# (IMD)? - Keysight

```IMD Measurement with E5072A ENA
Series Network Analyzer
Agilent Technologies
June 2012
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Contents
• What is intermodulation distortion (IMD)?
• IMD Measurement Wizard for E5072A
• Measurement Results
• Summary
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What is intermodulation distortion (IMD)?
• A measure of nonlinearity of amplifiers.
• Two or more tones applied to an amplifier and produce additional intermodulation products.
• The DUT’s output will contain signals at the frequencies: n*F1 +m *F2.
P(F1)
P(F2)
DeltaF
IM3 relative to
carrier (dBc)
F_IMD = n * F1 + m * F2
ex.)
•Lo F_IM3 = 2 * F1 - F2
•Hi F_IM3 = 2 * F2 - F1
•Lo F_IM5 = 3 * F1 - 2 * F2
•Hi F_IM5 = 3 * F2 - 2 * F1
•Lo F_IM7 = 4 * F1 - 3 * F2
•Hi F_IM7 = 4 * F2 - 3 * F1
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P(2*F1-F2)
2*F1-F2
F1
F2
2*F2-F1
Frequency
Third-order Intercept Point (IP3)
• The third-order intercept point (IP3) or the third-order intercept (TOI) are often used as figures
of merit for IMD.
Output power (dBm)
P(F1)
OIP3
P(F2)
DeltaF
IM3 relative to
carrier (dBc)
Third-order product
(Slope 1:3)
Fundamental
(Slope 1:1)
P(2*F1-F2)
IIP3
2*F1-F2 F1
F2
2*F2-F1
Input power
(dBm)
Frequency
P(F1): Power level of low tone
P(F2): Power level of high tone
P(2*F1-F2): Power level of low-side IM3 signal
P(2*F2-F1): Power level of high-side IM3 signal
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IP3 can be calculated by the equation using
low-side IM3:
IP3 (dBm) = P(F1) + (P(F2) - P(2*F1-F2)) / 2
When high-side IM3 is used, the equation is:
IP3 (dBm) = P(F2) + (P(F1) - P(2*F2-F1)) / 2
Intermodulation Distortion
Solution with ENA
2x SG + SA
• Using two SGs and a SA with CW signals.
• It requires a controller to synchronize
instruments.
• If many frequencies must be tested, test time
is increased dramatically.
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SG + ENA
• ENA with frequency-offset mode (FOM) option
can set different frequencies at the source and
• Real-time swept frequency IMD measurements
can be performed.
• Source power calibration and receiver calibration
is available with VNA for accurate absolute power
measurements.
VNA features
Frequency Offset Mode (E5072A Option 008)
• Sets different frequency range for the source and receivers.
• Can be used for harmonics or intermodulation distortion (IMD) measurements with the VNA.
Frequency-offset Sweep
Normal Sweep
Source
(Port 1)
f1
(Port 2)
f1
Source and receiver are tuned at the same
frequency range. (i.e. S-parameter).
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Source
(Port 1)
f1
(Port 2)
f2
Source and receiver are tuned at the different
frequency range (for harmonics, IMD test etc.)
IMD Measurement
Configuration of IMD measurement with VNA
Measurement example (sweep delta)
GPIB
SG
USB/GPIB
Interface
10 MHz REF
(i.e. 82357B)
f1 (SG)
USB
ENA
Attenuator
(Optional)
Lo IM3
f1 (SG)
f1
DUT
f_IM
(ENA)
f_IM
Combiner
f2 (ENA)
f2
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f2 (ENA)
Power levels of main tones and IM products in
swept frequencies can be monitored with the
VNA’s absolute measurements.
Measurement Procedure
Power calibrations for IMD measurements
1.
2.
3.
4.
Perform source power cal with a connected power sensor. (power cal for receiver cal)
Perform receiver cal for the receiver B by connecting thru between port 1 and port 2.
Connect external components including a combiner. Perform source power cal for E5072A and
SG at the calibration reference (DUT’s input).
Connect DUT and perform measurements.
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1
3
B
Thru
Power
Sensor
4
LPF
Combiner
B
LPF
Combiner
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DUT
Power
Sensor
IMD Measurement Wizard for the E5072A
Key Features:
• Measurement macro running on the E5072A with intuitive GUI
• Quick setup of two-tone IMD measurements
• Control all necessary equipments from E5072A
–
MXG (connected via GPIB/USB interface)
–
Power meter & sensor (connected via GPIB/USB interface)
–
USB power sensor (connected directly to the ENA’s USB port)
• Guided calibration wizard
• Various measurement sweep types
–
Fixed F1 and Swept F2
–
Sweep Fc
–
Sweep DeltaF
• Various IMD measurement parameters
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Available at: www.agilent.com/find/enavba
–
Absolute power of fundamental tones (in dBm)
–
Power levels of IMD products (absolute in dBm), Low or High-side IM (3rd, 5th, 7th)
–
Calculated third-order intercept point (IP3)
IMD Measurement Wizard
Overview
Introduction
Peripherals Setup
(SG, Power sensor)
Calibration (Power Cal)
Stimulus Parameter Setup
(IM order, frequency, NOP, IFBW etc.)
