1394b FireWire in automation

1394b FireWire in automation
1394b FireWire
in automation
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale
Furtwangen University, Germany
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
1
FireWire = i.Link = IEEE1394
... Fast serial bus
Abstract:
1. History and development
2. Main technical features of FireWire
3. FireWire versus Ethernet
4. Has FireWire its place in automation?
- advantages and disadvantages
5. Solutions with FireWire - examples
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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History and development
USA
• 1985 Apple: concept submitted - 2 development goals:
- very fast, cheep desktop-LAN, simple in using
- successor of SCSI
contemplated area of use: PC internal/external, multimedia
• 1986 development team extended by Sony and other companies
IEEE P1394 Working Group build
• 1993 first presentation at Comdex 1993
• 1994 1394 Trade Association grounded
• 1995 open standard 1394-1995 (S100, S200) accepted by IEEE
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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History and development
USA
• 2000 IEEE 1394a – speed version S400
• 2000 arrival of cheaper concurrence-bus USB 2.0 with 480 Mbit/s
⇒ ambition of PC-market-leadership left
⇒ new goals: - dominance in multimedia technology
- bus clone for TCP/IP
- penetration into industrial automation
• 2002 1394b with speed standards S800, S1600 a S3200
new cables, new plugs
• 2003 connection length 72m → 100m thanks 8B10B-coding
• 2004 Wireless FireWire
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Europe
History and development
• 2002 initiative of Nyquist a Wago: 1394 Automation Group created
• 2002 presentation of specification 1394AP at SPS/IPC/DRIVES
• 2004 fusion of 1394 Automation and 1394 Trade Association
Members of 1394 Automation Group:
Motion
(drives,
control technology,
contact technology)
Eurotherm, Lust, maxon motor, Moteurs Leroy Somer,
Stöber
Bosch Rexroth (Nyquist), Danaher
WAGO
Vision
Basler
R&D institutions
Fraunhofer IPMS Dresden (Photonische Mikrosysteme)
Fraunhofer IPT Aachen (Produktionstechnologie)
Institut für Mikroelektronik- und Mechatronik-Systeme
Institute Industrial Technology TNO, Eindhoven
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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IEEE1394a / 1394b Features #1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Transmission speed 100, 200, 400 (S100, ...) / 800, 1600, 3200 (S800, ...) Mbit/s
is given by the slowest device – mix of slow and fast devices possible
Isochronous modus: real-time applications
Asynchronous modus: peer-to-peer transmission
Automatic self-identification
Automatic self-addressing of devices
Hot-plug: devices can be plugged in the working condition
4-wires-cable, event. 2 additive power-leads / 9-wires-cable
Cable material: STP only / UTP, POF, HCPF, MMF also possible
Distance between adjacent devices depends of the bus-speed, e.g. 4,5m@S400&STP,
14m@S200&STP / 100m@S100&UTP
No bus-terminators necessary
Bidirectional transmission in packets
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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IEEE1394a / 1394b Features #2
• Topology: trees only, ring structures not possible / ring structures allowed
• Max. daisy chain length: 72m
• Max. 63 devices connectable at 1 bus
(max. 16 devices at 1 daisy chain)
• Multi-master: 1 – 63 masters possible
• Max. 1023 busses connectable via bridges
• TCP/IP: IP transmission over 1394 possible (standard@Mac); features comparable
with GB-eth
• On-bus power: 8..33V; 1,5A; max. 48W
• drivers: Standard@Windows>98SE,Mac>8.6,Linux
• 8B10B coding implemented in physical layer
• New signal levels „beta mode“
• New arbitration (protocol BOSS = Bus Ownership / Supervisor / Selector)
• Back-compatible with 1394a
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Backplane environment
• Uses two single-ended conductors
• Can be used on the two serial bus pins
defined in several common backplane
busses (i.e. VME)
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Cable environment #1
• IEEE 1394a: Thin flexible 6-wire cable:
two differential signal pairs and a power pair
- a group of consumer A/V companies has proposed an
alternate cable without the power pair
=> 4-wire cable
- smaller connector
- already has been used in some products on the market
- connected in a non-cyclic tree
• IEEE 1394b: 9-wire cable
- new connectors
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Cable environment #2
• Each node regenerates signals
• Maximum length between adjacent nodes
- 4.5 m by standard cable
- 10 m by well shielded cables
- 70 m by use of repeaters
• No more that 16 hops between any two nodes
• Well suited for connecting multiple units
- Inside the same enclosure (such as CPU board to disk drive)
- In separate enclosures (such as camcorder to VCR)
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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What kind of protocols does 1394
define?
