Encoder programming with EPROG - TR

Encoder programming with EPROG - TR
Encoder programming
with EPROG
Operating manual
for parameterizing software
Please keep for further use !
Edition-/Rev.-Date:
Document-/Rev.-No.:
Soft edition:
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Author:
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see Disk
TR-E-BA-GB-0011.DOC
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ELECTRONIC GmbH
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TR-Electronic GmbH
D-78647 Trossingen
Eglishalde 6
Tel.: (0049) 07425/228-0
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 Copyright 1997 TR-Electronic
Guarantee
In our ongoing efforts to improve our products, TR-Electronic reserve the right to alter
the information contained in this document without prior notice.
Printing
This manual was produced on a personal computer using MS-Word for Windows. The
text was printed in Arial type.
Fonts
Italics and bold type are used for the title of a document or to emphasize text
passages.
Passages written in Courier show text which is visible on the screen / display as well
as software menu selections.
"<
>" refers to keys on your computer keyboard (e.g. <RETURN>).
Note
Text following the "NOTE" symbol describes important features of the respective
product.
Copyright Information ©
MS-WORD and WINDOWS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
COM-ET-200 is a registered trademark of SIEMENS Corporation.
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Revision History
i
Note:
The cover of this document shows the current revision status and the corresponding
date. Since each individual page has its own revision status and date in the footer,
there may be different revision statuses within the document.
Document created:
29.01.1996
Revision
Date
Document inserted: "Operating Manual For Configuration
Software" (TR-ECE-BA-D-006).
10.06.1998
Definition of the number of steps of the incremental-interface and
31.10.2002
the pulse number resulting from it.
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Table of contents
1 Instructions for configuration and commissioning ...................................................................7
1.1 Safety Information............................................................................................................7
1.2 Instructions for configuration and installation ..................................................................7
1.3 Shielding ..........................................................................................................................8
1.4 Configuring instructions ...................................................................................................8
1.5 Commissioning instructions.............................................................................................9
2 Encoder concept ...........................................................................................................................10
3 Program EPROG............................................................................................................................11
3.1 Dialog...............................................................................................................................11
3.1.1 Lines ................................................................................................................11
3.1.2 Sections ...........................................................................................................12
3.1.3 Paging..............................................................................................................12
3.1.4 Saving ..............................................................................................................14
3.2 Data Transmission...........................................................................................................14
3.2.1 Device access..................................................................................................14
3.2.2 File access .......................................................................................................14
3.3 Status Display..................................................................................................................15
3.4 Keyboard Commands......................................................................................................15
3.4.1 Paging..............................................................................................................15
3.4.2 Dialog line with selection list............................................................................15
3.4.3 Dialog line with digit .........................................................................................15
3.4.4 Digit or text entry..............................................................................................15
3.4.5 General ............................................................................................................16
3.4.6 Device access..................................................................................................16
3.4.7 File access .......................................................................................................16
4 Cabling the unit .............................................................................................................................17
4.1 Cabling for programming with EPROG ...........................................................................17
4.2 Cabling for position indication with TA resp. with TA-Mini ..............................................18
5 Programming with EPROG...........................................................................................................19
5.1 Device section............................................................................................................19
5.2 Equipment section .....................................................................................................19
5.3 Axis name section .....................................................................................................20
5.4 Stroke section............................................................................................................20
5.4.1 Stroke, 1 rev..................................................................................................20
5.4.2 Power of 2 stroke ....................................................................................21
5.4.3 Integer stroke ...........................................................................................21
5.4.4 Fraction stroke.........................................................................................22
5.4.5 Counting direction............................................................................................22
5.4.6 Initial value .......................................................................................................22
5.5 Preset inputs section..............................................................................................22
5.6 PT/TA section..............................................................................................................23
5.6.1.1 General restrictions for PT100 operation.........................................23
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5.6.1.2 Type specific restrictions for PT100 operation ................................24
5.7 Signal bits section..................................................................................................25
5.8 Cams section .................................................................................................................25
5.8.1 Stroke...............................................................................................................25
5.8.2 Advance times .................................................................................................26
5.8.3 Displacement ...................................................................................................27
5.8.4 Tracks ..............................................................................................................27
5.9 SSI section ...................................................................................................................27
5.9.1 Interface ...........................................................................................................27
5.9.2 Data and signal bits .........................................................................................28
5.9.3 Data bits...........................................................................................................28
5.9.4 Signal bits ........................................................................................................29
5.9.4.1 Upward movement, downward movement ......................................29
5.9.4.2 Previous upward movement ............................................................29
5.9.4.3 Ongoing movement..........................................................................29
5.9.4.4 Static and dynamic error (watchdog) ...............................................29
5.9.4.5 Maximum speed...............................................................................30
5.9.4.6 1st to 4th limit switch........................................................................30
5.9.4.7 Even parity, even error parity...........................................................30
5.10 ISI section .................................................................................................................31
5.10.1 Definition of the number of steps of the incremental-interface and the
pulse number resulting from it ..................................................................................32
5.11 Section Digital outputs .........................................................................................33
5.12 Parallel interface section ...............................................................................33
5.12.1 Interface .........................................................................................................33
5.12.1.1 Inverting function............................................................................33
5.12.1.2 Bus function ...................................................................................33
5.12.1.3 Latch function.................................................................................34
5.12.1.4 Dynamic strobe ..............................................................................34
5.12.1.5 20 strobe.........................................................................................35
5.12.1.6 Continuous progressive codes ......................................................35
5.12.2 Data and signal bits .......................................................................................36
5.13 Profibus DP section................................................................................................36
5.13.1 Interface .........................................................................................................36
5.13.2 Data and signal bits .......................................................................................37
5.14 Section Analog outputs ...........................................................................................38
5.14.1 Latch function ................................................................................................39
5.14.2 Inversion function...........................................................................................39
5.15 Actual values section ...........................................................................................40
5.15.1 Position ..........................................................................................................40
5.15.2 Velocity ..........................................................................................................40
5.15.3 Errors .............................................................................................................40
5.15.3.1 Components...................................................................................41
5.15.3.2 Central disk ....................................................................................41
5.15.3.3 Satellite ..........................................................................................41
5.15.3.4 FRAM checksum............................................................................41
5.15.3.5 Cam speed.....................................................................................41
5.15.3.6 Warm restart ..................................................................................42
5.15.3.7 Overspeed .....................................................................................42
5.15.3.8 Analog outputs ...............................................................................42
5.15.4 Interfaces .......................................................................................................42
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6 Appendix ........................................................................................................................................43
6.1 Dimensioned drawing, pin assignment, available options...............................................43
6.2 Technical data .................................................................................................................43
6.2.1 Power supply ...................................................................................................43
6.2.1.1 CE65 SSI .........................................................................................43
6.2.1.2 CE65 SSI+parallel 32xUS level .......................................................43
6.2.1.3 CE65 SSI+ISI...................................................................................44
6.2.1.4 CE65 SSI+Profibus..........................................................................44
6.2.1.5 CE65 SSI+analog output .................................................................44
6.2.2 Times ...............................................................................................................44
6.2.3 Clock frequency for SSI output........................................................................44
6.2.3.1 SSI clock frequency and monoflop time ..........................................44
6.2.3.2 SSI clock frequency and line lengths...............................................45
6.2.3.3 Optimum SSI clock pulse polarity ....................................................45
6.2.4 Instructions for cabling.....................................................................................46
6.3 Accessories .....................................................................................................................46
6.4 Glossary...........................................................................................................................47
6.4.1 Absolute encoder.............................................................................................47
6.4.2 FRAM...............................................................................................................47
6.4.3 Incremental encoder ........................................................................................47
6.4.4 ISI.....................................................................................................................48
6.4.5 Interface ...........................................................................................................48
6.4.6 LA.....................................................................................................................48
6.4.7 LSPM2 .............................................................................................................48
6.4.8 Luenberg observer...........................................................................................49
6.4.9 Parallel interface ..............................................................................................49
6.4.10 Profibus DP....................................................................................................49
6.4.11 Rotating absolute encoder.............................................................................49
6.4.12 Satellite ..........................................................................................................49
6.4.13 SSI .................................................................................................................50
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1 Instructions for configuration and commissioning
1.1 Safety Information
This operating manual contains information that you must comply with to ensure your
personal safety and to avoid damage to property. The information is emphasized by
warning triangles, which have different appearances to match the level of danger:
Warning
Means that if the appropriate safety measures are ignored, death, severe injury or
considerable damage to property can occur.
Caution
Means that if the appropriate safety measures are ignored, slight injury or damage to
property can occur.
Commissioning and operation of a unit may be carried out by qualified personnel only.
Qualified personnel in the sense of the safety instructions contained in this operating
manual are persons who are authorized to commission, connect to ground and to
mark units, systems and electric circuits according to the standards of safety
technology.
1.2 Instructions for configuration and installation
In most cases, the product will be used as a component which is part of larger
systems. For this reason, these instructions are meant to give guidelines for safe
integration of the product into its environment.
Warning
• The specific safety regulations and regulations for accident prevention must be
complied with.
• The EN (European Standards), VDE (Association of German Electricians) and DIN
standards applying to your plant must be complied with.
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1.3 Shielding
The use of electronic-sensor active systems in modern machines requires a concept
for interference suppression and cabling which must be implemented correctly and
consistently.
A plant containing electronic measuring systems as well as the cassette may only run
smoothly if these requirements are met.
Recommendation for shield cabling
Switching Cabinet
Measuring Systems
Machine
Control Unit
0V bar with screen
terminal for measuring
system cable
Measuring system and control
cable
Power Unit
Power Cable
Ground cable 10 mm²
(R ground cable << R screen)
1.4 Configuring instructions
• Route (screened) lines connecting to the encoder either a long way from or
completely physically separated from energy lines that carry disturbances.
