Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
• Intel® Embedded Server RAID
Technology 2
• Intel® IT/IR RAID
• Intel® Integrated Server RAID
• Intel® RAID Software Stack 3
Revision 23.0
July, 2014
Intel Order Number: D29305-023
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Table of Contents
1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
Supported Hardware .....................................................................................................1
Software ........................................................................................................................ 4
RAID Terminology ........................................................................................................ 5
1.3.1 Fault Tolerance .................................................................................................. 5
1.3.2 Enclosure Management ..................................................................................... 7
1.3.3 Performance ...................................................................................................... 7
RAID Levels ........................................................................................................... 9
2.1
2.2
Summary of RAID Levels ............................................................................................. 9
Selecting a RAID Level ...............................................................................................10
2.2.1 RAID 0 - Data Striping .....................................................................................10
2.2.2 RAID 1 - Disk Mirroring/Disk Duplexing ...........................................................11
2.2.3 RAID 5 - Data Striping with Striped Parity .......................................................11
2.2.4 RAID 6 - Distributed Parity and Disk Striping ..................................................12
2.2.5 RAID IME .........................................................................................................14
2.2.6 RAID 10 - Combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 ...............................................14
2.2.7 RAID 50 - Combination of RAID 5 and RAID 0 ...............................................15
2.2.8 RAID 60 - Combination of RAID 0 and RAID 6 ...............................................16
2.3 RAID Configuration Strategies ....................................................................................19
2.3.1 Maximizing Fault Tolerance .............................................................................19
2.3.2 Maximizing Performance .................................................................................20
2.3.3 Maximizing Storage Capacity ..........................................................................22
2.4 RAID Availability .........................................................................................................23
2.4.1 RAID Availability Concept ................................................................................23
2.4.2 Spare Drives ....................................................................................................23
2.4.3 Rebuilding ........................................................................................................23
2.4.4 Drive in Foreign State ......................................................................................24
2.4.5 Copyback .........................................................................................................24
2.4.6 Configuration Planning ....................................................................................25
2.4.7 Dimmer Switch Feature ...................................................................................25
2.4.8 Serial ATA III Features ....................................................................................25
2.4.9 UEFI 2.0 Support .............................................................................................26
2.4.10 Number of Physical Disks ..............................................................................26
2.4.11 MegaRAID Fast Path .....................................................................................26
2.4.12 4K Sector Drive Support ................................................................................26
2.4.13 Larger than 2TB Drive Support ......................................................................27
2.4.14 Power Save settings ......................................................................................27
2.4.15 Shield State ...................................................................................................27
2.4.16 Array Purpose ................................................................................................28
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3
RAID Utilities .......................................................................................................29
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II BIOS Configuration Utility ................... 29
LSI MPT* SAS BIOS Configuration Utility .................................................................. 29
Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Configuration Utility for Intelligent RAID ....................... 30
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Configuration and Monitoring Utility .............................. 31
3.4.1 Drive Hierarchy within the RAID Firmware ...................................................... 32
3.5 Intel® Intelligent RAID Controller Features ................................................................. 32
3.5.1 Enterprise Features ......................................................................................... 32
3.5.2 Fault Tolerant Features ................................................................................... 33
3.5.3 Cache Options and Settings ........................................................................... 34
3.5.4 Background Tasks .......................................................................................... 34
3.5.5 Error Handling ................................................................................................. 35
3.5.6 Audible Alarm .................................................................................................. 35
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4
Intel® RAID Drivers .............................................................................................37
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration Utility ..............................42
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
Creating, Adding or Modifying a Virtual Drive Configuration ...................................... 43
Setting the Write Cache and Read Ahead Policies .................................................... 45
Working with a Global Hot-spare Drive ...................................................................... 46
5.3.1 Adding a Hot-spare Drive ................................................................................ 46
5.3.2 Removing a Hot-spare Drive ........................................................................... 46
Rebuilding a Drive ...................................................................................................... 46
5.4.1 Auto Rebuild and Auto Resume ...................................................................... 47
Checking Data Consistency ....................................................................................... 47
Viewing and Changing Device Properties .................................................................. 47
Forcing a Drive Online or Offline ................................................................................ 48
Configuring a Bootable Virtual Drive .......................................................................... 48
Deleting (Clearing) a Storage Configuration .............................................................. 49
Intel® IT/IR RAID Controller Configuration Utility ............................................50
6.1
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RAID Driver Installation for Microsoft Windows* ........................................................ 37
4.1.1 Installation in a New Microsoft Windows* Operating System .......................... 37
4.1.2 Installation in an Existing Microsoft Windows* Operating System .................. 38
RAID Driver Installation for Red Hat* Enterprise Linux .............................................. 38
RAID Driver Installation for SuSE* Linux .................................................................... 39
RAID Driver Installation for Novell NetWare* ............................................................. 39
4.4.1 Installation in a New Novell Netware* System ................................................ 39
4.4.2 Installation in an Existing Novell Netware* System ......................................... 40
RAID Driver Installation for Solaris* 10 ...................................................................... 40
4.5.1 Installation in a New Solaris* System .............................................................. 40
4.5.2 Installation in an Existing Solaris* System ...................................................... 41
Overview .................................................................................................................... 50
6.1.1 Integrated Mirroring and Integrated Mirroring Enhanced Features ................. 50
6.1.2 Integrated Striping Features ............................................................................ 51
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6.2
Creating Mirrored Volumes .........................................................................................51
6.2.1 Mirrored Volume Configuration Overview ........................................................52
6.2.2 Creating Mirrored Volumes ..............................................................................52
6.2.3 Managing Hot Spare Disks ..............................................................................56
6.2.4 Other Configuration Tasks ...............................................................................58
6.3 Creating Integrated Striping Volumes .........................................................................61
6.3.1 Integrated Striping Configuration Overview .....................................................62
6.3.2 Creating Integrated Striping Volumes ..............................................................62
6.3.3 Other Configuration Tasks ...............................................................................64
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12Gb/s Intel® RAID Controller Configuration Utility ....................................... 68
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
Overview .....................................................................................................................68
Starting the Ctrl-R Utility .............................................................................................68
Exiting the Ctrl-R Utility ...............................................................................................69
Ctrl-R Utility Keystrokes ..............................................................................................69
Ctrl-R Utility Menus .....................................................................................................70
7.5.1 VD Mgmt Menu ................................................................................................70
7.5.2 PD Mgmt Menu ................................................................................................71
7.5.3 Ctrl Mgmt Menu ...............................................................................................72
7.5.4 Properties Menu ..............................................................................................73
7.5.5 Foreign View Menu ..........................................................................................74
Controller Advanced Software Options .......................................................................75
7.6.1 Advanced Software Options ............................................................................75
7.6.2 RAID Premium Feature Key ............................................................................77
Creating a Storage Configuration ...............................................................................78
7.7.1 Selecting Additional Virtual Drive Properties ...................................................80
7.7.2 Creating a CacheCade Virtual Drive ...............................................................81
7.7.3 Modifying a CacheCade Virtual Drive ..............................................................82
7.7.4 Creating a CacheCade Pro 2.0 Virtual Drive ...................................................83
7.7.5 Modifying a CacheCade Pro 2.0 Virtual Drive .................................................84
7.7.6 Enabling SSD Caching on a Virtual Drive .......................................................86
7.7.7 Disabling SSD Caching on a Virtual Drive .......................................................86
7.7.8 Enabling or Disabling SSD Caching on Multiple Virtual Drives .......................87
7.7.9 Deleting a Virtual Drive with SSD Caching Enabled ........................................88
Clearing the Configuration ..........................................................................................88
Intel SafeStore Encryption Services ...........................................................................89
7.9.1 Enabling Drive Security ...................................................................................89
7.9.2 Changing Security Settings .............................................................................91
7.9.3 Disabling Drive Security ..................................................................................92
7.9.4 Importing or Clearing a Foreign Configuration ................................................92
Discarding Preserved Cache ....................................................................................95
Converting JBOD Drives to Unconfigured Good Drives ...........................................96
Converting Unconfigured Good Drives to JBOD Drives ...........................................97
Viewing and Changing Device Properties ................................................................99
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7.13.1 Viewing Controller Properties ........................................................................ 99
7.13.2 Modifying Controller Properties ..................................................................... 99
7.13.3 Viewing and Changing Virtual Drive Properties .......................................... 101
7.13.4 Deleting a Virtual Drive ............................................................................... 103
7.13.5 Deleting a Virtual Drive Group .................................................................... 103
7.13.6 Expanding a Virtual Drive ............................................................................ 104
7.13.7 Erasing a Virtual Drive ................................................................................ 105
7.13.8 Managing Link Speed ................................................................................. 106
7.13.9 Managing Power Save Settings for the Controller ...................................... 107
7.13.10 Managing Power Save Settings for the Drive Group ................................ 108
7.13.11 Managing BBU Information ....................................................................... 108
7.13.12 Managing Dedicated Hot Spares .............................................................. 110
7.13.13 Securing a Drive Group ............................................................................. 111
7.13.14 Setting LED Blinking ................................................................................. 111
7.13.15 Performing a Break Mirror Operation ........................................................ 111
7.13.16 Performing a Join Mirror Operation ........................................................... 112
7.14 Managing Storage Configurations .......................................................................... 114
7.14.1 Initializing a Virtual Drive ............................................................................. 114
7.14.2 Running a Consistency Check .................................................................... 114
7.14.3 Rebuilding a Physical Drive ........................................................................ 115
7.14.4 Performing a Copyback Operation .............................................................. 116
7.14.5 Removing a Physical Drive ......................................................................... 116
7.14.6 Creating Global Hot Spares ........................................................................ 117
7.14.7 Removing a Hot Spare Drive ...................................................................... 117
7.14.8 Making a Drive Offline ................................................................................. 117
7.14.9 Making a Drive Online ................................................................................. 118
7.14.10 Instant Secure Erase ................................................................................. 118
7.14.11 Erasing a Physical Drive ........................................................................... 118
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6Gb/s Intel® RAID Controller Configuration Utility ........................................120
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
9
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 ..............................................................................148
9.1
9.2
9.3
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Quick Configuration Steps ........................................................................................ 120
Detailed Configuration Steps using the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 ...................... 121
8.2.1 Start the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Utility ................................................ 121
8.2.2 Screen and Option Descriptions ................................................................... 121
Setting Up a RAID Array Using the Configuration Wizard ........................................ 128
Creating RAID 0, 1, 5, or 6 using Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 (detailed) ............... 131
Creating RAID 10, RAID 50, and RAID 60 using Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 ....... 135
Setting Drive Parameters ......................................................................................... 141
Creating a Hot Spare ................................................................................................ 142
Viewing Event Details ............................................................................................... 145
Configuration Functions ........................................................................................... 148
Monitoring Functions ................................................................................................ 148
Maintenance Functions ............................................................................................ 149
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
9.20
9.21
Hardware and Software Requirements .....................................................................149
Installing the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on a Microsoft Windows* Operating System
149
Installing the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on Linux or SuSE* Linux Enterprise Server .
151
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Support and Installation on VMWare ...........................152
9.7.1 Installing Intel® RAID Web Console 2 for VMWare Classic ..........................152
9.7.2 Uninstalling Intel® RAID Web Console 2 for VMWare ...................................152
9.7.3 Installing Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Support on the VMWare ESX ...........152
Starting the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 ..................................................................158
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Screens .......................................................................158
9.9.1 LDAP Support ................................................................................................161
9.9.2 Configuring LDAP Support Settings ..............................................................163
9.9.3 Physical/Virtual View Panel ...........................................................................165
9.9.4 Properties/Operations/Graphical View Panel ................................................165
9.9.5 Event Log Panel ............................................................................................167
9.9.6 Menu Bar/Manage Menu ...............................................................................167
9.9.7 Menu Bar/Go To Menu ..................................................................................168
9.9.8 File Menu/Log Menu ......................................................................................168
9.9.9 File Menu/Tool Menu .....................................................................................168
9.9.10 File Menu/Help Menu ..................................................................................168
Drive Configuration Tasks ......................................................................................168
9.10.1 Create Virtual Drive .....................................................................................169
Creating a Virtual Drive Using Simple Configuration ..............................................169
Creating a Virtual Drive Using Advanced Configuration .........................................174
Creating a Spanned Disk Group .............................................................................183
Creating Hot Spares ...............................................................................................184
Setting Adjustable Task Rates ................................................................................186
Adding a Drive to a Virtual Disk ..............................................................................188
Removing a Drive or Changing the RAID Level of a Virtual Disk ...........................191
Changing Virtual Disk Properties ............................................................................193
Deleting a Virtual Disk ............................................................................................194
Managing Configurations ........................................................................................195
9.20.1 Saving a Configuration to Disk ....................................................................195
9.20.2 Clearing a Configuration from a Controller ..................................................197
9.20.3 Adding a Configuration from a File ..............................................................198
Monitoring System Events and Devices .................................................................199
9.21.1 Monitoring System Events ...........................................................................199
9.21.2 Monitoring Controllers .................................................................................201
9.21.3 Monitoring Disk Drives and Other Physical Devices ...................................202
9.21.4 Monitoring Virtual Disks ...............................................................................205
9.21.5 Monitoring Enclosures .................................................................................206
9.21.6 Monitoring Battery Backup Units .................................................................206
9.21.7 Battery Learn Cycle .....................................................................................207
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9.21.8 Monitoring Rebuilds and Other Processes .................................................. 209
9.22 Maintaining and Managing Storage Configurations ............................................... 211
9.22.1 Initializing a Virtual Disk .............................................................................. 211
9.22.2 Running a Consistency Check .................................................................... 212
9.22.3 Scanning for New Drives ............................................................................. 214
9.22.4 Rebuilding a Drive ....................................................................................... 214
9.22.5 Removing a Drive ........................................................................................ 216
9.22.6 Flashing the Firmware ................................................................................. 216
9.23 Enabling RAID Premium Features ........................................................................ 216
9.23.1 Enabling Full Disk Encryption feature ......................................................... 216
9.23.2 Enabling Snapshot feature .......................................................................... 230
9.23.3 Enabling Super Sized Cache ...................................................................... 243
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StorCLI .............................................................................................................248
10.1
10.2
10.3
Overview ................................................................................................................ 248
Devices Supported by the StorCLI Tool ................................................................. 248
Installation .............................................................................................................. 248
10.3.1 Installing StorCLI on Microsoft Windows Operating Systems ..................... 249
10.3.2 Installing StorCLI on Linux Operating Systems ........................................... 249
10.3.3 Installing StorCLI on Ubuntu Operating Systems ........................................ 249
10.3.4 Installing StorCLI on VMware Operating Systems ...................................... 250
10.3.5 Installing StorCLI on FreeBSD Operating Systems .................................... 250
10.3.6 Installing StorCLI on Microsoft EFI .............................................................. 250
10.3.7 Installing StorCLI on Solaris Operating Systems ........................................ 250
10.4 StorCLI Command Syntax ...................................................................................... 251
10.5 Working with the Storage Command Line Tool ...................................................... 253
10.5.1 System Commands ..................................................................................... 253
10.5.2 Controller Commands ................................................................................. 254
10.5.3 Drive Commands ........................................................................................ 268
10.5.4 Virtual Drive Commands ............................................................................. 277
10.5.5 Foreign Configurations Commands ............................................................ 290
10.5.6 BIOS-Related Commands ........................................................................... 290
10.5.7 Drive Group Commands ............................................................................. 292
10.5.8 Dimmer Switch Commands ......................................................................... 293
10.5.9 BBU Commands ......................................................................................... 294
10.5.10 Enclosure Commands ............................................................................... 297
10.5.11 PHY Commands ....................................................................................... 298
10.5.12 Logging Commands .................................................................................. 298
10.6 Frequently Used Tasks .......................................................................................... 300
10.6.1 Showing the Version of the Storage Command Line Tool .......................... 300
10.6.2 Showing StorCLI Help ................................................................................. 300
10.6.3 Showing System Summary Information ...................................................... 300
10.6.4 Showing Free Space in a Controller ........................................................... 300
10.6.5 Adding Virtual Drives ................................................................................... 300
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10.6.6 Setting the Cache Policy in a Virtual Drive ..................................................301
10.6.7 Showing Virtual Drive Information ...............................................................301
10.6.8 Deleting Virtual Drives .................................................................................302
10.6.9 Flashing Controller Firmware ......................................................................302
10.7 Unsupported StorCLI Commands ...........................................................................303
Appendix A: Creating a Virtual Drive Using Advanced Configuration ............. 306
Appendix B: Events and Messages ..................................................................... 315
Glossary .................................................................................................................. 332
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List of Figures
Figure 1. RAID 0 – Data Striping ............................................................................................
Figure 2. RAID 1 – Disk Mirroring/Disk Duplexing ..................................................................
Figure 3. RAID 5 – Data Striping with Striped Parity ..............................................................
Figure 4. Example of Distributed Parity across Two Blocks in a Stripe (RAID 6) ...................
Figure 5. Integrated Mirroring Enhanced with Three Disks.....................................................
Figure 6. RAID 10 – Combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0.......................................................
Figure 7. RAID 50 – Combination of RAID 5 and RAID 0.......................................................
Figure 8. RAID 60 Level Virtual Drive .....................................................................................
Figure 9. Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration Utility Screen ..........................
Figure 10. Adapter Properties Window ...................................................................................
Figure 11. Manage Volume Window.......................................................................................
Figure 12. Boot Device on SAS Topology Window.................................................................
Figure 13. Adapter Properties Window ...................................................................................
Figure 14. Boot Device on SAS Topology Window.................................................................
Figure 15. VD Mgmt................................................................................................................
Figure 16. Physical Drive Management ..................................................................................
Figure 17. Controller Settings – First Screen..........................................................................
Figure 18. Controller Settings – Second Screen.....................................................................
Figure 19. Properties ..............................................................................................................
Figure 20. Foreign View Menu................................................................................................
Figure 21. Advanced Software Options ..................................................................................
Figure 22. Advanced Software Options With Key AXXRPFKSSD2 Installed .........................
Figure 23. Create a New Virtual Drive ....................................................................................
Figure 24. Create Virtual Drive – Advanced ...........................................................................
Figure 25. Create CacheCade Virtual Drive ...........................................................................
Figure 26. Modify CacheCade Virtual Drive............................................................................
Figure 27. Create CacheCade Virtual Drive ...........................................................................
Figure 28. Modify CacheCade Virtual Drive............................................................................
Figure 29. Associated Virtual Drives.......................................................................................
Figure 30. Message Box for Enabling SSD Caching ..............................................................
Figure 31. Message Box for Disabling SSD Caching .............................................................
Figure 32. Manage SSD Caching ...........................................................................................
Figure 33. Message Box for Deleting Virtual Drive .................................................................
Figure 34. Clear Configuration................................................................................................
Figure 35. Create Security Key...............................................................................................
Figure 36. Change Security Key .............................................................................................
Figure 37. Foreign Configuration Options...............................................................................
Figure 38. Foreign Configuration – Import ..............................................................................
Figure 39. Foreign Configuration – Clear................................................................................
Figure 40. Manage Preserved Cache .....................................................................................
Figure 41. Convert JBOD to Unconfigured Good ...................................................................
Figure 42. Convert Unconfigured Good to JBOD ...................................................................
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Figure 43. Virtual Drive Properties ........................................................................................
Figure 44. Create Virtual Drive – Advanced..........................................................................
Figure 45. Expand Virtual Drive ............................................................................................
Figure 46. Erase Virtual Drive ...............................................................................................
Figure 47. Manage Link Speed .............................................................................................
Figure 48. Manage Power Save............................................................................................
Figure 49. Manage Power Save Settings – Drive Group ......................................................
Figure 50. Battery Properties ................................................................................................
Figure 51. Dedicated Hotspare .............................................................................................
Figure 52. Join Mirror – Choose Option ................................................................................
Figure 53. Confirmation Message .........................................................................................
Figure 54. Confirmation Message .........................................................................................
Figure 55. Join Mirror – Choose Option ................................................................................
Figure 56. Initialize a Virtual Drive.........................................................................................
Figure 57. Consistency Check ..............................................................................................
Figure 58. Copyback Operation ............................................................................................
Figure 59. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Menu......................................................................
Figure 60. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Controller Selection ............................................
Figure 61. Controller Properties ............................................................................................
Figure 62. Additional Controller Properties ...........................................................................
Figure 63. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Configuration Types............................................
Figure 64. Selecting Configuration ........................................................................................
Figure 65. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Configuration Methods........................................
Figure 66. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Add Physical Drives to Array ..............................
Figure 67. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Set Array Properties ...........................................
Figure 68. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Confirm Configuration.........................................
Figure 69. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Initialization Speed Setting .................................
Figure 70. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Multiple Disk Groups for RAID 10, 50, or 60.......
Figure 71. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Spanning Multiple Arrays....................................
Figure 72. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Viewing Completed Settings...............................
Figure 73. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Initialization Settings ...........................................
Figure 74. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – RAID 10 Final Screen .........................................
Figure 75. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – RAID 10 Properties Screen ................................
Figure 76. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – RAID 50 Properties Screen ................................
Figure 77. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Choosing a Hot Spare Drive ...............................
Figure 78. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Setting a Hot Spare Drive ...................................
Figure 79. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Viewing Hot Spare ..............................................
Figure 80. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Main Screen showing Hot Spare Drive...............
Figure 81. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Event Information Screen ...................................
Figure 82. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Selecting Events to View ....................................
Figure 83. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Viewing an Event ................................................
Figure 84. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Customer Information Screen ..............................
Figure 85. Setup Type Screen ..............................................................................................
Figure 86. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Select Server Screen ...........................................
Figure 87. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Login Screen........................................................
Figure 88. Intel® RAID Web console 2 dashboard................................................................
Figure 89. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Main Screen.........................................................
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Figure 90. LDAP Login..........................................................................................................
Figure 91. Configure Host LDAP ..........................................................................................
Figure 92. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Operations Tab....................................................
Figure 93. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Graphical Tab (Optional feature) .........................
Figure 94. Virtual Drive Creation Menu.................................................................................
Figure 95. Virtual Drive Creation Mode.................................................................................
Figure 96. Create Virtual Drive Screen .................................................................................
Figure 97. Create Virtual Drive – Summary Window ............................................................
Figure 98. Option to Create Additional Virtual Drives ...........................................................
Figure 99. Option to Close the Configuration Wizard ...........................................................
Figure 100. Virtual Drive Creation Menu...............................................................................
Figure 101. Virtual Drive Creation Mode...............................................................................
Figure 102. Create Drive Group Settings Screen .................................................................
Figure 103. Span 0 of Drive Group 0 ....................................................................................
Figure 104. Span 0 and Span 1 of Drive Group 0.................................................................
Figure 105. Virtual Drive Settings Window ...........................................................................
Figure 106. New Virtual Drive 0 ............................................................................................
Figure 107. Create Virtual Drive Summary Window .............................................................
Figure 108. Option to Create Additional Virtual Drives .........................................................
Figure 109. Option to Close the Configuration Wizard .........................................................
Figure 110. Assign Global Hotspare .....................................................................................
Figure 111. Assign Dedicated Hotspare ...............................................................................
Figure 112. Select Hotspare Drive........................................................................................
Figure 113. Set Adjustable Task Rates ................................................................................
Figure 114. Starting Modify Drive Group ..............................................................................
Figure 115. Select RAID level to migrate..............................................................................
Figure 116. Selecting Drives to Add .....................................................................................
Figure 117. Changing RAID Level ........................................................................................
Figure 118. Selecting Drives to Remove ..............................................................................
Figure 119. Changing RAID Level ........................................................................................
Figure 120. Set Virtual Disk Properties.................................................................................
Figure 121. Save Configuration to File .................................................................................
Figure 122. Save Configuration Dialog Box..........................................................................
Figure 123. Clear Configuration............................................................................................
Figure 124. Add Saved Configuration...................................................................................
Figure 125. Event Information Window.................................................................................
Figure 126. Controller Information ........................................................................................
Figure 127. Physical Drive Information .................................................................................
Figure 128. Locating a Physical Drive ..................................................................................
Figure 129. Patrol Read Configuration .................................................................................
Figure 130. Virtual Drive Properties......................................................................................
Figure 131. Enclosure Information........................................................................................
Figure 132. Battery Backup Unit Information ........................................................................
Figure 133. Battery Backup Unit Operations ........................................................................
Figure 134. Group Show Progress Window..........................................................................
Figure 135. Selecting Initialize ..............................................................................................
Figure 136. Group Consistency Check Window ...................................................................
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Figure 137. Scan for Foreign Configuration ..........................................................................
Figure 138. Preparing Drive for Removal..............................................................................
Figure 139. Check Controller Security status........................................................................
Figure 140. Check Drive Security status ...............................................................................
Figure 141. Enable Drive Security.........................................................................................
Figure 142. Start Security Wizard .........................................................................................
Figure 143. Enter Security Key Identifier...............................................................................
Figure 144. Enter Security Key .............................................................................................
Figure 145. Enter Pass Phrase .............................................................................................
Figure 146. Confirm Enable Drive Security ...........................................................................
Figure 147. Check Drive Security Enabled status.................................................................
Figure 148. Select Full Disk Encryption ................................................................................
Figure 149. Create RAID Virtual Drive with FDE enabled.....................................................
Figure 150. Instant Secure Erase..........................................................................................
Figure 151. Confirm Secure Erase........................................................................................
Figure 152. Enable MegaRAID Recovery .............................................................................
Figure 153. Enter the Capacity for Snapshot Respository ....................................................
Figure 154. Confirm Enable Snapshot ..................................................................................
Figure 155. Snapshot Base is shown....................................................................................
Figure 156. Enter Snapshot Name........................................................................................
Figure 157. Create Snapshot ................................................................................................
Figure 158. Create View........................................................................................................
Figure 159. Set MegaRAID Recovery Properties..................................................................
Figure 160. Disable MegaRAID Recovery ............................................................................
Figure 161. Confirm Disable Snapshots................................................................................
Figure 162. Adapter Selection...............................................................................................
Figure 163. Selecting Snapshot Base ...................................................................................
Figure 164. Selecting Advanced Operations.........................................................................
Figure 165. Selecting Rollback..............................................................................................
Figure 166. Selecting a snapshot..........................................................................................
Figure 167. Confirm Page .....................................................................................................
Figure 168. Rollback operation is done.................................................................................
Figure 169. Create SSC from Dashboard .............................................................................
Figure 170. Create SSC Drive Group....................................................................................
Figure 171. Create SSCD name ...........................................................................................
Figure 172. SSC Summary ...................................................................................................
Figure 173. SSCD status shown ...........................................................................................
Figure 174. Delete SSCD......................................................................................................
Figure 175. Virtual Drive Creation Menu ...............................................................................
Figure 176. Virtual Drive Creation Mode ...............................................................................
Figure 177. Create Drive Group Settings Screen..................................................................
Figure 178. Span 0 of Drive Group 0 ....................................................................................
Figure 179. Span 0 and Span 1 of Drive Group 0 .................................................................
Figure 180. Virtual Drive Settings Window............................................................................
Figure 181. New Virtual Drive 0 ............................................................................................
Figure 182. Create Virtual Drive Summary Window..............................................................
Figure 183. Option to Create Additional Virtual Drives..........................................................
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Figure 184. Option to Close the Configuration Wizard ......................................................... 314
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List of Tables
Table 1. RAID 0 Overview .......................................................................................................10
Table 2. RAID 1 Overview .......................................................................................................11
Table 3. RAID 5 Overview .......................................................................................................12
Table 4. RAID 6 Overview .......................................................................................................13
Table 5. RAID 1E Overview ....................................................................................................14
Table 6. RAID 10 Overview .....................................................................................................15
Table 7. RAID 50 Overview .....................................................................................................16
Table 8. RAID 60 Overview .....................................................................................................17
Table 9. RAID Levels and Fault Tolerance .............................................................................19
Table 10. RAID Levels and Performance................................................................................ 20
Table 11. RAID Levels and Capacity ...................................................................................... 22
Table 12. Factors to Consider for Array Configuration ............................................................28
Table 13. Ctrl-R Utility Keystrokes ..........................................................................................69
Table 14. RAID Premium Feature Key ....................................................................................77
Table 15. Controller Settings ...................................................................................................99
Table 16. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Toolbar Icon Descriptions .......................................121
Table 17. Object Identifiers in the StorCli Command Syntax ................................................251
Table 18. Verbs in the StorCli Command Syntax ..................................................................252
Table 19. Controller Commands Quick Reference Table ......................................................254
Table 20. Properties for Show and Set Commands ..............................................................257
Table 21. Set Patrolread Input Options .................................................................................262
Table 22. Set CC Input Options ............................................................................................263
Table 23. Set Advanced Software Options Input Options .....................................................265
Table 24. Set Security Key Input Options .............................................................................266
Table 25. Flashing Controller Firmware Input Options ..........................................................267
Table 26. Physical Drives Commands Quick Reference Table .............................................268
Table 27. Drive Erase Command Options .............................................................................274
Table 28. Add Hotsparedrive Input Options ..........................................................................276
Table 29. Virtual Drives Commands Quick Reference Table ................................................277
Table 30. Add RAID Configuration Input Options ..................................................................278
Table 31. Add RAID Configuration Input Options ..................................................................280
Table 32. Virtual Drive Migration Command Options ............................................................286
Table 33. Virtual Drive Migration Table .................................................................................286
Table 34. Dimmer Switch Input Options ................................................................................293
Table 35. BBU Mode .............................................................................................................295
Table 36. Enclosure Firmware Download Command Options ..............................................297
Table 37. Unsupported Commands fors Intel® RAID Controller ...........................................303
Table 38. MFI Messages .......................................................................................................316
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
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1
Overview
The software described in this document is designed for use with Intel® RAID controllers,
and with on-serverboard RAID solutions that use the Intel® RAID Software Stack 3
(driver package names begin with “ir3”), Embedded Server RAID Technology 2 (driver
package names begin with ESRT2) or Intel® IT/IR RAID.
1.1
Supported Hardware
This manual covers the software stack that is shared by multiple Intel® server products:
•
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II (ESRT2) on the Intel® Enterprise
South Bridge 2 (ESB2) in the chipset, the Intel® I/O Controller Hub 9R (ICH9R),
the Intel® 3420 PCH chipset, Intel® C200 series chipset and Intel® C600 series
chipset used in the following:
— Intel® Server Board S1200BTL/S1200BTS
— Intel® Server Boards based on the Intel® S5000 and S7000 chipsets
— Intel® Server Boards based on the Intel® 5500/5520 chipset with the Intel®
I/O Controller Hub 10R (ICH10R)
— Intel® Server Boards that include the LSI* 1064e SAS (Serially attached
SCSI) controller and some that include the LSI* 1068 SAS controller
— Intel® Server Boards S3420GP
— Intel® Server Boards S3200SH and X38ML
— Intel® SAS Entry RAID Module AXX4SASMOD (when the module is in
ESRTII mode)
— Intel® RAID Controller SASMF8I
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II provides driver based RAID modes
0,1, and 10 with an optional RAID 5 mode provided by Intel® RAID C600 Upgrade
Key RKSATA4R5, RKSATA8R5, RKSAS4R5, or RKSAS8R5.
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II provides driver-based RAID modes
0, 1, and 10 with an optional RAID 5 mode provided by the Intel® RAID
Activation Key AXXRAKSW5 on the ESB2 and LSI* 1064e on some models of
Intel® server boards. ESB2 supports SATA only.
LSI* SAS 1064e and 1068 provide SATA (Serial ATA) and SAS support. Not all
1068 SAS boards provide Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II modes.
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II must be enabled in the server system
BIOS before it is available. Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II is limited
to a maximum of eight drives including hot spare(s). Expander devices are not yet
supported by ESRT2.
•
1
Intel® IT/IR RAID solutions with the following Intel® IT/IR RAID controllers:
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
— Intel® RAID Controller SASWT4I
— Intel® RAID Controller SASUC8I
— Intel® RAID SAS Riser Controller AFCSASRISER in Intel® Server System
S7000FC4UR without Intel® SAS RAID Activation Key AXXRAKSAS2
installed
— Intel® RAID SAS Riser Controller AFCSASRISER in Intel® Server System
S7000FC4UR without Intel® SAS RAID Activation Key AXXRAKSAS2
installed
— Intel® SAS Entry RAID Module AXX4SASMOD
— Intel® 6G SAS PCIe Gen2 RAID Module RMS2LL080 and RMS2LL040
— Intel® Integrated RAID Module RMS25KB080, RMS25KB040,
RMS25JB080, and RMS25JB040
— Intel® RAID Controller RS25FB044
•
Intel® Integrated RAID Technology on the Intel® ROMB solutions. Server boards
and systems include:
— Intel® Server Board S5000PSL (Product code: S5000PSLROMB)
— Intel® Server System SR1550AL (Product code: SR1550ALSAS)
— Intel® Server System SR2500 (Product code: SR2500LX)
— Intel® Server System SR4850HW4s
— Intel® Server System SR6850HW4s
— Intel® Server System S7000FC4UR with a SAS riser card
— Intel® Server Boards S3420GP, S5520HC/S5500HCV, S5520UR, S5520SC,
and S5500WB12V/S5500WB with the Intel®Integrated RAID Controller
SROMBSASMR
Systems using the Intel® RAID Controller SROMBSAS18E provide XOR RAID
modes 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50 when the optional Intel® RAID Activation Key
AXXRAK18E and a DDR2 400 MHz ECC DIMM are installed.
Systems using the Intel® RAID Controller SROMBSASFC or SROMBSASMP2
require the optional Intel® RAID Activation Key AXXRAKSAS2 and a DDR2 667
MHz ECC DIMM to provide RAID modes 0, 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60.
The Intel® Integrated RAID Controller SROMBSASMR has a specially designed
connector that only fits Intel® Server Boards S5520HC/S5500HCV, S5520UR,
S5520SC, and S5500WB12V/S5500WB.
Note: This manual does not include the software RAID modes provided by the SAS
riser card on the Intel® Server System S7000FC4UR. This manual does not
include the RAID modes provided by the FALSASMP2 without Intel® RAID
Activation Key AXXRAKSAS2.
•
Intel® Intelligent RAID used on the Intel® RAID controllers RMS25PB080,
RMS25PB040, RMT3PB080, RMS25CB080, RMS25CB040, RMT3CB080,
RS25AB080, RS25SB008, RS25DB080, RS25NB008, RS2VB080, RS2VB040,
RT3WB080, RS2SG244, RS2WG160, RMS2MH080, RMS2AF080,
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
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RMS2AF040, RS2BL080, RS2BL040, RS2BL080DE, RS2BL080SNGL,
RS2PI008, RS2PI008DE, RS2MB044, RS2WC080, RS2WC040,
SROMBSASMR, SRCSATAWB, SRCSASRB, SRCSASJV, SRCSABB8I,
SRCSASLS4I, SRCSASPH16I, SROMBSASFC, SROMBSASMP2,
SROMBSAS18E, SRCSAS18E and SRCSAS144E.
— The first generation SAS controllers (SRCSAS18E, SRCSAS144E,
SROMBSAS18E) provide XOR RAID modes 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50
— The second generation SAS controller (including SRCSATAWB, SRCSASRB,
SRCSASJV, SRCSABB8I, SRCSASLS4I, SRCSASPH16I, SROMBSASFC,
SROMBSASMP2, SROMBSASMR) provides XOR RAID modes 0, 1, 5, 6,
10, 50, and 60.
— The Intel® 6Gb/s SAS PCIe Gen 2 / Gen 3 RAID Controllers (including
RMS25PB080, RMS25PB040, RMT3PB080, RMS25CB080, RMS25CB040,
RMT3CB080, RS25AB080, RS25SB008, RS25DB080, RS25NB008,
RS2VB080, RS2VB040, RT3WB080, RS2SG244, RS2WG160, RS2BL080,
RS2BL080SNGL, RS2BL080DE, RS2BL040, RS2PI008, RS2PI008DE,
RS2MB044, RS2WC080, RS2WC040, RMS2MH080, RMS2AF080 and
RMS2AF040) support SAS 2.0 new features with XOR RAID modes 0, 1, 5,
6, 10, 50, and 60. (RS2WC080 and RS2WC040 are entry level hardware
RAID controllers and do not support RAID 6 and 60; RMS2AF080 and
RMS2AF040 are entry level hardware RAID controllers and do not support
RAID 10, 6 and 60.)
— The Intel® RAID SSD Cache Controller RCS25ZB040/RCS25ZB040LX
For more details, refer to the Technical Product Specification (TPS) or
Hardware User's Guide (HWUG) for the RAID controllers.
•
12Gb/s Intel® RAID Controller RS3WC080, RS3DC040, RS3DC080, RS3MC044,
RS3SC008, RS3UC080, RS3FC044, and RS3GC008; 12Gb/s Intel® Integrated
RAID Module RMS3CC080, RMS3CC040, RMS3HC080, and RMS3JC080
Note: The Intel® RAID Controllers RMS2AF080, RMS2AF040, RS2WC080, and RS2WC040
only support strip sizes of 8KB, 16KB, 32KB, and 64KB. Also, their Cache Policy only
supports Write Through, Direct I/O, and Normal RAID (No Read Ahead). For more
details,refer to their Hardware User's Guide (HWUG).
This manual does not include information about native SATA or SAS-only modes of the
RAID controllers.
Two versions of the Intel® RAID Controller RS2BL080 are available - RS2BL080,
RS2BL080DE.
All features on RS2BL080 are supported on RS2BL080DE. In addition, RS2BL080DE
provides one more feature of FDE (Full Disk Encryption) that RS2BL080 doesn't support.
Two versions of the Intel® RAID Controller RS2PI008 are available - RS2PI008,
RS2PI008DE.
All features on RS2PI008 are supported on RS2PI008DE. In addition, RS2PI008DE
provides one more feature of FDE (Full Disk Encryption) that RS2PI008 doesn't support.
Caution: Some levels of RAID are designed to increase the availability of data and some to provide
data redundancy. However, installing a RAID controller is not a substitute for a reliable
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
backup strategy. It is highly recommended you back up data regularly through a tape
drive or other backup strategy to guard against data loss. It is especially important to
back up all data before working on any system components and before installing or
changing the RAID controller or configuration.
1.2
Software
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II, Intel® IT/IR RAID and Intel® Integrated
Server RAID controllers include a set of software tools to configure and manage RAID
systems. These include:
•
Intel® RAID controller software and utilities: The firmware installed on the RAID
controller provides pre-operating system configuration.
— For Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II, press <Ctrl> + <E> during
the server boot to enter the BIOS configuration utility.
— For Intel® IT/IR RAID, press <Ctrl> + <C> during the server boot to enter the
LSI MPT* SAS BIOS Configuration Utility
— For 6Gb/s Intel® RAID controller, press <Ctrl> + <G> during the server boot
to enter the RAID BIOS Console II.
— For 12Gb/s Intel® RAID controller, press <Ctrl> + <R> during the server boot
to enter 12Gb/s Intel® RAID controller configuration utility.
•
Intel® RAID Controller Drivers: Intel provides software drivers for the following
operating systems.
— Microsoft Windows Server 2012*, Microsoft Windows Server 2012* R2,
Microsoft Windows Server 2008*, Microsoft Windows Server 2008* R2,
Microsoft Windows 2000*, Microsoft Windows XP*, and Microsoft Windows
Server 2003* (32-bit and 64-bit editions)
— Red Hat* Enterprise Linux 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 (with service packs; X86 and
X86-64)
— SuSE* Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, SuSE* Linux Enterprise Server 10, and
SuSE* Linux Enterprise Server 11(with service packs; X86 and X86-64)
— VMWare* ESX 4i
Note: Only the combinations of controller, driver, and Intel® Server Board or System
listed in the Tested Hardware and Operating System List (THOL) were tested.
Check the supported operating system list for both your RAID controller and
your server board to verify operating system support and compatibility.
•
Intel® RAID Web Console 2: A full-featured graphical user interface (GUI) utility
is provided to monitor, manage, and update the RAID configuration.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
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1.3
RAID Terminology
RAID is a group of physical disks put together to provide increased I/O (Input/Output)
performance (by allowing multiple, simultaneous disk access), fault tolerance, and
reliability (by reconstructing failed drives from remaining data). The physical drive group
is called an array, and the partitioned sets are called virtual disks. A virtual disk can
consist of a part of one or more physical arrays, and one or more entire arrays.
Using two or more configured RAID arrays in a larger virtual disk is called spanning. It is
represented by a double digit in the RAID mode/type (10, 50, 60).
Running more than one array on a given physical drive or set of drives is called a sliced
configuration.
The only drive that the operating system works with is the virtual disk, which is also
called a virtual drive. The virtual drive is used by the operating system as a single drive
(lettered storage device in Microsoft Windows*).
The RAID controller is the mastermind that must configure the physical array and the
virtual disks, and initialize them for use, check them for data consistency, allocate the data
between the physical drives, and rebuild a failed array to maintain data redundancy. The
features available per controller are highlighted later in this document and in the hardware
guide for the RAID controller.
The common terms used when describing RAID functions and features can be grouped
into two areas: fault tolerance (data protection and redundancy) and performance.
1.3.1
Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance describes a state in which even with a drive failure, the data on the virtual
drive is still complete and the system is available after the failure and during repair of the
array. Most RAID modes are able to endure a physical disk failure without compromising
data integrity or processing capability of the virtual drive.
RAID mode 0 is not fault tolerant. With RAID 0, if a drive fails, then the data is no longer
complete and no longer available. Backplane fault tolerance can be achieved by a spanned
array where the arrays are on different backplanes.
True fault tolerance includes the automatic ability to restore the RAID array to
redundancy so that another drive failure will not destroy its usability.
1.3.1.1
Hot Spare
True fault tolerance requires the availability of a spare disk that the controller can add to
the array and use to rebuild the array with the data from the failed drive. This spare disk is
called a hot spare. It must be a part of the array before a disk failure occurs. A hot-spare
drive is a physical drive that is maintained by the RAID controller but not actually used
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
for data storage in the array unless another drive fails. Upon failure of one of the array’s
physical drives, the hot-spare drive is used to hold the recreated data and restore data
redundancy.
Hot-spare drives can be global (available to any array on a controller) or dedicated (only
usable by one array). There can be more than one hot spare per array and the drive of the
closest capacity is used. If both dedicated and global hot-spare drives are available, then
the dedicated drive is used first. If the hot swap rebuild fails, then that hot spare is also
marked failed. Since RAID 0 is not redundant, there is no hot spare value.
If a hot-spare drive is not an option, then it is possible to perform a hot or cold swap of the
failed drive to provide the new drive for rebuild after the drive failure. A swap is the
manual substitution of a replacement drive in a disk subsystem. If a swap is performed
while the system is running, it is a hot swap. A hot swap can only be performed if the
backplane and enclosure support it. If the system does not support hot-swap drives, then
the system must be powered down before the drive swap occurs. This is a cold swap.
In all cases (hot spare, hot swap, or cold swap), the replacement drive must be at least as
large as the drive it replaces. In all three cases, the failed drive is removed from the array.
If using a hot spare, then the failed drive can remain in the system. When a hot spare is
available and an automatic rebuild starts, the failed drive may be automatically removed
from the array before the utilities detect the failure. Only the event logs show what
happened.
If the system is shut down during the rebuild, all rebuilds should automatically restart
on reboot.
Note: If running a sliced configuration (RAID 0, RAID 5, and RAID 6 on the same set of
physical drives), then the rebuild of the spare will not occur until the RAID 0 array is
deleted.
On Intel® RAID Controller RS2WC080 and RS2WC040, if Virtual Drive is in degrade
mode due to failed physical drive, auto rebuild is not supported for hot-plugged drive until
a manual selection is made by users. As part of JBOD implementation for Intel® RAID
Controller RS2WC080 and RS2WC040, all new drives that are hot-plugged will
automatically become JBOD. Users need to manually move the JBOD drive to
Unconfigured Good and auto rebuild starts after that. For more details, refer to Hardware
User's Guide (HWUG) for above controllers.
1.3.1.2
Data Redundancy
Data redundancy is provided by mirroring or by disk striping with parity stripes.
•
Disk mirroring is found only in RAID 1 and 10. With mirroring, the same data
simultaneously writes to two disks. If one disk fails, the contents of the other disk
can be used to run the system and reconstruct the failed array. This provides 100%
data redundancy but uses the most drive capacity, since 50% of the total capacity is
available. Until a failure occurs, both mirrored disks contain the same data at all
times. Either drive can act as the operational drive.
•
Parity is the ability to recreate data by using a mathematical calculation derived
from multiple data sets. Parity is basically a checksum of all the data known as the
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
6
“ABCsum”. When drive A fails, the controller uses the ABCsum to calculates what
remains on drives B+C. The remainder must be recreated onto new drive A.
Parity can be dedicated (all parity stripes are placed on the same drive) or
distributed (parity stripes are spread across multiple drives). Calculating and
writing parity slows the write process but provides redundancy in a much smaller
space than mirroring. Parity checking is also used to detect errors in the data during
consistency checks and patrol reads.
RAID 5 uses distributed parity and RAID 6 uses dual distributed parity (two
different sets of parity are calculated and written to different drives each time.)
RAID modes 1 and 5 can survive a single disk failure, although performance may
be degraded, especially during the rebuild. RAID modes 10 and 50 can survive
multiple disk failures across the spans, but only one failure per array. RAID mode 6
can survive up to two disk failures. RAID mode 60 can sustain up to two failures
per array.
Data protection is also provided by running calculations on the drives to make sure data is
consistent and that drives are good. The controller uses consistency checks, background
initialization, and patrol reads. You should include these in regular maintenance
schedules.
1.3.2
•
The consistency check operation verifies that data in the array matches the
redundancy data (parity or checksum). This is not provided in RAID 0 in which
there is no
fault tolerance.
•
Background initialization is a consistency check that is forced five minutes after the
creation of a virtual disk. Background initialization also checks for media errors on
physical drives and ensures that striped data segments are the same on all physical
drives in an array.
•
Patrol read checks for physical disk errors that could lead to drive failure. These
checks usually include an attempt at corrective action. Patrol read can be enabled or
disabled with automatic or manual activation. This process starts only when the
RAID controller is idle for a defined period of time and no other background tasks
are active, although a patrol read check can continue to run during heavy I/O
processes.
Enclosure Management
Enclosure management is the intelligent monitoring of the disk subsystem by software or
hardware usually within a disk enclosure. It increases the ability for the user to respond to
a drive or power supply failure by monitoring those sub systems.
1.3.3
Performance
Performance improvements come from multiple areas including disk striping and disk
spanning, accessing multiple disks simultaneously, and setting the percentage of
processing capability to use for a task.
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1.3.3.1
Disk Striping
Disk striping writes data across all of the physical disks in the array into fixed size
partitions or stripes. In most cases, the stripe size is user-defined. Stripes do not provide
redundancy but improve performance since striping allows multiple physical drives to be
accessed at the same time. These stripes are interleaved in a repeated sequential manner
and the controller knows where data is stored. The same stripe size should be kept across
RAID arrays.
Terms used with strip sizing are listed below:
•
•
•
1.3.3.2
Strip size: One disk section
Stripe size: Total of one set of strips across all data disks, not including parity
stripes
Stripe width: The number of disks involved
Disk Spanning
Disk spanning allows more than one array to be combined into a single virtual drive. The
spanned arrays must have the same stripe size and must be contiguous. Spanning alone
does not provide redundancy but RAID modes 10, 50, and 60 all have redundancy
provided in their pre-spanned arrays through RAID 1, 5, or 6.
Note: Spanning two contiguous RAID 0 drives does not produce a new RAID level or add fault
tolerance. It does increase the size of the virtual volume and improves performance by
doubling the number of spindles. Spanning for RAID 10, RAID 50, and RAID 60 requires
two to eight arrays of RAID 1, 5, or 6 with the same stripe size and that always uses the
entire drive.
1.3.3.3
CPU Usage
Resource allocation provides the user with the option to set the amount of compute cycles
to devote to various tasks, including the rate of rebuilds, initialization, consistency checks,
and patrol read. Setting resource to 100% gives total priority to the rebuild. Setting it at
0% means the rebuild will only occur if the system is not doing anything else. The default
rebuild rate is 30%.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
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2
RAID Levels
The RAID controller supports RAID levels 0, 1E, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60. The supported
RAID levels are summarized below. In addition, it supports independent drives
(configured as RAID 0). This chapter describes the RAID levels in detail.
2.1
Summary of RAID Levels
•
RAID 0: Uses striping to provide high data throughput, especially for large files in
an environment that does not require fault tolerance. In Intel® IT/IR RAID, RAID 0
is also called Integrated Striping (IS), which supports striped arrays with two to ten
disks.
•
RAID 1: Uses mirroring so that data written to one disk drive simultaneously writes
to another disk drive. This is good for small databases or other applications that
require small capacity but complete data redundancy. In Intel® IT/IR RAID, RAID
1 is also called Integrated Mirroring (IM) which supports two-disk mirrored arrays
and hot-spare disks.
•
RAID 5: Uses disk striping and parity data across all drives (distributed parity) to
provide high data throughput, especially for small random access.
•
RAID 6: Uses distributed parity, with two independent parity blocks per stripe, and
disk striping. A RAID 6 virtual disk can survive the loss of two disks without losing
data.
•
RAID IME: Integrated Mirroring Enhanced (IME) which supports mirrored arrays
with three to ten disks, plus hot-spare disks. This is implemented in Intel® IT/IR
RAID.
•
RAID 10: A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1, consists of striped data across
mirrored spans. It provides high data throughput and complete data redundancy but
uses a larger number of spans.
•
RAID 50: A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 5, uses distributed parity and disk
striping and works best with data that requires high reliability, high request rates,
high data transfers, and medium-to-large capacity.
Note: It is not recommended to have a RAID 0, RAID 5, and RAID 6 virtual disk in
the same physical array. If a drive in the physical array has to be rebuilt, the
RAID 0 virtual disk will cause a failure during the rebuild.
•
9
RAID 60: A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 6, uses distributed parity, with two
independent parity blocks per stripe in each RAID set, and disk striping. A RAID
60 virtual disk can survive the loss of two disks in each of the RAID 6 sets without
losing data. It works best with data that requires high reliability, high request rates,
high data transfers, and medium-to-large capacity.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
2.2
Selecting a RAID Level
To ensure the best performance, select the optimal RAID level when the system drive is
created. The optimal RAID level for a disk array depends on a number of factors:
•
•
•
•
2.2.1
The number of physical drives in the disk array
The capacity of the physical drives in the array
The need for data redundancy
The disk performance requirements
RAID 0 - Data Striping
RAID 0 provides disk striping across all drives in the RAID array. RAID 0 does not
provide any data redundancy, but does offer the best performance of any RAID level.
RAID 0 breaks up data into smaller segments, and then stripes the data segments across
each drive in the array. The size of each data segment is determined by the stripe size.