• PHY
- Bits on the wire
- Arbitration
- Reset & bus configuration
• Link
- Packets on the wire
• Transaction
- Read, write, lock, etc.
• Bus management
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Higher layer protocols
• SBP
- serial bus transport for SCSI-3
- in addition to standard data read/write, SBP specifies
isochronous storage and playback
• A/V command set
- connection management
- device control
- data packet format
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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IEEE 1394 protocol stack
• ISO-7
7 Application layer
6 Presentation layer
5 Session layer
4 Transport layer
3 Network layer
2 Data link layer
1 Physical layer
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
• IEEE 1394
7-5 Bus manager
4-3 Transaction layer
(Resource manager)
2 Link layer
1 Physical layer
13
Protocol Stack
Application Layer
Configuration
Error check
Serial Bus
Management
Asynchr. transmission (read, write, lock)
Transaction Layer
Packets
Bus Manager
Link Layer
Cycle Master
Isochronous
Resource
Manager (IRM)
Node Control
Firmware
Firmware
Isochronous
transmission
Packet Transmitter
Packet Receiver
Cycle
Control
Symbols
Encode/
Decode
Physical Layer
Arbitration
Media Interface
Hardware
Elektrical signals and mechanical interface
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
Cable
14
Main functions of PHY
• To translate the symbols used by the Link Layer
Control (LLC) into the appropriate signals and
vice versa
• to define the mechanical and electrical
connections for the bus
• to provide arbitration to ensure that only one node
or device can transmit data at a given time
• to ensure that all devices have an equitable access
to the bus
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Main functions of LINK
• To manage the data packet
assembly/disassembly for both the
asynchronous and the isochronous data
• To handle addressing, error control, data
framing
• To generate the packet cycle timing and
synchronizing signals
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Transaction layer
• Control of the asynchronous data stream
write operation :
transmitter → receiver
read operation:
transmitter ← receiver
lock operation:
data is send on a round
trip through the processing at both ends of
the chain (test & control function)
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Bus management layer
• Controls function of
- PHY
- LINK
- transaction layer
and operate in both the HW and SW
• There are 3 possible modes
- fully managed system
- non-managed system
- limited bus management system
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Fully managed system
• Host present: PC, smart device
• All modes of data transfer for up to 64
channels supported
• power management
• bus optimization
• able to create - rate maps
- bus topology diagrams
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Non-managed bus
• Cycle master present
• asynchronous data transfer only
• Examples:
transfer camera - hard disk
hard disk - printer
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Limited bus management
• Power management ability limited
• handling of both the asynchronous and
isochronous data transfer for 8 - 64 channels
possible
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Bus management
What FireWire does not know:
• No Host needed (necessary at USB)
Control functions can be executed by any device with appropriate technical
sources
• User setup
No address configuration by a user is needed, no configuration programs must be
launched
The following control functions are possible:
• System Root-node
device with the highest node address
- asynchronous arbitration (= decision which node should manage the bus)
- synchronization of all devices for the isochr. transmission (cycle master role)
• Isochronous Resource Manager, IRM.
- channel management, bandwidth allocation to discrete channels
• Bus Manager
- bandwidth optimization
• Power Manager
- power economization
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Identification phases and arbitration
• reset
- Occurs always if the bus must be reconfigured
- always if a new device is plugged/unplugged and if the cycle master changes
• tree identification
• the parent-child relation is recognized
• self-identification
• physical IDs are assigned to the nodes
• the neighbors are informed about the own speed capacity
• normally arbitration
• decision what node should manage the bus
• root-node hat normally the highest priority
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Bus reset
• occurs when any node is connected or disconnected
• takes ca. 300 µs
• the following activities run:
- assignment of node addresses (node ID)
- root node is choosen
- assignment of other functions
- eventually: other bus topology is done
Configuration ROM ... device information
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Identification phases and arbitration
• reset
- Occurs always if the bus must be reconfigured
- always if a new device is plugged/unplugged and if the cycle master changes
• tree identification
• the parent-child relation is recognized
• self-identification
• physical IDs are assigned to the nodes
• the neighbors are informed about the own speed capacity
• normally arbitration
• decision what node should manage the bus
• root-node hat normally the highest priority
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Tree identification #1
branch
After reset, the nodes only
Know if they are
branch (>1 port connected) o.
leaf (exactly 1 port connected)
p
branch
branch
leaf
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
leaf
26
Tree identification #2
ch
root
ch
p
p
leaf
ch bus manager ch
After tree identification,
the root node is choosen (event.