• Use only completely screened lines for data transfer and ensure they are well
earthed. In the case of differential data transfer, (RS422, RS485 etc.), you must
additionally use twisted-pair lines.
• Use cables with a minimum cross-section of 0.22 mm² for data transfer.
• Use a ground cable with a minimum cross-section of 10 mm² to avoid equipotential
bonding via the screen. In this context, you should ensure that the ground cable's
resistance must be much lower than the screen's resistance.
• Wire the screen continuously keeping a large area in contact with special screen
connecting terminals.
• Avoid crossing cables. If this is not possible, the cables should only cross at rightangles.
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1.5 Commissioning instructions
• Cabling at the mating connector or in the control cabinet may be carried out in
dead condition only.
• Before commissioning the plant, check all connections between the mating
connector and the control cabinet.
• Plug in or unplug mating connectors of signal or supply lines in dead condition
only.
• Do not make mechanical or electrical modifications to the axis cassette or the
measuring systems.
• Carry out commissioning according to the safety instructions.
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2 Encoder concept
CE means Compact Encoder. It is a programmable absolute optoelectronic pathmeasuring system.
The rotating measuring shaft of the absolute encoder carries a disc on which circular
tracks with transparent and non-transparent fields are to be found. There can be
satellite discs for measuring the rotations connected with the central disc by a
reducing gear. The code discs are scanned by light barriers and thus their position is
converted into digital electric signals.
Absolute means that the position data provided by the absolute encoder indicate the
position of the measuring shaft immediately and without further notice. Different from
this, an incremental encoder transmits pulses when positions change which must be
collected in a counter by the user. The disadvantage is that a home position must be
driven to when starting the machine where the counter is reset to zero. Moreover,
disturbing pulses are permanently stored in the counter, which is why home return
must be repeated frequently.
The light barrier signals are processed by a microprocessor. It serves for adjusting
zero point, resolution and measuring range. Moreover, it provides additional functions
such as self-regulation, standstill and rotational direction recognition, overspeed
monitor, limit switch and dynamic camshaft gear.
The encoder can provide the following interfaces for transmitting output data to the
user: SSI, ISI, parallel using up to 32 outputs, Profibus and switching outputs for the
additional functions.
With moving encoder, the output data lag behind the position. This is mainly caused
by the processing time or cycle time of the microprocessor program in the encoder.
The cycle time depends on the selected interfaces and options. Some typical cycle
times are listed for orientation in a table in the appendix (see chapter 6.2.2 Times).
As the cycle of the encoder is not synchronized with the data transfer to the connected
control system, the ages of the transferred output data fluctuate irregularly between
single and double cycle period. This does generally not lead to problems, as this cycle
period is normally considerably shorter than the cycle of the connected control
system. For the rarely occurring cases of the synchronization being necessary for very
fast control, there are special types available.
Programming the encoder is executed serially via a bifilar RS485 interface, which
allows high immunity to interfering and cable lengths up to 1,000 m. As operator
device and for filing data, an IBM-compatible PC with the program EPROG is used. It
is connected to the encoder via one of its V24 interfaces with a so-called PC adapter.
The latter contains a potential segregation and the conversion from V24 to RS485.
The encoder can optionally be programmed or adjusted with the handy terminal
PT100 if it has been prepared to it by EPROG. In this case, however, some adjusting
options are not available, and for filing the programs, EPROG must be used again. A
position indicator can be connected instead of the PT100. The slave indicator TA has
8 decades, the slave indicator TAMINI 6 decades. If a negative sign must be
displayed, one decade is dropped.
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3 Program EPROG
EPROG is a PC program for serial programming of position measuring devices. An
IBM-compatible PC is required. The processor must be at least a 10 MHz 8088
processor or a 6 MHz 8086 processor and the operating system must be MS-DOS 3.0
or above. The program also runs in the DOS box of Windows 3.1 or higher, then
however at least a 486DX2/66 processor must be used.
Data interchange between the PC and the measuring device is via one of the serial
V.24 interfaces at 115 kbps. It is necessary to plug on the PC adapter which is
responsible for electrical isolation and converting the signal to RS485 whereby the
range is expanded to up to 800 m.
3.1 Dialog
The dialog is primarily used for viewing and changing the programming of the
connected device. It is shown on the left of the EPROG window.
3.1.1 Lines
The dialog consists of lines which are shown one below the other. There is one line
for each value to be displayed. On the left-hand side, the designation of the value is
given and on the right-hand side the value itself, for example Steps per rev. and
4096.
There are five different types of dialog lines:
1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)
5.)
Title lines which do not have a value and whose designation is only used as a
title, for example for a section.
Lines for integer values from -231 to +231-1
Lines for floating point values in IEEE format with 64 bits.
Lines for text values
Lines for selection lists. The selection list consists of several predefined texts,
for example Yes and No. One of these is shown as a value or as selected.
Some of the dialog lines are only used to display actual values such as velocity or
speed or a bit pattern which is to be written to an interface. They cannot be changed.
Dialog lines that are not needed become invisible. If an interface that is not needed is
disconnected, for example, the associated subordinate dialog lines disappear until the
interface is connected again. The main application is switching between standard
and extended options which usually appears in the first line. It deactivates lines
with settings that are rarely needed and assigns standard values to them.
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3.1.2 Sections
Dialog lines that belong together are grouped together to individual sections which are
mostly separated by blank lines. The first line gives the section a title, for example
Device. The following subordinate lines are indented once or twice and become
invisible when you switch on the EPROG overview. Exception: When you enter cams,
the title lines of the paths remain visible although they are subordinate in the Cams
section.
Often, the purpose of the line containing the title is to deactivate the subordinate lines
of a section when they are not required. Example: The value of the title line of the SSI
section is a selection list containing the texts Yes and No. If No is selected, the SSI
output is switched off and the indented lines containing SSI code, SSI bit
number etc. disappear. If Yes is selected, they reappear.
An device for position measurement usually has the following sections:
1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)
5.)
6.)
7.)
8.)
9.)
10.)
Options to choose between standard and extended options
Device to display the device type, manufacturer, program name, version and
date, serial number and date of manufacture
Equipment to display the integrated interfaces
Axis name to enter a freely selectable designation for the place of use
Measured distance or Position to program the resolution, the measuring
range, the counting direction and the initial value
Preset inputs to program the selector values, the starting edge and the
response time
Signal bits to program the speed monitor and the limit switches
Cams to program the device as a cam controller if this is possible with the
device
One section for each available interface for data output, for example SSI,
ISI, Parallel interface, Profibus DP, Switching outputs etc.
Actual values to display the position, the velocity, errors that occurred and
bit patterns that were read out. Here, the position is the only value that can be
changed so that it is possible to carry out adjustment. After adjustment, press <
F5 > to permanently store the new zero point as described below in the
Saving section.
3.1.3 Paging
A line marking in the form of a luminous bar appears on the screen. It can be moved
upward or downward line-by-line by means of the < up arrow > and < down arrow >
keys. If the value of a line can be changed, it is enclosed in square brackets when the
luminous bar arrives at that line.
Usually, the dialog is so comprehensive that not all the lines fit on the screen.
Therefore, you can use the page up < PgUp > and page down < PgDn > keys to scroll
one screen page forward or backward. If you press the < Ctrl > and < page up > keys
at the same time, you jump to the first line; if you press the < Ctrl > and < page down
> keys, you jump to the last one.
For a better overview, you can switch from 25 lines to 50 lines per screen page using
the < Ctrl > and
< F6 > keys.
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The < F2 > key switches on the overview, that means all the indented and subordinate
lines disappear so that only the first lines of the sections are visible. Now you can
quickly move the luminous bar to the beginnning of the desired section and then press
< F2 > to switch back to the complete view.
Entry
To change the value of a line, you must first mark the line by means of the luminous
bar. The entry is carried out in different ways depending on the type of the value and
is terminated by pressing the
< Return > key or paging to a new line. If the device is connected, the new target
value is transferred to the device immediately afterward. The device corrects it if
necessary and enters it as the new actual value. Moreover, it adjusts dependent
values and issues an error message in the event of an error.
Once the device has completed these operations, the EPROG program reads in the
actual values of all dialog lines one after the other and displays the error message if
an one is present. In addition, the program activates or deactivates dialog lines which
are now to become visible or invisible.
If the device is not connected or if file access is switched on instead of device
access, the entries are accepted without any kind of checking or evaluation.
Therefore, you should only make entries if device access is switched on and the
device is connected. File access should only be used for printing, saving as, loading
from or viewing of EPROG files.
Depending on the value type, entries are made as described below:
In the case of a selection list, press the < left arrow > or less than < < > key to move to
the previous selection text and the < right arrow > or greater than < > > key to move to
the following one. Press the < Home > key to switch to the first selection text and the <
End > key to switch to the last one. The new value is sent to the device after a onesecond pause or immediately after the data entry described above.
Press the less than < < > key to decrease a digit by 1 and the greater than < > > key
to increase it by 1. The new value is sent to the device after a one-second pause or
immediately after the data entry described above.
If you want to enter a completely new digit or text value, you simply start typing in the
corresponding characters. Then the old value disappears and the cursor appears on
the screen. If you only want to change such a value, first press a key to move the
cursor to the desired position. The < Home > key moves it to the first character, the <
End > key moves it behind the last character, the < left arrow > and < right arrow >
keys move it one character to the left or one character to the right.
The < Ins > key changes between insert and overwrite. In insert mode, the insertion
point appears as an underscore; in overwrite mode, the insertion point has the shape
of a rectangle. The < Del > key deletes the character at the insertion point, the <
Backspace > key (above the < Return > key) deletes the character ahead of it.
The key combination < Ctrl > + < Y > deletes all characters, the < Ctrl > + < U >
(undo) keys retrieve the old value, however without canceling the entry.