RAID 0 offers high bandwidth.
Note: RAID level 0 is not fault tolerant. If a drive in a RAID 0 array fails, the whole virtual disk
(all physical drives associated with the virtual disk) will fail.
By breaking up a large file into smaller segments, the RAID controller can use both SAS
drive and SATA drives to read or write the file faster. RAID 0 involves no parity
calculations to complicate the write operation. This makes RAID 0 ideal for applications
that require high bandwidth but do not require fault tolerance.
RAID 0
ABCDEF
RAID Adapter
Available Capacity
N=# disks
C = Disk Capacity
Available Capacity = N*C
A
C
E
B
D
F
Data Striping
RAID 0
Figure 1. RAID 0 – Data Striping
Table 1. RAID 0 Overview
Uses
Strong Points
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Provides high data throughput, especially for large files. Any
environment that does not require fault tolerance.
Provides increased data throughput for large files. No capacity loss
penalty for parity.
10
Weak Points
1 to 32
Drives
2.2.2
Does not provide fault tolerance or high bandwidth. If any drive fails, all
data is lost.
RAID 1 - Disk Mirroring/Disk Duplexing
In RAID 1, the RAID controller duplicates all data from one drive to a second drive.
RAID 1 provides complete data redundancy, but at the cost of doubling the required data
storage capacity. Table 2 provides an overview of RAID 1.
Table 2. RAID 1 Overview
Use RAID 1 for small databases or any other environment that requires
fault tolerance but small capacity.
Uses
Strong Points
Weak Points
Drives
Provides complete data redundancy. RAID 1 is ideal for any
application that requires fault tolerance and minimal capacity.
Requires twice as many disk drives. Performance is impaired during
drive rebuilds.
2 to 32 (must be an even number of drives)
RAID 1
ABC
RAID Adapter
Available Capacity
N=# disks
C = Disk Capacity
Available Capacity =
(N*C) /2
A
B
C
A
B
C
Disk Mirroring
RAID 1
Figure 2. RAID 1 – Disk Mirroring/Disk Duplexing
2.2.3
RAID 5 - Data Striping with Striped Parity
RAID 5 includes disk striping at the block level and parity. Parity is the data’s property of
being odd or even, and parity checking detects errors in the data. In RAID 5, the parity
information is written to all drives. RAID 5 is best suited for networks that perform a lot
of small I/O transactions simultaneously.
RAID 5 addresses the bottleneck issue for random I/O operations. Because each drive
contains both data and parity, numerous writes can take place concurrently.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Table 3 provides an overview of RAID 5.
Table 3. RAID 5 Overview
Uses
Provides high data throughput, especially for large files. Use RAID 5 for
transaction processing applications because each drive can read and write
independently. If a drive fails, the RAID controller uses the parity drive to
recreate all missing information. Use also for office automation and online
customer service that requires fault tolerance. Use for any application that
has high read request rates but low write request rates.
Strong Points
Provides data redundancy, high read rates, and good performance in most
environments. Provides redundancy with lowest loss of capacity.
Weak Points
Not well suited to tasks requiring lot of writes. Suffers more impact if no
cache is used (clustering). If a drive is being rebuilt, disk drive
performance is reduced. Environments with few processes do not perform
as well because the RAID overhead is not offset by the performance gains
in handling simultaneous processes.
Drives
3 to 32
RAID 5
ABCDEF
RAID Adapter
Available Capacity
N=# disks
C = Disk Capacity
Available Capacity =
(N*C)(N-1) /N
A
C
B
P1
P2
P3
E
D
F
Data Striping &
Striped Parity
RAID 5
Figure 3. RAID 5 – Data Striping with Striped Parity
2.2.4
RAID 6 - Distributed Parity and Disk Striping
RAID 6 is similar to RAID 5 (disk striping and parity), but instead of one parity block per
stripe, there are two. With two independent parity blocks, RAID 6 can survive the loss of
two disks in a virtual disk without losing data.
Table 4 provides an overview of RAID 6.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
12
Table 4. RAID 6 Overview
Provides a high level of data protection through the use of a second parity
block in each stripe. Use RAID 6 for data that requires a high level of
protection from loss.
In the case of a failure of one drive or two drives in a virtual disk, the RAID
controller uses the parity blocks to recreate the missing information. If two
drives in a RAID 6 virtual disk fail, two drive rebuilds are required, one for
each drive. These rebuilds do not occur at the same time. The controller
rebuilds one failed drive at a time.
Uses
Use for office automation and online customer service that requires fault
tolerance. Use for any application that has high read request rates but low
write request rates.
Strong Points
Provides data redundancy, high read rates, and good performance in most
environments. Can survive the loss of two drives or the loss of a drive while
another drive is being rebuilt. Provides the highest level of protection against
drive failures of all of the RAID levels. Read performance is similar to that of
RAID 5.
Weak Points
Not well suited to tasks requiring lot of writes. A RAID 6 virtual disk has to
generate two sets of parity data for each write operation, which results in a
significant decrease in performance during writes. Disk drive performance is
reduced during a drive rebuild. Environments with few processes do not
perform as well because the RAID overhead is not offset by the performance
gains in handling simultaneous processes. RAID 6 costs more because of
the extra capacity required by using two parity blocks per stripe.
Drives
3 to 32
The following figure shows a RAID 6 data layout. The second set of parity drives are
denoted by Q. The P drives follow the RAID 5 parity scheme.
Segment 1
Segment 6
Segment 11
Segment 16
Parity (P17-P20)
Segment 2
Segment 7
Segment 3
Segment 8
Segment 4
Parity (P5-P8)
Segment 12
Parity (P9-P12) Parity (Q9–Q1
Parity (P13-P16) Parity (Q13-Q16) Segment 13
Segment 17
Segment 18
Parity (Q17-Q20)
Parity (P1-P4)
Parity (Q5-Q8)
Segment 9
Segment 14
Segment 19
Parity (Q1-Q4)
Segment 5
Segment 10
Segment 15
Segment 20
Parity is distributed across all drives in the array. When only three hard drives are available for
RAID 6, the situation has to be that P equals Q equals original data, which means that the original
data has three copies across the three hard drives.
Figure 4. Example of Distributed Parity across Two Blocks in a Stripe (RAID
6)
13
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
2.2.5
RAID IME
An IME volume can be configured with up to ten mirrored disks (one or two global hot
spares can also be added). Figure 5 shows the logical view and physical view of an
Integrated Mirroring Enhanced (IME) volume with three mirrored disks. Each mirrored
stripe is written to a disk and mirrored to an adjacent disk. This type of configuration is
also called RAID 1E.
Figure 5. Integrated Mirroring Enhanced with Three Disks
Table 5. RAID 1E Overview
Uses
Strong Points
Provides complete data redundancy. RAID 1E is ideal for any
application that requires fault tolerance and minimal capacity.
Weak Points
Requires twice as many disk drives. Performance is impaired during
drive rebuilds.
Drives
2.2.6
Use RAID 1E for small databases or any other environment that
requires fault tolerance but small capacity.
3 to 10
RAID 10 - Combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0
RAID 10 is a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1. RAID 10 consists of stripes across
mirrored drives. RAID 10 breaks up data into smaller blocks and then mirrors the blocks
of data to each RAID 1 RAID set. Each RAID 1 RAID set then duplicates its data to its
other drive. The size of each block is determined by the stripe size parameter, which is set
during the creation of the RAID set. RAID 10 supports up to eight spans.
Table 6 provides an overview of RAID 10.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
14
Table 6. RAID 10 Overview
Appropriate when used with data storage that requires 100 percent
redundancy of mirrored arrays and that needs the enhanced I/O
performance of RAID 0 (striped arrays). RAID 10 works well for
medium-sized databases or any environment that requires a higher
degree of fault tolerance and moderate to medium capacity.
Uses
Strong Points
Provides both high data transfer rates and complete data redundancy.
Weak Points
Requires twice as many drives as all other RAID levels except RAID 1.
Drives
4 - 240
Mirror Set
RAID 10
ABCDEF
Available Capacity
A
C
E
B
D
F
B
D
F
N=# disks
C = Disk Capacity
Available Capacity =
(N*C) /2
Stripe Set
RAID Adapter
A
C
E
Disk Mirror
&
Data Striping
RAID 10
Figure 6. RAID 10 – Combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0
2.2.7
RAID 50 - Combination of RAID 5 and RAID 0
RAID 50 provides the features of both RAID 0 and RAID 5. RAID 50 includes both
parity and disk striping across multiple arrays. RAID 50 is best implemented on two
RAID 5 disk arrays with data striped across both disk groups.
RAID 50 breaks up data into smaller blocks and then stripes the blocks of data to each
RAID 5 disk set. RAID 5 breaks up data into smaller blocks, calculates parity by
performing an exclusive-or on the blocks and then writes the blocks of data and parity to
each drive in the array. The size of each block is determined by the stripe size parameter,
which is set during the creation of the RAID set.
RAID level 50 supports up to eight spans and tolerates up to eight drive failures, though
less than total disk drive capacity is available. Though multiple drive failures can be
tolerated, only one drive failure can be tolerated in each RAID 1 level array.
Table 7 provides an overview of RAID 50.
15
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Table 7. RAID 50 Overview
Appropriate when used with data that requires high reliability, high
request rates, high data transfer, and medium to large capacity.
Uses
Strong Points
Weak Points
Drives
Provides high data throughput, data redundancy, and very good
performance.
Requires 2 to 8 times as many parity drives as RAID 5.
6 to 32
RAID 5 Set
RAID 50
ABCDEFGHIJK
Available Capacity
P(I+K)
C
P(E+G)
I
P1(A+C)
G
K
N=# disks
C = Disk Capacity
Available Capacity =
(N*C)(N-1) /N
B
F
P(J+L)
D
P(F+H)
J
Stripe Set
RAID Adapter
A
E
P1(B+D)
H
L
RAID 5
&
Data Striping
RAID 50
Figure 7. RAID 50 – Combination of RAID 5 and RAID 0
2.2.8
RAID 60 - Combination of RAID 0 and RAID 6
RAID 60 provides the features of both RAID 0 and RAID 6, and includes both parity and
disk striping across multiple arrays. RAID 6 supports two independent parity blocks per
stripe.
A RAID 60 virtual disk can survive the loss of two disks in each of the RAID 6 sets
without losing data. RAID 60 is best implemented on two RAID 6 disk groups with data
striped across both disk groups.
RAID 60 breaks up data into smaller blocks, and then stripes the blocks of data to each
RAID 6 disk set. RAID 6 breaks up data into smaller blocks, calculates parity by
performing an exclusive-or on the blocks and then writes the blocks of data and parity to
each drive in the array. The size of each block is determined by the stripe size parameter,
which is set during the creation of the RAID set.
RAID 60 supports up to 8 spans and tolerates up to 16 drive failures, though less than total
disk drive capacity is available. Each RAID 6 level can tolerate two drive failures.
Table 8 provides an overview of RAID 60.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
16
Table 8. RAID 60 Overview
Provides a high level of data protection through the use of a second parity
block in each stripe. Use RAID 60 for data that requires a very high level of
protection from loss.
Uses
In the case of a failure of one drive or two drives in a RAID set in a virtual
disk, the RAID controller uses the parity blocks to recreate all the missing
information. If two drives in a RAID 6 set in a RAID 60 virtual disk fail, two
drive rebuilds are required, one for each drive. These rebuilds do not occur at
the same time. The controller rebuilds one failed drive, and then the other
failed drive.
Use for office automation, online customer service that requires fault
tolerance or for any application that has high read request rates but low write
request rates.
Strong Points
Provides data redundancy, high read rates, and good performance in most
environments. Each RAID 6 set can survive the loss of two drives or the loss
of a drive while another drive is being rebuilt. Provides the highest level of
protection against drive failures of all of the RAID levels. Read performance
is similar to that of RAID 50, though random reads in RAID 60 might be
slightly faster because data is spread across at least one more disk in each
RAID 6 set.
Weak Points
Not well suited to tasks requiring a lot of writes. A RAID 60 virtual disk has to
generate two sets of parity data for each write operation, which results in a
significant decrease in performance during writes. Disk drive performance is
reduced during a drive rebuild. Environments with few processes do not
perform as well because the RAID overhead is not offset by the performance
gains in handling simultaneous processes. RAID 6 costs more because of
the extra capacity required by using two parity blocks per stripe.
Drives
A minimum of 6.
The following figure shows a RAID 6 data layout. The second set of parity drives are
denoted by Q. The P drives follow the RAID 5 parity scheme.
Note: When only three hard drives are available for RAID 6, the situation has to be that P
equals Q equals original data, which means that the three hard drives have the same
original data, which can afford two disk failures.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
RAID 60
Figure 8. RAID 60 Level Virtual Drive
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
18
Note:
Parity (Q15-Q16)
Segment 12
Segment 7
Parity (P1-P2)
Parity is distributed across all drives in the array.
RAID 6
Segment 16
Segment 15
Parity (P11-P12) Segment 11
Parity (Q11–Q1
Parity (P15-P16)
Parity (Q1-Q2)
Parity (P3-P4)
Segment 2
Parity (Q3-Q4)
Segment 1
Segment 8
RAID 0
Parity (P13-P14)
Parity (Q9–Q1
Segment 6
Segment 3
Segment 13
Segment 14
Segment 9
Parity (Q3-Q4)
Parity (P5-P6)
RAID 6
Parity (P9-P10)
Segment 4
Parity (Q5-Q6)
Parity (Q13-Q14)
Segment 10
Segment 5
Parity (P3-P4)
2.3
RAID Configuration Strategies
The most important factors in RAID array configuration are:
•
•
•
Virtual disk availability (fault tolerance)
Virtual disk performance
Virtual disk capacity
You cannot configure a virtual disk that optimizes all three factors, but it is easy to choose
a virtual disk configuration that maximizes one factor at the expense of another factor. For
example, RAID 1 (mirroring) provides excellent fault tolerance, but requires a redundant
drive. The following subsections describe how to use the RAID levels to maximize virtual
disk availability (fault tolerance), virtual disk performance, and virtual disk capacity.
2.3.1
Maximizing Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance is achieved through the ability to perform automatic and transparent
rebuilds using hot-spare drives and hot swaps. A hot-spare drive is an unused online
available drive that the RAID controller instantly plugs into the system when an active
drive fails. After the hot spare is automatically moved into the RAID array, the failed
drive is automatically rebuilt on the spare drive. The RAID array continues to handle
requests while the rebuild occurs.
A hot swap is the manual substitution of a replacement unit in a disk subsystem for a
defective one, where the substitution can be performed while the subsystem is running
hot-swap drives. Auto-Rebuild in the WebBIOS Configuration Utility allows a failed
drive to be replaced and automatically rebuilt by “hot swapping” the drive in the same
drive bay. The RAID array continues to handle requests while the rebuild occurs,
providing a high degree of fault tolerance and zero downtime.
Table 9. RAID Levels and Fault Tolerance
RAID
Level
19
Fault Tolerance
0
Does not provide fault tolerance. All data is lost if any drive fails. Disk striping writes
data across multiple disk drives instead of just one disk drive. It involves partitioning
each drive storage space into stripes that can vary in size. RAID 0 is ideal for
applications that require high bandwidth but do not require fault tolerance.
1 or
IME
Provides complete data redundancy. If one drive fails, the contents of the other drive
can be used to run the system and reconstruct the failed drive. The primary advantage
of disk mirroring is that it provides 100 percent data redundancy. Since the contents of
the drive are completely written to a second drive, no data is lost if one of the drives
fails. Both drives contain the same data at all times. RAID 1 or IME is ideal for any
application that requires fault tolerance and minimal capacity.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
RAID
Level
2.3.2
Fault Tolerance
5
Combines distributed parity with disk striping. Parity provides redundancy for one drive
failure without duplicating the contents of entire disk drives. If a drive fails, the RAID
controller uses the parity data to reconstruct all missing information. In RAID 5, this
method is applied to the entire drive or stripes across all disk drives in an array. Using
distributed parity, RAID 5 offers fault tolerance with limited overhead.
6
Combines distributed parity with disk striping. RAID 6 can sustain two drive failures and
still maintain data integrity. Parity provides redundancy for two drive failures without
duplicating the contents of entire disk drives. If a drive fails, the RAID controller uses the
parity data to reconstruct all missing information. In RAID 6, this method is applied to
entire drives or stripes across all drives in an array. Using distributed parity, RAID 6
offers fault tolerance with limited overhead.
10
Provides complete data redundancy using striping across spanned RAID 1 arrays.
RAID 10 works well for any environment that requires the 100 percent redundancy
offered by mirrored arrays. RAID 10 can sustain a drive failure in each mirrored array
and maintain drive integrity.
50
Provides data redundancy using distributed parity across spanned RAID 5 arrays. RAID
50 includes both parity and disk striping across multiple drives. If a drive fails, the RAID
controller uses the parity data to recreate all missing information. RAID 50 can sustain
one drive failure per RAID 5 array and still maintain data integrity.
60
Provides data redundancy using distributed parity across spanned RAID 6 arrays. RAID
60 can sustain two drive failures per RAID 6 array and still maintain data integrity. It
provides the highest level of protection against drive failures of all of the RAID levels.
RAID 60 includes both parity and disk striping across multiple drives. If a drive fails, the
RAID controller uses the parity data to recreate all missing information.
Maximizing Performance
A RAID disk subsystem improves I/O performance. The RAID array appears to the host
computer as a single storage unit or as multiple virtual units. I/O is faster because drives
can be accessed simultaneously. Table 10 describes the performance for each RAID level.
Table 10. RAID Levels and Performance
RAID
Level
Performance
0
RAID 0 (striping) offers the best performance of any RAID level. RAID 0 breaks up data
into smaller blocks, then writes a block to each drive in the array. Disk striping writes
data across multiple drives instead of just one drive. It involves partitioning each drive
storage space into stripes that can vary in size from 8 KB to 128 KB. These stripes are
interleaved in a repeated sequential manner. Disk striping enhances performance
because multiple drives are accessed simultaneously.
1 or
IME
With RAID 1 or IME (mirroring), each drive in the system must be duplicated, which
requires more time and resources than striping. Performance is impaired during drive
rebuilds.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
20
RAID
Level
5
Performance
RAID 5 provides high data throughput, especially for large files. Use this RAID level for
any application that requires high read request rates, but low write request rates, such
as transaction processing applications, because each drive can read and write
independently. Since each drive contains both data and parity, numerous writes can
take place concurrently. In addition, robust caching algorithms and hardware based
exclusive-or assist make RAID 5 performance exceptional in many different
environments.
Parity generation can slow the write process, making write performance significantly
lower for RAID 5 than for RAID 0 or RAID 1. Disk drive performance is reduced when a
drive is being rebuilt. Clustering can also reduce drive performance. Environments with
few processes do not perform as well because the RAID overhead is not offset by the
performance gains in handling simultaneous processes.
6
RAID 6 works best when used with data that requires high reliability, high request rates,
and high data transfer. It provides high data throughput, data redundancy, and very
good performance. However, RAID 6 is not well suited to tasks requiring a lot of writes.
A RAID 6 virtual disk has to generate two sets of parity data for each write operation,
which results in a significant decrease in performance during writes. Disk drive
performance is reduced during a drive rebuild. Environments with few processes do not
perform as well because the RAID overhead is not offset by the performance gains in
handling simultaneous processes.
10
RAID 10 works best for data storage that need the enhanced I/O performance of RAID
0 (striped arrays), which provides high data transfer rates. Spanning increases the size
of the virtual volume and improves performance by doubling the number of spindles.
The system performance improves as the number of spans increases (the maximum
number of spans is eight). As the storage space in the spans is filled, the system stripes
data over fewer and fewer spans and RAID performance degrades to that of a RAID 1
or RAID 5 array.
50
RAID 50 works best when used with data that requires high reliability, high request
rates, and high data transfer. It provides high data throughput, data redundancy, and
very good performance. Spanning increases the size of the virtual volume and
improves performance by doubling the number of spindles. The system performance
improves as the number of spans increases (the maximum number of spans is eight).
As the storage space in the spans is filled, the system stripes data over fewer and fewer
spans and RAID performance degrades to that of a RAID 1 or RAID 5 array.
60
RAID 60 works best when used with data that requires high reliability, high request
rates, and high data transfer. It provides high data throughput, data redundancy, and
very good performance. Spanning increases the size of the virtual volume and
improves performance by doubling the number of spindles. The system performance
improves as the number of spans increases (the maximum number of spans is eight).
As the storage space in the spans is filled, the system stripes data over fewer and fewer
spans and RAID performance degrades to that of a RAID 1 or RAID 6 array.
RAID 60 is not well suited to tasks requiring a lot of writes. A RAID 60 virtual disk has to
generate two sets of parity data for each write operation, which results in a significant
decrease in performance during writes. Disk drive performance is reduced during a
drive rebuild. Environments with few processes do not perform as well because the
RAID overhead is not offset by the performance gains in handling simultaneous
processes.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
2.3.3
Maximizing Storage Capacity
Storage capacity is an important factor when selecting a RAID level. There are several
variables to consider. Striping alone (RAID 0) requires less storage space than mirrored
data (RAID 1 or IME) or distributed parity (RAID 5 or RAID 6). RAID 5, which provides
redundancy for one drive failure without duplicating the contents of entire disk drives,
requires less space then RAID 1. Table 11 explains the effects of the RAID levels on
storage capacity.
Table 11. RAID Levels and Capacity
RAID
Level
Capacity
0
RAID 0 (disk striping) involves partitioning each drive storage space into stripes that
can vary in size. The combined storage space is composed of stripes from each
drive. RAID 0 provides maximum storage capacity for a given set of physical disks.
1 or
IME
With RAID 1 (mirroring), data written to one disk drive is simultaneously written to
another disk drive, which doubles the required data storage capacity. This is
expensive because each drive in the system must be duplicated.
5
RAID 5 provides redundancy for one drive failure without duplicating the contents of
entire disk drives. RAID 5 breaks up data into smaller blocks, calculates parity by
performing an exclusive-or on the blocks, then writes the blocks of data and parity to
each drive in the array. The size of each block is determined by the stripe size
parameter, which is set during the creation of the RAID set.
6
RAID 6 provides redundancy for two drive failures without duplicating the contents of
entire disk drives. However, it requires extra capacity because it uses two parity
blocks per stripe. This makes RAID 60 more expensive to implement.
10
RAID 10 requires twice as many drives as all other RAID levels except RAID 1. RAID
10 works well for medium-sized databases or any environment that requires a higher
degree of fault tolerance and moderate to medium capacity. Disk spanning allows
multiple disk drives to function like one big drive. Spanning overcomes lack of disk
space and simplifies storage management by combining existing resources or adding
relatively inexpensive resources.
50
RAID 50 requires two to four times as many parity drives as RAID 5. This RAID level
works best when used with data that requires medium to large capacity.
60
RAID 60 provides redundancy for two drive failures in each RAID set without
duplicating the contents of entire disk drives. However, it requires extra capacity
because a RAID 60 virtual disk has to generate two sets of parity data for each write
operation. This makes RAID 60 more expensive to implement.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
22
2.4
RAID Availability
2.4.1
RAID Availability Concept
Data availability without downtime is essential for many types of data processing and
storage systems. Businesses want to avoid the financial costs and customer frustration
associated with failed servers. RAID helps you maintain data availability and avoid
downtime for the servers that provide that data. RAID offers several features, such as
spare drives and rebuilds, that you can use to fix any physical disk problems, while
keeping the servers running and data available. The following subsections describe these
features.
2.4.2
Spare Drives
You can use spare drives to replace failed or defective drives in an array. A replacement
drive must be at least as large as the drive it replaces. Spare drives include hot swaps, hot
spares, and cold swaps.
A hot swap is the manual substitution of a replacement unit in a disk subsystem for a
defective one, where the substitution can be performed while the subsystem is running
(performing its normal functions). In order for the functionality to work, the backplane
and enclosure must support hot swap.
Hot-spare drives are physical drives that power up along with the RAID drives and
operate in a standby state. If a physical disk used in a RAID virtual disk fails, a hot spare
automatically takes its place and the data on the failed drive is rebuilt on the hot spare. Hot
spares can be used for RAID levels 1, IME, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60.
Note: If a rebuild to a hot spare fails for any reason, the hot-spare drive will be marked as
“failed”. If the source drive fails, both the source drive and the hot-spare drive will be
marked as “failed”.
Before you replace a defective physical disk in a disk subsystem, a cold swap requires that
you power down the system.
2.4.3
Rebuilding
If a physical disk fails in an array that is configured as a RAID 1, IME, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60
virtual disk, you can recover the lost data by rebuilding the drive. If you have configured
hot spares, the RAID controller automatically tries to use them to rebuild failed arrays. A
manual rebuild is necessary if there are no hot spares available with enough capacity to
rebuild the failed array. Before rebuilding the failed array, you must install a drive with
enough storage into the subsystem.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
2.4.4
Drive in Foreign State
When newly inserted drives are detected by the RAID controller, and are displayed in
either RAID BIOS Console 2 or RAID Web Console 2, their state may show as (Foreign)
Unconfigured Good, or (Foreign) Unconfigured Bad. The Foreign state indicates that the
RAID controller finds existing RAID configuration on the new drives. Since these drives
cannot be configured directly, avoid deleting data on the existing RAID by mistake. Use
“Scan for Foreign Configuration” option in RAID Web Console 2, or use “Scan Devices”
option in RAID BIOS Console 2, in order to preview, import or clear the existing RAID
configurations on the drives. If existing RAID configurations are cleared, their state
changes to Unconfigured Good or Unconfigured Bad.
2.4.5
Copyback
The copyback feature allows you to copy data from a source drive of a virtual drive to a
destination drive that is not a part of the virtual drive. Copyback is often used to create or
restore a specific physical configuration for a drive group (for example, a specific
arrangement of drive group members on the device I/O buses). Copyback can be run
automatically or manually.
Typically, when a drive fails or is expected to fail, the data is rebuilt on a hot spare. The
failed drive is replaced with a new disk. Then the data is copied from the hot spare to the
new drive, and the hot spare reverts from a rebuild drive to its original hot spare status.
The copyback operation runs as a background activity, and the virtual drive is still
available online to the host.
Copyback is also initiated when the first Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting
Technology (SMART) error occurs on a drive that is part of a virtual drive. The
destination drive is a hot spare that qualifies as a rebuild drive. The drive with the SMART
error is marked as "failed" only after the successful completion of the copyback. This
avoids putting the drive group in degraded status.
Note: During a copyback operation, if the drive group involved in the copyback is deleted
because of a virtual drive deletion, the destination drive reverts to an Unconfigured Good
state or hot spare state.
2.4.5.1
Order of Precedence
In the following scenarios, rebuild takes precedence over the copyback operation:
1. If a copyback operation is already taking place to a hot spare drive, and any virtual
drive on the controller degrades, the copyback operation aborts, and a rebuild starts.
The rebuild changes the virtual drive to the optimal state.
2. The rebuild operation takes precedence over the copyback operation when the
conditions exist to start both operations. For example:
— Where the hot spare is not configured (or unavailable) in the system.
— There are two drives (both members of virtual drives), with one drive
exceeding the SMART error threshold, and the other failed.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
24
— If you add a hot spare (assume a global hot spare) during a copyback
operation, the copyback is aborted, and the rebuild operation starts on the hot
spare.
2.4.6
Configuration Planning
Factors to consider when planning a configuration are the number of physical disks the
RAID controller can support, the purpose of the array, and the availability of spare drives.
Each type of data stored in the disk subsystem has a different frequency of read and write
activity. If you know the data access requirements, you can more successfully determine a
strategy for optimizing the disk subsystem capacity, availability, and performance.
Servers that support video-on-demand typically read the data often, but write data
infrequently. Both the read and write operations tend to be long. Data stored on a generalpurpose file server involves relatively short read and write operations with relatively small
files.
2.4.7
Dimmer Switch Feature
Powering and cooling drives represents a major cost for data centers. The new MegaRAID
Dimmer™ Switch reduces the power consumption of the devices connected to a
MegaRAID controller. This helps to share resources more efficiently and lower costs.
With Dimmer Switch, any unconfigured drive connected to a MegaRAID controller is
spun down after 30 minutes of inactivity, reducing its power usage. Spun down drives are
spun up automatically when you create a configuration using those drives.
2.4.8
Serial ATA III Features
The SATA bus is a high-speed, internal bus that provides a low pin count (LPC), low
voltage level bus for device connections between a host controller and a SATA device.
The following list describes the SATA III features of the RAID controllers:
25
•
•
Supports SATA III data transfers of 12Gb/s
•
•
Provides a serial, point-to-point storage interface
•
•
•
Eliminates the master-slave construction used in parallel ATA
Supports STP data transfers of 12Gb/s
Simplifies cabling between devices
Allows addressing of multiple SATA II targets through an expander
Allows multiple initiators to address a single target (in a fail-over configuration)
through an expander
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
2.4.9
UEFI 2.0 Support
UEFI 2.0 provides MegaRAID customers with expanded platform support. The
MegaRAID UEFI 2.0 driver, a boot service device driver, handles block IO requests and
SCSI pass-through (SPT) commands, and offers the ability to launch pre-boot MegaRAID
management applications through a driver configuration protocol (DCP). The UEFI driver
also supports driver diagnostic protocol, which allows administrators to access pre-boot
diagnostics.
2.4.10
Number of Physical Disks
Your configuration planning for the SAS RAID controller depends in part on the number
of physical disks that you want to use in a RAID array. The number of drives in an array
determines the RAID levels that can be supported. Only one RAID level can be assigned
to each virtual disk.
2.4.11
MegaRAID Fast Path
The MegaRAID Fast Path Premium Feature is a high performance IO Accelerator
technology for Solid State Drive RAID Arrays connected to a MegaRAID adapter. There
are two “Levels” to this feature. Level 1 Fast Path enabled by default without PFK. The
“Standard” or Level 1 Fast Path pertains to general IO Path improvements to Write
Through data transfers. Additionally, controller cache tuning has resulted in
improvements to configurations leveraging write back mode.
Level 2 Fast Path enabled automatically with Intel® RAID Premium Feature Key
AXXRPFKSSD or AXXRPFKSSD2 installed. Level 2 Fast Path is SSD-centric. This is
where the Premium Feature kicks in by supporting full optimization of SSD Virtual Disk
groups. With this premium feature enabled, Solid State Drive configurations tuned for
small, random block-size IO activity -- typical of transactional database applications -can sustain higher numbers of IO READs Per Second, compared with Level 1 Fast Path.
The performance levels reached with this solution are equivalent to those of much costlier
Flash-based adapter card solutions.
Refer to Intel® RAID Premium Feature Key AXXRPFKSSD, AXXRPFKDE, and
AXXRPFKSNSH Installation Guide (E88588-00x) or Intel® RAID Premium Feature Keys
AXXRPFKSSD2, AXXRPFKDE2, and AXXRPFKSNSH2 Installation Guide (G2982400x) for description of the Premium Feature Key (PFK).
2.4.12
4K Sector Drive Support
The disk drive industry is in transition to support disk drives with native formatting of 4K
sectors. 4K formatted drives provide an opportunity to improve capacity and error
correction efficiencies as capacities grow, and as improvements in error correction are
implemented. Drives supporting 4K sectors will also support a 512 byte emulation mode
which will allow the drive to be operated with legacy OS and hardware products that do
not support 4K byte sectors. Intel® plans to implement 4K sector support on all new
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
26
products, beginning with those designed to utilize the LSI 2208 and LSI2308 SAS
products. Currently shipping Intel® RAID and SAS products will support 4K sector drives
running in legacy 512b sector mode.
2.4.13
Larger than 2TB Drive Support
The disk drive industry is in transition to support disk drives with volume size larger than
2 Terabytes. The Intel® 6G SAS PCIe Gen2 RAID Controllers can fully recognize and
configure the volume of these disk drives. For the other RAID types listed in “Supported
Hardware” section, there is no problem for the first 2TB space of the disk drive to be
recognized and configured.
2.4.14
Power Save settings
The controller conserves energy by placing certain unused drives into powersave mode.
The controller will automatically spin up drives from powersave mode whenever
necessary. Drives that can be set to power save mode are: Unconfigured Drives, Hot Spare
Drives, Configured Drives. The setting can be made in either RAID BIOS Console 2, or
RAID Web Console 2. There is also a way to disable this setting from CmdTool2, by
typing:
CmdTool2 -LDSetPowerPolicy -None -Lall -a0
This command only has effect when one or more logical drives are created. The Power
Save mode currently is only supported by Intel® Intelligent RAID products.
2.4.15
Shield State
Physical devices in RAID firmware transit between different states. If the firmware
detects a problem or a communication loss for a physical drive, the firmware transitions
the drive to a bad (FAILED or UNCONF BAD) state. To avoid transient failures, an
interim state called the Shield State is introduced before marking the drive as being in a
bad state.
The Shield State is an interim state of a physical drive for diagnostic operations. The
results of the diagnostic tests determine if the physical drive is good or bad. If any of the
diagnostic tests fail, the physical drive transitions to a bad state (FAILED or UNCONF
BAD).
The three possible Shield States are:
•
•
•
Unconfigured - Shielded
Configured - Shielded
Hotspare - Shielded
Physical View and Logical View in either RAID BIOS Console 2 or RAID Web Console 2
can reflect drive Shield State. Other drive states include:
•
27
Unconfigured Good
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.4.16
Online
Hotspare
Failed
Rebuilding
Unconfigured Bad
Missing
Offline
None
Array Purpose
Important factors to consider when creating RAID arrays include availability,
performance, and capacity. Define the major purpose of the disk array by answering
questions related to these factors, such as the following, which are followed by suggested
RAID levels for each situation:
•
Will this disk array increase the system storage capacity for general-purpose file
and print servers? Use RAID 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60.
•
Does this disk array support any software system that must be available 24 hours
per day? Use RAID 1, IME, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60.
•
Will the information stored in this disk array contain large audio or video files that
must be available on demand? Use RAID 0.
•
Will this disk array contain data from an imaging system? Use RAID 0 or 10.
Fill out Table 12 to help you plan the array configuration. Rank the requirements for your
array, such as storage space and data redundancy, in order of importance, and then review
the suggested RAID levels.
Table 12. Factors to Consider for Array Configuration
Requirement
Suggested RAID Level(s)
Storage space
RAID 0, RAID 5
Data redundancy
RAID 5, RAID 6, RAID 10, RAID 50, RAID 60
Physical disk performance and throughput
RAID 0, RAID 10
Hot spares (extra physical disks required)
RAID 1, RAID IME, RAID 5, RAID 6, RAID 10,
RAID 50, RAID 60
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
28
3
RAID Utilities
3.1
Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II
BIOS Configuration Utility
With support for up to six SATA drives or eight SAS/SATA drives, depending on the
server board or system, the embedded RAID BIOS has the following features:
3.2
•
•
Support for interrupt 13 and Int19h.
•
POST (Power On Self Test) and run-time BIOS support for device insertion and
removal.
•
Support for a migration path from Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology II to
Intel Integrated Server RAID hardware.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automatic resume of rebuilding, check consistency, and initialization.
Support for SATA CD-ROM/DVD-ROM devices, including support for booting
from a CD-ROM drive.
Global hot spare support based on the virtual drive size.
Support for RAID levels 0, 1, 5, and 10.
Support for auto rebuild.
Support for different capacity disks in the same array.
Support for up to eight physical drives and eight virtual drives.
Stripe size of 64 KB only.
Support for disk coercion with options of None, 128 MB, or 1 GB.
Ability to select a virtual drive as boot device. By default, virtual drive 0 is
bootable.
LSI MPT* SAS BIOS Configuration Utility
You can use the LSI MPT* SAS BIOS Configuration Utility to create one or two IM/IME
volumes on each Intel® IT/IR RAID Controller, with one or two optional global hot-spare
disks. All disks in an IM/IME volume must be connected to the same Intel® IT/IR RAID
Controller.
Although you can use disks of different size in IM and IME volumes, the smallest disk in
the volume will determine the logical size of all disks in the volume. In other words, the
excess space of the larger member disk(s) will not be used. For example, if you create an
IME volume with two 100 GB disks and two 120 GB disks, only 100 GB of the larger
disks will be used for the volume.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Integrated Mirroring and Integrated Mirroring Enhanced support the following features:
•
Configurations of one or two IM or IME volumes on the same Intel® IT/IR RAID
Controller. IM volumes have two mirrored disks; IME volumes have three to ten
mirrored disks. Two volumes can have up to a total of 12 disks.
•
One or two global hot-spare disks per controller, to automatically replace failed
disks in IM/IME volumes. The hot-spare drives are in addition to the 12-disk
maximum for two volumes per Intel® IT/IR RAID Controller.
•
Mirrored volumes run in optimal mode or in degraded mode (if one mirrored disk
fails).
•
•
•
Hot-swap capability.
•
•
•
•
•
3.3
Presents a single virtual drive to the OS for each IM/IME volume.
Supports both SAS and SATA disks. The two types of disks cannot be combined in
the same volume. However, a Intel® IT/IR RAID Controller can support one
volume with SATA disks and a second volume with SAS disks.
Fusion-MPT* architecture.
Easy-to-use BIOS-based configuration utility.
Error notification: The drivers update an OS-specific event log.
LED status support.
Write journaling, which allows automatic synchronization of potentially
inconsistent data after unexpected power-down situations.
•
•
Metadata used to store volume configuration on mirrored disks.
•
Background media verification ensures that data on IM/IME volumes is always
accessible.
Automatic background resynchronization while the host continues to process
inputs/outputs (I/Os).
Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Configuration
Utility for Intelligent RAID
The Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 configuration utility provides full-featured, GUI-based
configuration and management of RAID arrays. The Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility
resides in the controller firmware and is independent of the operating system. The Intel®
RAID BIOS Console 2 configuration utility lets you:
•
•
•
•
•
Select an Intel® RAID controller
Choose a configuration method for physical arrays, disk groups, and virtual drives
Create drive arrays
Define virtual drives
Initialize virtual drives
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
30
•
•
•
•
3.4
Access controllers, virtual drives, and physical arrays to display their properties
Create hot-spare drives
Rebuild failed drives
Verify data redundancy in RAID 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60 virtual drives
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Configuration and
Monitoring Utility
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is an operating system-based, object-oriented GUI
utility that configures and monitors RAID systems locally or over a network. The Intel®
RAID Web Console 2 runs on each of the supported Microsoft Windows* and Linux
operating systems.
With the Intel® RAID Web Console 2, you can perform the same tasks as you can with the
Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 or with the Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS
Configuration utility. In addition, the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 provides on-the-fly
RAID migration, creating almost limitless adaptability and expansion of any virtual drive
while the system remains operational.
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 allows you to:
•
•
Create and manage virtual drives
Add a drive to a RAID virtual drive
The following situations assume RAID 0 has one drive and RAID 1 has two drives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
convert from RAID 0 to RAID 1 by adding one additional drive.
•
•
convert from RAID 5 to RAID 6 by adding one additional drive.
•
•
•
convert from RAID 6 to RAID 5.
convert from RAID 0 to RAID 5 by adding two additional drives.
convert from RAID 0 to RAID 6 by adding three additional drives.
convert from RAID 1 to RAID 0.
convert from RAID 1 to RAID 5 by adding one additional drive.
convert from RAID 1 to RAID 6 by adding two additional drives.
convert from RAID 5 to RAID 0.
convert from RAID 6 to RAID 0.
convert a degraded RAID into RAID 0.
remove physical drives from a virtual drive.
Note: While you can apply RAID-level migration at any time, Intel® recommends that you do so
when there are no reboots. Many operating systems issues I/O operations serially (one at
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
a time) during boot. With a RAID-level migration running, a boot can often take more
than 15 minutes.
3.4.1
Drive Hierarchy within the RAID Firmware
The Intel® Integrated RAID firmware is based on three fundamental levels. Virtual drives
are created from drive arrays that are created from physical drives.
•
Level 1 consists of the physical drives (hard drives and removable hard disks). The
firmware identifies each drive by its physical ID and maps it to a virtual address. A
virtual drive can be constructed of more than one physical drive.
•
Level 2 consists of the array(s) formed by firmware made of one or more disks and
can be made into RAID 0, 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60.
•
Level 3 consists of the virtual drives. These are the only drives that can be accessed
by the operating system. These are the drives given drive letters (C, D, and so forth)
under the Microsoft Windows* operating system. The firmware automatically
transforms each newly installed drive array into a virtual drive. RAID 0, 1, 5, or 6
use a single array and RAID 10, 50, 60 use multiple arrays.
3.5
Intel® Intelligent RAID Controller Features
3.5.1
Enterprise Features
•
Online capacity expansion (OCE). Add capacity to the virtual drive. The added
capacity can be presented to the operating system as additional space for the
operating system to partition it as an additional drive, or it may be added to an
operating system drive, depending upon the capability of the operating system.
•
Online RAID level migration allows for upgrading a RAID level. Options are to go
from RAID 1 to RAID 0, RAID 5 to RAID 0, RAID 6 to RAID 0, RAID 6 to RAID
5. With OCE, options are to go from RAID 0 to RAID 1, RAID 0 to RAID 5, RAID
0 to RAID 6, RAID 1 to RAID 5, RAID 1 to RAID 6, RAID 5 to RAID 6.
— You cannot migrate or perform OCE on a spanned RAID array or disk group
(RAID 10, RAID 50, or RAID 60).
— You cannot migrate to a smaller capacity configuration.
— You cannot perform OCE when there is more than one virtual drive on a
virtual array or disk group.
•
•
Each controller allows 128 virtual drives.
When five or more disks are used, Smart Initialization automatically checks
consistency of virtual drives for RAID 5. This allows performance optimization by
enabling read-modify-write mode of operation with five or more disks in a RAID 5
array or disk group. Peer read mode of operation is used when the RAID 5 array or
disk group contains three or four physical drives.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
32
•
If the system shuts down, the initialization or rebuild process automatically
resumes on the next boot. Auto resume must be enabled prior to virtual drive
creation.
•
Stripe size is user definable on a per drive basis and can be 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 KB
in size. The default is 256 KB, which is optimal for many data access types.
•
Hot spares can be set as global or dedicated. A global hot spare automatically
comes online to replace the first drive to fail on any array or disk group on the
controller. A dedicated hot spare is assigned to a specific array or disk group and
only comes online to rebuild this specific failed array or disk group. A hot spare
only comes online if it is the same size or larger than the failing drive (see drive
coercion as mentioned in the next point), and if a drive has been marked as failed. If
a drive is removed (and marked as failed) within a virtual drive, the hot spare
automatically comes online. However, there must be disk activity (I/O to the drive)
in order for a missing drive to be marked as failed.
•
Drive coercion refers to the ability of the controller to recognize the size of the
physical drives connected and then force the larger drives to use only the amount of
space available on the smallest drive. Drive coercion allows an option to map out a
reserved space to compensate for slightly smaller drive sizes that may be added
later. The default is set to 1 GB. The coercion algorithm options are:
— None: No coercion of size.
— 128 MB: The software rounds the drive capacity down to the next 128 MB
boundary and then up to the nearest 10 MB until the coerced capacity is larger
than the actual drive size. It is then reduced by 10 MB.
— 1 GB: The software rounds the drive capacity down to the nearest 1 GB
boundary and then down by 1 MB. This corresponds to the terms most drive
manufacturers use.
3.5.2
33
Fault Tolerant Features
•
Configuration on Disk (COD) and NVRAM (Non-volatile Random Access
Memory) storage of array and disk group configuration information. Array and disk
group configuration information is stored both on the hard drive (COD) and in
NVRAM. This helps protect against loss of the configuration due to adapter and/or
drive failure.
•
Failed drives are automatically detected and a transparent rebuild of the failed array
automatically occurs using a hot-spare drive.
•
Support for SAF-TE (SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure) enabled enclosures
allows enhanced drive failure and rebuild reporting through enclosure LEDs
(Light-Emitting Diodes); support also includes hot swapping of hard drives.
•
A battery backup for cache memory is available as an option. RAID controller
firmware automatically checks for the presence of the battery module, and if found,
allows the write back cache option. The adapter continuously tracks the battery
voltage and reports if the battery is low. If low, the battery is first given a fast
charge to replenish the charge and is then given a trickle charge to keep it at an
optimal power level. Adapters that support the battery module include a “dirty
cache” LED; when power is lost to the system and data remains in the cache
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
memory that has not been written to disk, the LED signals that this operation needs
to be completed. Upon reboot, the data in memory can then write to the hard disk
drive.
3.5.3
•
Although I/O performance may be lower, hard disk drive write-back cache is
disabled by default because data can potentially be lost if a power outage occurs.
Enabling the HDD write-back cache may improve performance, but when enabled,
you should use a UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) device to prevent data loss
during power outages.
•
Battery life is about three years. You should monitor the battery health and replace
when needed.
•
SMART (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) technology is
supported. This provides a higher level of predictive failure analysis of the hard
disk drives by the RAID controller.
Cache Options and Settings
Cache options and settings can be unique for each virtual drive.
•
Cache Write Policy
— Write Through: I/O completion is signaled only after the data is written to hard
disk.
— Write Back with BBU: I/O completion is signaled when data is transferred to
cache.
— Always Write Back: Write back is enabled even if BBU is bad or missing.
•
Cache Policy
— Direct I/O: When possible, no cache is involved for both reads and writes. The
data transfers are directly from host system to the disk and from the disk to the
host system.
— Cached I/O: All reads first look at cache. If a cache hit occurs, the data is read
from cache; if not, the data is read from disk and the read data is buffered into
cache. All writes to drive are also written to cache.
•
Read Policy
— No Read Ahead: Provides no read ahead for the virtual drive.
— Read Ahead: Reads and buffers additional consecutive stripes/lines into cache.
— Adaptive: The read ahead automatically turns on and off depending upon
whether the disk is accessed for sequential reads or random reads.
3.5.4
Background Tasks
•
Rebuilding a failed drive is performed in the background. The rebuild rate is
tunable from 0-100%.
— The rebuild rate controls the amount of system resources allocated to the
rebuild.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
34
Caution: It is not recommended to increase the rebuild rate to over 50%. A higher
rebuild rate can result in operating system requests not being serviced in a
timely fashion and causing an operating system error.
3.5.5
3.5.6
•
A consistency check scans the consistency of data on a fault-tolerant disk to
determine if data has been corrupted.
•
Background initialization is a background check of consistency. It has the same
functionality as the check consistency option but is automatic and can be canceled
only temporarily. If it is canceled, it starts again in a few minutes. Background
initialization is only performed on redundant volumes.
•
RAID level migration and online capacity expansion are completed in the
background.
•
Patrol Read is a user definable option available in the Intel® RAID Web Console 2
that performs drive reads in the background and maps out any bad areas of the
drive.
Error Handling
•
Most commands are retried four or more times. The firmware is programmed to
provide the best effort to recognize an error and recover from it if possible.
•
Failures are logged and stored in NVRAM. Operating system-based errors are
viewable from the event viewer in the Web Console 2.
•
RAID-related errors can be reported by the hard drive firmware, SAF-TE
controller, or the RAID controller firmware. These errors may be reported to the
operating system through RAID management software, through SMART
monitoring, or through CIM management. Some errors may also be reported by the
SAF-TE controller and logged in the system event log (SEL) for the Intel® server
board. In addition, the operating system may report access errors. Depending on the
RAID controller and drive enclosure, the error may be evident by the color of
LEDs, the flashing of LEDs, or audible alarms.
Audible Alarm
The following list of beep tones is used on Intel® Intelligent RAID Controllers. These
beeps usually indicate that a drive has failed.
•
Degraded Array or Disk Group: Short tone, 1 second on, 1 second off
•
•
Failed Array or Disk Group: Long tone, 3 seconds on, 1 second off
Hot Spare Commissioned - Short tone, 1 second on, 3 seconds off
During a rebuild, the tone alarm stays on. After the rebuild completes, an alarm with a
different tone will sound.
The disable alarm option in either the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 or Intel® Web
Console 2 management utilities holds the alarm disabled after a power cycle. You must
use the enable alarm option to re-enable the alarm.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
The silence alarm option in either the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 or the Intel® Web
Console 2 management utilities will silence the alarm until a power cycle or another event
occurs.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
36
Intel® RAID Drivers
4
The drivers that Intel provides for Intel® RAID Controllers are not compatible with SCSI
or SATA-only RAID controllers. The RAID driver files are available on the Resource CD
that accompanies the RAID controllers. The driver files are also available at
http://downloadcenter.intel.com. If you need to transfer the driver files to another system,
you can copy them to a floppy disk or a USB key.
Note: Intel updates software frequently and updated drivers may provide additional features.
Check for new software at the Intel Web site:
http://www.intel.com/support/motherboards/server/. See the Readme file that
accompanies the download for updated information. For operating systems that are not
listed here, but are listed at the above Intel Web site see Readme file that accompanies the
download for installation steps.
4.1
RAID Driver Installation for Microsoft
Windows*
4.1.1
Installation in a New Microsoft Windows* Operating
System
This procedure installs the RAID device driver system during the Microsoft Windows
2003*, Microsoft Windows 2000*, or Microsoft Windows XP* operating system
installation. The system must contain an Intel® RAID controller. Microsoft Windows
2003* automatically adds the driver to the registry and copies the driver to the appropriate
directory.
1. Start the Microsoft Windows* installation by booting from the Microsoft
Windows* CD-ROM disk. The system BIOS must support booting from a CDROM drive. You may need to change BIOS settings to allow CD-ROM booting.
See your system documentation for instructions.
2. Press <F6> to install when the screen displays:
Press F6 if you need to install...
Note: You must press <F6> for the system to recognize the new driver.
3. Choose <S> to specify an additional device when the screen displays:
Setup could not determine the type...
Note: If this screen is not displayed as the first user input, then the setup program
did not register that the <F6> key was pressed. Reboot the system and return
to step 2.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
4. When the system asks for the manufacturer-supplied hardware support disk, insert
the Microsoft Windows* driver disk and press <Enter>.
5. Select the appropriate Microsoft Windows* driver from the menu by highlighting
it. Press <Enter> to proceed. The driver is added to the registry and copied to the
appropriate directory.
6. Continue with the Microsoft Windows* operating system installation procedure.
4.1.2
Installation in an Existing Microsoft Windows*
Operating System
This procedure installs or upgrades the RAID device driver on an existing Microsoft
Windows 2003*, Microsoft Windows 2000*, or Microsoft Windows XP* operating
system.The system must contain an Intel® RAID controller.
1. Boot to the Microsoft Windows* operating system. The Found New Hardware
Wizard is displayed. The program identifies the SAS controller and requests the
driver disk.
2. Insert the Microsoft Windows* driver disk into the floppy drive.
3. For Microsoft Windows 2003* or Microsoft Windows XP*, choose Install
Software Automatically. In Microsoft Windows 2000*, choose Search for a
Suitable Driver.
