International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 793-797 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com The Development of a Closed-circuit camera Error Alarming System Using Current Detection Technique Lee Yong Hui Professor, Dept., of Steel industry Engineering, Shinsung Univ., Daehackro 1, Jungmimyun Dangin city, ChungNam, South Korea E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Kim Hwan Seok, Kim Baek Ki Professor, Dept., Information & Telecommunication Engineering Gangneung Wonju National Univ., Wonju city, Kangwondo, South Korea E-mail: email@example.com, bkkim@firstname.lastname@example.org detection techniques.[1,2] The system allows the confirm the operational status of a closed-circuit camera with the naked eye, even without a monitor or DVR program after the cameras are installed Abstract In the present study, a system that gives an alarm to a user when an error occurs to a closed-circuit camera using current detection technique was developed. In existing error detection methods, recorded data on a DVR are checked or real-time monitoring is used to find errors in a camera. Therefore, it takes a considerable amount of time to find the source of error. The error alarming system developed in this paper enables easy detection of errors with the naked eye or an alarm sound. The detection circuit was designed for maximum current of 0.5W or 1A and using an A/D embedded with 10bit MCU. The current was set to the reference level using a potentiometer. A 2-color LED was used to monitor voltage and current status; When it is normal, it turns ‘green’ and when it is not normal; it turns ‘red’. When error occurs to a camera alarm buzzer flickers every 0.5 second with a loud sound. This system was designed in 4 channel modes by the number of cameras connected to the system: 1-channel, 4channel, 8-channel, and 16-channel. Closed-Circuit Camera Existing closed-circuit cameras are connected with coaxial cables, a DVR, and a power source. When multiple cameras are connected, a TV monitor is the only way to check the operational status of the cameras through a DVR. Furthermore, it is not possible to confirm the proper status of recording or check errors in the cameras. Therefore, manual disconnection of the cameras from power and connection plugs one by one is necessary to find the source of an error in the power cable. Moreover, it is difficult to determine whether there is an error or not with the naked eye, so the recorded images on the DVR have to be restored to track the timing of error. Even if the time of the error is found, it is impossible to gain the recording data of actual happening. More than, anything else, the weakness of the current system is the difficulty of confirming the operational condition. To tackle these problems, this study developed a system to detect current running condition between the power source and a closed-circuit camera and displays error status on LED device accompanied by a buzzer sound so a user can easily be made aware of an error and take proper action against it. Figure 1 shows the configuration of the 1-channel system unit developed in this study. Keywords: Closed Circuit Camera, Voltage regulator, Shunt resistor, Analog to Digital Converter, Introduction A closed-circuit camera is a monitoring system that is installed where it can always be observed by a person to monitor or record possible accidents or such situations in real time. As the industry gets more complicated and diversified, a closed-circuit cameras are used more widely and diversely. Furthermore, it is a rising trend that a closed-circuit camera is often used as a tool for accident prevention or evidence collection after accident. We frequently witness safety accidents in public facilities or general construction sites every day. It is the recorded image data of a closed-circuit camera that gives a decisive clue to a safety accident after it happens. However, it usually happens that such closed-circuit cameras do not function properly due to negligent care such as lack of regular checkups or inspections. In addition, it is burdensome to confirm the recorded data because one has to go to the control center connected to the closed-circuit cameras. For this reason, the present study developed a property control power distributor to detect errors in a closed-circuit camera system using current Figure 1: Configuration of the 1-channel system unit connected to a closed-circuit camera Error-Sensing Circuit Using Current Detection Technique 793 International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 793-797 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com B. 8-Channel Closed-Circuit Camera Circuit A shunt was designed for 0.5ohm, a maximum current of 1A, and 0.5W or over (P = 1A2 * 0.5). A/D converter #17 was designed with embedded 10bit M.C.U.; A/D #1 ~ AD#8 with external 8-channel 10bit; and A/D #9 ~ AD#16 with external 8-channel 10bit. The reference current was set using a VR. A 2-color LED[16, 17] was used to monitor voltage and current status (green for normal and red for abnormal or an error). A buzzer sound was designed to occur when abnormal (on and off every 0.5 second). The RS-232C was used as a PC communication port to check the state of the equipment. Here is the summary of operations. To check for an error in the current, this system detects