare and
heat and to keep building space cooler. The film can be applied to most glass surfaces. Two
types of windows films were tested in IES. Triple glazing is also considered here as the base
model used double glazing windows.
Description:




Base model: Double glazing windows with specifications in Table 23.
Triple glazing: Triple glazing windows with specifications in Table 23.
Light film: Triple glazing windows and light reflective window film which
allows 48% of light through (PURLFROST Ltd 2012).
Dark film: Triple glazing windows and dark reflective window film which
allows 18% of light through (PURLFROST Ltd 2012).
Implementation of adaptation measure in IES:
Table 23 Implementation of windows film in IES
Settings
Base model
Triple glazing
Light film
Dark film
Glazing type
Double
Triple
Triple with light film
Triple with dark film
G-value (BS EN 410)
0.4068
0.3651
0.3850
0.3634
0.900
0.900
0.74
0.7
Visible light normal transmittance
0.65
0.65
0.312 (48%)
0.117 (18%)
Transmittance of internal layer
0.78
0.78
0.312 (40%)
0.094 (12%)
Outside/inside reflectance
0.07
0.07
0.022 (31%)
0.039 (55%)
1.5006
1.2332
1.5006
1.5006
Inside surface emissivity
2
U-value (W/m K, including frame)
Frame
10% metal frame
Results:
The average of overheating percentages of 89 consulting rooms at current, 2050s and
2080s are listed in following table. The results shows that dark film and triple glazing can
help reduce overheating percentages at current climate and in the future. The light film
technologies have limited effect on reducing overheating for this project.
Table 24 Overheating percentages of adaptation measures
Time lines
Base model
Triple glazing
Light film
Dark film
Current
0.70%
0.60%
0.70%
0.60%
2050s
1.20%
1.00%
1.10%
1.00%
2080s
4.00%
3.60%
3.80%
3.50%
38 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3.2.3
Ventilation
When external air temperature is lower than indoor air temperature, increasing ventilation
the rate could help reduce indoor air temperature. The following four ventilation strategies
were tested in IES.
Description:




Base model (windows opening): This ventilation strategy assumes that top hung
and side hung windows open subject to the conditions listed in Table 25. The
simulation of this ventilation strategy was conducted in IES MacroFlo using network
ventilation calculation method.
2 air change rate: Building space with constant 2 air change rate ventilation rate
which provided by exhaust fans or windows opening.
3.5 air change rate: Building space with constant 3.5 air change rate ventilation rate
which provided by exhaust fans or windows opening.
5 air change rate: Building space with constant 5 air change rate ventilation rate
which provided by exhaust fans or windows opening.
Implementation of adaptation measure in IES:
Table 25 Implementation of ventilation strategies in IES
Ventilation strategies
Implementations in IES
Set windows opening type in MarcoFlo as follows,
Opening category: side hung
Opening Category: 95%
o
Max Angle Open: 90 (side hung)
Crack Flow Coefficient: 0.15
Degree of Opening:
On when indoor air temperature >19⁰C and > external air temperature
during 8:00am-18:30
Base model
opening)
(windows
Off during 18:30-8:00am
Opening category: top hung
Opening Category: 95%
o
Max Angle Open: 30 (top hung)
Crack Flow Coefficient: 0.15
Degree of Opening:
On when indoor air temperature >19⁰C and > external air temperature
during 8:00am-24:00
On when indoor air temperature >17⁰C during 0:00-8:00am
2 air change rate
Set auxiliary ventilation rate as 2 ACH, and set its profile as BSD7to19
3.5 air change rate
Set auxiliary ventilation rate as 3.5 ACH, and set its profile as BSD7to19
5 air change rate
Set auxiliary ventilation rate as 5 ACH , and set its profile as BSD7to19
39 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Results:
The average overheating percentages of 89 consulting rooms at current, 2050s and 2080s
are listed in following table. The results show that conditional windows opening (base model)
could significantly reduce overheating percentages. It is the most effective measure so far.
Note that window opening may not be suitable for the consulting rooms facing the main road
due to the traffic pollution or noise.
Table 26 Overheating percentages of adaptation measures
Ventilation strategies
Current
2050s
2080s
Base model (windows opening)
0.70%
1.20%
4.00%
Two air change rate
8.20%
16.40%
24.50%
3.5 air change rate
4.10%
9.40%
16.90%
Five air change rate
2.70%
5.90%
12.60%
3.2.4
Shading
Solar energy is the most important factor causing overheating in building spaces. To avoid
overheating, shading devices can be used to reduce the total amount of radiation entering
the room by reflection and absorption, and they also help improve the distribution of the light
in room.
Shading devices can be categorised into internal shading and external shading. In this study,
one type of internal shading and two types of external shading were tested. For internal
shading, the performance of curtain was examined. For external shading, 2 types of external
shutter were tested. The descriptions of them are as follows.
Descriptions:




Base model: No shading devices.
External louvres with control at 300 W/m2: This shading strategy assumes that
external louvres could block all direct incident radiation. Designer could decide the
form of external shading device. However it is suggested to use vertical louvres for
southwest facing windows and horizontal louvres for southeast facing windows.
Examples of horizontal and vertical louvres are illustrated in Figure 18.
Internal curtain with control at 300 W/m2: This shading strategy assumes that
building occupants draw curtains closed when incident radiation is higher than 300
W/m2.
Fixed shading panels: The ideal fixed shading panels for southeast and south west
facing windows were designed in Ecotect (illustrated in Figure 19). The shading
panels could block all direct sunlight 10:00-17:00 during 1st May to 30th September.
The dimension of the shading panel is listed in Table 27. Again it is designers’ option
to choose suitable shading panels and their form.
40 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Figure 18 Examples of Horizontal and vertical louvres
Figure 19 shape of fixed shading panels
Implementation of adaptation measure in IES:
Table 27 Implementation of shading strategies in IES
Shading strategies
Implementations in IES
Base model
No shading device
Set louvre as external shading devices
External louvre with control at 300 W/m
2
Incident radiation to lower device: 300 W/m
Incident radiation to raise device: 300 W/m
2
2
Set curtains as internal shading devices
Internal curtain with control at 300W/m
2
Incident radiation to lower device: 300 W/m
Incident radiation to raise device: 300 W/m
Fixed shading panels
2
2
Set local shade as external shading devices
Southeast facing windows:
41 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Window width 1.7m, window height 1.8m, overhang projection
2.1m, overhang offset 0.1m, left fin projection 1.43m, left fin
offset 0.1m, right fin projection 2.1m, right fin offset 0.1m
Southwest facing windows:
Window width 1.7m, window height 1.8m, overhang projection
2.6m, overhang offset 0.1m, left fin projection 2.6m, left fin offset
0.1m,
Results:
The average overheating percentages of 89 consulting rooms at current, 2050s and 2080s
are listed in the following table. The results (Table 28 and Figure 20) show that external
shading devices have better performance than internal shading devices. The external shutter
can significantly reduce overheating percentages and performs best among all other options.
Note that the usage of this adaptation measures is subject to indoor daylight requirement. It
is suggested to use external shutter or louver which can block all direct sunlight.