4. Microsoft Windows 2000* only: Click the Specify location box and make sure the
search location is the floppy drive.
5. Click Next.
6. A message that this driver is not digitally signed may display. This message informs
you that a nonsigned driver is being installed. If you see this message, click
Continue Anyway.
7. The system loads the driver from the Microsoft Windows* driver disk and copies
the driver to the system disk. The Found New Hardware Wizard screen displays the
message:
The wizard has finished...
8. Click Finish to complete the driver upgrade.
4.2
RAID Driver Installation for Red Hat*
Enterprise Linux
This section describes the installation of the device driver on new Red Hat* Enterprise
Linux 3, 4, or 5 systems. The following are general installation guidelines. Refer to the
release notes that accompanied the driver for information on updating the driver on an
existing Red Hat* Linux system.
1. Boot to the CD-ROM with Disk 1. Command: linux dd
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2. Press <Enter> at the boot prompt on the Welcome screen.
3. Copy the Linux driver image from the Resource CD to a disk or USB key.
4. Insert the disk with driver image.
5. Select Yes.
6. Scroll down to select Intel® RAID adapter driver. The utility locates and loads the
driver for your device.
7. Follow the Red Hat* Linux installation procedure to complete the installation.
4.3
RAID Driver Installation for SuSE* Linux
SuSE* Linux uses a program called YaST2 (Yet another System Tool) to configure the
operating system during installation. For complex installations, you can select “Install
Manually” at the first install screen and a different program, linuxrc, is used. This
section assumes a straightforward installation using YaST2.
1. Insert CD-ROM disk 1 into the CD-ROM drive and the RAID controller driver
diskette in the floppy drive.
1. Boot to the CD-ROM.
2. The operating system loads a minimal operating system from the CD-ROM onto a
RAM disk. The operating system also loads any driver module found in the floppy
drive.
3. At the Welcome to YaST2 screen, select your language and click Accept.
4. At the Installation Settings screen, set up the disk partitioning.
5. Continue with the SuSE* Linux installation procedure.
4.4
RAID Driver Installation for Novell NetWare*
4.4.1
Installation in a New Novell Netware* System
Follow the instructions in the Novell Netware* Installation Guide to install Novell
Netware in the server. Perform the following steps to install Novell NetWare using your
Intel® RAID controller as a primary adapter.
Note: Drivers for Novell Netware* are not available on the CD-ROM. The latest drivers are
available at http://www.intel.com/support/motherboards/server/ or from your CDI
account.
1. Boot from Novell NetWare*.
2. Follow the instructions on the screen until you reach the Device Driver screen,
which is used to modify drivers.
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3. Select Modify and press <Enter>.
4. On the Storage Driver Support screen select Storage Adapters and press <Enter>.
5. Delete any existing Intel® RAID adapter listings.
6. Press <Insert> to add unlisted drivers.
7. Press <Insert> again.
A path is displayed.
8. Press <F3>.
9. Insert the driver disk into the floppy drive, and press <Enter>.
The system will locate the .HAM driver.
10. Press the <Tab> key.
11. Select the Driver Summary screen, and press <Enter>.
12. Continue the Novell NetWare installation procedure.
4.4.2
Installation in an Existing Novell Netware* System
Perform the following steps to add the Novell NetWare* driver to an existing Installation.
Note: Drivers for Novell Netware* are not available on the CD-ROM. The latest drivers are
available at http://www.intel.com/support/motherboards/server/ or from your CDI
account.
1. Type nwconfig at the root prompt and press <Enter>. The Configuration Options
screen loads.
2. Select Drive Options and press <Enter>.
3. Select Configure Disk and Storage Device Options, and press <Enter>.
4. Select one of the following options displayed in the window:
a. Discover and Load an Additional Driver - If you select this option, the system
discovers the extra unit and prompts you to select a driver from the list. Press
<Insert> to insert the driver. This completes the procedure.
b. Select an Additional Driver - If you select this option the Select a Driver screen
displays. Press <Insert>. Follow the instructions that display. Insert a disk into
the floppy drive, and press <Enter>. The system will find and install the driver.
This completes the procedure.
4.5
RAID Driver Installation for Solaris* 10
4.5.1
Installation in a New Solaris* System
This updated driver can be applied using the normal operating system installation options.
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Note: Drivers for Solaris* 10 are not available on the CD-ROM. The latest drivers are available
at http://www.intel.com/support/motherboards/server/ or from your CDI account.
Boot the target system from the Solaris* 10 OS DVD (starting with DVD #1).
1. Select Solaris from the GRUB menu.
2. After the initial kernel loads, select option 5 Apply driver updated.
3. Insert driver floppy or CD into USB floppy or DVD-ROM drive, respectively, on
the target system.
4.5.2
Installation in an Existing Solaris* System
1. Create a temporary directory “/tmp” under current working directory. Command:
mkdir tmp.
2. Depending on your platform, untar i386.tar or x86_64.tar. Command: tar -xf
i386.tar or tar -xf x86_64.tar.
3. Depending on your platform, run install.sh or install32.sh. Command: sh install or
sh install32.
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5
Intel® Embedded Server RAID
BIOS Configuration Utility
If the SATA RAID or SAS RAID options are enabled in the server BIOS, an option to
enter the Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration utility displays during the
server boot process. To enter the utility, press <Ctrl> + <E> when prompted.
The Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration utility allows a user to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Create, add, modify, and clear virtual drive configurations
Initialize or rebuild the configured drives
Set the boot drive
Create a global hot-spare drive
View physical and virtual drive parameters
View and set adapter properties, including consistency check and auto-resume
SATA and SAS systems use different versions of the Intel® Embedded Server RAID
BIOS Configuration utility, but both versions use the same keystrokes and contain
identical menus. The utility menus show limited help at the bottom of the screen and
selections are chosen with the arrow keys and the space bar. If no virtual drive is available
to configure, a warning is displayed. Only the number of potential physical drives differs
for the SAS and SATA versions of the utility.
The following menu and sub-menu options are available:
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Figure 9. Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration Utility Screen
5.1
Creating, Adding or Modifying a Virtual
Drive Configuration
To create, add, or modify a virtual drive configuration, follow these steps:
1. Boot the system.
2. Press <Ctrl> + <E> when prompted to start the Intel® Embedded Server RAID
BIOS Configuration utility.
3. Select Configure from the Main Menu.
4. Select a configuration method:
— Easy Configuration does not change existing configurations but allows new
configurations.
— New Configuration deletes any existing arrays and virtual drives and creates
only new configurations.
— View/Add Configuration lets you view or modify an existing configuration.
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For each configuration method, a list of available physical drives is displayed.
These drives are in the READY state. If you select a physical drive in the list,
information about each drive is displayed.
5. Use the arrow keys to move to a drive and press the space bar to add it to the array.
Note: The utility limits each drive to the size of the smallest drive.
The status for each selected drive that is added to an array changes status from
READY to ONLIN A[array#]-[drive#]. For example, ONLIN A00-01 means array
0, disk drive 1.
6. (Optional) Create a global hot-spare drive by highlighting a drive that is marked
READY and press the <F4> key. Then select Yes from the pop-up menu.
7. Repeat step 5 and step 6 to create a second array if needed. When you have selected
drives for all desired arrays, press the <F10> key.
8. Select an array by highlighting it. Press the <Enter> key to set the properties.
9. The virtual drive configuration screen is displayed, This screen shows the
following:
— Virtual drive number
— RAID level
— Virtual drive size
— Number of stripes in the physical array
— Stripe size
— State of the virtual drive
— Access Policy
To set these options, highlight a property and press the <Enter> key. The available
parameters for that property are displayed for the selection.
10. Select a RAID level: Select 0, 1, or 10 depending upon number of drives and the
purpose.
11. Consider whether you need to override the default virtual drive size. By default, all
available space in the array is assigned to the current virtual drive. For RAID 10
arrays, only one virtual drive can be defined for the entire array.
Note: If you create an SSD virtual drive and set the access policy to ‘Read-only', it is
strongly recommended that you reboot the system for the changes to take
effect, or else, you will still have access to create files, and delete them.
12. (Optional) Change the default Write Cache and Read Ahead policies. See Setting
the Write Cache and Read Ahead Policies.
13. When you have finished defining the current virtual drive, select Accept and press
the <Enter> key.
14. Repeat step 8 through step 13 for all virtual drives.
15. Save the configuration when prompted, and press any key to return to the Main
Menu.
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16. Select Initialize and use the space bar to highlight the virtual drive to initialize.
Caution: All data on the virtual drive is erased during an initialization.
17. Press the <F10> key. Select Yes at the prompt and press the <Enter> key to begin
the initialization. A graph shows the progress of the initialization.
18. After the initialization is complete, press the <Esc> key to return to the previous
menu. Pressing the <Esc> key closes the current menu. If a process is running when
you press the <Esc> key, you are given the following options:
— Abort: When Abort is selected, the task is stopped and will not resume. If an
initialization has started, Abort does not restore data.
— Stop: When Stop is selected, the current task stops. Stop is available only if
auto resume is enabled on the adapter. See AutoResume/AutoRestore for
information.
— Continue: The task continues normally. Continue cancels the press of the
<Esc> key. If AutoResume is enabled, the task resumes from the point at
which it was stopped.
5.2
Setting the Write Cache and Read Ahead
Policies
Read and write cache settings apply to all virtual drives in an array. They may show as
on/off; enable/disable; or as initials of the desired state, such as WB for Write Back. They
are in menus as Write Policy and Read Policy or as Write Cache (WC) and Read Ahead
(RA). You can view these policies from the Adapter Properties or from the Virtual Drive's
View/Update Parameters.
The following are the cache policies:
•
If WC is on, the write cache of the physical drives, which makes the virtual drive
turn on. In this mode, when the physical drive cache receives all the data, the I/O
request is signaled as completed.
Caution: If power fails before the cached data is written to the drive, the data is lost.
•
If WC is off, only if the data is written to the media of the drive, the I/O request is
signaled as completed.
•
RA = ON allows the read ahead mode of the physical drives, which makes the
virtual drive turn on. In this mode, the physical drive will read additoinal data and
store that data into its cache. This improves performance on sequential reads.
To change cache policies, follow these steps:
1. Select Objects | Virtual Drive | Virtual Drive n | View/Update Parameters.
2. Use the arrow key to select the option to change. Press the <Enter> key.
3. Use the arrow key to select Off or On.
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4. If asked to confirm the change, use the arrow key to select Yes. Press the <Enter>
key to change the cache setting.
5.3
Working with a Global Hot-spare Drive
A global, but not dedicated, hot-spare drive can be created to automatically replace a
failed drive in a RAID 1 or RAID 10 array. For new arrays, you should create the global
hot-spare during the configuration process. See “Creating, Adding or Modifying a Virtual
Drive Configuration” on page 43.
5.3.1
Adding a Hot-spare Drive
To add a hot-spare drive to an existing configuration, follow these steps:
1. Select Objects from the Main Menu.
2. Select Physical Drive. A list of physical drives is displayed.
3. Select an unused drive from the list, and select Make Hot Spare. The screen
changes to indicate HOTSP.
5.3.2
Removing a Hot-spare Drive
To remove a hot-spare drive, follow these steps:
1. Select Objects from the Main Menu.
2. Select Physical Drive. A list of physical drives is displayed.
3. Select the disk that displays HOTSP, press the <Enter> key.
4. Select Force Offline and press the <Enter> key. The status of the drive changes to
READY. The drive can be used in another array.
5.4
Rebuilding a Drive
The Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration utility includes a manual rebuild
option that rebuilds a failed array due to an individual failed drive in a RAID 1 or 10 array.
RAID 0 drives are not redundant and cannot be rebuilt. You can also rebuild a good drive
(not physically failed) using the existing configuration data.
To rebuild a drive:
1. Select Rebuild from the Main Menu. The failed drives show the status FAIL.
2. Press the arrow keys to highlight the physical drive that you want to rebuild. Press
the space bar to select the drive.
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3. Press the <F10> key and select Y to confirm. As the rebuild process begins, the
drive indicator shows REBLD.
4. When the rebuild is complete, press any key to continue.
5.4.1
Auto Rebuild and Auto Resume
To ensure data protection, enable Auto Rebuild and Auto Resume so that drives are
automatically re-created to maintain redundancy.
•
In a pre-boot environment, auto rebuild starts only when you enter the BIOS utility.
Note: Hot-plug support is not available in the pre-boot environment. For the system
BIOS or the Intel® Embedded Server RAID BIOS Configuration utility to
detect the physical drive, insert the drive when the system is off.
•
When the operating system is running, the auto rebuild starts if the system has a
hot-spare drive or if you replace the failed drive with a new drive.
The Auto Rebuild and Auto Resume options are available in the Intel® Embedded Server
RAID BIOS Configuration utility from the menu that is displayed after you select Objects
| Adapter.
5.5
Checking Data Consistency
The Check Consistency feature can be used on RAID 1 or RAID 10 drives to verify the
data consistency between the mirrored drives. It can be set to only report or to both report
and automatically fix the data.
1. From the Main Menu, select Check Consistency and press the <Enter> key.
A list of configured virtual drives is displayed.
2. Use the arrow keys to choose the desired drive. Press the space bar to select the
virtual drive to check for consistency. (RAID 1 or 10 only)
3. Press the <F10> key.
4. At the prompt, select Yes and then press the <Enter> key.
If the Report and Fix/Report options are not shown, select Main Menu | Objects |
Adapter | ChkCons and set Report only or Fix\Report.
5.6
Viewing and Changing Device Properties
You can view adapter, virtual drive, and physical drive properties. You can also change
some adapter properties and the Write Cache and Read Ahead for Virtual Drives.
1. From the Main Menu select Objects.
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2. Choose Adapter, Virtual Drive, or Physical Drive.
3. Select the device from the list and view the properties.
— For virtual drives, choose View | Update Parameters.
— For physical drives, choose Drive Properties.
The numeric values of the rates settings are the percentage of system resources.
FGI and BGI are abbreviations for foreground and background initialization rates.
4. To change a value, highlight the property and press the <Enter> key.
Note: Some values cannot be changed.
5. Select or type a different value for the property and press the <Enter> key.
6. When you are finished, press the <Esc> key until you return to the Main Menu.
Forcing Drives Online or Offline
A drive can be forced offline so that a hot-spare drive will replace it. Power failures may
cause a drive to go offline and you must force it back online.
5.7
Forcing a Drive Online or Offline
You can force a drive offline so that a hot-spare replaces it. Power failures may cause a
drive to go offline and you must force it back online.l To force a drive online or offline,
follow these steps:
1. On the Main Menu, select Objects and then Physical Drive.
2. Highlight a physical drive that is a member of an array and press the <Enter> key.
3. From the menu, choose one of the following:
— Force Offline to take the drive off line. If the drive was online, its status
changes to FAIL.
— Force Online to bring the drive on line. If the drive was offline, its status
changes to ONLINE.
5.8
Configuring a Bootable Virtual Drive
Follow these steps to configure a bootable virtual drive:
1. From the Main Menu, select Configure | Select Boot Drive.
2. Select a virtual drive from the list to make it the designated boot drive.
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Note: You should also check the system BIOS Setup utility for the boot order setting. To access
the BIOS Setup utility, press the <F2> key when prompted during POST.
5.9
Deleting (Clearing) a Storage Configuration
Caution: Before you clear a storage configuration, back up all the data you want to keep.
To clear a storage configuration, follow these steps:
1. On the Main Menu, select Configure | Clear Configuration.
2. When the message appears, select Yes to confirm. All virtual drives are deleted
from the configuration.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
6
Intel® IT/IR RAID Controller
Configuration Utility
This chapter explains how to create mirrored volumes and integrated striping volumes
with the Intel SAS-3 BIOS Configuration Utility (SAS3 BIOS CU).
6.1
Overview
This section provides an overview of Intel Integrated RAID features that support the
creation of mirrored volumes and striped volumes.
6.1.1
Integrated Mirroring and Integrated Mirroring
Enhanced Features
Integrated Mirroring, Integrated Mirroring + Striping, and Integrated Mirroring Enhanced
volumes support the following features:
• Configurations of one or two mirrored volumes on each Intel SAS-3 controller. Each
volume can consist of two mirrored disks for an Integrated Mirroring volume; three
to ten mirrored disks for an Integrated Mirroring Enhanced volume; or four, six,
eight, or ten mirrored disks for an Integrated Mirroring + Striping volume.
• (Optional) Two global hot spare disks per Intel SAS-3 controller to automatically
replace failed disks in mirrored volumes.
• Ability of mirrored volumes to run in optimal mode or in degraded mode if one
mirrored disk in an Integrated Mirroring volume fails or if one or more mirrored
disks fail in an Integrated Mirroring + Striping volume or Integrated Mirroring
Enhanced volume.
• Support for hot swapping.
• Support for OCE for RAID 1 volumes. OCE permits you to increase the size of a
RAID 1 volume by replacing the existing disk drives with higher-capacity disk
drives. Data is protected during the expansion process, and the RAID 1 volume
remains online.
• Presentation of a single virtual drive to the operating system for each mirrored
volume.
• Support for both SAS disks and SATA disks, although you cannot combine the two
types of disks in the same volume. However, an Intel SAS-3 controller can support
one volume with SATA disks and a second volume with SAS disks.
• Automatic background initialization after a volume is created.
• Consistency checking.
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•
•
•
•
•
Fusion-MPT architecture.
Menu-driven, BIOS-based configuration utility.
Error notification, in which the drivers update an OS-specific event log.
Support for SCSI Enclosure Services (SES) status LED.
Write journaling, which permits automatic synchronization of potentially
inconsistent data after unexpected powerdown situations.
• Use of metadata to store volume configuration on disks in a mirrored volume.
• Automatic background resynchronization while host I/O transactions continue.
• Background media verification, which makes sure that data on mirrored volumes is
always accessible.
6.1.2
Integrated Striping Features
Integrated Striping supports the following features:
• Support for RAID volumes with two disks to ten disks
• Support for two Integrated Striping volumes with up to 14 drives total on a SAS-3
controller
• Support for combining one Integrated Striping volume and one Integrated
Mirroring, Integrated Mirroring + Striping, or Integrated Mirroring Enhanced
volume on a single controller
• Support for both SAS and SATA drives, although you cannot combine the two types
of drives in one volume
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.2
Fusion-MPT architecture
Easy-to-use SAS-3 BIOS configuration utility
Error notification
Disk write caching, which is enabled by default on all Integrated Striping volumes
Use of metadata to store volume configurations on disks
OS-specific event log
Error display inside the Fusion-MPT BIOS
SES status LED support for drives used in Integrated Striping volumes
Creating Mirrored Volumes
This section explains how to create Integrated Mirroring volumes, Integrated Mirroring +
Striping volumes, and Integrated Mirroring Enhanced volumes with the Intel SAS-3 BIOS
Configuration Utility (SAS3 BIOS CU).
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6.2.1
Mirrored Volume Configuration Overview
The Intel SAS3 BIOS CU is a menu-driven utility program that enables you to easily
configure and manage Integrated RAID volumes. You can use the SAS3 BIOS CU to
create one or two mirrored volumes on each Intel SAS-3 controller, with up to two
optional global hot spare disks. You must connect all disks in a mirrored volume to the
same Intel SAS-3 controller.
Although you can use disks of different sizes in mirrored volumes, the smallest disk in the
volume determines the logical size of all disks in the volume. In other words, the volume
does not use the excess space of the higher-capacity member disks. For example, if you
create an Integrated Mirroring Enhanced volume with two 100-GB disks and two 120-GB
disks, the volume uses only 100 GB on each of the 120-GB disks.
See 6.1.1, Integrated Mirroring and Integrated Mirroring Enhanced Features for more
information about the features of Integrated Mirroring, Integrated Mirroring + Striping,
and Integrated Mirroring Enhanced volumes.
6.2.2
Creating Mirrored Volumes
The SAS3 BIOS CU is part of the Fusion-MPT BIOS. When the BIOS loads during the
startup sequence and you see the message about the Intel Configuration Utility, press CtrlC to start the SAS3 BIOS CU. When you start the SAS3 BIOS CU, the message changes
to the following:
Please wait, invoking SAS Configuration Utility...
After a brief pause, the main menu (Adapter List window) of the SAS3 BIOS CU appears.
On some systems, however, the following message appears next:
Intel Corp Configuration Utility will load following
initialization!
In this case, the SAS3 BIOS CU loads after the system completes its power-on self-test.
You can configure one or two Integrated Mirroring, Integrated Mirroring + Striping, and
Integrated Mirroring Enhanced volumes on each Intel SAS-3 controller. Alternatively,
you can configure one mirrored volume and one Integrated Striping volume on the same
controller, up to a maximum of 14 disk drives for the two volumes. (The maximum
number includes one or two optional hot spare disks for the mirrored volume or volumes.)
Additional information about configuring a RAID volume follows:
• All physical disks in a volume must be either SATA (with extended command set
support) or SAS (with SMART support). You cannot combine SAS and SATA disks
in the same volume. However, you can create one volume with SAS disks and a
second volume with SATA disks on the same controller.
• Disks in the volume must have 512-byte blocks and must not have removable
media.
• Integrated Mirroring volumes must have two disks, Integrated Mirroring Enhanced
volumes contain three disks to ten disks, and Integrated Mirroring + Striping
volumes can have four, six, eight, or ten disks.
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Note: Intel strongly recommends that you create global hot spare disks for all mirrored volumes
to increase the level of data protection. If a disk in a mirrored volume fails, the Integrated
RAID firmware rebuilds it using one of the global hot spares, and the data is safe. If you
create two mirrored volumes on an Intel SAS-3 controller, either of the volumes can use
the global hot spares if a disk fails.
6.2.2.1
Creating an Integrated Mirroring Volume
Follow these steps to create a two-disk Integrated Mirroring (RAID 1) volume with the
SAS3 BIOS CU. The steps begin with the Adapter List window that appears when the
SAS3 BIOS CU starts.
1. On the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS-3 adapter,
and then press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears, as the following figure shows.
Figure 10. Adapter Properties Window
2. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select Create RAID 1 Volume.
The Create New Volume window appears.
4. Move the cursor to the RAID Disk column and select a line that has a No entry in
this column, indicating that the disk is not already part of the volume you are
creating. To add the disk to the new volume, change the No to Yes by pressing the
space bar.
This disk is the Primary disk in the volume.
Caution: The SAS3 BIOS CU deletes all existing data from the disks drives when you
select them to use in a mirrored volume.
5. Move the cursor to another line and press the space bar to add the second disk to the
volume.
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Intel® RAID Software User Guide
This disk is the Secondary disk in the volume.
6. Press C to create the volume.
A menu window appears.
7. From the menu options, select Save changes then exit this menu.
A message appears briefly, and then the SAS3 BIOS CU returns to the Adapter
Properties window. Initialization of the new volume continues in the background.
Note: To create a second Integrated Mirroring volume, repeat these instructions starting with
step 2. Alternatively, follow the instructions in the following section to create an
Integrated Mirroring Enhanced or Integrated Mirroring + Striping volume.
Note: See the instructions in Section 6.2.3, Managing Hot Spare Disks, if you want to create one
or two global hot spares.
6.2.2.2
Creating an Integrated Mirroring Enhanced or Integrated
Mirroring + Striping Volume
Integrated Mirroring Enhanced volumes contain three physical disks to ten physical disks.
Data is written to a disk and is mirrored on an adjacent disk. Integrated Mirroring +
Striping volumes can have a minimum of four physical disks and a maximum of 10
physical disks, in even numbers. In an Integrated Mirroring Enhanced or Integrated
Mirroring + Striping volume, the data is both mirrored and striped.
Follow these steps to create an Integrated Mirroring Enhanced (RAID 1E) or Integrated
Mirroring + Striping (RAID 10) volume with the SAS3 BIOS CU. The steps begin with
the Adapter List window that appears when the configuration utility starts.
1. On the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS-3 adapter,
and then press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears, as shown in Figure 10.
2. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select Create RAID 1E/10 Volume.
The Create New Volume window appears.
4. Move the cursor to the RAID Disk column and select a line that has a No entry in
this column, which indicates that the disk is not already part of the volume you are
creating. To add the disk to the new volume, change the No to Yes by pressing the
space bar.
Caution: The SAS3 BIOS CU deletes all existing data from the disks drives when you
select them to use for a mirrored volume.
5. Move the cursor to another line and press the space bar to add another disk to the
volume.
If you select an odd number of disks, the SAS3 BIOS CU creates an Integrated
Mirroring Enhanced volume. If you select an even number of disks, it creates an
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Integrated Mirroring + Striping volume. As you add disks, the Volume Size field
changes to reflect the size of the new volume.
6. Press C to create the volume.
A menu window appears.
7. From the menu options, select Save changes then exit this menu.
A message appears briefly, and then the SAS3 BIOS CU returns to the Adapter
Properties window. Initialization of the new volume continues in the background.
Note: To create a second Integrated Mirroring Enhanced or Integrated Mirroring + Striping
volume, repeat the previous instructions.
Note: See the instructions in Section 6.2.3, Managing Hot Spare Disks, if you want to create one
or two global hot spares.
6.2.2.3
Expanding an Integrated Mirroring Volume with OCE
Use the OCE feature to expand the capacity of a two-disk Integrated Mirroring (RAID 1)
volume by replacing the original disks with two higher-capacity disk drives while the
volume remains online. This process maintains data integrity at all times, even if one of
the disks fails during the replacement process. The new disks must have at least 50 GB
more capacity than the disks they are replacing, and they must use the same protocol (SAS
or SATA) as the disks they are replacing.
Follow these steps to expand an existing RAID 1 volume with OCE:
1. Physically replace one of the two volume disk drives with a drive that has at least
50 GB more capacity.
If necessary, you can identify the disks in the volume by following the instructions
in Section 6.2.4.5, Locating Disk Drives in a Volume.
2. Wait until synchronization completes on the new disk and the volume returns to the
Optimal state, as indicated in the Adapter Properties window of the SAS3 BIOS
CU.
3. Physically replace the other volume disk drive with a drive that has at least 50 GB
more capacity.
4. Again, wait until synchronization completes on the new disk and the volume
returns to the Optimal state.
5. In the Adapter List window of the SAS3 BIOS CU, use the arrow keys to select the
Intel SAS adapter with the RAID 1 volume, and then press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
6. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
7. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to the
RAID 1 volume with the new, higher-capacity disk drives.
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8. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears.
9. Select Online Capacity Expansion.
A menu window appears with a warning message and with options to start the
expansion process or quit.
10. Press Y to start the expansion.
The RAID Properties window appears when the expansion process completes.
11. Run a commercial tool specific to the operating system to move or increase the size
of the partition on the newly expanded RAID 1 volume.
6.2.3
Managing Hot Spare Disks
You can create one or two global hot spare disks to protect the data on mirrored volumes
on an Intel SAS-3 controller. You can also delete hot spare disks.
6.2.3.1
Creating Hot Spare Disks
Follow these steps to add global hot spare disks to an existing volume. The steps begin
with the Adapter List window that appears when the configuration utility starts.
1. In the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select the Intel SAS-3 adapter on
which you want to create hot spare disks, and then press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to another
volume on this adapter.
4. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears, as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 11. Manage Volume Window
5. Select Manage Hot Spares.
The Manage Hot Spares window appears.
6. Identify a disk that is not part of a RAID volume (that is, the value in the Drive
Status column is not RAID) and that is not already identified as a hot spare disk.
A global hot spare disk must have 512-byte blocks and nonremovable media. The
disk type must be either SATA with extended command set support or SAS with
SMART support.
7. Select the Hot Spr (Hot Spare) field for this disk, and press the space bar.
The Hot Spare status changes to Yes.
8. (Optional) Repeat the preceding step to select a second global hot spare disk.
9. Press C to create the hot spare disk.
A menu window appears. An error message appears if the selected disk is not at
least as large as the smallest disk used in the existing volume or volumes. An error
message also appears if you try to add a SATA disk as a hot spare for volumes that
use SAS disks, or if you try to add a SAS disk as a hot spare for volumes that use
SATA disks.
10. Select Save changes then exit this menu to create the hot spare disk or disks.
The SAS3 BIOS CU pauses while it configures the global hot spares.
6.2.3.2
Deleting a Hot Spare Disk
Follow these steps to delete a global hot spare disk:
1. Access the Manage Hot Spares window by following the first five steps of the
previous section.
2. Select a hot spare disk for deletion, and press C.
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3. Select Save changes then exit this menu to complete the deletion of the hot spare
disk.
The configuration utility pauses while it removes the global hot spare.
6.2.4
Other Configuration Tasks
This section explains how to perform other configuration and maintenance tasks for
mirrored volumes.
6.2.4.1
Viewing Volume Properties
Follow these steps to view the RAID properties of a mirrored volume:
1. In the SAS3 BIOS CU, select an Intel SAS-3 adapter from the adapter list.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Select RAID Properties.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears, showing information about the volume and
each disk in it. The window includes global hot spare information, if any exists.
Note: If you create one volume using SAS disks, another volume using SATA disks,
and one or two global hot spare disks, the hot spare disks only appear when
you view the mirrored volume that uses the same type of disks as the hot spare
disks.
6.2.4.2
Running a Consistency Check
Use the Consistency Check command to verify that the data is synchronized on the
mirrored disks in the volume.
Follow these steps to run a consistency check on a selected mirrored volume:
1. In the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS adapter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to another
volume on this adapter.
4. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears.
5. Select Consistency Check on the Manage Volume window.
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A menu window appears.
6. Press Y to start the consistency check.
The consistency check runs in the background. If it encounters any data
miscompares, it stores the information in a bad block table.
6.2.4.3
Activating a Volume
A volume can become inactive if, for example, you remove it from one controller or
computer and install it on a different one. The Activate Volume option permits you to
reactivate an inactive volume.
Follow these steps to activate a selected volume:
1. In the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS adapter and
press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to another
volume on this adapter.
4. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears.
5. Select Activate Volume on the Manage Volume window.
A menu window appears.
6. Press Y to activate the volume.
The volume becomes active after a pause.
6.2.4.4
Deleting a Volume
Caution: Before you delete a volume, be sure to back up all data on the volume that you want to
keep.
Follow these steps to delete a selected volume:
1. In the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS adapter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to another
volume on this adapter.
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4. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears.
5. Select Delete Volume.
A menu window appears.
6. Either press Y to delete the volume, or press N to cancel the deletion process.
After a pause, the utility deletes the volume. If there is another remaining volume
and one or two hot spare disks, the BIOS checks the hot spare disks to determine if
they are compatible with the remaining volume. If they are not compatible (too
small or wrong disk type), the BIOS deletes them also.
6.2.4.5
Locating Disk Drives in a Volume
You can use the SAS3 BIOS CU to locate and identify a specific physical disk drive in a
disk enclosure by flashing the drive’s LED. You can also flash the LEDs of all the disk
drives in a RAID volume, if they are in a disk enclosure.
When you add a disk drive to a new mirrored volume, the LED on the disk drive starts
flashing. The LED stops flashing when you finish creating the volume.
To locate disk drives by flashing their LEDs, follow these steps:
1. Select the desired SAS-3 controller on the Adapter List window, and press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Highlight SAS Topology, and press Enter.
The SAS Topology window appears.
3. Select the disk in the Device Identifier column, and press Enter.
The LED on the disk flashes until you press a key to stop it.
4. To identify all the disk drives in a volume, select the volume in the left column of
the SAS Topology window, and press Enter.
The LEDs flash on all disk drives in the volume until you press a key to stop them.
Note: The LEDs on the disk drives flash as previously described if the firmware
configuration is correct and the drives are in a disk enclosure.
6.2.4.6
Selecting a Boot Disk
You can select a boot disk in the SAS Topology window. The next time you boot the
computer, the firmware moves this disk to scan ID 0, making it the new boot disk. This
feature makes it easier to set BIOS boot device options and to keep the boot device
constant during device additions and removals. You can also select an alternative boot
device. If the BIOS cannot find the preferred boot device when it loads, it attempts to boot
from the alternative device.
Follow these steps to select a boot disk:
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1. In the SAS3 BIOS CU, select an adapter from the adapter list.
2. Select the SAS Topology option.
If a device is currently designated as the boot device, the Device Info column on the
SAS Topology window lists the word Boot, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 12. Boot Device on SAS Topology Window
If a device is currently designated as the alternative boot device, the Device Info
column shows the word Alt.
3. To select the preferred boot disk, move the cursor to the disk, and press Alt + B.
4. To remove the boot designator, move the cursor to the current boot disk, and press
Alt + B.
This controller no longer has a disk designated as boot.
5. To change the boot disk, move the cursor to the new boot disk, and press Alt + B.
The Boot designator moves to this disk.
6. To select an alternative boot disk, move the cursor to the disk, and press Alt + A.
Note: To change the alternative boot device from one disk to another, follow step 4
and step 5 in this procedure, but press Alt + A instead of Alt + B.
6.3
Creating Integrated Striping Volumes
This section explains how to create Integrated Striping volumes using the Intel SAS-3
BIOS Configuration Utility (SAS3 BIOS CU).
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6.3.1
Integrated Striping Configuration Overview
The Intel SAS3 BIOS CU is a menu-driven utility program that enables you to easily
configure and manage Integrated RAID volumes. Use the SAS3 BIOS CU to create one or
two Integrated Striping volumes on each Intel SAS-3 controller. Each volume contains
two drives to ten drives. All disks in an Integrated Striping volume must be connected to
the same Intel SAS-3 controller.
Although you can use disks of different sizes in Integrated Striping volumes, the smallest
disk in the volume determines the logical size of all disks in the volume. In other words,
the firmware does not use the excess space of the higher-capacity member disks. For
example, if you create an Integrated Striping volume with two 100-GB disks and two 120GB disks, the firmware uses only 100 GB on each of the 120-GB disks for the volume.
The supported stripe size is 64 KB.
See 6.1.2, Integrated Striping Features for more information about Integrated Striping
volumes.
6.3.2
Creating Integrated Striping Volumes
The SAS3 BIOS CU is part of the Fusion-MPT BIOS. When the BIOS loads during boot
and you see the message about the Intel Configuration Utility, press Ctrl-C to start the
SAS3 BIOS CU. After you start the SAS3 BIOS CU, the message changes to the
following:
Please wait, invoking SAS Configuration Utility...
After a brief pause, the main menu of the SAS3 BIOS CU appears. On some systems,
however, the following message appears next:
Intel Corp Configuration Utility will load following
initialization!
In this case, the SAS3 BIOS CU loads after the system completes its power-on self-test.
Each Intel controller can support one or two Integrated RAID volumes. The volumes can
include two Integrated Striping (RAID 0) volumes, two mirrored volumes, or one volume
of each type. The two volumes can have a maximum of 14 disk drives. (This configuration
includes one or two hot spare disks for mirrored volumes.)
The following guidelines apply when creating an Integrated Striping volume:
• All physical disks in the volume must be either SATA (with extended command set
support) or SAS (with SMART support). You cannot combine SAS and SATA disks
in the same volume. However, it is possible to configure one volume with SAS disks
and one volume with SATA disks on the same controller.
• Disks in the volume must have 512-byte blocks and must not have removable
media.
• Integrated Striping volumes must have at least 2 disks and no more than 10 disks.
Integrated Striping volumes do not support hot spare disks.
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Follow these steps to configure an Integrated Striping volume with the SAS3 BIOS CU.
The steps begin with the Adapter List window that appears when the SAS3 BIOS CU
starts.
1. On the Adapter List window, select an Intel SAS-3 adapter, and press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears, as the following figure shows.
Figure 13. Adapter Properties Window
2. Select RAID Properties, and press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select Create RAID 0 Volume.
The Create New Volume window appears.
4. Move the cursor to the RAID Disk column, and select a line that has a No entry in
this column, which indicates that the disk is not already part of the volume you are
creating. To add the disk to the new volume, change the No to Yes by pressing the
space bar.
5. Move the cursor to another line and press the space bar to add another disk to the
volume.
6. Continue adding disks in this way until you reach the desired number of disks.
7. Press C to create the volume.
A menu appears.
8. From the menu options, select Save changes then exit this menu.
A message appears briefly, and then the SAS3 BIOS CU returns to the Adapter
Properties window. Initialization of the new volume continues in the background.
Note: Repeat the previous instructions to create a second Integrated Striping volume, if desired,
and if enough additional disks are available.
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6.3.3
Other Configuration Tasks
This section explains how to perform other configuration and maintenance tasks for
Integrated Striping volumes.
6.3.3.1
Viewing Volume Properties
Follow these steps to view the RAID properties of a volume:
1. In the SAS3 BIOS CU, select an Intel SAS-3 adapter from the adapter list.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Select RAID Properties.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears, showing information about the volume and
each disk in it.
4. If the currently displayed volume is not the one you want, press Alt + N to view
another volume on the adapter.
6.3.3.2
Activating a Volume
A volume can become inactive if, for example, you remove it from one controller or
computer and install it on a different one. The Activate Volume option permits you to
reactivate an inactive volume.
Follow these steps to activate a selected volume:
1. In the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS adapter and
press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to another
volume on this adapter.
4. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears.
5. Select Activate Volume on the Manage Volume window.
A menu window appears.
6. Press Y to activate the volume.
The volume becomes active after a pause.
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6.3.3.3
Deleting a Volume
Caution: Before you delete a volume, be sure to back up the data.
Follow these steps to delete a selected volume:
1. In the Adapter List window, use the arrow keys to select an Intel SAS adapter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Use the arrow keys to select RAID Properties, and then press Enter.
The Select New Volume Type window appears.
3. Select View Existing Volume.
The View Volume window appears. If necessary, press Alt + N to switch to another
volume on this adapter.
4. Select Manage Volume.
The Manage Volume window appears.
5. Select Delete Volume.
A menu window appears.
6. Either press Y to delete the volume, or press N to cancel the deletion process.
After a pause, the utility deletes the volume.
6.3.3.4
Locating Disk Drives in a Volume
Use the SAS3 BIOS CU to locate and identify a specific physical disk drive in a disk
enclosure by flashing the drive’s LED. Alternatively, use the SAS3 BIOS CU to flash the
LEDs of all the disk drives in a RAID volume if they are in a disk enclosure.
When you add a disk drive to a new mirrored volume, the LED on the disk drive starts
flashing. The LED stops flashing when you finish creating the volume.
To locate disk drives by flashing their LEDs, follow these steps:
1. Select the desired SAS-3 controller on the Adapter List window and press Enter.
The Adapter Properties window appears.
2. Highlight SAS Topology, and press Enter.
The SAS Topology window appears.
3. Select the disk in the Device Identifier column, and press Enter.
The LED on the disk flashes until you press a key to stop it.
4. To identify all the disk drives in a volume, select the volume in the left column of
the SAS Topology window, and press Enter.
The LEDs flash on all disk drives in the volume until you press a key to stop them.
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Note: The LEDs on the disk drives flash, as previously described, if the firmware
configuration is correct and the drives are in a disk enclosure.
6.3.3.5
Selecting a Boot Disk
You select a boot disk in the SAS Topology window. The next time you boot the
computer, the firmware moves this disk to scan ID 0, making it the new boot disk. This
feature makes it easier to set BIOS boot device options and to keep the boot device
constant during device additions and removals. Optionally, you can select an alternative
boot device. If the BIOS cannot find the preferred boot device when it loads, it attempts to
boot from the alternative device.
Follow these steps to select a boot disk:
1. In the SAS3 BIOS CU, select an adapter from the Adapter List.
2. Select the SAS Topology option. If a device is currently designated as the boot
device, the Device Info column on the SAS Topology window lists the word Boot,
as the following figure shows.
Figure 14. Boot Device on SAS Topology Window
If a device is currently designated as the alternative boot device, the Device Info
column shows the word Alt.
3. To select the preferred boot disk, move the cursor to the disk, and press Alt + B.
4. To remove the boot designator, move the cursor to the current boot disk, and press
Alt + B.
This controller no longer has a disk designated as boot.
5. To change the boot disk, move the cursor to the new boot disk, and press Alt + B.
The Boot designator moves to this disk.
6. To select an alternative boot disk, move the cursor to the disk and press Alt + A.
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Note: To change the alternative boot device from one disk to another, follow step 4
and step 5 in this procedure, but press Alt + A instead of Alt + B.
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7
12Gb/s Intel® RAID Controller
Configuration Utility
This chapter describes the Ctrl-R Utility, a BIOS configuration utility, that lets you create
and manage RAID configurations on Intel SAS controllers. You can configure the drive
groups and drives on the system before the operating system has been installed.
7.1
Overview
The Ctrl-R Utility resides in the SAS controller BIOS and operates independently of the
operating system.
You can use the Ctrl-R Utility to perform tasks such as these:
7.2
•
•
Create drive groups and virtual drives for storage configurations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Delete virtual drives
View controller, physical drive, virtual drive, enclosure, and battery backup unit
(BBU) properties, and change parameters
Modify power settings
Import and clear foreign configurations
Initialize virtual drives
Check configurations for data consistency
Create CacheCade virtual drives
Starting the Ctrl-R Utility
When you boot the system, perform the following steps to start the Ctrl-R Utility:
1. When the host computer is booting, press and hold the Ctrl key, and press the R key
when the following text appears on the dialog:
Copyright© Intel Corporation
Press <Ctrl><R> for Ctrl-R
2. Based on the controllers on the system, one of the two following scenarios occurs:
— If the system has multiple SAS controllers, a controller selection dialog
appears. Select a controller and press Enter. The Ctrl-R Utility main menu
screen appears.
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— If the system has only one SAS controller, the Ctrl-R Utility main menu screen
appears.
7.3
Exiting the Ctrl-R Utility
To exit the Ctrl-R Utility, perform these steps:
1. Perform one of these actions:
— If you are not in a dialog, press Esc once.
— If you are in a dialog, press Esc twice (once to exit the dialog, and the second
time to exit the utility).
A confirmation message box appears.
2. Press OK to exit the utility.
7.4
Ctrl-R Utility Keystrokes
The following table lists the keystrokes that you can use in the Ctrl-R Utility to navigate
between the screens.
Table 13. Ctrl-R Utility Keystrokes
Keystroke
Action
F1
Displays help for the particular screen that you are in.
F2
Displays a list of commands that can be performed for the selected device. This key stroke
is available only in the VD Mgmt, the PD Mgmt, and the Foreign View menus. The
commands that are enabled are highlighted in white and the disabled commands are
highlighted in black.
Note:
Based on the configurations that you make, commands are enabled or disabled.
F5
Refreshes the screen that you currently are in.
F11
Switches between controllers.
F12
Displays a list of all the available controllers. You can also scroll to the next controller.
<Ctrl><N>
Displays the next menu screen.
<Ctrl><P>
Displays the previous menu screen.
<Ctrl><S>
Shortcut key for the Apply button in the Controller Settings screens.
<Tab>
Moves the cursor to the next control.
<Shift><Tab>
Moves the cursor to the previous control on a screen or a dialog.
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Keystroke
Action
<Enter>
Lets you to select a menu item, a button, a check box, and values in a list box.
<Esc>
Closes a screen or a window. Press Esc twice to exit from the Ctrl-R Utility.
Up Arrow
Moves the cursor to the next menu selection.
Down Arrow
Moves the cursor to the lower menu items or to a lower level menu.
Right Arrow
Opens a submenu, moves from a menu heading to the first submenu, or moves to the first
item in a submenu. The right arrow also closes a menu list in a popup window.
Left Arrow
Closes a submenu, moves from a menu item to the menu heading, or moves from a
submenu to a higher level menu.
Spacebar
Lets you select a menu item, a button, and a check box.
7.5
Ctrl-R Utility Menus
The Ctrl-R Utility contains the following menus:
•
•
•
•
•
7.5.1
VD Mgmt
PD Mgmt
Ctrl Mgmt
Properties
Foreign View
VD Mgmt Menu
The VD Mgmt menu is the first menu screen that appears when you start the Ctrl-R
Utility.
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Figure 15. VD Mgmt
This screen shows information on the configuration of controllers, drive groups, and
virtual drives.
The right panel of the screen shows attributes of the selected device.
In the Virtual Drive Management screen, you can perform tasks, such as creating and
initializing virtual drives; performing a consistency check; deleting, expanding, and
erasing virtual drives; importing or clearing foreign configurations; and creating
CacheCade virtual drives.
Note: Based on the controller settings that you make, options will be enabled or disabled.
7.5.2
PD Mgmt Menu
The PD Mgmt menu shows information about all the physical drives connected to the
selected controller. This menu also shows information about enclosures, the number of
physical drives in an enclosure, and all of the direct-attached drives under a backplane
node.
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Figure 16. Physical Drive Management
The right panel of the screen shows additional attributes of the selected device.
In the Drive Management screen, you can perform tasks, such as rebuilding a failed
drive, making a drive offline, or making it a global hot spare drive.
7.5.3
Ctrl Mgmt Menu
The Ctrl Mgmt menu lets you change the settings of the selected controller. The Ctrl
Mgmt menu consists of two screens.
In the first screen (as shown in the following figure), you can change controller options,
such as Enable Controller BIOS, Maintain PD Fail History, and Enable Stop CC on
Error. You also can perform tasks, such as enabling or silencing an alarm and entering
values for Rebuild Rate and Patrol Rate.
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Figure 17. Controller Settings – First Screen
In the second screen (as shown in the following figure), you can perform tasks, such as
changing the link speed, the power save, and the battery settings of the controller.
Figure 18. Controller Settings – Second Screen
7.5.4
Properties Menu
The Properties menu shows all of the properties of the active controller. The Properties
menu consists of two screens. The information shown in these screens is read only.
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In the first screen (as shown in the following figure), you can view properties, such as
controller status, firmware version, BIOS version, and metadata size.
Figure 19. Properties
To view additional properties, you can navigate to Next and press Enter. The second
Properties screen shows information, such as maximum cache size, drive standby time,
and power saving properties.
To go back to the previous Properties screen, navigate to Prev, and press Enter.
7.5.5
Foreign View Menu
If one or more physical drives in a configuration are removed and reinserted, the
controller considers the drives as foreign configurations.
The Foreign View menu is shown only when the controller detects a foreign
configuration. If no foreign configuration exists, the Foreign View menu is not shown.
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Figure 20. Foreign View Menu
You can use the Foreign Config View screen to view information about the foreign
configuration, such as drive groups, virtual drives, physical drives, and hot spares.
The Foreign View menu lets you import foreign configurations to the RAID controller or
clear the foreign configurations.
7.6
Controller Advanced Software Options
7.6.1
Advanced Software Options
Perform the following steps to see the advanced software options that the controller
supports.
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Advanced Software Options, and press Enter.
The Manage MegaRAID Advanced Software Options dialog appears, as shown
in the following figure.
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Figure 21. Advanced Software Options
The Adv SW Option column shows the list of Advanced Software Options
available in the controller.
You can ignore License column, Safe ID and Serial No and Activation Key fields
and Activate button. Intel RAID Controllers do not need software licenses to
enable advanced software options.
To enable some premium features present in the RAID controller, you need to
install Intel RAID Premium Feature Keys on the controller. For example, if you
install the premium feature key AXXRPFKSSD2 on the RAID controller, you can
see a premium option “CacheCade Pro 2.0” shown in the Adv SW Option column.
Figure 22. Advanced Software Options With Key AXXRPFKSSD2 Installed
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7.6.2
RAID Premium Feature Key
Below is a table listing all premium feature keys that are available now.
For the latest support information, refer to the Tested Hardware and Operating System List
(THOL) of each RAID product available at http://www.intel.com/support.
For more details of premium feature key, refer to the Intel Raid Controller Configuration
Guide at http://www.intel.com/support.
Table 14. RAID Premium Feature Key
Image
Product Code
MM
UPC
AXXRPFKSNSH
Description
Intel® RAID Rapid Recovery Snapshot
907051
00735858214377
AXXRPFKDE
Intel® RAID Drive Encryption Management
907050
00735858214360
AXXRPFKSSD
Intel® RAID SSD Cache with Fast Path *I/O
918399
00735858214353
AXXRPFKSNSH2
Intel® RAID Rapid Recovery Snapshot
915318
00735858221481
AXXRPFKDE2
Intel® RAID Drive Encryption Management
915317
00735858221474
AXXRPFKSSD2
Intel® RAID SSD Cache with Fast Path *I/O
919499
00735858221467
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7.7
Creating a Storage Configuration
You can use the Ctrl-R Utility to configure RAID drive groups and virtual drives to create
storage configurations on systems with Intel SAS controllers.
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller and press the F2 key.
2. Press Enter.
The Create New VD screen appears.
Note: You can use the Create New VD dialog to create virtual drives for
Unconfigured Good drives. To create virtual drives for existing drive groups,
navigate to a drive group and press the F2 key to view the Add VD in Drive
Group dialog. The fields in the Add VD in Drive Group dialog are the same
as in the Create New VD dialog.
Figure 23. Create a New Virtual Drive
Note: If your system detects any JBODs the Convert JBOD to Unconfigured Good
dialog (Figure 41) appears before the Create New VD dialog. The Convert
JBOD to Unconfigured Good dialog lets you convert the JBODs to
Unconfigured Good.
3. Select a RAID level for the drive group from the RAID Level field.
4. Select a power save mode for the drive group from the Power save mode field. The
options available are Auto, Max, and Controller defined.
This field is enabled only if power saving on configured drives is supported on the
controller.
Power Save (Dimmer Switch feature) is a technology that conserves energy by
placing certain unused drives into a Power Save mode. In Power-Save mode, the
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drives use less energy. The fan and the enclosure require less energy to cool and
house the drives, respectively. Also, this technology helps avoid application
time-outs caused by spin-up delays and drive wear caused by excessive spinup/down cycles.
5. You can encrypt data and use drive-based key management for your data security
solution. This option protects the data in the event of theft or loss of drives. Select a
value from the Secure VD field. The options available are Yes and No.
6. You can choose whether you want to use the data protection feature on the newly
created virtual drive. Select a value from the Data Protection field. The options
available are Yes and No. The Data Protection field is enabled only if the
controller has data protection physical drives connected to it.
7. You can change the sequence of the physical drives in the Drives box. All the
available unconfigured good drives appear in the Drives box. Select the physical
drives in the sequence that you prefer. Based on your selection, the sequence
number appears in the # column.
8. You can enter a size less than the maximum size of the drive group, if you want to
create other virtual drives on the same drive group. The maximum size of the drive
group appears in the Size field. The size entered can be in MB, GB, or TB and
should be mentioned only in uppercase. Before entering a size, ensure that you have
deleted the previous default value by using the Backspace key.
9. Enter a name for the virtual drive in the Name field. The name given to the virtual
drive cannot exceed 15 characters.
You may press Advanced to set additional properties for the newly created virtual
drive. For more information, see Section “Selecting Additional Virtual Drive
Properties” on page 80.
