Analysis the Results of Acoustic Echo Cancellation for

Analysis the Results of Acoustic Echo Cancellation for
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 56– No.15, October 2012
Analysis the Results of Acoustic Echo
Cancellation for Speech Processing using LMS
Adaptive Filtering Algorithm
Ranbeer Tyagi
Dheeraj Agrawal
Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg.
Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg.
PCRT (PU), Bhopal (M.P.) India
MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.) India
ABSTRACT
The Conventional acoustic echo
canceller encounters
problems like slow convergence rate (especially for speech
signal) and high computational complexity as the
identification of the echo path requires filter with more than a
thousand taps, non-stationary speech input, slowly timevarying systems to be identified. The demand for fast
convergence and less MSE level cannot be met by
conventional adaptive filtering algorithms. There is a need to
be computationally efficient and rapidly converging
algorithm.
The LMS algorithm is easy to implement and computationally
inexpensive. This feature makes the LMS algorithm attractive
for echo cancellation applications. The results show that the
steady state value of the output estimation error increases with
increasing the step size parameter and the optimality of the
LMS algorithm is no longer hold. The results also reveal that
choosing the smallest value of the step size parameter
guarantees the smallest mis-adjustment but might not meet the
convergence criteria.
General Terms
Adaptive Filtering Algorithm, Acoustic Echo-cancellation.
Keywords
LMS Algorithm, Echo-cancellation, ERLE, MSE.
1. INTRODUCTION
Teleconferencing systems are expected to provide a high
sound quality. Speech by the far end speaker is captured by
the near end microphone and being sent back to him as echo.
Acoustic echoes cause great discomfort to the users since their
own speech (delayed version) is heard during conversation.
The echo has been a big issue in communication networks.
Hence this is devoted to the investigation and development of
an effective way to control the acoustic echo in hands-free
communications [1]. The Generation of acoustic echo through
direct coupling and reverberations [2] can be shown in Fig. 1.
Each side of the communication process is called an ‘End’.
The remote end from the speaker is called the far end (FE),
and the near end (NE) refers to the end being measured. The
acoustic echo is due to the coupling between the loudspeaker
and microphone.
The speech of the far-end speaker is sent to the loudspeaker at
the near end, and it is reflected from the floor, walls and other
neighboring objects, and then picked up by the near-end
microphone and transmitted back to the far-end speaker,
yielding an echo, which can be illustrated in Figure 1.
The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the
principles of acoustic echo cancellation in teleconferencing
environment. Section 3, 4 gives a very brief idea about
Discrete Time Signal and Speech Signal. Section 5, 6 gives a
very brief review on The LMS Algorithm. Section 7 reports
the Discussion and Analysis of Simulation results, carried out
on acoustic echo cancellation using LMS Algorithm. The
conclusions and references are discussed in the last Section.
Fig 1: Generation of acoustic echo through direct coupling
and reverberations
2. THE PRINCIPLES OF ACOUSTIC
ECHO CANCELLATION
In a teleconferencing environment, speech by the near end
speaker is often captured by the far end microphone and being
sent back to him as echo. For acoustic echo cancellation, the
initial speech transmitted to the far end is adaptively filtered
to follow the echo of the speech retransmitted from the far
end. The difference of the two signals (i.e. the error of the
adaptive filter) is transmitted to the near end [20]. This error
signal is used by the adaptive filter in adapting its filter
parameters. Figure 2 shows such an acoustic echo cancelling
setup. Referring to figure let x(n) be the input signal (from
the far end speaker) travelling to the near end speaker through
the loudspeaker and d(n) is the signal picked up by the
microphone which in this case is the far end echo corrupted
with noise .
The adaptive filter is used to model the transfer function of
the room in which the loudspeaker and microphone are in to
generate a replica of the echo, y(n) following that, the
estimated echo is subtracted from the desired input signal d(n)
yielding the estimation error signal,
e(n)  d (n)  y(n)
1
The aim is to cancel the desired input signal d(n) and that is
by making sure the error signal e(n) is kept to the best
minimum value possible. From Figure 2, it is also noted that
past values of the estimation error signal e(n) is fed back to
the adaptive filter. The purpose of the feedback is to
effectively adjust the structure of the adaptive system, thus
altering its response characteristics to the optimum possible.