other functions too) and
every connected port
is signed as chíld or parent
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
p
p
leaf
leaf
27
Self-identification #1
ID 4
ch
root
ch
p
p
ID 0
ID 3
leaf
ch bus manager ch
After self-identification,
each node has its own
explicit physical ID
and the topology was
identified by broadcasting
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
p
p
ID 1
ID 2
leaf
leaf
28
Self-identification #2
ID 4
ch
drive
root
ch
p
p
ID 0
ID 3
IO module
leaf
Configuration ROM was
read and the special node
features was provided
control / IPC
ch bus manager ch
p
p
ID 1
ID 2
camera
leaf
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
drive
leaf
29
Normally arbitration #1
ID 4
ch
p
drive
root
ch
request
p
ID 0
ID 3
IO modul
leaf
Example:
Nodes #0 and #2 require
the bus in the same
moment. They send the
request to their parents...
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
control / IPC
ch bus manager ch
p
request
p
ID 1
ID 2
camera
leaf
drive
leaf
30
Normally arbitration #2
ID 4
ch
p
drive
root
ch
request
request
p
ID 0
ID 3
IO module
leaf
Example:
They pass the request
to their parents
control / IPC
ch bus manager ch
p
p
ID 1
ID 2
camera
leaf
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
request
drive
leaf
31
Normally arbitration #3
ID 4
ch
p
drive
root
request
ch
deny
ID 0
request
p
ID 3
IO module
leaf
control / IPC
ch bus manager ch
deny
Example:
The asked parents
deny access to their
other children
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
p
request
p
ID 1
ID 2
camera
leaf
drive
leaf
32
Normally arbitration #4
ID 4
grant
p
ch
drive
root
request
ch
deny
ID 0
ID 3
IO module
leaf
Root grants the access to
the node which request it had
received at first (#0).
The node #3 had loose,
that’s why it cancels its
request and sends the
prohibition to the node #2
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
p
control / IPC
ch bus manager ch
deny
p
request
deny
p
ID 1
ID 2
camera
leaf
drive
leaf
33
Normally arbitration #5
ID 4
grant
p
ch
drive
root
data prefix
ch
deny
ID 0
p
ID 3
IO module
leaf
control/ IPC
ch bus manager ch
deny
Example:
The winning node #0
begins with data
transmission and the
loosing node #2
cancels its request
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
p
deny
p
ID 1
ID 2
camera
leaf
drive
leaf
34
Normally arbitration #6
ID 4
ch
p
drive
root
ch
data prefix data prefix
ID 0
p
ID 3
IO module
leaf
control / IPC
ch bus manager ch
data prefix
Node #4 sees the data prefix,
it cancels its grant;
deny changes in a
data channel – all data
flow into the right direction
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
p
data prefix
ID 1
p
ID 2
camera
leaf
drive
leaf
35
Address space
Example of an address:
0x3FE
63
10 bits 54 53
bus 0
(nodes 0..63)
bus 1
(nodes 0..63)
…
bus 1022
(nodes 0..63)
bus 1023
local bus
(nodes 0..63)
0x3E
6 bits 48
node 0
node 1
node 2
…
node 62
node 63
(broadcast)
0xFFFFF0000200
47
0
48 bits
initial memory
space
256TB-512MB=
268 434 944MB
private space
256MB
initial
node space
register space
256MB
(memory
addressing)
initial
units space
256MB/register
256TB/node
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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control&status
registers (CSR)
serial bus
ROM
1kB
2kB „boot“
Isochronous and asynchronous modes
Nominal cycle length = 125µs
Isochronous transaction
Asynchronous transaction
Isochronous (short)
Asynchronous (long)
subaction gaps
subaction gaps (~10µs)
Cycle Start Telegram (CTS)
ACK
ACK
cycle
sync
Acknowledge
gaps (~50ns)
cycle
sync
• Cycle sync is always send by cycle master; cycle master must be root node
• Asynchronous and isochronous transactions split the bus bandwidth
• Isochronous transactions can use max. 80% of the cycle length, i.e. 100µs
• Asynchronous transactions can use 125µs minus isochronous transactions time
• Isochr. transactions are optional only; only async. traffic on the bus is also possible
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Isochronous transaction
Cycle n (125µs)
Isochronous transaction
CH
61
CH
57
3
CH
11
Cycle n+1
Asyn. transaction
CH
61
CH
57
3
CH
11
CTS
• Bandwidth reservation for isochronous transactions given by IRM
• „isochronous talker“ designates the packets by channel numbers 0-63
• Each node can listen if needed ( „listener“ ),
i.e. only one node sends, multiple nodes can receive
• Isochronous packets are not acknowledged
• Within each cycle the channels are send in the same sequence till transmission end
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Asynchronous transaction #1
- is a transaction between 2 nodes
Cycle n (125µs)
Cycle n+1
Asyn. transaction
Request
subaction
Request
subaction
Response
subaction
ACK
Arbitration
Paket
C
ARB
ACK
Gaps (bus is free)
Paket
B
*
ARB
ACK
Paket
A
ARB
CTS
Bus Config
Asyn. transaction
The isochronous
transaction is
absent in this cycle
• Bus Config: all nodes take part
• Arbitration: all nodes take part which want access the bus; only the winner may send
• ACK: during the request subaction, ACK is send by relevant node a contrariwise
• *: The communication partner does not rise to answer: this time may be used by
other packets
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Asynchronous transaction #2
Cycle n (125µs)
Cycle n+1 (125µs)
Asyn. transaction
CTS
CTS
Asynchronous packets can delay the CST
• CST contents the 32-bit-information about the beginning of the sending with
the accuracy of 40 ns
• Synchronization of the clock signal takes place in the link layer IC of the