Press the < Escape > key to cancel the entry, press the < Return > key or page to a
new line to terminate it.
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3.1.4 Saving
Once a new value has been entered and the device has evaluated it, it is immediately
valid there. However, it is not yet permanently stored. To do this, press the < F5 >
key with device access being switched on to program the device's characteristic value
memory. It is best to do this after all the necessary entries have been made.
If you want to reject the entries, press the < F6 > key to reset the device. Then the old
status of the characteristic value memory will be read. However, if you pressed the <
F5 > key before, the old status has already been overwritten and can no longer be
retrieved.
With file access being switched on, the dialog data can also be saved in an EPROG
file.
If the data has not yet been saved and you try to leave the program or load a new
EPROG file, an error message will be issued.
3.2 Data Transmission
The complete dialog for device programming comes from the device itself. The
EPROG program is only used for display, entry and data saving in files. The correction
of entries and adjustment of dependent values can only be carried out by the device
itself; the same applies to the deactivation of dialog lines that are not needed.
3.2.1 Device access
This is the EPROG program's normal operating mode. In this mode, it is permanently
connected to the device via the serial interface. If the connection is interrupted, it
continuously tries to establish the connection again.
When the connection is established again, the program first checks whether the
device dialog corresponds to the dialog stored by EPROG, since the device could
have been replaced in the meantime.
If the dialog structures are different and therefore incompatible, the stored dialog is
rejected and the dialog from the device is loaded. If the structure only differs in values
that can be changed, the EPROG program provides the option of permanently
programming the stored values to the device. If this is done, the position is also
adjusted again so that it corresponds to the stored value. It is not necessary to
additionally program the device by pressing the < F5 > key afterward.
3.2.2 File access
File access mode is used to print the dialog and to save as or load from EPROG
files. In this mode, the connection to the device is interrupted so that loaded EPROG
files can be viewed even if their dialog differs from that of the device.
It is possible to enter new values. However, they are only checked and evaluated
when the connection to the device is established again. Therefore, you should not
make entries until the connection has been established.
On switching from file access to device access, the connection is established
again and reprogramming of the device as described above may be offered as an
option. In this way, data can be loaded from EPROG files and transferred to the
device.
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3.3 Status Display
The status display appears in the top right corner of the EPROG window. It indicates
1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)
whether device access or file access is switched on.
whether the dialog data has only been changed or whether it has already been
stored.
the number of the serial interface on which the PC adapter was found.
whether the device is connected.
During file access, the connection to the device is interrupted and displays 3 and 4
disappear.
3.4 Keyboard Commands
3.4.1 Paging
< Up/down arrow >
< Page up/down >
< Ctrl > + < page up/down >
< Ctrl > + < Home/End >
Paging one line upward/downward, terminating entry
Paging one page upward/downward, terminating entry
Moving to first/last line, terminating entry
Moving to first/last line, terminating entry
3.4.2 Dialog line with selection list
< </> >
< Left/right arrow >
< Home/End >
Moving to previous/following selection text
Moving to previous/following selection text
Moving to first/last selection text
3.4.3 Dialog line with digit
< </> >
Decreasing/increasing by 1
3.4.4 Digit or text entry
< Left/right arrow >
< Home/End >
< Ins >
< Del >
< Backspace >
< Ctrl > + < Y >
< Ctrl > + < U >
< Escape >
< Return >
Moving one character to the left/right, starting entry
Moving to first/moving behind last character, starting
entry
Switching between insert/overwrite mode
Deleting character at insertion point
Deleting character ahead of insertion point
Deleting all characters
Retrieving old value (undo)
Canceling entry
Terminating entry
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3.4.5 General
< Escape >
< F2 >
< F3 >
< Alt > + < F4 >
< Ctrl > + < F4 >
< Ctrl > + < F5 >
< Ctrl > + < F6 >
< Ctrl > + < F7 >
< Ctrl > + < F8 >
Canceling procedure or program end
Overview on/off: activation and deactivation of
subordinate dialog lines
Program end
Program end
Searching the serial interfaces for PC adapter and
switching the device on/off
Choosing colour of background
Switching between 25 and 50 lines per screen page
Selecting language
Creating files with templates for translations of system
and device texts to enable users to add languages of
their own
3.4.6 Device access
< F5 >
< F6 >
< F8 >
Programming the device: permanently storing
entered values in the device's characteristic value
memory
Resetting device: rejecting entered values and
reading the device's characteristic value memory
Switching to file access
3.4.7 File access
< F4 >
< F5 >
< F6 >
< F8 >
Printing dialog data to interface or file
Storing dialog data in file
Loading dialog data from file
Switching to device access
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4 Cabling the unit
4.1 Cabling for programming with EPROG
Please observe the notes of the pin assignment in the appendix!
T R s w itc h c a b in e t
m o d u le
E ncoder
S er. p rg . + (R S 4 8 5 )
S er. p rg . - (R S 4 8 5 )
O p e r a tin g v o lta g e + ( 1 1 - 2 7 ) V o lt
O p e r a tin g v o lta g e 0 V o lt
D a ta +
D a ta US
0 V GND
te rm
te rm
te rm
te rm
in a l
in a l
in a l
in a l
1
2
14
15
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
s trip
s trip
s trip
s trip
P C a d a p te r
R ib b o n C a b le
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
m
m
m
m
a le
a le
a le
a le
c.
c.
c.
c.
PT PT +
US
0 V GND
1
2
14
15
C a b le o n P C a d a p te r
(0 .5 m w ith 9 -p in S U B -D fe m a le
c o n n e c to r)
9 -p in
9 -p in
9 -p in
9 -p in
9 -p in
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
R xD
T xD
DTR
G N D (P C )
RTS
2
3
4
5
7
D a ta D a ta +
US
0 V GND
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
a le
a le
a le
a le
c.
c.
c.
c.
PC
(9 -p in S U B -D m a le c o n n e c to r )
2
3
4
5
7
R xD (R S 2 3 2 )
T xD (R S 2 3 2 )
DTR
GND
RTS
Notes:
The PC adapter is available quoting reference number 490-00301.
The switch cabinet module is available quoting reference number 490-00101.
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4.2 Cabling for position indication with TA resp. with TA-Mini
T R s w itc h c a b in e t
m o d u le
E ncoder
S er. p rg . + (R S 4 8 5 )
S er. p rg . - (R S 4 8 5 )
O p e r a tin g v o lta g e + ( 1 1 - 2 7 ) V o lt
O p e r a tin g v o lta g e 0 V o lt
D a ta +
D a ta US
0 V GND
te rm
te rm
te rm
te rm
in a l
in a l
in a l
in a l
s trip
s trip
s trip
s trip
1
2
D a ta D a ta +
1 5 - p in S U B - D fe m a le c .
1 5 - p in S U B - D fe m a le c .
14
15
US
0 V
1 5 - p in S U B - D fe m a le c .
1 5 - p in S U B - D fe m a le c .
T A -M IN I m a s te r
R ib b o n C a b le
9 - p in
9 - p in
9 - p in
9 - p in
9 - p in
9 - p in
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
m
m
m
m
m
m
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
PT PT +
S la v e fk t.
P T fk t.
US
0 V GND
1
2
3
7
8
9
GND
T A -M IN I s la v e
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
PT PT +
S la v e fk t.
P T fk t.
US
0 V GND
1
2
3
7
14
15
1
2
3
7
14
15
PT PT +
S la v e fk t.
P T fk t.
US
0 V GND
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
1 5 - p in
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
S U B -D
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
fe m
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
a le
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
c.
Note:
The switch cabinet module is available quoting reference number 490-00101.
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5 Programming with EPROG
The EPROG PC program calls the input screen form from the connected device,
displays it together with the actual values and transmits new entries back to the device
where they are corrected, if applicable, and stored. The input screen form is also
called a dialog. It has a line structure and is divided into sections.
In the following, the individual sections of the CE dialog are explained. The name of
each section corresponds to the entry in the title bar. Dialog lines can display four
different kinds of values: integers, floating-point numbers, selections or text.
Dialog lines with rarely required settings are only visible if extended options instead of
standard options is selected in the first line.
The description refers to the programs C6HPC, C6HPCBN, C6HPCIJ, C6HPCPT and
C6HPCNO. Depending on the program type and the equipment, some of the following
dialog lines and settings are not available.
5.1 Device section
Here, you will find the description of the device: the manufacturer, the program name
and date, the serial number and the production date.
5.2 Equipment section
Here, the equipment of the unit with interfaces and further type specific special options
as well as the limits for resolution and measuring range are displayed. This is preset
at the factory and cannot be changed afterwards without modification.
The dynamic camshaft gear can be used if the necessary additional memory is
available.
There can be 3 interfaces available and used at the same time: SSI, a 2nd interface
and ISI. As 2nd interface is possible: parallel with 32, 24 or 12 outputs, 8 switch
outputs and Profibus.
In the line Main disc the resolution is indicated as step number per revolution, in the
line Satellites the measuring range is indicated as number of revolutions.
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5.3 Axis name section
Here you can enter any text you like to describe the axis.
5.4 Stroke section
During a measurement, a physical measured quantity is converted to a measured
value. Since absolute encoders are trajectory measurement systems, the measured
quantity is an angle for rotating absolute encoders. In the following, it is indicated by
revolutions. The measured value is shown in steps.
To evaluate the measurement, the measuring range and the ratio between the
physical measured quantity and the measured value must be known. This ratio is also
called the resolution and limits measurement accuracy.
The resolution corresponds to the precision if the shaft couplings that the user
mounted are not eccentric and he or she does overload the shaft radially and/or
axially.
To adapt the device to the application, you can program a reduced measuring range
and/or resolution. It is even possible to extend the measuring range from 4096
revolutions to up to 256000 revolutions. This is described in the Integer stroke
section.