10. Press OK.
A dialog appears, asking you whether you want to initialize the virtual drive you
just created.
11. To initialize the virtual drive, press OK.
The Create New VD dialog appears again.
12. Press Advanced.
The Create Virtual Drive – Advanced dialog appears.
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Figure 24. Create Virtual Drive – Advanced
13. Select Initialize, and press OK.
The new virtual drive is created and initialized.
7.7.1
Selecting Additional Virtual Drive Properties
This section describes the following additional virtual drive properties that you can select
while you create virtual drives. Change these parameters only if you have a specific
reason for doing so. It is usually best to keep them at their default settings.
•
Strip Size – The strip size is the portion of the stripe that resides on a single virtual
drive in the drive group. Strip sizes of 64 KB, 128 KB, 256 KB, 512 KB, or 1 MB
are supported.
•
Read Policy – Specify one of the following options to specify the read policy for
this virtual drive:
— Normal – Read ahead capability lets the controller read sequentially ahead of
requested data and store the additional data in cache memory, thereby
anticipating that the data will be needed soon. This process speeds up reads for
sequential data, but there is little improvement when the computer accesses
random data.
— Ahead – Disables the read ahead capability.
•
Write Policy – Select one of the following options to specify the write policy for
this virtual drive:
— Write Thru – In this mode, the controller sends a data transfer completion
signal to the host when the drive subsystem has received all the data in a
transaction. This option eliminates the risk of losing cached data in case of a
power failure.
— Write Back – In this mode, the controller sends a data transfer completion
signal to the host when the controller cache has received all the data in a
transaction.
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— Write Back with BBU – In this mode, the controller enables write back
caching when the BBU is installed and charged. This option provides a good
balance between data protection and performance.
Note: The write policy depends on the status of the BBU. If the BBU is not present, is
low, is failed, or is being charged, the current write policy switches to write
through, which provides better data protection.
•
I/O Policy – The I/O policy applies to reads on a specific virtual drive. It does not
affect the read ahead cache.
— Cached – In this mode, all reads are buffered in cache memory. Cached I/O
provides faster processing.
— Direct – In this mode, reads are not buffered in cache memory. Data is
transferred to the cache and the host concurrently. If the same data block is
read again, it comes from cache memory. Direct I/O makes sure that the cache
and the host contain the same data.
•
Disk cache policy – Select a cache setting for this virtual drive:
— Enable – Enable the drive cache.
— Disable – Disable the drive cache.
— Unchanged – Updating the drive cache policy to Unchanged may enable
/disable the drive cache based on the WCE (Write Cache Policy) bit of the
save mode page of the drive.
7.7.2
•
Emulation – Lets you to set the emulation type on a virtual drive to default or
none. The force option forces the emulation to be set on a controller even when
MFC settings do not support it. The possible options are Default, Disabled, or
Forced.
•
Initialize – Select to initialize the virtual drive. Initialization prepares the storage
medium for use. Fast initialization will be performed on the virtual drive.
•
Configure Hot Spare – Select to configure physical drives as hot spares for the
newly created virtual drive.
This option is enabled only if there are additional drives and if they are eligible to
be configured as hot spares. This option is not applicable for RAID 0. If you select
this option and after the Virtual drive is created, a dialog appears. The dialog asks
you to choose the physical drives that you want to configure as hot spares.
Creating a CacheCade Virtual Drive
The MegaRAID CacheCade software provides you with read caching capability.
Perform the following steps to create a CacheCade virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Create CacheCade Virtual Drive, and press Enter.
The Create CacheCade Virtual Drive dialog appears.
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Figure 25. Create CacheCade Virtual Drive
3. Enter a name for the CacheCade virtual drive in the Name field.
4. Select a SSD from the Select SSD box. The size of the SSD is reflected in the Size
field (in the Basic Settings box).
5. Press OK.
A message appears, stating that the CacheCade virtual drive has been created.
7.7.3
Modifying a CacheCade Virtual Drive
You can modify an existing CacheCade virtual drive by renaming it.
Perform the following steps to modify the CacheCade virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the CacheCade virtual drive, and press the F2
key.
2. Navigate to Properties, and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
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Figure 26. Modify CacheCade Virtual Drive
3. You can rename a CacheCade virtual drive in the CacheCade Virtual Drive Name
field.
4. Press OK.
7.7.4
Creating a CacheCade Pro 2.0 Virtual Drive
The MegaRAID CacheCade Pro 2.0 provides you with read and write capability.
Perform the following steps to create a CacheCade Pro 2.0 virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Create CacheCade Virtual Drive, and press Enter.
The Create CacheCade Virtual Drive dialog appears.
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Figure 27. Create CacheCade Virtual Drive
3. Enter a name for the CacheCade virtual drive in the Name field.
4. Select a SSD from the Select SSD box.
5. Press OK.
A message appears, stating that the CacheCade virtual drive has been created.
7.7.5
Modifying a CacheCade Pro 2.0 Virtual Drive
You can modify the name and the write policy of an existing CacheCade virtual drive any
time after a CacheCade virtual drive is created.
Perform the following steps to modify the CacheCade virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the CacheCade virtual drive, and press the F2
key.
2. Navigate to Properties, and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
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Figure 28. Modify CacheCade Virtual Drive
3. You can rename a CacheCade virtual drive in the CacheCade Virtual Drive Name
field.
4. You can also modify the write policy by selecting one from the Write Policy field.
5. Press OK.
To view the virtual drives associated with this CacheCade virtual drive, click
Associated VDs in the dialog above.
The Associated Virtual Drives dialog appears.
Figure 29. Associated Virtual Drives
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You can view the ID, the name, and the size of the associated virtual drives.
7.7.6
Enabling SSD Caching on a Virtual Drive
You can enable SSD caching on a virtual drive. When you enable SSD caching on a
virtual drive, that virtual drive becomes associated with an existing or with a future
CacheCade SSD Caching virtual drive. This option is only available when the virtual
drive’s caching is currently disabled.
Perform the following steps to enable SSD caching on a virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Enable Caching and press Enter.
The following message dialog appears.
Figure 30. Message Box for Enabling SSD Caching
The virtual drives that have SSD caching enabled, have the check boxes next to
them selected. The virtual drives that have SSD caching disabled, have deselected
check boxes.
3. Click Yes to enable caching for that virtual drive.
7.7.7
Disabling SSD Caching on a Virtual Drive
You can disable caching on a virtual drive. When you disable SSD caching on a virtual
drive, any associations that the selected virtual drive has with a CacheCade SSD Caching
virtual drive are removed. This option is only available when the virtual drive’s caching is
currently enabled.
Perform the following steps to disable SSD Caching on a virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Disable Caching and press Enter.
The following message dialog appears.
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Figure 31. Message Box for Disabling SSD Caching
3. Click Yes to disable caching for that virtual drive.
7.7.8
Enabling or Disabling SSD Caching on Multiple
Virtual Drives
You can enable or disable SSD caching on multiple virtual drives at one go.
Perform the follow steps to enable or disable SSD caching on multiple drives:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Manage SSD Caching and press Enter.
The Manage SSD Caching dialog appears.
Figure 32. Manage SSD Caching
The virtual drives that have SSD caching enabled, have the check boxes next to
them selected. The virtual drives that have SSD caching disabled, have deselected
check boxes.
3. Select or deselect a check box to change the current setting of a virtual drive.
4. Click OK to enable/disable SSD caching on the selected virtual drives.
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7.7.9
Deleting a Virtual Drive with SSD Caching Enabled
You can delete a virtual drive that has SSD caching enabled on it.
Perform the following steps to delete the virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Delete VD, and click Yes.
The following message dialog appears.
Figure 33. Message Box for Deleting Virtual Drive
Note: If you select the Force delete to complete quickly check box to delete the
virtual drive, the data is not flushed before deleting the virtual drive. In this
scenario, if you create this virtual drive after deleting it, there will be no data
available.
3. Press Yes to proceed with the delete operation.
7.8
Clearing the Configuration
You can clear all the existing configuration on virtual drives by deleting the virtual drives.
Perform the following steps to clear configuration:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Clear Configuration and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
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Figure 34. Clear Configuration
3. Press Yes to delete all the virtual drives.
7.9
Intel SafeStore Encryption Services
Intel SafeStore Encryption Services can encrypt data on the drives and use the drive-based
key management to provide data security. This solution protects data in the event of theft
or loss of physical drives. If you remove a self-encrypting drive from its storage system or
the server in which it resides, the data on that drive is encrypted, and becomes useless to
anyone who attempts to access it without the appropriate security authorization.
7.9.1
Enabling Drive Security
This section describes how to enable, change, and disable the drive security, and how to
import a foreign configuration by using the SafeStore Encryption Services advanced
software.
To enable security on the drives, you need to perform the following actions to set drive
security:
•
Enter a security key identifier.
A security key identifier appears whenever you have to enter a security key.
•
Enter a security key.
After you create a security key, you can create secure virtual drives by using the
key. You must use the security key to perform certain operations.
You can improve security by entering a password. To provide additional security, you can
request for the password whenever anyone boots the server.
Perform the following steps to enable drive security:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Drive Security, and press Enter.
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3. Navigate to Enable Security, and press Enter.
The Create Security Key dialog appears.
Figure 35. Create Security Key
4. Either use the default security key identifier, or enter a new security key identifier.
Note: After you create a security key, the Enable Security option is disabled. This
option is reenabled only after you delete the existing key.
5. Either click Suggest to ask the system to create a security key, or you can enter a
new security key.
6. Reenter the new security key to confirm it.
Caution: If you forget the security key, you lose access to your data. Be sure to
record your security key information. You might need to enter the security
key to perform certain operations.
The security key is case sensitive. It must be between 8 and 32 characters and
contain at least one number, one lowercase letter, one uppercase letter, and one
nonalphanumeric character (for example, < > @ +). The space character is not
permitted.
Note: Non-U.S. keyboard users must be careful not to enter double-byte character
set (DBCS) characters in the security key field. The firmware works with the
ASCII character set only.
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7.9.2
Changing Security Settings
Perform the following steps to change the encryption settings for the security key
identifier, security key, and password:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Drive Security, and press Enter.
3. Select Change Security Settings, and press Enter.
The Change Security Key dialog appears.
Figure 36. Change Security Key
4. Either keep the existing security key identifier, or enter a new security key
identifier.
Note: If you change the security key, you need to change the security key identifier.
Otherwise, you cannot differentiate between the security keys.
5. Either click Suggest to ask the system to create a security key, or you can enter a
new security key.
6. Reenter the new security key to confirm it.
Caution: If you forget the security key, you lose access to your data. Be sure to
record your security key information. You might need to enter the security
key to perform certain operations.
The security key is case sensitive. It must be between 8 and 32 characters and
contain at least one number, one lowercase letter, one uppercase letter, and one
nonalphanumeric character (for example, < > @ +). The space character is not
permitted.
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Note: Non-U.S. keyboard users must be careful not to enter DBCS characters in the
Security Key field. The firmware works with the ASCII character set only.
7.9.3
Disabling Drive Security
If you disable drive security, your existing data is not secure and you cannot create any
new secure virtual drives. Disabling drive security does not affect data security on foreign
drives. If you removed any drives that were previously secured, you still need to enter the
password when you import them. Otherwise, you cannot access the data on those drives.
If there are any secure drive groups on the controller, you cannot disable drive security. A
warning dialog appears if you attempt to do so. To disable drive security, you first must
delete the virtual drives on all the secure drive groups.
Perform the following steps to disable drive security:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Drive Security, and press Enter.
3. Select Disable Security.
A message box appears.
4. To disable drive security, press Yes to delete the security key.
Note: If you disable drive security, you cannot create any new encrypted virtual
drives and the data on all encrypted unconfigured drives will be erased.
Disabling drive security does not affect the security or data of foreign drives.
7.9.4
Importing or Clearing a Foreign Configuration
A foreign configuration is a RAID configuration that already exists on a replacement set
of drives that you install in a computer system. You can use the Ctrl-R Utility to import
the foreign configuration to the RAID controller or to clear the foreign configuration so
that you can create a new configuration by using these drives.
To import a foreign configuration, you must perform the following tasks:
•
Enable security to permit importation of locked foreign configurations. You can
import unsecured or unlocked configurations when security is disabled.
•
If a locked foreign configuration is present and security is enabled, enter the
security key, and unlock the configuration.
•
Import the foreign configuration.
If one or more drives are removed from a configuration, by a cable pull or drive removal
for example, the configuration on those drives is considered a foreign configuration by the
RAID controller.
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Verify whether any drives are left to import because the locked drives can use different
security keys. If any drives remain, repeat the import process for the remaining drives.
After all the drives are imported, there is no configuration to import.
Note: When you create a new configuration, the Ctrl-R Utility shows only the unconfigured
drives. Drives that have existing configurations, including foreign configurations, do not
appear. To use drives with existing configurations, you first must clear the configuration
on those drives.
You can import or clear a foreign configuration from the VD Mgmt menu or from the
Foreign View menu.
Perform the following steps to import or clear a foreign configuration from the VD Mgmt
menu:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Foreign Config, and press Enter.
The foreign configuration options Import and Clear appear.
Figure 37. Foreign Configuration Options
3. Navigate to the command you want to perform.
— To import a foreign configuration, go to step 4.
— To clear a foreign configuration, go to step 6.
4. To import a foreign configuration, select Import, and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
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Figure 38. Foreign Configuration – Import
5. Press Yes to import the foreign configuration from all the foreign drives. Repeat the
import process for any remaining drives.
Because locked drives can use different security keys, you must verify whether
there are any remaining drives to be imported.
Note: When you create a new configuration, the Ctrl-R Utility shows only the
unconfigured drives. Drives that have existing configurations, including
foreign configurations, do not appear. To use drives with existing
configurations, you first must clear the configuration on those drives.
6. To clear a foreign configuration, select Clear, and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
Figure 39. Foreign Configuration – Clear
7. Press OK to clear a foreign configuration.
Note: The operation cannot be reversed after it is started. Imported drives appear as
Online in the Ctrl-R Utility.
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7.9.4.1
Foreign Configurations in Cable Pull and Drive Removal
Scenarios
If one or more drives are removed from a configuration, by a cable pull or drive removal,
for example, the configuration on those drives is considered a foreign configuration by the
RAID controller.
The following scenarios can occur with cable pulls or drive removals.
Note: To import the foreign configuration in any of the following scenarios, you
must have all the drives in the enclosure before you perform the import
operation.
•
Scenario 1: If all the drives in a configuration are removed and reinserted, the
controller considers the drives to have foreign configurations.
Import or clear the foreign configuration. If you select Import, automatic rebuilds
will occur in redundant virtual drives.
Note: Start a consistency check immediately after the rebuild is complete, to ensure
data integrity for the virtual drives.
•
Scenario 2: If some of the drives in a configuration are removed and reinserted, the
controller considers the drives to have foreign configurations.
Import or clear the foreign configuration. If you select Import, automatic rebuilds
will occur in redundant virtual drives.
Note: Start a consistency check immediately after the rebuild is complete, to ensure
data integrity for the virtual drives.
7.10
•
Scenario 3: If all the drives in a virtual drive are removed, but at different times,
and reinserted, the controller considers the drives to have foreign configurations.
Import or clear the foreign configuration. If you select Import, all drives that were
pulled before the virtual drive became offline will be imported and will be
automatically rebuilt. Automatic rebuilds will occur in redundant virtual drives.
•
Scenario 4: If the drives in a nonredundant virtual drive are removed, the controller
considers the drives to have foreign configurations.
Import or clear the foreign configuration. No rebuilds will occur after the import
operation because there is no redundant data to rebuild the drives.
Discarding Preserved Cache
If the controller loses access to one or more virtual drives, the controller preserves the data
from the virtual drive. This preserved cache, is preserved until you import the virtual drive
or discard the cache.
Certain operations, such as creating a new virtual drive, cannot be performed if preserved
cache exists.
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Caution: If there are any foreign configurations, import the foreign configuration before you
discard the preserved cache. Otherwise, you might lose data that belongs to the foreign
configuration.
Perform the following steps to discard the preserved cache:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Manage Preserved Cache, and press Enter.
The Manage Preserved Cache dialog appears.
Figure 40. Manage Preserved Cache
3. Press Discard Cache to discard the preserved cache from the virtual drive. A
message box appears, asking you to confirm your choice.
4. Press OK to continue.
7.11
Converting JBOD Drives to Unconfigured
Good Drives
You can convert multiple JBODs to Unconfigured Good drives (from the VD Mgmt
screen) or you can convert a particular JBOD drive to an Unconfigured Good drive (from
the Drive Management screen).
Perform the following steps to convert multiple JBODs to Unconfigured Good drives:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Make Unconfigured Good, and press Enter.
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The Convert JBOD to Unconfigured Good dialog appears, which shows all
JBODs available in the system.
Figure 41. Convert JBOD to Unconfigured Good
3. Select the JBODs which you want configured as Unconfigured Good drives.
To select or deselect all the JBODs at one go, select the top most square brackets in
the JBOD Drives box.
4. Press OK.
The selected JBODS are converted to Unconfigured Good drives.
Perform the following steps to convert a particular JBOD drive to an Unconfigured Good
drive:
1. In the Drive Management screen, navigate to a JBOD drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Make Unconfigured Good, and press Enter.
3. Press Yes in the confirmation message box to proceed.
7.12
Converting Unconfigured Good Drives to
JBOD Drives
You can convert multiple Unconfigured Good drives to JBOD drives (from the VD Mgmt
screen) or you can convert a particular Unconfigured Good drive to a JBOD drive (from
the Drive Management screen).
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Perform the following steps to convert multiple Unconfigured Good drives to JBOD
drives:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the controller, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Make JBOD, and press Enter.
The Convert Unconfigured Good to JBOD dialog appears, which shows all
Unconfigured Good drives available in the system.
Figure 42. Convert Unconfigured Good to JBOD
3. Select the Unconfigured Good drives which you want configured as JBODs.
To select or deselect all the Unconfigured Good drives at one go, select the top most
square brackets in the Unconfig good drives box.
4. Press OK.
The selected Unconfigured Good drives are converted to JBOD drives.
Perform the following steps to convert a particular Unconfigured Good drive to a JBOD
drive:
1. In the Drive Management screen, navigate to a Unconfigured Good drive, and
press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Make JBOD, and press Enter.
3. Press OK in the message confirmation box to continue.
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7.13
Viewing and Changing Device Properties
This section explains how you can use the Ctrl-R Utility to view and change the properties
for controllers, virtual drives, drive groups, physical drives, and BBUs.
7.13.1
Viewing Controller Properties
The Ctrl-R Utility shows information for one Intel SAS controller at a time. If your
system has multiple Intel SAS controllers, you can view information for a different
controller by pressing the F12 key and selecting a controller from the list.
Navigate to the Properties menu to view the properties of the active controller.
The information in the Properties screen (Figure 19) is read only. Most of this
information is self-explanatory. To view additional properties, navigate to Next, and press
Enter.
7.13.2
Modifying Controller Properties
You can change the properties of the controller in the Ctrl Mgmt menu.
Perform the following steps to change the controller properties:
1. Navigate to the Ctrl Mgmt menu to view the first Controller Settings screen.
2. You may change the values of the properties for the editable fields.
To change additional properties, such as link speed, battery properties, and power
settings, press Next to go to the second Controller Settings screen.
3. Press Apply.
The following table describes all entries and options listed on both the Controller
Settings screen. Leave these options at their default settings to achieve the best
performance, unless you have a specific reason for changing them.
Table 15. Controller Settings
Option
99
Description
Alarm Control
Select this option to enable, disable, or silence the onboard alarm tone
generator on the controller.
Coercion Mode
Use this option to force drives of varying capacities to the same size so
they can be used in a drive group. The coercion mode options are None,
128MB-way, and 1GB-way. The number you choose depends on how
much the drives from various vendors vary in their actual size.
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Option
BIOS Mode
Description
Specifies the following options to set the BIOS boot mode:
•
•
•
•
Stop on Error: Shows the errors encountered during boot up and
waits for your input. The firmware does not proceed with the boot
process till you take some action
Ignore Error: Ignores errors and the firmware proceeds with boot.
Pause on Error: The firmware may halt due to hardware faults. If the
firmware encounters no hardware faults, then the boot up continues.
SafeMode Error: Boots the controller to run in safe mode.
Boot Device
Use this option to select the boot device from the list of virtual drives and
JBODs.
Rebuild Rate
Use this option to select the rebuild rate for drives connected to the
selected controller. The rebuild rate is the percentage of system resources
dedicated to rebuilding a failed drive. The higher the number, the more
system resources that are devoted to a rebuild. The range of rebuild rate
is between 0 and 100 percent.
BGI Rate
Use this option to select the amount of system resources dedicated to
background initialization of virtual drives connected to the selected
controller. The range of background initialization (BGI) rate is between 0
and 100 percent.
CC Rate
Use this option to select the amount of system resources dedicated to
consistency checks of virtual drives connected to the selected controller.
The range of Consistency Check (CC) rate is between 0 and100 percent.
Recon. Rate
Use this option to select the amount of system resources dedicated to
reconstruction of drives connected to the selected controller. The range of
Recon rate is between 0 and100 percent.
Patrol Rate
Use this option to select the rate for patrol reads for drives connected to
the selected controller. The patrol read rate is the percentage of system
resources dedicated to running a patrol read. The range of patrol read is
between 0 to 100 percent.
Cache Flush
Interval
Use this option to control the interval at which the contents of the onboard
data cache are flushed. The range of Cache Flush Interval is between 0
to100 seconds.
Spinup Delay
Use this option to control the interval (in seconds) between spinup of
drives connected to this controller.
The delay prevents a drain on the system’s power supply that would occur
if all drives spun up at the same time. The range of Spinup Delay is
between 0 to 255 seconds.
Spinup Drive
Use this option to control the interval at which the contents of the onboard
data cache are flushed. The range of Spinup Drive is between 0 to 255
seconds.
Maintain PD Fail
History
Use this option to maintain the history of all drive failures.
Enable Controller
BIOS
Use this option to enable or disable the BIOS for the selected controller.
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If the boot device is on the selected controller, the BIOS must be enabled.
Otherwise, the BIOS should be disabled, or you might be unable to use a
boot device elsewhere.
100
Option
Description
Enable Stop CC on
Error
Use this option to stop a consistency check when the controller BIOS
encounters an error.
Auto Enhanced
Import
Use this option to import automatically at boot time.
Set Factory
Defaults
Use this option to load the default Ctrl-R Utility settings.
Manage Link
Speed
Use this option to change the link speed between the controller and the
expander, or between a controller and a drive that is directly connected to
the controller.
Manage Power
Save
Use this option to reduce the power consumption of drives that are not in
use, by spinning down the unconfigured good drives, hot spares and
configured drives.
Manage Battery
Use this option to view information about the BBU, if the selected
controller has a BBU.
Emergency Spare
Use this option to commission unconfigured good drives or global
hotspares as emergency spare drives.
You can select from the options None, UG (Unconfigured Good), GHS
(Global Hotspare), or UG and GHS (Unconfigured Good and Global
Hotspare).
Enable Emergency
for SMARTer
7.13.3
Use this option to commission emergency hot spare drives for predictive
failure analysis events.
Viewing and Changing Virtual Drive Properties
The Ctrl-R Utility shows the properties, policies, and the operations for virtual drives.
To view these items for the currently selected virtual drive and to change some of these
settings, perform the following steps:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Press Enter.
The Virtual Drive Properties dialog appears.
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Figure 43. Virtual Drive Properties
The General box shows the virtual drive’s RAID level, name, state, size, and strip
size.
The Operations box lists any operation (performed on the virtual drive) in
progress, along with its progress status and the time remaining for the operation to
be completed.
3. You may change the settings for the fields that are enabled in this dialog.
Caution: Before you change a virtual drive configuration, back up any data on the
virtual drive that you want to save.
4. Press OK to save your changes.
5. Press Advanced to view additional virtual drive properties.
The Create Virtual Drive – Advanced dialog appears.
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Figure 44. Create Virtual Drive – Advanced
You can view the virtual drive policies that were defined when the storage
configuration was created.
You can also select Initialize and/or Configure Hot Spare to initialize the newly
created virtual drive or to configure the virtual drive as a hot spare, respectively.
If you select Initialize and/or Configure Hot Spare, messages pertaining to
initializing the virtual drive or to configuring the virtual drive as a hot spare appear
only after you exit the Virtual Drive Properties dialog.
7.13.4
Deleting a Virtual Drive
You can delete any virtual drive on the controller if you want to reuse that space for a new
virtual drive. The Ctrl-R Utility lists configurable drive groups where there is space to
configure. If multiple virtual drives are defined on a single drive group, you can delete a
virtual drive without deleting the entire drive group.
Caution: Back up any data that you want to keep before you delete a virtual drive.
Perform the following steps to delete a virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Delete VD, and press Enter.
A message box appears, asking you to confirm the deletion.
3. Press OK to delete the virtual drive.
7.13.5
Deleting a Virtual Drive Group
You can delete a virtual drive group. On deleting a drive group, all the virtual drives in
that drive group also are deleted.
Caution: Back up any data that you want to keep before you delete a virtual drive group.
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Perform the following steps to delete a drive group:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a drive group, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Delete Drive Group, and press Enter.
The drive group is deleted and is removed from the VD Mgmt screen.
7.13.6
Expanding a Virtual Drive
You can increase the size of a virtual drive to occupy the remaining capacity in a drive
group.
Perform the following steps to expand the size of a virtual drive:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, select the virtual drive whose size you want to expand and
press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Expand VD, and press Enter.
The Expand Virtual Drive dialog appears.
Figure 45. Expand Virtual Drive
3. Enter the percentage of the available capacity that you want the virtual drive to use.
For example, if 100 GB of capacity is available and you want to increase the size of
the virtual drive by 30 GB, select 30 percent.
4. Press Resize to determine the capacity of the virtual drive after expansion.
The virtual drive expands by the selected percentage of the available capacity.
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7.13.7
Erasing a Virtual Drive
Virtual drive erase operates on a specified virtual drive and overwrites all user-accessible
locations. It supports nonzero patterns and multiple passes. Virtual drive erase optionally
deletes the virtual drive and erases the data within the virtual drive’s logical base address
range. Virtual drive erase is a background operation that posts events to notify users of
their progress.
Perform the following steps to perform the virtual drive erase operation:
1. In the VD Mgmt screen, select a virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Erase VD, and press Enter.
A menu appears displaying the following modes:
— Simple – Specifies a single-pass erase operation that writes pattern A to the
virtual drive.
— Normal – Specifies a three-pass erase operation that first overwrites the
virtual drive content with random values, then overwrites it with pattern A,
and then overwrites it with pattern B.
— Thorough – Specifies a nine-pass erase operation that repeats the Normal
erase three times.
— Stop Erase: Stops the erase operation that has already been started. This
option is disabled at first. Once the erase operation begins, this option is
enabled.
3. Select a mode and press Enter.
A message box appears.
Figure 46. Erase Virtual Drive
4. To delete the virtual drive after the erase operation has been completed, select the
Delete Virtual Drive after Erase operation check box.
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5. Press Yes for the erase operation to start.
Once the Drive Erase operation has started, the Simple, Normal, and Thorough
options are disabled and the Stop Erase option is enabled.
7.13.8
Managing Link Speed
The Managing Link Speed feature lets you change the link speed between the controller
and an expander, or between the controller and a drive that is directly connected to the
controller.
All phys in a SAS port can have different link speeds or can have the same link speed.
You can select a link speed setting. However, if phys in a SAS port have different link
speed settings and if a phy is connected to a drive or an expander, the firmware overrides
the link speed setting you have selected. Instead, the firmware uses the common
maximum link speed among all the phys.
Perform the following steps to change the link speed:
1. In the Controller Settings screen, press Next.
The second Controller Settings screen appears.
2. Press Manage Link Speed.
The Manage Link Speed dialog appears.
Figure 47. Manage Link Speed
— The SAS Address column shows the SAS address that uniquely identifies a
device in the SAS domain.
— The Phy column shows the system-supported phy link values. The phy link
values are from 0 through 7.
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— The Link Speed column shows the phy link speeds.
3. Select the desired link speed by using the drop-down list.
The link speed values are Auto,1.5Gb/s, 3Gb/s, 6Gb/s, or 12Gb/s.
Note: By default, the link speed in the controller is Auto or the value last saved by
you.
4. Press OK.
A message box appears, asking you to restart your system for the changes to take
effect.
5. Press OK.
The link speed value is now reset. The change takes place after you restart the
system.
7.13.9
Managing Power Save Settings for the Controller
You can change the controller’s power-save settings by using the Dimmer Switch
enhancement (Power-Save mode).
Perform the following steps to change the power save settings:
1. Navigate to the second Controller Settings screen.
2. Navigate to Manage Power Save, and press Enter.
The Manage Power Save dialog appears.
Figure 48. Manage Power Save
3. Select the Spin down Unconfigured drives check box to let the controller enable
the unconfigured drives to enter the Power-Save mode.
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4. Select the Spin down Hot Spares check box to let the controller enable the Hot
spare drives to enter the Power-Save mode.
5. Select the drive standby time from the Drive Standby Time drop-down list.
Note: The Drive Standby Time drop-down list is enabled only if any of the preceding
check boxes are checked. The drive standby time can be 30 minutes, 1 hour, 90
minutes, or 2 hours through 24 hours.
6. Press OK.
A message box appears, asking you to save the power-save settings.
7. Press Yes to save the settings.
7.13.10 Managing Power Save Settings for the Drive Group
You can change the power save settings for a selected drive group.
Perform the following steps to change the power save settings for a drive group:
1. Navigate to a drive group in the VD Mgmt screen, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Manage Power Save Settings and press Enter.
The Manage Power Save Settings dialog appears.
Figure 49. Manage Power Save Settings – Drive Group
3. Select a power save mode from the Select power save mode drop-down list.
A description of the selected mode appears in the dialog.
4. Press OK.
7.13.11 Managing BBU Information
If your SAS controller has a BBU, you can view information about it and change some
settings.
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A learning cycle is a battery calibration operation that the controller performs periodically
to determine the condition of the battery.
Perform the following steps to view and change the battery settings:
1. Navigate to the second Controller Settings screen and select Manage Battery.
The Battery Properties dialog appears. Most of the battery properties are read
only.
Figure 50. Battery Properties
If the Battery State field has a value other than Optimal, the Non-Optimal
Reason field appears at the bottom of the Battery Properties dialog. The NonOptimal Reason field is a read-only field and states a reason for the non optimal
state of the battery.
2. Select a battery learn mode from the Learn Mode drop-down list.
The values in the drop-down list differ based on whether the battery supports
transparent learn cycles.
— If the battery supports transparent learn, the following values appear in the
Learn Mode drop-down list:
G Transparent – The firmware tracks the time since the last learning cycle and
performs a learn cycle when it is due.
G Disabled – The firmware does not monitor or initiate a learning cycle. You
can schedule learning cycles manually.
G Unknown – The firmware warns about a pending learning cycle. You can
start a learning cycle manually. After the learning cycle completes, the
firmware resets the counter and warns you when the next learning cycle time
is reached.
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— If the battery does not support transparent learn, the following values appear in
the Learn Mode drop-down list:
G Automatic – The firmware tracks the time since the last learning cycle and
performs a learn cycle when due. Write caching need not be disabled.
G Disabled – The firmware does not monitor or initiate a learning cycle. You
can schedule learning cycles manually.
G Disabled (Warning Only) – The firmware never initiates a battery learn
cycle but notifies you through events when a learn cycle is needed.
3. Press OK to change the learn mode.
7.13.12 Managing Dedicated Hot Spares
A dedicated hot spare is used to replace failed drives only in a selected drive group that
contains the hot spare. You can create or delete dedicated hot spares in the Virtual Drive
Management screen.
Perform the following steps to create or delete dedicated hot spares:
1. Navigate to a drive group in the VD Mgmt screen, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Manage Dedicated Hotspare, and press Enter.
The Dedicated Hotspare dialog appears, which shows a list of all hot spares that
are available to create dedicated hot spares.
Figure 51. Dedicated Hotspare
3. Perform one of these steps:
— To create a dedicated hot spare, select a drive and press OK.
— To delete a dedicated hot spare, deselect the hot spare and press OK.
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7.13.13 Securing a Drive Group
If a drive group is created with FDE drives (security enabled drives) and at the time of
creation, the security is set to No; later, you can secure that drive group using encryption.
Perform the following steps to secure a drive group:
1. Navigate to the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to the drive group that you want to
secure, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Secure Drive Group, and press Enter.
A message box appears asking for your confirmation.
3. Press Yes to secure the drive group.
Note: After a virtual drive is secured, you will not be able to remove the encryption without
deleting the virtual drive.
7.13.14 Setting LED Blinking
You can use the Locate option to make the LEDs blink on the physical drives used by a
virtual drive. You can choose to start or stop the LED blinking.
Perform the following steps to start or stop LED blinking:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen (in the PD Mgmt menu).
2. Select a physical drive, and press the F2 key.
3. Navigate to Locate, and press Enter.
The Start and the Stop options appear.
4. Perform one of these actions:
— Select Start, and press Enter to start LED blinking.
— Select Stop, and press Enter to stop LED blinking.
Note: Both the Start and Stop options of Locate only work if the drive is installed in
a drive enclosure.
7.13.15 Performing a Break Mirror Operation
You can perform a Break Mirror operation on a drive group. The Break Mirror operation
enables a RAID 1 configured drive group to be broken into two volumes. You can use one
of the volumes in another system and replicate it without making a copy of the virtual
drive.
Perform the following steps to perform a break mirror operation:
1. Navigate to the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a drive group on which you want to
perform the break mirror operation, and press the F2 key.
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2. Navigate to Break Mirror, and press Enter.
The following message box appears, asking for your confirmation.
3. Press Yes to proceed.
7.13.16 Performing a Join Mirror Operation
You can perform a join mirror operation on a drive group to continue using the modified
virtual drive or to reuse the original virtual drive.
Perform the following steps to perform a join mirror operation:
1. Navigate to the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a drive group on which you want to
perform the join mirror operation, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Join Mirror, and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
Figure 52. Join Mirror – Choose Option
3. Select one of the options and press OK.
If you select Join the mirror arm with the existing virtual drive, the following
confirmation dialog appears.
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Figure 53. Confirmation Message
If you select Join the mirror arm as a new virtual drive, the following
confirmation dialog appears.
Figure 54. Confirmation Message
4. Press Yes to proceed.
The following dialog appears.
Figure 55. Join Mirror – Choose Option
5. Select one of the options and press OK.
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7.14
Managing Storage Configurations
This section describes how to use the Ctrl-R Utility to maintain and manage storage
configurations.
7.14.1
Initializing a Virtual Drive
When you create a new virtual drive, the Ctrl-R Utility asks whether you would like to
initialize the virtual drive. If you do not want to initialize the virtual drive at that stage,
you can initialize the drive later.
Perform the following steps to initialize a virtual drive:
1. Navigate to the VD Mgmt screen, navigate to a virtual drive, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Initialization, and press Enter.
The two initialization options, Fast Init and Slow Init, appear.
3. Select one of the two options, and press Enter.
A confirmation dialog appears.
Figure 56. Initialize a Virtual Drive
4. Press Yes to begin initialization.
Caution: Initialization erases all data on the virtual drive. Make sure to back up any data you want
to keep before you initialize a virtual drive. Make sure the operating system is not
installed on the virtual drive you are initializing.
7.14.2
Running a Consistency Check
You should periodically run a consistency check on fault-tolerant virtual drives (RAID 1,
5, 6, 10, 50, or 60 configurations; RAID 0 does not provide data redundancy). A
consistency check scans the virtual drive to determine whether the data has become
corrupted and needs to be restored.
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For example, in a system with parity, checking consistency means computing the data on
one drive and comparing the results with the contents of the parity drive. You must run a
consistency check if you suspect that the data on the virtual drive might be corrupted.
Caution: Make sure to back up the data before you run a consistency check, if you think the data
might be corrupted.
Perform the following steps to run a consistency check:
1. Navigate to a virtual drive in the VD Mgmt screen, and press the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Consistency Check, and press Enter.
3. Navigate to Start, and press Enter.
The consistency check starts and checks the redundant data in the virtual drive.
If you attempt to run a consistency check on a virtual drive that has not been
initialized, a confirmation dialog appears, asking for your confirmation.
Figure 57. Consistency Check
4. Press Yes to run the consistency check.
7.14.3
Rebuilding a Physical Drive
If a drive in a redundant virtual drive (RAID 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60) fails, you must rebuild
that drive on a hot spare drive to prevent data loss.
Perform the following steps to rebuild a physical drive:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen (in the PD Mgmt menu), and press the
F2 key.
2. Select Rebuild, and press Enter.
The rebuild operation starts.
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7.14.4
Performing a Copyback Operation
You can perform a copyback operation on a selected drive.
The copyback operation copies data from a source drive of a virtual drive to a destination
drive that is not a part of the virtual drive. The copyback operation often creates or
restores a specific physical configuration for a drive group (for example, a specific
arrangement of drive group members on the device I/O buses).
Perform the following steps to perform the copyback operation:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, navigate to a physical drive, and press
the F2 key.
2. Navigate to Copyback, and press Enter.
The following dialog appears.
Figure 58. Copyback Operation
3. Select the replacement drive to which you want the data copied.
4. Press OK.
The copyback operation is performed on the selected drive.
7.14.5
Removing a Physical Drive
You might sometimes need to remove a non-failed drive that is connected to the
controller. Preparing a physical drive for removal spins the drive into a power save mode.
Perform the following steps to prepare a physical drive for removal:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Prepare for Removal, and press Enter.
The physical drive is now in a power save mode.
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If you change your mind and do not want to remove the drive, navigate to Undo
Removal, and press Enter.
7.14.6
Creating Global Hot Spares
A global hot spare is used to replace a failed physical drive in any redundant array, as long
as the capacity of the global hot spare is equal to or larger than the coerced capacity of the
failed physical drive.
You can designate the hot spare to have enclosure affinity. In an enclosure affinity, if drive
failures are present on a split backplane configuration, the hot spare first is used on the
backplane in which it resides.
Perform the following steps to create global hot spares:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, navigate to a physical drive that you
want to change to a hot spare, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Make Global HS, and press Enter.
The physical drive is changed to a global hot spare. The status of the physical drive
as a global hot spare appears in the Drive Management screen.
7.14.7
Removing a Hot Spare Drive
Perform these steps to remove a hot spare drive:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, navigate to a hot spare drive that you
want to remove, and press the F2 key.
2. Select Remove Hot Spare drive, and press Enter.
The hot spare drive is removed.
7.14.8
Making a Drive Offline
If a drive is part of a redundant configuration and you want to use it in another
configuration, you can remove the drive from the first configuration and change the drive
state to Unconfigured Good.
Caution: After you perform this procedure, all data on that drive is lost.
Perform the following steps to remove the drive from the configuration without harming
the data on the virtual drive:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, select a physical drive, and press the
F2 key.
2. Navigate to Place Drive Offline, and press Enter.
The drive status changes to Unconfigured Good.
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Caution: After you perform this step, the data on this drive is no longer valid.
7.14.9
Making a Drive Online
You can change the state of a physical drive to online. In an online state, the physical drive
works normally and is a part of a configured virtual drive.
Perform the following steps to make a physical drive online:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, select a physical drive, and press the
F2 key.
2. Navigate to Place Drive Online, and press Enter.
The state of the physical drive changes to Online.
7.14.10 Instant Secure Erase
You can erase data on SED drives by using the Instant Secure Erase option in the PD
Mgmt menu.
Perform the following steps to erase data on SED drives:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, select a physical drive and press the F2
key.
2. Navigate to Instant Secure Erase, and press Enter.
A confirmation dialog appears, asking whether you would like to proceed.
3. Press Yes to proceed.
7.14.11 Erasing a Physical Drive
You can securely erase data on Non SEDs (normal HDDs) by using the Drive Erase
option in the PD Mgmt menu.
For Non–SEDs, the erase operation consists of a series of write operations to a drive that
overwrites every user-accessible sector of the drive with specified patterns. It can be
repeated in multiple passes using different data patterns for enhanced security. The erase
operation is performed as a background task.
Perform the following steps to erase data on Non SEDs:
1. Navigate to the Drive Management screen, select a physical drive and press the F2
key.
2. Navigate to Drive Erase, and press Enter.
A menu appears displaying the following modes:
— Simple: Specifies a single pass operation that writes pattern A to the physical
drive.
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— Normal: Specifies a three pass erase operation that first overwrites the
physical drive content with random values, then overwrites it with pattern A
and then overwrites it with pattern B.
— Thorough: Specifies a nine pass erase operation that repeats Normal erase
three times.
— Stop Erase: This option is disabled. This option is disabled at first. Once the
erase operation begins, this options is enabled.
3. Select a mode and press Enter.
On selecting Simple, Normal, or Thorough, a confirmation dialog appears.
4. Press Yes on the confirmation dialog to proceed with the drive erase operation.
Once the Drive Erase operation has started, you are intimated with the progress of
the operation. Also, the Simple, Normal, and Thorough modes are disabled and
the Stop Erase mode is enabled.
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8
6Gb/s Intel® RAID Controller
Configuration Utility
The Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility provides a GUI utility to configure and manage
RAID volumes. The utility configures disk groups and virtual drives. Because the utility
resides in the RAID controller firmware, it is independent of the operating system.
The Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Selects controller
Displays controller properties
Scans devices
Displays the physical properties of devices
Configures physical drives
Defines virtual drives
Displays virtual drive properties
Initializes virtual drives
Checks data for consistency
The Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility provides a Configuration Wizard to guide you
through the configuration of virtual drives and physical arrays.
8.1
Quick Configuration Steps
This section provides the steps to configure arrays and disk groups, and virtual drives
using the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility. The following sections describe how to
perform each action using the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility. The steps are as
follows:
1. Power on the system.
2. Press <Ctrl>+<G> to start the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility.
Note: Some server boards have a BIOS SETUP option called "Port 60/64
Emulation" (or with other similar name). Please ensure this option is enabled
in order to use Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 successfully.
3. Start the Configuration Wizard.
4. Choose a configuration method.
5. Using the available physical drives, create arrays and disk groups.
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6. Using the space in the arrays and disk groups, define the virtual drive(s).
7. Initialize the new virtual drives.
8.2
Detailed Configuration Steps using the
Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2
8.2.1
Start the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Utility
1. When the system boots, hold down the <Ctrl> key and press the <G> key when the
following is displayed:
Press <Ctrl><G> to enter the RAID BIOS Console
After you press <Ctrl>+<G>, the Controller Selection screen appears.
2. Select a controller and click Start to begin the configuration.
Note: If there is a configuration mismatch between the disks and the NVRAM, the utility
automatically displays the Select Configuration screen. Choose whether the configuration
should be read from the RAID array or from NVRAM. For more information, see
“Configuration Mismatch Screen” on page 128.
8.2.2
Screen and Option Descriptions
This section describes the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 screens and options.
8.2.2.1
Toolbar Options
Table 16 describes the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 toolbar icons.
Table 16. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Toolbar
Icon Descriptions
Icon
Description
Return to the main screen.
Return to the page you accessed immediately
before the current page.
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Table 16. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Toolbar
Icon Descriptions (Cont.)
Icon
Description
Exit the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 utility.
Silence the alarm.
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8.2.2.2
Main Screen
From the main screen, you can scan the devices connected to the controller, select an
Intel® RAID controller, and switch between the Physical Drives view and Virtual Drives
view. The main screen also provides access to the following screens and tools:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Controller Selection
•
Exit
Controller Properties
Scan Devices
Virtual Drives
Drives
Configuration Wizard
Physical View
Events
Figure 59. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 Menu
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8.2.2.3
Controller Selection
This option allows you to choose an Intel® RAID controller installed in the system.
Figure 60. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Controller Selection
8.2.2.4
Controller Properties Screen
When you select the Controller Selection option on the main screen, the Intel® RAID
BIOS Console 2 utility displays a list of the Intel RAID controllers in the system.
The Controller Properties screen allows you to view and configure the software and
hardware of the selected controller.
Figure 61. Controller Properties
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Firmware Version: The firmware version.
Host Interface: The host interface for the installed RAID controller.
NVRAM Size: The NVRAM size on the RAID controller.
Firmware Time: The firmware release date/time.
Min Stripe Size: The minimum stripe size used to read and write data.
WebBIOS Version: The BIOS version for the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2.
Sub Device ID: The sub-device ID (identification) for the RAID controller.
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8.2.2.4.1
•
•
•
Sub Vendor ID: The sub-vendor ID (identification) for the RAID controller.
•
•
Max Stripe Size: The maximum stripe size.
Port Count: Number of ports available.
Memory Size: The memory size of the installed DIMM (Dual In-Line Memory
Module).
Physical Disk Count: The number of physical disks connected to the RAID
controller.
Additional Controller Properties
To access the screen that displays the additional controller properties, click Next on the
Controller Properties screen. To change one of the properties displayed in the screen
below, select the new value and click Submit.
Figure 62. Additional Controller Properties
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•
•
Battery Backup: Indicates if a battery backup unit is installed.
•
•
Cluster Mode: Enable this field if the RAID controller is used in a cluster.
•
Patrol Read Rate: A patrol read is a preventive procedure that monitors physical
disks to locate and resolve potential problems that could lead to disk failure. Enter a
number between 0 and 100 to control the rate at which patrol reads are performed.
•
BGI Rate (Background Initialization Rate): Background initialization makes the
virtual drive immediately available for use, even while initialization is occurring.
Set Factory Defaults: Change this field to Yes to reset the RAID controller settings
to the factory defaults.
Rebuild Rate: Enter a number between 0 and 100 to control the rate at which a
future rebuild will be performed on a disk group.
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Enter a number between 0 and 100 to control the rate at which virtual drives are
initialized in the background.
•
CC Rate (Check Consistency Rate): A consistency check scans the consistency
of data on a fault-tolerant disk to determine if the data is corrupted. Enter a number
between 0 and 100 to control the rate at which a consistency check is done.
•
Reconstruction Rate: Enter a number between 0 and 100 to control the rate at
which the reconstruction of a virtual drive occurs.
• Adapter BIOS: Determines whether the Option ROM is loaded.
• Coercion Mode:
— None: No coercion of size.
— 128M: The software rounds the drive capacity down to the next 128 MB
boundary and then up to the nearest 10 MB until the coerced capacity is larger
than the actual drive size. It is then reduced by 10 MB.
— 1G: The software rounds the drive capacity down to the nearest 1 GB
boundary and then down by 1 MB. This corresponds to the terms most drive
manufacturers use.
•
PDF Interval: The PDF interval is the predictive disk failure polling interval. This
is the time needed between disk polls to perform SMART polling.
•
•
Alarm Control: Disable the alarm to turn off the on-board speaker alarm.
•
Cache Flush Interval: This sets the cache flush interval. Valid settings are 2, 4, 6,
8, or 10 seconds.
•
Spinup Drive Count: This setting controls the number of drives that spin up at one
time.
•
Spinup Delay: After the RAID controller completes its initialization process, the
initial delay value defines the number of seconds before the first disk interrogation
request is issued to the array or disk group. Do not change this value.
•
•
Stop On Error: Stops system POST if any error is detected.
•
•
•
Stop CC On Error: Stops Consistency Check if any error is detected.
Interrupt Throttle Count and Interrupt Throttle Time: Sets the interrupt throttle
and count times. This is the number of times that interrupts are coalesced and the
amount of time that firmware holds an interrupt before passing it to the host
software. Set values lower for better performance—be aware that latency is
impacted by these settings.
NCQ: Enables NCQ (Native Command Queuing) to optimize physical drive
performance and life.
Schedule CC: Schedules a Consistency Check.
Maintain PD Fail History: Enables tracking of bad PDs across reboot.
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8.2.2.5
Scan Devices Option
When you select the Scan Devices option on the Main screen, the Intel® RAID BIOS
Console 2 checks the physical and virtual drives for any changes of the drive status. The
Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 displays the results of the scan in the physical and virtual
drive descriptions.
8.2.2.6
Virtual Drives Screen
You can access the virtual drives screen by clicking on a virtual drive in the virtual drive
list on the main screen. The upper right section of the screen displays the virtual drives
that currently exist. The Virtual Drives screen provides options to:
•
Initialize the virtual drives: The Slow Initialize option initializes the selected virtual
drive by writing zeroes to the entire volume. You should initialize each new virtual
drive that you configure.
Warning: Initializing a virtual drive deletes all information on the physical drives
that compose the virtual drive.
•
Check consistency (CC): This option verifies the correctness of the redundancy
data and is available for arrays and disk groups using RAID 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60. If
a difference in the data is found, the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 assumes that the
data is accurate and automatically corrects the parity value.
• Display the virtual drive properties: Through the Properties option, you can:
— Display the virtual drive properties (such as RAID level, virtual drive size, and
stripe size).
— Display the read, write, Access, Disk Cache, BGI (Background Initialization),
and I/O policies.
— Change the read, write, Access, Disk Cache, BGI, and I/O policies.
— Select Write Through, Write Back with BBU, or Always Write Back.
— Start initialization.
— Start a consistency check.
After setting any property, click Go to perform the selected operation. Click Change to
apply any policy changes.
8.2.2.7
Physical Drives Screen
This screen displays the physical drives for each channel or port. From this screen, you
can rebuild the physical arrays or disk groups, or view the properties for the physical drive
you select.
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•
Click Reset to return to the configuration that existed before you made any
changes.
•
Select Properties and click Go to view the properties. An unconfigured drive can be
made into a hot spare from the Properties screen.
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8.2.2.8
Configuration Wizard Option
This option enables you to clear a configuration, create a new configuration, or add a
configuration. “Setting Up a RAID Array Using the Configuration Wizard” on page 128
provides detailed steps for using the Configuration Wizard.
8.2.2.9
Events Screen
This option displays the events generated by physical drives, physical devices, enclosure,
the Intel® Smart Battery, and SAS controller. See Appendix B: “Events and Messages” on
page 315 for events and message descriptions.
8.2.2.10
Physical View/Logical View Option
This option toggles between Physical View and Logical View.
8.2.2.11
Exit
This option allows you to exit and reboot the system.
8.2.2.12
Configuration Mismatch Screen
A configuration mismatch occurs when the data in the NVRAM and the hard disk drives
are different. It automatically displays after POST when a configuration mismatch occurs.
The Configuration Mismatch screen allows you to:
8.3
•
Select Create New Configuration to delete the previous configuration and create a
new configuration.
•
•
Select View Disk Configuration to restore the configuration from the hard disk.
Select View NVRAM Configuration to restore the configuration from the
NVRAM.
Setting Up a RAID Array Using the
Configuration Wizard
This section provides detailed steps for using the Configuration Wizard to set up a RAID
array.
1. Start the Configuration Wizard by selecting the Configuration Wizard icon on the
Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 main screen.
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Figure 63. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Configuration Types
2. Select New Configuration and click Next.
3. Then select Virtual Drive Configuration and click Next.
Figure 64. Selecting Configuration
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4. Choose the configuration method and click Next.
Figure 65. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Configuration Methods
The following configuration methods options are provided:
— Automatic Configuration
There are two options in Redundancy. Redundancy When Possible or No
Redundancy.
Redundancy When Possible configures configures RAID 1 for systems with
two drives or RAID 5 for systems with three or more drives, or RAID 6 for
systems with three or more drives. All available physical drives are included in
the virtual drive using all available capacity on the disks.
No Redundancy configures all available drives as a RAID 0 virtual drive.
There is a Drive Security Method option which is reserved to be enabled in
future.
Note: You must designate hot-spare drives before starting auto configuration using
all available capacity on the disks.
— Manual Configuration
Allows you to configure the RAID mode.
Note: Automatic Configuration cannot be used for RAID 10, 50, or 60 or with mixed SATA and
SAS drives.
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8.4
Creating RAID 0, 1, 5, or 6 using Intel® RAID
BIOS Console 2 (detailed)
This section describes the process to set up RAID modes using the custom configuration
options.
1. When the server boots, hold the <Ctrl> key and press the <G> key when the
following is displayed:
Press <Ctrl><G> to enter RAID BIOS Console
The Controller Selection screen appears.
2. Select a controller and click Start to begin the configuration.
3. Choose Manual Configuration and click Next (see Figure 65).
4. At the Disk Group Definition (DG Definition) screen, hold down the <Ctrl> key
and click each drive you want to include in the array or disk group.
See “RAID Levels” on page 9 for the required minimum number of drives that
must be added.
Figure 66. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Add Physical Drives to Array
5. Click Add To Array. If you make a mistake and need to remove drives, click
Reclaim.
6. Click Next.
7. In the next screen, click Add to Span and then click Next.
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8. On the VD Definition window, select RAID 0, 1, 5, or 6 from the first dropdown
box.
9. Enter the virtual drive size in the Select Size box.
This example shows a specific size. Depending on the RAID level you choose , you
may need to manually type in the expected volume size. The possible sizes for
some RAID levels are listed on right panel of the screen for reference.
10. If needed, change the Stripe Size, the policies for Access, Read, Write, IO, and Disk
Cache and decide whether to use background initialization.
For information about setting these parameters, see “Setting Drive Parameters” on
page 141.
Figure 67. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Set Array Properties
11. Click Accept to accept the changes, or click Reclaim to delete the changes and
return to the previous settings.
The Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 configuration utility displays a preview of the
configuration.
12. Click Accept to save the configuration, or click Back to return to the previous
screens and change the configuration.
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Figure 68. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Confirm Configuration
13. Click Accept as necessary in the screens that follow. You are prompted to save the
configuration and then to initialize the virtual drive.
14. Click Yes to initialize the new drive.
15. Click Initialize to begin the initialization process.
— Fast initialization runs a quick preliminary initialization and then runs full
initialization in the background after the operating system is booted.
— Slow initialization may take several hours or even days to complete.
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Figure 69. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Initialization Speed Setting
16. Click Home to return to the main configuration screen.
17. Select an additional virtual drive to configure or exit the Intel® RAID BIOS
Console 2 configuration utility and reboot the system.
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8.5
Creating RAID 10, RAID 50, and RAID 60
using Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2
RAID 10, RAID 50, and RAID 60 require setting up multiple RAID arrays/disk groups.
1. When the server boots, hold the <Ctrl> key and press the <G> key when the
following is displayed:
Press <Ctrl><G> to enter the RAID BIOS Console
After you press <Ctrl>+<G>, the Controller Selection screen appears.
2. Select a controller and click Start to begin the configuration.
3. Select Custom Configuration and click Next (see Figure 65).
4. At the Virtual Drive Definition (VD Definition) screen, hold down the <Ctrl> key
and click each drive you want included in the first array.
— For RAID 10, use two drives.
— For RAID 50, use at least three drives.
— For RAID 60, use at least three drives.
5. Click Add To Array, and then click Accept DG in the right pane to confirm.
The first group of drives appears as a disk group in the right pane. These drives are
no longer available in the left pane.
6. From the drives that are available in the left pane, choose an additional group of
drives and again click Add To Array, and click Accept DG to confirm.
Each disk group must contain the identical quantity and size of drives.
Multiple drive groups are now displayed in the right pane. You can add up to eight
arrays to the right pane for either RAID 10, RAID 50, or RAID 60.
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Figure 70. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Multiple Disk Groups for RAID 10,
50, or 60
7. Select all arrays or disk groups that are to be spanned in the RAID 10, 50, or 60
array by holding down the <Ctrl> key and selecting each array/disk group in the
right pane.
8. Click Next.
9. In the next screen, click Add to SPAN to move all arrays from the left pane to the
right pane. Use <Ctrl> to select all SPANs on the right pane.
10. Click Next.
11. At the Virtual Drive Definition (VD Definition) screen, select either RAID 10,
RAID 50, or RAID 60 from the RAID Level drop-down.
RAID 10 is illustrated below.
12. Select the appropriate Stripe Size, Access Policy, Read Policy, Write Policy, IO
Policy, Disk Cache Policy, and Enable/Disable BGI for your application.
For information about setting these parameters, see “Setting Drive Parameters” on
page 141.
13. Set the drive size to a number in MB that is a size greater then the size of the RAID
1, RAID 5, or RAID 6 size listed in the disk group.
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Figure 71. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Spanning Multiple Arrays
14. Click Next if the application does not automatically progress to the next screen.
The configuration preview screen displays the virtual drive as shown below. The
configuration preview screen displays the virtual drive (RAID 1 for RAID 10, or
RAID 50 or RAID 60).
Figure 72. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Viewing Completed Settings
15. Click Accept to save the configuration.
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16. When asked to save the configuration, click Yes.
This will store the configuration in the RAID controller.
17. When asked to initialize the drive, click Yes.
18. Select Fast Initialize and click Go.
The drives will initialize based on the RAID settings.
Note: Slow Initialize initializes the entire drive and may take several hours to complete.
Figure 73. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Initialization Settings
19. Click Home at the Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 screen to return to the main
screen.
The RAID 10, RAID 50, or RAID 60 virtual drives are displayed. The following
figure shows the RAID 10 virtual drives.
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Figure 74. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – RAID 10 Final Screen
20. Under Virtual Drives, select Virtual Drive 0: RAID 10, or select Virtual Drive 0:
RAID 50, or select Virtual Drive 0: RAID 60 to display the drive properties.
Figure 75. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – RAID 10 Properties Screen
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Figure 76. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – RAID 50 Properties Screen
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8.6
Setting Drive Parameters
The following fields are displayed in the VD Definition screen (see Figure 67 and
Figure 71), which can be used to set the virtual drive parameters:
•
RAID Level:
— RAID Level 0: Data striping
— RAID Level 1: Data mirroring
— RAID Level 5: Data striping with parity
— RAID Level 6: Distributed Parity and Disk Striping
— RAID level 10: Striped mirroring
— RAID Level 50: Striped RAID 5
— RAID Level 60: Distributed parity, with two independent parity blocks per
stripe
•
Stripe Size: Specify the size of the segment written to each disk. Available stripe
sizes are 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 Kbytes.
•
Access Policy: Select the type of data access that is allowed for this virtual drive.
The choices are Read/Write, Read Only, or Blocked.
•
Read Policy: Enables the read-ahead feature for the virtual drive. Read Adaptive is
the default setting.
— Normal: The controller does not use read-ahead for the current virtual drive.
— Read-ahead: Additional consecutive stripes are read and buffered into cache.
This option will improve performance for sequential reads.
— Adaptive: The controller begins using read-ahead if the two most recent disk
accesses occurred in sequential sectors.
•
Write Policy: Determines when the transfer complete signal is sent to the host.
Write-through caching is the default setting.
— Write-back caching (Further classified as Write Back with BBU or Always
Write Back, which means Write Back is always enabled even if BBU is bad or
missing): The controller sends a data transfer completion signal to the host
when the controller cache receives all of the data in a transaction. Write-back
caching has a performance advantage over write-through caching, but it
should only be enabled when the optional battery backup module is installed.
The risk of using Always Write Back should be fully recognized.
— Write-through caching: The controller sends a data transfer completion signal
to the host after the disk subsystem receives all the data in a transaction. Writethrough caching has a data security advantage over write-back caching.
Caution: Do not use write-back caching for any virtual drive in a Novell NetWare*
volume.
•
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IO Policy: Applies to reads on a specific virtual drive. It does not affect the readahead cache.
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— Cached IO: All reads are buffered in cache memory.
— Direct IO: Reads are not buffered in cache memory. Data is transferred to
cache and to the host concurrently. If the same data block is read again, it
comes from cache memory.
•
Disk Cache Policy: The cache policy applies to the cache on physical drives of the
current array.
— Enable: Enable disk cache. Enabling the disk cache in Write-back mode
provides little or no performance enhancement, while the risk of data loss due
to power failure increases.
— Disable: Disable disk cache.
— NoChange: Leave the default disk cache policy unchanged.
8.7
•
Disable BGI: Enable or disable background initialization. Set this option to “Yes”
to disable background initialization.
•
Select Size: Set the size of the virtual drive in megabytes. The right pane of the
virtual drive configuration window lists the maximum capacity that can be selected,
depending on the RAID level chosen.
Creating a Hot Spare
To create a hot spare, follow these steps:
1. On the main screen, select the drive that should be used as the hot spare.
Figure 77. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Choosing a Hot Spare Drive
2. Select the disk group.
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3. Click one of the following:
— Click Make Dedicated HSP to add the drive as a hot spare dedicated for
certain virtual drives.
— Click Make Global HSP if you want to create a global hot spare for all disk
groups.
Figure 78. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Setting a Hot Spare Drive
4. Click Go to create the hot spare.
The Drive State changes to HOTSPARE, as shown below.
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Figure 79. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Viewing Hot Spare
5. Click Home to return to the main screen.
Figure 80. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Main Screen showing Hot Spare
Drive
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8.8
Viewing Event Details
Events contain information, warnings, and fatal events. Events can be captured on various
RAID controller components, such as the battery, physical card, and within the
configuration. You can view these using the following steps.
1. On the Main screen, select Events from the menu at the left.
The Events screen appears.
Figure 81. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Event Information Screen
2. Select the component to display from the Event Locale list.
3. Select the type of event to display from the Event Class drop-down.
4. Type the Start Sequence# and the # of Events to display.
The following example shows a selection that was made for informational events
for the virtual drive, starting at sequence number 120 and displaying 10 events.
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Figure 82. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Selecting Events to View
5. Click Go.
In the following example, virtual drive events for informational messages were
selected, starting with the event at sequence 120. The events screen displays the
event information for sequence number 120 in the right pane.
Note: In the following example, the Start Sequence# and the # of Events fields
display 0. This is because when you click Go to display the events, these fields
automatically reset to 0.
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Figure 83. Intel® RAID BIOS Console 2 – Viewing an Event
6. Click Next to view the next message.
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9
Intel® RAID Web Console 2
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 enables you to configure, monitor, and maintain Intel®
RAID controllers and the storage-related devices connected to the RAID controller. The
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 graphical user interface (GUI) makes it easy to create and
manage storage configurations.
Note: Depending on different version of Intel® RAID Web Console 2, the actual screen displayed
could be different from this section. This section is for reference only.
9.1
Configuration Functions
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 enables you configure the controllers, disk drives,
battery backup units, and other storage-related devices installed on a system.
•
The Configuration Wizard simplifies the process of creating disk groups and virtual
drives.
•
Auto Configuration mode automatically creates the best possible configuration for
the available hardware.
Note: Auto Configuration cannot be used for RAID 10, 50, or 60 or with mixed SATA
and SAS drives.
9.2
•
Guided Configuration mode asks you a few brief questions about the configuration,
and then creates the array for you.
•
Manual Configuration mode gives you complete control over all aspects of the
storage configuration.
•
The Reconstruction Wizard enables you to increase or reduce the size of a virtual
drive and to change the RAID level of an array.
Monitoring Functions
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 displays information on the status of virtual drives,
physical disks, and other storage-related devices on the systems you are monitoring.
System errors and events are recorded in an event log file and displayed on the screen.
Special device icons appear on the screen to notify you of disk failures and other
situations that require immediate attention.
Note: Intel® RAID Web Console 2 “Client Only” Installation type on the Client system doesn’t
support configuring email/alerting settings on local system. Necessary settings for local
system need to be configured locally.
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9.3
Maintenance Functions
Use the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 to perform system maintenance tasks such as
running patrol read operations, updating firmware, and running consistency checks on
arrays and disk groups that support redundancy.
9.4
Hardware and Software Requirements
The hardware requirements for Intel® RAID Web Console 2 software are as follows.
•
PC-compatible computer system with at least one Intel® Xeon® architecture
processor or an Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T) 64-bit
processor
•
•
•
At least 256 Mbytes of system memory
Hard disk drive with at least 50 MB available free space
A supported operating system:
— Microsoft Windows 2000*, Microsoft Windows Server 2003*, Microsoft
Windows Server 2008*, or Microsoft Windows XP*
— Red Hat* Linux Enterprise 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0 with or without corresponding
service packs
— SuSE* Enterprise Linux 9.0, 10.0, or 11.0 with or without corresponding
service packs
— VMWare* ESX 3i, 4i
9.5
Installing the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on a
Microsoft Windows* Operating System
To install the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on a Microsoft Windows 2000*, Microsoft
Windows Server 2003*, Microsoft Windows Server 2008*, or Microsoft Windows XP*
system, complete the following steps:
1. Insert the Resource CD in the CD-ROM drive.
OR
Download the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 installation package from
http://www.intel.com/support/motherboards/server/.
2. When the Welcome screen is displayed, click Next.
3. When the next screen is displayed, read and accept the user license and click Next.
The Customer Information screen is displayed, as shown in Figure 84.
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Figure 84. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Customer Information Screen
4. Enter your user name and organization name. At the bottom of the screen, select an
installation option:
— If you select All users, any user with administrative privileges can view or
change the RAID configurations.
— If you select Only for current user (Administrator), only you can view or
change the RAID configurations.
5. Click Next to continue.
6. Accept the default Destination Folder, or click Change to select a different
destination folder. Click Next to continue.
The Setup Type screen is displayed, as shown in Figure 85.
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Figure 85. Setup Type Screen
7. Select one of the following setup options.
— Select Complete if you are installing the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on a
system.
— Select Custom Installation if you want to select or omit individual program
components to install. When selected, more custom options are provided.
Please read the instructions on the screen carefully to make sure you select the
preferred setup type.
8. Click Next to proceed and then click Finish to complete the installation process.
9.6
Installing the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on
Linux or SuSE* Linux Enterprise Server
To install Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on a system running Red Hat* Linux 3.0, 4.0, or
5.0, or SuSE* Linux Enterprise Server 9,10 or 11, complete the following steps:
1. Unzip the file ir3_Linux_RWC2_v....tgz.
2. In the unzipped files, read the readme.txt file and follow the instructions closely,
in order to make the installation successful.
3. Run install.sh and follow the instructions that display on the screen.
The three setup options are the same as those shown in step 7 of the Microsoft
Windows* installation instructions.
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9.7
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Support and
Installation on VMWare
This section documents the installation of Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on VMWare
Classic (with console operating system) and on the VMWare ESX 3i operating system.
9.7.1
Installing Intel® RAID Web Console 2 for VMWare
Classic
VMWare does not support any graphics components. In order to install the server
component of Intel® RAID Web Console 2 (Intel® RAID Web Console 2 without popup
and client), run the script file ServerInstall.sh and choose setup type "4". For the
noninteractive (silent) mode, run ./ServerInstall.sh -x.
In order to manage Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on a VMWare system, install Intel®
RAID Web Console 2 Client from a remote system.
9.7.2
Uninstalling Intel® RAID Web Console 2 for VMWare
To uninstall the Server Component of Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on VMWare, use the
Uninstall command in the Program menu or run the script /uninstaller.sh.
Note the following points:
1. An Intel® RAID Web Console 2 upgrade is supported in this release. This release
can be upgraded by future releases.
2. To shut down the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Framework service, run the
following command:
/etc/init.d/vivaldiframeworkd stop
It is recommended that you stop the Monitor service before you stop the Intel®
RAID Web Console 2 Framework service. To stop the Monitor service run the
following command:
/etc/init.d/mrmonitor stop
9.7.3
Installing Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Support on the
VMWare ESX
This section outlines the product requirements needed to support the VMWare ESX
operating system. Classic VMWare includes a Service Console that is derived from the
Linux 2.4 kernel, but with reduced functionality.
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 server part cannot be installed directly in VMWare ESX
3i. Management is performed through Intel® RAID Web Console 2 installed on a remote
machine (Linux/Windows).
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The Linux installer of Intel® RAID Web Console 2 works under console with minimal
changes. Hardware RAID is currently supported in ESX 3.x.
Note: There is a known limitation that virtual drives that are created or deleted will not be
reflected to the kernel. The workaround is to reboot the server or to run esxcfg-rescan
<vmhba#> from COS shell.
The network communication is a key element for a proper setup. Therefore, we
recommend that you install the management on a VM within the ESXi. Follow these steps
to install and configure Intel® RAID Web Console 2 support on the VMWare ESX
operating system:
1. Network Configuration of the ESXi Host:
— Assignment of a ESXi hostname:
Even if it is not relevant for your network, you need a FQDN (Fully Qualified
Domain Name). Example: local.lsi.com to be entered using the local ESXi
console.
— Configuration of a virtual network environment:
i. You can use the already existing Vswitch, which has a VMkernel port already
attached for the communication.
ii. Alternatively, you can build a new Vswitch without a link to the Host network
card.
Which one of the two possibilities to choose depends on your application. It is
recommended to choose between both possibilities at a early stage, because the
creation of a new Vswitch with VMkernel requires a reboot. For those who want to
reach the target as quickly as possible, no change is recommended.
— Configuration of the IP address:
Configure the IP address. The address must be accessible by the VM that will
be installed next.
2. VM Installation:
Install the operating system as usual, including the VMWare guest tools. The
virtual network card should be linked to a Vswitch that has a VMKernel port
attached. For a quick installation, no change is recommended.
3. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Installation:
— Install Intel® RAID Web Console 2 with the option "complete".
4. VM Network Configuration:
— Case 1: Your network contains a DNS server:
Configure a host entry that belongs to your internal zone and make sure that
the FQDN of the ESXi server can be resolved. (Example: local.lsi.com and
192.19.221.186)
— Case 2: Your network does not have a DNS server:
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Edit your file C.\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts and add
another entry:
IP of the ESXi Host
192.19.221.186
FQDN of the ESXi Host
local.lsi.com
5. Final Steps:
Reboot the VM and start the Intel® RAID Web Console 2. The ESXi server should
now appear in the list of the found hosts. You can now log in with the root account
name and password of the ESXi Host.
9.7.3.1
Limitations
The following are the limitations of this installation and configuration:
•
•
•
•
•
9.7.3.2
There is no active event notification, for example, by popup or email.
There is no status information for the controller.
There is no user authentification.
Events are collected as long as Intel® RAID Web Console 2 runs on the Client.
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 responds more slowly.
Differences in Intel® RAID Web Console 2 for VMware ESXi
The following are some of the differences in the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 utility when
you manage a VMWare server.
1. The following limitations apply to the system information exposed through the
application:
— Only the IP address and the Host name display.
— The operating system type and the operating system architecture do not
appear.
— There is no support for the controller health information.
The following are the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 screens affected:
— Initial Intel® RAID Web Console 2 framework (hosts) discovery screen: No
health information or operating system type display.
— Server property page: Only the IP address and the Host name display; the
operating system type and operating system architecture do not display.
2. Authentication support:
Access control is not supported. There is no support for full view or view only
access modes. It is always full view access, and multiple clients can have full view
access at the same time on the same server
3. Event Logging:
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Full functionality support is available for the VMware ESXi operating system, but
it works differently than the normal Intel® RAID Web Console 2 framework mode.
The event logging feature for the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Client connected to a
VMware ESXi system behaves as follows:
— There is no support for retrieving initial logs (the events that occurred before a
client logs in). Only those events that occur after a client logs in appear in the
event logger dialog.
— System log does not display.
— The "Save log" feature is not supported; however, the "Save Log as Text" is
still supported.
— The "View Log" option allows you to view the logs saved in a text file on the
event logger dialog.
— The event descriptions might not be identical to a normal Intel® RAID Web
Console 2 Client because the descriptions come from the firmware through the
provider.
— There is no filtering of events, unlike Monitor Service.
— Refreshing of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 GUI after any updates on the
firmware is slower for a client connected to VMWare ESXi hosts, compared to
one connected to Windows/Linux/Solaris hosts.
4. Remote discovery and heartbeat mechanism:
For networks that do not have DNS configured, the "hosts" file in the machine on
which the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is installed must be edited as follows:
— Add an entry to map the VMWare host's IP address with the hostname. This is
for the discovery to happen correctly. In the absence of this entry, the VMWare
host would be discovered as 0.0.0.0.
— Add an entry to map its own IP address (not the loop back address) with the
Hostname. This is to ensure that the Alert Event Notifications (AENs) are
delivered correctly.
For networks that has DNS configured, the "hosts" file in the machine on which
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is installed must be edited as follows:
— When you do the initial configurations for the VMWare host, provide the
correct DNS server IP address.
— In the hosts file of the machine on which Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is
installed, add an entry to map its own IP address (not the loop back address)
with the Hostname. This is to ensure that the Asynchronous Event
Notifications (AENs) are delivered correctly.
5. The VMWare hosts are discovered only when the Framework service starts on the
host where Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is installed.
6. The VMWare ESX3i does not support the heartbeat mechanism to let Intel® RAID
Web Console 2 know whether VMWare ESX3i is still connected. When the
connection to the remote VMWare ESX3i is lost, Intel® RAID Web Console 2 does
not indicate this. The only option is to rediscover by restarting the Intel® RAID
Web Console 2 framework.
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7. This is supported only on a full installation of Intel® RAID Web Console 2;
standalone, client-only, and server-only modes do not support VMWare ESX3i
management.
8. Supported on following guest operating systems:
— Windows Server 2003* and Windows Server 2008*
— Linux RHEL 4 and 5
9. The following describes the status of components related to VMWare ESX3i:
— Intel® RAID Web Console 2 client GUI is supported.
— There is no support for Monitor Configurator; you cannot configure the
severity of the AENs.
— There is no pop-up service support.
— There is no email and system log support.
— Monitor service support is not available.
10. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, you must create the following symbolic links:
Note: This step is not required for Intel® RAID Web Console 2 version 2.90-02 or
later.
— cd /usr/lib on RHEL 5
— Search for libcrypto, libssl and libsysfs libraries as follows:
ls -lrt libcrypto*, ls -lrt libssl*, ls -lrt libsysfs*
— If the files libcrypto.so.4, libssl.so.4, and libsysfs.so.1 are
missing, manually create sym links as follows:
ln -s libcrypto.so libcrypto.so.4
ln -s libssl.so libssl.so.4
ln -s libsysfs.so libsysfs.so.1
— If the '.so' files are not present in the /usr/lib directory, create a link with
the existing version of the library. For example, if libcrypto.so.6 is present
and libcrypto.so is not, create the link as follows:
ln -s libcrypto.so.6 libcrypto.so.4
9.7.3.3
Running Intel® RAID Web Console 2 on VMWare ESX 3.5i U2
If you are using VMWare ESX 3.5i U2, perform the following steps to make Intel® RAID
Web Console 2 work:
1. Open the maintenance console/shell in ESX3.
a. Press ALT+F1.
A shell without any prompt appears.
b. Type unsupported (all lowercase) and press ENTER.
Typed text is not prompted back.
c. Enter your password when prompted.
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There is no password by default for the shell. If you have set any password
from the "yellow" screen (DCUI), use that password.
You are prompted (#) next.
2. Enable ssh for remote copy.
a. Type the following command.
vi /etc/inetd.conf
b. Search for ssh in the file.
By default, the line that contains ssh has comments.
c. Remove the comment by deleting the symbol # in front of the line.
d. Save the file and exit.
3. Restart the inetd daemon for the changes to take effect.
a. Type the following command to get the pid for inetd:
ps | grep inetd
b. Type the following command to kill the inetd process:
Kill -9 <inetd pid>
c. Type the following command to restart the inetd daemon:
#inetd
4. Type the following command to use scp to copy storelib from a remote machine to
the following path:
/lib dir scp <user@ip:path to
storelib>/libstorelib.so.2.53 /lib/libstorelib.so
5. Restart SFCB and check its status.
a. Type the following command to restart SFCB:
/etc/init.d/sfcbd restart
b. Type the following command to check the status of SFCB:
/etc/init.d/sfcbd status
Note: The updated Storelib library in the /lib directory does not persist across
reboots. Each time you restart the VMWare host, you have to follow this
procedure to replace the Storelib library.
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9.8
Starting the Intel® RAID Web Console 2
Complete the following steps to start the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 (Different
Operating Systems may have slighlty different directories):
9.9
•
Microsoft Windows*: Select Start | All Programs | RAID Web Console 2 |
StartupUI, or double-click the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 icon on the desktop.
•
Red Hat* Enterprise Linux 3 U6: Select Start | System Tools | RAID Web
Console 2 StartupUI.
•
SuSE* Linux Enterprise Service 9 SP1: Select Start | System | More Programs |
RAID Web Console 2 StartupUI.
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 Screens
This section describes the main Intel® RAID Web Console 2 screens. When you start the
Intel® RAID Web Console 2, the Select Server window is displayed.
Note: Depending on the revision of Intel® RAID Web Console 2 software installed, the following
screen may vary slightly.
Figure 86. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Select Server Screen
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Note: To access systems on a different subnet, type in the box in middle-left side of the screen the
IP address of a system in the desired subnet where Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is running
and click Discover Host. If you check the Connect to remote framework box, you can also
access a standalone server running Intel® RAID Web Console 2, if it has a network
connection.
Color Coding: If the circle in the server icon is yellow instead of green, it means that the
system is running in a degraded state (for example, a disk drive used in a virtual drive has
failed). If the circle is red, the storage configuration in the system has failed.
To log in to a system, follow these steps:
1. Double-click the icon of the system from "Remote servers" list that you want to
access.
The Server Login window appears.
Figure 87. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Login Screen
2. Select an access mode from the drop-down menu.
— Select Full Access if you need to view the current system configuration and
change the configuration.
— Select View Only if you only need to view the system configuration.
3. Enter your user name and password and click Login.
If your user name and password are correct for the login mode you have chosen, the
main screen displays.
Note: Intel® RAID Web Console 2 uses the username and password of your server operating
system. In Microsoft Windows*, you can use the username Administrator and appropriate
password to log on to Intel® RAID Web Console 2. In Linux, you can use the username
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root and appropriate password to log on to Intel® RAID Web Console 2. If you do not
know the password, contact the server system administrator to obtain the password.
Figure 88. Intel® RAID Web console 2 dashboard
The information displayed on this Dashboard screen provides an overview of the RAID
ecosystem on the selected server system. Some frequently used functions are listed in the
Dashboard tab, such as Create Virtual Drive and so on.
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Figure 89. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Main Screen
The information on the screen in Figure 89 shows the connected devices such as RAID
controllers, physical devices, battery and so on.
The following subsections describe this screen in more detail.
9.9.1
LDAP Support
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 application supports the discovery of remote Intel®
RAID Web Console 2 servers using LDAP. To enable LDAP support, the Intel® RAID
Web Console 2 servers must be registered with the LDAP server.
Note:
1. LDAP supports only Windows Active Directory LDAP Server Implementation.
2. ESXi servers are not discovered during LDAP discovery.
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To register the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 servers with the LDAP server, define a new
attribute on the machine on which the LDAP server is configured, and give this attribute
the value MSM. This registration enables the discovery of only the Intel® RAID Web
Console 2 servers that have been registered with the LDAP server.
To use LDAP support, follow these steps:
1. Double-click the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 software shortcut icon on your
desktop. The Select Server dialog appears.
2. Select the Use LDAP Login check box, and click Discover Host.
All the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 servers registered with the LDAP server are
displayed in the Remote servers box.
Note: If the Use LDAP Login check box is selected, the IP Address field is disabled.
3. Click on a server link to connect to the LDAP server.
Note: Based on the privileges allotted to you, the Intel® RAID Web Console 2
servers are launched with full access rights or read-only rights.
If you have selected the Do not prompt for credentials when connecting to
LDAP check box (in the LDAP Settings tab in the Configure Host dialog), you are
directly connected to the LDAP server; otherwise, the LDAP Login dialog appears,
as shown in the figure below.
Figure 90. LDAP Login
Follow these steps to enter the LDAP login details:
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1. Enter the IP address of the LDAP server in the LDAP Server IP Address field.
2. Enter the LDAP server's user name and password in the User Name and Password
fields, respectively. An example of a user name can be username@testldap.com.
3. Enter the name of the Domain Controller in the Distinguished Name field. As an
example, the Domain Controller name can be dc= TESTLDAP, dc=com.
Note: The LDAP Server IP Address, User Name, Password, and Distinguished
Name fields are already populated if their corresponding values have been
stored in the LDAP Settings tab in the Configure Host dialog.
4. Perform one of these actions:
— If you want to use the default port number, select the Use Default Port check
box. The default port number, 389, appears in the Port field.
— If you do not want to use the default port number, uncheck the Use Default
Port check box, and enter a port number in the Port field.
5. Select the Remember my Login Details check box if you want to save all the
values entered in this dialog in the LDAP Settings tab in the Configure Host
dialog.
6. Click Login to log in to the LDAP server.
9.9.2
Configuring LDAP Support Settings
To configure settings for LDAP support, follow these steps:
1. Navigate to the Configure Host dialog and click the LDAP Settings tab. The
following fields appear:
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Figure 91. Configure Host LDAP
2. Select the Use LDAP Login as default login mode check box to always connect to
the LDAP server.
3. Select the Do not prompt for credentials when connecting to LDAP check box if
you do not want the LDAP Login dialog to appear when connecting to the LDAP
server.
4. Enter the IP address of the LDAP server in the IP Address field.
5. Enter the port number in the Port field.
6. Enter the name of the Domain Controller in the Distinguished Name field.
7. Enter the user name and password for logging into the LDAP server in the User
Name and Password fields, respectively.
8. Click Save Settings to save all the values entered in the fields in the
msm.properties file.
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9.9.3
Physical/Virtual View Panel
Depending on the tab selected, the left panel displays either the Physical View or the
Virtual View of the system and the devices in it.
Note: The word ‘Virtual’ may be displayed as ‘Logical’ depending on different
versions of the utility.
•
The Physical View shows the hierarchy of physical devices in the system. At the
top of the hierarchy is the system itself. Controllers are installed in the system, and
each controller has one or more ports. Disk drives and other physical devices are
attached to the ports.
•
The Virtual View shows the hierarchy of systems, controllers, virtual drives, and
arrays and disk groups that are defined for the system.
Small icons represent the servers, controllers, and other devices. A red circle to the right
of an icon indicates that the device has failed. For example, this icon indicates that a disk
drive has failed:
A yellow circle to the right of an icon indicates that a device is running in a degraded
state. For example, this icon indicates that a virtual drive is running in a degraded state
due to the failure of a disk drive:
9.9.4
Properties/Operations/Graphical View Panel
Depending on the kind of device selected in the left panel and your login mode (fullaccess or view-only), the right panel has either two or three tabs.
The Properties tab displays information about the selected device.
Note: Depending on different Intel® RAID Web Console 2 versions, Operations and Graphical
tabs may not exist, or only exist in old version utility. The screen displays in following
sections show all these view panels for user reference, in case different versions of Intel®
RAID Web Console 2 is installed on server system.
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Figure 92. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Operations Tab
The Operations tab lists the operations that can be performed on the device selected in the
left panel. This tab is available only when you are logged in to Intel® RAID Web Console
2 in Full-access mode. Options available for controllers include: enabling or silencing the
alarm, flashing the firmware, and so on. Some types of devices, such as arrays, disk
groups, and ports, do not have operations associated with them.
If a physical or virtual drive is selected in the left panel, the Graphical tab is available in
the right panel. In the Graphical View, the device's storage is color coded to show used
capacity, unused capacity, and so on.
Note: This Graphical View feature may or may not be displayed in the utility depending on the
version of the utility..
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Figure 93. Intel® RAID Web Console 2 – Graphical Tab (Optional feature)
9.9.5
Event Log Panel
The lower part of the screen displays the event log entries for the system. New event log
entries display during the session. Each entry has a time and date stamp, an Error Level
that indicates the severity of the event, and a brief description of the event. For
information about the event log entries, see Appendix B: “Events and Messages” on
page 315
9.9.6
Menu Bar/Manage Menu
The File menu includes the Exit option to close the Intel® RAID Web Console 2. It also
includes a Refresh option to update the screen with the latest RAID configuration
information.
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Other options may include: Server option to discover and enter other server system's
RAID configuration; Check Consistency; Initialize to initialize a RAID; Show progress.
9.9.7
Menu Bar/Go To Menu
The Go To menu has sub-menus like Controller, Drive Group, Physical Drive, Virtual
Drive, BBU, and so on.
Each of above sub-menu may have some or all items greyed out, unless controller,
physical, virtual drive, drive group, BBU or other storage object is selected. For example,
the Enable Alarm and Silence Alarm options are available only when a controller is
selected. The options also vary depending on the current state of the selected object. For
example, if an offline physical drive is selected, the Make Drive Online option is
displayed in the menu.
There is a general tip here that, most functions in the Go To menu are equal to rightclicking the storage object selected in Physical or Logical view tab. For example,
selecting Go To | Controller | Create Virtual Drive, is equal to selecting the controller in
Physical (or Logical) tab, right-clicking it and choosing Create Virtual Drive.
9.9.8
File Menu/Log Menu
The Log menu includes options for saving, clearing, and loading the message log.
9.9.9
File Menu/Tool Menu
The Tools menu includes options for configuring alerts.
9.9.10
File Menu/Help Menu
The Help menu provides access to the online help file and Intel® RAID Web Console 2
version information.
9.10
Drive Configuration Tasks
You can use Intel® RAID Web Console 2 to perform the following configuration tasks:
•
•
•
•
•
“Creating a Virtual Drive Using Simple Configuration” on page 169
“Creating a Spanned Disk Group” on page 183
“Creating Hot Spares” on page 184
“Setting Adjustable Task Rates” on page 186
“Adding a Drive to a Virtual Disk” on page 188
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9.10.1
•
•
“Removing a Drive or Changing the RAID Level of a Virtual Disk” on page 191
•
•
•
“Changing Virtual Disk Properties” on page 193
“A Reconstruct operation begins on the virtual disk. You can monitor the progress
of the reconstruction in the Group Show Progress window. Select Manage -> Show
Progress.” on page 193
“Deleting a Virtual Disk” on page 194
“Managing Configurations” on page 195
Create Virtual Drive
Use the Create Virtual Drive to create disk groups and virtual disks. The Create Virtual
Drive can create simple configurations automatically. For more complex configurations,
the Create Virtual Drive allows you to customize the configuration parameters according
to your needs.
The Modify Drive Group allows you to easily change RAID levels, or to expand or reduce
the capacity of existing virtual drives.
Note: Unless you are logged on to a system with Administrator privileges, you cannot create or
modify a storage configuration.
9.11
Creating a Virtual Drive Using Simple
Configuration
Simple configuration is the quickest and easiest way to create a new storage configuration.
When you select simple configuration mode, the system creates the best configuration
possible using the available drives.
Note: You cannot created spanned drives using the simple configuration procedure. To create
spanned drives, use the advanced configuration procedure described in “Creating a
Virtual Drive Using Advanced Configuration” on page 174.
Follow these steps to create a new storage configuration in simple configuration mode:
1. Perform either of the following steps:
— Right click on the controller node in the device tree in the left frame of the
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window and select Create Virtual Drive.
— Select the controller node and select Go To -> Controller -> Create Virtual
Drive in the menu bar, as shown in Figure 94.
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Figure 94. Virtual Drive Creation Menu
The dialog box for the configuration mode (simple or advanced) appears, as shown in
Figure 95.
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Figure 95. Virtual Drive Creation Mode
2. Click Simple and press Next.
The Create Virtual Drive screen appears, as shown in Figure 96.
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Figure 96. Create Virtual Drive Screen
3. Select the RAID level desired for the virtual drive.
When you use simple configuration, the RAID controller supports RAID levels 1,
5, and 6. In addition, it supports independent drives (configured as RAID 0). The
screen text gives a brief description of the RAID level you select. The RAID levels
you can choose depend on the number of drives available. To learn more about
RAID levels, see Chapter-2 “RAID Levels” on page 9
4. Click the box next to Assign a hot spare if you want to assign a hot spare drive to
the virtual drive. Hot spares are drives that are available to replace failed drives
automatically in a redundant virtual drive (RAID 1, RAID 5, or RAID 6).
Note: In the simple configuration procedure, you can assign dedicated hot spares to
a maximum of 16 arrays at one time. This is because the dedicated hot spares
can support only up to 16 drive groups. If you try to create more than 16 drive
groups at one time, dedicated hot spares will not be assigned to drive groups
beyond the first 16.
To create more than 16 drive groups with hot spares, you need at least 35 drives of
the same capacity.
5. Select the number of virtual drives that you want to create.
6. Select the capacity for the virtual drives.
Each virtual drive has the same capacity.
7. Click Next.
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The Create Virtual Drive - Summary window appears, as shown in Figure 97.
This window shows the selections you made for simple configuration.
Figure 97. Create Virtual Drive – Summary Window
8. Click Back to return to the previous screen to change any selections or click Finish
to accept and complete the configuration.
The new storage configuration will be created and initialized.
Note: If you create a large configuration using drives that are in powersave mode, it
could take several minutes to spin up the drives. A progress bar appears as the
drives spin up. If any of the selected unconfigured drives fail to spin up, a box
appears to identify the drive or drives.
After the configuration is completed, a dialog box may or may not notify
(depending on different utility version) you that the virtual drives were created
successfully, as shown in Figure 98. If more drive capacity exists, the dialog box
asks whether you want to create more virtual drives. If no more drive capacity
exists, you are prompted to close the configuration session.
Figure 98. Option to Create Additional Virtual Drives
9. Select Yes or No to indicate whether you want to create additional virtual drives.
If you select Yes, the system takes you to the Create Virtual Drive screen, as shown
in Figure 96. If you select No, the utility asks whether you want to close the wizard,
as shown in Figure 99.
10. If you selected No in step 9, select Yes or No to indicate whether to close the
wizard.
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Figure 99. Option to Close the Configuration Wizard
If you select Yes, the configuration procedure closes. If you select No, the dialog
box closes and you remain on the same page.
9.12
Creating a Virtual Drive Using Advanced
Configuration
The advanced configuration procedure provides an easy way to create a new storage
configuration. Advanced configuration gives you greater flexibility than simple
configuration because you can select the drives and the virtual drive parameters when you
create a virtual drive. In addition, you can use the advanced configuration procedure to
create spanned drive groups.
Follow these steps to create a new storage configuration in the advanced configuration
mode. In this example, we will create a spanned drive group.
1. Perform either of the following steps:
— Right click on the controller node in the device tree in the left frame of the
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window and select Create Virtual Drive
— Select the controller node and select Go To -> Controller -> Create Virtual
Drive in the menu bar, as shown in Figure 100
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Figure 100. Virtual Drive Creation Menu
The dialog box shown in Figure 101 appears.
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Figure 101. Virtual Drive Creation Mode
2. Click Advanced and press Next.
The Create Drive Group Settings screen appears, as shown in Figure 102.
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Figure 102. Create Drive Group Settings Screen
3. Select the following items on the Create Drive Group Settings screen:
a. Select the RAID level desired for the drive group from the drop-down menu.
To make a spanned drive, select RAID 10, RAID 50, or RAID 60 in the RAID
level field.
Drive Group 0 and Span 0 appear in the Drive groups field when you select
RAID 10, 50, or 60.
The RAID controller supports RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60. In addition,
it supports independent drives (configured as RAID 0 and RAID 00). The
screen text gives a brief description of the RAID level you select. RAID levels
you can choose depend on the number of drives available. To learn more about
RAID levels, see Chapter 2, “RAID Levels” on page 9
b. Select unconfigured drives from the list of drives and click Add> to add them
to the drive group.
The selected drives appear under Span 0 below Drive Group 0, as shown in
Figure 103.
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Figure 103. Span 0 of Drive Group 0
c. Click Create Span to create a second span in the drive group.
d. Select unconfigured drives from the list of drives and click Add> to add them
to the drive group.
e. The selected drives appear under Span 1 below Drive Group 0, as shown in
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Figure 104. Span 0 and Span 1 of Drive Group 0
f.
Click Create Drive Group to make a drive group with the spans.
g. Click Next to complete this step.
The Virtual drive settings window appears, as shown in Figure 105. The drive
group and the default virtual drive settings appear. The options to update the
virtual drive or remove the virtual drive are grayed out until you create the
virtual drive.
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Figure 105. Virtual Drive Settings Window
4. Change any virtual drive settings, if desired.
5. Click Create Virtual Drive.
The new virtual drive appears under the drive group, as shown in Figure 106. The
options Update Virtual Drive and Remove Virtual Drive are now available.
Update Virtual Drive allows you to change the virtual drive settings and Remove
Virtual Drive allows you to delete the virtual drive.
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Figure 106. New Virtual Drive 0
6. Click Next.
The Create Virtual Drive - Summary window appears, as shown in Figure 107.
This window shows the selections you made for advanced configuration.
Figure 107. Create Virtual Drive Summary Window
7. Click Back to return to the previous screen to change any selections or click Finish
to accept and complete the configuration.
The new storage configuration will be created and initialized.
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Note: If you create a large configuration using drives that are in powersave mode, it
could take several minutes to spin up the drives. A progress bar appears as the
drives spin up. If any of the selected unconfigured drives fail to spin up, a box
appears to identify the drive or drives.
8. After the configuration is completed, a dialog box may or may not notify
(depending on different utility version) you that the virtual drives were created
successfully, as shown in Figure 108. If more drive capacity exists, the dialog box
asks whether you want to create more virtual drives. If no more drive capacity
exists, you are prompted to close the configuration session.
Figure 108. Option to Create Additional Virtual Drives
9. Select Yes or No to indicate whether you want to create additional virtual drives.
If you select Yes, the system takes you to the Create Virtual Drive screen, as
shown in Figure 96. If you select No, the utility asks whether you want to close the
wizard, as Figure 109.
10. If you selected No in <hyperactive>step 8, select Yes or No to indicate whether you
want to close the wizard.
If you select Yes, the configuration procedure closes. If you select No, the dialog
box closes and you remain on the same page.
Figure 109. Option to Close the Configuration Wizard
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9.13
Creating a Spanned Disk Group
Spanning allows you to configure multiple arrays as a single virtual disk. Spanned arrays
provide additional levels of data redundancy and storage capacity. The Intel® RAID Web
Console 2 supports three types of spanned arrays or disk groups:
•
•
•
•
RAID 00 (multiple RAID 0 arrays or disk groups)
RAID 10 (multiple RAID 1 arrays or disk groups)
RAID 50 (multiple RAID 5 arrays or disk groups)
RAID 60 (multiple RAID 6 arrays or disk groups)
For spanned disk group creation steps, refer to the section “Creating a Virtual Drive Using
Advanced Configuration” on page 174.
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9.14
Creating Hot Spares
Hot spares are disk drives that are available to automatically replace failed drives in a
virtual disk. There are two kinds of hot spares: 1) dedicated hot spares, which are
available to one or more specified arrays or disk groups, and 2) global hot spares, which
are available to any array or disk group defined on the controller.
To create a global hot spare, follow these steps:
1. In the left panel of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window, right-click the icon of
disk drive that is not assigned to a storage configuration. If it is assigned to a
storage configuration, a check mark is displayed on the disk drive icon.
2. In the Menu, click the Go To -> Physical Drive tab and select Assign Global
Hotspare, as shown in Figure 110.
Figure 110. Assign Global Hotspare
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You normally create a dedicated hot spare when you create a new configuration with the
Manual Configuration option. To add a dedicated hot spare to an existing array or disk
group, follow these steps:
1. In the left panel of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window, click the icon of a disk
drive that is not assigned to a storage configuration. If it is assigned to a storage
configuration, a check mark is displayed on the disk drive icon.
2. In the Menu, click the Go To -> Physical Drive tab and select Assign Dedicated
Hotspare, as shown in Figure 111.
Figure 111. Assign Dedicated Hotspare
3. Select the array or disk group to which the hotspare will be dedicated from the list
in the pop-up window.
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Figure 112. Select Hotspare Drive
4. Click OK to create the dedicated hot spare.
9.15
Setting Adjustable Task Rates
To change the Rebuild rate and other task rates for a controller, you must first log onto the
system in All Access mode (versus View-Only mode). Complete the following steps to set
the adjustable task rates:
1. Select a controller icon in the left panel, and select the Physical View tab.
2. In the Menu, select the Go To -> Controller tab and select Set Adjustable Task
Rates.
The task rates appear in a new pop-up window, as shown in Figure 113.
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Figure 113. Set Adjustable Task Rates
3. Enter changes as needed to any of the task rates:
— Rebuild Rate. Enter a number from 0 to 100 to control the rate at which a
rebuild is performed on a disk drive when one is necessary. The higher the
number, the faster the rebuild will occur. However, if a higher number is
selected, the system I/O rate may be slower.
— Patrol Rate. Enter a number from 0 to 100 to control the rate at which patrol
reads are performed. Patrol read is a preventive procedure that monitors
physical disks to find and resolve potential problem that might cause a disk
failure. The higher the number, the faster the patrol read occurs. However, if a
higher number is selected, the system I/O rate may be slower.
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— Background Initialization (BGI) Rate. Enter a number from 0 to 100 to
control the rate at which virtual disks are initialized in the background.
Background initialization makes the virtual disk immediately available for
use, even while the initialization is occurring. The higher the number, the
faster the initialization occurs. However, if a higher number is selected, the
system I/O rate may be slower.
— Check Consistency Rate. Enter a number from 0 to 100 to control the rate at
which a consistency check is done. A consistency check scans the consistency
data on a fault tolerant virtual disk to determine if the data is corrupted. The
higher the number, the faster the consistency check is done. However, if a
higher number is selected, the system I/O rate may be slower.
— Reconstruction Rate. Enter a number from 0 to 100 to control the rate at which
reconstruction of a virtual disk occurs. The higher the number, the faster the
reconstruction will occur. However, if a higher number is selected, the system
I/O rate may be slower.
4. Click OK to accept the new task rates.
5. When the warning message is displayed, click OK to confirm that you want to
change the task rates.
Note: The Controller Go To tab also has options for disabling or silencing the alarm on the
controller. Ordinarily, you should leave the alarm enabled so it can warn you of abnormal
conditions on the controller. If the alarm is malfunctioning, you may need to silence it.
9.16
Adding a Drive to a Virtual Disk
You can use Intel® RAID Web Console 2 to increase the capacity of an existing virtual
disk by adding physical disk drives to it. In order to do this, you must be logged on to the
system in All Access mode.
Warning: Before you change a virtual disk’s capacity, back up the data on the virtual disk.
To increase the capacity of a virtual disk, follow these steps:
1. User Logical View and select a Drive Group icon in the left panel and then select
Go To -> Drive Group -> Modify Drive Group.
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Figure 114. Starting Modify Drive Group
The Modify Drive Group window is displayed, as shown in Figure 115.
Figure 115. Select RAID level to migrate
2. Click Add Drive.
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Note: Depending on current RAID level, the targeted migrated RAID level and the
available Unconfigured Good drive numbers, pop-up window may appear to
allow selection among Add drives, Remove drives, and Migrate RAID level.
The following screen appears:
Figure 116. Selecting Drives to Add
3. In the panel, check the disk drives that you want to add to the virtual disk.
4. When you are finished adding disk drives, click Next. The next screen displays,
which allows you to review the summary and go back if you need to make
corrections as shown in Figure 117.
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Figure 117. Changing RAID Level
5. When everything is acceptable, click Finish to accept the new configuration.
A Reconstruct operation begins on the virtual disk. You can monitor the progress of
the reconstruction in the Group Show Progress window. Select Manage -> Show
Progress.
9.17
Removing a Drive or Changing the RAID
Level of a Virtual Disk
You can use Intel® RAID Web Console 2 to remove a physical disk drive from a virtual
disk. In order to do this, you must be logged on to the system in All Access mode.
Warning: Be sure to back up the data on the virtual disk before you change its capacity.
1. Select a Drive Group icon and start the Modify Drive Group, as described in the
previous section.
2. Click Remove Drive.
Note: Depending on current RAID level, the targeted migrated RAID level and the
available Unconfigured Good drive numbers, pop-up window may appear to
allow selection among Add drives, Remove drives, and Migrate RAID level.
The following screen appears:
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Figure 118. Selecting Drives to Remove
3. In the panel, check the disk drives that you want to remove from the virtual disk.
4. When you are finished removing disk drives, click Next. The next screen displays,
which allows you to review the summary and go back if you need to make
corrections as shown in Figure 119.
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Figure 119. Changing RAID Level
5. When everything is acceptable, click Finish to accept the new configuration.
A Reconstruct operation begins on the virtual disk. You can monitor the progress of
the reconstruction in the Group Show Progress window. Select Manage -> Show
Progress.
9.18
Changing Virtual Disk Properties
You can change a virtual disk’s Read Policy, Write Policy, and other properties after the
disk is created. To do this, follow these steps:
1. Select a virtual disk (or drive) icon in the left panel and then select Go To ->
Virtual Drive -> Set Virtual Drive Properties. Alternatively, click the Properties
panel and then click Set Virtual Disk Properties. Figure 120 shows the Set Virtual
Disk Properties screen.
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Figure 120. Set Virtual Disk Properties
2. As needed, change the properties in the pop-up window.
3. Click OK to accept the changes.
9.19
Deleting a Virtual Disk
Warning: Before you delete a virtual disk, back up the data on it.
You can delete one or more virtual disks. Before you can do this, you must be logged on to
the system in All Access mode. To delete a virtual disk, follow these steps:
1. Back up all user data on the virtual disk you intend to delete.
2. In the left panel, select the Virtual (or Logical) tab and click the icon of the virtual
disk (or drive) you want to delete.
3. In the menu, select the Go To -> Virtual Drive and click Delete Virtual Drive.
4. When the warning message displays, click Yes to confirm that you want to delete
the virtual disk.