Measurement Result
Pout (F1 from SG)
P(IM)
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Pout (F2 from ENA)
IP3
IMD Measurement Type
Introduction
1. Fixed F1, Swept F2
2. Sweep fc
3. Sweep DeltaF
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IMD Measurement Type
1. Fixed F1, Swept F2
• One of the main tones from the SG is fixed at a certain frequency (F1), while the other F2
from the ENA’s source is swept.
(1-1) Lo IM (Fixed F1, downward-swept F2)
IM
Main Tones
F1
F2
(1-3) Hi IM (Fixed F1, upward-swept F2)
Main Tones
F1 F2
FIM
FIM
(1-2) Lo IM (Fixed F1, upward-swept F2)
IM
Main Tones
F2
FIM
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IM
F1
(1-4) Hi IM (Fixed F1, downward-swept F2)
Main Tones
IM
F2 F1
FIM
IMD Measurement Type
2. Sweep fc
Stimulus setup
Measurement Result
P(F2, ENA)
P(F1, SG)
OIP3
P (Lo IM3)
• Center frequency of the main tones is swept
in the frequency range, while the delta
frequency is fixed.
• 3rd, 5th, or 7th-order IM product can be
tested for either high-side or low-side.
P(F1)
P(F2)
P(Lo IM3)
• Output power of the main tones and IM power level is
displayed to calculate output IP3 of the DUT.
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IMD Measurement Type
3. Sweep DeltaF
Stimulus setup
• Delta frequency between the main tones is
swept in the frequency range, while the center
frequency is fixed.
• 3rd, 5th, or 7th-order IM product can be
tested for either high-side or low-side.
Measurement Result
P(F1, SG)
P(F2, ENA)
P (Lo IM3)
OIP3
P(F1)
P(F2)
P(Lo IM3)
• Output power of the main tones and IM power level is
displayed to calculate output IP3 of the DUT.
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Summary
• IMD measurements can be performed with the combination of the ENA
(E5072A with option 008) and connected SG.
• Test time can be reduced when swept-frequency IMD tests are necessary.
•IMD measurement wizard is offered for the ENA that provides:
•Various sweep types to fully characterize the DUT
•Quick and easy measurements with intuitive GUI
•Step-by-step power calibrations
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Resources
• Application Notes
– Amplifier and CW Swept Intermodulation-Distortion Measurements (1408-9)
– Making Accurate Intermodulation Distortion Measurements with the PNA-X (1408-17)
– Basics of RF amplifier measurements with the E5072A (5990-9974EN)
• E5072A Literatures
– Configuration Guide (5990-8001EN)
– Data Sheet (5990-8002EN)
– Quick Fact Sheet (5990-8003EN)
– Technical Overview (5990-8004EN)
• Web Page:
– ENA Series: www.agilent.com/find/ena
– E5072A Product page: www.agilent.com/find/e5072a
– Passive intermodulation (PIM) solution page: www.agilent.com/find/pim
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Appendix
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Test Configuration
Using the external combiner
GPIB
USB/GPIB
Interface
(i.e. 82357B)
USB
REF IN
MXG
E5072A
REF OUT
Attenuator
(Optional)
Combiner
DUT
LPF
(Optional)
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• USB/GPIB interface (i.e. Agilent 82357B) is necessary to control the
SG from the ENA firmware.
• 10 MHz reference is connected between the instruments.
• A high-isolation combiner is recommended.
• An optional LPF is needed to eliminate source harmonics from the ENA.
• An optional attenuator is needed to protect ENA’s receiver.
Test Configuration 2
Using the internal bridge as a combiner
•The E5072A’s internal bridge can be used as a combiner for two-tones.
•No external combiner is required in the test setup.
Configuration - Test setup
GPIB
USB
USB/GPIB
Interface
(i.e. 82357B)
MXG
E5072A Block Diagram
REF IN
CPLR
ARM
E5072A
R1
R2
REF OUT
B
A
Port 2
Port 1
CPLR ARM
(< +12 dBm)
LPF
(optional)
DUT
LPF
SG
< -14 dBm
(for the SG tone)
Attenuator
(Optional)
DUT
• Input power at the port (“CPLR ARM”) should be at least below +12 dBm
as the damage level of the input is +15 dBm.
• Input power at the DUT is below -14 dBm for the main tone from the SG
due to the coupling factor (i.e. 26 dB) of the E5072A’s internal bridge.
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