Table 28 Overheating percentages of adaptation measures
Shading strategies
Current
Base model
2050s
2080s
0.7%
1.2%
4.0%
External shutter with control at 300 W/m
0.3%
0.1%
0.8%
2
0.4%
0.2%
1.5%
0.3%
0.8%
1.7%
2
Internal curtain with control at 300 W/m
Fixed shading panels
5.00%
4.00%
3.00%
2.00%
1.00%
0.00%
Current
Base model
Internal curtain with control at 300 W/m2
2050s
2080s
External shutter with control at 300 W/m2
Fixed shading panels
Figure 20 Overheating percentages of shading adaptation measures
Based on these assumptions, the overheating modelling results of adaptation measures are
summarized in Table 29. It indicates that external shutters, window film, white painted
surfaces and triple glazing have significant impact on reducing overheating percentage.
42 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Note that window film should have limited effect due to installation of shading devices;
therefore dark film is not suggested if shading devices are installed.
Table 29 Average overheating percentages of adaptation measures
Adaptation measures
Base model
1.2 Internal curtain with control
at 300W/m2
1 Shading
1.3 Fixed shading
1.4 External shutter with control
at 300 W/m2
2.2 Triple glazing
2 Glass technologies 2.3A Light film
2.3B Dark film
5A Cream paint
5 Reflective materials
5B White Paint
8.3A Two air change rate
8 Ventilation
8.3B Three and half air change rate
8.3C Five air change rate
43 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Current 2050s 2080s
0.7%
1.2%
4.0%
0.4%
0.2%
1.5%
0.3%
0.8%
1.7%
0.3%
0.1%
0.8%
0.6%
0.7%
0.6%
0.7%
0.6%
8.2%
4.1%
2.7%
1.0%
1.1%
1.0%
1.2%
1.1%
16.4%
9.4%
5.9%
3.6%
3.8%
3.5%
3.8%
3.6%
24.5%
16.9%
12.6%
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
3.3 Modelling of the energy performance of adaptation measures
Section 3.1.2 illustrated the composition of energy consumption of QEII hospital at current
climate condition. As mentioned in the section, the gas consumption for domestic hot water,
electricity consumption for lighting, equipment, domestic hot water pumps would not change
due to climate change and adaptation measures used. The electricity generated by PV
panels only is influenced by climate condition. Therefore this section only discusses the
electricity consumption used by space heating, chillers and system fans/pumps under
different climate conditions and adaptation measures.
The results (Figure 21) show that in general the consumption slightly reduces along with
time. The energy consumption in 2080s is less than current consumption. This is mainly due
to the less demand of space heating in the future (decrease in HDD).
In terms of energy implication of adaption measures for overheating, it is found that:
•
Triple glazing can reduce energy consumption at current climate;
•
Better insulation may cause more cooling energy consumption in a warm future
climate;
•
Measures for avoiding overheating will increase heating energy consumption in
winter and total annual energy consumption.
44 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Figure 21 Electricity consumption of space heating, chillers and system fans/pumps
45 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
4 Designing for construction
4.1 Wind load
Due to a high degree of variation of wind speed and a lack of systematic change, wind
speed projections were not included in the UKCP09 probabilistic output (Murphy et al. 2009).
But it is possible to access wind speed in the regional climate model output on which
UKCP09 was partly based. The regional climate model provided 11 perturbed physic
projections which has approximately 25km resolution. The upper limits of these projections
could be used to calculate wind load.
Another approach to calculate wind speed which was used by COPSE and PROMETHEUS
projects is to obtain it by the Penman-Monteith equation (Allen et al. 1998). Watkins et al.
(2011) evaluated the reliability of this equation by non-UKCP09 data.
The well-established wind load calculation tool was developed by BRE. It is dependent on
location (height above sea level, distance from sea, surrounds) and the shaping (height and
form) of the building itself. E.g. the historical wind speed is illustrated in Figure 22.
An online wind load calculator (Roofconsult 2012) is also available to carry out calculation
based on the method in British Standard (BS 6399-2:1997).
Figure 22 Basic wind speed map 1997(Gething 2010)
46 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
4.2 Wind driven rain
The previous report (Gupta and Du 2012) identified precipitation changes for the location of
the QEII Hospital project. In the long-term (2080s), mean winter precipitation is to increase
30.7%, and summer precipitation is very likely to decrease 26.3%. Both of them are based
on 50% percentile risk level of high emissions scenario.
The current approximate wind driven rain for QEII Hospital project is moderate (33-56.5
Litres/m2 per shell) based on the map illustrated in Design for future climate report (Gething
2010).
To prevent the increase of winter wind driven rain, following protections would be introduced
with a relatively small cost.
Table 30 Adaptation measures for wind driven rain
Adaptation
Element
Measures for
Adapting to impacts
from
Recessed window and
door reveals
Render finishes
Projecting sills with
drips
Climatic change that the
adaptation is
responding to
Climate change
hazard
Climatic
change
impact
Structural stability
Winter precipitation
increase and wind
change
Fabric
damage
Structural stability
Winter precipitation
increase and wind
change
Fabric
damage
Structural stability
Winter precipitation
increase and wind
change
Fabric
damage
Structural stability
Winter precipitation
increase and wind
change
Fabric
damage
Structural stability
Winter precipitation
increase and wind
change
Fabric
damage
Structural stability
Winter precipitation
increase and wind
change
Fabric
damage
Construction
element
Extended eaves
Greater laps and
fixings to roof and
cladding fixings
Avoidance of fully filled
cavities
47 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
5 Designing to manage water
5.1 Flood
According to the Environment Agency (Environment agency 2012), the development site in
Welwyn Garden City is not currently at significant risk for flooding. The flood risk relative to
the development site is shown below (Figure 23). However due to the precipitation changes
in future for Welwyn Garden City, sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) may be needed. It
is also needed to consider following adaption measures.
Figure 23 Flood risk zones (Environment agency 2012)
48 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 31 Adaptation measures for flood
Adaptation
Element
Constructions
element
Measures for Adapting to
impacts from
Climatic change that
the adaptation is
responding to
Climate
change
hazard
Climatic
change
impact
Sustainable drainage systems
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
Ground water levels changes
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
River flood defences
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
Water flow obstruction and
erosion management
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
Increase gutter, downpipe and
drainage sizing
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
Move all electrical outlets,
metering, boiler and electrical
equipment above flood level
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
Increase green cover, wetlands
and trees
Water
Increased
precipitation
Flood
49 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
5.2 Water conservation
5.2.1
Low water use fittings
Low water use fittings (e.g. dual flush toilet, automatics taps) could be used in QEII Hospital
project. Grey water is an effective way of reducing the water usage, however it is deemed
impossible due to the health requirement in the hospital.
5.2.2
Rainwater catchment system
The rainwater could be used in flush toilets in the staff-only area in QEII Hospital project.
Rainwater Catchment System is defined as a system that utilizes the principal of collecting
and using precipitation from a rooftop or other manmade, above ground collection surface.
The rainwater reaching a roof in a year can be estimated as the annual rainfall times the
roof’s plan area. The collection of run-off water from roof is typically 85% of rainwater
reaching a roof due to evaporation and splashing.