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9.20
Managing Configurations
You can use Intel® RAID Web Console 2 to manage the configurations that you create.
For example, you can save a storage configuration that you have defined on a controller
and load this configuration from the disk to another controller, after first clearing the
existing configuration from that controller. In order to do this, you must be logged on to
the system in All Access mode. This section explains how to do these tasks.
9.20.1
Saving a Configuration to Disk
You can save an existing controller configuration to a file so you can apply it to another
controller. To save a configuration file, follow these steps:
1. Select a controller icon in the left panel of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window.
2. Select Go To -> Controller -> Save Configuration.
Figure 121. Save Configuration to File
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The Save dialog box displays as shown in Figure 122.
Figure 122. Save Configuration Dialog Box
3. In the dialog box, type a name for the configuration file.
4. Click Save to save the configuration file, or accept the default name: hostname.cfg
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9.20.2
Clearing a Configuration from a Controller
If you want to manually create a new storage configuration on a controller, or load a
configuration file on a controller, you must first clear the existing configuration.
Warning: Before you clear a configuration, make sure to save any data you want to keep! Clearing a
configuration deletes all data from the disks in the existing configuration.
To clear a configuration from a controller, follow these steps:
1. Select a controller icon in the left panel of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window.
2. Select Go To -> Controller -> Clear Configuration.
Figure 123. Clear Configuration
A Warning message displays.
3. Click Yes to clear the configuration or No to cancel the operation.
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9.20.3
Adding a Configuration from a File
When you replace a controller or when you want to duplicate an existing storage
configuration on a new controller, you can add a saved configuration to the controller.
Warning: When you add a saved configuration to a replacement controller, make sure that the
number and size of the physical disks connected to the controller is exactly the same as it
was when the configuration was saved.
To add a saved configuration, follow these steps:
1. Select a controller icon in the left panel of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window.
2. Select Go To -> Controller -> Load Configuration.
Figure 124. Add Saved Configuration
A Warning message displays.
3. Click Yes.
4. When the Open dialog box is displayed, select the configuration file and click
Open.
5. View the configuration detail, then select Apply.
6. When prompted, confirm the new configuration.
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9.21
Monitoring System Events and Devices
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 enables you to monitor the status of disk drives, virtual
disks, enclosures, and other devices. You can monitor the following:
9.21.1
•
•
•
•
•
•
Monitoring System Events
•
Monitoring Rebuilds and Other Processes
Monitoring Controllers
Monitoring Disk Drives and Other Physical Devices
Monitoring Virtual Disks
Monitoring Enclosures
Another method to use the BBU operations is to right-click the BBU icon to open
the operations menu and select Start Learn Cycle.
Monitoring System Events
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 monitors the activity and performance of all controllers in
the system and the devices attached to them. When an “event” occurs—such as the
completion of a consistency check or the removal of a physical drive—an event message
displays in the log at the bottom of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 screen, as shown in
Figure 125. These event messages also display in the Microsoft Windows* application log
(the Event Viewer).
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Figure 125. Event Information Window
Each event in the log includes an error level—Information, Warning, Critical, Fatal, or
Dead—a date/time stamp, and a brief description. (For a list of all events, see Appendix B:
“Events and Messages” on page 315) The status bar at the bottom of the screen indicates
whether the log is a system log (as in Figure 125) or a log from a locally stored file. (This
file could have been generated by a previous “Save Log” action.)
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When a system log displays, the Log menu has four options:
•
•
•
Save Log: Saves the current log to a .log file.
•
Load: Enables you to load a local .log file.
Save as Text: Saves the current text to a .txt file.
Clear: Clears the current log information, if you have full access (versus View-only
access).
When a local log is displayed, the status bar lists the name of the local log file, and the
Log menu has an additional option, Rollback to Current Log, which enables you to
retrieve the system log.
9.21.2
Monitoring Controllers
When Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is running, you can see the status of all controllers in
the left panel. If the controller is operating normally, the controller icon looks like this:
. If the controller has failed, a small red circle is displayed to the right of the icon.
To display complete controller Information, click on a controller icon in the left panel.
Figure 126 shows the Controller Information window on the right panel.
Figure 126. Controller Information
Note the following:
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9.21.3
•
The Rebuild rate, Patrol read rate, Reconstruction rate, Consistency check rate,
and BGI rate (background initialization) are all user-selectable. For more
information, see “Setting Adjustable Task Rates” on page 186.
•
•
The BBU Present field indicates whether a battery backup unit is installed.
The Alarm Present and Alarm Enabled fields indicate whether the controller has an
alarm to alert the user with an audible tone when there is an error or problem on the
controller. There are options on the controller Properties tab for silencing or
disabling the alarm. For more information, see “Setting Adjustable Task Rates” on
page 186.
Monitoring Disk Drives and Other Physical Devices
When the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is running, you can see the status of all physical
disk drives and other physical devices in the left panel. If the physical drive is operating
normally, the controller icon looks like this:
. If the physical drive has failed, a small
red circle is displayed to the right of the icon.
To display complete physical drive Information, click on a physical drive icon in the left
panel. Figure 127 shows the Properties panel for a physical drive.
Figure 127. Physical Drive Information
There are no user-selectable properties for physical devices. Icons for other physical
devices such as CD-ROM drives and DAT drives may also display in the left panel.
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If the physical drives are in a disk enclosure, you can identify which physical drive is
represented by a disk icon on the left. To do this, follow these steps:
1. Click the physical disk icon in the left panel.
2. Click the Go To -> Physical Drive tab.
3. Click Start Locating Drive (see Figure 128).
Figure 128. Locating a Physical Drive
The LED on the physical disk drive in the enclosure starts blinking to show its
location.
Note: LEDs on global or dedicated hot-spare drives do not blink.
4. To stop the disk drive light from blinking, click Stop Locating Drive.
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9.21.3.1
Running a Patrol Read
A Patrol Read periodically verifies all sectors of physical disks that are connected to a
controller, including the system reserved area in the RAID configured drives. Patrol Read
works for all RAID levels and for all hot-spare drives. A patrol read is initiated only when
the controller is idle for a defined period and has no other background activities.
To enable and configure Patrol Read, follow these steps:
1. Click a controller icon in the left panel.
2. Select the Go To -> Controller tab and click Set Patrol Read Properties to
display a pop-up window, as shown in Figure 129.
Figure 129. Patrol Read Configuration
3. Select an Operation Mode for patrol read. The options are:
— Automatic: Patrol Read runs automatically at the time interval you specify on
this screen.
— Manual: Patrol Read runs only when you manually start it by selecting Start
Patrol Read from the controller options screen (see Figure 129).
— Disabled: Patrol Read does not run at all.
4. (Optional) Specify a maximum count of physical drives to include in the patrol
read. The default number is 255; if you want, you can specify a lower number.
5. (Optional) Select virtual disks on this controller to exclude from the Patrol Read.
The existing virtual disks are listed in the gray box. To exclude a virtual disk, select
the check box next to it.
6. Enter the Interval at which the Patrol Read will run.
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7. If Run Patrol Read non-stop check box is selected, Patrol Read will run
continuously.
8. Click OK to enable these Patrol Read options.
9.21.4
Monitoring Virtual Disks
When the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is running, you can see the status of all virtual
disks. If a virtual disk is operating normally, the icon looks like this:
. If the virtual
disk is running in degraded mode—for example, if a physical disk has failed—a small
yellow circle is displayed to the right of the icon, which looks like this:
.
When the Virtual tab is selected, the panel on the left shows which physical disks are used
by each virtual disk. In Figure 130 you can see that the virtual disk uses physical disks 1,
2, and 3. Multiple virtual disks can use the same physical disk.
To display complete virtual disk information, click the Virtual tab in the left panel, click
on a virtual disk icon in the left panel. Figure 130 shows the Properties tab for a virtual
disk in the right panel.
Figure 130. Virtual Drive Properties
The RAID level, stripe size, and access policy of the virtual disk are set when it is
configured.
Note: You can change the Read Policy, Write Policy, and other virtual disk properties by
selecting Go To -> Virtual Drive -> Set Virtual Drive Properties.
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9.21.5
Monitoring Enclosures
When the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 is running, you can see the status of all enclosures
that are operating normally. Information about the enclosure is displayed in the right
panel. Figure 131 shows it.
Figure 131. Enclosure Information
The display in the Dashboard tab also includes enclosure information in the Properties
part.
9.21.6
Monitoring Battery Backup Units
When Intel® RAID Web Console 2 software is running, you can monitor the status of all
of the BBUs connected to controllers in the server. If a BBU is operating normally, the
icon looks like this:
. If it has failed, a red dot appears next to the icon.
To show the properties for a BBU, perform the following steps:
1. Click the Physical tab on the main menu to open the physical view.
2. Select the BBU icon in the left panel.
The BBU properties, such as the battery type, temperature, and voltage, appear in
the right panel, as shown in Figure 132.
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Figure 132. Battery Backup Unit Information
The BBU properties include the following:
9.21.7
•
•
The number of times the BBU has been recharged (Cycle Count)
•
•
The current BBU temperature, voltage, current, and remaining capacity
The full capacity of the BBU, plus the percentage of its current state of charge, and
the estimated time until it will be depleted
If the battery is charging, the estimated time until it is fully charged
Battery Learn Cycle
Learn Cycle is a battery calibration operation performed by the controller periodically to
determine the condition of the battery. You can start battery learn cycles manually or
automatically. To choose automatic battery learn cycles, enable automatic learn cycles. To
choose manual battery learn cycles, disable automatic learn cycles.
If you enable automatic learn cyles, you can delay the start of the learn cycles for up to
168 hours (7 days). If you disable automatic learn cycles, you can start the learn cycles
manually, and you can choose to receive a reminder to start a manual learn cycle.
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9.21.7.1
Setting Learn Cycle Properties
To set the learn cycle properties, perform the following steps:
1. Click the Physical tab to open the physical view.
2. Select the BBU icon in the left panel.
3. Click the Go To -> BBU tab.
The BBU operations appear, as shown in Figure 133 (Depending on different utility
version, the BBU operation also may appear in a new pop-up window).
Figure 133. Battery Backup Unit Operations
4. Select Set Learn Cycle Properties.
The options appear in the right frame.
5. To enable automatic learn cycles, click Enable automatic learn cycles and click
Go.
You can delay the start of the next learn cycle by up to 7 days (168 hours) using the
Delay next learn cycle field.
6. To disable automatic learn cycles, click Disable automatic learn cycles and click
Go.
You can start the learn cycles manually. In addition, you can check the box next to
the field Remind me when to start a learn cycle to receive a reminder to start a
manual learn cycle.
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9.21.7.2
Starting a Learn Cycle Manually
To start the learn cycle properties manually, perform the following steps:
1. Click the Physical tab to open the physical view.
2. Select the BBU icon in the left panel.
3. Click the Go To -> BBU tab.
The BBU operations appear, as shown in Figure 133 (Depending on different utility
version, the BBU operation also may appear in a new pop-up window).
4. Click Start Learn Cycle and click OK.
Another method to use the BBU operations is to right-click the BBU icon to open
the operations menu and select Start Learn Cycle.
9.21.8
Monitoring Rebuilds and Other Processes
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 allows you to monitor the progress of rebuilds and other
lengthy processes in the Group Show Progress window, shown in Figure 134. You open
this window by selecting Manage -> Show Progress.
Figure 134. Group Show Progress Window
Operations on virtual disks appear in the left panel of the window, and operations on
physical drives appear in the right panel. The types of operations that appear in this
window are as follows:
•
•
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Initialization of a virtual disk (see “Initializing a Virtual Disk” on page 211).
Rebuild (see “Rebuilding a Drive” on page 214).
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•
Reconstruction (see “Adding a Drive to a Virtual Disk” on page 188).
Consistency check (see “Running a Consistency Check” on page 212).
Note: A Reconstruction process cannot be aborted. To abort any other ongoing process, click
Abort next to the status indicator. Click Abort All to abort all ongoing processes. Click
Close to close the window.
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9.22
Maintaining and Managing Storage
Configurations
This section explains how to use Intel® RAID Web Console 2 to maintain and manage
storage configurations. You must log on to the system in Full Access mode to complete
these maintenance and management tasks. This following maintenance and management
functions can be done:
•
•
•
•
•
9.22.1
Initializing a Virtual Disk
Running a Consistency Check
Rebuilding a Drive
Removing a Drive
Flashing the Firmware
Initializing a Virtual Disk
When you create a new virtual disk with the Configuration Wizard, you can choose to
initialize the disk initialized immediately. To initialize a virtual disk after the
configuration process, follow these steps:
1. Select the Virtual tab in the left panel, and click the icon of the virtual disk to
initialize.
2. Select Manage -> Initialize.
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Figure 135. Selecting Initialize
The Group Initialize dialog box is displayed.
3. Select the virtual disk(s) to initialize. If you want to use this option, select Fast
Initialization.
Fast Initialization quickly formats the virtual disk by writing zeros to the first few
sectors of the physical disks in the virtual disk. Depending on the number and size
of the physical disks in the virtual disk, regular initialization takes longer.
4. Click Start to begin the initialization.
If needed, you can monitor the progress of the initialization. See “Monitoring
Rebuilds and Other Processes” on page 209 for more information.
9.22.2
Running a Consistency Check
You should periodically run a consistency check on fault-tolerant virtual disks. A
consistency check scans the virtual disk to determine whether consistency data is
corrupted and needs to be restored. It is especially important to do this if you suspect that
the virtual disk consistency data is corrupted.
To run a consistency check, follow these steps:
1. Select Manage -> Check Consistency.
The Group Consistency Check window is displayed, as shown in Figure 136.
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Figure 136. Group Consistency Check Window
2. Select the virtual disks you want to check, or click Select All to select all disks.
3. Click Start to begin.
You can monitor the progress of the consistency check. For more information, see
“Monitoring Rebuilds and Other Processes” on page 209.
Note: You can also run a consistency check by selecting the virtual disk icon in the left panel and
right-click the option Start Consistency Check.
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9.22.3
Scanning for New Drives
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 normally detects newly installed disk drives and other
storage devices and displays icons for them on the main screen. If the Intel® RAID Web
Console 2 does not detect a new drive, you can use the Scan for Foreign Configuration
option to find it. To do this, follow these steps:
1. Select a controller icon in the left panel.
2. Select Go To -> Controller -> Scan Foreign Configuration.
Figure 137. Scan for Foreign Configuration
If the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 detects any new disk drives, it displays a list of
them on the screen.
9.22.4
Rebuilding a Drive
If a single drive in a fault tolerant system fails, the system is protected from data loss by
the parity data (in RAID 5, RAID 50, or RAID 60) or by data redundancy (RAID 1, RAID
10). You must replace the failed drive and rebuild the drive’s data on a new drive to
restore the system to fault tolerance. (Or, if the drive is still operational, you can rebuild
the data on the failed drive.) If dedicated or global hot-spare disks are available, the failed
drive is rebuilt automatically without any user intervention.
If a drive has failed, a red circle is displayed to the right of the disk drive icon:
.
A small yellow circle is displayed to the right of the icon of the virtual disk that uses this
physical disk:
. This indicates that the virtual disk is in a degraded state, but the data
is still intact.
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If you need to rebuild a physical drive, follow these steps:
1. Right click the icon of the failed drive and select Rebuild.
2. When the warning message displays, click Yes. If the drive is still good, a rebuild
starts.
You can monitor the progress of the rebuild in the Group Show Progress window by
selecting Go To -> Show Progress. If the drive cannot be rebuilt, an error message
is displayed, and you must replace the drive before a rebuild can occur. Continue
with the next step.
3. Click the icon of the failed drive in the left panel.
4. Right-click and select Prepare for Removal.
Figure 138. Preparing Drive for Removal
5. Physically remove the failed drive and replace it with a new drive of equal or
greater capacity.
When the new drive spins up, the drive icon changes to green, and the rebuild
begins automatically. You can monitor the progress of the rebuild in the Group
Show Progress window by selecting Manage -> Show Progress.
Note: If you want to force a disk drive into Fail status to trigger a rebuild, right-click the drive
icon and select Make Drive Offline.
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9.22.5
Removing a Drive
You may sometimes need to remove a non-failed drive that is connected to the controller.
For example, you may need to replace the drive with a larger drive. Follow these steps to
remove a drive safely:
1. Click the icon of the drive in the left panel and right-click it.
2. Select Make Drive Offline.
3. Right-click again and select Mark Drive as Missing.
4. Right-click again and select Prepare for Removal. This will change drive status to
Ready to Remove
5. If you change your mind, right-click it and select Undo Prepare for Removal.
Otherwise, wait until the drive spins down and then remove it.
Warning: While the system is powered off, never replace a drive that has not failed (and is not
marked by the controller as failed). A drive must always be failed before it is replaced in
an array.
9.22.6
Flashing the Firmware
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 enables you to easily upgrade the controller firmware.
To flash the controller firmware, follow these steps:
1. In the left panel, click on the icon of the controller you need to upgrade.
2. Right-click it and select Update Controller Firmware.
3. Browse for the .rom flash update file and click OK.
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 displays the version of the existing firmware and
the version of the new firmware file.
4. When you are prompted to ask if you want to upgrade the firmware, click Yes.
The controller is updated with the new firmware code contained in the .rom file.
9.23
Enabling RAID Premium Features
9.23.1
Enabling Full Disk Encryption feature
This feature is supported by Intel® RAID controller with Intel® RAID Premium Feature
Key AXXRPFKDE or AXXRPFKDE2 installed. This feature also requires that SelfEncrypting Drives (SEDs) are connected to the RAID controller. Refer to Intel® RAID
Premium Feature Key AXXRPFKSSD, AXXRPFKDE, and AXXRPFKSNSH Installation
Guide (E88588-00x), or Intel® RAID Premium Feature Keys AXXRPFKSSD2,
AXXRPFKDE2, and AXXRPFKSNSH2 Installation Guide (G29824-00x) for physical
installation of the Premium Feature Key.
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This feature enables authentication key management for data security protection for Self
Encrypting Drives (SED), auto-lock, and instant erase of self-encrypting drives.
•
It transparently auto-locks Volumes; Volumes are automatically locked when
powered down.
•
It provides secure data when a drive is misplaced, failed, experiencing drive theft,
experiencing Server theft “Smash and Grab”.
•
It provides Instant Secure Erase: Before returning leased Drives; Before
redeploying with the datacenter.
•
It helps reduce risk of data being compromised when drives eventually leave the
data center.
•
•
It significantly reduces the cost and time of repurposing or retiring drives.
It is 100% transparent to storage systems and end users; appears the same as
traditional non-encrypting drives; operates at full drive speed - No impact to
performance; automatically encrypts or decrypts all data.
The following steps describe the steps to use Full Disk Encryption feature:
•
•
•
Enable this feature within the Intel® RAID Web Console 2.
Build a logical volume containing Self-Encrypting Disks.
Specify that the volume be secured.
Detailed steps are as follows:
1. Select the RAID controller and choose Physical tab in the left panel of Intel®
RAID Web Console 2. Check Drive Security Properties in the right panel to see
whether the RAID controller is Drive Security capable.
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Figure 139. Check Controller Security status
2. Select the physical drive and choose Physical tab in the left panel of Intel® RAID
Web Console 2. Check Drive Security Properties in the right panel to see whether
the RAID controller is Full Disk Encryption capable.
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Figure 140. Check Drive Security status
3. Right-click on the controller and select Enable Drive Security.
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Figure 141. Enable Drive Security
4. In the Security Wizard, click Next.
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Figure 142. Start Security Wizard
5. Create the required Security key Identifier. Use the default suggestion, or create
your own, then click Next.
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Figure 143. Enter Security Key Identifier
6. Create the required Security key. Use the default suggestion, or create your own,
then click Next.
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Figure 144. Enter Security Key
7. Create an optional Pass Phrase for additional security, then click Next.
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Figure 145. Enter Pass Phrase
8. Accept the confirmation to complete the wizard and enable drive security, then
click Finish.
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Figure 146. Confirm Enable Drive Security
9. Controller properties now indicate Drive security enabled is Yes.
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Figure 147. Check Drive Security Enabled status
10. Select Unconfigured Good drives and select Drive security method, here FDE to
create the virtual drive.
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Figure 148. Select Full Disk Encryption
11. Follow same steps for creating a RAID virtual drive. After a virtual drive is created,
Selecting this virtual drive in left panel shows its secured status and Drive security
method status in the Drive Security Properties part in the right panel. Log
information at the bottom of the window also indicates the virtual drive security
status. Full Disk Encryption feature has now been enabled.
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Figure 149. Create RAID Virtual Drive with FDE enabled
12. (Optional) For Self-Encrypting Drives (SEDs) that need to have their data
permanently erased for security reason, follow normal steps to delete the secured
RAID virtual drive, and mark all SEDs as Unconfigured Good physical drives.
Then select one SED, right-click it and select Instant Erase.
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Figure 150. Instant Secure Erase
13. Accept confirmation to permanently erase disk drive.
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Figure 151. Confirm Secure Erase
9.23.2
Enabling Snapshot feature
This feature is supported by Intel® RAID RAID controller with Intel® RAID Premium
Feature Key AXXRPFKSNSH or AXXRPFKSNSH2 installed. Refer to Intel® RAID
Premium Feature Key AXXRPFKSSD, AXXRPFKDE, and AXXRPFKSNSH Installation
Guide (E88588-00x), or Intel® RAID Premium Feature Keys AXXRPFKSSD2,
AXXRPFKDE2, and AXXRPFKSNSH2 Installation Guide (G29824-00x) for physical
installation of the Premium Feature Key.
The MegaRAID Recovery feature, also known as Snapshot, offers a simplified way to
recover data and provides automatic protection for the boot volume. You can use
MegaRAID Recovery to take a snapshot of a volume and to restore a volume or file.
Snapshot functionality allows users to capture data changes to the volume. If data is
deleted accidentally or maliciously, you can restore the data from view or roll back to a
snapshot at a previous Point in Time (PiT).
You can make up to 8 snapshots of Point in Times for each volume.
You can either restore files or roll back applications to a previous point in time.
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Recovers lost data from disk in minutes, minimizing the downtime experienced by users
and eliminating the lengthy process of restoring data from tape.
Allows isolation of a server’s boot volume to a separate virtual drive; by enabling the
Auto Snapshot feature, users are guaranteed that bootable snapshots exist, in case
corruption of operating system occurs.
Note: MegaRAID Recovery Snapshots are not a substitute for a tested backup
strategy. When Recovery Snapshot is enabled, changes to the selected volume
are tracked. When a roll back to a snapshot at a previous Point in Time (PiT)
is done, you are “undoing” changes to the volume that caused corruption or a
file deletion. The first snapshot does not create a full volume backup.
Recovery Snapshot is equivalent to Microsoft* System Restore with additional
features and capabilities.
Detailed Configuration steps are as follows:
1. Select the Logical view. Select and highlight a virtual drive from the list of virtual
drives (If required, initialize, allocate and format the virtual drive).
2. Select Go To -> Virtual Drive -> Enable MegaRAID Recovery on the menu bar.
Figure 152. Enable MegaRAID Recovery
3. On the Enable MegaRAID Recovery Wizard screen, select the virtual drive to use
as the Snapshot Repository in the Snapshot Repository field. (You can leave the
suggested virtual drive as the Snapshot Repository.)
4. Enter the capacity to use in the Snapshot Repository for changes to the base virtual
drive. The available capacity is the largest free block of capacity on the snapshot
repository virtual drive.
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Figure 153. Enter the Capacity for Snapshot Respository
5. Choose whether to have a snapshot taken on reboot. To enable this option, check
the box next to the Take snapshot on reboot field. If you select this option, a
snapshot is taken on boot after every successful shutdown. You can use this
snapshot of the boot virtual drive to restore the operating system on the virtual drive
in case the virtual drive becomes corrupted.
Caution: Before you select this option, make sure that you backup all data to the
virtual drive. If there is any existing data on this virtual drive, it will be lost
after converting to the Snapshot repository.
6. Click OK.
7. A confirmation dialog box appears. Check the box next to the Confirm field to
enable snapshots on the selected virtual drive and then click Yes.
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Figure 154. Confirm Enable Snapshot
8. This virtual drive becomes a snapshot repository. Use it only for storing snapshotrelated data.
Caution: After you enable snapshots on this virtual drive, you cannot change the
allocated percentage of capacity or the snapshot repository without first
disabling snapshots and losing any snapshot data.
Note: With the current generation of the MegaRAID Recovery product there is no
guidance on the size of the repository other than saying that it is completely
dependent on the amount of data being written and the frequency of snapshots
being taken. This is different in every application. Currently a customer will
have to use empirical data on the behavior of their application to estimate
this. If the repository runs out of space they will have to delete the oldest
snapshot. Then at some time when it is appropriate they will have to disable
the feature and re-enable it, re-sizing the repository.
The existing snapshots are lost when the feature is disabled. Repository
virtual drives will be lost if you disable snapshots.
In future development, users will be able to grow the size of the repository
dynamically, without losing snapshots.
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Figure 155. Snapshot Base is shown
9. Following steps create Snapshots and Views, based on above configurations for
Snapshot Base and Snapshot Repository.
Note: You can create up to eight snapshots of a volume. snapshots are showed in
chronological order from the oldest to the newest. Each snapshot is a PiT
snapshot of the virtual drive that is the Snapshot Base.
The snapshots appear on the timeline from the oldest on the left to the newest
on the right. If you create the maximum number of snapshots allowed, eight,
the Create Snapshot button is disabled. You cannot create an additional
snapshot unless you delete a snapshot.
After you create the snapshots, you can create views of the PiT snapshots. You
can search the views to find a snapshot that does not contain corrupt data or a
snapshot that contains deleted data, depending on the situation. You can
reboot and roll back to that snapshot to restore the data.
10. Click the Logical view on the main menu screen. Click the Snapshot Base virtual
drive in the left frame. Click the Snapshots tab in the right frame.
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Figure 156. Enter Snapshot Name
11. Enter the snapshot name in the Enter snapshot name field. Click Create
Snapshot.
12. Repeat above step so that additional snapshots can be created. The snapshot you
create appears in the snapshot timeline. The oldest snapshot is on the left end of the
timeline.
Figure 157. Create Snapshot
13. (Assuming you experience a file deletion or corruption, following steps create
MegaRAID Recovery Views based on snapshots created previously, and can roll
back snapshots.) Click the Logical view on the main menu screen. Click the
Snapshot Base virtual drive in the left frame. Click the Snapshots tab in the right
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frame (This screen shows the Snapshot Base details and any existing snapshots).
Click Create View.
Figure 158. Create View
14. Enter the name of the view in the Enter View name field and the capacity to set
aside in the snapshot. Click OK.
Note: The “View name” can be found in the snapshots screen view in the View
Details information box after a snapshot has been created
15. Enter into “My computer”, and then you can see a new drive.
16. Copy the files in the new drive to the original drive and cover them. Now the
system rolls back to the selected PiT.
17. Following steps delete and clear snapshots.
Note: When deleting single snapshots, you can only delete the oldest snapshot.
18. Follow these steps to delete a single snapshot:
Click the Logical view on the main menu screen; Click the Snapshot Base virtual
drive in the left frame; Click the Snapshots tab in the right frame; Click the oldest
snapshot in the timeline; Click the Delete Snapshot button.
19. Follow these steps to clear (delete) all snapshots:
Click the Logical view on the main menu screen; Click to select the Snapshot Base
virtual drive in the left frame; Click Go To -> Virtual Drive -> Clear Snapshots
on the menu bar (Or right click the Snapshot Base Virtual Drive and click Clear
Snapshots); A confirmation dialog box appears. It warns that any snapshot-related
data that is on the associated Snapshot Repository virtual drives will be lost if you
clear the snapshots; Check the box next to the Confirm field and click Yes and the
snapshots will be cleared.
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20. Follow these steps to Set MegaRAID Recovery Properties:
Click the Logical view on the main menu screen; Click the Snapshot Base virtual
drive in the left frame; Click Go To -> Virtual Drive -> Set MegaRAID Recovery
Properties on the menu bar; Check the box to the properties selections you desire
and click OK.
Figure 159. Set MegaRAID Recovery Properties
21. Follow these steps to Disable MegaRAID Recovery:
Click the Logical view on the main menu screen; Click the Snapshot Base virtual
drive in the left frame; Click Go To -> Virtual Drive -> Disable MegaRAID
Recovery on the menu bar.
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Figure 160. Disable MegaRAID Recovery
22. A confirmation dialog box appears. It warns that any snapshot-related data that is
on the associated Snapshot Repository virtual drives will be lost if you disable
snapshots; Check the box next to the Confirm field and click Yes. The snapshots
are disabled.
Figure 161. Confirm Disable Snapshots
23. After snapshots are successfully created (in step 12, Figure 157), following steps
roll back to a snapshot at a previous Point in Time (PiT).
Note: If the operating system is installed on a Snapshot Base, and snapshots are
created for it and stored in Snapshot Repository, the rolling back steps can
help recover the operating system into a previous status.
24. Reboot the server system and press <Ctrl> + <G> to start the RAID BIOS Console
2 Utility. When you see the following screen, press Start.
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Figure 162. Adapter Selection
25. In the home page, from the Logical View in the right panel, click the Snapshot
Base which has the operating system installed.
Figure 163. Selecting Snapshot Base
26. In the new screen, select Adv Opers (which means Advanced Operations), and
click Go.
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Figure 164. Selecting Advanced Operations
27. In the Advanced Operations screen, select Rollback.
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Figure 165. Selecting Rollback
28. From the drop-down menu, select a previous created snapshot, and then click Go.
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Figure 166. Selecting a snapshot
29. A Confirm Page should appear. Please read carefully the warning message. “You
have chosen to restore a previous snapshot time line. Doing so will rollback to the
snapshot to its state at the date and time you selected. You may lose any changes
you have made subsequent to that date and time. Are you sure you want to restore
snapshot <snapshot name> <date> <time>?”. When confirmed, click Yes.
Figure 167. Confirm Page
30. The screen should go back to the display shown below. Click Home to go back to
home page. Then exit the RAID BIOS Console 2 Utility and reboot the server
system. You should be able to enter the operating system into a selected previous
status.
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Figure 168. Rollback operation is done
9.23.3
Enabling Super Sized Cache
This feature is supported by Intel® RAID Premium Feature Key AXXRPFKSSD or
AXXRPFKSSD2 installed. Refer to Intel® RAID Premium Feature Key AXXRPFKSSD,
AXXRPFKDE, and AXXRPFKSNSH Installation Guide (E88588-00x), or Intel® RAID
Premium Feature Keys AXXRPFKSSD2, AXXRPFKDE2, and AXXRPFKSNSH2
Installation Guide (G29824-00x) for physical installation of the Premium Feature Key.
Super Size Cache (SSC) using Solid State Devices (SSD) as controller cache allows for
very large data sets to be present in that cache to improve overall application performance.
SSC anticipate up to a five times performance improvement in READ-intensive
applications and provide maximum IOPs.
This solution is ideal for cost sensitive server environments, by offering a highperformance upgrade that requires only a small investment in SSD technology. This
solution also reduces the need to invest expensive IT cycles to hand-tune applications
running on hard drive-only disk arrays.
Detailed Configuration steps are as follows:
1. Select the Dashboard view. Click Create super sized cache (SSC) in the Actions
tab; Or right click the RAID Controller and select Create SSCD (Super Sized
Cache Drive).
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Figure 169. Create SSC from Dashboard
2. The Create Super Sized Cache Drive group screen appears. Select the
unconfigured SSD drive. Click Add > -> Create SSC Drive Group -> Next.
Figure 170. Create SSC Drive Group
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3. The Create Super Sized Cache Drive screen appears. Click Create to create a
SSC drive group. Click Next.
Figure 171. Create SSCD name
4. Create Super Sized Cache screen appears. Click Finish to confirm the information
and create the Super Sized Cache Disk (SSCD).
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Figure 172. SSC Summary
5. You can see Super Sized Cache Drive Group in the logical view.
Figure 173. SSCD status shown
6. Following steps delete a Super Sized Cache disk:
Click the Logical view tab on the main menu screen; Click the SSCD virtual drive
in the left frame; Click Go To -> Virtual Drive -> Delete Virtual Drive on the
menu bar.
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Figure 174. Delete SSCD
7. A confirmation dialog box appears. Check the box next to the Confirm field and
click Yes. The SSCD is deleted.
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10
StorCLI
10.1
Overview
The Storage Command Line Tool (StorCLI) is the command line management software
designed for the Intel® RAID Controller product line. The StorCLI is a command line
interface that is designed to be easy to use, consistent, and easy to script. This chapter
provides information on installing and using the StorCLI and explains the various features
of the StorCLI.
Note: The legacy commands are deprecated from this guide.
10.2
Devices Supported by the StorCLI Tool
The StorCLI tool is designed to work with the Intel® RAID Controller product line. The
StorCLI tool supports the following Intel® RAID Controller products.
•
•
•
•
10.3
Intel® RAID Controller RS3MC044
Intel® RAID Controller RS3SC008
Intel® RAID Controller RS3DC080
Intel® RAID Controller RS3DC040
Installation
The Intel® RAID Controllers can be used with the following operating systems for Intel
and AMD 32-bit and 64-bit x86-based motherboards:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2008* R2
Microsoft Windows 7* (32/64 bit)
Red Hat* Enterprise Linux 5.8 (32/64 bit)
Red Hat* Enterprise Linux 6.1
Red Hat* Enterprise Linux 6.2 (32/64 bit)
SUSE* Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2 (32/64 bit)
SUSE* Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4 (32/64 bit)
Fedora Core Linux 15
VMware* ESX 4.0
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VMware* ESX 4.1 U2
VMware* ESXi 4.1 U2
VMware* ESXi 5.0 U1
Solaris*
FreeBSD (32/64 bit)
EFI
Ubuntu*
Note: The LSISAS2208 and LSISAS2108 controllers provide support for Microsoft Windows 8
and Microsoft Windows Server 2012 operating systems.
10.3.1
Installing StorCLI on Microsoft Windows Operating
Systems
The Windows StorCLI binary is provided in a binary format, and no separate installation
is required.
1. Copy the binary file from the CD or from the Intel website.
2. Place the binary file in the directory from which you want to run the Storage
Command Line Tool, and run the tool.
Note: StorCLI must be run with the administrator privileges.
10.3.2
Installing StorCLI on Linux Operating Systems
To install StorCLI on Linux operating systems, perform the following steps:
1. Unzip the StorCLI package.
2. To install the StorCLI RPM, run the rpm -ivh <StorCLI-x.xxx.noarch.rpm> command.
3. To upgrade the StorCLI RPM, run the rpm -Uvh <StorCLI-x.xxx.noarch.rpm> command.
10.3.3
Installing StorCLI on Ubuntu Operating Systems
To install StorCLI on the Ubuntu operating systems, perform the following steps:
Note: Run all the commands using the super user (sudo) login.
1. Run the command sudo dpkg -i storcli_1.0_all.deb for installing the
debian package.
2. Run the command dpkg -l | grep -i storcli for verifying if the debian
package was installed successfully or not.
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3. To uninstall the debian package, run the command sudo dpkg –r storcli.
10.3.4
Installing StorCLI on VMware Operating Systems
To install StorCLI on VMware operating systems, run the following syntax from the
command line:
esxcli software vib install –v=<path-to-vib-package>
Example:
esxcli software vib install v=/vmfs/volumes/datastore1/StorCliMN/vmware-esx-StorCli1.01.04.vib
10.3.5
Installing StorCLI on FreeBSD Operating Systems
The FreeBSD StorCLI binary is provided in a binary format, and no separate installation
is required.
1. Copy the binary file from the CD or from the Intel website.
2. Place the binary file in the directory from which you want to run the Storage
Command Line Tool, and run the tool.
10.3.6
Installing StorCLI on Microsoft EFI
The EFI StorCLI binary is provided in a binary format, and no separate installation is
required.
1. Copy the binary file from the CD or from the Intel website.
2. Place the binary file in the directory from which you want to run the Storage
Command Line Tool, and run the tool.
10.3.7
Installing StorCLI on Solaris Operating Systems
To install StorCLI on Solaris operating systems, run the following command:
pkgadd –d Storcli.pkg
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10.4
StorCLI Command Syntax
This chapter describes the StorCLI command syntax and the valid values for each
parameter in the general command syntax.
Note: To get the output in JSON format, add J at the end of the command syntax.
Example: storcli /cx show <property1>|<property2> J
Note: JSON format output is not supported in the EFI operating system. The EFI platform
ignores the J when it is added at the end of the command syntax.
Note: Background operations are blocked in the EFI and HII environments and these operations
are resumed in the operating system environments.
The StorCLI syntax uses the following general format:
<[object identifier]> <verb> <[adverb | attributes | properties] >
<[key=value]>
The StorCLI tool supports the object identifiers listed in the following table.
Table 17. Object Identifiers in the StorCli Command Syntax
Object Identifier
251
Description
No object identifier
specified
If there is no object identifier, the command is a system command.
/cx
This object identifier is for controller x.
/cx/vx
This object identifier is for a virtual drive x on controller x.
/cx/vall
This object identifier is for all virtual drives on controller x.
/cx/ex
This object identifier is for an enclosure x on controller x.
/cx/eall
This object identifier is for all enclosures on controller x.
/cx/fx
This object identifier is for a foreign configuration x on controller x.
/cx/fall
This object identifier is for all foreign configurations on controller x.
/cx/ex/sx
This object identifier is for the drive is slot x on enclosure x on controller x.
/cx/sx
This object identifier represents the drives that are directly attached to
controller x.
/cx/ex/sall
This object identifier is for all the drives on enclosure x on controller x.
/cx/dx
This object identifier is for the drive group x on enclosure x on controller x.
/cx/dall
This object identifier is for the all drive groups on enclosure x on controller
x.
/cx/px
This object identifier is for a PHY operation x on controller x.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Object Identifier
Description
/cx/pall
This object identifier is for all PHY operations on controller x.
/cx/bbu
This object identifier is for a bbu x on controller x.
/cx/cv
This object identifier is for a cache vault x on controller x.
Note: If enclosures are not used to connect physical drives to the controller, you do not specify
the enclosure ID in the command.
The StorCLI tool supports the following verbs.
Table 18. Verbs in the StorCli Command Syntax
Verb
Description
add
This verb adds virtual drives, JBODs, and so on to the object identifier.
del
This verb deletes a drive, value, or property of the object identifier.
set
This verb sets a value of the object identifier.
show
This verb shows the value and properties of the object identifier.
pause
This verb pauses an ongoing operation.
resume
This verb resumes paused operation.
suspend
This verb suspends an ongoing operation. A suspended operation cannot
be resumed.
compare
This verb compares an input value with a system value.
download
This verb downloads and flashes a file to the target.
start
This verb starts an operation.
flush
This verb flushes a controller cache or a drive cache.
stop
This verb stops an operation that is in progress. A stopped process cannot
be resumed.
import
This verb imports the foreign configuration into the drive.
expand
This verb expands the size of the virtual drive.
insert
This verb replaces the configured drive that is identified as missing, and
starts an automatic rebuild.
flasherase
This verb erases the flash memory on the controller.
transform
This verb downgrades the firmware memory on the controller.
restart
This verb restarts the controller without a system reboot.
apply
This verb applies the activation Key to a WarpDrive.
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•
<[adverb | attributes | properties] > – Specifies what the verb
modifies or displays.
•
10.5
<[key=value]> – Specifies a value, if a value is required by the command.
Working with the Storage Command Line
Tool
This section describes the commands supported by the Storage Command Line Tool.
Note: The Storage Command Line Tool is not case sensitive.
Caution: The order in which you specify the command options must be the same as in the User
Guide; otherwise, the command will fail.
Note: The Storage Command Line Tool does not support the Snapshot feature.
10.5.1
System Commands
10.5.1.1
System Show Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following system show commands:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
show
show all
show ctrlcount
show help
-v
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli show
This command shows a summary of controller and controller-associated information for
the system. The summary includes the number of controllers, the host name, the operating
system information, and the overview of existing configuration.
storcli show all
This command shows the list of controllers and controller-associated information,
information about the drives that need attention, and advanced software options.
storcli show ctrlcount
This command shows the number of controllers detected in the server.
storcli show help
This command shows help for all commands at the server level.
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storcli -v
This command shows the version of the Storage Command Line Tool.
10.5.2
Controller Commands
Controller commands provide information and perform actions related to the specified
controller, such as the /c0 controller. The Storage Command Line Tool supports the
controller commands described in this section.
10.5.2.1
Show and Set Controller Properties Commands
Table 19. Controller Commands Quick Reference Table
Command
Value Range
Description
show <properties>
See Table 20.
Shows specific controller
properties.
set <properties>
See Table 20.
Sets controller properties.
show
all: Shows all properties of
the virtual drive.
Shows physical drive
information.
freespace: Shows the
freespace in the controller.
See “Controller Show
Commands” on page 260.
This section provides command information to show and set controller properties.
Note: You cannot set multiple properties with a single command.
storcli /cx show <property>
This command shows the current value of the specified property on the specified
controller.
General example output:
Status Code = 0
Status = Success
Description = None
Controller: 0
Property_name = Property_value
You can show the following properties using the storcli /cx show
<property1>|<property2> command.
storcli /cx show abortcconerror
storcli /cx show activityforlocate
storcli /cx show alarm
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storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
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/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
backplane
batterywarning
bgirate
bootwithpinnedcache
cachebypass
cacheflushint
ccrate
clusterenable
coercion
consistencycheck|cc
copyback
directpdmapping
dimmerswitch|ds
eccbucketleakrate
eccbucketsize
enableeghsp
enableesmarter
enableeug
exposeencldevice
jbod
loadbalancemode
maintainpdfailhistory
migraterate
ncq
patrolread|pr
perfmode
pi
preventpiimport
prcorrectunconfiguredareas
prrate
rebuildrate
rehostinfo
restorehotspare
safeid
smartpollinterval
spinupdelay
spinupdrivecount
time
usefdeonlyencrypt
badblocks
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storcli /cx set <property> = <value>
General example output:
Status Code = 0
Status = Success
Description = None
Controller 0, new Property_name = Property_value
The following commands are examples of the properties that can be set using the
storcli /cx set <property>=<value> command:
storcli /cx set abortcconerror=<on|off>
storcli /cx set termlog[=on|off|offthisboot]
storcli /cx set activityforlocate=<on|off>
storcli /cx set alarm=<on|off|silence>
storcli /cx set backplane=<value>
storcli /cx set batterywarning=<on|off>
storcli /cx set bgirate=<value>
storcli /cx set bootwithpinnedcache=<on|off>
storcli /cx set cachebypass=<on|off>
storcli /cx set cacheflushinterval=<value>
storcli /cx set ccrate=<value>
storcli /cx set coercion=<value>
storcli /cx set consistencycheck|cc=[off|seq|conc][delay=value]
[starttime=yyyy/mm/dd hh] [excludevd=x-y,z]
storcli /cx set clusterenable=<value>
storcli /cx set copyback=<on|off> type=<smartssd|smarthdd|all>
storcli /cx set directpdmapping=<on|off>
storcli /cx set eccbucketleakrate=<value>
storcli /cx set eccbucketsize=<value>
storcli /cx set enableeghsp=<on|off>
storcli /cx set enableesmarter=<value>
storcli /cx set enableeug=<on|off>
storcli /cx set exposeencldevice=<on|off>
storcli /cx set dimmerswitch|ds=<on|off type=1|2|3|4>
storcli /cx set foreignautoimport=<on|off>
storcli /cx set jbod=<on|off>
storcli /cx set loadbalancemode=<value>
storcli /cx set maintainpdfailhistory=<on|off>
storcli /cx set migraterate=<value>
storcli /cx set ncq=<on|off>
storcli /cx set patrolread|pr {=on mode=<auto|manual>}|{off}
storcli /cx set perfmode=<value>
storcli /cx set pi=<on|off>
storcli /cx set preventpiimport=<on|off>
storcli /cx set prcorrectunconfiguredareas=<on|off>
storcli /cx set prrate=<value>
storcli /cx set rebuildrate=<value>
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storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
restorehotspare=<on|off>
smartpollinterval=<value>
spinupdelay=<value>
spinupdrivecount=<value>
stoponerror=<on|off>
usefdeonlyencrypt=<on|off>
time=yyyymmdd hh:mm:ss|systemtime
usefdeonlyencrypt=<on|off>
The following table lists and describes the properties for the show and set commands.
Table 20. Properties for Show and Set Commands
Property Name
Set Command Range
Description
abortcconerror
on|off
Aborts consistency check when it
detects an inconsistency.
activityforlocate
on|off
Enables/disables drive activity,
drive activity locates function for
systems without SGPIO/SES
capabilities.
alarm
on|off|silence
Enables/disables alarm on critical
errors.
silence: Silences the alarm.
backplane
0: Use autodetect logic of
backplanes, such as SGPIO and
I2C SEP using GPIO pins.
Configures enclosure detection
on a non-SES/expander
backplane.
1: Disable autodetect SGPIO.
2: Disable I2C SEP autodetect.
3: Disable both the autodetects.
batterywarning
on|off
Enables/disables battery
warnings.
bgirate
0 to 100
Sets background initialization rate
in percentage.
cacheflushint
0 to 255, default value 4
Sets cache flush interval in
seconds.
ccrate
0 to 100
Sets consistency check rate in
percentage.
coercion
0: No coercion
Sets drive capacity in coercion
mode.
1: 128 MB
2: 1 GB
consistencycheck
257
See “Consistency Check” on
page 263.
See “Consistency Check” on
page 263.
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Property Name
copyback
Set Command Range
on|off
type =
smartssd|smarthdd|all
Description
Enables/disables copy back for
drive types.
smartssd: Copy back enabled
for SSD drives.
smarthdd: Copy back enabled
for HDD drives.
all: Copy back enabled for both
ssd drives and HDD drives.
Example:
storcli /cx set
copyback=on type=all
directpdmapping
on|off
Enables/disables direct physical
drive mapping. When enclosures
are used, this feature is disabled;
otherwise it should be enabled.
eccbucketleakrate
0 to 65535
Sets leak rate of the single-bit
bucket in minutes (one entry
removed per leak-rate).
eccbucketsize
0 to 255
Sets size of ECC single-bit-error
bucket (logs event when full).
enableeghsp
on|off
Enables/disables the
commissioning of otherwise
incompatible global hot spare
drives as Emergency Hot Spare
(EHSP) drives.
enableesmarter
on|off
Enables/disables the
commissioning of Emergency Hot
Spare (EHSP) drives for
Predictive Failure (PFA) events.
enableeug
on|off
Enables/disables the
commissioning of Unconfigured
Good drives as Emergency Hot
Spare (EHSP) drives.
exposeencldevice
on|off
Enables/disables device drivers
to expose enclosure devices; for
example, expanders, SEPs.
dimmerswitch|ds
See “Dimmer Switch
Commands” on page 293.
See “Dimmer Switch Commands”
on page 293.
foreignautoimport
on|off
Imports foreign configuration
automatically, at boot.
jbod
on|off
Enables/disables JBOD mode; by
default, drives become system
drives. Not supported by all
controllers.
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Property Name
Set Command Range
Description
loadbalancemode
on|off
Enables/disables automatic load
balancing between SAS phys or
ports in a wide port configuration.
maintainpdfailhistory
on|off
Maintains the physical drive fail
history.
migraterate
0 to 100
Sets data migration rate in
percentage.
patrolread|pr
See “Patrol Read” on page 261.
See “Patrol Read” on page 261.
perfmode
0: Tuned to provide best IOPS,
currently applicable to nonFastPath
Performance tuning setting for the
controller.
1: Tuned to provide least
latency, currently applicable to
non-FastPath
pi
on|off
Enables/disables data protection
on the controller.
preventpiimport
on|off
Enables/disables import data
protection drives on the controller.
prcorrectunconfiguredareas
on|off
Correct media errors during PR
by writing 0s to unconfigured
areas of the disk.
prrate
0 to 100
Sets patrol read rate of the virtual
drives in percentage.
rebuildrate
0 to 100
Sets rebuild rate of the drive in
percentage.
reconrate
0 to 100
Sets reconstruction rate for a
drive in percentage.
restorehotspare
on|off
Becomes a hot spare on insertion
of a failed drive.
smartpollinterval
0 to 65535
Set time for polling of SMART
errors in seconds.
spinupdrivecount
0 to 255
Sets number of drives that are
spun up at a time.
spinupdelay
0 to 255
Sets spin-up delay between a
group of drives or a set of drives,
in seconds.
stoponerror
on|off
Stops the Intel® RAID BIOS
during POST, if any errors are
encountered.
time
Valid time in yymmdd
hh:mm:ss format or
systemtime
Sets the controller time to your
input value or the system time
(local time in 24-hour format).
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Property Name
usefdeonlyencrypt
10.5.2.2
Set Command Range
on|off
Description
Enables/disables FDE drivebased encryption.
Controller Show Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following show commands:
storcli /cx show
storcli /cx show all
storcli /cx show freespace
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx show
This command shows the summary of the controller information. The summary includes
basic controller information, foreign configurations, drive groups, virtual drives, physical
drives, enclosures, and BBU information.
Input example:
storcli /c1 show
storcli /cx show all
This command shows all controller information, which includes basic controller
information, bus information, controller status, advanced software options, controller
policies, controller defaults, controller capabilities, scheduled tasks, miscellaneous
properties, foreign configurations, drive groups, virtual drives, physical drives,
enclosures, and BBU information.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show all
Note: The PCI information displayed as a part of storcli /cx show and storcli /cx
show all commands is not applicable for the FreeBSD operating system. Hence, the
PCI information fields are displayed as N/A.
storcli /cx show freespace
This command shows the usable free space in the controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show freespace
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10.5.2.3
Controller Background Tasks Operation Commands
10.5.2.3.1
Rebuild Rate
storcli /cx set rebuildrate=<value>
storcli /cx show rebuildrate
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx set rebuildrate=<value>
This command sets the rebuild task rate of the specified controller. The input value is in
percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set rebuildrate=30
Note: A high rebuild rate slows down I/O processing.
storcli /cx show rebuildrate
This command shows the current rebuild task rate of the specified controller in
percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show rebuildrate
10.5.2.3.2
Patrol Read
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following patrol read commands:
storcli /cx resume patrolread
storcli /cx set patrolread ={{on mode=<auto|manual>}|{off}}
storcli /cx set patrolread [starttime=<yyyy/mm/dd hh>]
[maxconcurrentpd=<value>] [includessds=<on|off>]
[uncfgareas=<on|off>]
storcli /cx set patrolread delay=<value>
storcli /cx show patrolread
storcli /cx start patrolread
storcli /cx stop patrolread
storcli /cx suspend patrolread
Note: A patrol read operation is scheduled for all the physical drives of the controller.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx resume patrolread
This command resumes a suspended patrol read operation.
Input example:
storcli /c0 resume patrolread
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storcli /cx set patrolread {=on mode=<auto|manual>}|{off}
This command turns the patrol read scheduling on and sets the mode of the patrol read to
automatic or manual.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set patrolread=on mode=manual
storcli /cx set patrolread [starttime=<yyyy/mm/dd hh>]
[maxconcurrentpd=<value>] [includessds=<on|off>]
[uncfgareas=on|off]
This command schedules a patrol read operation. You can use the following options for
patrol read command.
Table 21. Set Patrolread Input Options
Option
Value Range
Description
starttime
A valid date and hour in
24-hour format
Sets the start time in
yyyy/mm/dd hh format.
maxconcurrentpd
Valid number of physical
drives present
Sets the number of physical
drives that can be patrol read
at a single time.
includessds
—
Include SSDs in the patrol
read.
uncfgareas
—
Include the areas not
configured in the patrol read.
Note: Controller time is taken as a reference for scheduling a patrol read operation.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set patrolread=on starttime=2012/02/21 00
storcli /cx set patrolread [delay=<value>]
This command delays the scheduled patrol read in hours.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set patrolread delay=30
storcli /cx show patrolRead
This command shows the progress on the current patrol read in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show patrolread
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storcli /cx start patrolread
This command starts the patrol read operation. This command starts a patrol read
immediately.
Input example:
storcli /c0 start patrolread
storcli /cx stop patrolread
This command stops a running patrol read operation.
Input example:
storcli /c0 stop patrolread
Note: You cannot resume a stopped patrol read.
storcli /cx suspend patrolread
This command pauses a running patrol read operation.
Input example:
storcli /c0 suspend patrolread
Note: You can run this command only when a patrol read operation is running on the controller.
10.5.2.3.3
Consistency Check
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to schedule, perform,
and view the status of a consistency check (CC) operation:
storcli /cx set consistencycheck|cc=[off|seq|conc][delay=value]
starttime=yyyy/mm/dd hh [excludevd=x-y,z]
storcli /cx show cc
storcli /cx show ccrate
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx set consistencycheck|cc=[off|seq|conc][delay=value]
starttime=yyyy/mm/dd hh [excludevd=x-y,z]
This command schedules a consistency check (CC) operation. You can use the following
options with the consistency check command.
Table 22. Set CC Input Options
Option
cc
Value Range
seq: Sequential mode.
conc: Concurrent mode.
off: Turns off the
consistency check.
263
Description
Sets CC to either sequential mode, or
concurrent mode, or turns off the CC.
Note:
The concurrent mode slows I/O
processing.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Option
delay
Value Range
-1 and any integer value.
Description
Delays a scheduled consistency check.
The value is in hours. A value of 0
makes the CC runs continuously with no
delay (in a loop).
Note:
Only scheduled consistency
checks can be delayed.
starttime
A valid date and hour in
24-hour format.
Start time of a consistency check is in
yyyy/mm/dd hh format.
excludevd
The range should be less
than the number of virtual
drives.
Excludes virtual drives from the
consistency checks. To exclude
particular virtual drives, you can provide
list of virtual drive names (Vx,Vy …
format) or the range of virtual drives that
you want to exclude from a consistency
check (Vx-Vy format). If this option is not
specified in the command, no virtual
drives are excluded.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set CC=on starttime=2012/02/21 00 excludevd v0-v3
storcli /cx show cc
This command shows the consistency check schedule properties for a controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show cc
storcli /cx show ccrate
This command checks the status of a consistency check operation. The CC rate appears in
percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show ccrate
Note: A high CC rate slows I/O processing.
10.5.2.4
Premium Feature Key Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands for premium feature
keys:
storcli /cx set advancedsoftwareoptions(aso) key=<value> [preview]
storcli /cx aso
[transfertovault][rehostcomplete][deactivatetrialkey]
storcli /cx show safeid
The detailed description for the command follows.
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storcli /cx set advancedsoftwareoptions(aso) key=<value> [preview]
This command activates advanced software options (ASO) for a controller. You can use
the following options with the advanced software options command.
Table 23. Set Advanced Software Options Input Options
Option
Value Range
Description
40 alpha numeric
characters.
Key to activate ASO on the controller.
deactivatetrialkey
—
Deactivates the trial key applied on the
specified controller.
rehostcomplete
—
Enables rehosting on the specified
controller.
transfertovault
—
Transfers the ASO key to the vault and
disables the ASO.
key
Note:
After they are activated, ASOs
cannot be removed from the
controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set Aso key=LSI0000
storcli /cx show safeid
This command shows the Safe ID of the specified controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show safeid
10.5.2.5
Controller Security Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following controller security commands:
storcli /cx show securitykey keyid
storcli /cx compare securitykey=ssssss
storcli /cx delete securitykey
storcli /cx set securitykey keyid=kkkk
storcli /cx set securitykey=sssss [passphrase=sssss][keyid=sssss]
storcli /cx set securitykey=sssss oldsecuritykey=ssss
[passphrase=sssss][keyid=sssss]
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx show securitykey keyid
This command shows the security key on the controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show securityKey keyid
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storcli /cx compare securitykey=ssssss
This command compares and verifies the security key of the controller.
storcli /cx delete securitykey
This command deletes the security key of the controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 delete securitykey
storcli /cx set securitykey keyId=kkkk
This command sets the key ID for the controller. The key ID is unique for every controller.
storcli /cx set securitykey=sssss [passphrase=sssss][keyid=sssss]
This command sets the security key for the controller. You can use the following options
with the set security key command.
Table 24. Set Security Key Input Options
Option
passphrase
Value Range
Should have a combination of
numbers, upper case letters,
lower case letters, and special
characters.
Minimum of 8 characters and
maximum of 32 characters.
keyid
—
Description
String that is linked to the controller
and is used in the next bootup to
encrypt the lock key. If the
passphrase is not set, the controller
generates it by default.
Unique ID set for different controllers
to help you specify a passphrase to a
specific controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set securitykey=Lsi@12345 passphrase=Lsi@123456
keyid=1
storcli /cx set securitykey=sssss oldsecuritykey=ssss
[passphrase=sssss][keyid=sssss]
This command changes the security key for the controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set securitykey=Lsi@12345 oldsecuritykey=pass123
passphrase=Lsi@123456 keyid=1
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10.5.2.6
Flashing Controller Firmware Command
Note: The Flashing Controller Firmware command is not supported in Embedded Intel® RAID.
The following command flash the controller firmware:
storcli /cx download file=filepath [fwtype=<value>] [nosigchk]
[noverchk] [resetnow]
This command flashes the firmware to the specified adapter from the given file location
(filepath is the absolute file path). You can use the following options when you flash the
firmware.
Table 25. Flashing Controller Firmware Input Options
Option
nosigchk
Value Range
—
Description
The application flashes the firmware even if the
check word on the file does not match the required
check word for the controller.
Note:
noverchk
—
The application flashes the controller firmware
without checking the version of the firmware image.
fwtype
0: Application
The firmware type to be downloaded. The application
downloads the firmware for the controller. The TMMC
downloads the firmware for the TMMC battery only.
Default is 0 (application).
1: TMMC
resetnow
10.5.2.7
You can damage the controller if a corrupted
image is flashed using this option.
Invokes online firmware update on the controller; you
do not need to reboot the controller to make the
update effective.
Controller Cache Command
The following command flushes the controller cache:
storcli /cx flush|flushcache
This command flushes the controller cache.
Input example:
storcli /c0 flushcache
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10.5.3
Drive Commands
This section describes the drive commands, which provide information and perform
actions related to physical drives. The following table describes frequently used virtual
drive commands.
Table 26. Physical Drives Commands Quick Reference Table
Command
set
Value Range
missing: Sets the drive status as missing.
Description
Sets physical drive properties.
good: Sets the drive status to unconfigured
good.
offline: Sets the drive status to offline.
online: Sets the drive status to online.
show
all: Shows all properties of the physical
drive.
Shows virtual drive information.
See “Drive Show Commands” on page 268.
10.5.3.1
Drive Show Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following drive show commands:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show
storcli /cx[/eall]/sall show
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx|sall show all
Note: If enclosures are used to connect physical drives to the controller, specify the enclosure ID
in the command. If no enclosures are used, you must specify the controller ID and slot ID.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show
This command shows the summary of the physical drive for a specified slot in the
controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e0/s4,5 show
storcli /cx[/eall]/sall show
This command shows the summary information for all the enclosures and physical drives
connected to the controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0/eall/sall show
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storcli /cx[/ex]/sx|sall show all
This command shows all information of a physical drive for the specified slot in the
controller. If you use the all option, the command shows information for all slots on the
controller. x stands for a number, a list of numbers, a range of numbers, or all numbers.
Input examples:
storcli /c0/e3/s0-3 show all
storcli /c0/e35/sall show all
Note: The storcli /cx/sx show all command shows tape drives information.
10.5.3.2
Missing Drives Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to mark and replace
missing physical drives:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx[/ex]/sx insert dg=A array=B row=C
/cx[/ex]/sx set missing
/cx[/ex]/sx set offline
/cx/dall
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx insert dg=A array=B row=C
This command replaces the configured drive that is identified as missing, and then starts
an automatic rebuild.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s3 insert dg=0 array=2 row=1
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set missing
This command marks a drive as missing.
Input example:
storcli /c0/s4 set missing
storcli /cx/dall
This command is used to find the missing drives.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set offline
This command marks the drive in an array as offline.
Note: To set a drive that is part of an array as missing, first set it as offline. After the drive is set
to offline, you can then set the drive to missing.
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10.5.3.3
Set Drive State Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to set the status of
physical drives:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
set
set
set
set
set
set
jbod
good [force]
offline
online
missing
bootdrive=<on|off>
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set jbod
This command sets the drive state to JBOD.
Input example:
storcli /c1/e56/s3 set jbod
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set good [force]
This command changes the drive state to unconfigured good. If the drive has the operating
system in it, use the force option.
Input example:
storcli /c1/e56/s3 set good
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set offline
This command changes the drive state to offline.
Input example:
storcli /c1/e56/s3 set offline
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set online
This command changes the drive state to online.
Input example:
storcli /c1/e56/s3 set online
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set missing
This command marks a drive as missing.
Input example:
storcli /c1/e56/s3 set missing
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx set bootmode=<on|off>
This command sets or unsets a physical drive as a boot drive.
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Input example:
storcli /c1/e56/s3 set bootmode=on
10.5.3.4
Drive Initialization Commands
When you initialize drives, all the data from the drives is cleared. The Storage Command
Line Tool supports the following commands to initialize drives:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show initialization
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start initialization
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop initialization
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show initialization
This command shows the current progress of the initialization progress in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e31/s4 show initialization
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start initialization
This command starts the initialization process on a drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e31/s4 start initialization
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop initialization
This command stops an initialization process running on the specified drive. A stopped
initialization process cannot be resumed.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e56/s1 stop initialization
10.5.3.5
Drive Firmware Download Command
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following command to download drive
firmware:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx download src=filepath [satabridge]
This command flashes the firmware with the specified file. The satabridge option lets
you download the SATA bridge firmware in online mode.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e56/s1 download src=c:\file1.bin
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10.5.3.6
Locate Drives Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to locate a drive and
activate the physical disk activity LED:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start locate
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop locate
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start locate
This command locates a drive and activates the drive’s LED.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e56/s1 start locate
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop locate
This command stops a locate operation and deactivates the drive’s LED.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e56/s1 stop locate
10.5.3.7
Prepare to Remove Drives Commands
The Storage CLI supports the following commands to prepare the physical drive for
removal:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx spindown
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx spinup
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx spindown
This command spins down an unconfigured drive and prepares it for removal. The drive
state is unaffiliated and it is marked offline.
Input example:
storcli /cx/e34/s4 spindown
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx spinup
This command spins up a spun-down drive and the drive state is unconfigured good.
Input example:
storcli /cx/e34/s4 spinup
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10.5.3.8
Drive Security Command
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following drive security command:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show securitykey keyid
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show securitykey keyid
This command shows the security key for secured physical drives.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e252/s1 show SecurityKey keyid
10.5.3.9
Drive Secure Erase Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following drive erase commands:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx secureerase [force]
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show erase
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start erase [simple|normal|thorough]
[erasepatternA=<value1>] [erasepatternB=<value2>]
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop erase
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx secureerase [force]
This command erases the drive's security configuration and securely erases data on a
drive. You can use the force option as a confirmation to erase the data on the drive and
the security information.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s1 secureerase
Note: This command deletes data on the drive and the security configuration and this data is no
longer accessible. This command is used for SED drives only.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show erase
This command provides the status of erase operation on non-SEDs.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s1 show erase
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start erase [simple|normal|thorough]
[erasepatternA=<val1>] [erasepatternB=<val2>]
This command securely erases non-SED drives. The drive is written with erase patterns to
ensure that the data is securely erased. You can use the following options with the start
erase command.
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Table 27. Drive Erase Command Options
Option
Value Range
simple: Single pass, single pattern
write
erase
Description
Secure erase type.
normal: Three pass, three pattern
write
thorough: Nine pass, repeats the
normal write three times
erasepatternA
8-bit value
Erase pattern A to overwrite
the data.
erasepatternB
8-bit value
Erase pattern B to overwrite
the data.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s1 start erase thorough erasepatternA=10010011
erasepatternB=11110000
10.5.3.10 Rebuild Drives Commands
The following commands rebuild drives in the Storage Command Line Tool:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
pause rebuild
resume rebuild
show rebuild
start rebuild
stop rebuild
Note: If enclosures are used to connect physical drives to the controller, specify the enclosure ID
in the command.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx pause rebuild
This command pauses an ongoing rebuild process. You can run this command only for a
drive that is currently rebuilt.
Input example:
storcli /c0/s4 pause rebuild
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx resume rebuild
This command resumes a paused rebuild process. You can run this command only when a
paused rebuild process for the drive exists.
Input example:
storcli /c0/s4 resume rebuild
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storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show rebuild
This command shows the progress of the rebuild process in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0/s5 show rebuild
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start rebuild
This command starts a rebuild operation for a drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/s4 start rebuild
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop rebuild
This command stops a rebuild operation. You can run this command only for a drive that
is currently rebuilt.
Input example:
storcli /c0/s4 stop rebuild
10.5.3.11 Drive Copyback Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands for drive copyback:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
/cx[/ex]/sx
pause copyback
resume copyback
show copyback
start copyback target=eid:sid
stop copyback
The detailed description for each command follows.
Note: In the copyback commands, cx[/ex]/sx indicates the source drive and eid:sid
indicates the target drive.
Note: When a copyback operation is enabled, the alarm continues to beep even after a rebuild is
complete; the alarm stops beeping only when the copyback operation is completed.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx pause copyback
This command pauses a copyback operation. You can run this command only when there
is a copyback operation running.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s4 pause copyback
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx resume copyback
This command resumes a paused copyback operation. You can run this command only
when there is a paused copyback process for the drive.
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Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s4 resume copyback
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show copyback
This command shows the progress of the copyback operation in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s4 show copyback
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start copyback target=eid:sid
This command starts a copyback operation for a drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s4 start copyback target=25:8
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop copyback
This command stops a copyback operation. You can run this command only on drives that
have the copyback operation running.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e25/s4 stop copyback
Note: A stopped rebuild process cannot be resumed.
10.5.3.12 Hot Spare Drive Commands
The following commands create and delete hot spare drives:
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx add hotsparedrive
{dgs=<n|0,1,2...>}[enclaffinity][nonrevertible]
storcli /cx/[ex]/sx delete hotsparedrive
Note: If enclosures are used to connect the physical drives to the controller, specify the
enclosure ID in the command.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx add hotsparedrive [{dgs=<n|0,1,2...>}]
[enclaffinity][nonrevertible]
This command creates a hot spare drive. You can use the following options to create a hot
spare drive.
Table 28. Add Hotsparedrive Input Options
Option
dgs
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Value Range
Valid drive group number
Description
Specifies the drive group to which the hot
spare drive is dedicated.
276
Option
Value Range
Valid enclosure number
enclaffinity
Description
Specifies the enclosure with which the hot
spare is associated. If this option is
specified, affinity is set; if it is not specified,
there is no affinity.
Affinity cannot be removed after it is set for
a hot spare drive.
nonrevertible
—
Sets the drive as a nonrevertible hot spare.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e3/s4,5 add hotsparedrive
This command sets the drives /c0/e3/s4,5 as Global Hot spare.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e3/s6,8 add hotsparedrive dgs=0,1
This command sets /c0/e3/s6,8 as Dedicated Hot spare for disk groups 0,1.
storcli /cx/[ex]/sx delete hotsparedrive
This command deletes a hot spare drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e3/s4,5 delete hotsparedrive
10.5.4
Virtual Drive Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following virtual drive commands. The
following table describes frequently used virtual drive commands.
Table 29. Virtual Drives Commands Quick Reference Table
Command
Value Range
Description
add
See Table 30 and Table 31.
Creates virtual drives.
delete
cc or cachecade: Deletes CacheCade* virtual
drives.
Deletes a virtual drive.
force: Deletes the virtual drive where operating
system is present.
set
See Table 30, Table 31, and “Change Virtual
Properties Commands” on page 283.
Sets virtual drive
properties.
show
all: Shows all properties of the virtual drive.
Shows virtual drive
information.
cc: Shows properties of CacheCade virtual drives.
See “Virtual Drive Show Commands” on page 282.
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10.5.4.1
Add Virtual Drives Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to add virtual drives:
storcli /cx add vd
type=raid[0|1|5|6|00|10|50|60][Size=<VD1_Sz>,<VD2_Sz>,..|all]
[name=<VDNAME1>,..] drives=e:s|e:s-x,y;e:s-x,y,z
[PDperArray=x][SED] [pdcache=on|off|default][pi]
[DimmerSwitch(ds)=default|automatic(auto)|
none|maximum(max)|MaximumWithoutCaching(maxnocache)] [wt|wb]
[nora|ra] [direct|cached] [CachedBadBBU|NoCachedBadBBU][cachevd]
[Strip=<8|16|32|64|128|256|1024>] [AfterVd=X] [Spares =
[e:]s|[e:]s-x|[e:]s-x,y] [force][ExclusiveAccess]
storcli /cx add vd each type=raid0 [name=<VDNAME1>,..]
[drives=e:s|e:s-x|e:s-x,y] [SED] [pdcache=on|off|default][pi]
[DimmerSwitch(ds)=default|automatic(auto)|
none|maximum(max)|MaximumWithoutCaching(maxnocache)] [wt|wb]
[nora|ra] [direct|cached]
[CachedBadBBU|NoCachedBadBBU][Strip=<8|16|32|64|128|256|1024>][Ex
clusiveAccess]
storcli /cx add VD cachecade|nytrocache Type = [raid|r][0,1,10,
R1EC] drives = [e:]s|[e:]s-x|[e:]s-x,y [WT| WB] [assignvds = 0,1,2
[BOOTVOLSIZE=x]
This command creates a RAID configuration. You can use the following options to create
the RAID volume.
Note: * indicates default values.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx add vd
type=raid[0|1|5|6|00|10|50|60][Size=<VD1_Sz>,<VD2_Sz>,..|*all]
[name=<VDNAME1>,..] drives=e:s|e:s-x|e:s-x,y;e:s-x,y,z
[PDperArray=x][SED] [pdcache=on|off|*default][pi]
[DimmerSwitch(ds)=default|automatic(auto)|
*none|maximum(max)|MaximumWithoutCaching(maxnocache)][cachevd][Ex
clusiveAccess|SharedAccess*]** [wt|*wb] [nora|*ra]
[*direct|cached] [CachedBadBBU|*NoCachedBadBBU]
[Strip=<8|16|32|64|128|256|1024>] [AfterVd=X] [Spares =
[e:]s|[e:]s-x|[e:]s-x,y] [force]
Table 30. Add RAID Configuration Input Options
Option
Value Range
Description
type
RAID
[0|1|5|6|00|10|50|60]
Sets the RAID type of the
configuration.
size
Maximum size based on the
physical drives and RAID level
Sets the size of each virtual
drive. The default value is for the
capacity of all referenced disks.
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Option
Value Range
Description
name
15 characters of length
Specifies the drive name for
each virtual drive.
drives
Valid enclosure number and
valid slot numbers for the
enclosure
In e:s|e:s-x|e:s-x,y:
e specifies the enclosure ID.
s represents the slot in the
enclosure.
e:s-x is the range convention
used to represent slots s to x in
the enclosure e.
pdperarray
1-16
Specifies the number of physical
drives per array. The default
value is automatically chosen.
sed
—
Creates security-enabled drives.
pdcache
on|off|default
Enables or disables PD cache.
pi
—
Enables protection information.
dimmerswitch
default: Logical device uses
controller default power-saving
policy.
Specifies the power-saving
policy.
Sets to default automatically.
automatic (auto): Logical
device power savings are
managed by firmware.
none: No power-saving policy.
maximum (max): Logical
device uses maximum power
savings.
MaximumWithoutCaching
(maxnocache): Logical device
does not cache write to
maximize power savings.
direct|cached
cached: Cached I/O
direct: Direct I/O
Sets the logical drive cache
policy.
Direct I/O is the default.
wt|wb
nora|ra
cachedbadbbu|nocachedbadbbu
cachevd
279
wt: Write through
Enables write through.
wb: Write back
Write back is the default.
ra: Read ahead
Disables read ahead.
nora: No read ahead
Enabled is the default.
cachedbadbbu: Enables bad
BBU caching.
Enables caching when BBU is
not functioning.
nocachedbadbbu: Disables
bad BBU caching.
Disabled is the default.
—
Enables SSD caching on the
created virtual drive.
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Option
Value Range
Description
strip
8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256,
512, 1024
Sets the strip size for the RAID
configuration.
aftervd
Valid virtual drive number
Creates the VD in the adjacent
free slot next to the specified VD.
spares
Number of spare physical drives
present
Specifies the physical drives that
are to be assigned to a disk
group for spares.
force
—
Forces a security-capable
physical drive to be added to a
drive group without security.
Input example:
storcli /c0 add vd type=raid10 size=2gb,3gb,4gb
names=tmp1,tmp2,tmp3 drives=252:2-3,5,7 pdperarray=2
storcli /cx add vd cc|cachecade type=raid[0,1,10]
drives=[e:]s|[e:]s-x|[e:]s-x,y [[wt|*wb] ] [assignvds=0,1,2]
This command creates CacheCade virtual drives and associates existing virtual drives to
CacheCade virtual drives. You can use the following options to create the CacheCade
virtual drive.
Table 31. Add RAID Configuration Input Options
Option
Value Range
Description
cachecade
—
Creates a CacheCade virtual
drive.
type
0, 1, 10
Sets the RAID type of the
CacheCade virtual drive.
drives
Valid enclosure number and
valid slot number
See the drives row in the
previous table for format.
wt|*wb
wt: Enables write through.
Enables or disables write cache.
wb: Enables write back.
Valid virtual drive number (0 to
63)
assignvds
Specifies the list of virtual drives
associated with the new
CacheCade virtual drives.
Input example:
storcli /c0 add vd type=raid10 size=2gb,3gb,4gb
names=tmp1,tmp2,tmp3 drives=252:2-3, 7
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10.5.4.2
Delete Virtual Drives Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following virtual drive delete commands:
storcli /cx/vx|vall del
storcli /cx/vx|vall del cachecade
storcli /cx/vx|vall del force
Note: If the virtual drive has user data, you must use the force option to delete the virtual drive.
A virtual drive with a valid master boot record (MBR) and a partition table is considered
to contain user data.
If you delete a virtual drive with a valid MBR without erasing the data and then create a
new virtual drive using the same set of physical drives and the same RAID level as the
deleted virtual drive, the old unerased MBR still exists at block0 of the new virtual drive,
which makes it a virtual drive with valid user data. Therefore, you must provide the
force option to delete this newly created virtual drive.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx|vall del
This command deletes a particular virtual drive or, when the vall option is used, all the
virtual drives on the controller are deleted.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v2 del
Note: This command deletes virtual drives. Data located on these drives will no longer be
accessible.
storcli /cx/vx|vall del cachecade
This command deletes a specific CacheCade virtual drive on a controller, or all the
CacheCade configuration for a controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0/vall del cachecade
Note: This command deletes virtual drives. Data located on these drives will no longer be
accessible.
storcli /cx/vx|vall del force
This command deletes a virtual drive only after the cache flush is completed. With the
force option, the command deletes a virtual drive without waiting for the cache flush to
complete.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v2 del force
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Note: This command deletes the virtual drive where the operating system is present. Data
located on these drives and the operating system of the drive will no longer be accessible.
10.5.4.3
Virtual Drive Show Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following virtual drive show commands:
storcli /cx/vx show
storcli /cx/vx show all
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx show
This command shows the summary of the virtual drive information.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show
storcli /cx/vx show all
This command shows all virtual drive information, which includes virtual drive
information, physical drives used for the virtual drives, and virtual drive properties.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show all
10.5.4.4
Preserved Cache Commands
If a virtual drive becomes offline or is deleted because of missing physical disks, the
controller preserves the dirty cache from the virtual disk. The Storage Command Line
Tool supports the following commands for preserved cache:
storcli /cx/vx delete preservedCache [force]
storcli /cx show preservedCache
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx delete preservedcache
This command deletes the preserved cache for a particular virtual drive on the controller
in missing state. Use the force option to delete the preserved cache of a virtual drive in
offline state.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v1 delete preservedcache
storcli /cx show preservedCache
This command shows the virtual drive that has preserved cache and whether the virtual
drive is offline or missing.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show preservedCache
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10.5.4.5
Change Virtual Properties Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to change virtual
drive properties:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx/vx set accesspolicy=<rw|ro|blocked|rmvblkd>
/cx/vx set iopolicy=<cached|direct>
/cx/vx set name=<namestring>
/cx/vx set pdcache=<on|off|default>
/cx/vx set rdcache=<ra|nora>
/cx/vx|vall set ssdcaching=<on|off>
/cx/vx|vall set HostAccess=ExclusiveAccess|SharedAccess
/cx/vx set wrcache=<wt|wb|awb>
/cx/vx set emulationType=0|1
/cx/vx set ds=Default|Auto|None|Max|MaxNoCache
/cx/vx set autobgi=On|Off
/cx/vx set pi=Off
/cx/vx set bootdrive=<On|Off>
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx set accesspolicy=<rw|ro|blocked|rmvblkd>
This command sets the access policy on a virtual drive to read write, read only, or blocked
or rmvblkd (remove blocked).
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set accesspolicy=rw
storcli /cx/vx set iopolicy=<cached|direct>
This command sets the I/O policy on a virtual drive to cached I/O or direct I/O.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set iopolicy=cached
storcli /cx/vx set name=<namestring>
This command names a virtual drive. The name is restricted to 15 characters.
Input example:
storcli /c1/v0 set name=testdrive123
storcli /cx/vx set pdcache=<on|off|default>
This command sets the current disk cache policy on a virtual drive to on, off, or default
setting.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set pdcache=on
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storcli /cx/vx set rdcache=<ra|nora>
This command sets the read cache policy on a virtual drive to read ahead, no read ahead,
or adaptive read ahead.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set rdcache=nora
storcli /cx/vx|vall set ssdcaching=<on|off>
This command assigns CacheCade virtual drives. If ssdcaching=off, the CacheCade
virtual drive is removed.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set ssdcaching=on
storcli /cx/vx|vall set HostAccess=ExclusiveAccess|SharedAccess
This command sets the host access policy for the virtual drive. When the host access
policy is exclusive access, a server has exclusive access to the virtual drive. The virtual
drive cannot be shared between servers. If the host policy is shared access, the virtual
drive can be shared between servers.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set HostAccess=ExclusiveAccess
storcli/cx/vx set wrcache=<wt|wb|awb>
This command sets the write cache policy on a virtual drive to write back, write through,
or always write back.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set wrcache=wt
10.5.4.6
Virtual Drive Initialization Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to initialize virtual
drives:
storcli /cx/vx show init
storcli /cx/vx start init [full][Force]
storcli /cx/vx stop init
Note: If the virtual drive has user data, you must use the force option to initialize the virtual
drive.
A virtual drive with a valid MBR and partition table is considered to contain user data.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx show init
This command shows the initialization progress of a virtual drive in percentage.
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Input example:
storcli /c0/v2 show init
storcli /cx/vx start init [full]
This command starts the initialization of a virtual drive. The default initialization type is
fast initialization. If the fulloption is specified, full initialization of the virtual drive starts.
Input example:
storcli /cx/vx start init [full]
storcli /cx/vx stop init
This command stops the initialization of a virtual drive. A stopped initialization cannot be
resumed.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 stop init
10.5.4.7
Virtual Drive Erase Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to erase virtual
drives:
storcli /cx/vx erase
storcli /cx/vx show erase
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx erase
This command erases the data on the virtual drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 erase
storcli /cx/vx show erase
This command shows the status of the erase operation on the virtual drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show erase
10.5.4.8
Virtual Drive Migration Commands
Note: The virtual drive migration commands are not supported in Embedded Intel® RAID.
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands for virtual drive
migration (reconstruction):
storcli /cx/vx show migrate
storcli /cx/vx start migrate <type=raidlevel> [option=<add|remove>
disk=<e1/s1,e2/s2 ...> ]
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The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx show migrate
This command shows the progress of the virtual drive migrate operation in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show migrate
storcli /cx/vx start migrate <type=raidlevel> [option=<add |
remove> disk=<e1:s1,e2:s2 ...> ]
This command starts the reconstruction on a virtual drive to the specified RAID level by
adding or removing disks from the existing virtual drive. You can use the following
options with the start migrate command.
Table 32. Virtual Drive Migration Command Options
Option
Value Range
Description
type=RAID level
RAID [0|1|5|6]
The RAID level to which the
virtual drive must be migrated.
[option=<add |
remove>
disk=<e1:s1,e2:s2,
…>]
add: Adds disks to the virtual
drive and starts
reconstruction.
Adds or removes disks from the
virtual drive.
remove: Removes disks from
the virtual drive and starts
reconstruction.
disk: The enclosure number
and the slot number of the
disks to be added to the
virtual drive.
Virtual drive migration can be done between the following RAID levels.
Table 33. Virtual Drive Migration Table
Initial RAID Level
Migrated RAID Level
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 0
RAID 5
RAID 0
RAID 6
RAID 1
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 5
RAID 1
RAID 6
RAID 5
RAID 0
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Initial RAID Level
Migrated RAID Level
RAID 5
RAID 6
RAID 6
RAID 0
RAID 6
RAID 5
Input example:
storcli /c0/v3 start migrate type=r5 option=add disk=e5:s2,e5:s3
10.5.4.9
Virtual Drive Consistency Check Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands for virtual drive
consistency checks:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
pause cc
resume cc
show cc
start cc [force]
stop cc
Note: If enclosures are used to connect the physical drives to the controller, specify the IDs in
the command.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx pause cc
This command pauses an ongoing consistency check process. You can resume the
consistency check at a later time. You can run this command only on a virtual drive that
has a consistency check operation running.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v4 pause cc
storcli /cx/vx resume cc
This command resumes a suspended consistency check operation. You can run this
command on a virtual drive that has a paused consistency check operation.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v4 resume cc
storcli /cx/vx show cc
This command shows the progress of the consistency check operation in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v5 show cc
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storcli /cx/vx start cc force
This command starts a consistency check operation for a virtual drive. Typically, a
consistency check operation is run on an initialized virtual drive. Use the force option to
run a consistency check on an uninitialized drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v4 start cc
storcli /cx/vx stop cc
This command stops a consistency check operation. You can run this command only for a
virtual drive that has a consistency check operation running.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v4 stop cc
Note: You cannot resume a stopped consistency check process.
10.5.4.10 Background Initialization Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands for background
initialization:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
/cx/vx
resume bgi
set autobgi=<on|off>
show autobgi
show bgi
stop bgi
suspend bgi
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx resume bgi
This command resumes a suspended background initialization operation.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 resume bgi
storcli /cx/vx set autobgi=<on|off>
This command sets the auto background initialization setting for a virtual drive to on or
off.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set autobgi=on
storcli /cx/vx show autobgi
This command shows the background initialization setting for a virtual drive.
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Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show autobgi
storcli /cx/vx show bgi
This command shows the background initialization progress on the specified virtual drive
in percentage.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show bgi
storcli /cx/vx stop bgi
This command stops a background initialization operation. You can run this command
only for a virtual drive that is currently initialized.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v4 stop bgi
storcli /cx/vx pause bgi
This command suspends a background initialization operation. You can run this command
only for a virtual drive that is currently initialized.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v4 pause bgi
10.5.4.11 Virtual Drive Expansion Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands for virtual drive
expansion:
storcli /cx/vx expand size=<value> [expandarray]
storcli /cx/vx|vall show expansion
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/vx expand size=<value> [expandarray]
This command expands the virtual drive within the existing array or if you replace the
drives with drives larger than the size of the existing array. The value of the expand size is
in GB. If the expandarray option is specified, the existing array is expanded. If this option
is not specified, the virtual drive is expanded.
storcli /cx/vx show expansion
This command shows the expansion information on the virtual drive with and without
array expansion.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show expansion
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10.5.5
Foreign Configurations Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to view, import, and
delete foreign configurations:
storcli /cx/fall|fall del|delete [ securitykey=sssssssssss ]
storcli /cx/fall|fall import [preview][ securitykey=sssssssssss ]
storcli /cx/fall|fall show [all] [ securitykey=sssssssssss ]
Note: Provide the security key when importing a locked foreign configuration created in a
different machine that is encrypted with a security key.
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/fall|fall del| delete [ securitykey=sssssssssss ]
This command deletes the foreign configuration of a controller. Input the security key if
the controller is secured.
Input example:
storcli /c0/fall delete
storcli /cx/fall|fall import [preview] [ securitykey=sssssssssss ]
This command imports the foreign configurations of a controller. The preview option
shows a summary of the foreign configuration before importing it.
Input example:
storcli /c0/fall import
storcli /cx/fall|fall show [all][ securitykey=sssssssssss ]
This command shows the summary of the entire foreign configuration for a particular
controller. The all option shows all the information of the entire foreign configuration.
Note: The EID:Slot column is populated for the foreign PDs that are locked.
Input example:
storcli /c0/fall show preview
storcli /c0/fall import preview
storcli /c0/fall show all
10.5.6
BIOS-Related Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following BIOS commands:
storcli /cx set autobootselect(abs)=<on|off>
storcli /cx set bios=<on|off>
storcli /cx set BIOSMode=<SOE|BE|HCOE|HSM>
The detailed description for each command follows.
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storcli /cx set autobootselect|abs=<on|off>
This command enables the BIOS to select the best logical drive as the boot drive.
Input example:
storcli /cx set autobootselect=on
storcli /cx set bios=<on|off>
This command enables or disables the Intel® RAID Controller's BIOS.
Note: The legacy BIOS can load a limited number of the PCI device's BIOS. Disable the Intel®
RAID BIOS to avoid issues during POST.
Input example:
storcli /c0 set bios=enable
storcli /cx set BIOSMode=<SOE|BE|HCOE|HSM
This command sets the BIOS boot mode.
Input example:
storcli /c0/ set BIOSMode=SOE
10.5.6.1
OPROM BIOS Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following OPROM BIOS commands:
storcli /cx/ex/sx set bootdrive=on|off
storcli /cx/vx set bootdrive=on|off
storcli /cx show bootdrive
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/ex/sx set bootdrive=on|off
This command sets the specified physical drive as the boot drive. During the next reboot,
the BIOS looks for a boot sector in the specified physical drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e32/s4 set bootdrive=on
storcli /cx/vx set bootdrive=on|off
This command sets the specified virtual drive as the boot drive. During the next reboot,
the BIOS looks for a boot sector in the specified virtual drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 set bootdrive=on
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storcli/cx/vx show bootdrive
This command shows the boot drive for the controller. The boot drive can be a physical
drive or a virtual drive.
Input example:
storcli /c0/v0 show bootdrive
10.5.7
Drive Group Commands
This section describes the drive group commands.
10.5.7.1
Drive Group Show Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following drive group commands:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx/dall show
/cx/dall show all
/cx/dall show cachecade
/cx/dx show
/cx/dx show all
/cx/dx set security=on
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/dall show
This command shows the topology information of all the drive group.
Input example:
storcli /c0/dall show
storcli /cx/dall show all
This command shows all available configurations in the controller which includes
topology information, virtual drive information, physical drive information, free space,
and free slot information.
Input example:
storcli /c0/dall show all
storcli /cx/dall show cachecade
This command shows all CacheCade virtual drive information.
Input example:
storcli /c0/dall show cachecade
storcli /cx/dx show
This command shows the topology information of the drive group.
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Input example:
storcli /c0/dx show
storcli /cx/dx show all
This command shows the physical drive and the virtual drive information for the drive
group.
Input example:
storcli /c0/dx show all
storcli /cx/dx set security=on
This command enables security on the specified drive group.
Input example:
storcli /c0/dx set security=on all
10.5.8
Dimmer Switch Commands
10.5.8.1
Change Virtual Drive Power Settings Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following command to change the Dimmer
Switch* setting. The Dimmer Switch is the power-saving policy for the virtual drive.
storcli /cx/vx set ds=<default | auto | none | max | maxnocache>
This command changes the power-saving properties on a virtual drive. See
dimmerswitch in the following table for values.
Input example:
storcli /cx/vx set ds=default
Note: Only the ds3 dimmer switch option cannot be selected in the Storage Command Line Tool.
You can use the following combinations for the dimmer switch commands:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
set
set
set
set
ds=off type=1|2|3|4
ds=on type=1|2 [properties]
ds=on type=3|4 defaultldtype=<value> [properties]
ds=on [properties]
The following table describes the power-saving options.
Table 34. Dimmer Switch Input Options
Option
dimmerswitch or
ds
293
Value Range
on|off
Description
Turns the dimmer switch option
on.
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Option
Value Range
1: Unconfigured
type
2: Hot spare
3: Virtual drive
4: All
auto: Logical device power
savings are managed by the
firmware.
defaultldtype
none: No power saving policy.
Description
Specifies the type of drives that
the dimmer switch feature is
applicable. By default, it is
activated for unconfigured
drives, hot spare drives, and
virtual drives.
Specifies the default logical drive
type that is created by the
dimmer switch option; set to
none automatically.
max: Logical device uses
maximum power savings.
maxnocache: Logical device
does not cache write to
maximise power savings.
disableldps: Interval in hours
or time in hh:mm format
properties
spinupdrivecount: Valid
enclosure number (0 to 255)
SpinUpEncDelay: Valid time in
seconds
Sets the interval or time in which
the power-saving policy for the
logical drive is turned off.
Specifies the number of drives in
the enclosure that are spun up.
Specifies the delay of spin-up
groups within an enclosure in
seconds.
storcli/cx show DimmerSwitch(ds)
This command shows the current dimmer switch setting for the controller.
Input example:
storcli/c0 show ds
10.5.9
BBU Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following battery backup unit (BBU)
commands:
Note: To increase the life of a battery, the battery is not fully charged. Band Gap charging keeps
the maximum battery charge within a band comfortably above the data retention time
requirement instead of keeping the battery charged to the maximum level. However, when
a learn cycle is required, the battery is fully charged because a learn cycle starts only
after the battery is fully charged.
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
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show
show all
set autolearnmode=<value>
set bbuMode=<value>
set learndelayinterval=<value>
set powermode=sleep
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storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
/cx/bbu
set writeaceess=sealed
show modes
show properties
show status
start learn
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/bbu show
This command shows the summary information for the BBU of a controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu show
storcli /cx/bbu show all
This command shows all the information of the BBU.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu show all
storcli /cx/bbu set autolearnmode=<value>
This command starts the automatic learn cycle on the battery. The possible values are 0 Enabled, 1- Disabled, and 2 - WarnViaEvent.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu set autolearnmode=0
storcli /cx/bbu set bbuMode=<value>
This command sets the BBU mode for the BBU. The following table shows the various
BBU modes.
Table 35. BBU Mode
Mode
295
Description
0
48 hours of retentionA at 60 °C, 1-year Service Life.
1
12 hours of retention at 45 °C, 5-year Service Life, transparent learnB.
2
12 hours of retention at 55 °C, 3-year Service Life, transparent learn.
3
24 hours of retention at 45 °C, 3-year Service Life, transparent learn.
4
48 hours of retention at 45 °C, 3-year Service Life.
5
48 hours of retention at 55 °C, 1-year Service Life.
6
The same as the description for BBU mode 5. The BBU mode 6 enables
you to receive events when the battery capacity reaches suboptimal and
critical thresholds.
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A.
B.
Indicates how long the battery can hold data in the controller’s memory in case of accidental
system shutdown.
The controller’s performance is not affected during the battery’s learn cycle.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu set bbuMode=2
Note: BBU modes are supported on any BBU8/9 bbu/controller combo and later-generation
controllers.
storcli /cx/bbu set learndelayinterval=<value>
This command sets the learn delay interval for the BBU in hours. The value must be
between 0 to 168 hours (7 days).
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu set learnDelayInterval=30
storcli /cx/bbu set powermode=sleep
This command places the battery in low-power storage mode. The battery automatically
exits this state after five seconds.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu set powermode=sleep
storcli /cx/bbu set writeaccess=sealed
This command seals the gas gauge EEPROM write access.
Note: Use the set writeaccess=sealed command at manufacturing time.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu set writeaccess=sealed
storcli /cx/bbu show modes
This command shows the bbu mode information that includes the bbu mode number,
retention time, service life, maximum temperature, and battery learn information.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu show modes
storcli /cx/bbu show properties
This command shows the BBU Learn properties for a controller.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu show properties
storcli /cx/bbu show status
This command shows the battery information, firmware status, and the gas gauge status.
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Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu show status
storcli /cx/bbu start learn
This command starts the BBU learning cycle. The battery learn cycle is immediately
started and no other parameters are required for this command.
Input example:
storcli /c0/bbu start learn
10.5.10 Enclosure Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following enclosure commands:
storcli /cx/ex download src=filepath [forceActivate]
storcli /cx/ex show all
storcli /cx/ex show status
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/ex download src=filepath [forceactivate]
This command flashes the firmware with the file specified at the command line. The
enclosure performs an error check after the operation. The following option can be used
with the enclosure firmware download command.
Table 36. Enclosure Firmware Download Command Options
Option
forceactivate
Value Range
—
Description
Issues a command descriptor block (CDB) with
write command with no data with command mode
0x0F (flash download already in progress).
Note:
This option is used primarily to activate
Scotch Valley Enclosures.
Note: The firmware file that is used to flash the enclosure can be of any format. The StorCLI
utility assumes that you provide a valid firmware image.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e0 download src=c:\file2.bin
storcli /cx/ex show all
This command shows all enclosure information, which includes general enclosure
information, enclosure inquiry data, a count of enclosure elements, and information about
the enclosure elements.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e0 show all
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storcli /cx/ex show status
This command shows the enclosure status and the status of all the enclosure elements.
Input example:
storcli /c0/e0 show status
10.5.11 PHY Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following PHY commands:
storcli /cx/px|pall set linkspeed=0(auto)|1.5|3|6|12
storcli /cx/px|pall show
storcli /cx/px|pall show all
The detailed description for each command follows.
storcli /cx/px|pall set linkspeed=0(auto)|1.5|3|6|12
This command sets the PHY link speed. You can set the speed to 1.5 Gb/s, 3 Gb/s, 6 Gb/s,
or 12 Gb/s. The linkspeed is set to auto when you specify linkspeed = 0.
Input example:
storcli /c0/p0 set linkspeed=1.5
storcli /cx/px|pall show
This command shows the basic PHY layer information.
Input example:
storcli /c1/p0 show
storcli /cx/px|pall show all
This command shows all the PHY layer information.
Input example:
storcli /c1/p0 show all
10.5.12 Logging Commands
The Storage Command Line Tool supports the following commands to generate and
maintain log files:
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
storcli
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
/cx
clear events
delete termlog
show events file=<absolute path>
show eventloginfo
show termlog type=config|contents
The detailed description for each command follows.
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storcli /cx delete events
This command deletes all records in the event log.
Input example:
storcli /c0 delete events
storcli /cx delete termlog
This command clears the TTY (firmware log for issue troubleshooting) logs.
Input example:
storcli /c0 delete termlog
storcli /cx show events file=<absolute path>
This command prints the system log to a text file and saves the file in the specified
location.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show events file=C:\Users\brohan\test\eventreports
storcli /cx show eventloginfo
This command shows the history of log files generated.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show eventloginfo type=config
storcli /cx show termlog type=config|contents
This command shows the firmware logs. The config option shows the term log
configuration (settings of TTY BBU buffering), the contents option shows the term log.
The contents option is the default.
Input example:
storcli /c0 show termlog type=contents
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10.6
Frequently Used Tasks
10.6.1
Showing the Version of the Storage Command Line
Tool
The following command shows the version of the command line tool:
Storcli -v
10.6.2
Showing StorCLI Help
The following command shows the command line tool help:
Storcli -h
Help appears for all the StorCLI commands.
10.6.3
Showing System Summary Information
The following command shows the summary of all the controller information:
Storcli -show [all]
10.6.4
Showing Free Space in a Controller
The following command shows the free space available in the controller:
Storcli /cx show freespace
10.6.5
Adding Virtual Drives
The following command creates a virtual drive:
Storcli /cx add vd
type=raid[0|1|5|6|10|50|60][Size=<VD1_Sz>,<VD2_Sz>,..|*all]
[name=<VDNAME1>,..] drives=e:s|e:s-x|e:s-x,y [PDperArray=x|auto*]
[SED] [pdcache=on|off|*default][pi]
[DimmerSwitch(ds)=default|automatic(auto)|
*none|maximum(max)|MaximumWithoutCaching(maxnocache)] [wt|*wb]
[nora|*ra] [*direct|cached] [CachedBadBBU|*NoCachedBadBBU]
[strip=<8|16|32|64|128|256|512|1024] [AfterVd=x]
[Spares=[e:]s|[e:]s-x|[e:]s-x,y] [force]
The following inputs can be used when adding virtual drives:
•
•
The controller in which the virtual drives are created.
•
The size of each virtual drive.
The RAID type of the virtual drives. The supported RAID types are 0, 1, 5, 6, 10,
50, 60.
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•
The drives that are used to create the virtual drives.
drives = e:s|e:s-x|e:s-x,y
Where:
— e specifies the enclosure id.
— s represents the slot in the enclosure.
— e:s-x is the range conventions used to represents slots s to x in the enclosure e.
•
The physical drives per array. The physical drives per array can be set to a
particular value.
•
•
•
•
The SED option creates security-enabled drives.
•
•
•
•
•
The wt option disables write back.
•
The AfterVdX option creates the virtual drives in the adjacent free slot next to the
specified virtual drives.
The PDcache option can be set to on or off.
The pi option enables protection information.
The dimmer switch is the power save policy. It can be set to default or
automatic *, none, maximum(max), or
MaximumWithoutCaching(maxnocache).
The nora option disables read ahead.
The cached option enables the cached memory.
The CachedBadBBU option enables caching when BBU is not functional.
The strip option sets the strip size. It can take the values 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256,
512, 1024.
Note: The * indicates default values used in the creation of the virtual drives. If values are not
specified, the default values are taken.
Example: /cxadd vd type=r1 drives=0:10-15 WB Direct strip=64
This command creates a RAID volume of RAID 1 type from drives in slots 10 to slot 15 in
enclosure 0. The strip size is 64kb.
10.6.6
Setting the Cache Policy in a Virtual Drive
The following command sets the write cache policy of the virtual drive:
Storcli /cx/v(x|all) set wrcache=wt|wb|awb
The command sets the write cache to write back, write through, or always write back.
10.6.7
Showing Virtual Drive Information
The following command shows the virtual drive information for all the virtual drives in
the controller:
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storcli /cx show [all]
10.6.8
Deleting Virtual Drives
The following command deletes virtual drives:
storcli /cx/v(x|all) del [cc|cachecade]
The following inputs are required when deleting a virtual drive:
10.6.9
•
•
The controller on which the virtual drive or virtual drives is present.
•
The cc or cachecade option to confirm that the deleted drive is a CacheCade
drive.
The virtual drives that must be deleted; or you can delete all the virtual drives on
the controller using the vall option.
Flashing Controller Firmware
The following command is used to flash the controller firmware.
storcli /cx download file=filepath [fwtype=<value>] [nosigchk]
[noverchk][resetnow]
For more information, see “Flashing Controller Firmware Command” on page 267.
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10.7
Unsupported StorCLI Commands
The commands in the following table are not supported for the Intel® RAID Controllers
such as Intel® RAID Controller RS3WC080.
Table 37. Unsupported Commands fors Intel® RAID Controller
Command Group
Jbod
Command
storcli /c0 set jbod=<on|off>
storcli /c0/s2 set jbod
storcli /c0/s2 set bootdrive=<on|off>
DS
storcli /cx(x|all) set ds=OFF type=1|2|3|4
storcli /cx(x|all) set ds=ON type=1|2 [properties]
storcli /cx(x|all) set ds=ON type=3|4
DefaultLdType=<val> [properties]
storcli /cx(x|all) set ds [properties]
storcli /cx/v(x|all) set
ds=Default|Auto|None|Max|MaxNoCache
Security
storcli /cx delete security key
storcli /cx set securitykey=xxxxxxxx {passphrase=xxxx}
{keyid=xxx}
storcli /cx set securitykey keyid=xxx
storcli /cx compare securitykey=xxxxxxxxxx
storcli /cx set
securitykey=xxxxxxxx oldsecuritykey=xxxxxxxx
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Command Group
ASO
Command
storcli /cx(x|all) set aso key=<keyvalue> preview
storcli /cx(x|all) set aso key=<key value>
storcli /cx(x|all) set aso transfertovault
storcli /cx(x|all) set aso rehostcomplete
storcli /cx(x|all) set aso deactivatetrialkey
storcli /cx(x|all) show safeid
storcli /cx(x|all) show rehostinfo
storcli /c0 set time =<yyyymmdd hh:mm:ss | system>
storcli /c0 show cc|consistencycheck
storcli /c0/vall show expansion
storcli /c0 set jbod
storcli /cx download src=<filepath> [forceActivate]
Copy back
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx show copyback
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx start copyback target=eID:sID
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx stop copyback
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx pause copyback
storcli /cx[/ex]/sx resume copyback
Migrate
storcli /cx/v(x|all) show migrate
storcli /cx/vx start migrate
type=raidx [option=add|remove drives=[e:]s|[e:]sx|[e:]s-x,y] [Force]
Cache
storcli /cx/v(x|all) set ssdcaching=on|off
storcli /cx(x|all) show preservedcache
storcli /cx/v(x|all) delete preservedcache[force]
BBU
storcli /cx/bbu show
storcli /cx/bbu show all
storcli /cx/bbu set [ learnDelayInterval=<val> |
bbuMode=<val>
storcli /cx/bbu start learn
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Command Group
Secure ease
Command
storcli /cx/sx secureerase [force]
storcli /cx/sx start erase [simple| normal|
thorough][erasepatternA=<val>]
storcli /cx/sx stop erase
storcli /cx/sx show erase
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Consistency check
storcli /cx show cc/ConsistencyCheck
Controller
storcli /cx show cc
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Appendix A: Creating a Virtual Drive
Using Advanced
Configuration
The advanced configuration procedure provides an easy way to create a new storage
configuration. Advanced configuration gives you greater flexibility than simple
configuration because you can select the drives and the virtual drive parameters when you
create a virtual drive. In addition, you can use the advanced configuration procedure to
create spanned drive groups.
Note: Depending on different versions of utility, the steps in the screenshots may change, and the
following sections are for reference purpose.
Follow these steps to create a new storage configuration in the advanced configuration
mode. In this example, we will create a spanned drive group.
1. Perform either of the following steps:
— Right click on the controller node in the device tree in the left frame of the
Intel® RAID Web Console 2 window and select Create Virtual Drive
— Select the controller node and select Operations -> Create Virtual Drive in
the menu bar, as shown in Figure 175.
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Figure 175. Virtual Drive Creation Menu
The dialog box shown in Figure 176 appears.
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Figure 176. Virtual Drive Creation Mode
2. Click Advanced and press Next.
The Create Drive Group Settings screen appears, as shown in Figure 177.
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Figure 177. Create Drive Group Settings Screen
3. Select the following items on the Create Drive Group Settings screen:
a. Select the RAID level desired for the drive group from the drop-down menu.
To make a spanned drive, select RAID 10, RAID 50, or RAID 60 in the RAID
level field.
Drive Group 0 and Span 0 appear in the Drive groups field when you select
RAID 10, 50, or 60.
The RAID controller supports RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60. In addition,
it supports independent drives (configured as RAID 0 and RAID 00). The
screen text gives a brief description of the RAID level you select. RAID levels
you can choose depend on the number of drives available. To learn more about
RAID levels, see Chapter 2, “RAID Levels” on page 9.
b. Select unconfigured drives from the list of drives and click Add> to add them
to the drive group.
The selected drives appear under Span 0 below Drive Group 0, as shown in
Figure 178
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Figure 178. Span 0 of Drive Group 0
c. Click Create Span to create a second span in the drive group.
d. Select unconfigured drives from the list of drives and click Add> to add them
to the drive group.
e. The selected drives appear under Span 1 below Drive Group 0, as shown in
Figure 179
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Figure 179. Span 0 and Span 1 of Drive Group 0
f.
Click Create Drive Group to make a drive group with the spans.
g. Click Next to complete this step.
The Virtual drive settings window appears, as shown in Figure 180. The drive
group and the default virtual drive settings appear. The options to update the
virtual drive or remove the virtual drive are grayed out until you create the
virtual drive.
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Figure 180. Virtual Drive Settings Window
4. Change any virtual drive settings, if desired.
5. Click Create Virtual Drive.
The new virtual drive appears under the drive group, as shown in Figure 181. The
options Update Virtual Drive and Remove Virtual Drive are now available.
Update Virtual Drive allows you to change the virtual drive settings and Remove
Virtual Drive allows you to delete the virtual drive.
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Figure 181. New Virtual Drive 0
6. Click Next.
The Create Virtual Drive - Summary window appears, as shown in Figure 182.
This window shows the selections you made for advanced configuration.
Figure 182. Create Virtual Drive Summary Window
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7. Click Back to return to the previous screen to change any selections or click Finish
to accept and complete the configuration.
The new storage configuration will be created and initialized.
Note: If you create a large configuration using drives that are in powersave mode, it
could take several minutes to spin up the drives. A progress bar appears as the
drives spin up. If any of the selected unconfigured drives fail to spin up, a box
appears to identify the drive or drives.
8. After the configuration is completed, a dialog box notifies you that the virtual
drives were created successfully, as shown in Figure 183. If more drive capacity
exists, the dialog box asks whether you want to create more virtual drives. If no
more drive capacity exists, you are prompted to close the configuration session.
Figure 183. Option to Create Additional Virtual Drives
9. Select Yes or No to indicate whether you want to create additional virtual drives.
If you select Yes, the system takes you to the Create Virtual Drive screen, as
shown in Figure 96. If you select No, the utility asks whether you want to close the
wizard, as Figure 184.
10. If you selected No in <hyperactive>step 8, select Yes or No to indicate whether you
want to close the wizard.
If you select Yes, the configuration procedure closes. If you select No, the dialog
box closes and you remain on the same page.
Figure 184. Option to Close the Configuration Wizard
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Appendix B: Events and Messages
This appendix lists the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 events that may display in the event
log.
The Intel® RAID Web Console 2 monitors the activity and performance of all controllers
in the server and the devices attached to them. When an “event” such as the completion of
a consistency check or the removal of a physical drive occurs, an event message is
displayed in the log displayed at the bottom of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 screen.
The messages are also logged in the Microsoft Windows* Application log (Event
Viewer). Error event levels are:
•
Progress: This is a progress posting event. Progress events are not saved in
NVRAM.
•
•
•
•
•
Info: Informational message. No user action is necessary.
Warning: Some component may be close to a failure point.
Critical: A component has failed, but the system has not lost data.
Fatal: A component has failed, and data loss has occurred or will occur.
Dead: A catastrophic error has occurred and the controller has died. This is seen
only after the controller has been restarted.
The following table lists all of the Intel® RAID Web Console 2 event messages:
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Table 38. MFI Messages
Number
Type
Description
0
Info
Firmware initialization started (PCI ID %04x/%04x/%04x/%04x)
1
Info
Firmware version %s
2
Fatal
Unable to recover cache data from TBBU
3
Info
Cache data recovered from TBBU successfully
4
Info
Configuration cleared
5
Warning
Cluster down; communication with peer lost
6
Info
Virtual drive %s ownership changed from %02x to %02x
7
Info
Alarm disabled by user
8
Info
Alarm enabled by user
9
Info
Background initialization rate changed to %d%%
10
Fatal
Controller cache discarded due to memory/battery problems
11
Fatal
Unable to recover cache data due to configuration mismatch
12
Info
Cache data recovered successfully
13
Fatal
Controller cache discarded due to firmware version incompatibility
14
Info
Consistency Check rate changed to %d%%
15
Dead
Fatal firmware error: %s
16
Info
Factory defaults restored
17
Info
Flash downloaded image corrupt
18
Critical
Flash erase error
19
Critical
Flash timeout during erase
20
Critical
Flash error
21
Info
Flashing image: %s
22
Info
Flash of new firmware image(s) complete
23
Critical
Flash programming error
24
Critical
Flash timeout during programming
25
Critical
Flash chip type unknown
26
Critical
Flash command set unknown
27
Critical
Flash verify failure
28
Info
Flush rate changed to %d seconds
29
Info
Hibernate command received from host
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316
Number
317
Type
Description
30
Info
Event log cleared
31
Info
Event log wrapped
32
Dead
Multi-bit ECC error: ECAR=%x
33
Warning
Single-bit ECC error: ECAR=%x
34
Dead
Not enough controller memory
35
Info
Patrol Read complete
36
Info
Patrol Read paused
37
Info
Patrol Read Rate changed to %d%%
38
Info
Patrol Read resumed
39
Info
Patrol Read started
40
Info
Rebuild rate changed to %d%%
41
Info
Reconstruction rate changed to %d%%
42
Info
Shutdown command received from host
43
Info
Test event: ’%s’
44
Info
Time established as %s; (%d seconds since power on)
45
Info
User entered firmware debugger
46
Warning
Background Initialization aborted on %s
47
Warning
Background Initialization corrected medium error (%s at %lx
48
Info
Background Initialization completed on %s
49
Fatal
Background Initialization completed with uncorrectable errors on %s
50
Fatal
Background Initialization detected uncorrectable double medium errors
(%s at %lx on %s)
51
Critical
Background Initialization failed on %s
52
Progress
Background Initialization progress on %s is %s
53
Info
Background Initialization started on %s
54
Info
Policy change due to BBU on %s from %s to %s
55
Info
Policy change due to user on %s from %s to %s
56
Warning
Consistency Check aborted on %s
57
Warning
Consistency Check corrected medium error (%s at %lx
58
Info
Consistency Check done on %s
59
Info
Consistency Check done with corrections on %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
60
Fatal
Consistency Check detected uncorrectable double medium errors (%s at
%lx on %s)
61
Critical
Consistency Check failed on %s
62
Fatal
Consistency Check failed with uncorrectable data on %s
63
Warning
Consistency Check found inconsistent parity on %s at strip %lx
64
Warning
Consistency Check inconsistency logging disabled on %s (too many
inconsistencies)
65
Progress
Consistency Check progress on %s is %s
66
Info
Consistency Check started on %s
67
Warning
Initialization aborted on %s
68
Critical
Initialization failed on %s
69
Progress
Initialization progress on %s is %s
70
Info
Fast initialization started on %s
71
Info
Full initialization started on %s
72
Info
Initialization complete on %s
73
Info
LD Properties updated to %s (form %s)
74
Info
Reconstruction complete on %s
75
Fatal
Reconstruction of %s stopped due to unrecoverable errors
76
Fatal
Reconstruct detected uncorrectable double medium errors (%s at %lx on
%s at %lx)
77
Progress
Reconstruction progress on %s is %s
78
Info
Reconstruction resumed on %s
79
Fatal
Reconstruction resume of %s failed due to configuration mismatch
80
Info
Reconstructing started on %s
81
Info
State change on %s from %s to %s
82
Info
PD Clear aborted on %s
83
Critical
PD Clear failed on %s (Error %02x)
84
Progress
PD Clear progress on %s is %s
85
Info
PD Clear started on %s
86
Info
PD Clear completed on %s
87
Warning
Error on %s (Error %02x)
88
Info
Format complete on %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
318
Number
319
Type
Description
89
Info
Format started on %s
90
Critical
Hot Spare SMART polling failed on %s (Error %02x)
91
Info
PD inserted: %s
92
Warning
PD %s is not supported
93
Warning
Patrol Read corrected medium error on %s at %lx
94
Progress
Patrol Read progress on %s is %s
95
Fatal
Patrol Read found an uncorrectable medium error on %s at %lx
96
Critical
Predictive failure: CDB: %s
97
Fatal
Patrol Read puncturing bad block on %s at %lx
98
Info
Rebuild aborted by user on %s
99
Info
Rebuild complete on %s
100
Info
Rebuild complete on %s
101
Critical
Rebuild failed on %s due to source drive error
102
Critical
Rebuild failed on %s due to target drive error
103
Progress
Rebuild progress on %s is %s
104
Info
Rebuild resumed on %s
105
Info
Rebuild started on %s
106
Info
Rebuild automatically started on %s
107
Critical
Rebuild stopped on %s due to loss of cluster ownership
108
Fatal
Reassign write operation failed on %s at %lx
109
Fatal
Unrecoverable medium error during rebuild on %s at %lx
110
Info
Corrected medium error during recovery on %s at %lx
111
Fatal
Unrecoverable medium error during recovery on %s at %lx
112
Info
PD removed: %s
113
Warning
CDB: %s
114
Info
State change on %s from %s to %s
115
Info
State change by user on %s from %s to %s
116
Warning
Redundant path to %s broken
117
Info
Redundant path to %s restored
118
Info
Dedicated Hot Spare PD %s no longer useful due to deleted array
119
Critical
SAS topology error: Loop detected
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
120
Critical
SAS topology error: Unaddressable device
121
Critical
SAS topology error: Multiple ports to the same SAS address
122
Critical
SAS topology error: Expander error
123
Critical
SAS topology error: SMP timeout
124
Critical
SAS topology error: Out of route entries
125
Critical
SAS topology error: Index not found
126
Critical
SAS topology error: SMP function failed
127
Critical
SAS topology error: SMP CRC error
128
Critical
SAS topology error: Multiple subtractive
129
Critical
SAS topology error: Table to table
130
Critical
SAS topology error: Multiple paths
131
Fatal
Unable to access device %s
132
Info
Dedicated Hot Spare created on %s (%s)
133
Info
Dedicated Hot Spare %s disabled
134
Critical
Dedicated Hot Spare %s no longer useful for all arrays
135
Info
Global Hot Spare created on %s (%s)
136
Info
Global Hot Spare %s disabled
137
Critical
Global Hot Spare does not cover all arrays
138
Info
Created %s}
139
Info
Deleted %s}
140
Info
Marking LD %s inconsistent due to active writes at shutdown
141
Info
Battery Present
142
Warning
Battery Not Present
143
Info
New Battery Detected
144
Info
Battery has been replaced
145
Critical
Battery temperature is high
146
Warning
Battery voltage low
147
Info
Battery is charging
148
Info
Battery is discharging
149
Info
Battery voltage is normal
150
Fatal
Battery needs to be replacement
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
320
Number
321
Type
Description
151
Info
Battery relearn started
152
Info
Battery relearn in progress
153
Info
Battery relearn completed
154
Critical
Battery relearn timed out
155
Info
Battery relearn pending: Battery is under charge
156
Info
Battery relearn postponed
157
Info
Battery relearn will start in 4 days
158
Info
Battery relearn will start in 2 day
159
Info
Battery relearn will start in 1 day
160
Info
Battery relearn will start in 5 hours
161
Info
Battery removed
162
Info
Current capacity of the battery is below threshold
163
Info
Current capacity of the battery is above threshold
164
Info
Enclosure (SES) discovered on %s
165
Info
Enclosure (SAF-TE) discovered on %s
166
Critical
Enclosure %s communication lost
167
Info
Enclosure %s communication restored
168
Critical
Enclosure %s fan %d failed
169
Info
Enclosure %s fan %d inserted
170
Critical
Enclosure %s fan %d removed
171
Critical
Enclosure %s power supply %d failed
172
Info
Enclosure %s power supply %d inserted
173
Critical
Enclosure %s power supply %d removed
174
Critical
Enclosure %s SIM %d failed
175
Info
Enclosure %s SIM %d inserted
176
Critical
Enclosure %s SIM %d removed
177
Warning
Enclosure %s temperature sensor %d below warning threshold
178
Critical
Enclosure %s temperature sensor %d below error threshold
179
Warning
Enclosure %s temperature sensor %d above warning threshold
180
Critical
Enclosure %s temperature sensor %d above error threshold
181
Critical
Enclosure %s shutdown
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
182
Warning
Enclosure %s not supported; too many enclosures connected to port
183
Critical
Enclosure %s firmware mismatch
184
Warning
Enclosure %s sensor %d bad
185
Critical
Enclosure %s phy %d bad
186
Critical
Enclosure %s is unstable
187
Critical
Enclosure %s hardware error
188
Critical
Enclosure %s not responding
189
Info
SAS/SATA mixing not supported in enclosure; PD %s disabled
190
Info
Enclosure (SES) hotplug on %s was detected, but is not supported
191
Info
Clustering enabled
192
Info
Clustering disabled
193
Info
PD too small to be used for auto-rebuild on %s
194
Info
BBU enabled; changing WT virtual disks to WB
195
Warning
BBU disabled; changing WB virtual disks to WT
196
Warning
Bad block table on PD %s is 80% full
197
Fatal
Bad block table on PD %s is full; unable to log block %lx
198
Info
Consistency Check Aborted Due to Ownership Loss on %s
199
Info
Background Initialization (BGI) Aborted Due to Ownership Loss on %s
200
Critical
Battery/charger problems detected; SOH Bad
201
Warning
Single-bit ECC error: ECAR=%x, ELOG=%x, (%s); warning threshold
exceeded
202
Critical
Single-bit ECC error: ECAR=%x, ELOG=%x, (%s); critical threshold
exceeded
203
Critical
Single-bit ECC error: ECAR=%x, ELOG=%x, (%s); further reporting
disabled
204
Critical
Enclosure %s Power supply %d switched off
205
Info
Enclosure %s Power supply %d switched on
206
Critical
Enclosure %s Power supply %d cable removed
207
Info
Enclosure %s Power supply %d cable inserted
208
Info
Enclosure %s Fan %d returned to normal
209
Info
BBU Retention test was initiated on previous boot
210
Info
BBU Retention test passed
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
322
Number
323
Type
Description
211
Critical
BBU Retention test failed!
212
Info
NVRAM Retention test was initiated on previous boot
213
Info
NVRAM Retention test passed
214
Critical
NVRAM Retention test failed!
215
Info
%s test completed %d passes successfully
216
Critical
%s test FAILED on %d pass. Fail data: errorOffset=%x goodData=%x
badData=%x
217
Info
Self check diagnostics completed
218
Info
Foreign Configuration Detected
219
Info
Foreign Configuration Imported
220
Info
Foreign Configuration Cleared
221
Warning
NVRAM is corrupt; reinitializing
222
Warning
NVRAM mismatch occurred
223
Warning
SAS wide port %d lost link on PHY %d
224
Info
SAS wide port %d restored link on PHY %d
225
Warning
SAS port %d, PHY %d has exceeded the allowed error rate
226
Warning
Bad block reassigned on %s at %lx to %lx
227
Info
Controller Hot Plug detected
228
Warning
Enclosure %s temperature sensor %d differential detected
229
Info
Drive test cannot start. No qualifying drives found
230
Info
Time duration provided by host is not sufficient for self check
231
Info
Marked Missing for %s on drive group %d row %d
232
Info
Replaced Missing as %s on drive group %d row %d
233
Info
Enclosure %s Temperature %d returned to normal
234
Info
Enclosure %s Firmware download in progress
235
Warning
Enclosure %s Firmware download failed
236
Warning
%s is not a certified drive
237
Info
Dirty cache data discarded by user
238
Info
Drives missing from configuration at boot
239
Info
Virtual drives (VDs) missing drives and will go offline at boot: %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
240
Info
VDs missing at boot: %s
241
Info
Previous configuration completely missing at boot
242
Info
Battery charge complete
243
Info
Enclosure %s fan %d speed changed
244
Info
Dedicated spare %s imported as global due to missing arrays
245
Info
%s rebuild not possible as SAS/SATA is not supported in an array
246
Info
SEP %s has been rebooted as a part of enclosure firmware download.
SEP will be unavailable until this process completes.
247
Info
Inserted PD: %s Info: %s
248
Info
Removed PD: %s Info: %s
249
Info
VD %s is now OPTIMAL
250
Warning
VD %s is now PARTIALLY DEGRADED
251
Critical
VD %s is now DEGRADED
252
Fatal
VD %s is now OFFLINE
253
Warning
Battery requires reconditioning; please initiate a LEARN cycle
254
Warning
VD %s disabled because RAID-5 is not supported by this RAID key
255
Warning
VD %s disabled because RAID-6 is not supported by this controller
256
Warning
VD %s disabled because SAS drives are not supported by this RAID key
257
Warning
PD missing: %s
258
Warning
Puncturing of LBAs enabled
259
Warning
Puncturing of LBAs disabled
260
Critical
Enclosure %s EMM %d not installed
261
Info
Package version %s
262
Warning
Global affinity Hot Spare %s commissioned in a different enclosure
263
Warning
Foreign configuration table overflow
264
Warning
Partial foreign configuration imported, PDs not imported:%s
265
Info
Connector %s is active
266
Info
Board Revision %s
267
Warning
Command timeout on PD %s, CDB:%s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
324
Number
325
Type
Description
268
Warning
PD %s reset (Type %02x)
269
Warning
VD bad block table on %s is 80% full
270
Fatal
VD bad block table on %s is full; unable to log block %lx (on %s at %lx)
271
Fatal
Uncorrectable medium error logged for %s at %lx (on %s at %lx)
272
Info
VD medium error corrected on %s at %lx
273
Warning
Bad block table on PD %s is 100% full
274
Warning
VD bad block table on PD %s is 100% full
275
Fatal
Controller needs replacement, IOP is faulty
276
Info
CopyBack started on PD %s from PD %s
277
Info
CopyBack aborted on PD %s and src is PD %s
278
Info
CopyBack complete on PD %s from PD %s
279
Progress
CopyBack progress on PD %s is %s
280
Info
CopyBack resumed on PD %s from %s
281
Info
CopyBack automatically started on PD %s from %s
282
Critical
CopyBack failed on PD %s due to source %s error
283
Warning
Early Power off warning was unsuccessful
284
Info
BBU FRU is %s
285
Info
%s FRU is %s
286
Info
Controller hardware revision ID %s
287
Warning
Foreign import shall result in a backward incompatible upgrade of
configuration metadata
288
Info
Redundant path restored for PD %s
289
Warning
Redundant path broken for PD %s
290
Info
Redundant enclosure EMM %s inserted for EMM %s
291
Info
Redundant enclosure EMM %s removed for EMM %s
292
Warning
Patrol Read can't be started, as PDs are either not ONLINE, or are in a
VD with an active process, or are in an excluded VD
293
Info
Copyback aborted by user on PD %s and src is PD %s
294
Critical
Copyback aborted on hot spare %s from %s, as hot spare needed for
rebuild
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
295
Warning
Copyback aborted on PD %s from PD %s, as rebuild required in the
array
296
Fatal
Controller cache discarded for missing or offline VD %s When a VD with
cached data goes offline or missing during runtime, the cache for the VD
is discarded. Because the VD is offline, the cache cannot be saved.
297
Info
Copyback cannot be started as PD %s is too small for src PD %s
298
Info
Copyback cannot be started on PD %s from PD %s, as SAS/SATA is
not supported in an array
299
Info
Microcode update started on PD %s
300
Info
Microcode update completed on PD %s
301
Warning
Microcode update timeout on PD %s
302
Warning
Microcode update failed on PD %s
303
Info
Controller properties changed
304
Info
Patrol Read properties changed
305
Info
CC Schedule properties changed
306
Info
Battery properties changed
307
Warning
Periodic Battery Relearn is pending. Please initiate manual learn cycle
as Automatic learn is not enabled.
308
Info
Drive security key created
309
Info
Drive security key backed up
310
Info
Drive security key from escrow, verified
311
Info
Drive security key changed
312
Warning
Drive security key, re-key operation failed
313
Warning
Drive security key is invalid
314
Info
Drive security key destroyed
315
Warning
Drive security key from escrow is invalid
316
Info
VD %s is now secured
317
Warning
VD %s is partially secured
318
Info
PD %s security activated
319
Info
PD %s security disabled
320
Info
PD %s is reprovisioned
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
326
Number
327
Type
Description
321
Info
PD %s security key changed
322
Fatal
Security subsystem problems detected for PD %s
323
Fatal
Controller cache pinned for missing or offline VD %s
324
Fatal
Controller cache pinned for missing or offline VDs: %s
325
Info
Controller cache discarded by user for VDs: %s
326
Info
Controller cache destaged for VD %s
327
Warning
Consistency Check started on an inconsistent VD %s
328
Warning
Drive security key failure, cannot access secured configuration
329
Warning
Drive security password from user is invalid
330
Warning
Detected error with the remote battery connector cable
331
Info
Power state change on PD %s from %s to %s
332
Info
Enclosure %s element (SES code 0x%x) status changed
333
Info
PD %s rebuild not possible as HDD/CacheCade software mix is not
supported in a drive group
334
Info
Copyback cannot be started on PD %s from %s, as HDD/CacheCade
software mix is not supported in a drive group
335
Info
VD bad block table on %s is cleared
336
Caution
SAS topology error: 0x%lx
337
Info
VD cluster of medium errors corrected for %s at %lx (on %s at %lx)
338
Info
Controller requests a host bus rescan
339
Info
Controller repurposed and factory defaults restored
340
Info
Drive security key binding updated
341
Critical
Controller encountered a fatal error and was reset
342
Info
Snapshots enabled on %s (Repository %s)
343
Info
Snapshots disabled on %s (Repository %s) by the user
344
Critical
Snapshots disabled on %s (Repository %s), due to a fatal error
345
Info
Snapshot created on %s at %s
346
Info
Snapshot deleted on %s at %s
347
Info
View created at %s to a snapshot at %s for %s
348
Info
View at %s is deleted, to snapshot at %s for %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
349
Info
Snapshot rollback started on %s from snapshot at %s
350
Fatal
Snapshot rollback on %s internally aborted for snapshot at %s
351
Info
Snapshot rollback on %s completed for snapshot at %s
352
Info
Snapshot rollback progress for snapshot at %s, on %s is %s
353
Warning
Snapshot space for %s in snapshot repository %s, is 80%% full
354
Critical
Snapshot space for %s in snapshot repository %s, is full
355
Warning
View at %s to snapshot at %s, is 80%% full on snapshot repository %s
356
Critical
View at %s to snapshot at %s, is full on snapshot repository %s
357
Critical
Snapshot repository lost for %s
358
Warning
Snaphot repository restored for %s
359
Critical
Snapshot encountered an unexpected internal error: 0x%lx
360
Info
Auto Snapshot enabled on %s (snapshot repository %s)
361
Info
Auto Snapshot disabled on %s (snapshot repository %s)
362
Critical
Configuration command could not be committed to disk, please retry
363
Info
COD on %s updated as it was stale
364
Warning
Power state change failed on %s (from %s to %s)
365
Warning
%s is not available
366
Info
%s is available
367
Info
%s is used for CacheCade with capacity 0x%lx logical blocks
368
Info
%s is using CacheCade %s
369
Info
%s is no longer using CacheCade %s
370
Critical
Snapshot deleted due to resource constraints for %s in snapshot
repository %s
371
Warning
Auto Snapshot failed for %s in snapshot repository %s
372
Warning
Controller reset on-board expander
373
Warning
CacheCade (%s) capacity changed and is now 0x%lx logical blocks
374
Warning
Battery cannot initiate transparent learn cycles
375
Info
Premium feature %s key was applied for - %s
376
Info
Snapshot schedule properties changed on %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
328
Number
329
Type
Description
377
Info
Snapshot scheduled action is due on %s
378
Info
Performance Metrics: collection command 0x%lx
379
Info
Premium feature %s key was transferred - %s
380
Info
Premium feature serial number %s
381
Warning
Premium feature serial number mismatched. Key-vault serial num - %s
382
Warning
Battery cannot support data retention for more than %d hours. Please
replace the battery
383
Info
%s power policy changed to %s (from %s)
384
Warning
%s cannot transition to max power savings
385
Info
Host driver is loaded and operational
386
Info
%s mirror broken
387
Info
%s mirror joined
388
Warning
%s link %d failure in wide port
389
Info
%s link %d restored in wide port
390
Info
Memory module FRU is %s
391
Warning
Cache-vault power pack is sub-optimal. Please replace the pack
392
Warning
Foreign configuration auto-import did not import any drives
393
Warning
Cache-vault microcode update required
394
Warning
CacheCade (%s) capacity exceeds maximum allowed size, extra
capacity is not used
395
Warning
LD (%s) protection Info lost
396
Info
Diagnostics passed for %s
397
Critical
Diagnostics failed for %s
398
Info
Server Power capability Diagnostic Test Started
399
Info
Drive Cache settings enabled during rebuild for %s
400
Info
Drive Cache settings restored after rebuild for %s
401
Info
Drive %s commissioned as Emergency spare
402
Warning
Reminder: Potential non-optimal configuration due to drive %s
commissioned as emergency spare
403
Info
Consistency Check suspended on %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Number
Type
Description
404
Info
Consistency Check resumed on %s
405
Info
Background Initialization suspended on %s
406
Info
Background Initialization resumed on %
407
Info
Reconstruction suspended on %s
408
Info
Rebuild suspended on %
409
Info
Copyback suspended on %s
410
Info
Reminder: Consistency Check suspended on %
411
Info
Reminder: Background Initialization suspended on %s
412
Info
Reminder: Reconstruction suspended on %s
413
Info
Reminder: Rebuild suspended on %s
414
Info
Reminder: Copyback suspended on %s
415
Info
Reminder: Patrol Read suspended
416
Info
Erase aborted on %s
417
Critical
Erase failed on %s (Error %02x)
418
Progress
Erase progress on %s is %s
419
Info
Erase started on %s
420
Info
Erase completed on %s
421
Info
Erase aborted on %s
422
Critical
Erase failed on %s
423
Progress
Erase progress on %s is %s
424
Info
Erase started on %s
425
Info
Erase complete on %s
426
Warning
Potential leakage during erase on %s
427
Warning
Battery charging was suspended due to high battery temperature
428
Info
NVCache firmware update was successful
429
Warning
NVCache firmware update failed
430
Fatal
%s access blocked as cached data in CacheCade is unavailable
431
Info
CacheCade disassociate started on %s
432
Info
CacheCade disassociate completed on %s
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
330
Number
331
Type
Description
433
Critical
CacheCade disassociate failed on %s
434
Progress
CacheCade disassociate progress on %s is %s
435
Info
CacheCade disassociate aborted by user on %s
436
Info
Link speed changed on SAS port %d and PHY %d
437
Warning
Advanced Software Options was deactivated for - %s
438
Info
%s is now accessible
439
Info
%s is using CacheCade
440
Info
%s is no longer using CacheCade
441
Info
Patrol Read aborted on %s
61440
Info
Monitor has shutdown successfully
61441
Fatal
No controllers detected
61442
Info
Testing the Email Configuration
61443
Fatal
Incompatible Controller
61444
Info
Successful log on to the server
10000
Info
Successful log out from the server
10001
Warning
Full access denied on the server
10002
Info
Server log cleared
65529
Critical
Temperature has exceeded Critical level on Sensor
65530
Warning
Temperature has exceeded Warning level on Sensor
65531
Critical
The Backup Rail Monitor has failed
65532
Critical
SSD Life is exhausted on Slot
65533
Warning
SSD Life is at warning level on Slot
65534
Info
SSD throttling is now removed on Slot
65535
Info
SSD is being throttled on Slot
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Glossary
This chapter provides a glossary for terms used in this document.
A
Absolute state of charge
Predicted remaining battery capacity expressed as a percentage of
Design Capacity. Note that the Absolute State of Charge operation
can return values greater than 100 percent.
Access policy
A virtual drive property indicating what kind of access is allowed for
a particular virtual drive. The possible values are Read/Write, Read
Only, or Blocked.
Alarm enabled
A controller property that indicates whether the controller’s on-board
alarm is enabled.
Alarm present
A controller property that indicates whether the controller has an
on-board alarm. If present and enabled, the alarm is sounded for
certain error conditions.
Array
See Drive group.
Auto learn mode
The controller performs the learn cycle automatically in this mode.
This mode offers the following options:
•
•
•
BBU Auto Learn: Firmware tracks the time since the last learn
cycle and performs a learn cycle when due.
BBU Auto Learn Disabled: Firmware does not monitor or initiate
a learn cycle. You can schedule learn cycles manually.
BBU Auto Learn Warn: Firmware warns about a pending learn
cycle. You can initiate a learn cycle manually. After the learn
cycle is complete, the firmware resets the counter and warns
you when the next learn cycle time is reached.
Auto learn period
Time between learn cycles. A learn cycle is a battery calibration
operation performed periodically by the controller to determine the
condition of the battery.
Average time to empty
One-minute rolling average of the predicted remaining battery life.
Average time to full
Predicted time to charge the battery to a fully charged state based
on the one-minute rolling average of the charge current.
B
Battery module version
Current revision of the battery pack module.
Battery replacement
Warning issued by firmware that the battery can no longer support
the required data retention time.
Battery retention time
Time, in hours, that the battery can maintain the contents of the
cache memory.
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Battery status
Operating status of the battery. Possible values are Missing,
Optimal, Failed, Degraded (need attention), and Unknown.
Battery type
Possible values are intelligent Battery Backup Unit (BBU), intelligent
Battery Backup Unit (iBBU), intelligent Transportable Battery
Backup Unit (iTBBU), and ZCR Legacy.
BBU present
A controller property that indicates whether the controller has an
on-board battery backup unit to provide power in case of a power
failure.
BGI rate
A controller property indicating the rate at which the background
initialization of virtual drives will be carried out.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System. The computer BIOS is stored on a flash
memory chip. The BIOS controls communications between the
microprocessor and peripheral devices, such as the keyboard and
the video controller, and miscellaneous functions, such as system
messages.
C
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Cache
Fast memory that holds recently accessed data. Use of cache
memory speeds subsequent access to the same data. When data is
read from or written to main memory, a copy is also saved in cache
memory with the associated main memory address. The cache
memory software monitors the addresses of subsequent reads to
see whether the required data is already stored in cache memory. If
it is already in cache memory (a cache hit), it is read from cache
memory immediately and the main memory read is aborted (or not
started). If the data is not cached (a cache miss), it is fetched from
main memory and saved in cache memory.
Cache flush interval
A controller property that indicates how often the data cache is
flushed.
Caching
The process of using a high-speed memory buffer to speed up a
computer system’s overall read/write performance. The cache can
be accessed at a higher speed than a drive subsystem. To improve
read performance, the cache usually contains the most recently
accessed data, as well as data from adjacent drive sectors. To
improve write performance, the cache can temporarily store data in
accordance with its write back policies.
Capacity
A property that indicates the amount of storage space on a drive or
virtual drive.
Coerced capacity
A drive property indicating the capacity to which a drive has been
coerced (forced) to make it compatible with other drives that are
nominally the same capacity. For example, a 4-GB drive from one
manufacturer might be 4,196 MB, and a 4-GB from another
manufacturer might be 4,128 MB. These drives could be coerced to
a usable capacity of 4,088 MB each for use in a drive group in a
storage configuration.
Coercion mode
A controller property indicating the capacity to which drives of
nominally identical capacity are coerced (forced) to make them
usable in a storage configuration.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Consistency check
An operation that verifies that all stripes in a virtual drive with a
redundant RAID level are consistent and that automatically fixes
any errors. For RAID 1 drive groups, this operation verifies correct
mirrored data for each stripe.
Consistency check rate
The rate at which consistency check operations are run on a
computer system.
Controller
A chip that controls the transfer of data between the microprocessor
and memory or between the microprocessor and a peripheral
device such as a drive. RAID controllers perform RAID functions
such as striping and mirroring to provide data protection.
Copyback
The procedure used to copy data from a source drive of a virtual
drive to a destination drive that is not a part of the virtual drive. The
copyback operation is often used to create or restore a specific
physical configuration for a drive group (for example, a specific
arrangement of drive group members on the device I/O buses). The
copyback operation can be run automatically or manually.
Typically, a drive fails or is expected to fail, and the data is rebuilt on
a hot spare. The failed drive is replaced with a new drive. Then the
data is copied from the hot spare to the new drive, and the hot spare
reverts from a rebuild drive to its original hot spare status. The
copyback operation runs as a background activity, and the virtual
drive is still available online to the host.
Current
Measure of the current flowing to (+) or from (-) the battery, reported
in milliamperes.
Current write policy
A virtual drive property that indicates whether the virtual drive
currently supports Write Back mode or Write Through mode.
•
•
Cycle count
In Write Back mode, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the controller cache has
received all of the data in a transaction.
In Write Through mode, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the drive subsystem has
received all of the data in a transaction.
The count is based on the number of times the near fully charged
battery has been discharged to a level below the cycle count
threshold.
D
Default write policy
A virtual drive property indicating whether the default write policy is
Write Through or Write Back.
•
•
In Write Back mode, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the controller cache has
received all of the data in a transaction.
In Write Through mode, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the drive subsystem has
received all of the data in a transaction.
Design capacity
Designed charge capacity of the battery, measured in milliamperehour units (mAh).
Design charge capacity
remaining
Amount of the charge capacity remaining, relative to the battery
pack design capacity.
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Design voltage
Designed voltage capacity of the battery, measured in millivolts
(mV).
Device chemistry
Possible values are NiMH (nickel metal hydride) and LiON (lithium
ion).
Device ID
A controller or drive property indicating the manufacturer-assigned
device ID.
Device port count
A controller property indicating the number of ports on the controller.
Drive cache policy
A virtual drive property indicating whether the virtual drive cache is
enabled, disabled, or unchanged from its previous setting.
Drive group
A group of drives attached to a RAID controller on which one or
more virtual drives can be created. All virtual drives in the drive
group use all of the drives in the drive group.
Drive state
A drive property indicating the status of the drive. A drive can be in
one of the following states:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unconfigured Good – A drive accessible to the RAID
controller but not configured as a part of a virtual drive or as a
hot spare.
Hot Spare – A drive that is configured as a hot spare.
Online – A drive that can be accessed by the RAID controller
and will be part of the virtual drive.
Rebuild – A drive to which data is being written to restore full
redundancy for a virtual drive.
Failed – A drive that was originally configured as Online or Hot
Spare, but on which the firmware detects an unrecoverable
error.
Unconfigured Bad – A drive on which the firmware detects an
unrecoverable error; the drive was Unconfigured Good or the
drive could not be initialized.
Missing – A drive that was Online, but which has been
removed from its location.
Offline – A drive that is part of a virtual drive but which has
invalid data as far as the RAID configuration is concerned.
None – A drive with an unsupported flag set. An Unconfigured
Good or Offline drive that has completed the prepare for
removal operation.
Drive state drive
subsystem
A collection of drives and the hardware that controls them and
connects them to one or more controllers. The hardware can include
an intelligent controller, or the drives can attach directly to a system
I/O bus controller.
Drive type
A drive property indicating the characteristics of the drive.
E
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EKM
External Key Management
Estimated time to
recharge
Estimated time necessary to complete recharge of the battery at the
current charge rate.
Expected margin of
error
Indicates how accurate the reported battery capacity is in terms of
percentage.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
F
Fast initialization
A mode of initialization that quickly writes zeroes to the first and last
sectors of the virtual drive. This allows you to immediately start
writing data to the virtual drive while the initialization is running in the
background.
Fault tolerance
The capability of the drive subsystem to undergo a single drive
failure per drive group without compromising data integrity and
processing capability. The Intel® RAID Controllers provide fault
tolerance through redundant drive groups in RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10,
50, and 60. They also support hot spare drives and the auto-rebuild
feature.
Firmware
Software stored in read-only memory (ROM) or programmable ROM
(PROM). Firmware is often responsible for the behavior of a system
when it is first turned on. A typical example is a monitor program in a
system that loads the full operating system from a drive or from a
network and then passes control to the operating system.
Foreign configuration
A RAID configuration that already exists on a replacement set of
drives that you install in a computer system. The GUI management
utility software allows you to import the existing configuration to the
RAID controller, or you can clear the configuration so you can
create a new one.
Formatting
The process of writing a specific value to all data fields on a drive, to
map out unreadable or bad sectors. Because most drives are
formatted when manufactured, formatting is usually done only if a
drive generates many media errors.
Full charge capacity
Amount of charge that can be placed in the battery. This value
represents the last measured full discharge of the battery. This
value is updated on each learn cycle when the battery undergoes a
qualified discharge from nearly full to a low battery level.
G
Gas gauge status
Hexadecimal value that represents the status flag bits in the gas
gauge status register.
H
Hole
In the GUI management utility, a hole is a block of empty space in a
drive group that can be used to define a virtual drive.
Host interface
A controller property indicating the type of interface used by the
computer host system; for example, PCIX.
Host port count
A controller property indicating the number of host data ports
currently in use.
Host system
Any computer system on which the controller is installed.
Mainframes, workstations, and standalone desktop systems can all
be considered host systems.
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Hot spare
A standby drive that can automatically replace a failed drive in a
virtual drive and prevent data from being lost. A hot spare can be
dedicated to a single redundant drive group or it can be part of the
global hot spare pool for all drive groups controlled by the controller.
When a drive fails, the GUI management utility software
automatically uses a hot spare to replace it and then rebuilds the
data from the failed drive to the hot spare. Hot spares can be used
in RAID 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60 storage configurations.
I
Initialization
The process of writing zeros to the data fields of a virtual drive and,
in fault-tolerant RAID levels, generating the corresponding parity to
put the virtual drive in a Ready state. Initialization erases all
previous data on the drives. Drive groups work without initialization,
but they can fail a consistency check because the parity fields have
not been generated.
IO policy
A virtual drive property indicating whether Cached I/O or Direct I/O
is being used. In Cached I/O mode, all reads are buffered in cache
memory. In Direct I/O mode, reads are not buffered in cache
memory. Data is transferred to cache and the host concurrently. If
the same data block is read again, it comes from cache memory.
(The IO Policy applies to reads on a specific virtual drive. It does not
affect the read ahead cache.)
L
Learning cycle
A battery calibration operation performed by a RAID controller
periodically to determine the condition of the battery. You can start
battery learn cycles manually or automatically.
Learn delay interval
Length of time between automatic learn cycles. You can delay the
start of the learn cycles for up to 168 hours (seven days).
Learn mode
Mode for the battery auto learn cycle. Possible values are Auto,
Disabled, and Warning.
Learn state
Indicates that a learn cycle is in progress.
Load-balancing
A method of spreading work between two or more computers,
network links, CPUs, drives, or other resources. Load balancing is
used to maximize resource use, throughput, or response time.
Low-power storage
mode
Storage mode that causes the battery pack to use less power, which
saves battery power consumption.
LKM
Local Key Management
M
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Manufacturing date
Date on which the battery pack assembly was manufactured.
Manufacturing name
Device code that indicates the manufacturer of the components
used to make the battery assembly.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Max error
Expected margin of error (percentage) in the state of charge
calculation.
For example, when Max Error returns 10 percent and Relative State
of Charge returns 50 percent, the Relative State of Charge is more
likely between 50 percent and 60 percent. The gas gauge sets Max
Error to 100 percent on a full reset. The gas gauge sets Max Error to
2 percent on completion of a learn cycle, unless the gas gauge limits
the learn cycle to the +512/–256-mAh maximum adjustment values.
If the learn cycle is limited, the gas gauge sets Max Error to 8
percent unless Max Error was already below 8 percent. In this case
Max Error does not change. The gas gauge increments Max Error
by 1 percent after four increments of Cycle Count without a learn
cycle.
Maximum learn delay
from current start time
The maximum length of time between automatic learn cycles. You
can delay the start of a learn cycle for a maximum of 168 hours (7
days).
Media error count
A drive property indicating the number of errors that have been
detected on the drive media.
Migration
The process of moving virtual drives and hot spare drives from one
controller to another by disconnecting the drives from one controller
and attaching them to another one. The firmware on the new
controller will detect and retain the virtual drive information on the
drives.
Mirroring
The process of providing complete data redundancy with two drives
by maintaining an exact copy of one drive’s data on the second
drive. If one drive fails, the contents of the other drive can be used to
maintain the integrity of the system and to rebuild the failed drive.
Multipathing
The firmware provides support for detecting and using multiple
paths from the RAID controllers to the SAS devices that are in
enclosures. Devices connected to enclosures have multiple paths to
them. With redundant paths to the same port of a device, if one path
fails, another path can be used to communicate between the
controller and the device. Using multiple paths with load balancing,
instead of a single path, can increase reliability through redundancy.
N
Name
A virtual drive property indicating the user-assigned name of the
virtual drive.
Next learn time
Time at which the next learn cycle starts.
Non-redundant
configuration
A RAID 0 virtual drive with data striped across two or more drives
but without drive mirroring or parity. This provides for high data
throughput but offers no protection in case of a drive failure.
NVRAM
Acronym for nonvolatile random access memory. A storage system
that does not lose the data stored on it when power is removed.
NVRAM is used to store firmware and configuration data on the
RAID controller.
NVRAM present
A controller property indicating whether an NVRAM is present on
the controller.
NVRAM size
A controller property indicating the capacity of the controller’s
NVRAM.
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O
Offline
A drive is offline when it is part of a virtual drive but its data is not
accessible to the virtual drive.
P
Patrol read
A process that checks the drives in a storage configuration for drive
errors that could lead to drive failure and lost data. The patrol read
operation can find and sometimes fix any potential problem with
drives before host access. This enhances overall system
performance because error recovery during a normal I/O operation
might not be necessary.
Patrol read rate
The user-defined rate at which patrol read operations are run on a
computer system.
Predicted battery
capacity status (hold
24hr charge)
Indicates whether the battery capacity supports a 24-hour data
retention time.
Product info
A drive property indicating the vendor-assigned model number of
the drive.
Product name
A controller property indicating the manufacturing name of the
controller.
R
RAID
A group of multiple, independent drives that provide high
performance by increasing the number of drives used for saving and
accessing data.
A RAID drive group improves input/output (I/O) performance and
data availability. The group of drives appears to the host system as
a single storage unit or as multiple virtual drives. Data throughput
improves because several drives can be accessed simultaneously.
RAID configurations also improve data storage availability and fault
tolerance. Redundant RAID levels (RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and
60) provide data protection.
339
RAID 0
Uses data striping on two or more drives to provide high data
throughput, especially for large files in an environment that requires
no data redundancy.
RAID 00
Uses data striping on two or more drives in a spanned drive group to
provide high data throughput, especially for large files in an
environment that requires no data redundancy.
RAID 1
Uses data mirroring on pairs of drives so that data written to one
drive is simultaneously written to the other drive. RAID 1 works well
for small databases or other small applications that require
complete data redundancy.
RAID 5
Uses data striping and parity data across three or more drives
(distributed parity) to provide high data throughput and data
redundancy, especially for applications that require random access.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
RAID 6
Uses data striping and parity data across three or more drives
(distributed parity) to provide high data throughput and data
redundancy, especially for applications that require random access.
RAID 6 can survive the failure of two drives.
RAID 10
A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1 that uses data striping across
two mirrored drive groups. It provides high data throughput and
complete data redundancy.
RAID 50
A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 5 that uses data striping across
two drive groups with parity data. It provides high data throughput
and complete data redundancy.
RAID 60
A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 6 that uses data striping across
two drive groups with parity data. It provides high data throughput
and complete data redundancy. RAID 60 can survive the failure of
two drives in each RAID set in the spanned drive group.
RAID level
A virtual drive property indicating the RAID level of the virtual drive.
Intel® RAID Controllers support RAID levels 0, 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and
60.
RAID migration
A feature in RAID subsystems that allows changing a RAID level to
another level without powering down the system.
Raw capacity
A drive property indicating the actual full capacity of the drive before
any coercion mode is applied to reduce the capacity.
Read policy
A controller attribute indicating the current Read Policy mode. In
Always Read Ahead mode, the controller reads sequentially ahead
of requested data and stores the additional data in cache memory,
anticipating that the data will be needed soon. This speeds up reads
for sequential data, but there is little improvement when accessing
random data. In No Read Ahead mode (known as Normal mode in
WebBIOS), read ahead capability is disabled.
Rebuild
The regeneration of all data to a replacement drive in a redundant
virtual drive after a drive failure. A drive rebuild normally occurs
without interrupting normal operations on the affected virtual drive,
though some degradation of performance of the drive subsystem
can occur.
Rebuild rate
The percentage of central processing unit (CPU) resources devoted
to rebuilding data onto a new drive after a drive in a storage
configuration has failed.
Reclaim virtual drive
A method of undoing the configuration of a new virtual drive. If you
highlight the virtual drive in the Configuration Wizard and click
Reclaim, the individual drives are removed from the virtual drive
configuration.
Reconstruction rate
The user-defined rate at which a drive group modification operation
is carried out.
Redundancy
A property of a storage configuration that prevents data from being
lost when one drive fails in the configuration.
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Redundant
configuration
A virtual drive that has redundant data on drives in the drive group
can be used to rebuild a failed drive. The redundant data can be
parity data striped across multiple drives in a drive group, or it can
be a complete mirrored copy of the data stored on a second drive.
A redundant configuration protects the data in case a drive fails in
the configuration.
Relative state of charge
Predicted remaining battery capacity expressed as a percentage of
Full Charge Capacity.
Remaining capacity
The amount of remaining charge capacity of the battery as stated in
milliamp hours. This value represents the available capacity or
energy in the battery at any given time. The gas gauge adjusts this
value for charge, self-discharge, and leakage compensation factors.
Revertible hot spare
When you use the Replace Member procedure, after data is copied
from a hot spare to a new drive, the hot spare reverts from a rebuild
drive to its original hot spare status.
Revision level
A drive property that indicates the revision level of the drive’s
firmware.
Run time to empty
Predicted remaining battery life at the present rate of discharge in
minutes.
S
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SAS
Acronym for Serial-Attached SCSI. SAS is a serial, point-to-point,
enterprise-level device interface that leverages the Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI) protocol set. The SAS interface provides
improved performance, simplified cabling, smaller connectors, lower
pin count, and lower power requirements when compared to parallel
SCSI.
SATA
Acronym for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. A physical
storage interface standard. SATA is a serial link that provides pointto-point connections between devices. The thinner serial cables
allow for better airflow within the system and permit smaller chassis
designs.
SCSI device type
A drive property indicating the type of the device, such as drive.
Serial no.
A controller property indicating the manufacturer-assigned serial
number.
Strip size
The portion of a stripe that resides on a single drive in the drive
group.
Stripe size
A virtual drive property indicating the length of the interleaved data
segments that the RAID controller writes across multiple drives, not
including parity drives. For example, consider a stripe that contains
64 KB of drive space and has 16 KB of data residing on each drive
in the stripe. In this case, the stripe size is 64 KB and the strip size is
16 KB. The user can select the stripe size.
Intel® RAID Software User Guide
Striping
A technique used to write data across all drives in a virtual drive.
Each stripe consists of consecutive virtual drive data addresses that
are mapped in fixed-size units to each drive in the virtual drive using
a sequential pattern. For example, if the virtual drive includes five
drives, the stripe writes data to drives one through five without
repeating any of the drives. The amount of space consumed by a
stripe is the same on each drive. Striping by itself does not provide
data redundancy. Striping in combination with parity does provide
data redundancy.
Subvendor ID
A controller property that lists additional vendor ID information about
the controller.
T
Temperature
Temperature of the battery pack, measured in Celsius.
U
Uncorrectable error
count
A controller property that lists the number of uncorrectable errors
detected on drives connected to the controller. If the error count
reaches a certain level, a drive will be marked as failed.
V
Vendor ID
A controller property indicating the vendor-assigned ID number of
the controller.
Vendor info
A drive property listing the name of the vendor of the drive.
Virtual drive
A storage unit created by a RAID controller from one or more drives.
Although a virtual drive can be created from several drives, it is seen
by the operating system as a single drive. Depending on the RAID
level used, the virtual drive can retain redundant data in case of a
drive failure.
Virtual drive state
A virtual drive property indicating the condition of the virtual drive.
Examples include Optimal and Degraded.
W
Write-back
In Write-Back Caching mode, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the controller cache has
received all of the data in a drive write transaction. Data is written to
the drive subsystem in accordance with policies set up by the
controller.
These policies include the amount of dirty/clean cache lines, the
number of cache lines available, and elapsed time from the last
cache flush.
Write policy
See Default write policy.
Write-through
In Write-Through Caching mode, the controller sends a data
transfer completion signal to the host when the drive subsystem has
received all of the data and has completed the write transaction to
the drive.
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