The measuring range is entered as the stroke in revolutions; the resolution results
from the Stroke in steps or Steps per revolution entries.
Due to their construction, rotating absolute encoders jump back to the initial value
when the upper limit of the measuring range is exceeded and to the final value when
the value falls below the lower limit of the measuring range.
The following applies: Final value = initial value + stroke in steps - 1
In the Stroke line, you can choose from the following four types for programming the
measuring range and resolution:
5.4.1 Stroke, 1 rev.
The stroke is one revolution long. If no satellites are available, there are no other
options.
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5.4.2 Power of 2 stroke
With the power of 2 stroke, the length in revolutions must be a second power of the
group of 20, 21, 2² etc. to 212 (or 1, 2, 4 to 4096). The number of revolutions and the
steps per revolution are entered in the subsequent lines.
If the number of steps per revolution is not an integer, but a decimal fraction with
decimal places, you must choose Fraction stroke and convert the entry as
described there (see below).
Example: You want to program 7031,1234 steps per revolution. Choosing 4096
revolutions gives you the most precise result while avoiding the danger of a zero-point
shift during zero-current travel. Set the denominator of the stroke in revolutions to 1
and the stroke in steps to 7031,1234*4096. The rounded result will be 28799481.
5.4.3 Integer stroke
With the integer stroke, the length in revolutions is an integer between 1 and 256000.
A second power as the measuring range can, for example, be unfavorable for rotating
applications or decimal codes. Apart from that, programming is carried out as in
Power of 2 stroke.
To extend the encoder's measuring range of 4096 revolutions, revolution bits 212 to 217
which cannot be measured are incremented and decremented using the carries of bits
28 to 211 and permanently stored every 28 revolutions in a FRAM. In this connection, a
delay of up to 1600 revolutions may occur without leading to the loss of a carry. If the
encoder's extended measuring range of 218 revolutions cannot be divided by the
programmed measuring range without a remainder, the zero point must be displaced
by this remainder and stored in the FRAM whenever the upper or lower limit of the
measuring range is exceeded.
This means that with an integer stroke you must not operate the system at more than
1600 revolutions if the encoder is switched off to avoid having to make a readjustment
after switching on again. This restriction does not apply if the stroke in revolutions is a
second power of 20 to 212.
The data preservation and endurance of FRAM is described in more detail below in
the Preset inputs section.
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5.4.4 Fraction stroke
With the fraction stroke, the length in revolutions is a fraction. You enter the numerator
and the denominator in the subsequent lines as well as how many steps long the
stroke is to be. The numerator must be between 1 and 256000, the denominator
between 1 and 214 (or 16384). In addition, the fraction must not be smaller than ½.
Zero-current travel is the same as with Integer stroke.
You cannot enter the number of steps per revolution directly. The value, which can
also have decimal places, must be multiplied by the stroke in revolutions, rounded up
to the next integer and entered under stroke in steps.
5.4.5 Counting direction
Here, you must enter whether the position values are to be increased or decreased if
the encoder is turned clockwise looking towards the shaft.
5.4.6 Initial value
In the Initial value line, you specify the type of initial value. If you do not want it
to be zero, the following options are available:
Symmetrical sign means that half the measuring range is negative. Thus, the
initial value is the negative half of the stroke in steps.
Entry means that you can enter any negative or positive number as the initial value.
5.5 Preset inputs section
Here, you specify the selector values of the preset inputs, the starting edge, and the
response time.
When the three preset inputs are connected to the starting edge, they trigger a zero
displacement or adjustment. As a result, the position the device measured during the
starting edge afterwards corresponds to the selector value. To suppress interference,
however, the preset is only carried out if the preset signal is present without
interruption during the entire response time. The starting edge and response time are
measured with an accuracy of two milliseconds.
When the response time has elapsed, up to 50 milliseconds more will pass before the
preset adjustment is finished and affects the position. This period of time is needed for
storing and recalling the newly set zero point with checksum.
With extended options, the response time can be set between 10 and 255
milliseconds. With standard options, this line is invisible and the response time is 50
milliseconds.
If you do not need the preset inputs, you should inhibit them in the section's first line to
suppress interference. All the rest of the section will then become invisible. However,
adjustment by means of EPROG in the Actual values section is still possible.
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If the Profibus transmission is set with 24 inputs and 8 outputs, the output bits 21 and
22 will replace the 2nd and the 3rd preset input. These function can thus be started via
the Profibus.
The zero point adjusted by means of a preset is stored in a FRAM with 100 million
guaranteed write cycles. This means that it is possible to carry out a preset
adjustment every three seconds for 10 years with the last zero point being
subsequently retained for at least another 10 years. Two copies of the zero point are
stored with checksums which makes it very unlikely that a failure to store that may
have occurred will be undetected.
Slip drives with initiators at the end points of the travel path are a sensible application.
For rotating applications with known reduction ratio, you should rather use the gearing
programming in the Stroke section, since it works without loss of accuracy even at
high traversing speeds.
5.6 PT/TA section
This section is only visible with extended options. Shall serial programming of the
encoder with the handy terminal PT100 be possible or a slave indicator be connected,
the suitable of the 5 possible types of PT100 must be set in the first line. Otherwise,
the PT100 data exchange should be disabled as in other respects restrictions may
result.
5.6.1.1 General restrictions for PT100 operation
Only one single interface is allowed. The stroke must always be indicated as gear. It
may at most amount to 31*4096=126976 revolutions and 224=16777216 steps. The
denominator of the revolutions may not exceed 99. The initial value may not be
smaller than -223=-8388608. It must be so small that the final value stays below 224.
The counting direction input cannot be switched off. The response time for the preset
inputs is always 50 ms with the preset starting edge always rising. the 3rd preset input
is dropped. the maximum velocity is always 6000 rpm. The signal bits "Upward" and
"Downward" as well as the switch outputs are dropped.
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5.6.1.2 Type specific restrictions for PT100 operation
PT100 SSI:
Only SSI is allowed as an interface. The camshaft gear is
dropped. As for the pine-tree format, signal bits may not come
before the 24th SSI bit. After the SSI position data, at most 6
signal bits can come. 2 signal bits are transmitted as switch
outputs.
PT100 ISI:
Only ISI is allowed as an interface. The camshaft gear is
dropped. The response time for the loading input is always 50 ms
with the load starting edge always descending.
PT100 Parallel:
Only parallel with 24 or 32 outputs is allowed as an interface. The
camshaft gear is dropped. Only the first 24 outputs can be used.
PT100 18 cams:
Only parallel with 24 or 32 outputs is allowed as an interface
whereby only cams can be output. There are exactly 18 paths
with 1 cam each allowed.
The dynamic cams or lead times are dropped. The initial value
must always be 0. The limit switch, inverting data, bus, latch,
parallel 2^0 trigger and all signal bits are dropped.
PT100 29 cams:
The encoder must be equipped with a main disc performing
2,048 steps per revolution.
Only parallel with 24 or 32 outputs is allowed as an interface
whereby only cams can be output. There are exactly 29 paths
with 1 cam each allowed. The stroke is always 1 revolution with
360 steps.
The dynamic cams or lead times are dropped. The initial value
must always be 0. The limit switch, inverting data, bus, latch and
parallel 2^0 trigger and all signal bits are dropped except the
following: The 30th and the 31st parallel output are always
assigned with the signal bits "1=Moving“ und "0=Error“.
The 1st path serves as blue cam. That is, on wiring the 3rd
preset input, the cam is displaced in a way that its switch-off point
coincides with the current position.
Switch-on and switch-off points of the cams may coincide, by
which the cam always stays at 0.
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5.7 Signal bits section
This section is visible with extended options only. Here, you specify the allowed
maximum speed of the speed monitor and the switch-on and switch-off points of the
four limit switches.
The maximum speed must be between 30 and 6000 revolutions per minute. With
standard options, the maximum value is used.
The position and number of the relevant signal bits are later set in the appropriate
sections for every interface (see below for further explanations).
5.8 Cams section
The cams can be output instead of the position via all interfaces except ISI and switch
outputs. There are 32 paths with 4 cams per path possible.
The camshaft gear can be completely switched off if you select No in the title line.
5.8.1 Stroke
If Cams is selected in the Stroke line, a subsection is displayed where you can enter
a stroke for calculation of the respective cam position. The stroke is shown in the
Actual values section below the normal position. The subsection contains the
Measuring length in revolutions, Number of steps per revolution
and Origin lines.
You can only adjust the cam position indirectly via the normal position. The zero point
of the normal position is also cam position 0. However, this does not apply the other
way around, e.g. if the normal measuring range is 1024 revolutions and that of the
cams is one revolution.
If you select Position in the Stroke line, the normal position is used as the cam
position. Since for reasons of speed, the camshaft gear only works with 16 bits, this is
possible only if the stroke is a maximum of 65536 steps.
You should set the cam measuring range and resolution before entering the initial and
final points of the cams, i.e. the switching points. In this way, you determine which
value range is permitted for the switching points. The initial value can always be
modified later, since the switching points are then adapted such that the cam pattern
does not change.
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In the Grid line, you can set a grid for the switching points. In this way, the switching
points and the cam position can be displayed with a resolution which is higher than
that with cam output. The wider the grid, the faster the camshaft gear, because the
position values which lie between the grid points need not be processed. When the
grid is altered, the switching points present are shifted to the nearest grid point.
The grid is at least one step in size. If you cannot see this line, it is exactly one step in
size.
Notes:
If the encoder does not move too fast, in each cycle the camshaft gear moves one
grid point towards the new position. This guarantees that each switching point or cam
appears for at least one cycle in the output data. If the camshaft gear lags behind the
position by more than four grid points, the system issues the error Cam speed, sets
the error bits and outputs and carries out four steps per cycle. As a result, cams which
do not exceed four grids can disappear. However, the remainder of the cams are
output correctly up to the point where the speed is twice as high as it was when the
cam speed error occurred for the first time. If the speed is increased further, the
position overtakes the camshaft gear, thus rendering the cams completely useless.