Figure 24 Rainwater catchment system (Internet image)
50 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
5.3 Energy for hot water system
Solar hot water system increases the energy security of a building by providing an on-site
energy supply for water heating. Solar hot water use solar energy to heat water rather than
relying on electricity or natural gas. The system works all year round, though the water
needs to be heated further with a boiler during the winter months.
Figure 25 Domestic solar hot water system (Internet image)
The adaptation measures for water conservation are summarized in table below.
Table 32 Adaptation measures for water (building level)
Element of built
environment
being adapted
Water
(building level)
Water
(building level)
Water
(building level)
Measures for
Adapting to impacts
from, and mitigating
future climate change
Climatic change
that the
adaptation is
responding to
Climate change
hazard
Low water use fittings
WATER STRESS
Summertime mean
precipitation
reduction
Water stress and/or
drought
Install rainwater
catchment system
WATER STRESS
/ DROUGHT
Summertime mean
precipitation
reduction
Water stress and/or
drought
Install domestic solar
hot water system
ENERGY
Summertime mean
precipitation
reduction
Water stress and/or
drought
51 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Climatic change
impact
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
6 Green landscape and infrastructure
The future climate of hotter and drier summer will have significant impact on outdoor
environment; therefore green landscape and infrastructure have important roles on providing
comfort environment. Following adaptation measures are suggested to be considered for
QEII Hospital project. Note that some of them have been implemented at this stage of
development.
Table 33 Adaptation measures (infrastructure)
Adaptations to public amenities
and infrastructure
Adaptation
Element
Measures for Adapting
to impacts from
Add shading to transport
infrastructure, such as
bus stops and cycle
racks
HEAT
Add seating in shaded
areas, on streets & in
POS
HEAT
Identify and allocate
appropriate buildings as
‘community cool rooms’
HEAT WAVES
Ensure pedestrian and
cycle routes are
sheltered from high
winds/storms, e.g. by soft
landscaping
Replace pavements and
roads with porous, ‘cool’
materials
Use energy efficient
street lighting and/ or
switch street lights off for
periods of the night
Remodel streets to
encourage walking,
cycling and public
transport, e.g. reduce
parking spaces, develop
‘home zones’
Water (neighbourhood
level)
Climatic change
that the
adaptation is
responding to
Climate change
hazard
Peak summertime
temperature
increase
Summertime solar
intensity increase
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
Climatic change impact
Overheating in summer
leading to discomfort, ill
health and degradation of
materials
Building overheating in
summer leading to
discomfort, ill health
Overheating in buildings
further increased by urban
heat island effects
STORM
Wintertime mean
precipitation
increase
Increased flood
vulnerability and building
structure/material
degradation
HEAT &
INCREASED
RAIN AND
STORMS
Wintertime mean
precipitation
increase
Increased flood
vulnerability and water
ingress for buildings
ENERGY
Peak summertime
temperature
increase
Higher temperatures
cause increased cooling
load increases energy
demand & energy poverty
HEAT
Peak summertime
temperature
increase
Building overheating in
summer and urban heat
island effect leading to
increased energy demand
Install blue infrastructure:
lakes, ponds, and other
water landscape features
HEAT
Install a pond or other
water feature e.g. pool
HEAT
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
52 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Overheating in buildings
further increased by urban
heat island effects
Overheating in buildings
further increased by urban
heat island effects
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 34 Adaptation measures (landscape)
Adaptation
Element
Measures for Adapting to
impacts from, and
mitigating future climate
change
Climate change
hazard
Climatic change
impact
Overheating in
buildings, high
urban temperatures
leading to possible
increased energy
use
Overheating in
buildings and
Increased flood
vulnerability
Plant more street trees/
Shaded outdoor space
HEAT
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
Convert selected streets into
greenways
HEAT, STORMS
and INCREASED
RAINFALL
Summertime
temperature
increase and
Wintertime mean
precipitation
increase
Enhance vegetation if the soil
has good infiltration qualities
HEAVY RAIN and
FLOODS
Wintertime mean
precipitation
increase
HEAT
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
Plant heat, drought and
pollution tolerant plants
(Xeriscaping)
HEAT
Summertime
temperature
increase and
measurable heat
wave projections
Plant drought resistant plants
-Good examples Birch, Alder,
Yew, Beech, Italian Alder,
Box, Privet.
DROUGHT
Summertime
mean precipitation
reduction
Water stress and/or
drought
Species (Willows, poplars &
oaks) should not include as
these can cause low level
ozone production under high
temperatures
HEAT AND AIR
POLLUTION
Summertime
temperature
increase and
Summertime
mean precipitation
reduction
Overheating in
buildings leading to
possible increased
energy use and
increased dust
levels
Remove/ reduce non-porous
garden surfaces. Replace
with an alternative: grassreinforcement concrete or
plastic mesh, gravel, brick
(with drainage channels),
cellular paving, or lawn or
vegetable plots
INCREASED
PRECIPITATION
Winter mean
precipitation
increase
Increased flood
vulnerability and
water ingress for
dwellings
Plant trees with large
canopies - using caution not
to compromise building
stability
Green
landscaping
features
Climatic change
that the adaptation
is responding to
53 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Increased flood
vulnerability and
water ingress for
buildings
Overheating in
buildings, high
urban temperatures
leading to possible
increased energy
use
Overheating in
buildings, high
urban temperatures
leading to possible
increased energy
use
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
7 Summary of adaptation measures
In summary, all adaption measures for comfort, construction, water, green landscape and
infrastructure are listed in following table. Building designers could choose the suitable
measures from the list based on their judgement and costs of these adaption measures.
Catalogue
Comfort
Construction
Flood
Water
\conservation
(building level)
Water/ energy for hot water
Water
\conservation (neighbourhood
level)
Green landscaping features
Adaptation Measures
External shutters
Window film
White painted surfaces
Triple glazing
Wind load change
Recessed window and door reveals
Render finishes
Projecting sills with drips
Extended eaves
Greater laps and fixings to roof and cladding fixings
Avoidance of fully filled cavities
Sustainable drainage systems
Ground water levels changes
River flood defences
Water flow obstruction and erosion management
Increase gutter, downpipe and drainage sizing
Move all electrical outlets, metering, boiler and electrical equipment above flood
level
Increase green cover, wetlands and trees
Low water use fittings
Install rainwater catchment system
Install domestic solar hot water system
Install blue infrastructure: lakes, ponds, and other water landscape features
Install a pond or other water feature e.g. pool
Plant more street trees/
Shaded outdoor space
Convert selected streets into greenways
Enhance vegetation if the soil has good infiltration qualities
Plant trees with large canopies - using caution not to compromise building
stability
Plant heat, drought and pollution tolerant plants (Xeriscaping)
Plant drought resistant plants -Good examples Birch, Alder, Yew, Beech, Italian
Alder, Box, Privet.