the difference in voltage at both ends of the shunt to know the amount of current consumed by a closed-circuit camera. In general, the voltage difference at both ends of the shunt is 50mV per 0.1A (V=IR). A. 1-Channel Closed-Circuit Camera Circuit Currently, it is difficult and time consuming to find the source of the failure of a closed-circuit camera (camera short circuit, inferior power supply adapter or something else). Therefore, the existing countermeasure is to choose normal status of the electric flow (current) as the prime criterion to determine the error. However, the power supply devices or wires of most existing closed-circuit cameras are buried in a ceiling or inside a wall so that it is very difficult to confirm the error status. Furthermore, when a power supply device works normally, we have to connect a monitor to a DVR or a closed-circuit camera directly to find the error. Therefore, it requires a long time on site where the camera has to be disconnected for inspection. With this inconvenience in mind, the present study developed separate circuit equipment to control error, displaying power status, operating status, power, and line status of a camera at a single view. A Shunt [4, 5] was designed for 0.5ohm, maximum current of 1A, and 0.5W or over. A/D converter was designed with 10bit M.C.U. The reference current was set using VR.[7-10] A 2-color LED was used to monitor voltage and current status: when it is normal, it turns ‘green’ and when it is not normal; it turns ‘red’. When an error occurs to a camera, an alarm buzzer flickers every 0.5 seconds with a loud sound. To check for an error in the current,[11,12] this system detects the difference in voltage at both ends of the shunt to know the amount of current consumed by the closed-circuit camera. In general, the voltage difference at both ends of the shunt is 50mV per 0.1A (V=IR). Therefore, this study amplified the resolution of the detected voltage using a DC bias circuit and detected A/D. The proposed system was designed with a maximum of 1A as current consumption and Shunt resistance over 0.5W. A/D conversion data was 0 ~ 1023. To examine voltage, the input voltage was divided through a DC bias circuit[13, 14] and detected for A/D. This system could detect up to a maximum of 16V and the data was converted in to a 0.1V unit (e.g. 12.3V -> 123). The reference level of the current running through the closed-circuit camera was set using a VR. Converted data was A/D conversion data (0 ~ 1023). For the voltage output state, the input voltage was detected. When it is abnormal, the ‘red’ LED was designed to turn on with a buzzer sound. When it is normal, it was designed to turn on a ‘green’ LED. In the case of the input voltage deviating less than 10% at +12V, a ‘red’ LED was designed to flicker every 0.5 second and when it exceeds 10% at +12V, ‘red’ LED was designed to keep turning on. For the current output state, the detected current was compared with the reference current. When the difference is within ±20, the ‘green’ LED turns on and when it exceeds the limit, the ‘red’ LED was designed to turn on. The ‘red’ LED was designed to flicker very every 0.5 seconds when detected current is 20 less than the reference current. When it exceeds 20, the ‘red’ LED was designed to remain ‘red’. It was also designed that a buzzer sounds on and off every 0.5 second, if there is an error (abnormal) in either the current or the voltage. When there is no error at all, it was designed to have no output buzzer sound. Figure 2: The Diagram of an 8-channel closed-circuit camera error detection circuit Therefore, this study amplified the resolution of detected voltage using a DC bias circuit and detected A/D. The proposed system was designed with a maximum 1A as the current consumption and a shunt resistance of over 0.5W. A/D conversion data was 0 ~ 1023. To examine the voltage, the input voltage was divided through a DC Bias circuit and detected for A/D. This system can detect up to a maximum of 16V and the data is converted in 0.1V units(e.g. 12.3V -> 123). The reference level of the current running through a closed-circuit camera was set using a potentiometer. Converted data was A/D conversion data, which is 0 ~ 1023. For voltage output state, voltage input was detected. It was designed to turn on a ‘red’ LED when input voltage deviates 10% at +12V. When it is normal, a ‘green’ LED was designed to turn on. If the input voltage stays within 10% at +12V, The ‘red’ LED 794 International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 793-797 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com was designed to flicker every 0.5 second. When the input voltage deviates more than 10% at +12V, the ‘red’ LED was designed stay on. For the current output state, the ‘red’ LED was designed to flicker very every 0.5 second when the detected current is 20 less than reference current. When it exceeds 20, the ‘red’ LED was designed to remain ‘red’. It was also designed that a buzzer sounds on intermitantly every 0.5 second if there is an error(abnormal) in either the current or the voltage. When there is no error at all, it was designed not to output a buzzer sound. RS-232C was used as PC communication port to check the state of the equipment and the system was configured in terminal command. Communication speed was set to 19200bps; no parity; and 8bit. Figure 2 shows the diagram of an 8-channel closedcircuit camera error detection circuit. VR Input Circuit for Current Ranging To set the range of the current error, a VR was used to take voltage input and deliver it into a MICOM A/D converter port. It was converted into A/D. R18, C13, and C14 circuits are filter circuits to reduce the impact of noise. Detailed Design of Circuit, Manufacturing, and Test Results Constant Voltage Circuit for the Circuit 5V of constant voltage is necessary to run MICOM and the internal circuit. 