State of charge of GB - Scottish and Southern Energy Power
State of Charge of GB
November 2013
Peter Lang
Stewart Reid
Ian Lloyd
Philip Bale
Alan Collinson
Dan Randles
Esther Dudek
UK Power
Networks
Scottish and
Southern
Northern
Powergrid
SP Energy
Networks
Electricity
North West
EA Technology
Ltd
(UKPN)
(SSE)
(NPg)
Western
Power
Distribution
(WPD)
(SPEN)
(ENW)
(EATL)
Abstract—This paper is a summary of the electrical
energy storage installations connected to GB
distribution networks by GB Distribution Network
Operators (DNOs). It demonstrates the level of
activity and the number of installations which have
been or will be connected in the near future. Details
of size, technology, purpose and some of the
expected benefits being realised are provided.
Index Terms—energy storage, power distribution,
smart grids.
I.
INTRODUCTION
The Energy Storage Operators Forum (ESOF) was
established in May 2012 as a forum to facilitate sharing
of experiences between member DNOs. A number of
DNOs have installed and continue to install electrical
energy storage systems. The ESOF members have
produced this White Paper to illustrate the level of
activity in GB amongst the DNOs that has been funded
by the Low Carbon Networks Fund (LCNF) and
Innovative Funding Incentive (IFI) established by
Ofgem, [1][2]. Currently there is 5.1 MW and 6.4 MWh
commissioned with an additional 7.2 MW and 13.8
MWh either under construction or being planned.
II.
Location
Wooler
Wooler
Maltby
Darlington
Bristol
Shetland
Milton
Keynes
Leighton
Buzzard
Willenhall
Shetland
Nairn
Installation Status
November 2013
November 2013
November 2013
November 2013
Under construction
Under construction
Under construction
Power
100 kW
50 kW
50 kW
50 kW
90 kW
1 MW
150 kW
Capacity
200 kWh
100 kWh
100 kWh
100 kWh
up to
321 kWh
3 MWh
450 kWh
Under construction
6 MW
10 MWh
2 MW
1 MW
100 kW
375 kWh
6 MWh
150 kWh
Planned
Decommissioned
Decommissioned
III.
TECHNOLOGIES
A number of electrical energy storage technologies
have been, or are being trialled. These include: sodium
sulphur; zinc bromine flow cells; sodium nickel
chloride; gel-filled lead acid; and various Li-ion
chemistries including “second-life” EV batteries.
INSTALLATIONS
Installations range from domestic systems through
community-scale
devices
to
utility-scale.
Demonstrations in NPg’s “Customer-Led Network
Revolution”, WPD’s “BRISTOL” and “Falcon”, UKPN’s
Tier 1 [3] and SSE’s various LCNF (Tier 1 and 2) projects
[4],[5] are all delivering learning which is being
disseminated at various electricity storage and
distribution network events. The relevant installation
dates and project status are presented in Table 1, with
their locations presented in Figure 1.
Table 1: The Present Status of GB DNO Projects
Location
Hemsby
Chalvey
Orkney
Bristol
Darlington
Darlington
Installation Status
April 2011
June 2012
June 2013
September 2013
November 2013
November 2013
© UK Distribution Network Operators
Power
200 kW
3x 25 kW
2 MW
6 kW
2.5 MW
100 kW
Capacity
200 kWh
3 x 25 kWh
500 kWh
14.4 kWh
5 MWh
200 kWh
Figure 1: Locations of Energy Storage Systems
IV.
SUPPLIERS
DNOs have used a number of funding mechanisms to
carry out these demonstrations. These include IFI and
LCNF as well as regional or national sources of funding.
Suppliers of energy storage batteries include A123,
Dow Kokam, GE, NGK, Premium Power, SAFT and
Samsung SDI, amongst others.
Power Conversion System (PCS) suppliers, and system
integrators include ABB, Dynapower, Princeton Power,
S&C Electric and Studer amongst others.
Each
technology has its own merits.