Species (Willows, poplars & oaks) should not include as these can cause low
level ozone production under high temperatures
Remove/ reduce non-porous garden surfaces. Replace with an alternative:
grass-reinforcement concrete or plastic mesh, gravel, brick (with drainage
channels), cellular paving, or lawn or vegetable plots
Infrastructure
Add shading to transport infrastructure, such as bus stops and cycle racks
Add seating in shaded areas, on streets
Identify and allocate appropriate buildings as ‘community cool rooms’
Ensure pedestrian and cycle routes are sheltered from high winds/storms, e.g.
by soft landscaping
Replace pavements and roads with porous, ‘cool’ materials
Use energy efficient street lighting and/ or switch street lights off for periods of
the night
54 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Remodel streets to encourage walking, cycling and public transport, e.g. reduce
parking spaces, develop ‘home zones’
55 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
References
Allen, R. G., et al., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water
requirements - FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations.
ASHRAE 2001. ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, Ventilating and Air-Conditoining
Engineers. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning
Engineers, Atlanta.
ASHRAE, 2004. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004: Thermal environmental Conditions for Human
Occupancy. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
British Standards Institution, 2007. BS EN 15251:2007 Indoor environmental input
parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings
addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. London:
British Standards Institute.
CIBSE, 2006. Environmental Design: CIBSE Guide A. London: Chartered Institution of
Building Services Engineers.
CIBSE, 2008. Current and Future CIBSE Weather Data [online]. Available from:
https://www.cibseknowledgeportal.co.uk/component/dynamicdatabase/?layout=publi
cation&revision_id=31&st=future+weatheryear [Accessed 1 March 2012].
Collins, K. and Hoinville, E. 1980. Temperature requirements in old age. Building Services
Engineering Research and Technology, 1(4), 165-172.
de Dear, R. J. and Brager, G. S. 2002. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings:
revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55. Energy and Buildings, 34(6), 549-561.
Department of Health, 2007. Heating and ventilation systems – Health Technical
Memorandum 03-01: Specialised ventilation for healthcare premises – Part A.
Norwich: The Stationery Office.
Environment agency, 2012. Risk of flooding form rivers and sea - Welwyn Garden City
[online].
Available
from:
http://maps.environmentagency.gov.uk/wiyby/wiybyController?topic=floodmap&layerGroups=default&lang=_e
&ep=map&scale=10&x=525297.2083333329&y=210911.44791666672 [Accessed 28
May 2012].
Fanger, P. O., 1970. Thermal comfort. Copenhagen: Danish Technical Press.
Fanger, P. O., 1982. Thermal comfort. Malabar: Krieger RE Publishing Company.
Gething, B., 2010. Design for future climate - Opportunities for adaptation in the built
environment
[online].
Available
from:
http://www.innovateuk.org/ourstrategy/innovationplatforms/lowimpactbuilding/designfor-future-climate-report-.ashx [Accessed 4 May 2012].
Gupta, R. and Du, H., 2012. Climate chnages hazards and impacts: Queen Elizabeth II
Hospital. Submitted to Penoyre and Prasad LLP, London on 29 May 2012; Funded
by TSB under Design for future climate: adapting buildings competition.
Gupta, R. and Gregg, M. 2012. Using UK climate change projections to adapt existing
English homes for a warming climate. Building and Environment DOI:
10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.014.
Halewood, J. and Wilde, P. d., 2010. Cool roofs and their application in the UK, Information
paper IP 13/10 BRE Electronic Publications.
Heidari, S. and Sharples, S. 2002. A comparative analysis of short-term and long-term
thermal comfort surveys in Iran. Energy and Buildings, 34(6), 607-614.
ISO, 2005. EN ISO 7730:2005 Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Analytical
determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and
PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. Geneva: International Standards
Organization.
Langkilde, G. 1979. Thermal comfort for people of high age. Comfort thermique: Aspects
physiologiques et psychologiques, 187-193.
56 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Lomas, K. J., et al. 2012. Resilience of ‘Nightingale’ hospital wards in a changing climate.
Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 33(1), 81-103.
McGilligan, C., Natarajan, S. and Nikolopoulou, M. 2011. Adaptive Comfort Degree-Days: A
metric to compare adaptive comfort standards and estimate changes in energy
consumption for future UK climates. Energy and Buildings.
Murphy, J., et al. 2009. UK Climate Projections science report: Climate change projections.
Nicol, F., 1995. Standards for Thermal Comfort: Indoor Air Temperature Standards for the
21st Century. London: Spon Press.
Nicol, J. F. and Humphreys, M. A. 2002. Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal
standards for buildings. Energy and Buildings, 34(6), 563-572.
Penoyre&Prasad, 2011. 435-SC-001: GROUND FLOOR PLAN: New Queen Elizabeth II
Hospital.
PURLFROST Ltd, 2012. Window Films - Silver Reflective Film [online]. Available from:
http://www.purlsol.com/products_bymeter_list.php?catid=92 [Accessed 8 Jun 2012].
Rohles, F. and Johnson, M. 1972. Thermal comfort in the elderly. ASHRAE Transactions,
78(1), 131.
Roofconsult, 2012. Wind load Calculations to BS 6399:Part 2:1997 [online]. Available from:
http://www.roofconsult.co.uk/calculations/wind/main.asp [Accessed 21 June 2012].
Tysoe, B. and Ahmad, Z., 2012. Email communication with Rajat Gupta on 4 Jan. Welwyn
Garden City Hospital IES file. Building Services Design.
Watkins, R., Levermore, G. and Parkinson, J. 2011. Constructing a future weather file for
use in building simulation using UKCP09 projections. Building Services Engineering
Research and Technology, 32(3), 293-299.
57 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Appendix 1 Constructions layers in base model
Table 35 Makeup of external wall in base model
Table 36 Makeup of internal wall in base model
Table 37 Makeup of ground floor in base model
Table 38 Makeup of roof in base model
58 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Table 39 Carpeted 250mmn reinforced- concrete ceiling in base model
Table 40 Carpeted 100mmn reinforced- concrete ceiling in base model
Table 41 Internal partition in base model
Table 42 Double glazing windows
59 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
Appendix 2 Zone names and zone information
Zone name
Thermal template
Floor Area
2
(m )
Volume
2
(m )
Zone name
Thermal template
Floor Area
2
(m )
Volume
2
(m )
1
0-BABYFEED
Circulation
9.9
38.0
231
0-DIRTYUT1
General supply Extract
8.8
34.0
2
0-CAFE 2
Circulation
52.3
201.4
232
0-GAS ST
General supply Extract
3.3
12.9
3
0-CIRC 01A
Circulation
8.4
32.3
233
0-GOODS IN
General supply Extract
12.2
47.0
4
0-CIRC 02
Circulation
23.4
90.1
234
0-HAAD
General supply Extract
33.2
127.8
5
0-CIRC 04
Circulation
39.0
150.3
235
0-KITCH MRI
General supply Extract
7.2
27.6
6
0-CIRC 05
Circulation
23.2
89.2
236
0-LIVING RM
General supply Extract
31.6
121.5
7
0-CIRC 06
Circulation
139.7
537.9
237
0-MRI ENG
General supply Extract
20.8
80.0
8
0-CIRC 07
Circulation
13.5
52.0
238
0-MRI RECP
General supply Extract
48.4
186.2
9
0-CIRC 08
Circulation
25.1
96.5
239
0-MRI REPRT
General supply Extract
6.7
25.9
10
0-CIRC 09
Circulation
46.3
178.1
240
0-MRI STR
General supply Extract
6.6
25.6
11
0-CIRC 10
Circulation
6.8
26.3
241
0-MRI WAIT
General supply Extract
15.3
58.8
12
0-CIRC 11B
Circulation
74.2
285.8
242
0-PANTRY
General supply Extract
15.2
58.5
13
0-CIRC 12
Circulation
86.2
331.8
243
0-PHARMACY
General supply Extract
91.2
351.2
14
0-CIRC 13
Circulation
16.9
65.0
244
0-PLASTER 1
General supply Extract
17.0
65.5
15
0-CLNR 1
Circulation
9.8
37.7
245
0-PREP
General supply Extract
7.1
27.4
16
0-CON BASE
Circulation
17.1
65.9
246
0-REPORT PLASTER
General supply Extract
6.7
25.8
17
0-DIST
Circulation
1.9
7.2
247
0-SHOP
General supply Extract
18.1
69.6
18
0-ENTRLOBBY
Circulation
12.7
48.8
248
0-STAFFBASE
General supply Extract
8.8
34.0
19
0-FOYER
Circulation
59.5
229.2
249
0-STORE GEN
General supply Extract
15.9
61.1
20
0-INFO
Circulation
17.7
68.1
250
0-TROLLEY 1
General supply Extract
33.8
130.2
21
0-IT 1
Circulation
2.2
8.6
251
0-TROLLEY 2
General supply Extract
31.3
120.3
22
0-IT 2
Circulation
14.2
54.8
252
0-WAIT 1
General supply Extract
15.0
57.7
23
0-LIFT 1
Circulation
7.0
26.8
253
0-WAIT 3
General supply Extract
13.2
50.6
60 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
24
0-LIFT 3
Circulation
9.6
37.1
254
0-WAIT 4
General supply Extract
28.1
108.2
25
0-LIFT 5
Circulation
5.8
22.3
255
0-WAIT PHARMA
General supply Extract
36.9
142.0
26
0-LINEN
Circulation
3.6
13.9
256
0-X RAYREPRT
General supply Extract
6.3
24.4
27
0-PLANT 1
Circulation
25.7
99.0
257
1-ADMIN 1
General supply Extract
46.3
159.7
28
0-PLANT GNRTR
Circulation
57.8
222.3
258
1-BAY 1
General supply Extract
13.1
45.1
29
0-PLANT HW
Circulation
88.9
342.2
259
1-BAY 2
General supply Extract
11.8
40.9
30
0-PREP 1
Circulation
2.9
11.2
260
1-BAY 3
General supply Extract
11.9
41.0
31
0-RISER 1
Circulation
3.5
13.5
261
1-BAY 4
General supply Extract
11.8
40.7
32
0-RISER 2
Circulation
9.2
35.4
262
1-BAY 5
General supply Extract
11.8
40.7
33
0-SHOP ST
Circulation
9.8
37.6
263
1-C EXAM 18
General supply Extract
17.5
60.4
34
0-STAFFHUB
Circulation
3.9
15.0
264
1-CELANUT
General supply Extract
8.4
29.1
35
0-STAIRS 1
Circulation
27.3
105.3
265
1-CIRC 05
General supply Extract
47.1
162.6
36
0-STAIRS 2
Circulation
24.8
95.4
266
1-CIRC 12
General supply Extract
24.2
83.5
37
0-STAIRS 3
Circulation
30.2
116.3
267
1-CLEANUT 1
General supply Extract
14.6
50.3
38
0-STORE
Circulation
18.7
72.0
268
1-CLEANUT 3
General supply Extract
13.5
46.5
39
0-STORE 1
Circulation
11.9
46.0
269
1-CM 2
General supply Extract
6.6
22.7
40
0-STORE PLASTER
Circulation
4.8
18.4
270
1-CM 3
General supply Extract
6.6
22.9
41
0-TRIAGE 9
Circulation
18.3
70.5
271
1-CM 4
General supply Extract
8.3
28.5
42
0-WAIT 5
Circulation
5.2
20.2
272
1-DARKRM
General supply Extract
10.3
35.4
43
0-WAIT 6
Circulation
25.2
97.1
273
1-EXAM 1
General supply Extract
10.7
37.0
44
0-WC 3 DIS
Circulation
5.2
19.9
274
1-EXAM 2
General supply Extract
10.8
37.2
45
1-CHILD
Circulation
11.6
40.2
275
1-EXAM 3
General supply Extract
10.7
37.0
46
1-CIRC 01
Circulation
57.9
199.7
276
1-EXAM 4
General supply Extract
10.8
37.2
47
1-CIRC 02
Circulation
76.1
262.7
277
1-EXAM 5
General supply Extract
11.1
38.2
48
1-CIRC 03
Circulation
60.2
207.7
278
1-EXAM 6
General supply Extract
11.0
38.1
49
1-CIRC 04
Circulation
44.8
154.7
279
1-EXAM 7
General supply Extract
11.0
37.8
50
1-CIRC 06
Circulation
10.3
35.7
280
1-EXAM 8
General supply Extract
11.0
38.1
51
1-CIRC 07
Circulation
122.4
422.3
281
1-EXERCISE
General supply Extract
18.6
64.2
61 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
52
1-CIRC 08
Circulation
70.2
242.1
282
1-GENST1
General supply Extract
6.0
20.8
53
1-CIRC 10
Circulation
56.6
195.3
283
1-HEARING
General supply Extract
17.3
59.7
54
1-CIRC 11
Circulation
60.4
208.5
284
1-KITCH 1
General supply Extract
6.2
21.4
55
1-CIRC 13
Circulation
33.2
114.6
285
1-KITCH 2
General supply Extract
9.1
31.5
56
1-CM 1
Circulation
6.6
22.8
286
1-M RECORD
General supply Extract
22.3
76.8
57
1-DIST 2
Circulation
1.6
5.4
287
1-ORTHO 1
General supply Extract
18.3
63.1
58
1-DIST1
Circulation
3.5
12.1
288
1-QUITERM
General supply Extract
8.7
30.2
59
1-IT 2
Circulation
4.6
15.7
289
1-STAFF 3
General supply Extract
5.0
17.3
60
1-IT1
Circulation
2.8
9.7
290
1-STAFF 4
General supply Extract
4.6
16.0
61
1-LIFT 1
Circulation
7.0
24.1
291
1-STORE
General supply Extract
10.9
37.7
62
1-LIFT 2
Circulation
6.2
21.3
292
1-STORE 1
General supply Extract
4.2
14.5
63
1-LIFT 3
Circulation
9.6
33.0
293
1-STORE 2
General supply Extract
8.9
30.7
64
1-ORTHCAM
Circulation
18.4
63.3
294
1-STORE 5
General supply Extract
7.5
25.9
65
1-RESUS 1
Circulation
2.9
10.1
295
1-SUPEQUIP
General supply Extract
15.1
52.0
66
1-RESUS 3
Circulation
2.2
7.6
296
1-WAIT 3
General supply Extract
13.9
47.9
67
1-RETINOPA
Circulation
18.1
62.5
297
1-WAIT 4
General supply Extract
26.3
90.6
68
1-RISER 1
Circulation
9.0
30.9
298
1-WAIT 5
General supply Extract
19.4
66.8
69
1-RISER 1A
Circulation
3.6
12.3
299
1-WAIT 6
General supply Extract
53.2
183.5
70
1-RISER 2
Circulation
10.7
36.9
300
1-WAIT 6
General supply Extract
34.8
120.1
71
1-STAFF 5
Circulation
4.0
13.6
301
2-CIRC 02
General supply Extract
58.9
203.3
72
1-STAIRS 1
Circulation
27.1
93.5
302
2-CLEANER 2
General supply Extract
11.6
40.2
73
1-STAIRS 2
Circulation
24.7
85.2
303
2-CLEANUT 2
General supply Extract
8.2
28.4
74
1-STAIRS 3
Circulation
35.3
121.8
304
2-CLEANUT1
General supply Extract
13.1
45.2
75
1-STORE 1
Circulation
14.2
48.9
305
2-EQUIP
General supply Extract
15.7
54.1
76
1-STORE 4
Circulation
10.2
35.2
306
2-GROUP RM
General supply Extract
46.3
159.8
77
1-STORE OTHO
Circulation
4.4
15.0
307
2-GYM
General supply Extract
50.0
172.6
78
1-VOID 1
Circulation
14.8
51.0
308
2-KITCH 1
General supply Extract
9.8
33.8
79
1-VOID 2
Circulation
10.2
35.0
309
2-KITCH 2
General supply Extract
8.7
30.1
62 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
80
1-VOID 3
Circulation
47.5
163.9
310
2-KITCH 3
General supply Extract
10.7
36.9
81
1-VOID 4
Circulation
101.9
351.6
311
2-KITCH 4
General supply Extract
12.9
44.5
82
1-VOID 5
Circulation
42.9
148.0
312
2-MEASURE
General supply Extract
8.8
30.2
83
1-WAIT 0
Circulation
20.8
71.7
313
2-MEETINGLRG
General supply Extract
70.4
242.9
84
1-WAIT 1
Circulation
36.7
126.5
314
2-MEETINGSML
General supply Extract
9.7
33.3
85
1-WAIT 2
Circulation
18.6
64.3
315
2-MEETINGSML 2
General supply Extract
9.6
33.3
86
2-CIRC 01
Circulation
61.7
212.9
316
2-MEETINGSML 3
General supply Extract
19.9
68.7
87
2-CIRC 03
Circulation
36.6
126.3
317
2-OBS RM
General supply Extract
23.2
80.2
88
2-CIRC 04
Circulation
19.4
66.9
318
2-REPORT 1
General supply Extract
6.8
23.3
89
2-CIRC 05
Circulation
52.4
180.7
319
2-REPORT 2
General supply Extract
6.4
21.9
90
2-CIRC 06
Circulation
36.8
126.8
320
2-SENSORY
General supply Extract
17.4
60.0
91
2-CIRC 07
Circulation
28.1
97.1
321
2-ST GRP
General supply Extract
10.9
37.5
92
2-CIRC 08
Circulation
38.5
132.8
322
2-STORE
General supply Extract
10.9
37.6
93
2-CIRC 09
Circulation
28.6
98.8
323
2-STORE 1
General supply Extract
8.8
30.3
94
2-CIRC 10
Circulation
39.2
135.4
324
2-STORE 2
General supply Extract
10.2
35.1
95
2-CIRC 11
Circulation
30.8
106.1
325
2-WAIT 1
General supply Extract
14.2
49.0
96
2-CIRC 12
Circulation
55.6
191.7
326
2-WAIT 2
General supply Extract
12.5
43.0
97
2-CIRC 13
Circulation
38.6
133.1
327
2-WAIT 3
General supply Extract
26.3
90.6
98
2-CIRC 14
Circulation
27.4
94.4
328
2-WAIT 4
General supply Extract
31.8
109.7
99
2-DIST 1
Circulation
2.1
7.2
329
2-WAIT 5
General supply Extract
33.1
114.2
100
2-HOTDESK 1
Circulation
24.4
84.3
330
2-WAIT 6
General supply Extract
12.6
43.3
101
2-IT 1
Circulation
2.9
10.0
331
3-ADMIT 1
General supply Extract
8.4
28.9
102
2-LIFT 1
Circulation
7.2
24.7
332
3-ADMIT 2
General supply Extract
8.5
29.2
103
2-LIFT 2
Circulation
5.9
20.4
333
3-ADMIT 3
General supply Extract
8.4
29.1
104
2-LIFT 3
Circulation
8.1
27.8
334
3-BEVBAY
General supply Extract
7.6
26.1
105
2-LYMPHOED
Circulation
20.3
69.9
335
3-CAPSULE
General supply Extract
6.0
20.6
106
2-NURSES
Circulation
17.2
59.2
336
3-CIRC 1
General supply Extract
42.3
145.9
107
2-RESUS 1
Circulation
3.3
11.5
337
3-CIRC 2
General supply Extract
50.1
172.8
63 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
108
2-RISER 1
Circulation
7.6
26.3
338
3-CIRC 4
General supply Extract
89.4
308.4
109
2-RISER 1A
Circulation
3.7
12.8
339
3-DISLOUNG
General supply Extract
12.8
44.0
110
2-RISER 2
Circulation
10.5
36.1
340
3-FCHANGE
General supply Extract
47.4
163.6
111
2-STAFF 1
Circulation
4.8
16.5
341
3-GAS
General supply Extract
3.8
13.2
112
2-STAIRS
Circulation
13.8
47.6
342
3-MCHANGE
General supply Extract
25.5
87.8
113
2-STAIRS 1
Circulation
28.3
97.6
343
3-RECOVER 1
General supply Extract
55.6
191.7
114
2-STAIS 3
Circulation
26.4
91.0
344
3-RECOVER 2
General supply Extract
54.0
186.3
115
2-STORE 3
Circulation
11.0
38.0
345
3-STAFF 1
General supply Extract
11.4
39.4
116
2-VOID
Circulation
26.0
89.7
346
3-STORE 2
General supply Extract
15.2
52.3
117
2-VOID
Circulation
13.1
45.3
347
3-WAIT 02
General supply Extract
12.0
41.6
118
2-VOID
Circulation
21.5
74.0
348
3-WAIT 1
General supply Extract
23.4
80.9
119
3-CH ST
Circulation
5.8
19.9
349
3-WAIT 2
General supply Extract
12.0
41.4
120
3-CIRC 5
Circulation
14.8
51.1
350
0-CNTRL RM
Specilast area/Imaging
32.2
124.0
121
3-CIRC 3
Circulation
39.7
137.0
351
0-FLUROSCO
Specilast area/Imaging
42.4
163.3
122
3-CIRC 6
Circulation
9.2
31.8
352
0-MRI
Specilast area/Imaging
46.8
180.1
123
3-IT
Circulation
3.9
13.5
353
0-MRI PREP
Specilast area/Imaging
32.3
124.4
124
3-LIFT 1
Circulation
7.6
26.1
354
0-PHLEMBOT
Specilast area/Imaging
39.6
152.4
125
3-LIFT 3
Circulation
7.9
27.3
355
0-TOMOGRAPHY
Specilast area/Imaging
38.8
149.3
126
3-LINEN
Circulation
2.3
7.9
356
0-TREAT 1
Specilast area/Imaging
18.5
71.2
127
3-PLANT 2
Circulation
90.9
313.8
357
0-TREAT 2
Specilast area/Imaging
18.7
72.2
128
3-PLANTRM1
Circulation
383.6
1323.6
358
0-ULTRA 1
Specilast area/Imaging
18.2
70.0
129
3-RESUS
Circulation
2.0
6.9
359
0-ULTRA 2
Specilast area/Imaging
18.1
69.7
130
3-RISER 1
Circulation
3.5
11.9
360
0-X RAY 1
Specilast area/Imaging
32.6
125.7
131
3-SCOPECL 1
Circulation
22.7
78.2
361
0-X RAY 2
Specilast area/Imaging
32.6
125.6
132
3-SCOPECL 2
Circulation
22.7
78.2
362
0-X RAYVIEW
Specilast area/Imaging
12.7
48.8
133
3-STAIRS 1
Circulation
23.4
80.8
363
1-DECONTAM
Specilast area/Imaging
12.5
43.0
134
3-STAIRS 3
Circulation
23.1
79.6
364
1-OPTHCON
Specilast area/Imaging
18.5
63.9
135
0-REFUSE
Circulation
29.6
114.0
365
1-OPTTREAT
Specilast area/Imaging
18.3
63.0
64 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
136
0-ADMIN
Consulting room
28.7
110.4
366
1-ORTHODO 1
Specilast area/Imaging
19.0
65.6
137
0-ADMIN MRI
Consulting room
14.8
57.1
367
1-ORTHODO 2
Specilast area/Imaging
19.0
65.7
138
0-EXAM 1
Consulting room
12.1
46.6
368
1-ORTHODO 3
Specilast area/Imaging
19.1
66.0
139
0-EXAM 2
Consulting room
11.4
43.8
369
1-RECOVERY
Specilast area/Imaging
9.9
34.1
140
0-EXAM 3
Consulting room
11.4
44.0
370
1-TREAT 1
Specilast area/Imaging
19.1
65.7
141
0-EXAM 4
Consulting room
11.4
43.9
371
1-TREAT 2
Specilast area/Imaging
17.5
60.3
142
0-FAITH
Consulting room
14.1
54.4
372
1-TREAT 3
Specilast area/Imaging
18.3
63.3
143
0-HOTDESKS
Consulting room
18.4
71.0
373
1-ULTRA 1
Specilast area/Imaging
17.6
60.6
144
0-INTRVW 1
Consulting room
10.7
41.1
374
1-ULTRA 2
Specilast area/Imaging
17.6
60.6
145
0-INTRVW 2
Consulting room
9.6
37.1
375
1-XRAY
Specilast area/Imaging
12.0
41.3
146
0-OFFICE
Consulting room
14.4
55.6
376
2-MAMM 1
Specilast area/Imaging
22.1
76.2
147
0-PALS
Consulting room
11.0
42.2
377
2-MAMM 2
Specilast area/Imaging
18.2
62.9
148
0-POLICE
Consulting room
17.6
67.9
378
2-MAMM 3
Specilast area/Imaging
19.0
65.4
149
0-SINGLERM
Consulting room
17.8
68.5
379
2-TREAT 1
Specilast area/Imaging
17.8
61.3
150
0-TRIAGE 1
Consulting room
20.6
79.4
380
2-TREAT 2
Specilast area/Imaging
17.6
60.6
151
0-TRIAGE 2
Consulting room
18.5
71.4
381
2-TREAT 3
Specilast area/Imaging
17.6
60.8
152
0-TRIAGE 3
Consulting room
18.7
71.8
382
2-TREAT 4
Specilast area/Imaging
17.5
60.3
153
0-TRIAGE 4
Consulting room
18.6
71.7
383
2-TREAT 5
Specilast area/Imaging
14.2
49.1
154
0-TRIAGE 5
Consulting room
18.6
71.8
384
2-TREAT 6
Specilast area/Imaging
14.0
48.4
155
0-TRIAGE 6
Consulting room
18.2
70.2
385
2-ULTRA 1
Specilast area/Imaging
18.3
63.1
156
0-TRIAGE 7
Consulting room
18.3
70.5
386
2-VIEW
Specilast area/Imaging
16.4
56.6
157
0-TRIAGE 9
Consulting room
18.3
70.6
387
3-PROCDRE 1
Specilast area/Imaging
29.8
102.9
158
0-WAIT 2
Consulting room
33.3
128.0
388
3-PROCDRE2
Specilast area/Imaging
30.0
103.7
159
1-ADMIN 2
Consulting room
40.0
138.0
389
0-BABY CH
WC/Dirty Utility
6.5
24.9
160
1-ADMINRET
Consulting room
27.1
93.4
390
0-CH 1 2 FLURO
WC/Dirty Utility
7.4
28.6
161
1-C BASE 1
Consulting room
17.8
61.4
391
0-CH 1 2 XRAY
WC/Dirty Utility
5.4
20.8
162
1-C BASE 2
Consulting room
18.3
63.0
392
0-CH 1to3
WC/Dirty Utility
13.0
49.9
163
1-C EXAM 1
Consulting room
17.8
61.4
393
0-CH 2 BABY
WC/Dirty Utility
6.1
23.3
65 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
164
1-C EXAM 10
Consulting room
18.1
62.6
394
0-CH DRY 4 5
WC/Dirty Utility
7.1
27.5
165
1-C EXAM 11
Consulting room
17.6
60.7
395
0-CLNR 2
WC/Dirty Utility
2.7
10.5
166
1-C EXAM 12
Consulting room
17.6
60.7
396
0-DIRTYUT2
WC/Dirty Utility
9.9
38.1
167
1-C EXAM 13
Consulting room
17.6
60.5
397
0-DISPSAL
WC/Dirty Utility
8.6
33.1
168
1-C EXAM 14
Consulting room
17.7
61.0
398
0-DISPSAL2
WC/Dirty Utility
13.2
51.0
169
1-C EXAM 15
Consulting room
18.7
64.4
399
0-MRI CLNR
WC/Dirty Utility
6.7
25.6
170
1-C EXAM 16
Consulting room
18.6
64.2
400
0-PLASTER 2
WC/Dirty Utility
18.3
70.6
171
1-C EXAM 17
Consulting room
18.6
64.3
401
0-WC 1&2
WC/Dirty Utility
9.8
37.6
172
1-C EXAM 19
Consulting room
17.3
59.8
402
0-WC 3 5
WC/Dirty Utility
10.1
38.7
173
1-C EXAM 2
Consulting room
17.8
61.5
403
0-WC 5 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
18.9
174
1-C EXAM 20
Consulting room
19.1
65.8
404
0-WC 6 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
18.7
175
1-C EXAM 21
Consulting room
20.2
69.7
405
0-WC 6to8
WC/Dirty Utility
9.8
37.8
176
1-C EXAM 22
Consulting room
18.3
63.1
406
0-WC 7 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
18.8
177
1-C EXAM 3
Consulting room
17.7
61.1
407
0-WC DIS 1
WC/Dirty Utility
5.6
21.6
178
1-C EXAM 4
Consulting room
17.9
61.7
408
0-WC DIS 2
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
18.9
179
1-C EXAM 5
Consulting room
17.8
61.4
409
0-WC DIS 4
WC/Dirty Utility
5.0
19.1
180
1-C EXAM 6
Consulting room
18.4
63.4
410
0-WC SR
WC/Dirty Utility
3.1
11.8
181
1-C EXAM 7
Consulting room
18.2
62.7
411
1-CH 1
WC/Dirty Utility
5.3
18.3
182
1-C EXAM 9
Consulting room
18.4
63.5
412
1-CLEANR 1
WC/Dirty Utility
3.9
13.3
183
1-ECHO
Consulting room
20.7
71.6
413
1-DIRTYUT 1
WC/Dirty Utility
10.7
37.0
184
1-HOLTER
Consulting room
14.1
48.7
414
1-DIRTYUT 2
WC/Dirty Utility
11.1
38.4
185
1-HOTDESK 1
Consulting room
24.8
85.6
415
1-DIRTYUT 3
WC/Dirty Utility
8.8
30.5
186
1-HOTDESK 2
Consulting room
18.6
64.0
416
1-UROL
WC/Dirty Utility
5.4
18.6
187
1-INTERV 1
Consulting room
9.7
33.5
417
1-WC 0&1
WC/Dirty Utility
7.4
25.5
188
1-ORTHO 2
Consulting room
18.2
62.7
418
1-WC 1 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
6.5
22.3
189
1-PRE ASS 1
Consulting room
13.3
45.8
419
1-WC 2 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
17.0
190
1-PRE ASS 2
Consulting room
13.6
46.8
420
1-WC 2to4
WC/Dirty Utility
10.0
34.5
191
1-PRE ASS 3
Consulting room
13.6
47.0
421
1-WC 5
WC/Dirty Utility
2.9
10.0
66 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
192
1-RECEPTN
Consulting room
21.6
74.5
422
1-WC 6
WC/Dirty Utility
7.5
25.8
193
2-ADMIN 1
Consulting room
26.5
91.5
423
1-WC 7&8
WC/Dirty Utility
9.0
31.2
194
2-ADMIN 2
Consulting room
33.4
115.2
424
2-BABY CHANG
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
16.8
195
2-ADMIN 3
Consulting room
28.5
98.5
425
2-BABY CHANG
WC/Dirty Utility
6.8
23.4
196
2-C EXAM 01
Consulting room
18.3
63.0
426
2-CH 1to3
WC/Dirty Utility
10.4
36.0
197
2-C EXAM 02
Consulting room
18.0
62.1
427
2-CHANGEF 1
WC/Dirty Utility
8.8
30.4
198
2-C EXAM 03
Consulting room
18.2
62.9
428
2-CHANGEM 1
WC/Dirty Utility
8.7
30.0
199
2-C EXAM 04
Consulting room
18.2
62.7
429
2-CLEANER 1
WC/Dirty Utility
5.1
17.6
200
2-C EXAM 05
Consulting room
18.2
62.6
430
2-DIRTYUT 1
WC/Dirty Utility
6.7
23.1
201
2-C EXAM 06
Consulting room
18.2
62.7
431
2-DIRTYUT 2
WC/Dirty Utility
8.7
30.0
202
2-C EXAM 07
Consulting room
18.2
62.8
432
2-WC 04
WC/Dirty Utility
5.8
20.1
203
2-C EXAM 08
Consulting room
18.4
63.3
433
2-WC 05
WC/Dirty Utility
3.6
12.6
204
2-C EXAM 09
Consulting room
18.4
63.6
434
2-WC 06
WC/Dirty Utility
5.8
20.1
205
2-C EXAM 10
Consulting room
18.4
63.5
435
2-WC 08
WC/Dirty Utility
3.0
10.3
206
2-C EXAM 11
Consulting room
18.3
63.1
436
2-WC 08 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.6
15.9
207
2-C EXAM 12
Consulting room
18.4
63.4
437
2-WC 1 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
16.9
208
2-COUNSEL 1
Consulting room
13.9
47.9
438
2-WC 11
WC/Dirty Utility
4.7
16.1
209
2-COUNSEL 2
Consulting room
13.1
45.1
439
2-WC 1to3
WC/Dirty Utility
9.7
33.4
210
2-COUNSEL 3
Consulting room
13.0
44.8
440
2-WC 2 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
17.0
211
2-COUNSEL 4
Consulting room
13.0
45.0
441
2-WC 9&10
WC/Dirty Utility
7.4
25.5
212
2-CUB 1
Consulting room
13.7
47.3
442
3-B PREP
WC/Dirty Utility
12.6
43.4
213
2-CUB 2
Consulting room
13.6
47.1
443
3-CH 1
WC/Dirty Utility
5.6
19.3
214
2-CUB 3
Consulting room
13.9
47.9
444
3-CH 2
WC/Dirty Utility
3.0
10.3
215
2-CUB 4
Consulting room
13.7
47.4
445
3-CH 3
WC/Dirty Utility
3.0
10.5
216
2-CUB 5
Consulting room
13.7
47.4
446
3-CH 4
WC/Dirty Utility
4.9
17.0
217
2-CUB 6
Consulting room
13.8
47.6
447
3-CLEANER 1
WC/Dirty Utility
3.8
12.9
218
2-INFO
Consulting room
18.8
65.0
448
3-CLEANER 2
WC/Dirty Utility
7.5
25.9
219
2-INTERVW 1
Consulting room
9.7
33.3
449
3-DIRTYUT
WC/Dirty Utility
9.8
33.9
67 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Queen Elizabeth II Hospital
220
2-INTERVW 2
Consulting room
11.2
38.7
450
3-DISPOSAL
WC/Dirty Utility
12.7
43.8
221
2-INTERVW 3
Consulting room
11.4
39.3
451
3-STORE 1
WC/Dirty Utility
3.1
10.7
222
3-ADMIN
Consulting room
25.3
87.4
452
3-WC 01
WC/Dirty Utility
4.8
16.6
223
3-HOTDESK 1
Consulting room
14.4
49.8
453
3-WC 02
WC/Dirty Utility
5.0
17.1
224
3-STAFF
Consulting room
45.8
158.0
454
3-WC 08
WC/Dirty Utility
5.2
17.8
225
0-AE ADMIN
General supply Extract
28.2
108.5
455
3-WC 1 DIS
WC/Dirty Utility
4.8
16.4
226
0-CAFE 1
General supply Extract
14.5
56.0
456
3-WC 11
WC/Dirty Utility
3.1
10.8
227
0-CIRC 01B
General supply Extract
73.5
282.9
457
3-WC 4
WC/Dirty Utility
3.5
12.1
228
0-CIRC 03
General supply Extract
23.7
91.3
458
3-WC 5&6
WC/Dirty Utility
7.4
25.6
229
0-CIRC 11A
General supply Extract
65.9
253.5
459
3-WC 9&10
WC/Dirty Utility
10.9
37.5
230
0-CLEAN UT
General supply Extract
17.1
65.7
460
3-WC03
WC/Dirty Utility
5.6
19.4
461
3-WC07
WC/Dirty Utility
3.1
10.6
68 Low Carbon Building Group, School of Architecture
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Related manuals

Download PDF

advertising