12V input power of the closed-circuit cameras was converted into 5V voltage source by constant voltage of regulator (See Figure 3 Constant Voltage Circuit) Figure 5: VR input circuit Closed-Circuit Camera Current Check Circuit The current check circuit unit consists of mainly 3 circuits. First, current-measuring shunt resistance: an applied voltage source is supplied to a closed-circuit camera through a shunt. Here, potential difference takes place in shunt resistance 0.5ohm. According to the formula I=V/R, when the voltage at both ends of the shunt is applied to the formula, it results in running current (e.g. 0.1/0.5 = 0.2A runs through a closedcircuit camera when VShunt =0.1V). Second, differential amplifying circuit: To detect the current running through a shunt as ‘V’, a differential amplifying circuit was used and this voltage gap at both ends of shunt was obtained. Third, non-inverting amplifying circuit: the voltage picked out at both ends of the shunt is just 0.5V per 1A. Therefore, a non-inverting amplifying circuit was used to amplify signals. The amplification degrees are as follows Figure 3: Constant voltage circuit Voltage Check Circuit To check the 12V voltage, it was divided into fourths using voltage-dividing resistance. The divided voltage was entered into the MICOM A/D converter port and converted from analogue to digital (A/D). Here, the input range of the A/D converter was set below 5V. R17, C11, and C12 circuits are filter circuits to reduce the impact of noise. Figure 4: Voltage check circuit Figure 6: Closed-circuit camera current check circuit 795 International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 793-797 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com which LED turns all off due to short power. 9(c) shows the case of a ‘RED’ LED with a buzzer sound where there is error in the wire line to a camera or a camera has an error in it. MICOM Circuit It is a PIC16F1824 MICOM embedded with an A/D converter. It is also embedded with general I/O and UART communication (asynchronous communication method +5V). J3 connector is for UART communication and J2 is used for programing MICOM. LED Control Circuit Common Cathode type 2-Color LED displays Green/Red. MICOM outputs HIGH (+5V) to turn a LED color in request. (a) Red LED turns on with buzzer sound (b) LED turns all off due to a short in power Figure 7: LED control circuit Buzzer Control Circuit To produce a buzzer sound, it should be switched between on and off at 2.5KHz frequency. Therefore, when the buzzer sound outputs, MICOM yields a square wave of 2.5KHz. When a buzzer sound is not made, the MICOM does not output. (c) RED LED with buzzer sound as a result of an error in the wire line (d) Vmax = 1.20V, Vmin(1)=400mV Figure 8: Buzzer control circuit Figure 9 shows the screen of the developed 1-channel test products. As seen in Figure 9(a), a red LED turns on accompanied by a buzzer sound when there is an error in a closed-circuit camera. And Figure 9(b) shows the state in (e) Vmax=12.2V, Vmin(1)=11.6V 796 International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 793-797 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com   (f) The case of the closed-circuit camera in a normal state    (g) The case of the closed-circuit camera with an error  Figure 9: Developed 1-channel test products When it was measured with an oscilloscope and an error was confirmed, it turned out Vmax = 1.20V, Vmin(1)=400mV as seen in Figure 9(d) and when it was free of error, the output was Vmax=12.2V, Vmin(1)=11.6V like Figure 9(e). Figure 9(f) shows the case of normal closed-circuit camera while Figure 9(g) shows the case of the closed-circuit camera with an error.   Conclusion To find out the error status of an existing closed-circuit camera, every each of the connections to the camera has to be checked. It takes a considerable amount of time has a high. In this respect, the present study developed a system to give a user alarm where an error occurs to a closed-circuit camera by using current detection techniques. This system allows naked eye error detection of a camera. In addition, a buzzer sound informs of an error. This study manufactured the expandable system to connect to one camera (1-channel), 4-channel, 8-channel and 16-channel. This system determines an error by sensed state of current and displays a green LED for no error and a red LED for an error with a buzzer sound to inform the user of the presence of an error. Therefore, it can be used in the field right way. It is expected that the system developed and proposed in this study will contribute to managing closed-circuit cameras.      References    Lee Yong Hui, “Technical Report : A Study on CCTV Operation and Failure” Shinsung R&DB Foundation, Technical Report, Vol.1, pp.9-10, Dec., 2012. 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