receiving node
• Accuracy of 125 µs-clock: < 500ps (jitter)
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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FireWire vs. ethernet
Requirements for modern distributed automation systems:
(1) compatible IT-systems, data transfer from fieldbus-environment into the control
administrative
(2) integrity of automation system
(3) low cost
(4) visual information transmission (graphical monitoring, vision)
(5) Real-time motion control data transmission (motion control)
(6) interoperability between components of different manufacturer
Solution:
1,3,6 → ethernet
4,5,(6) → ethernet, its industrial derivates, Profibus, CANbus, SerCos
Problem with (2)
1,2,3?,4,5 → FireWire: integrity is an inherent feature due to isochronous mode
FireWire & (6) … solution = 1394 AP
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Ethernet
+ widely spread standardization and acceptance
- real-time transmission problems, synchronization problems
Solution:
• network segmentation, data flow restriction (EtherCat), special switches, time
slicing systems (Profibus DPV3) → limitation of ethernet universality
• special protocols (Powerlink) → elimination of ethernet universality
• procedure according to IEEE 1588: synchronization of slave-clock with the
master-clock through the use of telegrams;
compenzation of the unknown data transmission time throught the network
through the use of feedback-loops for time measurement in both master and
slave nodes
- software solution → big jitter (~1µs),
jitter grows onward with the load on the bus
- solution by special hardware + protocol filtering → expensive
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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FireWire
• jitter < 500 ps
• asynchronous and isochronous modes
• self-identification and automatic parametrization of nodes in the
working condition
• hardware implementation of protocols
• co-existance of protocols for
- machine control
- programmable logic controller
- video applications
- internet protocols
on common physical interface
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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PHY circuits connection example
Bidirectional signals
TPA, TPB:
TPA:
TPB:
• sends Strobe • sends Data
• receives Data • receives Strobe
Both signals are used for the
arbitration as well
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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Data and Strobe coding
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
Data
Strobe
CLK
(delayed)
CLK = Data ⊕ Strobe
Data change due to Strobe instead of CLK
Level change at Data and at Strobe never in the same time
Result: jitter < 500ps
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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1394AP
common base for automation components motion, vision a I/O
Following functionalities are defined in application layer:
• Format of transmitted data
• Network management
• Data Synchronization
• Special register sets for node external control
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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IEEE1394AP for industrial automation
Communication Profiles and Device Profiles
např. 1394CP (1394 Communication Profile for CANopen
Management Services
Servis Data Services
Servis Data Services
IEEE1394AP (Application Layer for Industrial Automation)
Bus Management Interface
AsynchronousTransfer Interface
Management Layer Services
Management Layer
Bus Manager
Isochronous Transfer Interface
Transaction Layer Services
Transaction Layer
Firmware
Link
Layer
Services
Packets
Cycle Master
Link Layer
Isochronous Resource Manager
Symbols
Node Control
Physical Layer
Firmware
Hardware
Electrical signals and mechanical interface
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
Cable
47
1394AP: key words
Application Master (AM)
• network control
• cyclic data transmission to slave nodes (slave = all other nodes)
• AM is mostly IP
Master Data Telegram (MDT)
• source = AM, target(s) = slave node(s)
• content process data
• transmitted in every data packet
• slave nodes filtrates the relevant data
Device Data Telegram (DDT)
• both source and target = slave nodes
• data packet content:
e.g. state and control informations
Application Cycle (AC)
• gives the transmission speed of MDT
• different at each application
• fast or very accurate systems: AC = 1394 cycle
• lower performance systems: AC disposed in multiple 1394 cycles
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
48
1394AP: communication profiles
MDT, DDT ... Containers for control and state variables
Communication profiles:
•
•
Interpretation of MDT, DDT data
Functional overlay of 1394AP
Example:
1394CP for CANopen
•
Application software written for CAN functions also in 1394CP/CAN
based devices
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
49
FireWire in the industry: advantages
• Acquisition of video information (> 800Mbit/s)
Video information ca be transmitted together with inputs and outputs and with the
motor control data
• high control accuracy, jitter < 500 ps
• asynchronous transmission
for critical data or security-sensible data
- information if transmission succeeded or about the reason of bad success
• Flexibility of 1394b network topology
both trees and rings
All nodes are of the same value ⇒ no real-time demands on the central control,
normally PC quite sufficient.