7
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 56– No.15, October 2012
Simply, the adaptive filter is self adjusting hence the name
‘adaptive’.
In an acoustic echo cancellation [3], [14], [18], a model of the
room impulse response may vary continuously hence the
model needs to be updated continuously. This is done by
means of adaptive filtering algorithms.
LMS algorithm consists of two basic processes
1. A filtering process- which involves computing the output
d(n) of the Transversal filter generating from the set of tap
weights, and computing a error e(n) by comparing this output
with the actual desired response.
2. An adaptive process- which involves the automatic
adjustment of the tap weights. Figure 4 shows the block
diagram of adaptive transversal filter.
x(n)
Transversal
Filter [w (n)]
y(n)
Adaptive Weight
Control Mechanism
Fig 2: Acoustic Echo Canceller configurations
e(n)
3. DISCRETE TIME SIGNAL
Real world signals, such as speech are analog and continuous.
An audio signal, as heard by our ears is a continuous
waveform which derives from air pressure variations
fluctuating at frequencies which we interpret as sound.
However, in modern day communication systems these
signals are represented electronically by discrete numeric
sequences [4]. In these sequences, each value represents an
instantaneous value of the continuous signal. These values are
taken at regular time periods [5], known as the sampling
period, Ts.
The values of the sequence, x(t) corresponding to the value at
n times the sampling period is denoted as x(n).
x(n)  x(nTs )
2
4. SPEECH SIGNAL
A speech signal consists of three classes of sounds [13]. They
are voiced, fricative and plosive sounds. Voiced sounds are
caused by excitation of the vocal tract with quasi-periodic
pulses of airflow. Fricative sounds are formed by constricting
the vocal tract and passing air through it, causing turbulence
that result in a noise-like sound. Plosive sounds are created by
closing up the vocal tract, building up air behind it then
suddenly releasing it. This is heard in the sound made by the
letter. Figure 3 shows a discrete time representation of a
speech signal.
Fig 4: Block diagram of Adaptive Transversal Filter
The filter tap weights of the adaptive filter LMS algorithm
[6], [7] are updated according to this equation
w(n  1)  w(n)  e(n) x(n)
Where w (n) is the tap weight vector at time n.
The parameter µ is known as the step size parameter and is a
small positive constant. This step size parameter controls the
influence of the updating factor. Selection of a suitable value
for is imperative to the performance of the LMS algorithm, if
the value is too small the time the adaptive filter [8] takes to
converge on the optimal solution will be too long; if µ is too
large the adaptive filter becomes unstable and its output
diverges.
It is noted that the existence of feedback e(n) in the LMS
Algorithm [19] may cause the algorithm to be unstable.
Fortunately, the stability of the algorithm can be determined
by the step-size parameter. The step size parameter should
satisfy the following
0 
Where
Far End Speech
1
3
2
S max
4
S max is maximum value of input signal power.
0.8
0.6
6. ANALYSIS OF THE LMS
ALGORITHM
Amplitude
0.4
0.2
0
The LMS algorithm minimizes the expected value of the
squared error (residual echo). Thus the criterion function,
mean squared error is
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Sample Number
3
3.5
4
4
x 10
Fig 3: Speech signal representation
5. THE LMS ALGORITHM
The LMS algorithm is a type of adaptive filter known as
stochastic gradient-based algorithms as it utilizes the gradient
vector of the filter tap weights to converge on the optimal
wiener solution. It is well known and widely used due to its
computational simplicity [6].
J  E[e 2 (n)]
5
J  E[e 2 (n)]
J  2e(n)E[e(n)]
J  2e(n)E[d (n)  W T (n) x(n)]
8
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 56– No.15, October 2012
J  2e(n) x(n)
6
For simplicity, the tap input vector x(n) and the desired
response d(n) are assumed to be jointly wide-sense stationary
[9]. With this assumption, the method of steepest descent can
be used to compute a tap weight vector.
w(n  1)  w(n)  J
7
w(n  1)  w(n)  2e(n) x(n)
8
For convenience, the factor two in equation 8 is absorbed into
the constant µ yielding
w(n  1)  w(n)  e(n) x(n)
9
The LMS algorithm has a correction factor of µ e(n)x(n) to
the tap weight vector w(n). One notable fact is that the
correction factor is directly proportional to the tap input
vector x(n) and hence when x(n) is large, the LMS algorithm
faces a gradient noise amplification problem [10]. This means
the error in the gradient estimate gets magnified.