You should avoid at all costs operating the camshaft gear while the Cam speed error
is present. To remedy this, you must either reduce the cam resolution or increase the
size of the grid. You can calculate permissible values using the required maximum
speed from the table in the technical data in the appendix.
For example: You want a maximum speed of 1500 RPM or 25 revs/sec. Take a cycle
time of 312.5 µs from the table. In one second, the camshaft gear can thus run
1000000µs/312.5µs = 3200 grid points. As a result, a maximum of 3200/25 = 128 grid
points may be dropped for each of the 25 revs/sec. If 1 grid point = 1 step, the cam
resolution may not be more than 128 steps per revolution. If, in addition, a cam
resolution of 4096 steps per revolution is required, you must enter a grid that is at
least 4096/128 = 32 steps in size.
After a preset adjustment or reprogramming of the encoder, which can result in a
change in the position, the system may briefly issue the Cam speed error.
5.8.2 Advance times
If extended options are selected, dynamic cams can be programmed with four
different advance times. At the beginning, the advance times are programmed
between 0 and 70 milliseconds. For each track, you can specify the number of the
relevant advance time for all of its switch-on and switch-off points. The switching
points are then issued by the respective time earlier than they are actually reached,
i.e. they are advanced by a distance which is dependent on the speed. The purpose is
to compensate for the response times at switching on and switching off of actuators or
tools independently of the speed.
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5.8.3 Displacement
If you specify a positive or negative number in the Displacement line, all cams are
displaced accordingly and the displacement is set to 0 again. The cams can also be
shifted beyond the initial or final value without this leading to a changed cam pattern.
5.8.4 Tracks
In the Tracks line, you specify the desired number of tracks between 1 and 80. For
each track, a subsection of its own appears. In the case of dynamic cams, the
advance times for the switch-on and switch-off point are selected first. Then you
specify the desired number of cams between 1 and 4. The corresponding number of
lines for the switch-on and switch-off points appear.
During entry of the switching points, overlapping cams and cams of zero length are
automatically corrected, starting with the first line. The cams can exceed the upper
and lower limit of the stroke, i.e. the switch-on point can also be greater than the
switch-off point. Only cams of zero length, i.e. with the same switch-on and switch-off
point or overlapping cams are not allowed.
5.9 SSI section
Functioning of the interface is described in the glossary section of the same name.
The allowed line lengths and SSI clock frequencies are described in technical data in
the appendix.
5.9.1 Interface
In the 26-bits + repeat line you select whether with longer clock pulse bundles
the data bits are to be repeated every 26 clock pulses or whether 0 bits are to be
transmitted after the last data bit. Application: simple detection of transmission errors.
In the Tree format line you can select the so-called pine-tree format with 0, 12 or
16 revolution bits if the type of data is called position. The number of steps per rotation
must be a power of 2; the initial value must be 0, and you must select binary code or
Gray code. The revolution bits will then be right-justified in the 12 or 16 SSI most
significant bits, followed by the central disk bits. Only if the stroke is one revolution can
you set the tree format to 0 bits.
Since data transfer is synchronized by the start of the clock pulse bundle, you can
easily use multi-step codes like binary code, for example.
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5.9.2 Data and signal bits
The total number of data and signal bits may not exceed 26 if SSI with 26-bit repeat is
selected. Otherwise, the maximum value is 32.
5.9.3 Data bits
In the Data type line, you choose whether position values or cams are to be output
via the SSI interface. It is not possible to do both at the same time. In the case of
cams, you need to program the cams appropriately in the previous Cam tracks
section.
In the Data bits line, you specify the number of bits reserved for the position or the
cams. They start at input bit 20.
In the case of position values, you specify in the Code line whether binary code, Gray
code, clipped Gray code, BCD code, excess-three code, or clipped excess-three code
is to be used. If the number of data bits reserved for the position is not sufficient for
BCD or excess-three code, the system automatically switches to binary code or Gray
code. If it is still not sufficient, the relevant error message is issued. Then, you must
either reserve more data bits or decrease either the initial value, the measuring range,
or the resolution in the Stroke section described above.
If a negative initial value was selected in the Stroke section, you must specify in the
Negative values line whether this value is to be represented as an absolute value
and sign or as a complement. The complement representation allows the user easier
calculating methods in adding and subtraction.
With negative numbers, the most significant position bit, which is used as the sign, is
set in both forms of representation. Therefore, negative initial values mostly require an
additional data bit. The following table compares the complement representation and
signed representation for binary and BCD code with 16 bits:
Value
Binary+Compl.
Binary+Sign
BCD+Compl.
BCD+Sign
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
0x0002
0x0001
0x0000
0xFFFF
0xFFFE
0xFFFD
0x0002
0x0001
0x0000
0x8001
0x8002
0x8003
0x0002
0x0001
0x0000
0x9999
0x9998
0x9997
0x0002
0x0001
0x0000
0x8001
0x8002
0x8003
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5.9.4 Signal bits
The data bit with the lowest value can be followed by up to 8 signal bits. You specify
the desired number in the Signal bits line. Then, two subordinate lines are
displayed for every signal bit where you can select the type of signal and invert it if
required. The following signal types are available:
5.9.4.1 Upward movement, downward movement
This is a combination of direction indicator and zero-speed switch. The signal bit is set
when the position moves in the corresponding direction and is deleted once it has
remained unchanged for 50 milliseconds.
To suppress vibrations, the movement detection has a hysteresis. With HE, the
hysteresis is one step referred to the resolution of the central disk. After a reversal of
the direction of movement, at least a distance corresponding to the hysteresis must be
traveled before a movement or change in the direction of movement is signaled. The
hysteresis also applies to the Previous upward movement and Ongoing
movement signals explained below:
5.9.4.2 Previous upward movement
The signal bit is set when Upward movement is set and it is deleted when Downward
movement is set.
5.9.4.3 Ongoing movement
The signal bit is set while either Upward movement or Downward movement is set.
5.9.4.4 Static and dynamic error (watchdog)
As long as the position data can be measured and transmitted without errors, the
signal bit Static error is deleted and the signal bit Dynamic error supplies a
square-wave frequency of 250 Hz. In the case of an error, the Static error is set
and the Dynamic error stays at any level.
You should use the dynamic error instead of the static one if possible, since the
dynamic error is very likely to also detect faulty program execution in the device.
In the case of an error, the cause of the error is displayed in plain text in the Actual
values section. The description of this section contains a list of possible errors and
their remedies (see below). Overspeed is also indicated as an error there; however, it
does not trigger static and dynamic error.
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5.9.4.5 Maximum speed
The signal bit is set when the maximum speed set in the Signal bits section above
is exceeded. This signal type is available with extended options only.
5.9.4.6 1st to 4th limit switch
The signal bit of a limit switch is set while the position is on or above the switch-on
point and below the switch-off point. The switching points are entered in the Signal
bits section above.
The switch-off point must be greater than the switch-on point. If the opposite case is
required, you must reverse the two switching points and invert the signal bit.
This signal type is available with extended options only.
5.9.4.7 Even parity, even error parity
You receive uneven parities by inverting the bit pattern.
If no encoder error is present, the error parity corresponds exactly to the normal parity.
In the case of an error, it is inverted. Its purpose is to make additional transmitting of
the encoder error unnecessary.
If for SSI a signal bit Parity or Parity error is desired, it must be at the last digit. It is
calculated from all previous bits. Therefore, only one single parity bit is possible. For
other interfaces see section "Data and signal bits".
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5.10 ISI section
Functioning of the interface is described in the glossary section of the same name.
You make these settings for the load input in lines Load start edge and
Response time. In line Highest frequency, you enter the highest frequency
that the incremental counter connected to the encoder can still acquire.
At some encoders the ISI outputs can be made tristate via a bus input. Then the line
Tristate appears. There you must normally select Never.
At some encoders the ISI outputs can be locked against upward and downward
movement after the loading procedure. The point is to hide a slight backward
movement from the control system at gears with much floating after the axis has
stopped. These encoders display the Count direction line. There you must
normally select Upward & downward.
Notes:
Since the incremental counter does not get a valid position during loading, you should
only position or regulate the axis when the encoder has switched the loading input to 0
thus indicating the end of loading. Traversing the axis during the loading process does
not, however, distort the position value loaded in the incremental counter.
After completing loading, the encoder behaves like a normal incremental encoder.
This means that when it runs over the start or the end value, the incremental encoder
continues to run in the direction of traversing. Since the absolute position jumps to the
opposite limit value, it no longer matches the reading of the incremental encoder.
To suppress disturbing pulses that are stored in the incremental counter, loading
should be repeated at regular intervals, e.g. when the axis in question is idle.
Negative position values can also be loaded in the incremental counter, e.g. if the start
value is negative. If the signs of the displayed absolute position and the incremental
counter reading are different, you must reverse lines A and B.
If the encoder does not issue any pulses when traversing the axis, it is probably
waiting for the load start edge. You can remedy this by reprogramming the edge
direction.
If the connected incremental counter frequently contains faulty values, you should
reduce the maximum frequency that is programmed in the axis cassette. Apart from
this, the system must have good interference suppression characteristics. The
incremental signals should be transferred differentially with TTL levels via twisted-pair
wires. All the cables, particularly the power cables on frequency converters, must be
fitted with screens grounded on both ends (see wiring notes at the beginning). With
persistent disturbances use SSI by preference.
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5.10.1 Definition of the number of steps of the incremental-interface and the pulse
number resulting from it
Since the ISI-interface is an absolute-measurement-method, the output signal
sequence (A, B) is not indicated in pulses per revolution as in the case of a pure
incremental-encoder, but in steps per revolution. With the programming of the
incremental-interface, therefore the number of steps per revolution is programmed!