V.
BENEFITS REALISED
The obvious benefit has been to alter the demand
profile at the substation at the next higher voltage. For
example, community-connected storage impacts the
secondary distribution substation whereas a grid-scale
device will impact the primary substation where it is
connected.
The PCS allows reactive power to be absorbed or
exported as required to provide voltage support at the
point of connection.
Larger storage devices are expected to provide ancillary
services to National Grid in the form of frequency
response.
Aggregators have shown interest in storage to form
part of their portfolio and as a means to reduce their
risk of imbalance.
On Orkney a third-party-owned installation is providing
SSE with network services and has the potential to
allow more renewables to connect to the island
network, via its inclusion as part of a wider Active
Network Management scheme.
VI.
KNOWLEDGE SHARING
ESOF members share their experiences to benefit their
collective knowledge and to facilitate replication of
effective energy storage solutions.
Safety is paramount in all DNO activities. Our safety
rules only allow access to equipment once it has been
isolated and earthed. Batteries cannot be discharged,
so special procedures have been introduced and staff
trained to allow essential maintenance to be
completed.
Procurement is challenging as specifications and
international standards are few. Who acts as the
energy storage provider? Supply and delivery contracts
with battery suppliers and PCS suppliers have been
shown to work. There is a third way with a system
integrator who sources and integrates all the main
components.
There are no clearly agreed methods to calculate the
efficiency. Battery suppliers quote their round trip
efficiency, but an energy storage operator has to
consider the overall efficiency required to transfer
energy to the electricity network. Should the energy
required for the air-conditioning and cooling that is
needed for battery electrical storage be included, for
instance?
Large grid-scale installations are still few in number.
Examples exist in the US and Chile showing large
numbers of containers housing the batteries and
associated equipment.
© UK Distribution Network Operators
The challenge in GB is how can an installation be a
good neighbour and blend into the background?
Community-sized installations can occupy the size of a
small distribution substation. Larger sites can be
accommodated on industrial estates, but sometimes
the energy store is required to be close to the original
primary substation, which is now surrounded by
residential areas. UK Power Networks is building a
purpose-built hall to demonstrate that storage can
blend into the built environment.
VII. OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
In addition to electrical energy storage developments,
DNOs continue to work with other energy storage
developers, demonstrating methods of energy storage
for example Highview’s compressed liquid air in Slough
as presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Other Storage Technologies
Location
Highview
compressed liquid
air
Isentropic
pumped heat
VIII.
Installation
Status
Commissioned
Planning
Power
Capacity
350 kW
2.4 MWh
1.5 MW
6 MWh
CONCLUSIONS
Energy storage systems are becoming an important
part of the delivery of a low carbon future network.
These installations range from domestic, community
and grid scale. All the DNOs are learning from one
another when they share their experiences in the
Energy Storage Operators Forum.
REFERENCES
[1] Ofgem, Low Carbon Network Fund [online]. Available:
https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/electricity/distributionnetworks/network-innovation/low-carbon-networksfund
[2] Ofgem, Innovative Funding Incentive [online] Available:
https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/electricity/distributionnetworks/network-innovation/innovation-fundingincentive
[3] Smarter Network Storage six monthly report June 2013
[online] Available:
http://innovation.ukpowernetworks.co.uk/innovation/e
n/Projects/tier-2-projects/Smarter-Network-Storage(SNS)/ProjectDocuments/SNS_Ofgem+Progress+Report_June2013_1.0+Final.pdf
[4] Orkney Energy Storage Park Close-Down Report [online]
Available:
http://www.ssepd.co.uk/uploadedFiles/Controls/Lists/I
nnovation/Orkney_storage_park_phase_one/SSET1007
CloseDownReportOrkneyEnergyStoragePark.pdf
[5] 1MW Battery, Shetland Interim Close-down Report
[online] Available: https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/ofgempublications/83393/sset10011mwbatteryshetlandinteri
mclosedownreportsep2013.pdf
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