The main reason for the LMS algorithms popularity in
adaptive filtering is its computational simplicity, making it
easier to implement than all other commonly used adaptive
algorithms. For each iteration the LMS algorithm requires 2N
additions and 2N+1 multiplications (N for calculating the
output, y(n), one for 2μe(n) and an additional N for the scalar
by vector multiplication) [11], [12], [17]. Figure 5 shows the
flowchart of the basic LMS adaptive filtering Algorithm.
Initialization of the tap-weight vector w (n)
Get the value of x (n) and d(n)
Filter x (n) according to
y ( n) 
M 1
w
k 0
k
( n) x ( n  k )
In this paper filter length was taken to be 300 taps. The
parameter of LMS algorithm µ was set to be 0.03 and the near
end speaker was assumed to be noisy. Noise variance was set
at 0.012.
Figure 6 shows the Acoustic echo path Impulse from where
Output of Loudspeaker is passed. Figure 7 shows Microphone
Signal which is Resulting Far End Echo corrupted with Noise
from near end. Residual Echo of LMS filter is shown in
Figure 8 and it is compared with Microphone signal in Figure
9. It can be seen that the residual echo is small but not
satisfactory. Mean square error performance is shown in
Figure 10 which is showing the average of the MSE decay to
zero after long time [11].
A very useful tool to express the effect of echo cancellation is
the Echo Return Loss Enhancement (ERLE) [12] defined as:
ERLS dB
E (d 2 (n))
 10 log
E (e 2 (n))
10
Where, E represents the estimated expected value by means of
moving averages. Here, the ERLE is used as the performance
index of the algorithm and is defined as the ratio of energy in
the original echo d (n) to the energy in the residual echo e (n).
Table 1. Condition of Simulation Experiment using fixed
values of µ
Simulation Parameters
Time (length of signal in second)
Sample Rate of speech Signal
LMS Step size (µ)
No of adaptive Filter Tap
Moving point average (Mpa)
length of room impulse response (M)
Noise Variable
Simulation Parameters
Time (length of signal in second)
Sample Rate of speech Signal
e(n) = d(n) – y(n)
( )
Table 1 shows the condition of simulation experiment for
LMS Algorithm for acoustic echo cancellation [15, 16].
Value
6 sec
8KHz
0.03
300
150
500
0.012
Table 2. Condition of Simulation Experiment using
different values of µ
Compute the error
( )
algorithm attractive for echo cancellation applications.
Simulations involving real speech input signal consisted of
48,000 sample points and the echo path was assumed to have
known impulse response, h(n) of 500 points long.
( )
Updating the coefficient
w(n  1)  w(n)  e(n) x(n)
Fig 5: Flowchart of the Basic LMS Algorithm
7. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
SIMULATION RESULTS
The LMS algorithm was simulated using Matlab with respect
to the application of acoustic echo cancellation depicted in
Figure 2. LMS algorithm is easy to implement and
computationally inexpensive. This feature makes the LMS
LMS Step size (µ)
No of adaptive Filter Tap
Moving point average (Mpa)
length of room impulse response (M)
Noise Variable
Value
6 sec
8KHz
0.001, 0.007,
0.03
300
150
500
0.012
In other words, ERLE is a measure of how much echo is
attenuated in decibel (dB).
ERLE for LMS algorithm is shown in Figure 11.It is observed
that the ERLE for LMS algorithm has lower peaks hence
convergence is slower as well as less echo suppression is
achieved.