That means:
The programmed number of steps of the incremental-interface corresponds to the
puls number after a quad-evaluation!
Example:
Edge Evaluation
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
A
/A
Encoder
2
4
2
4
2
4
B
Number of steps
incremental-interface
(each edge of K1/K2)
4096 steps/revolution = 1024
pulses of K1 for example
/B
1
1
1
1024 pulses/rev.
single
Evaluation
Counter
2
1
1
2
2
1
2048 pulses/rev.
double
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
4096 pulses/rev.
quad
Counter evaluations related to the above example
Single
Pulses/rev. = 0,25 x number of steps (incremental-interface) = 0,25 x 4096 = 1024
Double
Pulses/rev. = 0,5 x number of steps (incremental-interface) = 0,5 x 4096 = 2048
Quad
The pulses per revolution corresponds to the number of steps (incremental-interface)
of the encoder = 4096
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5.11 Section Digital outputs
Different from the parallel interface, the up to 8 switch outputs cannot output position
data, cams or parities. However, limit switches are possible with extended options.
The inputs for inversion, latch and bus do not effect the switch outputs. By that they
can always indicate the latest state of signal bits such as limit switch or error, even if
the outputs of the parallel interface are momentarily inverted, frozen or tristate.
The switch outputs can also be present with disconnected or missing parallel
interface. However, you must check by means of the pin assignment which ones are
actually connected at the pin.
Programming the signal bits is done in the same way as described in section SSI
above, yet with the parities being dropped.
If the encoder has a parallel interface with 32 outputs, the last 8 can be turned into
switch outputs by selecting Output 25 - 32 instead of No in the Digital
outputs line.
5.12 Parallel interface section
Functioning of the interface is described in the glossary section of the same name.
5.12.1 Interface
5.12.1.1 Inverting function
In the Inverted line, it is indicated when the data bits are output invertedly. No
means never, Yes means always. 0V=No means that the data bits are output normally
with 0 V at the inverting input but invertedly with US level. 0V=Yes is the opposite
case. The user can check by short inverting if the inputs, the encoder outputs and the
cable are all right.
5.12.1.2 Bus function
In the Tristate line, the bus function is set. 0V=No means that the data outputs at
the bus input are switched on with 0 V but switched off or tristate with US level.
0V=Yes is the opposite case. If never is selected, the data outputs never are tristate,
i. e. there is no bus function.
For safe data transfer we recommend to freeze the data outputs on switching them
on. The bus and the latch input must then be connected with each other and
programmed the other way round, e. g. 0V=No for the bus function and 0V=Yes for
the latch function.
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5.12.1.3 Latch function
In line Latch, you set the latch function. 0V=No means that at 0 V at the latch input
the data outputs always state the latest values; with a US level, the outputs are frozen
or latched and can be read continuously by the user. With 0V=Yes, the opposite
applies. If never is selected, the data outputs never are frozen, i.e. there is no latch
function.
The latch function is important when using multi-step codes, i.e. if several data bits
can change at the transition to the next position. If the user reads the data bits during
one of these transitions instead of freezing them, a situation can arise in which the
user only obtains the new status for a few of the data bits. This can lead to
nonsensical position values. With binary code, for example, the transition from 0x1FF
to 0x200 often results in a faulty read out of 0x2FF or 0x100, depending on the
direction. With decimal codes, pseudo tetrads can occur, i.e. illegal bit combinations.
If you use long cables, the capacity between the lines can result in crosstalk. This
means that when a parallel encoder switches other wires may take the same level.
This can be remedied by freezing the data before reading it.
The response time for freezing data is 20 µs; the time for unfreezing or refreshing is
100 µs. The delay times on the user's side for the latch output and the input filters
must be added to the response time for freezing. If these amount to e.g. 200 µs
altogether, the latch input must be switched to freezing at least 220 µs before reading
the data.
5.12.1.4 Dynamic strobe
If you expects a strobe signal indicating the validity of data, you can help yourself by
taking a slight detour as follows: Program a switch output of the encoder as a dynamic
error so that it transmits a symmetric rectangular signal with a period of 4 milliseconds
in normal operation. This is led to the latch input of the encoder and to the strobe input
of the user. If the latch function is set to 0V=No, 0 V means invalid data and US level
means valid data with the strobe signal. For 0V=Yes it is the other way round.
Mind that for the strobe output of the encoder a switch output is used instead of a
signal bit of the parallel output, as otherwise it is frozen as well.
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5.12.1.5 20 strobe
Some control systems avoid reading the position data during the transitions by taking
over this short time after a level change on the 20 bit and thereby using a binary or
BCD code.
This however creates the problem that sometimes data bits can change without the 20
bit changing the level. This can occur after switching on, after a preset adjustment or
with processes at such a high velocity that the encoder must skip position values on
outputting data. The control system then operates with old or even invalid position
values.
If such a control system is used, the 20 strobe should be switched on. The encoder
then switches the 20 bit after switching on and with every data output if any data bit
has changed.
The 20 strobe is only possible when latch and bus function are disabled, when binary
or BCD code have been selected and when no signal bit dynamic error is used.
5.12.1.6 Continuous progressive codes
You can use continuous progressive codes for parallel data transfer for reading
without synchronization by latch or strobe signals. You must select clipped codes, i.e.
shifted Gray code or shifted Gray excess-three code, so that also the transition from
initial to final value turns out continuously.
When using shifted Gray code, the used value range i.e. the measured length in steps
is rounded up to the next bigger 2-potency. The value range is then laid centrically into
this 2-potency by adding half the difference between 2-potency and value range
before data output. After decoding on the user's side, this value must be subtracted
again to obtain the actual position.
Example: For the shifted Gray code with 360 steps, half the difference is
(29-360)/2=(512-360)/2=76.
For the shifted Gray excess-three code, you round up to the next 10-potency.
Example: For the shifted Gray excess-three code with 720 steps, half the difference is
(103-720)/2=(1000-720)/2=140.
Shifted code is only possible with the initial value being 0.
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5.12.2 Data and signal bits
Selection of data and signal bits is made in the same way as described in section SSI
above, but with the following variations:
Up to 8 signal bits can follow the data bit of maximum value. If signal bits have already
been selected for SSI, their number is subtracted from the maximum value 8.
The parity is calculated from the data bits only, i.e. either cams or position with sign if
existing. All other bits are not considered. Several parities can be output.
The total number of data and signal bits may not exceed the number of outputs
specified in the equipment of 12, 24 or 32. If the last 8 parallel outputs have been
turned into switch outputs in section switch outputs, the maximum number of data and
signal bits is reduced by 8 again. In addition, you must check by means of the pin
assignment how many outputs are actually connected to the pin.
If the last 8 parallel outputs have been turned into switch outputs, the inputs for
inverting, latch and bus have no more effect on them. Programming them is done in
the previous section Digital outputs.
5.13 Profibus DP section
Functioning of the interface is described in the glossary section of the same name.
Chapters 4 and 5 of the manual entitled Distributed Peripheral System ET22 contain
supplementary information about additional line lengths and installation of the
Profibus. You can obtain this manual from Siemens quoting reference number
EWA 4NEB 780 6000-01.
5.13.1 Interface
The Profibus interface is equipped with component LSPM2. The LSPM2 automatically
adapts to the baud rate in use. As standard, it is possible to use all the baud rates from
9.6 kbps to 1.5 Mbps; 3 to 12 Mbps are available as an option.
Through the window in the encoder cover you can see a green LED "NORMOPER"
and a red LED "DIAERROR". On removing the cover, there are two BCD switches
and two DIP switches besides the terminals accessible. The BCD switches allow to
set the station address for the Profibus, the DIP switches allow to set the terminator or
the bus moving load. If the station is the last one on the bus line, these switches must
be set to ON; in all other cases, they must be set to OFF.
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If you choose 32 I in the Inputs/Outputs line, from the point of view of the PLC,
the station has 0 output bytes and four consistent input bytes. When configuring the
Siemens Profibus IM308 module, you must specify values 000 and 147.
If you choose the value 8 O. + 24 I, the station has one output byte and three
consistent input bytes and you must enter the values 160 and 146 for configuration of
the IM308. The purpose of this setting is to trigger the second and third electrical
preset by means of bits 21 and 22 via the Profibus. Then the corresponding inputs no
longer have an effect. In this context, the preset function must be enabled and the
selector values, starting edge, and response time set appropriately in the previous
Preset inputs section.
In the case of a general error, diagnosis bit 27 is set; in the case of overspeed,
diagnosis bit 26 is set. If the red DIAERROR LED lights up, at least one diagnosis bit is
set. If the green NORMOPER LED lights up, the station is being addressed via the
Profibus. This is also displayed by EPROG in the Actual values section.
Since data transfer is synchronized by the Profibus telegram, you can use multistep
codes such as the binary code without problems. However, if the Profibus connection
on the user's side has problems in consistent reading, you can avoid this by using
clipped continuous progressive codes.
Notes:
Detailed notes about connecting to a Profibus connection IM308 by Siemens are
available quoting reference number TR-ECE-TI-GB-0009.
Quoting reference number 490-00405 there is a floppy disk available, containing the
type files for the configuration program COM-ET-200 by Siemens. The abovementioned notes are also included as a WINWORD 6.0 file. These files can be
downloaded gratuitously from the TR mailbox.
Only the terminals DataA und DataB must be connected for the Profibus. These are
existing twice in the cover for the lines to the previous and to the subsequent station.
The terminals M5V2 must remain open.
5.13.2 Data and signal bits
Selection of data and signal bits is made in the same way as described in section SSI
above, but with the following variations:
Up to 8 signal bits can follow the data bit of maximum value. If signal bits have already
been selected for SSI, their number is subtracted from the maximum value 8.
The parity is calculated from the data bits only, i.e. either cams or position with sign if
existing. All other bits are not considered. Several parities can be output.
Depending on the setting of Inputs/Outputs, the total number of data and signal
bits may not exceed 24 or 32.
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5.14 Section Analog outputs
The analog output is potentially separated from the supply terminals of the encoder.
The load must be connected between analog+ and analog-. If the analog output is
used as a voltage output, the load must be at least 500 Ohm. If the analog output is
used as a power output, the load may not exceed 500 Ohm. As a result, the maximum
values for output voltage resp. power amount to 10 V and 20 mA.
The first line Analog outputs indicates how many of the existing analog outputs
shall be used. 0 disconnects them completely.
A separate section appears for each analog output. The line X. Analog output
indicates whether voltage (-10…+10 V) or power (0…20 mA) shall be output. Then the
analog units used are millivolts "mV" resp. microampere "µA".
In line Data type, you select as input quantity to which the analog signal shall
correspond, either position or velocity. In the lines Initial value and Final
value, you set the ranges for the input quantity and the analog output signal. The
volume of the ranges is the difference between the limit values, i.e. between the final
and the initial values.
If the input quantity is in its range, the analog signal moves in a linear way from the
initial to the final value. If the input quantity exceeds its range, the analog signal stays
at the corresponding limit value.
The final value for the input quantity and the analog signal may not be smaller than
the initial value.
Adjustment to the various analog interfaces is made by suitable selection of the
analog initial and final values, e.g. 4000…20000 µA for 4…20 mA,
-5000…5000 mV for -5…+5 V or 0…10000 mV for 0…10 V.
The resolution of the analog output normally is 14 bit for the whole output range of
20 V or 20 mA, which results in steps of 1.2 mV or µA.
This resolution, however, is only utilized in the largest possible range of the analog
signal if the range of the input quantity is selected at least 214 steps large. On reducing
the analog range, this value is diminished linearly.
1st example: The input range shall be 20 steps large, the output range 20 V. The
output voltage then runs in steps of 1 V from the initial to the final value.
2nd example: The input range shall be 20 steps large, the output range 10 mV. Then
the output voltage should run in steps of 0.5 mV from the initial to the final value.
Actually, the next smaller possible step is then output so that the steps are 1.2 mV.
3rd example: The input range shall be 0 steps large, i.e. its initial and final value shall
be equal. The output voltage then jumps from the analog initial value to the analog
final value.
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5.14.1 Latch function
In line Latch, you set the latch function. 0V=No means that the analog output always
indicates the latest value with 0 V at the latch input, but is frozen or latched with US
level and can be read stably by the user. 0V=Yes is the opposite case. If Never is
selected, the analog output is never frozen, i.e. there is no latch function.
The response time of the latch input for freezing the analog output is 20 µs, for
unfreezing or refreshing 100 µs. The delay times on the user's side for the latch output
and the input filters must be added to the response time for freezing. If these amount
to e.g. 200 µs, the latch input must be switched to freezing at least 220 µs before
reading the data.
5.14.2 Inversion function
Line Inverted specifies in which cases the analog signal is output invertedly. 0V=No
means that the analog signal is output normally with 0 V at the inversion input, but
invertedly with US level. 0V=Yes is the opposite case. If Never is selected, the
inversion input is switched off. The user can check by quick inversion if the inputs,
encoder outputs and the cable are all right.
Note
The inversion function is available with voltage output only.
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5.15 Actual values section
5.15.1 Position
The currently output position is displayed here. An adjustment can be carried out by
entering a new value, which must, however, be stored afterwards (see chapter
"Program EPROG" up to page 11).
If cams are available, the cam position is additionally displayed, since the cam
measuring range and resolution may differ from the normal position calculation.
However, the cam position can only indirectly be adjusted via the normal position. At
the zero point of the normal position, the cam position is 0 too. However, this does not
apply the other way round, for example if the normal measuring range is 1024
revolutions and the one for the cams is one revolution.
5.15.2 Velocity
The velocity is displayed here: for rotating encoders in RPM, for linear encoders in
mm/sec.
5.15.3 Errors
If proper measurement and transmission of the position data are at risk or impossible,
the cause is displayed here. A list of possible errors and measures to remove them is
given below. Unless specified otherwise, the error need not be acknowledged or
deleted, but must simply be removed. Then the error message will automatically
disappear and the Error signal bit will be deleted. Apart from overspeed, all the
errors listed here lead to setting of the Error signal bit and the fall of the Ready-foroperation relay. This state has a signal bit of its own.
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5.15.3.1 Components
The self-diagnosis which is carried out at start-up has identified defective
components. The device must be replaced.
5.15.3.2 Central disk
The rotating encoder abruptly changed its direction of travel. This can be caused by
loose contacts in the encoder cable, wrong programming of the encoder resolution
(see rating plate), very strong vibrations, electrical interference, excess axial and
radial forces on the shaft, or scanning problems. You can first delete the error by
resetting the encoder by means of EPROG (see chapter "Program EPROG" up to
page 11) or by switching the encoder off and then on again.
Insulating flanges and couplings made of plastic as well as cables with twisted-pair
cores for clock pulse, data, and supply are measures against electrical interference.
The cable shields should be grounded on both sides. Only if the machine ground is
heavily contaminated with interference towards the control cabinet ground should the
shield be grounded in the control cabinet only. Plastic couplings prevent mechanical
strain of the shaft. Vibrations and impact stress, for example at presses, are
dampened by means of "shock modules". If the error continues to occur despite these
measures, the encoder must be replaced.
5.15.3.3 Satellite
The rotating encoder made a very large step change. This can be caused by loose
contacts in the encoder cable, wrong programming of the encoder measuring range
(see rating plate), electrical interference or scanning problems. For measures, refer to
central disk error (see above).
5.15.3.4 FRAM checksum
The checksum for the characteristic values stored in FRAM is not correct. If the error
cannot be removed by programming the device by means of EPROG (see chapter
"Program EPROG" up to page 11), the FRAM is defective and the device must be
replaced.
5.15.3.5 Cam speed
The speed is so high that the cams' switching points can no longer be processed in
time. It is normal that this error occurs for a short period of time after an adjustment or
preset. If this error message is issued continuously, the speed must be reduced and
the cam output must be increased. To do so, switch off interfaces and options such as
limit switches which are not used. Should this not work, the cam resolution must be
reduced or the cam grid must be made wider (see above section Cams).
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5.15.3.6 Warm restart
The device continuously checks the settings of its ports and the contents of its RAM. If
it detects unreasonable or invalid states, it assumes that electrical interference is
present and carries out a warm restart for re-initialization. If this occurs frequently, the
device's interference must be suppressed as described above in Central disk
error.
5.15.3.7 Overspeed
The speed monitor has detected that the maximum speed programmed in the Signal
bits section has been exceeded. Action: reduce speed or increase speed limit. This
is the only error that does not lead to setting of the Error signal bit, but only to setting
of the Overspeed signal bit.
5.15.3.8 Analog outputs
The analog outputs are lined up digitally in the factory and the correction values are
stored in EEPROM. On switching on, the encoder checks if the correction values are
in the acceptable range. Otherwise, the error message "Analog outputs" appears. This
is a manufacturing error. The unit must be replaced.
5.15.4 Interfaces
For every active interface, the currently output bit pattern is displayed here by means
of 0 and 1. If a short circuit is detected on a bit, a normal comma or an inverted
comma appears depending on whether the nominal value is 0 or 1. However, this
diagnosis is not possible with all bits.
With the SSI bit pattern, 32 bits are displayed with simple transmission while only 26
bits are displayed with multiple transmission. The display is left-justified as is the
transmission, i.e. the data occupies the more significant bits and the less significant
bits are padded with zeroes.
At the parallel interface, the latch function has also an effect on the displayed bits. If
the outputs are frozen, the display remains as well even if the encoder is moving.
With the Profibus interface, you can additionally see whether the station is currently
being addressed via the bus.
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6 Appendix
6.1 Dimensioned drawing, pin assignment, available options
See specification sheet of the respective encoder.
6.2 Technical data
6.2.1 Power supply
Because of the filter capacitors of the devices, you need not take into consideration
the residual ripple of the supply voltage while the voltage remains within the allowed
range.
With devices containing switching power supplies, the input power is hardly
dependent on the supply voltage, i.e. the higher the supply voltage, the more the input
current increases until the switching power supply switches off. As follows, the supply
voltage with the highest current consumption and the current consumption at the
highest supply voltage are specified, together with the current consumption at the
lowest acceptable operating voltage. Possibly existing parallel outputs are unloaded in
this case. the current consumption increases depending on the load.
The listed guaranteed maximum values for current consumption are 120% of typical
values.
At power-on of the supply voltage, the charging current for the filter capacitors of the
devices (maximum of 300 microfarad per device) must be provided in addition to the
specified maximum input current.
With long cables the ohm voltage drop on the up-and-down-line must be taken into
account. Example: With 500 m of copper strand of 0.5 mm², resistance is 18 Ω. At
280 mA, the supply voltage of the encoder decreases by 2*18 Ω*0.28 A = 10.1 V.
Thus, a minimum of 11+10.1 V = 21.1 V must be supplied.
Supply voltage:
Temperature range:
11-27 V
0...+60° C standard, -20...+70° C on request
6.2.1.1 CE65 SSI
Input current at 8V:
Input current at 11V:
Input current at 27V:
max. of 280 mA
max. of 190 mA
max. of 120 mA
6.2.1.2 CE65 SSI+parallel 32xUS level
Input current at 8V:
Input current at 11V:
Input current at 27V:
max. of 280 mA
max. of 220 mA
max. of 150 mA
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6.2.1.3 CE65 SSI+ISI
Input current at 8V:
Input current at 11V:
Input current at 27V:
max. of 410 mA
max. of 280 mA
max. of 160 mA
6.2.1.4 CE65 SSI+Profibus
Input current at 8V:
Input current at 11V:
Input current at 27V:
max. of 460 mA
max. of 330 mA
max. of 160 mA
6.2.1.5 CE65 SSI+analog output
max. of 410 mA with 500 Ω load
max. of 310 mA with 500 Ω load
max. of 160 mA with 500 Ω load
Input current at 8V:
Input current at 11V:
Input current at 27V:
6.2.2 Times
Average cycle time (1 interface, no options)
Maximum cycle time (all interfaces and options)
Freeze parallel/analog outputs (activate latch)
Unfreeze parallel/analog outputs (deactivate latch)
Period from dynamic error output (symmetrical rectangle)
300 µs
500 µs
20 µs
100 µs
4000 µs
6.2.3 Clock frequency for SSI output
6.2.3.1 SSI clock frequency and monoflop time
The system routes the clock pulses to a retriggerable monoflop and detects the start
and end of the bundle of clock pulses. For this to function safely, the clock frequency
must be at least 2/monoflop period and the space between the bundles of clock
pulses must be at least 2*monoflop period.
Monoflop period
Minimum frequency for SSI clock pulse
Minimum space between SSI bundles of clock pulses
21 µs
95 kHz
42 µs
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6.2.3.2 SSI clock frequency and line lengths
The listed guaranteed maximum values for the SSI clock frequency are 75% of typical
maximum values. They are applicable with a symmetrical clock pulse signal. With a
non-symmetrical clock pulse, the maximum frequencies or the line lengths are
reduced.
The following assumptions are made: a cable is used comprising twisted-pair wires
with a common sheath and a cross-section of at least 0.25 mm²; an RS422 or an
RS485 cable transmitter is used as the clock pulse transmitter and fast optocouplers,
with an amplifier like a 6N137, for example, are used as the data receiver. It is not
advisable to use RS422 cable receivers instead of the optocouplers. It is true that this
can slightly increase the clock pulse frequencies; however, due to the lack of potential
separation, the signals are more susceptible to disturbances. In addition, reversing the
polarity of the encoder can damage it and the connected electronics.
If the clock pulse lines to the encoder are mixed up, data is delayed by half a clock
pulse period. The MSB arrives on the second or third clock edge. You must set
optimum clock pulse polarity so that the system shifts and reads the data on the same
clock pulse edge. If different edges are used for this, the connected electronics has
only half a clock pulse period instead of a full one to read a data bit and the allowed
clock pulse frequency is halved.
Line length up to
Maximum allowed SSI clock pulse frequency
12.5 m
25 m
50 m
100 m
200 m
300 m
400 m
500 m
819 kHz
756 kHz
578 kHz
364 kHz
228 kHz
163 kHz
127 kHz
105 kHz
6.2.3.3 Optimum SSI clock pulse polarity
To find out the optimum SSI clock pulse polarity, you must first find out whether the
system reads the SSI data bits on the first, the third and the other odd-numbered clock
pulse edges or on the even-numbered edges. For this, you connect the AK with a
short cable.
Turn the encoder one rotation, make a note of the change in the received position
value that this produces, reverse the polarity of the clock pulse and repeat the
procedure. If, while doing this, you find out that a change is only half as great as the
other one, the system is reading the odd-numbered clock pulse edges. In this case,
use the polarity with the smallest change.
If there is no difference between the changes, you must carry out oscillograph
inspection of the clock pulse and the data together. Trigger on the pulse and notice
the polarity on which the data comes half a clock pulse earlier. In this case, the data
edges coincide with the even-numbered clock pulse edges and polarity is optimized.
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6.2.4 Instructions for cabling
For SSI and RS485 signals, you should choose leads of at least 0.25 mm2, for supply
at least 0.5 mm2. This is especially true for cables of more than 100 m in length. You
should use twisted pair leads for this purpose. It is recommended to use shielded
cables which are grounded on both sides to protective earth or to frame ground.
Chapters 4 and 5 of the manual entitled Distributed Peripheral System ET22 contain
supplementary information about additional line lengths and installation of the
Profibus. You can obtain this manual from Siemens quoting reference number
EWA 4NEB 780 6000-01.
6.3 Accessories
TR-ECE-TI-D-0009
Description (German): Instructions for Siemens IM308 Profibus interface module
TR-ECE-TI-GB-0009
Description (English): Information on the Siemens IM308
Profibus interface module
490-00301
Equipment: PC Adaptor
490-00404
3.5“ floppy disk: EPROG program
490-00405
3.5“ floppy disk: Profibus support files for Siemens
COM-ET-200
490-00101
TR-PT-6: control box module for PT-100 connection
485-00001
TA-MINI: 6-digit display for actual data
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6.4 Glossary
Explanation of technical terms
6.4.1 Absolute encoder
A device for position measurement. The supplied measured value contains the
complete position as an analog or digital value.
By contrast with an absolute encoder, an incremental encoder signals changes in
position only by counting-pulses with information on the direction of rotation which
must be detected by means of an incremental counter. After switch-on, a reference
point must first be approached and the incremental counter set to zero. An additional
disadvantage is that glitches are also permanently stored in the incremental counter
and they can only be removed by carrying out a further reference run.
6.4.2 FRAM
Ferroelectric RAM: data memory which does not require a power supply unit for data
retention. One hundred million write cycles are guaranteed. This means that it is
possible to write into the same location every three seconds for ten years with the last
written value being subsequently retained for at least another ten years. Data transfer
is serial and must be started with a code word. This makes it very unlikely that the
stored data is overwritten as a result of disturbances.
Storage-battery or battery-backed RAMs and EEPROMs are also commonly used for
permanent data storage. The disadvantage of battery-backed RAMs is that the
storage batteries or batteries quickly discharge at high temperatures which results in a
loss of data. Moreover, electrical interference can easily trigger undesired write
operations. The disadvantage of EEPROMs is that only several thousand write
operations can be carried out.
6.4.3 Incremental encoder
Refer to absolute encoder.
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6.4.4 ISI
Incremental serial interface for absolute encoders. It enables absolute encoders to
operate in control systems designed for incremental encoders. Changes in position
are transferred by means of two common incremental tracks. The sign of the 90°
phase displacement indicates the direction of travel. However, it is not necessary to
approach reference points.
The load input of the encoder is assigned with the reverse load starting edge instead.
The encoder then sends no more pulses and switches its load output to 1. Now you
can set the connected incremental counter to zero and give the load starting edge
itself on the load input. Then the encoder outputs so many incremental pulses that the
incremental counter counts up to the encoder's position. If this is achieved, it switches
its load output back to 0 and is ready for further loading procedures.
6.4.5 Interface
Connection for data transfer
6.4.6 LA
Linear absolute encoder for length measurements.
The principle of measurement is based on the Wiedemann effect. A current surge is
sent through a magnetostrictive tube. Magnetostrictive means that the material
contracts in the direction of the magnetic lines of force during magnetization. During
the current surge, the tube diameter is reduced because the magnetic lines of force
run around the tube's axis in a circle. A bar magnet whose magnetic lines of force
point in the direction of the axis is held to the tube. During the current surge, this
additionally results in a twist at the location of the magnet which is propagated to the
measuring head as an ultrasonic pulse at the tube material's sound velocity and which
is registered there by means of a receiver coil. The position of the magnet can be
determined from the propagation time required for this.
Due to the required propagation time of the ultrasonic pulse, a measurement takes
approximately 1400 microseconds per meter of measured length.
6.4.7 LSPM2
A Siemens component for a Profibus slave connection.
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6.4.8 Luenberg observer
A filter for determination of the state variables that cannot be measured directly from
the ones that can be measured directly if the model of the system is known.
Application with encoders and axis cassettes: determination of velocity from position,
plausibility checking of position measurement, estimation of position if no measured
values are available. It is assumed that the system is an unaccelerated mass.
6.4.9 Parallel interface
Each data bit to be transferred has a data line of its own. If a single-step code is used,
no synchronization between the data source and the data receiver is necessary for
data transfer. If a multistep code is used, the data receiver can freeze the source by
connecting the latch input and can accept the data after a transient recovery period.
6.4.10 Profibus DP
Serial high-speed bus for automation purposes.
6.4.11 Rotating absolute encoder
An absolute encoder for the measurement of angles and revolutions on an
optoelectronic basis. A code disk with annular tracks on which transparent and nontransparent fields alternate with one another is located on the encoder shaft. The
tracks form a single-step code. Additionally, there are compensation tracks to
compensate for mechanical inaccuracies. They are converted to electrical digital
signals by means of light barriers.
Apart from the central disk, further code disks are available for revolution
measurement. These disks are connected to the shaft via a reduction gearing and are
called satellites.
6.4.12 Satellite
A code disk with reduction gearing for measuring the number of revolutions with
rotating absolute encoders.
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6.4.13 SSI
Synchronous serial interface for absolute encoders. The data source receives a clock
pulse bundle from the data receiver whose number of pulses corresponds to the
number of data bits. On the bundle's first negative edge, the data is loaded into the
shift register. On the following positive edges, the data bits appear on the data line
one after the other, starting with the most significant bit.
The last data bit is followed by zero bits only. During the break between the bundles,
high bits are transferred. The break is identified by means of a retriggerable monoflop.
A new bundle may not start until this has taken place.
Since the data transfer is synchronized by the start of the bundle, it is not necessary to
use single-step codes such as Gray code.
The clock pulses and data are differentially transmitted by means of cable transmitters
with TTL levels and received by means of optocouplers to protect them from damage
resulting from interference, potential differences, or polarity reversal.
Parity bits or checksums can be added to detect faulty transmissions. The simplest
measure is to read in the values twice with the data bits being repeated after 13 or 26
clock pulses of a bundle. However, this has the disadvantage of considerably
increasing transmission times.
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