• integration of typical ethernet based services possible (IPower 1394)
nevertheless rather mixed configurations are expected in the praxis:
- 1394 for real-time components
- ethernet for control, service and visualization
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
50
FireWire in the industry: disadvantages
• insufficient throughput in office networks
• advantages of FireWire concern only a strait utilization area
• only the 1394b standard is suitable for the industry
due to cable length, there are only a limited variety of 1394b IC on the market
• limited number of nodes, limited throughput
at cable length 100m and speed 100Mbit/s
• in systems with only little number of real-time components
Ethernet Powerlink is preferable
• persistence of users
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
51
FireWire in the industry: example 1
(isochronous)
Source:J. Gorka, 1394 Automation e.V. , 32423 Minden
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
52
FireWire in the industry: example 2
Client in office networks environment
Ethernet TCP/IP
Configuration
Service
Gateway
Ethernet TCP/IP
Windows XP
FireWire
Real-time
environment
Visualization
Visualization
Application
Source:J. Gorka, 1394 Automation e.V. , 32423 Minden
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
53
FireWire in the industry: example 3
Accurate turning lathe with high dynamics for treatment of
Non-circular intersection faces
• controller Nyquist/Kollmorgen
• aim: optimal speed / accuracy
• set-values transmitted as splines with variable
spline time to servo-amplifiers
• the speed is planed in an IPC, original splines are
saved
• interpolation of the spline on the speed requested
(4000 points/sec) is performed only in axes-drives
• tested workpiece:
sinusoidal Al-screwline with passing from 4 to 2
liftings per revolution
Source: Fraunhofer IPT Aachen
• lathe work speed: 400 rev/min
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
54
FireWire in the industry: example 4
Bosch Rexroth NYCe 4000
• Controller and drive unit in one
• aim: application 100-1000 W
• 1394 b
• through 4 drives cards
• 2 axes: 500W per axis or 1 axis 1 kW
• 800 Mbit/s, real-time
• more-channel SW oscilloscope on a PC
Zdroj: Rexroth, Bosch Group
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
55
FireWire in the industry: example 5
ORMEC controller SMLC
SMLC-SA
SMLC-30
SMLC-80
SMLC-160
1-axis-systems
with integrated
amplifier
through 3 axes
through 8 axes
through 16 axes
400 MHz Celeron
650 MHz Celeron
933 MHz Pentium III
1,4 GHz Pentium M
29 built-in I/O
18 built-in I/O
18 built-in I/O
18 built-in I/O
1 PC 104 +
1 additional slot
1 PC 104 +
1 additional slot
2 PC 104 +
1 additional slot
ORMEC ServoWire SD drives
SD Serie 230
SD Serie 460
Input voltage
115 VAC or 230 VAC
230 VAC or 460 VAC
Output power
600 through 15.000 W
2.400 through 24.000 W
Zdroj: ORMEC
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
56
Who uses industrial FireWire
1394 automation group members (excluding research)
Others
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
57
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
GORKA, J.: FireWire als Feldbus? Wie 1394AP die industrielle HighendKommunikation IT-kompatibel macht, SPS-Magazin, 2003
GORKA, J.: 1394automation e.V. Ergebnisse und nächsten Schritte, SPSMagazin, 2004
PRESHER, A.: 1394b Motion Networking. In: Design News, Nr.6, Vol. 2006
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Web Sources
1.
2.
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4.
www.1394.org
www.fcga.de
www.ipms.fraunhofer.de
www.zayante.com
Dr. Ing. Jiří Špale, 1394b in automation
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