9
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 56– No.15, October 2012
ERLE of
Acoustic Echo Path Impulse Response
LMS Algorithm
35
0.3
30
0.2
25
0.1
ERLE[dB]
20
Amplitude
0
-0.1
15
10
5
-0.2
0
-0.3
-5
-0.4
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Sample Number
350
400
450
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
sample number
3.5
4
4.5
5
4
x 10
Fig 11: ERLE Performance of LMS Algorithm
Fig 6: Acoustic Echo Path Impulse Response
The convergence behaviour of the LMS algorithm is highly
dependent on the step size parameter µ. As an illustration, the
learning curves of ERLE and MSE for three different values
of µ (.001, .007 and .03) are depicted in Figure 12 and Figure
13 respectively and the Table-2 shows the parameter of LMS
Algorithm using different values of µ.
Far End Echo+Noise
1.5
1
0.5
Amplitude
0
500
0
-0.5
ERLE Comparison of LMS for different mu
mu=.001
mu=.007
mu=.03
20
-1
15
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Sample Number
3.5
4
4.5
5
4
x 10
Fig 7: Microphone Signal
Residual Echo By
10
ERLE[dB]
-1.5
5
0
LMS Algorithm
0.15
-5
0.1
-10
Amplitude
0.05
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
sample number
3500
4000
4500
5000
0
Fig 12: ERLE Performance of LMS Algorithm for
different step size
-0.05
-0.1
MSE Comparison of LMS for different mu
-10
-0.15
mu=.001
mu=.007
mu=.03
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Sample Number
3.5
4
4.5
5
-30
4
x 10
Mean Square Error [dB]
-0.2
Fig 8: Residual Echo of LMS Algorithm
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
1.5
Far End Echo+Noise
Residual Echo By LMS Algorithm
-90
0
500
1000
1500
1
Amplitude
0
-0.5
-1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Sample Number
3.5
4
4.5
5
4
x 10
Fig 9: Comparison of Microphone Signal with remaining
Residual Echo of LMS Algorithm
MSE of
LMS Algorithm
-20
-25
Mean Square Error [dB]
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
-55
-60
3500
4000
4500
5000
Fig 13: MSE Performance of LMS Algorithm for different
step size
0.5
-1.5
2000
2500
3000
sample number
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
sample number
3.5
4
4.5
Fig 10: MSE Performance of LMS Algorithm
5
From Figure 12 it is observed that the ERLE for large step
size (in red) has higher peaks than the two lower value of step
size (in blue and magenta). In other words, LMS algorithm
converges faster for large value of step size hence; more echo
suppression is achieved but from Figure 13 results in large
mis-adjustment error for large value of step size and learning
curve never actually converges down to a satisfactory steady
state condition. On the other hand, when µ is small (equal to
0.001), the rate of convergence reduces significantly and gives
small steady state mis-adjustment error.
In short, the results show that the steady state value of the
output estimation error increases with increasing µ and the
optimality of the LMS algorithm is no longer hold. The results
also reveal that choosing the smallest value of the step size
parameter guarantees the smallest mis-adjustment but might
not meet the convergence criteria[11], [12].
4
x 10
8. CONCLUSION
The LMS algorithm is attractive for echo cancellation
applications due to its inherent simplicity. In acoustic echo
cancellation applications such as hands free telephony, input
signal is no other than the speech signal and speech
excitations have a large Eigen value spread. As a result, the
convergence rate of the LMS algorithm for such application
10
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 56– No.15, October 2012
will drop significantly. This undesirable dependence on the
Eigen value spread has prompted investigations into other
adaptive algorithms (or structure) particularly in combating
the dependence of convergence rate to its signal
characteristics.
This paper has presented the acoustic echo cancelling using
adaptive filters. Acoustic echo canceller is necessary as the
control of acoustical echoes is important to ensure
comfortable conversation in hands free telephones and
teleconferencing applications. Essentially, the acoustic echo
cancelling problem can be viewed as an identification
problem where the identification is no other than the acoustic
echo path (normally requires more than a thousand taps).
The results show that the LMS algorithm has the least
computational complexity but a poor convergence rate.
9. REFERENCES
[1] J.G.Proakis,“ Digital Communications” ,Fourth Edition.
New York, McGraw Hill, 2001.
[2] A. N. Birkett Morgan, 2003, “A two stage neural filter
and training algorithm for application in handsfree
telephone acoustic echo cancellers”.
[3] F. Capman, J.Boudy, P. Lockwood, 1995, “Acoustic
Echo Cancellation using a Fast QR-RLS Algorithm and
Multirate Schemes”,IEEE Trans. Signal Processing.
Pp.969-972.
[4] Oppenheim, A. V. & Schafer, R. W. 1999, “Discrete
Time Signal Processing”, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall,
United States of America.
[5] S.M.Kuo, B.H.Lee and W.Tian, ”Real Time Digital
Signal Processing”, John Wily & sons Ltd,2006.
[6] S.Haykin and T.Kailath “Adaptive Filter Theory ” Fourth
Edition. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education 2002.
[7] “Adaptive Filters” Douglas L. Jones , CONNEXIONS
Rice University ,Houston, Texas.
[8] A. H. Sayed “Fundamentals of adaptive filtering”
Hoboken, N. J.: Wiley, 2003.
[9] B.Widrow
and
S.Stearns,’’Adaptive
Processing’’Prentice Hall, 1985.
Signal
[10] A. Papoulis, “Probability, Random Variables, and
Stochastic Processes”, second edition. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1984.
[12] Thieny Petillon, Andre Gilloire, and Sergios
Theodoridis, Member, IEEE,1994, “The Fast Newton
Transversal Filter: An Efficient Scheme for Acoustic
Echo Cancellation in Mobile Radio”. pp. 509-518.
[13] Isao Nakanishi and Yuudai Nagata, Yoshio Itoh,
Yutaka Fukui, “Single-Channel Speech Enhancement
Based on Frequency Domain ALE” ISCAS 2006.
[14] Sanjeev Dhull, Sandeep Arya, O.P Sahu “Performance
Evaluation of Adaptive Filters Structures for Acoustic
Echo Cancellation” International Journal of Engineering
(IJE), Volume (5), Issue (2),pp. 208-215, 2011.
[15] Deshpande Tanavi A, Dube R. R. “A Design of
Nonlinear Acoustic Echo Canceller Using Raised Cosine
Function and NLMS Algorithm” Proceedings of the
National Conference "NCNTE-2012" at Fr. C.R.I.T.,
Vashi, Navi Mumbai, pp. 80-85 Feb. 24-25, 2012.
[16] V.R.Metkewar, A. N. Kamthane, Aqeel Ahemad, S.A.
Hashmi “Adaptive LMS and NLMS algorithms for
cancellation of Acoustic echo” MPGI National Multi
Conference 2012 (MPGINMC-2012) “Advancement in
Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering” pp. 2527,7-8 April, 2012.
[17] Barik, A., Murmu, G. , Bhardwaj, T.P. , Nath, R. ,
“LMS adaptive Multiple Sub-Filters based acoustic echo
cancellation” IEEE “International Conference Computer
and Communication Technology (ICCCT), 2010” pp.
824 – 827, 17-19 Sept. 2010.
[18] Nongpiur, R. C., Shpak, D. J., “Maximizing the Signalto-Alias Ratio in Non-Uniform Filter Banks for Acoustic
Echo Cancellation” Circuits and Systems Society:
Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions;ISSN: 1549-8328; 14
February-2012.
[19] Dubey, S.K. , Rout, N.K., “FLMS algorithm for acoustic
echo cancellation and its comparison with LMS” Recent
Advances in Information Technology (RAIT), 2012 1st
International Conference, Dhanbad, pp. 852 – 856, 15-17
March 2012,Print ISBN: 978-1-4577-0694-3.
[20] Schuldt, Christian , Lindstrom, Fredric , Claesson,
Ingvar, “ Robust low-complexity transfer logic for twopath echo cancellation” Acoustics, Speech and Signal
Processing (ICASSP), 2012 IEEE International
Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 25-30 March 2012, pp.- 173 –
176, ISSN : 1520-6149.
[11] Wee Chong Chew and Dr B. Farhang Boroujeny,1997,
“Software Simulation and Real-time Implementation of
Acoustic Echo Cancelling”, pp. 1270-1274.
11
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising