Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os

Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and
General Purpose I/Os Handbook
A10-HANDBOOK
2017.06.21
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Contents
Contents
1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices............................... 7
1.1 LAB...................................................................................................................... 7
1.1.1 MLAB........................................................................................................ 8
1.1.2 Local and Direct Link Interconnects .............................................................. 9
1.1.3 Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects ................................ 10
1.1.4 LAB Control Signals...................................................................................11
1.1.5 ALM Resources ........................................................................................ 12
1.1.6 ALM Output .............................................................................................13
1.2 ALM Operating Modes ........................................................................................... 14
1.2.1 Normal Mode ...........................................................................................14
1.2.2 Extended LUT Mode...................................................................................17
1.2.3 Arithmetic Mode ...................................................................................... 18
1.2.4 Shared Arithmetic Mode ............................................................................20
1.3 LAB Power Management Techniques ....................................................................... 21
1.4 Document Revision History.....................................................................................21
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices............................................................... 22
2.1 Types of Embedded Memory................................................................................... 22
2.1.1 Embedded Memory Capacity in Arria 10 Devices........................................... 23
2.2 Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Arria 10 Devices......................................... 23
2.2.1 Consider the Memory Block Selection...........................................................23
2.2.2 Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution......................................... 24
2.2.3 Guideline: Customize Read-During-Write Behavior.........................................24
2.2.4 Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization........................ 27
2.2.5 Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption............................. 28
2.3 Embedded Memory Features.................................................................................. 28
2.4 Embedded Memory Modes......................................................................................29
2.4.1 Embedded Memory Configurations for Single-port Mode................................. 30
2.4.2 Embedded Memory Configurations for Dual-port Modes.................................. 31
2.5 Embedded Memory Clocking Modes......................................................................... 32
2.5.1 Clocking Modes for Each Memory Mode........................................................ 32
2.5.2 Asynchronous Clears in Clocking Modes....................................................... 33
2.5.3 Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read/Write..............................................33
2.5.4 Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes...............................................33
2.6 Parity Bit in Embedded Memory Blocks.....................................................................33
2.7 Byte Enable in Embedded Memory Blocks.................................................................33
2.7.1 Byte Enable Controls in Memory Blocks........................................................ 34
2.7.2 Data Byte Output......................................................................................34
2.7.3 RAM Blocks Operations.............................................................................. 34
2.8 Memory Blocks Packed Mode Support...................................................................... 35
2.9 Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support...........................................................35
2.10 Memory Blocks Asynchronous Clear....................................................................... 36
2.11 Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support........................................................ 37
2.11.1 Error Correction Code Truth Table.............................................................. 38
2.12 Document Revision History................................................................................... 38
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices......................................................... 40
3.1 Supported Operational Modes in Arria 10 Devices......................................................40
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3.1.1 Features.................................................................................................. 42
3.2 Resources............................................................................................................ 43
3.3 Design Considerations........................................................................................... 44
3.3.1 Operational Modes.................................................................................... 45
3.3.2 Internal Coefficient and Pre-Adder for Fixed-Point Arithmetic.......................... 46
3.3.3 Accumulator for Fixed-Point Arithmetic........................................................ 46
3.3.4 Chainout Adder.........................................................................................46
3.4 Block Architecture.................................................................................................46
3.4.1 Input Register Bank.................................................................................. 48
3.4.2 Pipeline Register....................................................................................... 50
3.4.3 Pre-Adder for Fixed-Point Arithmetic............................................................ 51
3.4.4 Internal Coefficient for Fixed-Point Arithmetic............................................... 51
3.4.5 Multipliers................................................................................................ 51
3.4.6 Adder...................................................................................................... 51
3.4.7 Accumulator and Chainout Adder for Fixed-Point Arithmetic............................ 52
3.4.8 Systolic Registers for Fixed-Point Arithmetic................................................. 52
3.4.9 Double Accumulation Register for Fixed-Point Arithmetic................................ 53
3.4.10 Output Register Bank...............................................................................53
3.5 Operational Mode Descriptions................................................................................53
3.5.1 Operational Modes for Fixed-Point Arithmetic................................................ 54
3.5.2 Operational Modes for Floating-Point Arithmetic............................................ 60
3.6 Document Revision History.....................................................................................67
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices................................................................. 69
4.1 Clock Networks.....................................................................................................69
4.1.1 Clock Resources in Arria 10 Devices............................................................ 70
4.1.2 Hierarchical Clock Networks........................................................................72
4.1.3 Types of Clock Networks............................................................................ 74
4.1.4 Clock Network Sources.............................................................................. 77
4.1.5 Clock Control Block................................................................................... 78
4.1.6 Clock Power Down.....................................................................................81
4.1.7 Clock Enable Signals................................................................................. 81
4.2 Arria 10 PLLs........................................................................................................82
4.2.1 PLL Usage................................................................................................ 84
4.2.2 PLL Architecture........................................................................................84
4.2.3 PLL Control Signals................................................................................... 85
4.2.4 Clock Feedback Modes............................................................................... 86
4.2.5 Clock Multiplication and Division..................................................................86
4.2.6 Programmable Phase Shift......................................................................... 87
4.2.7 Programmable Duty Cycle.......................................................................... 88
4.2.8 PLL Cascading.......................................................................................... 88
4.2.9 Reference Clock Sources............................................................................ 89
4.2.10 Clock Switchover.....................................................................................89
4.2.11 PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift..............................................95
4.3 Document Revision History.....................................................................................95
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices.................................................................. 98
5.1 I/O and Differential I/O Buffers in Arria 10 Devices....................................................99
5.2 I/O Standards and Voltage Levels in Arria 10 Devices...............................................100
5.2.1 I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices............................... 100
5.2.2 I/O Standards Support for HPS I/O in Arria 10 Devices.................................101
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5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.2.3 I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Arria 10Devices..........................................102
5.2.4 MultiVolt I/O Interface in Arria 10 Devices.................................................. 103
Intel FPGA I/O IP Cores for Arria 10 Devices........................................................... 103
I/O Resources in Arria 10 Devices......................................................................... 104
5.4.1 GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices........................ 104
5.4.2 GPIO Buffers and LVDS Channels in Arria 10 Devices................................... 109
5.4.3 I/O Banks Groups in Arria 10 Devices........................................................ 112
5.4.4 I/O Vertical Migration for Arria 10 Devices.................................................. 119
Architecture and General Features of I/Os in Arria 10 Devices................................... 120
5.5.1 I/O Element Structure in Arria 10 Devices.................................................. 121
5.5.2 Features of I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices......................................................122
5.5.3 Programmable IOE Features in Arria 10 Devices.......................................... 123
5.5.4 On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices............................................... 129
5.5.5 External I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices..............................................138
High Speed Source-Synchronous SERDES and DPA in Arria 10 Devices....................... 147
5.6.1 SERDES Circuitry.................................................................................... 148
5.6.2 SERDES I/O Standards Support in Arria 10 Devices..................................... 149
5.6.3 Differential Transmitter in Arria 10 Devices................................................. 151
5.6.4 Differential Receiver in Arria 10 Devices..................................................... 152
5.6.5 PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices....................................................... 160
5.6.6 Timing and Optimization for Arria 10 Devices.............................................. 173
Using the I/Os and High Speed I/Os in Arria 10 Devices........................................... 179
5.7.1 I/O and High-Speed I/O General Guidelines for Arria 10 Devices....................179
5.7.2 Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards.......... 181
5.7.3 Guideline: Do Not Drive I/O Pins During Power Sequencing........................... 182
5.7.4 Guideline: Using the I/O Pins in HPS Shared I/O Banks................................ 182
5.7.5 Guideline: Maximum DC Current Restrictions.............................................. 183
5.7.6 Guideline: Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core Instantiation................................... 183
5.7.7 Guideline: LVDS SERDES Pin Pairs for Soft-CDR Mode.................................. 183
5.7.8 Guideline: Minimizing High Jitter Impact on Arria 10 GPIO Performance.......... 184
5.7.9 Guideline: Usage of I/O Bank 2A for External Memory Interfaces................... 185
Document Revision History................................................................................... 185
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices.......................................................... 190
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Key Features of the Arria 10 External Memory Interface Solution............................... 190
Memory Standards Supported by Arria 10 Devices...................................................191
External Memory Interface Widths in Arria 10 Devices..............................................192
External Memory Interface I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices............................................ 193
6.4.1 Guideline: Usage of I/O Bank 2A for External Memory Interfaces................... 193
6.5 Memory Interfaces Support in Arria 10 Device Packages........................................... 194
6.5.1 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x40 with ECC....................................... 195
6.5.2 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x72 with ECC Single and Dual-Rank......... 197
6.5.3 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x40 with ECC........................................ 199
6.5.4 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Single-Rank...................... 201
6.5.5 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Dual-Rank.........................203
6.5.6 HPS External Memory Interface Connections in Arria 10............................... 204
6.6 External Memory Interface IP Support in Arria 10 Devices........................................ 208
6.6.1 Ping Pong PHY IP.....................................................................................209
6.7 External Memory Interface Architecture of Arria 10 Devices...................................... 210
6.7.1 I/O Bank................................................................................................211
6.7.2 I/O AUX................................................................................................. 220
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6.8 Document Revision History................................................................................... 222
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices......224
7.1 Enhanced Configuration and Configuration via Protocol............................................224
7.2 Configuration Schemes........................................................................................ 225
7.2.1 Active Serial Configuration........................................................................226
7.2.2 Passive Serial Configuration...................................................................... 235
7.2.3 Fast Passive Parallel Configuration............................................................. 239
7.2.4 JTAG Configuration.................................................................................. 243
7.3 Configuration Details........................................................................................... 246
7.3.1 MSEL Pin Settings................................................................................... 246
7.3.2 CLKUSR................................................................................................. 247
7.3.3 Configuration Sequence........................................................................... 248
7.3.4 Configuration Timing Waveforms............................................................... 251
7.3.5 Estimating Configuration Time.................................................................. 254
7.3.6 Device Configuration Pins......................................................................... 255
7.3.7 Configuration Data Compression............................................................... 257
7.4 Remote System Upgrades Using Active Serial Scheme..............................................259
7.4.1 Configuration Images.............................................................................. 259
7.4.2 Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode.................................... 261
7.4.3 Remote System Upgrade Circuitry............................................................. 262
7.4.4 Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry................................................ 262
7.4.5 Remote System Upgrade Registers............................................................ 263
7.4.6 Remote System Upgrade State Machine..................................................... 264
7.4.7 User Watchdog Timer...............................................................................264
7.5 Design Security.................................................................................................. 265
7.5.1 Security Key Types.................................................................................. 266
7.5.2 Security Modes....................................................................................... 267
7.5.3 Arria 10 Qcrypt Security Tool.................................................................... 268
7.5.4 Design Security Implementation Steps....................................................... 269
7.6 Document Revision History................................................................................... 270
8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices..............................................................................273
8.1 SEU Mitigation Overview...................................................................................... 273
8.1.1 SEU Mitigation Applications.......................................................................273
8.1.2 Configuration RAM...................................................................................274
8.1.3 Embedded Memory..................................................................................274
8.2 Arria 10 Mitigation Techniques.............................................................................. 274
8.2.1 Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support............................................ 275
8.2.2 Error Detection and Correction for CRAM.................................................... 275
8.3 Specifications..................................................................................................... 284
8.3.1 Error Detection Frequency........................................................................ 284
8.3.2 Error Detection Time............................................................................... 284
8.3.3 EMR Update Interval................................................................................285
8.3.4 Error Correction Time.............................................................................. 286
8.4 Document Revision History................................................................................... 286
9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices......................................................... 288
9.1 BST Operation Control ........................................................................................ 288
9.1.1 IDCODE ................................................................................................ 288
9.1.2 Supported JTAG Instruction ..................................................................... 289
9.1.3 JTAG Secure Mode ..................................................................................291
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9.1.4 JTAG Private Instruction .......................................................................... 291
I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation ............................................................................ 292
Performing BST ..................................................................................................292
Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry ............................................ 293
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing............................................294
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register ............................................................. 294
9.6.1 Boundary-Scan Cells of an Arria 10 Device I/O Pin....................................... 295
9.6.2 IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register.................................................. 297
9.7 Document Revision History................................................................................... 298
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices..................................................................... 300
10.1 Power Consumption........................................................................................... 300
10.1.1 Dynamic Power Equation........................................................................ 301
10.2 Power Reduction Techniques.............................................................................. 301
10.2.1 SmartVID ........................................................................................... 301
10.2.2 Programmable Power Technology.............................................................302
10.2.3 Low Static Power Device Grades............................................................. 303
10.2.4 SmartVID Feature Implementation...........................................................303
10.3 Power Sense Line............................................................................................. 305
10.4 Voltage Sensor..................................................................................................305
10.4.1 Input Signal Range for External Analog Signal........................................... 306
10.4.2 Using Voltage Sensor in Arria 10 Devices.................................................. 306
10.5 Temperature Sensing Diode................................................................................ 310
10.5.1 Internal Temperature Sensing Diode........................................................ 310
10.5.2 External Temperature Sensing Diode........................................................ 312
10.6 Power-On Reset Circuitry....................................................................................313
10.6.1 Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry............... 315
10.7 Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences................................................................ 315
10.8 Power Supply Design......................................................................................... 318
10.9 Document Revision History................................................................................. 319
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in
Arria® 10 Devices
The logic array block (LAB) is composed of basic building blocks known as adaptive
logic modules (ALMs). You can configure the LABs to implement logic functions,
arithmetic functions, and register functions.
You can use a quarter of the available LABs in the Arria® 10 devices as a memory LAB
(MLAB). Certain devices may have higher MLAB ratio.
The Quartus® Prime software and other supported third-party synthesis tools, in
conjunction with parameterized functions such as the library of parameterized
modules (LPM), automatically choose the appropriate mode for common functions
such as counters, adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
LAB
•
ALM Operating Modes
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
1.1 LAB
The LABs are configurable logic blocks that consist of a group of logic resources. Each
LAB contains dedicated logic for driving control signals to its ALMs.
MLAB is a superset of the LAB and includes all the LAB features.
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and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Figure 1.
LAB Structure and Interconnects Overview in Arria 10 Devices
This figure shows an overview of the Arria 10 LAB and MLAB structure with the LAB
interconnects.
C4
C27
Row Interconnects of
Variable Speed and Length
R32
R3/R6
ALMs
Direct-Link
Interconnect from
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect from
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect to
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect to
Adjacent Block
Local
Interconnect
LAB
MLAB
Local Interconnect is Driven
from Either Side by Columns and LABs,
and from Above by Rows
Column Interconnects of
Variable Speed and Length
1.1.1 MLAB
Each MLAB supports a maximum of 640 bits of simple dual-port SRAM.
You can configure each ALM in an MLAB as a 32 (depth) × 2 (width) memory block,
resulting in a configuration of 32 (depth) × 20 (width) simple dual-port SRAM block.
MLAB supports the following 64-deep modes in soft implementation using the Quartus
Prime software:
•
64 (depth) × 8 (width)
•
64 (depth) × 9 (width)
•
64 (depth) × 10 (width)
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Figure 2.
LAB and MLAB Structure for Arria 10 Devices
You can use an MLAB
ALM as a regular LAB
ALM or configure it as a
dual-port SRAM.
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LAB Control Block
You can use an MLAB
ALM as a regular LAB
ALM or configure it as a
dual-port SRAM.
LAB Control Block
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
MLAB
LAB
1.1.2 Local and Direct Link Interconnects
Each LAB can drive out 40 ALM outputs. Two groups of 20 ALM outputs can drive the
adjacent LABs directly through direct-link interconnects.
The direct link connection feature minimizes the use of row and column interconnects,
providing higher performance and flexibility.
The local interconnect drives ALMs in the same LAB using column and row
interconnects, and ALM outputs in the same LAB.
Neighboring LABs, MLABs, M20K blocks, or digital signal processing (DSP) blocks from
the left or right can also drive the LAB’s local interconnect using the direct link
connection.
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Figure 3.
LAB Local and Direct Link Interconnects for Arria 10 Devices
Direct-Link Interconnect from the
Left LAB, MLAB/M20K Memory
Block, DSP Block, or IOE Output
Direct-Link Interconnect from the
Right LAB, MLAB/M20K Memory
Block, DSP Block, or IOE Output
ALMs
ALMs
Direct-Link
Interconnect
to Left
Direct-Link
Interconnect
to Right
Local
Interconnect
MLAB
LAB
1.1.3 Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects
There are two dedicated paths between ALMs—carry chain and shared arithmetic
chain. Arria 10 devices include an enhanced interconnect structure in LABs for routing
shared arithmetic chains and carry chains for efficient arithmetic functions. These
ALM-to-ALM connections bypass the local interconnect. The Quartus Prime Compiler
automatically takes advantage of these resources to improve utilization and
performance.
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Figure 4.
Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects
Local Interconnect
Routing among ALMs
in the LAB
ALM 1
ALM 2
Local
Interconnect
ALM 3
Carry Chain and Shared
Arithmetic Chain
Routing to Adjacent ALM
ALM 4
ALM 5
ALM 6
ALM 7
ALM 8
ALM 9
ALM 10
1.1.4 LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving the control signals to its ALMs, and has
two unique clock sources and three clock enable signals.
The LAB control block generates up to three clocks using the two clock sources and
three clock enable signals. An inverted clock source is considered as an individual
clock source. Each clock and the clock enable signals are linked.
Deasserting the clock enable signal turns off the corresponding LAB-wide clock.
The LAB row clocks [5..0] and LAB local interconnects generate the LAB-wide control
signals. The inherent low skew of the MultiTrack interconnect allows clock and control
signal distribution in addition to data. The MultiTrack interconnect consists of
continuous, performance-optimized routing lines of different lengths and speeds used
for inter- and intra-design block connectivity.
Clear and Preset Logic Control
LAB-wide signals control the logic for the register’s clear signal. The ALM directly
supports an asynchronous clear function. The register preset is implemented as the
NOT-gate push-back logic in the Quartus Prime software. Each LAB supports up to
two clears.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Arria 10 devices provide a device-wide reset pin (DEV_CLRn) that resets all the
registers in the device. You can enable the DEV_CLRn pin in the Quartus Prime
software before compilation. The device-wide reset signal overrides all other control
signals.
Figure 5.
LAB-Wide Control Signals for Arria 10 Devices
This figure shows the clock sources and clock enable signals in a LAB.
There are two unique
clock signals per LAB.
6
Dedicated Row
LAB Clocks
6
6
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
labclk0
labclk1
labclkena0
or asyncload
or labpreset
labclr1
syncload
labclk2
labclkena1
labclkena2
labclr0
synclr
1.1.5 ALM Resources
Each ALM contains a variety of LUT-based resources that can be divided between two
combinational adaptive LUTs (ALUTs) and four registers.
With up to eight inputs for the two combinational ALUTs, one ALM can implement
various combinations of two functions. This adaptability allows an ALM to be
completely backward-compatible with four-input LUT architectures. One ALM can also
implement any function with up to six inputs and certain seven-input functions.
One ALM contains four programmable registers. Each register has the following ports:
•
Data
•
Clock
•
Synchronous and asynchronous clear
•
Synchronous load
Global signals, general purpose I/O (GPIO) pins, or any internal logic can drive the
clock enable signal and the clock and clear control signals of an ALM register.
For combinational functions, the registers are bypassed and the output of the look-up
table (LUT) drives directly to the outputs of an ALM.
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Note:
The Quartus Prime software automatically configures the ALMs for optimized
performance.
Figure 6.
ALM High-Level Block Diagram for Arria 10 Devices
shared_arith_in
carry_in
Combinational/
Memory ALUT0
dataf0
datae0
dataa
6-Input LUT
labclk
adder0
reg0
datab
reg1
To General Routing
datac
datad
datae1
adder1
6-Input LUT
reg2
dataf1
Combinational/
Memory ALUT1
shared_arith_out
carry_out
reg3
1.1.6 ALM Output
The general routing outputs in each ALM drive the local, row, and column routing
resources. Two ALM outputs can drive column, row, or direct link routing connections.
The LUT, adder, or register output can drive the ALM outputs. The LUT or adder can
drive one output while the register drives another output.
Register packing improves device utilization by allowing unrelated register and
combinational logic to be packed into a single ALM. Another mechanism to improve
fitting is to allow the register output to feed back into the LUT of the same ALM so that
the register is packed with its own fan-out LUT. The ALM can also drive out registered
and unregistered versions of the LUT or adder output.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Figure 7.
ALM Connection Details for Arria 10 Devices
syncload
aclr[1:0]
clk[2:0] sclr
shared_arith_in
carry_in
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac
GND
4-Input
LUT
3-Input
LUT
+
D
CLR
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
3
3-Input
LUT
D
4-Input
LUT
datad
3-Input
LUT
CLR
3
D
+
3-Input
LUT
VCC
D
CLR
CLR
datae1
dataf1
shared_arith_out carry_out
1.2 ALM Operating Modes
The Arria 10 ALM operates in any of the following modes:
•
Normal mode
•
Extended LUT mode
•
Arithmetic mode
•
Shared arithmetic mode
1.2.1 Normal Mode
Normal mode allows two functions to be implemented in one Arria 10 ALM, or a single
function of up to six inputs.
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Up to eight data inputs from the LAB local interconnect are inputs to the combinational
logic.
The ALM can support certain combinations of completely independent functions and
various combinations of functions that have common inputs.
The Quartus Prime Compiler automatically selects the inputs to the LUT. ALMs in
normal mode support register packing.
Figure 8.
ALM in Normal Mode
Combinations of functions with fewer inputs than those shown are also supported. For
example, combinations of functions with the following number of inputs are
supported: four and three, three and three, three and two, and five and two.
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
4-Input
LUT
combout0
datab
datad
datae1
dataf1
4-Input
LUT
combout1
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
5-Input
LUT
combout0
datad
datae1
dataf1
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
datad
datae1
dataf1
3-Input
LUT
5-Input
LUT
4-Input
LUT
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
5-Input
LUT
combout0
5-Input
LUT
combout1
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac
datad
6-Input
LUT
combout0
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac
datad
6-Input
LUT
combout0
6-Input
LUT
combout1
datad
datae1
dataf1
combout1
combout0
combout1
datae1
dataf1
For the packing of two five-input functions into one ALM, the functions must have at
least two common inputs. The common inputs are dataa and datab. The
combination of a four-input function with a five-input function requires one common
input (either dataa or datab).
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
In the case of implementing two six-input functions in one ALM, four inputs must be
shared and the combinational function must be the same. In a sparsely used device,
functions that could be placed in one ALM may be implemented in separate ALMs by
the Quartus Prime software to achieve the best possible performance. As a device
begins to fill up, the Quartus Prime software automatically uses the full potential of
the Arria 10 ALM. The Quartus Prime Compiler automatically searches for functions
using common inputs or completely independent functions to be placed in one ALM to
make efficient use of device resources. In addition, you can manually control resource
use by setting location assignments.
Figure 9.
Input Function in Normal Mode
labclk
datae0
dataf1
dataa
datab
datac
datad
6-Input
LUT
reg0
reg1
To General Routing
datae1
dataf0
These inputs are available
for register packing.
reg2
reg3
You can implement any six-input function using the following inputs:
•
dataa
•
datab
•
datac
•
datad
•
datae0 and dataf1, or datae1 and dataf0
If you use datae0 and dataf1 inputs, you can obtain the following outputs:
•
Output driven to register0 or register0 is bypassed
•
Output driven to register1 or register1 is bypassed
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
You can use the datae1 or dataf0 input, whichever is available, as the packed
register input to register2 or register3.
If you use datae1 and dataf0 inputs, you can obtain the following outputs:
•
Output driven to register2 or register2 is bypassed
•
Output driven to register3 or register3 is bypassed
You can use the datae0 or dataf1 input, whichever is available, as the packed
register input to register0 or register1.
1.2.2 Extended LUT Mode
Figure 10.
Template for Supported Seven-Input Functions in Extended LUT Mode for
Arria 10 Devices
labclk
datae0
datae1
dataf0
dataa
datab
datac
datad
Extended
LUT
reg0
reg1
To General Routing
dataf1
This input is available
for register packing.
reg2
reg3
A seven-input function can be implemented in a single ALM using the following inputs:
•
dataa
•
datab
•
datac
•
datad
•
datae0
•
datae1
•
dataf0 or dataf1
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
If you use dataf0 input, you can obtain the following outputs:
•
Output driven to register0 or register0 is bypassed
•
Output driven to register1 or register1 is bypassed
You can use the dataf1 input as the packed register input to register2 or
register3.
If you use dataf1 input, you can obtain the following outputs:
•
Output driven to register2 or register2 is bypassed
•
Output driven to register3 or register3 is bypassed
You can use the dataf0 input as the packed register input to register0 or
register1.
1.2.3 Arithmetic Mode
The ALM in arithmetic mode uses two sets of two four-input LUTs along with two
dedicated full adders.
The dedicated adders allow the LUTs to perform pre-adder logic; therefore, each adder
can add the output of two four-input functions.
The ALM supports simultaneous use of the adder’s carry output along with
combinational logic outputs. The adder output is ignored in this operation.
Using the adder with the combinational logic output provides resource savings of up to
50% for functions that can use this mode.
Arithmetic mode also offers clock enable, counter enable, synchronous up and down
control, add and subtract control, synchronous clear, and synchronous load.
The LAB local interconnect data inputs generate the clock enable, counter enable,
synchronous up/down, and add/subtract control signals. These control signals are
good candidates for the inputs that are shared between the four LUTs in the ALM.
The synchronous clear and synchronous load options are LAB-wide signals that affect
all registers in the LAB. You can individually disable or enable these signals for each
register. The Quartus Prime software automatically places any registers that are not
used by the counter into other LABs.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
Figure 11.
ALM in Arithmetic Mode for Arria 10 Devices
datae0
dataf0
datac
datab
dataa
datad
datae1
dataf1
carry_in
adder0
4-Input
LUT
reg0
4-Input
LUT
adder1
4-Input
LUT
reg1
To General Routing
reg2
4-Input
LUT
carry_out
reg3
Carry Chain
The carry chain provides a fast carry function between the dedicated adders in
arithmetic or shared arithmetic mode.
The two-bit carry select feature in Arria 10 devices halves the propagation delay of
carry chains within the ALM. Carry chains can begin in either the first ALM or the fifth
ALM in a LAB. The final carry-out signal is routed to an ALM, where it is fed to local,
row, or column interconnects.
To avoid routing congestion in one small area of the device if a high fan-in arithmetic
function is implemented, the LAB can support carry chains that only use either the top
half or bottom half of the LAB before connecting to the next LAB. This leaves the other
half of the ALMs in the LAB available for implementing narrower fan-in functions in
normal mode. Carry chains that use the top five ALMs in the first LAB carry into the
top half of the ALMs in the next LAB in the column. Carry chains that use the bottom
five ALMs in the first LAB carry into the bottom half of the ALMs in the next LAB within
the column. You can bypass the top-half of the LAB columns and bottom-half of the
MLAB columns.
The Quartus Prime Compiler creates carry chains longer than 20 ALMs (10 ALMs in
arithmetic or shared arithmetic mode) by linking LABs together automatically. For
enhanced fitting, a long carry chain runs vertically, allowing fast horizontal connections
to the TriMatrix memory and DSP blocks. A carry chain can continue as far as a full
column.
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
1.2.4 Shared Arithmetic Mode
The ALM in shared arithmetic mode can implement a three-input add in the ALM.
This mode configures the ALM with four four-input LUTs. Each LUT either computes the
sum of three inputs or the carry of three inputs. The output of the carry computation
is fed to the next adder using a dedicated connection called the shared arithmetic
chain.
Figure 12.
ALM in Shared Arithmetic Mode for Arria 10 Devices
shared_arith_in
carry_in
labclk
4-Input
LUT
datae0
datac
datab
dataa
datad
datae1
reg0
4-Input
LUT
reg1
4-Input
LUT
To General Routing
reg2
4-Input
LUT
reg3
shared_arith_out
carry_out
Shared Arithmetic Chain
The shared arithmetic chain available in enhanced arithmetic mode allows the ALM to
implement a four-input adder. This significantly reduces the resources necessary to
implement large adder trees or correlator functions.
The shared arithmetic chain can begin in either the first or sixth ALM in a LAB.
Similar to carry chains, the top and bottom half of the shared arithmetic chains in
alternate LAB columns can be bypassed. This capability allows the shared arithmetic
chain to cascade through half of the ALMs in an LAB while leaving the other half
available for narrower fan-in functionality. In every LAB, the column is top-half
bypassable; while in MLAB, columns are bottom-half bypassable.
The Quartus Prime Compiler creates shared arithmetic chains longer than 20 ALMs (10
ALMs in arithmetic or shared arithmetic mode) by linking LABs together automatically.
To enhance fitting, a long shared arithmetic chain runs vertically, allowing fast
horizontal connections to the TriMatrix memory and DSP blocks. A shared arithmetic
chain can continue as far as a full column.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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1 Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Arria® 10 Devices
1.3 LAB Power Management Techniques
Use the following techniques to manage static and dynamic power consumption within
the LAB:
•
Arria 10 LABs operate in high-performance mode or low-power mode. The Quartus
Prime software automatically optimizes the LAB power consumption mode based
on your design.
•
Clocks, especially LAB clocks, consumes a significant portion of dynamic power.
Each LAB's clock and clock enable signals are linked and can be controlled by a
shared, gated clock. Use the LAB-wide clock enable signal to gate the LAB-wide
clock without disabling the entire clock tree. In your HDL code for registered logic,
use a clock-enable construct.
Related Links
Power Optimization chapter, Quartus Prime Handbook
Provides more information about implementing static and dynamic power
consumption within the LAB.
1.4 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2017
2017.03.15
Rebranded as Intel.
October 2016
2016.10.31
Added description on clock source in the LAB Control Signals section.
November 2015
2015.11.02
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
December 2013
2013.12.02
Initial release.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
21
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
The embedded memory blocks in the devices are flexible and designed to provide an
optimal amount of small- and large-sized memory arrays to fit your design
requirements.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
2.1 Types of Embedded Memory
The Arria 10 devices contain two types of memory blocks:
•
20 Kb M20K blocks—blocks of dedicated memory resources. The M20K blocks are
ideal for larger memory arrays while still providing a large number of independent
ports.
•
640 bit memory logic array blocks (MLABs)—enhanced memory blocks that are
configured from dual-purpose logic array blocks (LABs). The MLABs are ideal for
wide and shallow memory arrays. The MLABs are optimized for implementation of
shift registers for digital signal processing (DSP) applications, wide and shallow
FIFO buffers, and filter delay lines. Each MLAB is made up of ten adaptive logic
modules (ALMs). In the Arria 10 devices, you can configure these ALMs as ten
32 x 2 blocks, giving you one 32 x 20 simple dual-port SRAM block per MLAB.
Related Links
embedded cell (EC)
Provides information about embedded cell
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2.1.1 Embedded Memory Capacity in Arria 10 Devices
Table 1.
Embedded Memory Capacity and Distribution in Arria 10 Devices
M20K
MLAB
Variant
Product
Line
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Total RAM Bit
(Kb)
Arria 10 GX
GX 160
440
8,800
1,680
1,050
9,850
GX 220
587
11,740
2,703
1,690
13,430
GX 270
750
15,000
3,922
2,452
17,452
GX 320
891
17,820
4,363
2,727
20,547
GX 480
1,431
28,620
6,662
4,164
32,784
GX 570
1,800
36,000
8,153
5,096
41,096
GX 660
2,131
42,620
9,260
5,788
48,408
GX 900
2,423
48,460
15,017
9,386
57,846
GX 1150
2,713
54,260
20,774
12,984
67,244
GT 900
2,423
48,460
15,017
9,386
57,846
GT 1150
2,713
54,260
20,774
12,984
67,244
SX 160
440
8,800
1,680
1,050
9,850
SX 220
587
11,740
2,703
1,690
13,430
SX 270
750
15,000
3,922
2,452
17,452
SX 320
891
17,820
4,363
2,727
20,547
SX 480
1,431
28,620
6,662
4,164
32,784
SX 570
1,800
36,000
8,153
5,096
41,096
SX 660
2,131
42,620
9,260
5,788
48,408
Arria 10 GT
Arria 10 SX
2.2 Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Arria 10 Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of
your designs. Unless noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of
this device family.
2.2.1 Consider the Memory Block Selection
The Quartus Prime software automatically partitions the user-defined memory into the
memory blocks based on your design's speed and size constraints. For example, the
Quartus Prime software may spread out the memory across multiple available memory
blocks to increase the performance of the design.
To assign the memory to a specific block size manually, use the RAM IP core in the
parameter editor.
For the MLABs, you can implement single-port SRAM through emulation using the
Quartus Prime software. Emulation results in minimal additional use of logic resources.
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2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Because of the dual purpose architecture of the MLAB, only data input registers,
output registers, and write address registers are available in the block. The MLABs
gain read address registers from the ALMs.
Note:
For Arria 10 devices, the Resource Property Editor and the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer
report the location of the M20K block as EC_X<number>_Y<number>_N<number>,
although the allowed assigned location is M20K_
X<number>_Y<number>_N<number>. Embedded Cell (EC) is the sublocation of the
M20K block.
2.2.2 Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution
In the true dual-port RAM mode, you can perform two write operations to the same
memory location. However, the memory blocks do not have internal conflict resolution
circuitry. To avoid unknown data being written to the address, implement external
conflict resolution logic to the memory block.
2.2.3 Guideline: Customize Read-During-Write Behavior
Customize the read-during-write behavior of the memory blocks to suit your design
requirements.
Figure 13.
Read-During-Write Data Flow
This figure shows the difference between the two types of read-during-write
operations available—same port and mixed port.
Port A
data in
FPGA Device
Port B
data in
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
2.2.3.1 Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The same-port read-during-write mode applies to a single-port RAM or the same port
of a true dual-port RAM.
Table 2.
Output Modes for Embedded Memory Blocks in Same-Port Read-During-Write
Mode
This table lists the available output modes if you select the embedded memory blocks in the same-port readduring-write mode.
Output Mode
"new data"
(flow-through)
"don't care"
Memory Type
M20K
M20K, MLAB
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
24
Description
The new data is available on the rising edge of the same
clock cycle on which the new data is written.
The RAM outputs "don't care" values for a read-duringwrite operation.
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 14.
Same-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
This figure shows sample functional waveforms of same-port read-during-write
behavior in the “new data” mode.
clk_a
0A
address
0B
rden
wren
byteena
11
data_a
B456
A123
q_a (asynch)
A123
DDDD
C789
B456
C789
EEEE
DDDD
FFFF
EEEE
FFFF
2.2.3.2 Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The mixed-port read-during-write mode applies to simple and true dual-port RAM
modes where two ports perform read and write operations on the same memory
address using the same clock—one port reading from the address, and the other port
writing to it.
Table 3.
Output Modes for RAM in Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Output Mode
Memory Type
Description
"new data"
MLAB
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes the MLAB
registered output to reflect the “new data” on the next rising edge after
the data is written to the MLAB memory.
This mode is available only if the output is registered.
"old data"
M20K, MLAB
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes the RAM output
to reflect the “old data” value at the particular address.
For MLAB, this mode is available only if the output is registered.
"don't care"
M20K, MLAB
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value.
• For M20K memory, the Quartus Prime software does not analyze the
timing between write and read operations.
• For MLAB, the Quartus Prime software analyzes the timing between
write and read operations by default. To disable this behavior, turn on
the Do not analyze the timing between write and read
operation. Metastability issues are prevented by never writing
and reading at the same address at the same time option.
"constrained don't
care"
MLAB
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value. The Quartus Prime
software analyzes the timing between write and read operations in the
MLAB.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 15.
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write
behavior for the “new data” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
A0
address_a
data_a
AAAA
A1
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
byteena_a
rden_b
address_b
q_b (synch)
Figure 16.
A0
A1
AAAA
XXXX
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write
behavior for the “old data” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
address_a
data_a
A0
AAAA
A1
BBBB
CCCC
byteena_a
DDDD
FFFF
EEEE
11
rden_b
address_b
q_b (asynch)
A0
A0 (old data)
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
26
A1
AAAA
BBBB
A1 (old data)
DDDD
EEEE
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 17.
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Don’t Care or Constrained Don’t Care Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write
behavior for the “don’t care” or “constrained don’t care” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
address_a
data_a
byteena_a
A1
A0
AAAA
BBBB
CCCC
11
01
10
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
rden_b
address_b
A1
A0
q_b (asynch)
XXXX (unknown data)
In the dual-port RAM mode, the mixed-port read-during-write operation is supported if
the input registers have the same clock.
Related Links
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT)
User Guide
Provides more information about the RAM IP core that controls the read-duringwrite behavior.
2.2.4 Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
Consider the power up state of the different types of memory blocks if you are
designing logic that evaluates the initial power-up values, as listed in the following
table.
Table 4.
Initial Power-Up Values of Embedded Memory Blocks
Memory Type
Output Registers
Power Up Value
MLAB
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Read memory contents
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Zero (cleared)
M20K
By default, the Quartus Prime software initializes the RAM cells in Arria 10 devices to
zero unless you specify a .mif.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
All memory blocks support initialization with a .mif. You can create .mif files in the
Quartus Prime software and specify their use with the RAM IP core when you
instantiate a memory in your design. Even if a memory is pre-initialized (for example,
using a .mif), it still powers up with its output cleared.
Related Links
•
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2PORT) User Guide
Provides more information about .mif files.
•
Quartus Prime Handbook Volume 1: Design and Synthesis
Provides more information about .mif files.
2.2.5 Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption
Reduce AC power consumption of each memory block in your design:
•
Use Arria 10 memory block clock-enables to allow you to control clocking of each
memory block.
•
Use the read-enable signal to ensure that read operations occur only when
necessary. If your design does not require read-during-write, you can reduce your
power consumption by deasserting the read-enable signal during write operations,
or during the period when no memory operations occur.
•
Use the Quartus Prime software to automatically place any unused memory blocks
in low-power mode to reduce static power.
2.3 Embedded Memory Features
Table 5.
Memory Features in Arria 10 Devices
This table summarizes the features supported by the embedded memory blocks.
M20K
MLAB
730 MHz
700 MHz
20,480
640
Parity bits
Supported
—
Byte enable
Supported
Supported
Packed mode
Supported
—
Address clock enable
Supported
—
Simple dual-port mixed width
Supported
—
True dual-port mixed width
Supported
—
FIFO buffer mixed width
Supported
—
Memory Initialization File (.mif)
Supported
Supported
Mixed-clock mode
Supported
Supported
Fully synchronous memory
Supported
Supported
—
Only for flow-through read
memory operations.
Features
Maximum operating frequency
Total RAM bits (including parity bits)
Asynchronous memory
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Features
M20K
Power-up state
MLAB
Output ports are cleared.
•
•
Registered output ports—
Cleared.
Unregistered output ports—
Read memory contents.
Asynchronous clears
Output registers and output
latches
Output registers and output
latches
Write/read operation triggering
Rising clock edges
Rising clock edges
Same-port read-during-write
Output ports set to "new data" or
"don't care".
Output ports set to "don't care".
Mixed-port read-during-write
Output ports set to "old data" or
"don't care".
Output ports set to "old data",
"new data", "don't care", or
"constrained don't care".
ECC support
Soft IP support using the Quartus
Prime software.
Built-in support in x32-wide
simple dual-port mode.
Soft IP support using the Quartus
Prime software.
Related Links
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT)
User Guide
Provides more information about the embedded memory features.
2.4 Embedded Memory Modes
Table 6.
Memory Modes Supported in the Embedded Memory Blocks
This table lists and describes the memory modes that are supported in the Arria 10 embedded memory blocks.
M20K
Support
MLAB
Support
Single-port RAM
Yes
Yes
You can perform only one read or one write operation at a time.
Use the read enable port to control the RAM output ports behavior
during a write operation:
• To retain the previous values that are held during the most recent
active read enable—create a read-enable port and perform the write
operation with the read enable port deasserted.
• To show the new data being written, the old data at that address, or
a "Don't Care" value when read-during-write occurs at the same
address location—do not create a read-enable signal, or activate the
read enable during a write operation.
Simple dual-port RAM
Yes
Yes
You can simultaneously perform one read and one write operations to
different locations where the write operation happens on port A and the
read operation happens on port B.
True dual-port RAM
Yes
—
You can perform any combination of two port operations: two reads, two
writes, or one read and one write at two different clock frequencies.
Shift-register
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as a shift-register block to save logic
cells and routing resources.
This is useful in DSP applications that require local data storage such as
finite impulse response (FIR) filters, pseudo-random number generators,
multi-channel filtering, and auto- and cross- correlation functions.
Traditionally, the local data storage is implemented with standard flipflops that exhaust many logic cells for large shift registers.
Memory Mode
Description
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Memory Mode
M20K
Support
MLAB
Support
Description
The input data width (w), the length of the taps (m), and the number of
taps (n) determine the size of a shift register (w × m × n). You can
cascade memory blocks to implement larger shift registers.
ROM
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as ROM.
• Initialize the ROM contents of the memory blocks using a .mif
or .hex.
• The address lines of the ROM are registered on M20K blocks but can
be unregistered on MLABs.
• The outputs can be registered or unregistered.
• The output registers can be asynchronously cleared.
• The ROM read operation is identical to the read operation in the
single-port RAM configuration.
FIFO
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as FIFO buffers. Use the SCFIFO and
DCFIFO megafunctions to implement single- and dual-clock
asynchronous FIFO buffers in your design.
For designs with many small and shallow FIFO buffers, the MLABs are
ideal for the FIFO mode. However, the MLABs do not support mixedwidth FIFO mode.
Caution:
To avoid corrupting the memory contents, do not violate the setup or hold time on any
of the memory block input registers during read or write operations. This is applicable
if you use the memory blocks in single-port RAM, simple dual-port RAM, true dual-port
RAM, or ROM mode.
Related Links
•
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2PORT) User Guide
Provides more information about memory modes.
•
RAM-Based Shift Register (ALTSHIFT_TAPS) Megafunction User Guide
Provides more information about implementing the shift register mode.
•
SCFIFO and DCFIFO IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about implementing FIFO buffers.
2.4.1 Embedded Memory Configurations for Single-port Mode
Table 7.
Single-port Embedded Memory Configurations for Arria 10 Devices
This table lists the maximum configurations supported for single-port RAM and ROM modes.
Memory Block
Depth (bits)
Programmable Width
MLAB
32
x16, x18, or x20
64
M20K
1
x8, x9, x10
512
x40, x32
1K
x20, x16
2K
x10, x8
continued...
1 Supported through software emulation and consumes additional MLAB blocks.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
30
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Memory Block
Depth (bits)
Programmable Width
4K
x5, x4
8K
x2
16K
x1
2.4.2 Embedded Memory Configurations for Dual-port Modes
Table 8.
Memory Configurations for Simple Dual-Port RAM Mode
This table lists the memory configurations for the simple dual-port RAM mode. Mixed-width configurations are
only supported in M20K blocks.
Read
Port
Write Port
16K×1
8K×2
4K×4
4K×5
2K×8
2K×10
1K×16
1K×20
512×32
512×40
16K×1
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
8K×2
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K×4
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K×5
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
2K×8
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K×10
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
1K×16
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
1K×20
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
512×32
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
512×40
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Table 9.
Memory Configurations for True Dual-Port Mode
This table lists the memory configurations for the true dual-port RAM mode. Mixed-width configurations are
only supported in M20K blocks.
Port B
Port A
16K×1
8K×2
4K×4
4K×5
2K×8
2K×10
1K×16
1K×20
16K×1
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
8K×2
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K×4
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K×5
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
2K×8
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K×10
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
1K×16
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
1K×20
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2.5 Embedded Memory Clocking Modes
This section describes the clocking modes for the Arria 10 memory blocks.
Caution:
To avoid corrupting the memory contents, do not violate the setup or hold time on any
of the memory block input registers during read or write operations.
2.5.1 Clocking Modes for Each Memory Mode
Table 10.
Memory Blocks Clocking Modes Supported for Each Memory Mode
Clocking Mode
Memory Mode
Single-Port
Simple DualPort
True Dual-Port
ROM
FIFO
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
—
Yes
Input/output clock mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Independent clock mode
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
Single clock mode
Read/write clock mode
Note:
The clock enable signals are not supported for write address, byte enable, and data
input registers on MLAB blocks.
2.5.1.1 Single Clock Mode
In the single clock mode, a single clock, together with a clock enable, controls all
registers of the memory block.
2.5.1.2 Read/Write Clock Mode
In the read/write clock mode, a separate clock is available for each read and write
port. A read clock controls the data-output, read-address, and read-enable registers.
A write clock controls the data-input, write-address, write-enable, and byte enable
registers.
2.5.1.3 Input/Output Clock Mode
In input/output clock mode, a separate clock is available for each input and output
port. An input clock controls all registers related to the data input to the memory
block including data, address, byte enables, read enables, and write enables. An
output clock controls the data output registers.
2.5.1.4 Independent Clock Mode
In the independent clock mode, a separate clock is available for each port (A and B).
Clock A controls all registers on the port A side; clock B controls all registers on the
port B side.
Note:
You can create independent clock enable for different input and output registers to
control the shut down of a particular register for power saving purposes. From the
parameter editor, click More Options (beside the clock enable option) to set the
available independent clock enable that you prefer.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
32
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2.5.2 Asynchronous Clears in Clocking Modes
In all clocking modes, asynchronous clears are available only for output latches and
output registers. For the independent clock mode, this is applicable on both ports.
2.5.3 Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read/Write
If you perform a simultaneous read/write to the same address location using the read/
write clock mode, the output read data is unknown. If you require the output read
data to be a known value, use single-clock or input/output clock mode and select the
appropriate read-during-write behavior in the IP core parameter editor.
2.5.4 Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes
Independent clock enables are supported in the following clocking modes:
•
Read/write clock mode—supported for both the read and write clocks.
•
Independent clock mode—supported for the registers of both ports.
To save power, you can control the shut down of a particular register using the clock
enables.
Related Links
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption on page 28
2.6 Parity Bit in Embedded Memory Blocks
The following describes the parity bit support for M20K blocks:
•
The parity bit is the fifth bit associated with each 4 data bits in data widths of 5,
10, 20, and 40 (bits 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, and 39).
•
In non-parity data widths, the parity bits are skipped during read or write
operations.
•
Parity function is not performed on the parity bit.
2.7 Byte Enable in Embedded Memory Blocks
The embedded memory blocks support byte enable controls:
•
The byte enable controls mask the input data so that only specific bytes of data
are written. The unwritten bytes retain the values written previously.
•
The write enable (wren) signal, together with the byte enable (byteena) signal,
control the write operations on the RAM blocks. By default, the byteena signal is
high (enabled) and only the wren signal controls the writing.
•
The byte enable registers do not have a clear port.
•
If you are using parity bits, on the M20K blocks, the byte enable function controls
8 data bits and 2 parity bits; on the MLABs, the byte enable function controls all
10 bits in the widest mode.
•
Byte enables operate in a one-hot fashion. The LSB of the byteena signal
corresponds to the LSB of the data bus.
•
The byte enable signals are active high.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
33
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2.7.1 Byte Enable Controls in Memory Blocks
Table 11.
byteena Controls in x20 Data Width
byteena[1:0]
Table 12.
Data Bits Written
11 (default)
[19:10]
[9:0]
10
[19:10]
—
01
—
[9:0]
byteena Controls in x40 Data Width
byteena[3:0]
Data Bits Written
1111 (default)
[39:30]
[29:20]
[19:10]
[9:0]
1000
[39:30]
—
—
—
0100
—
[29:20]
—
—
0010
—
—
[19:10]
—
0001
—
—
—
[9:0]
2.7.2 Data Byte Output
In M20K blocks or MLABs, when you set a byte-enable bit to 0, the embedded memory
IP sets the corresponding data byte output to a “don't care” value. You must ensure
that the option Get X's for write masked bytes instead of old data when byte
enable is always selected.
2.7.3 RAM Blocks Operations
Figure 18.
Byte Enable Functional Waveform
This figure shows how the wren and byteena signals control the operations of the
RAM blocks.
inclock
wren
address
data
byteena
contents at a0
contents at a1
an
a0
a1
a2
XXXXXXXX
a3
a4
a0
XXXXXXXX
ABCDEF12
XXXX
1000
0100
0010
0001
FFCDFFFF
FFFFFFFF
FFFFEFFF
FFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a3
XXXX
ABFFFFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a2
1111
FFFFFF12
ABCDEF12
FFFFFFFF
contents at a4
don’t care: q (asynch)
doutn
ABXXXXXX
XXCDXXXX
XXXXEFXX
XXXXXX12
ABCDEF12
ABFFFFFF
current data: q (asynch)
doutn
ABFFFFFF
FFCDFFFF
FFFFEFFF
FFFFFF12
ABCDEF12
ABFFFFFF
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
34
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2.8 Memory Blocks Packed Mode Support
The M20K memory blocks support packed mode.
The packed mode feature packs two independent single-port RAM blocks into one
memory block. The Quartus Prime software automatically implements packed mode
where appropriate by placing the physical RAM block in true dual-port mode and using
the MSB of the address to distinguish between the two logical RAM blocks. The size of
each independent single-port RAM must not exceed half of the target block size.
2.9 Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support
The embedded memory blocks support address clock enable, which holds the previous
address value for as long as the signal is enabled (addressstall = 1). When the
memory blocks are configured in dual-port mode, each port has its own independent
address clock enable. The default value for the address clock enable signal is low
(disabled).
Figure 19.
Address Clock Enable
This figure shows an address clock enable block diagram. The address clock enable is
referred to by the port name addressstall.
address[0]
1
0
address[0]
register
address[N]
1
0
address[N]
register
address[0]
address[N]
addressstall
clock
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
35
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 20.
Address Clock Enable During Read Cycle Waveform
This figure shows the address clock enable waveform during the read cycle.
inclock
rdaddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
rden
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
an
q (synch) doutn-1
q (asynch)
Figure 21.
a1
a0
dout0
doutn
dout4
dout1
dout0
doutn
a5
a4
dout4
dout1
dout5
Address Clock Enable During the Write Cycle Waveform
This figure shows the address clock enable waveform during the write cycle.
inclock
wraddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
data
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
wren
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
contents at a0
contents at a1
an
a1
a0
a4
a5
00
XX
XX
01
02
contents at a2
XX
contents at a3
XX
contents at a4
contents at a5
03
04
XX
XX
05
2.10 Memory Blocks Asynchronous Clear
The M20K memory blocks support asynchronous clear on output latches and output
registers. If your RAM does not use output registers, clear the RAM outputs using the
output latch asynchronous clear.
The clear is an asynchronous signal and it is generated at any time. The internal logic
extends the clear pulse until the next rising edge of the output clock. When the clear
is asserted, the outputs are cleared and stay cleared until the next read cycle.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
36
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 22.
Output Latch Clear in Arria 10 Devices (Non-ECC Mode)
clk
rden
aclr
clr at
latch
D0
out
Figure 23.
D2
D1
Output Latch Clear in Arria 10 Devices (ECC Mode)
cken
clk
rden
aclr
clr at
latch
out
D0
D0
D1
D2
2.11 Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support
ECC allows you to detect and correct data errors at the output of the memory. ECC
can perform single-error correction, double-adjacent-error correction, and tripleadjacent-error detection in a 32-bit word. However, ECC cannot detect four or more
errors.
The M20K blocks have built-in support for ECC when in x32-wide simple dual-port
mode:
•
The M20K runs slower than non-ECC simple-dual port mode when ECC is engaged.
However, you can enable optional ECC pipeline registers before the output decoder
to achieve higher performance compared to non-pipeline ECC mode at the
expense of one cycle of latency.
•
The M20K ECC status is communicated with two ECC status flag signals—e (error)
and ue (uncorrectable error). The status flags are part of the regular output from
the memory block. When ECC is engaged, you cannot access two of the parity bits
because the ECC status flag replaces them.
Related Links
Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
37
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
2.11.1 Error Correction Code Truth Table
Table 13.
ECC Status Flags Truth Table
e
(error)
ue
(uncorrectable error)
Status
eccstatus[1]
eccstatus[0]
0
0
No error.
0
1
Illegal.
1
0
A correctable error occurred and the error has been
corrected at the outputs; however, the memory array has
not been updated.
1
1
An uncorrectable error occurred and uncorrectable data
appears at the outputs.
If you engage ECC:
Figure 24.
•
You cannot use the byte enable feature.
•
Read-during-write old data mode is not supported.
ECC Block Diagram for M20K Memory
Status Flag
Generation
40
8
32
Input
Register
32
ECC
Encoder
8
Memory
Array
40
Optional
Pipeline
Register
2
40
40
ECC
Decoder
38
Output
Register
2.12 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2017
2017.03.15
•
•
•
Rebranded as Intel.
Removed parity bit support for MLAB under the Error Correction Code
(ECC) support feature in the Memory Features in Arria 10 Devices table.
Removed parity bit support for MLAB blocks in the Parity Bit topic.
October 2016
2016.10.31
•
Removed Address clock enable support for MLAB block.
December 2015
2015.12.14
•
Updated the number of M20K memory blocks for Arria 10 GX 660 from
2133 to 2131 and corrected the total RAM bit from 48,448 Kb to 48,408
Kb.
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
Updated the following topics: Embedded Memory Configurations for
Single-port mode and Embedded Memory Configurations for Dual-port
mode.
Updated the description in the Data Byte Output topic.
Updated the Embedded Memory Capacity and Distribution table.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
•
•
•
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
38
2 Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Date
Version
Changes
June 2015
2015.06.15
Updated links.
May 2015
2015.05.04
•
•
Updated Mega Wizard Plug-In manager to IP Core parameter editor.
Updated Megafunction to IP core.
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
Added a new timing diagram for output latch clear in ECC mode.
Added a note to clarify that for Arria 10 devices, the Resource Property
Editor and the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer report the location of the M20K
block as EC_X<number>_Y<number>_N<number>
•
Updated the RAM bit value in M20K block for Arria 10 GX 660 and Arria 10
SX 660.
December 2013
2013.12.02
Initial release.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
39
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
This chapter describes how the variable-precision digital signal processing (DSP)
blocks in Arria 10 devices are optimized to support higher bit precision in highperformance DSP applications.
3.1 Supported Operational Modes in Arria 10 Devices
Table 14.
Supported Combinations of Operational Modes and Features for Variable
Precision DSP Block in Arria 10 Devices
VariablePrecision
DSP Block
Resource
1 variable
precision DSP
block
1 variable
precision DSP
block
Operation
Mode
Supported
Operation
Instance
Pre-Adder
Support
Coefficient
Support
Input
Cascade
Support
Chainin
Support
Chainout
Support
Fixed-point
independent
18 x 19
multiplication
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
2
No
No
Fixed-point
independent
27 x 27
multiplication
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
3
Yes
Yes
Fixed-point two
18 x 19
multiplier adder
mode
1
Yes
Yes
Yes2
Yes
Yes
Fixed-point
18 x 18
multiplier adder
summed with
36-bit input
1
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Fixed-point
18 x 19 systolic
mode
1
Yes
Yes
Yes2
Yes
Yes
Floating-point
multiplication
mode
1
No
No
No
No
Yes
Floating-point
adder or subtract
mode
1
No
No
No
No
Yes
continued...
2 Each of the two inputs to a pre-adder has a maximum width of 18-bit. When the input cascade
is used to feed one of the pre-adder inputs, the maximum width for the input cascade is
18-bit.
3 When you enable the pre-adder feature, the input cascade support is not available.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
VariablePrecision
DSP Block
Resource
2 Variable
precision DSP
blocks
Table 15.
Operation
Mode
Supported
Operation
Instance
Pre-Adder
Support
Coefficient
Support
Input
Cascade
Support
Chainin
Support
Chainout
Support
Floating-point
multiplier adder
or subtract mode
1
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Floating-point
multiplier
accumulate
mode
1
No
No
No
No
Yes
Floating-point
vector one mode
1
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Floating-point
vector two mode
1
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Complex 18x19
multiplication
1
No
No
Yes
No
No
Supported Combinations of Operational Modes and Dynamic Control Features
for Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
VariablePrecision DSP
Block Resource
1 variable
precision DSP
block
Operation Mode
Dynamic
ACCUMULATE
Dynamic
LOADCONST
Dynamic SUB
Dynamic
NEGATE
Fixed-point
independent 18 x 19
multiplication
No
No
No
No
Fixed-point
independent 27 x 27
multiplication
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Fixed-point two
18 x 19 multiplier
adder mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Fixed-point 18 x 18
multiplier adder
summed with 36-bit
input
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Fixed-point 18 x 19
systolic mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Floating-point
multiplication mode
No
No
No
No
Floating-point adder
or subtract mode
No
No
No
No
Floating-point
multiplier adder or
subtract mode
No
No
No
No
Floating-point
multiplier accumulate
mode
Yes
No
No
No
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
41
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
VariablePrecision DSP
Block Resource
Operation Mode
2 variable
precision DSP
blocks
Dynamic
ACCUMULATE
Dynamic
LOADCONST
Dynamic SUB
Dynamic
NEGATE
Floating-point vector
one mode
No
No
No
No
Floating-point vector
two mode
No
No
No
No
Complex 18 x 19
multiplication
No
No
No
No
3.1.1 Features
The Arria 10 variable precision DSP blocks support fixed-point arithmetic and floatingpoint arithmetic.
Features for fixed-point arithmetic:
•
High-performance, power-optimized, and fully registered multiplication operations
•
18-bit and 27-bit word lengths
•
Two 18 x 19 multipliers or one 27 x 27 multiplier per DSP block
•
Built-in addition, subtraction, and 64-bit double accumulation register to combine
multiplication results
•
Cascading 19-bit or 27-bit when pre-adder is disabled and cascading 18-bit when
pre-adder is used to form the tap-delay line for filtering applications
•
Cascading 64-bit output bus to propagate output results from one block to the
next block without external logic support
•
Hard pre-adder supported in 19-bit and 27-bit modes for symmetric filters
•
Internal coefficient register bank in both 18-bit and 27-bit modes for filter
implementation
•
18-bit and 27-bit systolic finite impulse response (FIR) filters with distributed
output adder
•
Biased rounding support
Features for floating-point arithmetic:
•
A completely hardened architecture that supports multiplication, addition,
subtraction, multiply-add, and multiply-subtract
•
Multiplication with accumulation capability and a dynamic accumulator reset
control
•
Multiplication with cascade summation capability
•
Multiplication with cascade subtraction capability
•
Complex multiplication
•
Direct vector dot product
•
Systolic FIR filter
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
42
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
•
Arria 10 Device Overview - Variable-Precision DSP Block
Provides more information about the number of multipliers in each Arria 10
device.
3.2 Resources
Table 16.
Resources for Fixed-Point Arithmetic in Arria 10 Devices
The table lists the variable-precision DSP resources by bit precision for each Arria 10 device.
Variant
Arria 10 GX
Arria 10 GT
Arria 10 SX
Table 17.
Product Line
Variableprecision
DSP Block
Independent Input and Output
Multiplications Operator
18 x 19
Multiplier
27 x 27
Multiplier
18 x 19
Multiplier
Adder Sum
Mode
18 x 18
Multiplier
Adder
Summed
with 36 bit
Input
GX 160
156
312
156
156
156
GX 220
192
384
192
192
192
GX 270
830
1,660
830
830
830
GX 320
984
1,968
984
984
984
GX 480
1,368
2,736
1,368
1,368
1,368
GX 570
1,523
3,046
1,523
1,523
1,523
GX 660
1,687
3,374
1,687
1,687
1,687
GX 900
1,518
3,036
1,518
1,518
1,518
GX 1150
1,518
3,036
1,518
1,518
1,518
GT 900
1,518
3,036
1,518
1,518
1,518
GT 1150
1,518
3,036
1,518
1,518
1,518
SX 160
156
312
156
156
156
SX 220
192
384
192
192
192
SX 270
830
1,660
830
830
830
SX 320
984
1,968
984
984
984
SX 480
1,368
2,736
1,368
1,368
1,368
SX 570
1,523
3,046
1,523
1,523
1,523
SX 660
1,687
3,374
1,687
1,687
1,687
Resources for Floating-Point Arithmetic in Arria 10 Devices
The table lists the variable-precision DSP resources by bit precision for each Arria 10 device.
Variant
Arria 10 GX
Product Line
Variableprecision
DSP Block
Single
Precision
FloatingPoint
Multiplicatio
n Mode
Single-Precision
Floating-Point
Adder Mode
SinglePrecision
FloatingPoint
Multiply
Accumulate
Mode
GX 160
156
156
156
156
GX 220
192
192
192
192
Peak
Giga
FloatingPoint
Operations
per Second
(GFLOPs)
140
173
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
43
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Variant
Arria 10 GT
Arria 10 SX
Product Line
Variableprecision
DSP Block
Single
Precision
FloatingPoint
Multiplicatio
n Mode
Single-Precision
Floating-Point
Adder Mode
SinglePrecision
FloatingPoint
Multiply
Accumulate
Mode
Peak
Giga
FloatingPoint
Operations
per Second
(GFLOPs)
GX 270
830
830
830
830
747
GX 320
984
984
984
984
886
GX 480
1,369
1,368
1,368
1,368
1,231
GX 570
1,523
1,523
1,523
1,523
1,371
GX 660
1,687
1,687
1,687
1,687
1,518
GX 900
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,366
GX 1150
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,366
GT 900
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,366
GT 1150
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,518
1,366
SX 160
156
156
156
156
140
SX 220
192
192
192
192
173
SX 270
830
830
830
830
747
SX 320
984
984
984
984
886
SX 480
1,369
1,368
1,368
1,368
1,231
SX 570
1,523
1,523
1,523
1,523
1,371
SX 660
1,687
1,687
1,687
1,687
1,518
3.3 Design Considerations
You should consider the following elements in your design:
Table 18.
Design Considerations
DSP Implementation
Design elements
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
•
•
•
•
Floating-Point Arithmetic
Operational modes
Internal coefficient and pre-adder
Accumulator
Chainout adder
•
•
Operational modes
Chainout adder
The Quartus Prime software provides the following design templates for you to
implement DSP blocks in Arria 10 devices.
Table 19.
DSP Design Templates Available in Arria 10 Devices
Operational Mode
Available Design Templates
18 x 18 Independent Multiplier Mode
Single Multiplier with Preadder and Coefficient
27 x 27 Independent Multiplier Mode
•
•
•
M27x27 with
M27x27 with
M27x27 with
Accumulator,
Dynamic Negate
Preadder and Coefficient
Input Cascade, Output Chaining,
Double Accumulator and Preload Constant
continued...
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Operational Mode
Available Design Templates
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
•
•
•
M18x19_sumof2 with Dynamic Sub and Dynamic Negate
M18x19_sumof2 with Preadder and Coefficient
M18x19_sumof2 with Input Cascade, Output Chaining,
Accumulator, Double Accumulator and Preload Constant
18 x 19 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
•
•
M18x19_plus36 with Dynamic Sub and Dynamic Negate
M18x19_plus36 with Input Cascade, Output Chaining,
Accumulator, Double Accumulato and Preload Constant
18-bit Systolic FIR Mode
•
•
M18x19_systolic with Preadder and Coefficient
M18x19_systolic with Input Cascade, Output Chaining,
Accumulator, Double Accumulator and Preload Constant
You can get the design templates using the following steps:
1.
In Quartus Prime software, open a new Verilog HDL or VHDL file.
2.
From Edit tab, click Insert Template.
3.
From the Insert Template window prompt, you may select Verilog HDL or VHDL
depending on your preferred design language.
4.
Click Full Designs to expand the options.
5. From the options, click Arithmetic ➤ DSP Features ➤ ➤ DSP Features for 20nm Device.
6. Choose the design template that match your system requirement and click Insert
to append the design template to a new .v or .vhd file.
3.3.1 Operational Modes
The Quartus Prime software includes IP cores that you can use to control the operation
mode of the multipliers. After entering the parameter settings with the IP Catalog, the
Quartus Prime software automatically configures the variable precision DSP block.
Variable-precision DSP block can also be implemented using DSP Builder for Intel®
FPGAs and OpenCL™.
Table 20.
Operational Modes
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
Floating-Point Arithmetic
Intel provides two methods for implementing various modes
of the Arria 10 variable precision DSP block in a design—
using the Quartus Prime DSP IP core and HDL inferring.
The following Quartus Prime IP cores are supported for the
Arria 10 variable precision DSP blocks in the fixed-point
arithmetic implementation:
• ALTERA_MULT_ADD
• ALTMULT_COMPLEX
• Arria 10 Native Fixed Point DSP IP core
Intel provides one method for implementing various modes
of the Arria 10 variable precision DSP block in a design—
using the Quartus Prime DSP IP core.
The following Quartus Prime IP cores are supported for the
Arria 10 variable precision DSP blocks in the floating-point
arithmetic implementation:
• ALTERA_FP_FUNCTIONS
• Arria 10 Native Floating Point DSP IP core
Related Links
•
Introduction to Intel FPGA IP Cores
•
Integer Arithmetic Megafunctions User Guide
•
Floating-Point Megafunctions User Guide - ALTERA_FP_FUNCTIONS IP Core
•
Quartus Prime Software Help
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
•
Arria 10 Native Fixed Point DSP IP User Guide
3.3.2 Internal Coefficient and Pre-Adder for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
When you enable input register for the pre-adder feature, these input registers must
have the same clock setting.
The input cascade support is only available for 18-bit mode when you enable the preadder feature.
In both 18-bit and 27-bit modes, you can use the coefficient feature and pre-adder
feature independently.
When internal coefficient feature is enabled in 18-bit modes, you must enable both top
and bottom coefficient.
When pre-adder feature is enabled in 18-bit modes, you must enable both top and
bottom pre-adder.
3.3.3 Accumulator for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
The accumulator in the Arria 10 devices supports double accumulation by enabling the
64-bit double accumulation registers located between the output register bank and the
accumulator.
3.3.4 Chainout Adder
Table 21.
Chainout Adder
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
You can use the output chaining path to add results from
another DSP block.
Floating-Point Arithmetic
You can use the output chaining path to add results from
another DSP block.
Support for certain operation modes:
• Multiply-add or multiply-subtract mode
• Vector one mode
• Vector two mode
3.4 Block Architecture
The Arria 10 variable precision DSP block consists of the following elements:
Table 22.
Block Architecture
DSP Implementation
Block architecture
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Input register bank
Pipeline register
Pre-adder
Internal coefficient
Multipliers
Adder
Accumulator and chainout adder
Systolic registers
Double accumulation register
Output register bank
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
46
Floating-Point Arithmetic
•
•
•
•
•
•
Input register bank
Pipeline register
Multipliers
Adder
Accumulator and chainout adder
Output register bank
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
If the variable precision DSP block is not configured in fixed-point arithmetic systolic
FIR mode, both systolic registers are bypassed.
Figure 25.
Variable Precision DSP Block Architecture in 18 x 19 Mode for Fixed-Point
Arithmetic in Arria 10 Devices
CLK[2..0]
scanin
chainin[63..0]
ENA[2..0]
When enabled, systolic registers are clocked with the
same clock source as the output register bank.
ACLR[1..0]
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
NEGATE
SUB
dataa_y0[18..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
Pipleine Register
dataa_x0[17..0]
+/Input Register Bank
dataa_z0[17..0]
Systolic
Register
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
Systolic
Registers
Constant
x
+/-
Internal
Coefficient
+
+/-
Adder
Chainout adder/
accumulator
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
+/-
datab_z1[17..0]
Double
Accumulation
Register
Output Register Bank
datab_y1[18..0]
x
datab_x1[17..0]
COEFSELB[2..0]
Resulta_[63:0]
Resultb_[36:0]
Internal
Coefficient
scanout
Figure 26.
chainout[63..0]
Variable Precision DSP Block Architecture in 27 x 27 Mode for Fixed-Point
Arithmetic in Arria 10 Devices
chainin[63..0]
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
Constant
NEG
dataa_y0[26..0]
dataa_z0[25..0]
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Pre-Adder
+/-
Double
Accumulation
Register
Chainout Adder/
Accumulator
Multiplier
x
+
+/-
dataa_x0[26..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
Internal
Coefficients
Output
Register
Bank
Result[63..0]
64
chainout[63..0]
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 27.
Variable Precision DSP Block Architecture for Floating-Point Arithmetic in
Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
Pipeline
Register
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
Input
Register
Bank
dataa_z0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier
chainout[31:0]
3.4.1 Input Register Bank
Table 23.
Input Register Bank
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
•
•
•
Data
Dynamic control signals
Two sets of delay registers
Floating-Point Arithmetic
•
•
Data
Dynamic ACCUMULATE control signal
All the registers in the DSP blocks are positive-edge triggered and cleared on power
up. Each multiplier operand can feed an input register or a multiplier directly,
bypassing the input registers.
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the input registers within the
variable precision DSP block:
•
CLK[2..0]
•
ENA[2..0]
•
ACLR[0]
In fixed-point arithmetic 18 x 19 mode, you can use the delay registers to balance the
latency requirements when you use both the input cascade and chainout features.
The tap-delay line feature allows you to drive the top leg of the multiplier input,
dataa_y0 and datab_y1 in fixed-point arithmetic 18 x 19 mode and dataa_y0 only in
fixed-point arithmetic 27 x 27 mode, from the general routing or cascade chain.
3.4.1.1 Two Sets of Delay Registers for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
The two delay registers along with the input cascade chain that can be used in fixedpoint arithmetic 18 x 19 mode are the top delay registers and bottom delay registers.
Delay registers are not supported in 18 × 19 multiplication summed with 36-bit input
mode and 27 × 27 mode.
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 28.
Input Register of a Variable Precision DSP Block in Fixed-Point Arithmetic
18 x 19 Mode for Arria 10 Devices
The figures show the data registers only. Registers for the control signals are not
shown.
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin[18..0]
ACLR[0]
dataa_y0[18..0]
dataa_z0[17..0]
dataa_x0[17..0]
Top delay registers
datab_y1[18..0]
datab_z1[17..0]
datab_x1[17..0]
Bottom delay registers
scanout[18..0]
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 29.
Input Register of a Variable Precision DSP Block in Fixed-Point Arithmetic
27 x 27 Mode for Arria 10 Devices
The figures show the data registers only. Registers for the control signals are not
shown.
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin[26..0]
ACLR[0]
dataa_y0[26..0]
dataa_z0[25..0]
dataa_x0[26..0]
scanout[26..0]
3.4.2 Pipeline Register
Pipeline register is used to get the maximum Fmax performance. Pipeline register can
be bypassed if high Fmax is not needed.
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the pipeline registers within
the variable precision DSP block:
•
CLK[2..0]
•
ENA[2..0]
•
ACLR[1]
Floating-point arithmetic has 2 latency layers of pipeline registers where you can
perform one of the following:
•
Bypass all latency layers of pipeline registers
•
Use either one latency layers of pipeline registers
•
Use both latency layers of pipeline registers
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.4.3 Pre-Adder for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
Each variable precision DSP block has two 19-bit pre-adders. You can configure these
pre-adders in the following configurations:
•
Two independent 19-bit pre-adders
•
One 27-bit pre-adder
The pre-adder supports both addition and subtraction in the following input
configurations:
•
18-bit (signed or unsigned) addition or subtraction for 18 x 19 mode
•
26-bit addition or subtraction for 27 x 27 mode
When both pre-adders within the same DSP block are used, they must share the same
operation type (either addition or subtraction).
3.4.4 Internal Coefficient for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
The Arria 10 variable precision DSP block has the flexibility of selecting the
multiplicand from either the dynamic input or the internal coefficient.
The internal coefficient can support up to eight constant coefficients for the
multiplicands in 18-bit and 27-bit modes. When you enable the internal coefficient
feature, COEFSELA/COEFSELB are used to control the selection of the coefficient
multiplexer.
3.4.5 Multipliers
A single variable precision DSP block can perform many multiplications in parallel,
depending on the data width of the multiplier and implementation.
There are two multipliers per variable precision DSP block. You can configure these
two multipliers in several operational modes:
Table 24.
Operational Modes
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
•
•
One 27 x 27 multiplier
Two 18 (signed or unsigned) x 19 (signed) multipliers
Floating-Point Arithmetic
One floating-point arithmetic single precision multiplier
Related Links
Operational Mode Descriptions on page 53
Provides more information about the operational modes of the multipliers.
3.4.6 Adder
Depending on the operational mode, you can use the adder as follows:
•
One 55-bit or 38-bit adder
•
One floating-point arithmetic single precision adder
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
DSP Implementation
Addition Using Dynamic SUB Port
Subtraction Using Dynamic SUB Port
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
Yes
Yes
Floating-Point Arithmetic
No
No
3.4.7 Accumulator and Chainout Adder for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
The Arria 10 variable precision DSP block supports a 64-bit accumulator and a 64-bit
adder for fixed-point arithmetic.
The following signals can dynamically control the function of the accumulator:
•
NEGATE
•
LOADCONST
•
ACCUMULATE
The accumulator supports double accumulation by enabling the 64-bit double
accumulation registers located between the output register bank and the accumulator.
The accumulator and chainout adder features are not supported in two fixed-point
arithmetic independent 18 x 19 modes.
Table 25.
Accumulator Functions and Dynamic Control Signals
This table lists the dynamic signals settings and description for each function. In this table, X denotes a "don't
care" value.
Function
Description
NEGATE
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
Zeroing
Disables the accumulator.
0
0
0
Preload
The result is always added
to the preload value. Only
one bit of the 64-bit preload
value can be “1”. It can be
used as rounding the DSP
result to any position of the
64-bit result.
0
1
0
Accumulation
Adds the current result to
the previous accumulate
result.
0
X
1
Decimation +
Accumulate
This function takes the
current result, converts it
into two’s complement, and
adds it to the previous
result.
1
X
1
Decimation +
Chainout Adder
This function takes the
current result, converts it
into two’s complement, and
adds it to the output of
previous DSP block.
1
0
0
3.4.8 Systolic Registers for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
There are two systolic registers per variable precision DSP block. If the variable
precision DSP block is not configured in fixed-point arithmetic systolic FIR mode, both
systolic registers are bypassed.
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
The first set of systolic registers consists of 18-bit and 19-bit registers that are used to
register the 18-bit and 19-bit inputs of the upper multiplier, respectively.
The second set of systolic registers are used to delay the chainin input from the
previous variable precision DSP block.
You must clock all the systolic registers with the same clock source as the output
register. Output registers must be turned on.
3.4.9 Double Accumulation Register for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
The double accumulation register is an extra register in the feedback path of the
accumulator. Enabling the double accumulation register will cause an extra clock cycle
delay in the feedback path of the accumulator.
This register has the same CLK, ENA, and ACLR settings as the output register bank.
By enabling this register, you can have two accumulator channels using the same
number of variable precision DSP block. This is useful when processing interleaved
complex data (I, Q).
3.4.10 Output Register Bank
The positive edge of the clock signal triggers the 74-bit bypassable output register
bank and is cleared after power up.
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the output register per
variable precision DSP block:
•
CLK[2..0]
•
ENA[2..0]
•
ACLR[1]
3.5 Operational Mode Descriptions
This section describes how you can configure an Arria 10 variable precision DSP block
to efficiently support the fixed-point arithmetic and floating-point arithmetic
operational modes.
Table 26.
Operational Modes
Fixed-Point Arithmetic
•
•
•
•
•
Independent multiplier mode
Multiplier adder sum mode
Independent complex multiplier
18 x 18 multiplication summed with 36-Bit input mode
Systolic FIR mode
Floating-Point Arithmetic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Multiplication mode
Adder or subtract mode
Multiply-add or multiply-subtract mode
Multiply accumulate mode
Vector one mode
Vector two mode
Direct vector dot product
Complex multiplication
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.1 Operational Modes for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
3.5.1.1 Independent Multiplier Mode
In independent input and output multiplier mode, the variable precision DSP blocks
perform individual multiplication operations for general purpose multipliers.
Configuration
Multipliers per Block
18 (signed) x 19 (signed)
2
18 (unsigned) x 18 (unsigned)
2
27 (signed or unsigned) x 27 (signed or unsigned)
1
3.5.1.1.1 18 x 18 or 18 x 19 Independent Multiplier
Figure 30.
Two 18 x 18 or 18 x 19 Independent Multiplier per Variable Precision DSP
Block for Arria 10 Devices
In this figure, the variables are defined as follows:
•
n = 19 and m = 37 for 18 x 19 operand
•
n = 18 and m = 36 for 18 x 18 operand
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
n
data_b1[(n-1)..0]
m
x
[(m-1)..0]
18
Multiplier
x
18
data_a0[17..0]
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
54
Output Register Bank
data_b0[(n-1)..0]
Pipeline Register
n
Input Register Bank
data_a1[17..0]
m
[(m-1)..0]
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.1.1.2 27 x 27 Independent Multiplier
Figure 31.
One 27 x 27 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block
for Arria 10 Devices
In this mode, the result can be up to 64 bits when combined with a chainout adder
or accumulator.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
x
Output Register Bank
Pipeline Register
27
dataa_a0[26..0]
Input Register Bank
27
dataa_b0[26..0]
54
Result[53..0]
3.5.1.2 Independent Complex Multiplier
The Arria 10 devices support the 18 x 19 complex multiplier mode using two fixedpoint arithmetic multiplier adder sum mode.
Figure 32.
Sample of Complex Multiplication Equation
The imaginary part [(a × d) + (b × c)] is implemented in the first variable-precision
DSP block, while the real part [(a × c) - (b × d)] is implemented in the second
variable-precision DSP block.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.1.2.1 18 x 19 Complex Multiplier
Figure 33.
One 18 x 19 Complex Multiplier with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for
Arria 10 Devices
Variable-Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
19
c[18..0]
x
Adder
d[18..0]
Pipeline Register
19
Input Register Bank
b[17..0]
18
Multiplier
+
Output Register Bank
18
38
Imaginary Part
(ad+bc)
x
a[17..0]
Variable-Precision DSP Block 2
Multiplier
19
d[18..0]
x
Adder
Multiplier
-
c[18..0]
18
Pipeline Register
19
Input Register Bank
b[17..0]
x
a[17..0]
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
56
Output Register Bank
18
38
Real Part
(ac-bd)
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.1.3 Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
Figure 34.
One Sum of Two 18 x 19 Multipliers with One Variable Precision DSP Block for
Arria 10 Devices
Variable-Precision DSP Block
SUB_COMPLEX
Multiplier
19
dataa_y0[18..0]
x
18
+/Multiplier
datab_y1[18..0]
38
Output Register Bank
Pipeline Register
19
Input Register Bank
dataa_x0[17..0]
Adder
Result[37..0]
x
18
datab_x1[17..0]
3.5.1.4 18 x 19 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
Arria 10 variable precision DSP blocks support one 18 x 19 multiplication summed to a
36-bit input.
Use the upper multiplier to provide the input for an 18 x 19 multiplication, while the
bottom multiplier is bypassed. The datab_y1[17..0] and datab_y1[35..18]
signals are concatenated to produce a 36-bit input.
One 18 x 19 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode for Arria 10
Devices
Variable-Precision DSP Block
SUB_COMPLEX
Multiplier
19
18
datab_y1[35..18]
x
+/-
Output Register Bank
18
dataa_x0[17..0]
Pipeline Register
dataa_y0[17..0]
Input Register Bank
Figure 35.
37
Result[37..0]
18
datab_y1[17..0]
Adder
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.1.5 Systolic FIR Mode
The basic structure of a FIR filter consists of a series of multiplications followed by an
addition.
Figure 36.
Basic FIR Filter Equation
Depending on the number of taps and the input sizes, the delay through chaining a
high number of adders can become quite large. To overcome the delay performance
issue, the systolic form is used with additional delay elements placed per tap to
increase the performance at the cost of increased latency.
Figure 37.
Systolic FIR Filter Equivalent Circuit
y [n ]
w 2[ n ]
w 1[ n ]
c1
c2
w k[ n ]
w k −1 [ n ]
c k −1
ck
x[n ]
Arria 10 variable precision DSP blocks support the following systolic FIR structures:
•
18-bit
•
27-bit
In systolic FIR mode, the input of the multiplier can come from four different sets of
sources:
•
Two dynamic inputs
•
One dynamic input and one coefficient input
•
One coefficient input and one pre-adder output
•
One dynamic input and one pre-adder output
3.5.1.5.1 Mapping Systolic Mode User View to Variable Precision Block Architecture View
The following figure shows that the user view of the systolic FIR filter (a) can be
implemented using the Arria 10 variable precision DSP blocks (d) by retiming the
register and restructuring the adder. Register B can be retimed into systolic registers
at the chainin, dataa_y0 and dataa_x0 input paths as shown in (b). The end result of
the register retiming is shown in (c). The summation of two multiplier results by
restructuring the inputs and location of the adder are added to the chainin input by
the chainout adder as shown in (d).
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 38.
Mapping Systolic Mode User View to Variable Precision Block Architecture
View
(a) Systolic FIR Filter
User View
x[n]
(b) Variable Precision Block
Architecture View (Before Retiming)
dataa_y0 x[n]
w1[n]
x[n-2]
w1[n]
dataa_x0 c1
c1
datab_x1 c2
w3[n]
First DSP Block
Result
datab_y1 x[n-2]
datab_x1 c2
w4[n]
c4
Chainout
Adder
dataa_x0 c3
Register B
datab_y1 x[n-6]
datab_x1 c2
Result
Retiming
Chainin from
Previous DSP Block
Systolic
Registers
Systolic
Register
Register B
dataa_y0 x[n-4]
Output
Register A Register
Bank
First DSP Block
Result
Systolic
Registers
Adder
Multiplier
Output
Register
Bank
Register A
Register B
dataa_y0 x[n-4]
w3[n]
Register A
y[n]
datab_y1 x[n-2]
Adder
First DSP Block
Multiplier
w2[n]
Chainin from
Previous DSP Block
w3[n]
dataa_y0 x[n-4]
w1[n]
dataa_x0 c1
Multiplier
Chainin from
Previous DSP Block
Register B
dataa_y0 x[n]
Multiplier
w2[n]
Output
Register A Register
Bank
c3
x[n-6]
Adder
(d) Variable Precision Block
Architecture View (Adder Restructured)
w1[n]
dataa_x0 c1
Multiplier
Register A
x[n-4]
dataa_y0 x[n]
Multiplier
w2[n]
datab_y1 x[n-2]
w2[n]
c2
(c) Variable Precision Block
Architecture View (After Retiming)
Chainout
Adder
dataa_x0 c3
Systolic
Register
w3[n]
dataa_x0 c3
Chainout
Adder
w4[n]
datab_y1 x[n-6]
datab_x1 c4
Output
Register
Bank
Result
Register C
w4[n]
datab_y1 x[n-6]
datab_x1 c4
Register C
y[n]
Second DSP Block
Output
Register
Bank
Result
y[n]
Second DSP Block
w4[n]
Adder
datab_x1 c4
Output
Register C Register
Bank
Result
y[n]
Second DSP Block
3.5.1.5.2 18-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
In 18-bit systolic FIR mode, the adders are configured as dual 44-bit adders, thereby
giving 7 bits of overhead when using an 18 x 19 operation mode, resulting 37-bit
result. This allows a total sixteen 18 x 19 multipliers or eight Arria 10 variable
precision DSP blocks to be cascaded as systolic FIR structure.
18-Bit Systolic FIR Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[43..0]
44
dataa_x0[17..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
datab_y1[17..0]
datab_z1[17..0]
datab_x1[17..0]
COEFSELB[2..0]
+/-
18
Systolic
Registers
18
x
+/-
3
Internal
Coefficient
Adder
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
18
18
+/-
+
Chainout adder or
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_z0[17..0]
18
Pipeline Register
dataa_y0[17..0]
When enabled, systolic registers are clocked with the
same clock source as the output register bank.
Systolic
Register
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
Input Register Bank
Figure 39.
x
44
18
Result[43..0]
3
Internal
Coefficient
18-bit Systolic FIR
44
chainout[43..0]
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.1.5.3 27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
In 27-bit systolic FIR mode, the chainout adder or accumulator is configured for a
64-bit operation, providing 10 bits of overhead when using a 27-bit data (54-bit
products). This allows a total of eleven 27 x 27 multipliers or eleven Arria 10 variable
precision DSP blocks to be cascaded as systolic FIR structure.
The 27-bit systolic FIR mode allows the implementation of one stage systolic filter per
DSP block. Systolic registers are not required in this mode.
Figure 40.
27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[63..0]
64
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
COEFSELA[2..0]
27
3
+/27
x
+/-
Internal
Coefficient
Adder
+
Chainout adder or
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_x0[26..0]
26
Pipeline Register
dataa_z0[25..0]
Input Register Bank
dataa_y0[25..0]
26
27-bit Systolic FIR
64
chainout[63..0]
3.5.2 Operational Modes for Floating-Point Arithmetic
3.5.2.1 Single Floating-Point Arithmetic Functions
One floating-point arithmetic DSP can perform the following:
•
Multiplication mode
•
Adder or subtract mode
•
Multiply accumulate mode
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
60
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.2.1.1 Multiplication Mode
This mode allows you to apply basic floating-point multiplication (y*z).
Figure 41.
Multiplication Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
dataa_z0[31:0]
result[31:0]
chainout[31:0]
3.5.2.1.2 Adder or Subtract Mode
This mode allows you to apply basic floating-point addition (x+y) or basic floatingpoint subtraction (y-x).
Figure 42.
Adder or Subtract Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
dataa_z0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0]
chainout[31:0]
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
61
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
3.5.2.1.3 Multiply Accumulate Mode
This mode performs floating-point multiplication followed by floating-point addition
with the previous multiplication result { ((y*z) + acc) or ((y*z) - acc) }
Figure 43.
Multiply Accumulate Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
dataa_z0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0]
chainout[31:0]
3.5.2.2 Multiple Floating-Point Arithmetic Functions
Two or more floating-point arithmetic DSP can perform the following:
•
Multiply-add or multiply-subtract mode which uses single floating-point arithmetic
DSP if the chainin parameter is turn off
•
Vector one mode
•
Vector two mode
•
Direct vector dot product
•
Complex multiplication
3.5.2.2.1 Multiply-Add or Multiply-Subtract Mode
This mode performs floating-point multiplication followed by floating-point addition or
floating-point subtraction { ((y*z) + x) or ((y*z) - x) }. The chainin parameter allows
you to enable a multiple-chain mode.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
62
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 44.
Multiply-Add or Multiply-Subtract Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
dataa_z0[31:0]
chainout[31:0]
3.5.2.2.2 Vector One Mode
This mode performs floating-point multiplication followed by floating-point addition
with the chainin input from the previous variable DSP Block. Input x is directly fed into
chainout. (result = y*z + chainin , where chainout = x)
Figure 45.
Vector One Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
dataa_z0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0]
chainout[31:0]
3.5.2.2.3 Vector Two Mode
This mode performs floating-point multiplication where the multiplication result is
directly fed to chainout. The chainin input from the previous variable DSP Block is then
added to input x as the output result. (result = x + chainin, where chainout = y*z)
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
63
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 46.
Vector Two Mode for Arria 10 Devices
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
dataa_z0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
chainout[31:0]
3.5.2.2.4 Direct Vector Dot Product
In the following figure, the direct vector dot product is implemented by several DSP
blocks by setting the following DSP modes:
•
Multiply-add and subtract mode with chainin parameter turned on
•
Vector one
•
Vector two
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
64
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 47.
Direct Vector Dot Product
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
J dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
I dataa_z0[31:0]
Multiplier
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
chainout[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
E dataa_z0[31:0]
Multiplier
Output
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Vector One
result[31:0] EF + GH
chainout[31:0]
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
D dataa_y0[31:0]
Adder
result[31:0]
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
AB + CD dataa_x0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Output
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
Vector Two
F dataa_y0[31:0]
Adder
result[31:0] IJ +KL
chainout[31:0]
Input
Register
Bank
G dataa_z0[31:0]
EF + GH dataa_x0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Output
Register
Bank
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
H dataa_y0[31:0]
Adder
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Vector One
AB + CD + EF + GH dataa_x0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0] AB + CD + EF + GH
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0] AB + CD
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
C dataa_z0[31:0]
Vector Two
chainout[31:0]
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
B dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
A dataa_z0[31:0]
Multi-Chain
chainout[31:0]
3.5.2.2.5 Complex Multiplication
The Arria 10 devices support the floating-point arithmetic single precision complex
multiplier using four Arria 10 variable-precision DSP blocks.
Figure 48.
Sample of Complex Multiplication Equation
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
65
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
The imaginary part [(a × d) + (b × c)] is implemented in the first two variableprecision DSP blocks, while the real part [(a × c) - (b × d)] is implemented in the
second variable-precision DSP block.
Figure 49.
Complex Multiplication with Result Real
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
a dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Subtract
Output
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
c dataa_z0[31:0]
result[31:0]
Multiplication Mode
chainout[31:0]
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
b dataa_y0[31:0]
d dataa_z0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
Multiply-Subtract Mode
chainout[31:0]
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
66
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0] Result Real
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 50.
Complex Multiplication with Imaginary Result
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
a dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
d dataa_z0[31:0]
Multiplication Mode
result[31:0]
chainout[31:0]
chainin[31:0]
accumulate
dataa_x0[31:0]
b dataa_y0[31:0]
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Input
Register
Bank
Pipeline
Register
Bank
Adder
Output
Register
Bank
result[31:0] Result Imaginary
Pipeline
Register
Multiplier Bank
c dataa_z0[31:0]
Multiply-Add Mode
chainout[31:0]
3.6 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2017
2017.03.15
•
•
Rebranded as Intel.
Changed subtraction from x-y to y-x.
December 2015
2015.11.14
•
Corrected the number of DSP blocks for Arria 10 GX 660 from 1688 to
1687 in the table listing floating-point arithmetic resources.
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
Update resource count for Arria 10 GX 320, GX 480, GX 660, SX 320, SX
480, a SX 660 devices in Number of Multipliers in Arria 10 Devices
table.
Updated the Input Register Bank table to specify input register bank for
dynamic control signal in floating-point arithmetic is only applicable for
Dynamic ACCUMULATE control signal.
Clarified that 18 x19 systolic FIR mode, there are 7-bits overhead and 37bits result.
Updated the number of supported cascaded DSP blocks for 18-bit and 27bit systolic FIR modes.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime
•
•
•
•
May 2015
2015.05.04
•
•
•
Update Chainin and Chainout support for all Floating Point modes in
Supported Combinations of Operational Modes and Features for Variable
Precision DSP Block in Arria 10 Devices table.
Added steps to retrieve design templates for Independent Multiplier Mode,
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode, and Systolic FIR Mode.
Added Arria 10 Native Floating Point DSP IP core in Operational Modes
table.
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
67
3 Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
Date
January 2015
Version
2015.01.23
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
December 2013
2013.12.02
Added information for primitive DSP.
Update Supported Combinations of Operational Modes and Features
for Variable Precision DSP Block in Arria 10 Devices table with the
column title Supported Operation Instance.
Update resource for Single Precision Floating Point Adders in Number of
Multipliers in Arria 10 Devices table.
Removed double accumulation registers are set statically in the
programming file statement in Accumulator for Fixed-Point Arithmetic
section.
Added ALTERA_FP_FUNCTIONS in the list of Quartus II DSP IP for floatingpoint arithmetic.
Added clarification on operational modes supported for delay registers in
fixed-point arithmetic.
Added clarification that both top and bottom internal coefficient and preadder must be enabled if these features are being used.
Added floating-point arithmetic.
Added Dynamic ACCUMULATE, Dynamic LOADCONST, Dynamic SUB,
Dynamic NEGATE to variable precision DSP blocks operational modes.
Added top delay registers and bottom delay registers along the input
cascade chain.
Added the variable precision DSP block signals that control the piepeline
registers within the variable precision DSP block.
Added condition that when both pre-adders within the same DSP block are
used, they must share the same operation type (either addition or
subtraction).
Updated 55-bit adder.
Added 38-bit adder.
Updated two 18 x 19 modes—where the adder is bypassed.
Updated Decimation to Decimation + Accumulate.
Added Decimation + Chainout Adder for accumulator functions and
dynamic control signals.
Added 27 (signed or unsigned) x 27 (signed or unsigned) configuration
with 1 multiplier per block.
Removed the chainout adder or accumulator from one sum of two 18 x 19
multipliers with one variable precision DSP block and one 18 x 18
multiplication summed with 36-Bit input mode block diagram.
Updated the basic FIR filter equation.
Added mapping systolic mode user view to variable precision block
architecture view.
Added systolic registers are not required in 27-bit systolic FIR mode.
Initial release.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
68
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
This chapter describes the advanced features of hierarchical clock networks and
phase-locked loops (PLLs) in Arria 10 devices. The Quartus Prime software enables the
PLLs and their features without external devices.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
4.1 Clock Networks
The Arria 10 devices contain the following clock networks that are organized into a
hierarchical structure:
•
Global clock (GCLK) networks
•
Regional clock (RCLK) networks
•
Periphery clock (PCLK) networks
—
Small periphery clock (SPCLK) networks
—
Large periphery clock (LPCLK) networks
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.1.1 Clock Resources in Arria 10 Devices
Table 27.
Clock Resources in Arria 10 Devices
Clock Input Pins
Device
Number of Resources
Available
•
•
•
•
10AS016
10AS022
10AX016
10AX022
•
•
HSSI: 4 differential
I/O: 32 singleended or 16
differential
•
•
•
•
10AS027
10AS032
10AX027
10AX032
•
•
HSSI: 8 differential
I/O: 32 singleended or 16
differential
•
•
10AS048
10AX048
•
•
HSSI: 12 differential
I/O: 48 singleended or 24
differential
•
•
•
•
10AS057
10AS066
10AX057
10AX066
•
•
HSSI: 16 differential
I/O: 64 singleended or 32
differential
•
•
•
•
10AT090
10AT115
10AX090
10AX115
•
•
HSSI: 32 differential
I/O: 64 singleended or 32
differential
Source of Clock Resource
For high-speed serial interface (HSSI):
REFCLK_GXB[L,R][1:4][C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J]_CH[B,T][p,n] pins
For I/O: CLK_[2,3][A..L]_[0,1][p,n] pins
GCLK Networks
Device
Number of Resources
Available
Source of Clock Resource
•
All
32
•
•
•
•
•
Physical medium attachment (PMA) and physical coding sublayer (PCS)
TX and RX clocks per channel
PMA and PCS TX and RX divide clocks per channel
Hard IP core clock output signals
DLL clock outputs
Fractional PLL (fPLL) and I/O PLL C counter outputs
•
I/O PLL M counter outputs for feedback
REFCLK and clock input pins
•
•
Core signals
Phase aligner counter outputs
RCLK Networks
Device
•
•
•
•
•
10AS016
10AS022
10AS027
10AS032
10AX016
Number of Resources
Available
Source of Clock Resource
•
8
•
•
•
•
Physical medium attachment (PMA) and physical coding sublayer (PCS)
TX and RX clocks per channel
PMA and PCS TX and RX divide clocks per channel
Hard IP core clock output signals
DLL clock outputs
fPLL and I/O PLL C counter outputs
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
RCLK Networks
Device
•
•
•
10AX022
10AX027
10AX032
•
•
10AS048
10AX048
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10AS057
10AS066
10AX057
10AX066
10AT090
10AT115
10AX090
10AX115
Number of Resources
Available
Source of Clock Resource
12
•
•
I/O PLL M counter outputs for feedback
REFCLK and clock input pins
•
•
Core signals
Phase aligner counter outputs
16
SPCLK Networks
Device
Number of Resources
Available
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10AS016
10AS022
10AX016
10AX022
10AS027
10AS032
10AX027
10AX032
144
•
•
10AS048
10AX048
216
•
•
•
•
10AS057
10AS066
10AX057
10AX066
288
•
•
•
•
10AT090
10AT115
10AX090
10AX115
384
Source of Clock Resource
For HSSI:
• Physical medium attachment (PMA) and physical coding sublayer (PCS)
TX and RX clocks per channel
• PMA and PCS TX and RX divide clocks per channel
• Hard IP core clock output signals
• DLL clock outputs
• fPLL C counter outputs
•
REFCLK and clock input pins
• Core signals
For I/O:
• DPA outputs (LVDS I/O only)
• I/O PLL C and M counter outputs
•
•
•
Clock input pins
Core signals
Phase aligner counter outputs
LPCLK Networks
Device
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10AS016
10AS022
10AX016
10AX022
10AS027
10AS032
10AX027
10AX032
Number of Resources
Available
24
Source of Clock Resource
For HSSI:
• Physical medium attachment (PMA) and physical coding sublayer (PCS)
TX and RX clocks per channel
• PMA and PCS TX and RX divide clocks per channel
• Hard IP core clock output signals
• DLL clock outputs
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
71
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
LPCLK Networks
Device
•
•
Number of Resources
Available
10AS048
10AX048
•
•
•
•
10AS057
10AS066
10AX057
10AX066
•
•
•
•
10AT090
10AT115
10AX090
10AX115
36
48
64
Source of Clock Resource
•
fPLL C and M counter outputs
•
REFCLK and clock input pins
• Core signals
For I/O:
• DPA outputs (LVDS I/O only)
• I/O PLL C and M counter outputs
•
•
•
Clock input pins
Core signals
Phase aligner counter outputs
For more information about the clock input pins connections, refer to the pin
connection guidelines.
Related Links
•
Guideline: I/O Standards Supported for I/O PLL Reference Clock Input Pin on page
180
•
Arria 10 Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
•
Guideline: I/O Standards Supported for I/O PLL Reference Clock Input Pin on page
180
4.1.2 Hierarchical Clock Networks
Arria 10 devices cover 3 levels of clock networks hierarchy. The sequence of the
hierarchy is as follows:
1. GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, and GCLK and RCLK feedback clocks
2. Section clock (SCLK)
3. Row clocks
Each HSSI and I/O column contains clock drivers to drive down shared buses to the
respective GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK clock networks.
Arria 10 clock networks (GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK) are routed through SCLK before each
clock is connected to the clock routing for each HSSI or I/O bank. The settings for
SCLK are transparent. The Quartus Prime software automatically routes the SCLK
based on the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks.
Each SCLK spine has a consistent height, matching that of HSSI and I/O banks. The
number of SCLK spine in a device depends on the number of HSSI and I/O banks.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
72
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 51.
SCLK Spine Regions for Arria 10 Devices
Bank
SCLK Spine Region
HSSI
Column
I/O
Column
I/O
Column
HSSI
Column
Arria 10 devices provide a maximum of 33 SCLK networks in the SCLK spine region.
The SCLK networks can drive six row clocks in each row clock region. The row clocks
are the clock resources to the core functional blocks, PLLs, and I/O interfaces, and
HSSI interfaces of the device. Six unique signals can be routed into each row clock
region. The connectivity pattern of the multiplexers that drive each SCLK limits the
clock sources to the SCLK spine region. Each SCLK can select the clock resources from
GCLK, RCLK, LPCLK, or SPCLK lines.
The following figure shows SCLKs driven by the GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, or GCLK and RCLK
feedback clock networks in each SCLK spine region. The GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, and GCLK
and RCLK feedback clocks share the same SCLK routing resources. To ensure
successful design fitting in the Quartus Prime software, the total number of clock
resources must not exceed the SCLK limits in each SCLK spine region.
Figure 52.
Hierarchical Clock Networks in SCLK Spine
Feedback clock output from the
PLL that drives into the SCLKs.
First level
GCLK/GCLK feedback
RCLK/RCLK feedback
The maximum number of
resources available for the
clock networks that can drive
the SCLKs in each spine
region in the largest device.
SPCLK
LPCLK
Second level
Third level
32
8
24
8
SCLK
33
6
Row clock
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
73
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.1.3 Types of Clock Networks
4.1.3.1 Global Clock Networks
GCLK networks serve as low-skew clock sources for functional blocks, such as
adaptive logic modules (ALMs), digital signal processing (DSP), embedded memory,
and PLLs. Arria 10 I/O elements (IOEs) and internal logic can also drive GCLKs to
create internally-generated global clocks and other high fan-out control signals, such
as synchronous or asynchronous clear and clock enable signals.
Arria 10 devices provide GCLKs that can drive throughout the device. GCLKs cover
every SCLK spine region in the device. Each GCLK is accessible through the direction
as indicated in the Symbolic GCLK Networks diagram.
Figure 53.
Symbolic GCLK Networks in Arria 10 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse
view of the device package.
Bank
GCLK[11:8]
GCLK[27:24]
GCLK[7:0]
GCLK[23:16]
GCLK[15:12]
GCLK[31:28]
HSSI
Column
I/O
Column
I/O
Column
HSSI
Column
4.1.3.2 Regional Clock Networks
RCLK networks provide low clock insertion delay and skew for logic contained within a
single RCLK region. The Arria 10 IOEs and internal logic within a given region can also
drive RCLKs to create internally-generated regional clocks and other high fan-out
signals.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Arria 10 devices provide RCLKs that can drive through the chip horizontally. RCLKs
cover all the SCLK spine regions in the same row of the device. The top and bottom
HSSI and I/O banks have RCLKs that cover 2 rows vertically. The other intermediate
HSSI and I/O banks have RCLKs that cover 6 rows vertically. The following figure
shows the RCLK network coverage.
Figure 54.
RCLK Networks in Arria 10 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse
view of the device package.
Bank
Network Coverage for RCLK[3..0]
RCLK[3..0]
RCLK[7..4]
RCLK[11..8]
RCLK[15..12]
HSSI
Column
I/O
Column
I/O
Column
Network Coverage for RCLK[7..4]
Network Coverage for RCLK[11..8]
Network Coverage for RCLK[15..12]
HSSI
Column
4.1.3.3 Periphery Clock Networks
PCLK networks provide the lowest insertion delay and the same skew as RCLK
networks.
Small Periphery Clock Networks
Each HSSI or I/O bank has 12 SPCLKs. SPCLKs cover one SCLK spine region in HSSI
bank and one SCLK spine region in I/O bank adjacent to each other in the same row.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 55.
SPCLK Networks for Arria 10 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse
view of the device package.
Bank
12
12
HSSI
Column
I/O
Column
I/O
Column
HSSI
Column
Large Periphery Clock Networks
Each HSSI or I/O bank has 2 LPCLKs. LPCLKs have larger network coverage compared
to SPCLKs. LPCLKs cover one SCLK spine region in HSSI bank and one SCLK spine
region in I/O bank adjacent to each other in the same row. Top and bottom HSSI and
I/O banks have LPCLKs that cover 2 rows vertically. The other intermediate HSSI and
I/O banks have LPCLKs that cover 4 rows vertically.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 56.
LPCLK Networks for Arria 10 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse
view of the device package.
Bank
2
2
2
2
4
4
HSSI
Column
2
2
I/O
Column
I/O
Column
HSSI
Column
4.1.4 Clock Network Sources
This section describes the clock network sources that can drive the GCLK, RCLK, and
PCLK networks.
4.1.4.1 Dedicated Clock Input Pins
The sources of dedicated clock input pins are as follows:
•
fPLL—REFCLK_GXB[L,R][1:4][C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J]_CH[B,T][p,n] from
HSSI column
•
I/O PLL—CLK_[2,3][A..L]_[0,1][p,n] from I/O column
You can use the dedicated clock input pins for high fan-out control signals, such as
asynchronous clears, presets, and clock enables, for protocol signals through the
GCLK or RCLK networks.
The dedicated clock input pins can be either differential clocks or single-ended clocks
for I/O PLL. When you use the dedicated clock input pins as single-ended clock inputs,
only CLK_[2,3][A..L]_[0,1][p,n] pins have dedicated connections to the PLL.
fPLLs only support differential clock inputs.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Driving a PLL over a global or regional clock can lead to higher jitter at the PLL input,
and the PLL will not be able to fully compensate for the global or regional clock. Intel
recommends using the dedicated clock input pins for optimal performance to drive the
PLLs.
Related Links
Guideline: I/O Standards Supported for I/O PLL Reference Clock Input Pin on page
180
4.1.4.2 Internal Logic
You can drive each GCLK and RCLK network using core routing to enable internal logic
to drive a high fan-out, low-skew signal.
4.1.4.3 DPA Outputs
Each DPA can drive the PCLK networks.
4.1.4.4 HSSI Clock Outputs
HSSI clock outputs can drive the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks.
4.1.4.5 PLL Clock Outputs
The fPLL and I/O PLL clock outputs can drive all clock networks.
4.1.5 Clock Control Block
Every GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK network has its own clock control block. The control
block provides the following features:
•
Clock source selection (dynamic selection available only for GCLKs)
•
Clock power down (static or dynamic clock enable or disable available only for
GCLKs and RCLKs)
Related Links
Clock Control Block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about ALTCLKCTRL IP core and clock multiplexing
schemes.
4.1.5.1 Pin Mapping in Arria 10 Devices
Table 28.
Mapping Between the Clock Input Pins, PLL Counter Outputs, and Clock
Control Block Inputs for HSSI Column
Clock
Fed by
inclk[0]
PLL counters C0 and C2 from adjacent fPLLs.
inclk[1]
PLL counters C1 and C3 from adjacent fPLLs.
inclk[2] and inclk[3]
Any of the two dedicated clock pins on the same HSSI bank.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Table 29.
Mapping Between the Clock Input Pins, PLL Counter Outputs, and Clock
Control Block Inputs for I/O Column
One counter can only be assigned to one inclk.
Clock
Fed by
inclk[0]
CLK_[2,3][A..L]_0p or any counters from adjacent I/O PLLs.
inclk[1]
CLK_[2,3][A..L]_0n or any counters from adjacent I/O PLLs.
inclk[2]
CLK_[2,3][A..L]_1p or any counters from adjacent I/O PLLs.
inclk[3]
CLK_[2,3][A..L]_1n or any counters from adjacent I/O PLLs.
4.1.5.2 GCLK Control Block
You can select the clock source for the GCLK select block either statically or
dynamically using internal logic to drive the multiplexer-select inputs.
When selecting the clock source dynamically, you can select either PLL outputs (such
as C0 or C1), or a combination of clock pins or PLL outputs.
Figure 57.
GCLK Control Block for Arria 10 Devices
For the corresponding CLKSELECT[1..0]
of the HSSI column or I/O column,
refer to the Pin Mapping tables.
When the device is in user mode,
you can dynamically control the
clock select signals through internal
logic.
PLL Counter
Outputs/CLK Pins
CLKSELECT[1..0]
This multiplexer
supports user-controllable
dynamic switching
4
HSSI
Output
CLKn
Pin
The CLKn pin is not a dedicated clock
input when used as a single-ended
PLL clock input. The CLKn pin can
drive the PLL using the GCLK.
DPA
Output
Internal
Logic
2
Static Clock
Select
Enable/
Disable
GCLK
Internal
Logic
When the device is in user mode, you can only
set the clock select signals through a
configuration file (SRAM object file [.sof] or
programmer object file [.pof]) because the
signals cannot be controlled dynamically.
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK network
multiplexers through the Quartus Prime software using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
When selecting the clock source dynamically using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core, choose
the inputs using the CLKSELECT[0..1] signal.
Note:
You can only switch dedicated clock inputs from the same I/O or HSSI bank.
Related Links
Pin Mapping in Arria 10 Devices on page 78
Provides the mapping between the clock input pins, PLL counter outputs, and clock
control block inputs for HSSI column and I/O column.
4.1.5.3 RCLK Control Block
You can only control the clock source selection for the RCLK select block statically
using configuration bit settings in the configuration file (.sof or .pof) generated by
the Quartus Prime software.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 58.
RCLK Control Block for Arria 10 Devices
The CLKn pin is not a dedicated
clock input when used as a
single-ended PLL clock input. The
CLKn pin can drive the PLL using
the RCLK.
CLKp CLKn
Pin Pin
HSSI Output
PLL Counter
Outputs
DPA Output
2
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select
When the device is in user mode,
you can only set the clock select
signals through a configuration file
(.sof or .pof); they cannot be
controlled dynamically.
Enable/
Disable
Internal
Logic
RCLK
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the RCLK networks
through the Quartus Prime software using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
4.1.5.4 PCLK Control Block
PCLK control block drives both SPCLK and LPCLK networks.
To drive the HSSI PCLK, select the HSSI output, fPLL output, or clock input pin.
To drive the I/O PCLK, select the DPA clock output, I/O PLL output, or clock input pin.
Figure 59.
PCLK Control Block for HSSI Column for Arria 10 Devices
CLKp Pin
CLKn Pin
HSSI Output
Fractional PLL Output
Static Clock Select
PCLK from
HSSI Column
Figure 60.
PCLK Control Block for I/O Column for Arria 10 Devices
CLKp Pin
CLKn Pin
DPA Output
I/O PLL Output
Static Clock Select
PCLK from
I/O Column
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the PCLK networks
through the Quartus Prime software using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
4.1.6 Clock Power Down
You can power down the GCLK and RCLK clock networks using both static and dynamic
approaches.
When a clock network is powered down, all the logic fed by the clock network is in offstate, reducing the overall power consumption of the device. The unused GCLK, RCLK,
and PCLK networks are automatically powered down through configuration bit settings
in the configuration file (.sof or .pof) generated by the Quartus Prime software.
The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows the internal logic to control powerup or power-down synchronously on the GCLK and RCLK networks. This feature is
independent of the PLL and is applied directly on the clock network.
Note:
You cannot dynamically enable or disable GCLK or RCLK networks that drive PLLs.
Dynamically gating a large clock may affect the chip performance when the core
frequency is high.
4.1.7 Clock Enable Signals
You cannot use the clock enable and disable circuit of the clock control block if the
GCLK or RCLK output drives the input of a PLL.
Figure 61.
clkena Implementation with Clock Enable and Disable Circuit
This figure shows the implementation of the clock enable and disable circuit of the
clock control block.
The R1 and R2 bypass paths are
not available for the PLL external
clock outputs.
clkena
Clock Select
Multiplexer Output
D
Q
R1
D
Q
R2
GCLK/
RCLK/
PLL_[2,3][A..L]_CLKOUT[0..3][p,n]
The select line is statically
controlled by a bit setting in
the .sof or .pof.
The clkena signals are supported at the clock network level instead of at the PLL
output counter level. This allows you to gate off the clock even when you are not using
a PLL. You can also use the clkena signals to control the dedicated external clocks
from the PLLs.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 62.
Example of clkena Signals
This figure shows a waveform example for a clock output enable. The clkena signal is
synchronous to the falling edge of the clock output.
Clock Select
Multiplexer Output
Use the clkena signals to enable or disable the
GCLK and RCLK networks or the
PLL_[2,3][A..L]_CLKOUT[0..3][p,n] pins.
clkena
AND Gate Output
with R2 Bypassed
(ena Port Registered as
Falling Edge of Input Clock)
AND Gate Output
with R2 Not Bypassed
(ena Port Registered as Double
Register with Input Clock)
Arria 10 devices have an additional metastability register that aids in asynchronous
enable and disable of the GCLK and RCLK networks. You can optionally bypass this
register in the Quartus Prime software.
The PLL can remain locked, independent of the clkena signals, because the looprelated counters are not affected. This feature is useful for applications that require a
low-power or sleep mode. The clkena signal can also disable clock outputs if the
system is not tolerant of frequency overshoot during resynchronization.
4.2 Arria 10 PLLs
PLLs provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management,
external system clock management, and high-speed I/O interfaces.
The Arria 10 device family contains the following PLLs:
•
fPLLs—can function as fractional PLLs or integer PLLs
•
I/O PLLs—can only function as integer PLLs
The fPLLs are located adjacent to the transceiver blocks in the HSSI banks. Each HSSI
bank contains two fPLLs. You can configure each fPLL independently in conventional
integer mode or fractional mode. In fractional mode, the fPLL can operate with thirdorder delta-sigma modulation. Each fPLL has four C counter outputs and one L counter
output.
The I/O PLLs are located adjacent to the hard memory controllers and LVDS serializer/
deserializer (SERDES) blocks in the I/O banks. Each I/O bank contains one I/O PLL.
The I/O PLLs can operate in conventional integer mode. Each I/O PLL has nine C
counter outputs. In some specific device package, you can use the I/O PLLs in the I/O
banks that are not bonded out in your design. These I/O PLLs must take their
reference clock source from the FPGA core or through a dedicated cascade connection
from another I/O PLL in the same I/O column.
Arria 10 devices have up to 32 fPLLs and 16 I/O PLLs in the largest densities. Arria 10
PLLs have different core analog structure and features support.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Table 30.
PLL Features in Arria 10 Devices
Feature
Fractional PLL
I/O PLL
Integer mode
Yes
Yes
Fractional mode
Yes
—
4
9
M counter divide factors
8 to 127
4 to 160
N counter divide factors
1 to 32
1 to 80
C counter divide factors
1 to 512
1 to 512
L counter divide factors
1, 2, 4, 8
—
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Normal compensation
—
Yes
Zero-delay buffer compensation
—
Yes
External feedback compensation
—
Yes
LVDS compensation
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
72 ps
78.125 ps
Fixed 50% duty cycle
Yes
Yes
Yes
C output counters
Dedicated external clock outputs
Dedicated clock input pins
External feedback input pin
Spread-spectrum input clock tracking
4
Source synchronous compensation
Direct compensation
Feedback compensation bonding
Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) output drives the DPA
clock
Phase shift resolution
5
Programmable duty cycle
Power down mode
4 Provided input clock jitter is within input jitter tolerance specifications.
5 The smallest phase shift is determined by the VCO period divided by four (for fPLL) or eight
(for I/O PLL). For degree increments, the Arria 10 device can shift all output frequencies in
increments of at least 45° (for I/O PLL) or 90° (for fPLL). Smaller degree increments are
possible depending on the frequency and divide parameters.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.2.1 PLL Usage
fPLLs are optimized for use as transceiver transmit PLLs and for synthesizing reference
clock frequencies. You can use the fPLLs as follows:
•
Reduce the number of required oscillators on the board
•
Reduce the clock pins used in the FPGA by synthesizing multiple clock frequencies
from a single reference clock source
•
Compensate clock network delay
•
Transmit clocking for transceivers
I/O PLLs are optimized for use with memory interfaces and LVDS SERDES. You can
use the I/O PLLs as follows:
•
Reduce the number of required oscillators on the board
•
Reduce the clock pins used in the FPGA by synthesizing multiple clock frequencies
from a single reference clock source
•
Simplify the design of external memory interfaces and high-speed LVDS interfaces
•
Ease timing closure because the I/O PLLs are tightly coupled with the I/Os
•
Compensate clock network delay
•
Zero delay buffering
4.2.2 PLL Architecture
Figure 63.
Fractional PLL High-Level Block Diagram for Arria 10 Devices
Refclk
Multiplexer
Dedicated Reference Clock Pin
Reference Clock Network
Receiver Input Pin
Output of Another PLL with PLL Cascading
L Counter
/1, 2, 4, 8
Input
Reference
Clock
N Counter
refclk
PFD
Up
Charge
Pump and
Loop Filter
Down
Global Clock or Core Clock
VCO
M Counter
/2
Delta Sigma
Modulator
fbclk
/2
Figure 64.
C Counter
I/O PLL High-Level Block Diagram for Arria 10 Devices
To DPA Block
For single-ended clock inputs, both the CLKp and CLKn pins
have dedicated connection to the PLL.
Dedicated Clock Inputs
GCLK/RCLK
4
locked
8
inclk0
Clock
inclk1 Switchover
Block
÷N
PFD
extswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
CP
LF
VCO
Casade Output
to Adjacent I/O PLL
GCLKs
RCLKs
÷C0
8
÷C1
÷C2
÷C3
Cascade Input
from Adjacent I/O PLL
PLL Output Multiplexer
Lock
Circuit
÷C8
÷M
Direct Compensation Mode
Zero Delay Buffer, External Feedback Modes
LVDS Compensation Mode
Source Synchronous, Normal Modes
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LVDS RX/TX Clock
LVDS RX/TX Load Enable
FBOUT
External Memory
Interface DLL
FBIN
LVDS Clock Network
GCLK/RCLK Network
This FBOUT port is fed by
the M counter in the PLLs.
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.2.3 PLL Control Signals
You can use the reset signal to control PLL operation and resynchronization, and use
the locked signal to observe the status of the PLL.
4.2.3.1 Reset
The reset signal port of the IP core for each PLL is as follows:
•
fPLL—pll_powerdown
•
I/O PLL—reset
The reset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL. The device input
pins or internal logic can drive these input signals.
When the reset signal is driven high, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output
and placing the PLL out-of-lock. The VCO is then set back to its nominal setting. When
the reset signal is driven low again, the PLL resynchronizes to its input clock source as
it re-locks.
You must assert the reset signal every time the PLL loses lock to guarantee the correct
phase relationship between the PLL input and output clocks. You can set up the PLL to
automatically reset (self-reset) after a loss-of-lock condition using the Quartus Prime
parameter editor.
You must include the reset signal if either of the following conditions is true:
Note:
•
PLL reconfiguration or clock switchover is enabled in the design
•
Phase relationships between the PLL input and output clocks must be maintained
after a loss-of-lock condition
•
If the input clock to the PLL is not toggling or is unstable after power up, assert
the reset signal after the input clock is stable and within specifications.
•
For fPLL, after device power-up, you must reset the fPLL when the fPLL power-up
calibration process has completed (pll_cal_busy signal deasserts).
4.2.3.2 Locked
The locked signal port of the IP core for each PLL is as follows:
•
fPLL—pll_locked
•
I/O PLL—locked
The lock detection circuit provides a signal to the core logic. The signal indicates when
the feedback clock has locked onto the reference clock both in phase and frequency.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.2.4 Clock Feedback Modes
Clock feedback modes compensate for clock network delays to align the PLL clock
input rising edge with the rising edge of the clock output. Select the appropriate type
of compensation for the timing critical clock path in your design.
PLL compensation is not always needed. A PLL should be configured in direct (no
compensation) mode unless a need for compensation is identified. Direct mode
provides the best PLL jitter performance and avoids expending compensation clocking
resources unnecessarily.
The default clock feedback mode is direct compensation mode.
fPLLs support the following clock feedback modes:
•
Direct compensation
•
Feedback compensation bonding
I/O PLLs support the following clock feedback modes:
•
Direct compensation
•
Normal compensation
•
Source synchronous compensation
•
LVDS compensation
•
Zero delay buffer (ZDB) compensation
•
External feedback (EFB) compensation
Related Links
•
Altera I/O Phase-Locked Loop (Altera IOPLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about I/O PLL operation modes.
•
PLL Feedback and Cascading Clock Network, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
Provides more information about fPLL operation modes.
4.2.5 Clock Multiplication and Division
An Arria 10 PLL output frequency is related to its input reference clock source by a
scale factor of M/(N × C) in integer mode. The input clock is divided by a pre-scale
factor, N, and is then multiplied by the M feedback factor. The control loop drives the
VCO to match fin × (M/N).
The Quartus Prime software automatically chooses the appropriate scale factors
according to the input frequency, multiplication, and division values entered into the
Altera IOPLL IP core for I/O PLL and Arria 10 FPLL IP core for fPLL.
Pre-Scale Counter, N and Multiply Counter, M
Each PLL has one pre-scale counter, N, and one multiply counter, M. The M and N
counters do not use duty-cycle control because the only purpose of these counters is
to calculate frequency division.
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Post-Scale Counter, C
Each output port has a unique post-scale counter, C. For multiple C counter outputs
with different frequencies, the VCO is set to the least common multiple of the output
frequencies that meets its frequency specifications. For example, if the output
frequencies required from one I/O PLL are 55 MHz and 100 MHz, the Quartus Prime
software sets the VCO frequency to 1.1 GHz (the least common multiple of 55 MHz
and 100 MHz within the VCO operating frequency range). Then the post-scale
counters, C, scale down the VCO frequency for each output port.
Post-Scale Counter, L
The fPLL has an additional post-scale counter, L. The L counter synthesizes the
frequency from its clock source using the M/(N × L) scale factor. The L counter
generates a differential clock pair (0 degree and 180 degree) and drives the HSSI
clock network.
Delta-Sigma Modulator
The delta-sigma modulator (DSM) is used together with the M multiply counter to
enable the fPLL to operate in fractional mode. The DSM dynamically changes the M
counter factor on a cycle-to-cycle basis. The different M counter factors allow the
"average" M counter factor to be a non-integer.
Fractional Mode
In fractional mode, the M counter value equals to the sum of the M feedback factor and
the fractional value. The fractional value is equal to K/232, where K is an integer
between 0 and (232 – 1).
Integer Mode
For a fPLL operating in integer mode, M is an integer value and DSM is disabled.
The I/O PLL can only operate in integer mode.
Related Links
•
Altera I/O Phase-Locked Loop (Altera IOPLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about I/O PLL software support in the Quartus
Prime software.
•
PLLs and Clock Networks chapter, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
Provides more information about fPLL software support in the Quartus Prime
software.
4.2.6 Programmable Phase Shift
The programmable phase shift feature allows both fPLLs and I/O PLLs to generate
output clocks with a fixed phase offset.
The VCO frequency of the PLL determines the precision of the phase shift. The
minimum phase shift increment is 1/8 (for I/O PLL) or 1/4 (for fPLL) of the VCO
period. For example, if an I/O PLL operates with a VCO frequency of 1000 MHz, phase
shift steps of 125 ps are possible.
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The Quartus Prime software automatically adjusts the VCO frequency according to the
user-specified phase shift values entered into the IP core.
4.2.7 Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle feature allows I/O PLLs to generate clock outputs with a
variable duty cycle. This feature is only supported by the I/O PLL post-scale counters,
C. fPLLs do not support the programmable duty cycle feature and only have fixed 50%
duty cycle.
The I/O PLL C counter value determines the precision of the duty cycle. The precision
is 50% divided by the post-scale counter value. For example, if the C0 counter is 10,
steps of 5% are possible for duty-cycle options from 5% to 90%. If the I/O PLL is in
external feedback mode, set the duty cycle for the counter driving the fbin pin to
50%.
The Quartus Prime software automatically adjusts the VCO frequency according to the
user's desired duty cycle entered into the IP core.
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the
generation of precise non-overlapping clocks.
4.2.8 PLL Cascading
Arria 10 devices support PLL-to-PLL cascading. You can only cascade a maximum of
two PLLs. The cascaded PLLs must be adjacent PLLs. PLL cascading synthesizes more
output clock frequencies than a single PLL.
If you cascade PLLs in your design, the source (upstream) PLL must have a lowbandwidth setting and the destination (downstream) PLL must have a high-bandwidth
setting. During cascading, the output of the source PLL serves as the reference clock
(input) of the destination PLL. The bandwidth settings of cascaded PLLs must be
different. If the bandwidth settings of the cascaded PLLs are the same, the cascaded
PLLs may amplify phase noise at certain frequencies.
Arria 10 devices only support I/O-PLL-to-I/O-PLL cascading for core applications. In
this mode, upstream I/O PLL and downstream I/O PLL must be located within the
same I/O column.
Arria 10 fPLL does not support PLL cascading mode for core applications.
Related Links
•
Altera I/O Phase-Locked Loop (Altera IOPLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about I/O PLL cascading in the Quartus Prime
software.
•
Implementing PLL cascading, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
Provides more information about fPLL cascading in the Quartus Prime software.
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4.2.9 Reference Clock Sources
There are three possible reference clock sources to the I/O PLL. The clock can come
from a dedicated pin, a core clock network, or the dedicated cascade network.
Intel recommends providing the I/O PLL reference clock using a dedicated pin when
possible. If you want to use a non-dedicated pin for the PLL reference clock, you have
to explicitly promote the clock to a global signal in the Quartus Prime software.
You can provide up to two reference clocks to the I/O PLL.
•
Both reference clocks can come from dedicated pins.
•
Only one reference clock can come from a core clock.
•
Only one reference clock can come from a dedicated cascade network.
4.2.10 Clock Switchover
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input
clocks. Use this feature for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application
where a system turns to the redundant clock if the previous clock stops running. The
design can perform clock switchover automatically when the clock is no longer
toggling or based on a user control signal, extswitch.
Arria 10 PLLs support the following clock switchover modes:
•
Automatic switchover—The clock sense circuit monitors the current reference
clock. If the current reference clock stops toggling, the reference clock
automatically switches to inclk0 or inclk1 clock.
•
Manual clock switchover—Clock switchover is controlled using the extswitch
signal. When the extswitch signal pulse stays low for at least three clock cycles
for the inclk being switched to, the reference clock to the PLL is switched from
inclk0 to inclk1, or vice-versa.
•
Automatic switchover with manual override—This mode combines automatic
switchover and manual clock switchover. When the extswitch signal goes low, it
overrides the automatic clock switchover function. As long as the extswitch
signal is low, further switchover action is blocked.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.2.10.1 Automatic Switchover
Arria 10 PLLs support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
Figure 65.
Automatic Clock Switchover Circuit Block Diagram
This figure shows a block diagram of the automatic switchover circuit built into the
PLL.
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Clock
Sense
Switchover
State Machine
clksw
Clock Switch
Control Logic
inclk0
inclk1
PFD
N Counter
Multiplexer
Out
extswitch
refclk
fbclk
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock sense block automatically
switches to the backup clock for PLL reference. You can select a clock source as the
backup clock by connecting it to the inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
The clock switchover circuit sends out three status signals—clkbad0, clkbad1, and
activeclock—from the PLL to implement a custom switchover circuit in the logic
array.
In automatic switchover mode, the clkbad0 and clkbad1 signals indicate the status
of the two clock inputs. When they are asserted, the clock sense block detects that the
corresponding clock input has stopped toggling. These two signals are not valid if the
frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1 is greater than 20%.
The activeclock signal indicates which of the two clock inputs (inclk0 or inclk1)
is being selected as the reference clock to the PLL. When the frequency difference
between the two clock inputs is more than 20%, the activeclock signal is the only
valid status signal.
Use the switchover circuitry to automatically switch between inclk0 and inclk1
when the current reference clock to the PLL stops toggling. You can switch back and
forth between inclk0 and inclk1 any number of times when one of the two clocks
fails and the other clock is available.
For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with the same frequency
as the reference clock, the switchover state machine generates a signal (clksw) that
controls the multiplexer select input. In this case, inclk1 becomes the reference
clock for the PLL.
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
When using automatic clock switchover mode, the following requirements must be
satisfied:
•
Both clock inputs must be running when the FPGA is configured.
•
The period of the two clock inputs can differ by no more than 20%.
The input clocks must meet the input jitter specifications to ensure proper operation of
the status signals. Glitches in the input clock may be seen as a greater than 20%
difference in frequency between the input clocks.
If the current clock input stops toggling while the other clock is also not toggling,
switchover is not initiated and the clkbad[0..1] signals are not valid. If both clock
inputs are not the same frequency, but their period difference is within 20%, the clock
sense block detects when a clock stops toggling. However, the PLL may lose lock after
the switchover is completed and needs time to relock.
Note:
Figure 66.
You must reset the PLL using the reset signal to maintain the phase relationships
between the PLL input and output clocks when using clock switchover.
Automatic Switchover After Loss of Clock Detection
This figure shows an example waveform of the switchover feature in automatic
switchover mode. In this example, the inclk0 signal is held low. After the inclk0
signal is held low for approximately two clock cycles, the clock sense circuitry drives
the clkbad0 signal high. As the reference clock signal (inclk0) is not toggling, the
switchover state machine controls the multiplexer through the extswitch signal to
switch to the backup clock, inclk1.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Switchover is enabled on the falling
edge of inclk0 or inclk1, depending on
which clock is available. In this figure,
switchover is enabled on the falling
edge of inclk1.
4.2.10.2 Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
In automatic switchover with manual override mode, you can use the extswitch
signal for user- or system-controlled switch conditions. You can use this mode for
same-frequency switchover, or to switch between inputs of different frequencies.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
91
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must control
switchover using the extswitch signal. The automatic clock-sense circuitry cannot
monitor clock input (inclk0 and inclk1) frequencies with a frequency difference of
more than 100% (2×).
This feature is useful when the clock sources originate from multiple cards on the
backplane, requiring a system-controlled switchover between the frequencies of
operation.
You must choose the backup clock frequency and set the M, N, C, L, and K counters so
that the VCO operates within the recommended operating frequency range. The
Altera IOPLL (for I/O PLL) and Arria 10 FPLL (for fPLL) parameter editors notifies you if
a given combination of inclk0 and inclk1 frequencies cannot meet this
requirement.
Figure 67.
Clock Switchover Using the extswitch (Manual) Control
This figure shows a clock switchover waveform controlled by the extswitch signal. In
this case, both clock sources are functional and inclk0 is selected as the reference
clock. The switchover sequence starts when the extswitch signal goes low. On the
falling edge of inclk0, the counter’s reference clock, muxout, is gated off to prevent
clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the reference clock multiplexer
switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference. The activeclock signal
changes to indicate the clock which is currently feeding the PLL.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
extswitch
activeclock
clkbad0
clkbad1
To initiate a manual clock switchover event,
both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when
the extswitch signal goes low.
In automatic override with manual switchover mode, the activeclock signal inverts
after the extswitch signal transitions from logic high to logic low. Since both clocks
are still functional during the manual switch, neither clkbad signal goes high.
Because the switchover circuit is negative-edge sensitive, the rising edge of the
extswitch signal does not cause the circuit to switch back from inclk1 to inclk0.
When the extswitch signal goes low again, the process repeats.
The extswitch signal and automatic switch work only if the clock being switched to
is available. If the clock is not available, the state machine waits until the clock is
available.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Related Links
•
Altera I/O Phase-Locked Loop (Altera IOPLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about I/O PLL software support in the Quartus
Prime software.
•
PLLs and Clock Networks chapter, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
Provides more information about fPLL software support in the Quartus Prime
software.
4.2.10.3 Manual Clock Switchover
In manual clock switchover mode, the extswitch signal controls whether inclk0 or
inclk1 is selected as the input clock to the PLL. By default, inclk0 is selected.
A clock switchover event is initiated when the extswitch signal transitions from logic
high to logic low, and being held low for at least three inclk cycles for the inclk
being switched to.
You must bring the extswitch signal back high again to perform another switchover
event. If you do not require another switchover event, you can leave the extswitch
signal in a logic low state after the initial switch.
Pulsing the extswitch signal low for at least three inclk cycles for the inclk being
switched to performs another switchover event.
If inclk0 and inclk1 are different frequencies and are always running, the
extswitch signal minimum low time must be greater than or equal to three of the
slower frequency inclk0 and inclk1 cycles.
Figure 68.
Manual Clock Switchover Circuitry in Arria 10 PLLs
extswitch
Clock Switch
Control Logic
inclk0
inclk1
N Counter
muxout
PFD
refclk
fbclk
You can delay the clock switchover action by specifying the switchover delay in the
Altera IOPLL (for I/O PLL) and Arria 10 FPLL (for fPLL) IP cores. When you specify the
switchover delay, the extswitch signal must be held low for at least three inclk
cycles for the inclk being switched to plus the number of the delay cycles that has
been specified to initiate a clock switchover.
Related Links
•
Altera I/O Phase-Locked Loop (Altera IOPLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about I/O PLL software support in the Quartus
Prime software.
•
PLLs and Clock Networks chapter, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
Provides more information about fPLL software support in the Quartus Prime
software.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
93
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.2.10.4 Guidelines
When implementing clock switchover in Arria 10 PLLs, use the following guidelines:
Figure 69.
•
Automatic clock switchover requires that the inclk0 and inclk1 frequencies be
within 20% of each other. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clkbad0
and clkbad1 signals to not function properly.
•
When using manual clock switchover, the difference between inclk0 and inclk1
can be more than 100% (2×). However, differences in frequency, phase, or both,
of the two clock sources will likely cause the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the PLL
ensures that you maintain the correct phase relationships between the input and
output clocks.
•
Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the extswitch signal goes low
to initiate the manual clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement
causes the clock switchover to not function properly.
•
Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift
must use a low-bandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the lowbandwidth PLL reacts more slowly than a high-bandwidth PLL. When switchover
happens, a low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stopping of the clock to the output
more slowly than a high-bandwidth PLL. However, be aware that the lowbandwidth PLL also increases lock time.
•
After a switchover occurs, there may be a finite resynchronization period for the
PLL to lock onto a new clock. The time it takes for the PLL to relock depends on
the PLL configuration.
•
The phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and the output clock
from the PLL is important in your design. Assert the reset signal for at least 10 ns
after performing a clock switchover. Wait for the locked signal to go high and be
stable before re-enabling the output clocks from the PLL.
•
The VCO frequency gradually decreases when the current clock is lost and then
increases as the VCO locks on to the backup clock, as shown in the following
figure.
VCO Switchover Operating Frequency
Primary Clock Stops Running
Switchover Occurs
∆ F vco
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
94
VCO Tracks Secondary Clock
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
4.2.11 PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift
fPLLs and I/O PLLs support PLL reconfiguration and dynamic phase shift with the
following features:
•
PLL reconfiguration—Reconfigure the M, N, and C counters. Able to reconfigure the
fractional settings (for fPLL).
•
Dynamic phase shift—Perform positive or negative phase shift. fPLLs support only
single phase step in one dynamic phase shift operation, where each phase step is
equal to 1/4 of the VCO period. I/O PLLs support multiple phase steps in one
dynamic phase shift operation, where each phase step is equal to 1/8 of the VCO
period.
Related Links
•
AN 728: I/O PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift for Arria 10 Devices
Provides more information about implementing I/O PLL reconfiguration in the
PLL Reconfig IP core and implementing I/O PLL dynamic phase shift in the
IOPLL IP core.
•
Using PLLs and Clock Networks, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
Provides more information about implementing fPLL reconfiguration in the
Quartus Prime software.
4.3 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
May 2017
2017.05.08
•
•
March 2017
2017.03.15
Rebranded as Intel.
October 2016
2016.10.31
•
Changed clock switchover control signal from clkswitch to extswitch.
•
Updated the clock switchover control signal to active low in the Manual
Clock Switchover section.
•
Updated the Clock Resources in Arria 10 Devices table.
— Updated the number of resources available for HSSI.
— Removed fPLL M counter output as the source of clock resource for
HSSI.
Updated descriptions on dedicated clock input pins.
Updated the note in Clock Power Down section.
Updated the description on fPLL mode in Arria 10 PLLs section.
Updated Fractional PLL High-Level Block Diagram for Arria 10 diagram.
Removed dedicated refclk input in I/O PLL High-Level Block Diagram for
Arria 10 Devices diagram.
Updated supported PLL cascading mode for Arria 10 devices.
Added Reference Clock Sources section.
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
•
•
•
Updated information on PLL cascading.
Removed all "Preliminary" marks.
Updated the description in Hierarchical Clock Networks section: Arria 10
devices provide a maximum of 33 SCLK networks in the SCLK spine
region.
Updated GCLK Control Block for Arria 10 Devices diagram.
Removed the following description in the GCLK Control Block section: The
inputs from the clock pins feed the inclk[0..1] ports of the multiplexer,
and the PLL outputs feed the inclk[2..3] ports.
Added descriptions about I/O PLL in the Arria 10 PLLs section.
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
95
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Date
Version
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
May 2015
2015.05.04
•
•
•
•
•
•
January 2015
2015.01.23
Updated PLL Features in Arria 10 Devices table.
— Updated the feature from integer and fractional PLLs to integer and
fractional modes.
— Updated M counter divide factors for fPLL from "1 to 320" to "8 to
127".
— Updated M counter divide factors for I/O PLL from "1 to 512" to "4 to
160".
— Updated N counter divide factors for fPLL from "1 to 512" to "1 to 80".
— Updated C counter divide factors for fPLL from "1 to 320" to "1 to
512".
— Removed normal compensation support in fPLL.
— Changed "Fractional PLL bonding compensation" to "Feedback
compensation bonding".
— Updated phase shift resolution for fPLL from 41.667 ps to 72 ps.
Updated compensation mode in Fractional PLL High-Level Block Diagram
for Arria 10 Devices.
Updated clock feedback modes for fPLL.
— Removed normal compensation.
— Changed fPLL bonding compensation to feedback compensation
bonding.
Updated description for dynamic phase shift in the PLL Reconfiguration
and Dynamic Phase Shift section.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
Updated the number of RCLK/RCLK feedback from 12 to 8 in the
Hierarchical Clock Networks in SCLK Spine diagram.
Added description to the Global Clock Networks section: Each GCLK is
accessible through the direction as indicated in the Symbolic GCLK
Networks diagram.
Updated HSSI outputs to HSSI clock outputs in the Clock Network Sources
section.
Specified that the fPLL and I/O PLL clock outputs can drive all clock
networks in the PLL Clock Outputs section.
Added descriptions on PLL cascading bandwidth requirements and PLL
cascading modes.
Added a note on fPLL reset requirement in the PLL Control Signals (Reset)
section.
•
Updated the dedicated clock input pins that have dedicated connections to
the I/O PLL (CLK_[2,3][A..L]_[0,1][p,n]) when used as singleended clock inputs.
•
Removed the dedicated clock input pins, CLK_[2,3][A..L]_[0,1]n,
that drive the I/O PLLs over global or regional clock networks and do not
have dedicated routing paths to the I/O PLLs.
Removed a note to Internal Logic in the Clock Network Sources section.
Note removed: Internally-generated GCLKs or RCLKs cannot drive the
Arria 10 PLLs. The input clock to the PLL has to come from dedicated clock
input pins, PLL-fed GCLKs, or PLL-fed RCLKs.
Added clock control block pin mapping tables for HSSI and I/O columns.
Updated Fractional PLL High-Level Block Diagram for Arria 10 Devices.
Changed CLKp to REFCLK_GXBp and CLKn to REFCLK_GXBn in the note
for dedicated clock inputs.
Updated the note to dedicated clock inputs in I/O PLL High-Level Block
Diagram for Arria 10 Devices because all four clock inputs can be used as
dedicated clock inputs for I/O PLL. The note was changed from "For
single-ended clock inputs, only the CLKp pin has a dedicated connection
to the PLL. If you use the CLKn pin, a global or regional clock is used." to
"For single-ended clock inputs, both the CLKp and CLKn pins have
dedicated connection to the PLL."
Added PLL cascading information.
•
•
•
•
•
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
96
4 Clock Networks and PLLs in Arria 10 Devices
Date
Version
Changes
•
•
•
•
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
December 2013
2013.12.02
Clarified that when the reset signal is driven low again, the PLL
resynchronizes to its input clock source as it re-locks.
Added description for clock feedback mode: Clock feedback modes
compensate for clock network delays to align the PLL clock input rising
edge with the rising edge of the clock output. Select the appropriate type
of compensation for the timing critical clock path in your design. PLL
compensation is not always needed. A PLL should be configured in direct
(no compensation) mode unless a need for compensation is identified.
Direct mode provides the best PLL jitter performance and avoids
expending compensation clocking resources unnecessarily.
Updated clock switchover clkswitch signal from positive trigger to
negative trigger.
Added the links to the following documents:
— Altera I/O Phase-Locked Loop (Altera IOPLL) IP Core User Guide—
Provides more information about I/O PLL software support in the
Quartus Prime software.
— PLLs and Clock Networks chapter, Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
—Provides more information about fPLL software support in the
Quartus Prime software.
— I/O PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift for Arria 10 Devices
—Provides more information about implementing I/O PLL
reconfiguration in Altera PLL Reconfig IP core and implementing I/O
PLL dynamic phase shift in Altera IOPLL IP core.
Updated the dedicated clock input pins name from HSSI banks.
Updated the description in Hierarchical Clock Networks section.
Updated the description in Dedicated Clock Input Pins section.
Removed PCLK network from the Internal Logic section.
Updated the description in PCLK Control Block section.
Updated the following diagrams:
— PCLK Control Block for HSSI Column for Arria 10 Devices
— PCLK Control Block for I/O Column for Arria 10 Devices
Removed IQTXRXCLK compensation mode.
Updated fractional PLL and I/O PLL high-level block diagrams.
Updated the description for manual clock switchover.
Updated the description for PLL reconfiguration.
Initial release.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
97
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 I/Os support the following features:
Note:
•
Single-ended, non-voltage-referenced, and voltage-referenced I/O standards
•
Low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), RSDS, mini-LVDS, HSTL, HSUL, SSTL,
and POD I/O standards
•
Serializer/deserializer (SERDES)
•
Programmable output current strength
•
Programmable slew-rate
•
Programmable bus-hold
•
Programmable weak pull-up resistor
•
Programmable pre-emphasis for DDR4 and LVDS standards
•
Programmable I/O delay
•
Programmable differential output voltage (VOD)
•
Open-drain output
•
On-chip series termination (RS OCT) with and without calibration
•
On-chip parallel termination (RT OCT)
•
On-chip differential termination (RD OCT)
•
HSTL and SSTL input buffer with dynamic power down
•
Dynamic on-chip parallel termination for all I/O banks
•
Internally generated VREF with DDR4 calibration
The information in this chapter is applicable to all Arria 10 variants, unless noted
otherwise.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.1 I/O and Differential I/O Buffers in Arria 10 Devices
The general purpose I/Os (GPIOs) consist of LVDS I/O and 3 V I/O banks:
•
LVDS I/O bank—supports differential and single-ended I/O standards up to 1.8 V.
The LVDS I/O pins form pairs of true differential LVDS channels. Each pair
supports a parallel input/output termination between the two pins. You can use
each LVDS channel as transmitter only or receiver only. Each LVDS channel
supports transmit SERDES and receive SERDES with DPA circuitry. For example, if
you use 30 channels of the available 72 channels as transmitters, you can use the
balance 42 channels as receivers.
•
3 V I/O bank—supports only single-ended I/O standards up to 3 V. Each adjacent
I/O pair also supports Differential SSTL and Differential HSTL I/O standards. The
single-ended output of the 3 V I/O supports all programmable I/O element (IOE)
features except:
—
Programmable pre-emphasis
—
RD on-chip termination (OCT)
—
Calibrated RS and RT OCT
—
Internal VREF generation
Arria 10 devices support LVDS on all LVDS I/O banks:
•
All LVDS I/O banks support true LVDS input with RD OCT and true LVDS output
buffer.
•
The devices do not support emulated LVDS channels.
•
The devices support single-ended I/O reference clock for the I/O PLL that drives
the SERDES.
Related Links
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GX Packages on page 109
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 GX
packages.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GT Packages on page 110
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 GT
packages.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 SX Packages on page 111
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 SX
packages.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
99
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.2 I/O Standards and Voltage Levels in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 device family consists of FPGA and SoC devices. Apart from the FPGA I/O
buffers, the Arria 10 SoC devices also have HPS I/O buffers with support for different
I/O standards.
5.2.1 I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Table 31.
Supported I/O Standards in FPGA I/O for Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
Device
Variant
Support
I/O Buffer Type Support
LVDS I/O
3V I/O
Application
Standard
Support
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
Devices with
3 V I/O banks
only. Refer to
related
information.
No
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-B
2.5 V LVCMOS
Devices with
3 V I/O banks
only. Refer to
related
information.
No
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-5
1.8 V LVCMOS
All
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-7
1.5 V LVCMOS
All
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-11
1.2 V LVCMOS
All
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-12
SSTL-18 Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR2
JESD8-15
SSTL-15 Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3
—
SSTL-15
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3
JESD79-3D
SSTL-135 Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3L
—
SSTL-125 Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3U
—
SSTL-12 Class I and Class II
All
Yes
No
RLDRAM 3
—
POD12
All
Yes
No
DDR4
JESD8-24
1.8 V HSTL Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
and RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
1.5 V HSTL Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
QDR II, and
RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
1.2 V HSTL Class I and Class II
All
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-16A
HSUL-12
All
Yes
Yes
LPDDR2
—
Differential SSTL-18 Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR2
JESD8-15
Differential SSTL-15 Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3
—
Differential SSTL-15
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3
JESD79-3D
Differential SSTL-135 Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3L
—
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
100
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
Device
Variant
Support
I/O Buffer Type Support
LVDS I/O
3V I/O
Application
Standard
Support
Differential SSTL-125 Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR3U
—
Differential SSTL-12 Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
No
RLDRAM 3
—
Differential POD12
All
Yes
No
DDR4
JESD8-24
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
and RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
QDR II, and
RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I and
Class II
All
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-16A
Differential HSUL-12
All
Yes
Yes
LPDDR2
—
LVDS
All
Yes
No
SGMII, SFI, and SPI
ANSI/TIA/
EIA-644
Mini-LVDS
All
Yes
No
SGMII, SFI, and SPI
—
RSDS
All
Yes
No
SGMII, SFI, and SPI
—
LVPECL
All
Yes
No
SGMII, SFI, and SPI
—
Related Links
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GX Packages on page 109
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 GX
packages.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GT Packages on page 110
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 GT
packages.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 SX Packages on page 111
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 SX
packages.
5.2.2 I/O Standards Support for HPS I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Table 32.
Supported I/O Standards in HPS I/O for Arria 10 SX Devices
I/O Standard
Application
Standard Support
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-B
2.5 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-5
1.8 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-7
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
101
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.2.3 I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Arria 10Devices
Table 33.
Arria 10I/O Standards Voltage Levels
This table lists the typical power supplies for each supported I/O standards in Arria 10devices.
VCCIO(V)
VREF(V)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
VTT(V)
(Board
Termination
Voltage)
Input6
Output
VCCPT(V)
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
3.0/2.5
3.0
1.8
—
—
2.5 V LVCMOS
3.0/2.5
2.5
1.8
—
—
1.8 V LVCMOS
1.8
1.8
1.8
—
—
1.5 V LVCMOS
1.5
1.5
1.8
—
—
1.2 V LVCMOS
1.2
1.2
1.8
—
—
SSTL-18 Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
0.9
0.9
SSTL-15 Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.5
1.8
0.75
0.75
SSTL-15
VCCPT
1.5
1.8
0.75
0.75
SSTL-135 Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.35
1.8
0.675
—
SSTL-125 Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.25
1.8
0.625
—
SSTL-12 Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
0.6
—
POD12
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
0.84
1.2
1.8 V HSTL Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
0.9
0.9
1.5 V HSTL Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.5
1.8
0.75
0.75
1.2 V HSTL Class I and Class II
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
0.6
0.6
HSUL-12
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
0.6
—
Differential SSTL-18 Class I and Class
II
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
—
0.9
Differential SSTL-15 Class I and Class
II
VCCPT
1.5
1.8
—
0.75
Differential SSTL-15
VCCPT
1.5
1.8
—
0.75
Differential SSTL-135 Class I and Class
II
VCCPT
1.35
1.8
—
0.675
Differential SSTL-125 Class I and Class
II
VCCPT
1.25
1.8
—
0.625
Differential SSTL-12 Class I and Class
II
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
—
0.6
Differential POD12
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
—
1.2
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I and
Class II
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
—
0.9
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I and
Class II
VCCPT
1.5
1.8
—
0.75
I/O Standard
continued...
6 Input for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, POD, Differential POD, LVDS,
RSDS, Mini-LVDS, LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPT
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
102
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
VCCIO(V)
VREF(V)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
VTT(V)
(Board
Termination
Voltage)
Input6
Output
VCCPT(V)
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I and
Class II
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
—
0.6
Differential HSUL-12
VCCPT
1.2
1.8
—
—
LVDS
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
—
—
Mini-LVDS
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
—
—
RSDS
VCCPT
1.8
1.8
—
—
LVPECL (Differential clock input only)
VCCPT
—
1.8
—
—
I/O Standard
Related Links
•
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.0 V Interfacing on page
180
•
Guideline: VREF Sources and VREF Pins on page 179
5.2.4 MultiVolt I/O Interface in Arria 10 Devices
The MultiVolt I/O interface feature allows Arria 10 devices in all packages to interface
with systems of different supply voltages:
•
Each I/O bank in Arria 10 devices has its own VCCIO supply and can support only
one VCCIO voltage.
•
The supported VCCIO voltage is 1.2 V, 1.25 V, 1.35 V, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, or 3.0 V.
•
The 2.5 V and 3.0 V VCCIO is supported only on the 3 V I/O buffer type.
•
The I/O buffers are powered by VCC, VCCPT and VCCIO.
5.3 Intel FPGA I/O IP Cores for Arria 10 Devices
The I/O system is supported by several Intel FPGA I/O IP cores.
•
Altera GPIO—supports operations of the GPIO components.
•
Altera LVDS SERDES—supports operations of the high-speed source-synchronous
SERDES.
•
Altera OCT—supports the OCT calibration block.
•
Altera PHYlite—supports dynamic OCT and I/O delays for strobe-based capture I/O
elements.
Related Links
•
PHYlite for Memory IP Core User Guide
•
Altera GPIO IP Core User Guide
•
Altera OCT IP Core User Guide
•
Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core User Guide
6 Input for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, POD, Differential POD, LVDS,
RSDS, Mini-LVDS, LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPT
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
103
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.4 I/O Resources in Arria 10 Devices
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
GPIO Buffers and LVDS Channels in Arria 10 Devices on page 109
I/O Banks Groups in Arria 10 Devices on page 112
I/O Vertical Migration for Arria 10 Devices on page 119
5.4.1 GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices
The I/O banks are located in I/O columns. Each I/O bank contains its own PLL, DPA,
and SERDES circuitries.
For more details about the modular I/O banks available in each device package, refer
to the related information.
Figure 70.
I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 160 and GX 220 Devices
Transceiver Block
2L
2K
2J
3B
3A
2A
Figure 71.
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 160 and SX 220 Devices
Transceiver Block
2K
2J
HPS I/O
2L
3B
3A
2A
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
104
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 270 and GX 320 Devices
Transceiver Block
Figure 72.
2L
3D
2K
3C
2J
3B
3A
2A
Figure 73.
LVDS I/O
I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 270 and SX 320 Devices
Transceiver Block
3D
2K
HPS I/O
2L
2J
3C
3B
3A
2A
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 480 Devices
3F
2L
3E
2K
Transceiver Block
Figure 74.
3 V I/O
3D
2J
3C
2I
3B
2A
3A
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
105
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 75.
I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 480 Devices
3F
2K
HPS I/O
2L
3E
Transceiver Block
3D
2J
3C
2I
3B
2A
Figure 76.
3 V I/O
3A
LVDS I/O
I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 570 and GX 660 Devices
3H
2L
3G
2K
3F
Transceiver Block
2J
3E
2I
3D
2H
3C
2G
3B
2A
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
106
3A
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 570 and SX 660 Devices
3H
2K
HPS I/O
2L
3G
3F
2J
Transceiver Block
Figure 77.
3E
2I
3D
2H
3C
2G
3B
2A
3A
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
107
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
2L
3H
2K
3G
2J
3F
2I
3E
2H
3D
2G
3C
2F
3B
Transceiver Block
I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 900, GX 1150, GT 900, and GT 1150 Devices
Transceiver Block
Figure 78.
3A
2A
LVDS I/O
Related Links
•
Device Transceiver Layout
Provides more information about the transceiver banks in Arria 10 devices.
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX Devices on page 112
Lists the number of I/O pins in the available I/O banks for each Arria 10 GX
package.
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT Devices on page 115
Lists the number of I/O pins in the available I/O banks for each Arria 10 GT
package.
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX Devices on page 116
Lists the number of I/O pins in the available I/O banks for each Arria 10 SX
package.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GX Packages on page 109
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 GX
packages.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GT Packages on page 110
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 GT
packages.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 SX Packages on page 111
Lists the number of 3 V and LVDS I/O buffers available in Arria 10 SX
packages.
•
Arria 10 Device Pin-Out Files
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
108
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Provides the pin-out file for each Arria 10 device. For the SoC devices, the pinout files also list the I/O banks that are shared by the FPGA fabric and the HPS.
•
Altera GPIO IP Core User Guide
•
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
5.4.2 GPIO Buffers and LVDS Channels in Arria 10 Devices
5.4.2.1 FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GX Packages
Table 34.
Product
Line
GX 160
GX 220
GX 270
GX 320
GX 480
GX 570
GX 660
GPIO Buffers and LVDS Channels in Arria 10 GX Devices
•
The U19 package is a ball grid array with 0.8 mm pitch. All other packages are ball grid arrays with 1.0
mm pitch.
•
The number of LVDS channels does not include dedicated clock pins.
Package
GPIO
LVDS
Channels
Code
Type
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
Total
U19
484-pin UBGA
48
148
196
74
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
240
288
120
U19
484-pin UBGA
48
148
196
74
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
240
288
120
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
312
360
156
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
312
360
156
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
312
360
156
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
444
492
222
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
348
396
174
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
444
492
222
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
348
396
174
NF40
1,517-pin FBGA
48
540
588
270
KF40
1,517-pin FBGA
96
600
696
300
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
444
492
222
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
348
396
174
NF40
1,517-pin FBGA
48
540
588
270
KF40
1,517-pin FBGA
96
600
696
300
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
109
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product
Line
Package
GX 900
GX 1150
GPIO
LVDS
Channels
Code
Type
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
Total
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
0
504
504
252
NF40
1,517-pin FBGA
0
600
600
300
RF40
1,517-pin FBGA
0
342
342
154
NF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
768
768
384
SF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
624
624
312
UF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
480
480
240
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
0
504
504
252
NF40
1,517-pin FBGA
0
600
600
300
RF40
1,517-pin FBGA
0
342
342
154
NF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
768
768
384
SF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
624
624
312
UF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
480
480
240
Related Links
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX Devices on page 112
Lists the number of I/O pins in the available I/O banks for each Arria 10 GX
package.
•
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices on page 100
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
I/O and Differential I/O Buffers in Arria 10 Devices on page 99
5.4.2.2 FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GT Packages
Table 35.
GPIO Buffers and LVDS Channels in Arria 10 GT Devices
•
The SF45 package is a ball grid array with 1.0 mm pitch.
•
The number of LVDS channels does not include dedicated clock pins.
Package
Product
Line
GPIO Buffers
LVDS
Channels
Code
Type
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
Total
GT 900
SF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
624
624
312
GT 1150
SF45
1,932-pin FBGA
0
624
624
312
Related Links
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT Devices on page 115
Lists the number of I/O pins in the available I/O banks for each Arria 10 GT
package.
•
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices on page 100
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
I/O and Differential I/O Buffers in Arria 10 Devices on page 99
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
110
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.4.2.3 FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 SX Packages
Table 36.
GPIO Buffers and LVDS Channels in Arria 10 SX Devices
•
The U19 package is a ball grid array with 0.8 mm pitch. All other packages are ball grid arrays with 1.0
mm pitch.
•
The number of LVDS channels does not include dedicated clock pins.
Product
Line
Package
SX 160
SX 220
SX 270
SX 320
SX 480
SX 570
SX 660
GPIO Buffers
LVDS
Channels
Code
Type
3 V I/O
LVDS I/O
Total
U19
484-pin UBGA
48
148
196
74
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
240
288
120
U19
484-pin UBGA
48
148
196
74
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
240
288
120
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
312
360
156
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F27
672-pin FBGA
48
192
240
96
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
312
360
156
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
336
384
168
F29
780-pin FBGA
48
312
360
156
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
444
492
222
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
348
396
174
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
444
492
222
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
348
396
174
NF40
1,517-pin FBGA
48
540
588
270
KF40
1,517-pin FBGA
96
600
696
300
F34
1,152-pin FBGA
48
444
492
222
F35
1,152-pin FBGA
48
348
396
174
NF40
1,517-pin FBGA
48
540
588
270
KF40
1,517-pin FBGA
96
600
696
300
Related Links
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX Devices on page 116
Lists the number of I/O pins in the available I/O banks for each Arria 10 SX
package.
•
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices on page 100
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
111
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
•
I/O and Differential I/O Buffers in Arria 10 Devices on page 99
5.4.3 I/O Banks Groups in Arria 10 Devices
The I/O pins in Arria 10 devices are arranged in groups called modular I/O banks:
•
Modular I/O banks have independent supplies that allow each bank to support
different I/O standards.
•
Each modular I/O bank can support multiple I/O standards that use the same
voltage.
Related Links
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX Devices on page 112
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT Devices on page 115
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX Devices on page 116
5.4.3.1 Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX Devices
The following tables list the I/O banks available, the total number of I/O pins in each
bank, and the total number of I/O pins for each product line and device package of the
Arria 10 GX device family variant.
Table 37.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 160 and GX 220 Devices
Product Line
GX 160
Package
I/O Bank
U19
F27
F29
U19
F27
F29
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
2J
48
48
48
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
—
48
48
—
48
48
3B
4
—
48
4
—
48
196
240
288
196
240
288
Total
Table 38.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 270 and GX 320 Devices
Product Line
Package
I/O Bank
GX 220
GX 270
GX 320
F27
F29
F34
F35
F27
F29
F34
F35
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2J
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3B
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
112
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product Line
GX 270
Package
F27
F29
F34
F35
F27
F29
F34
F35
3C
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
3D
—
24
48
48
—
24
48
48
240
360
384
384
240
360
384
384
Total
Table 39.
GX 320
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 480 Devices
Product Line
GX 480
Package
I/O Bank
F29
F34
F35
2A
48
48
48
2I
—
12
12
2J
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
3A
48
48
48
3B
48
48
48
3C
48
48
48
3D
24
48
48
3E
—
48
—
3F
—
48
—
360
492
396
Total
Table 40.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 570 and GX 660 Devices
Product Line
Package
I/O Bank
GX 570
GX 660
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2G
—
—
—
24
—
—
—
24
2H
—
—
—
48
—
—
—
48
2I
12
12
12
48
12
12
12
48
2J
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3C
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3D
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3E
48
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
3F
48
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
113
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product Line
GX 570
Package
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
3G
—
—
48
48
—
—
48
48
3H
—
—
48
48
—
—
48
48
492
396
588
696
492
396
588
696
Total
Table 41.
GX 660
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 900 Devices
Product Line
Package
I/O Bank
F34
NF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
2F
—
—
48
48
—
—
2G
—
—
—
48
—
—
2H
—
—
—
48
—
—
2I
24
24
—
48
48
48
2J
48
48
—
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
48
48
28
48
48
48
3B
48
48
27
48
48
48
3C
48
48
—
48
48
48
3D
48
48
—
48
48
48
3E
48
48
—
48
48
48
3F
48
48
—
48
48
—
3G
—
48
47
48
48
—
3H
—
48
48
48
48
—
504
600
342
768
624
480
Total
Table 42.
GX 900
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX 1150 Devices
Product Line
Package
I/O Bank
GX 1150
F34
NF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
2F
—
—
48
48
—
—
2G
—
—
—
48
—
—
2H
—
—
—
48
—
—
2I
24
24
—
48
48
48
2J
48
48
—
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
114
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product Line
GX 1150
Package
F34
NF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
3A
48
48
28
48
48
48
3B
48
48
27
48
48
48
3C
48
48
—
48
48
48
3D
48
48
—
48
48
48
3E
48
48
—
48
48
48
3F
48
48
—
48
48
—
3G
—
48
47
48
48
—
3H
—
48
48
48
48
—
504
600
342
768
624
480
Total
Related Links
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GX Packages on page 109
•
I/O Banks Groups in Arria 10 Devices on page 112
•
Guideline: Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core Instantiation on page 183
In DPA or soft-CDR mode, you can instantiate only one Altera LVDS SERDES IP
core instance for each I/O bank.
5.4.3.2 Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT Devices
The following table lists the I/O banks available, the total number of I/O pins in each
bank, and the total number of I/O pins for each product line and device package of the
Arria 10 GT device family variant.
Table 43.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT 900 and GT 1150 Devices
I/O Bank
Product Line
GT 900
GT 1150
Package
SF45
SF45
2A
48
48
2I
48
48
2J
48
48
2K
48
48
2L
48
48
3A
48
48
3B
48
48
3C
48
48
3D
48
48
3E
48
48
3F
48
48
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
115
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product Line
GT 900
GT 1150
Package
SF45
SF45
3G
48
48
3H
48
48
624
624
Total
Related Links
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GT Packages on page 110
•
I/O Banks Groups in Arria 10 Devices on page 112
•
Guideline: Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core Instantiation on page 183
In DPA or soft-CDR mode, you can instantiate only one Altera LVDS SERDES IP
core instance for each I/O bank.
5.4.3.3 Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX Devices
The following tables list the I/O banks available, the total number of I/O pins in each
bank, and the total number of I/O pins for each product line and device package of the
Arria 10 SX device family variant.
Table 44.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 160 and SX 220 Devices
Product Line
SX 160
Package
I/O Bank
F27
F29
U19
F27
F29
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
2J
48
48
48
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
—
48
48
—
48
48
3B
4
—
48
4
—
48
196
240
288
196
240
288
Total
Table 45.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 270 and SX 320 Devices
Product Line
Package
I/O Bank
SX 220
U19
SX 270
SX 320
F27
F29
F34
F35
F27
F29
F34
F35
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2J
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3B
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
116
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product Line
SX 270
Package
F27
F29
F34
F35
F27
F29
F34
F35
3C
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
3D
—
24
48
48
—
24
48
48
240
360
384
384
240
360
384
384
Total
Table 46.
SX 320
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 480 Devices
Product Line
SX 480
Package
I/O Bank
F29
F34
F35
2A
48
48
48
2I
—
12
12
2J
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
3A
48
48
48
3B
48
48
48
3C
48
48
48
3D
24
48
48
3E
—
48
—
3F
—
48
—
360
492
396
Total
Table 47.
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX 570 and SX 660 Devices
Product Line
Package
I/O Bank
SX 570
SX 660
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
2A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2G
—
—
—
24
—
—
—
24
2H
—
—
—
48
—
—
—
48
2I
12
12
12
48
12
12
12
48
2J
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2K
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
2L
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3A
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3C
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3D
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3E
48
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
3F
48
—
48
48
48
—
48
48
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
117
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Product Line
Package
Total
SX 570
SX 660
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
3G
—
—
48
48
—
—
48
48
3H
—
—
48
48
—
—
48
48
492
396
588
696
492
396
588
696
Related Links
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 SX Packages on page 111
•
I/O Banks Groups in Arria 10 Devices on page 112
•
Guideline: Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core Instantiation on page 183
In DPA or soft-CDR mode, you can instantiate only one Altera LVDS SERDES IP
core instance for each I/O bank.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
118
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.4.4 I/O Vertical Migration for Arria 10 Devices
Figure 79.
Migration Capability Across Arria 10 Product Lines
•
The arrows indicate the migration paths. The devices included in each vertical
migration path are shaded. Devices with fewer resources in the same path have
lighter shades.
•
To achieve the full I/O migration across product lines in the same migration path,
restrict I/Os and transceivers usage to match the product line with the lowest I/O
and transceiver counts.
•
An LVDS I/O bank in the source device may be mapped to a 3 V I/O bank in the
target device. To use memory interface clock frequency higher than 533 MHz,
assign external memory interface pins only to banks that are LVDS I/O in both
devices.
•
There may be nominal 0.15 mm package height difference between some product
lines in the same package type.
•
Some migration paths are not shown in the Quartus Prime software Pin Migration
View.
Variant
Arria 10 GX
Arria 10 GT
Arria 10 SX
Note:
Product
Line
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
Package
KF40 NF40 RF40 NF45 SF45 UF45
GX 160
GX 220
GX 270
GX 320
GX 480
GX 570
GX 660
GX 900
GX 1150
GT 900
GT 1150
SX 160
SX 220
SX 270
SX 320
SX 480
SX 570
SX 660
To verify the pin migration compatibility, use the Pin Migration View window in the
Quartus Prime software Pin Planner.
Related Links
•
Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility on page 120
•
Migrating Assignments to Another Target Device
Provides more information about vertical I/O migrations.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
119
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.4.4.1 Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility
You can use the Pin Migration View window in the Quartus Prime software Pin
Planner to assist you in verifying whether your pin assignments migrate to a different
device successfully. You can vertically migrate to a device with a different density
while using the same device package, or migrate between packages with different
densities and ball counts.
1.
Open Assignments ➤ Pin Planner and create pin assignments.
2.
If necessary, perform one of the following options to populate the Pin Planner with
the node names in the design:
—
Analysis & Elaboration
—
Analysis & Synthesis
—
Fully compile the design
3.
Then, on the menu, click View ➤ Pin Migration View.
4.
To select or change migration devices:
5.
6.
a.
Click Device to open the Device dialog box.
b.
Under Migration compatibility click Migration Devices.
To show more information about the pins:
a.
Right-click anywhere in the Pin Migration View window and select Show
Columns.
b.
Then, click the pin feature you want to display.
If you want to view only the pins, in at least one migration device, that have a
different feature than the corresponding pin in the migration result, turn on Show
migration differences.
7. Click Pin Finder to open the Pin Finder dialog box to find and highlight pins with
specific functionality.
If you want to view only the pins highlighted by the most recent query in the Pin
Finder dialog box, turn on Show only highlighted pins.
8.
To export the pin migration information to a Comma-Separated Value file (.csv),
click Export.
Related Links
•
I/O Vertical Migration for Arria 10 Devices on page 119
•
Migrating Assignments to Another Target Device
Provides more information about vertical I/O migrations.
5.5 Architecture and General Features of I/Os in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Element Structure in Arria 10 Devices on page 121
Features of I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices on page 122
Programmable IOE Features in Arria 10 Devices on page 123
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
External I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices on page 138
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
120
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.5.1 I/O Element Structure in Arria 10 Devices
The I/O elements (IOEs) in Arria 10 devices contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and I/O
registers to support a complete embedded bidirectional single data rate (SDR) or
double data rate (DDR) transfer.
The IOEs are located in I/O columns within the core fabric of the Arria 10 device.
The Arria 10 SX devices also have IOEs for the HPS.
The GPIO IOE register consists of the DDR register, the half rate register, and the
transmitter delay chains for input, output, and output enable (OE) paths:
•
You can take data from the combinatorial path or the registered path.
•
Only the core clock clocks the data.
•
The half rate clock routed from the core clocks the half rate register.
•
The full rate clock from the core clocks the full rate register.
5.5.1.1 I/O Bank Architecture in Arria 10 Devices
In each I/O bank, there are four I/O lanes with 12 I/O pins in each lane. Other than
the I/O lanes, each I/O bank also contains dedicated circuitries including the I/O PLL,
DPA block, SERDES, hard memory controller, and I/O sequencer.
I/O Bank Structure
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
2L
3H
2K
3G
2J
3F
2I
3E
2H
3D
2G
3C
2F
3B
3A
2A
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
I/O Center
Transceiver Block
Transceiver Block
Figure 80.
I/O PLL
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
LVDS I/O Buffer Pair
I/O Lane
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
I/O Lane
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
I/O DLL
I/O CLK
OCT
VR
Hard Memory Controller
and
PHY Sequencer
I/O Lane
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
I/O Lane
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
SERDES & DPA
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
121
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Related Links
Guideline: VREF Sources and VREF Pins on page 179
Describes VREF restrictions related to the I/O lanes.
5.5.1.2 I/O Buffer and Registers in Arria 10 Devices
I/O registers are composed of the input path for handling data from the pin to the
core, the output path for handling data from the core to the pin, and the output
enable (OE) path for handling the OE signal to the output buffer. These registers allow
faster source-synchronous register-to-register transfers and resynchronization.
The input and output paths contains the following blocks:
•
Input registers—support half/full rate data transfer from peripheral to core, and
support double or single data rate data capture from I/O buffer.
•
Output registers—support half/full rate data transfer from core to peripheral, and
support double or single data rate data transfer to I/O buffer.
•
OE registers—support half or full rate data transfer from core to peripheral, and
support single data rate data transfer to I/O buffer.
The input and output paths also support the following features:
Figure 81.
•
Clock enable.
•
Asynchronous or synchronous reset.
•
Bypass mode for input and output paths.
•
Delays chains on input and output paths.
IOE Structure for Arria 10 Devices
This figure shows the Arria 10 FPGA IOE structure.
Core
GPIO
Register
Buffer
OE
Path
IO_OE
Delay Chain
Write Data from Core
Output
Path
IO_OUT
Delay Chain
Read Data to Core
Input
Path
IO_IN
Delay Chain
OE from Core
Bypass Mode from Core
Bypass Mode to Core
5.5.2 Features of I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices
Open-Drain Output on page 123
Bus-Hold Circuitry on page 123
Weak Pull-up Resistor on page 123
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
122
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
5.5.2.1 Open-Drain Output
The optional open-drain output for each I/O pin is equivalent to an open collector
output. If it is configured as an open drain, the logic value of the output is either highZ or logic low.
Use an external resistor to pull the signal to a logic high.
5.5.2.2 Bus-Hold Circuitry
Each I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold feature that is active only after
configuration. When the device enters user mode, the bus-hold circuit captures the
value that is present on the pin by the end of the configuration.
The bus-hold circuitry uses a resistor with a nominal resistance (RBH), approximately
7 kΩ, to weakly pull the signal level to the last-driven state of the pin. The bus-hold
circuitry holds this pin state until the next input signal is present. Because of this, you
do not require an external pull-up or pull-down resistor to hold a signal level when the
bus is tri-stated.
For each I/O pin, you can individually specify that the bus-hold circuitry pulls nondriven pins away from the input threshold voltage—where noise can cause unintended
high-frequency switching. To prevent over-driving signals, the bus-hold circuitry drives
the voltage level of the I/O pin lower than the VCCIO level.
If you enable the bus-hold feature, you cannot use the programmable pull-up option.
To configure the I/O pin for differential signals, disable the bus-hold feature.
5.5.2.3 Weak Pull-up Resistor
Each I/O pin provides an optional programmable pull-up resistor during user mode.
The pull-up resistor, typically 25 kΩ, weakly holds the I/O to the VCCIO level.
The Arria 10 device supports programmable weak pull-up resistors only on user I/O
pins but not on dedicated configuration pins, dedicated clock pins, or JTAG pins .
If you enable this option, you cannot use the bus-hold feature.
5.5.3 Programmable IOE Features in Arria 10 Devices
Table 48.
Arria 10 Programmable IOE Features Settings and Assignment Name
Feature
Setting
Condition
Quartus Prime
Assignment Name
0 (Slow), 1 (Fast). Default is
1.
Disabled if you use the RS
OCT feature.
SLEW_RATE
Refer to the device
datasheet
—
INPUT_DELAY_CHAIN
OUTPUT_DELAY_CHAIN
Open-Drain Output
On, Off. Default is Off
—
AUTO_OPEN_DRAIN_PINS
Bus-Hold
On, Off. Default is Off.
Disabled if you use the weak
pull-up resistor feature.
ENABLE_BUS_HOLD_CIRCUI
TRY
Slew Rate Control
I/O Delay
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
123
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Feature
Weak Pull-up Resistor
Pre-Emphasis
Differential Output Voltage
Table 49.
Setting
Condition
Quartus Prime
Assignment Name
On, Off. Default is Off.
Disabled if you use the bushold feature.
WEAK_PULL_UP_RESISTOR
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled).
Default is 1.
—
PROGRAMMABLE_PREEMPHAS
IS
0 (low), 1 (medium low), 2
(medium high), 3 (high).
Default is 2.
—
PROGRAMMABLE_VOD
Arria 10 Programmable IOE Features I/O Buffer Types and I/O Standards
Support
This table lists the I/O buffer types and I/O standards that support the programmable IOE features. For
information about which I/O standards are available for each I/O buffer type, refer to the related information.
Feature
I/O Buffer Type Support
I/O Standards Support
LVDS I/O
3 V I/O
HPS I/O
(SoC
Devices
Only)
Slew Rate Control
Yes
Yes
Yes
I/O Delay
Yes
Yes
—
•
•
•
•
•
3.0 V LVTTL
1.2 V, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, and 3.0 V LVCMOS
SSTL-18, SSTL-15, SSTL-135, SSTL-125,
and SSTL-12
1.2 V, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V HSTL
HSUL-12
POD12
Differential SSTL-18, Differential
SSTL-15, Differential SSTL-135,
Differential
SSTL-125, and Differential SSTL-12
Differential 1.2 V, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V HSTL
Differential HSUL-12
•
•
3.0 V LVTTL
1.2 V, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, and 3.0 V LVCMOS
•
•
•
•
Open-Drain Output
Yes
Yes
Yes
Bus-Hold
Yes
Yes
Yes
Weak Pull-up Resistor
Yes
Yes
Yes
Pre-Emphasis
Yes
—
—
•
•
•
•
•
LVDS
RSDS
Mini-LVDS
LVPECL
Differential POD12
Differential Output Voltage
Yes
—
—
•
•
•
•
LVDS
RSDS
Mini-LVDS
LVPECL
Related Links
•
Programmable IOE Delay
•
Programmable Current Strength on page 125
You can use the programmable current strength to mitigate the effects of high
signal attenuation that is caused by a long transmission line or a legacy
backplane.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
124
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
•
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control on page 126
•
Programmable IOE Delay on page 127
•
Programmable Open-Drain Output on page 127
An open-drain output provides a high-impedance state on output when logicto-pin is high. If logic-to-pin is low, output is low.
•
Programmable Pre-Emphasis on page 127
•
Programmable Differential Output Voltage on page 128
•
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices on page 100
Lists the I/O standards supported by the LVDS I/O and 3 V I/O buffers.
•
I/O Standards Support for HPS I/O in Arria 10 Devices on page 101
Lists the I/O standards supported by the HPS I/O buffers.
5.5.3.1 Programmable Current Strength
You can use the programmable current strength to mitigate the effects of high signal
attenuation that is caused by a long transmission line or a legacy backplane.
Note:
Table 50.
To use programmable current strength, you must specify the current strength
assignment in the Quartus Prime software. Without explicit assignments, the Quartus
Prime software uses these predefined default values:
•
All HSTL and SSTL Class I, and all non-voltage-referenced I/O standards—50 Ω RS
OCT without calibration
•
All HSTL and SSTL Class II I/O standards—25 Ω RS OCT without calibration
•
POD12 I/O standard—34 Ω RS OCT without calibration
Programmable Current Strength Settings for Arria 10 Devices
The output buffer for each Arria 10 device I/O pin has a programmable current strength control for the I/O
standards listed in this table.
IOH / IOL Current Strength Setting (mA) or
DDR3 OCT Setting (Ω)
(Default setting in bold)
Supported in HPS
(SoC Devices Only)
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V CMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
16, 12, 8, 4
2.5 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
16, 12, 8, 4
1.8 V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
1.5 V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
1.2 V LVCMOS
8, 6, 4, 2
—
SSTL-18 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
SSTL-18 Class II
16
8, 16
SSTL-15 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
SSTL-15 Class II
16
8, 16
SSTL-135 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
SSTL-135 Class II
16
I/O Standard
7
—
continued...
7 The programmable current strength information for the HPS is preliminary.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
125
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
IOH / IOL Current Strength Setting (mA) or
DDR3 OCT Setting (Ω)
(Default setting in bold)
Supported in HPS
(SoC Devices Only)
SSTL-125 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
SSTL-125 Class II
16
—
SSTL-12 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
SSTL-12 Class II
16
—
16, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
1.8 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
1.8 V HSTL Class II
16
16
1.5 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
1.5 V HSTL Class II
16
16
1.2 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
1.2 V HSTL Class II
16
—
Differential SSTL-135 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
Differential SSTL-135 Class II
16
—
Differential SSTL-125 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
Differential SSTL-125 Class II
16
—
Differential SSTL-12 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
Differential SSTL-12 Class II
16
—
16, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
POD12
Differential POD12
Note:
7
Intel recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best
current strength setting for your specific application.
5.5.3.2 Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control
The programmable output slew-rate control in the output buffer of each regular- and
dual-function I/O pin allows you to configure the following:
•
Fast slew-rate—provides high-speed transitions for high-performance systems.
•
Slow slew-rate—reduces system noise and crosstalk but adds a nominal delay to
the rising and falling edges.
You can specify the slew-rate on a pin-by-pin basis because each I/O pin contains a
slew-rate control.
Note:
Intel recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best
slew rate setting for your specific application.
7 The programmable current strength information for the HPS is preliminary.
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5.5.3.3 Programmable IOE Delay
You can activate the programmable IOE delays to ensure zero hold times, minimize
setup times, or increase clock-to-output times. This feature helps read and write
timing margins because it minimizes the uncertainties between signals in the bus.
Each pin can have a different input delay from pin-to-input register or a delay from
output register-to-output pin values to ensure that the signals within a bus have the
same delay going into or out of the device.
•
In the output and OE paths, there are the output and OE delays which have 50 ps
incremental delays and a maximum delay of 800 ps.
•
In the input paths, there are two input delay chains with incremental delays of 50
ps and a maximum delay of 3.2 ns.
For more information about the programmable IOE delay specifications, refer to the
device datasheet.
Related Links
Programmable IOE Delay
5.5.3.4 Programmable Open-Drain Output
An open-drain output provides a high-impedance state on output when logic-to-pin is
high. If logic-to-pin is low, output is low.
You can attach several open-drain output to a wire. This connection type is like a
logical OR function and is commonly called an active-low wired-OR circuit. If at least
one of the outputs is in logic 0 state (active), the circuit sinks the current and brings
the line to low voltage.
You can use open-drain output if you are connecting multiple devices to a bus. For
example, you can use the open-drain output for system-level control signals that can
be asserted by any device or as an interrupt.
You can enable the open-drain output assignment using one these methods:
•
Design the tristate buffer using OPNDRN primitive.
•
Turn on the Auto Open-Drain Pins option in the Quartus Prime software.
Although you can design open-drain output without enabling the option assignment,
you will not be using the open-drain output feature of the I/O buffer. The open-drain
output feature in the I/O buffer provides you the best propagation delay from OE to
output.
5.5.3.5 Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The VOD setting and the output impedance of the driver set the output current limit of
a high-speed transmission signal. At a high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast
enough to reach the full VOD level before the next edge, producing pattern-dependent
jitter. With pre-emphasis, the output current is boosted momentarily during switching
to increase the output slew rate.
Pre-emphasis increases the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the output
signal, and thus helps to compensate for the frequency-dependent attenuation along
the transmission line. The overshoot introduced by the extra current happens only
during a change of state switching to increase the output slew rate and does not ring,
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
unlike the overshoot caused by signal reflection. The amount of pre-emphasis required
depends on the attenuation of the high-frequency component along the transmission
line.
Figure 82.
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This figure shows the LVDS output with pre-emphasis.
Voltage boost
from pre-emphasis
OUT
VP
VOD
OUT
Table 51.
VP
Differential output
voltage (peak–peak)
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This table lists the assignment name for programmable pre-emphasis and its possible values in the Quartus
Prime software Assignment Editor.
Assignment
Field
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Pre-emphasis
Allowed values
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled). Default is 1.
5.5.3.6 Programmable Differential Output Voltage
The programmable VOD settings allow you to adjust the output eye opening to
optimize the trace length and power consumption. A higher VOD swing improves
voltage margins at the receiver end, and a smaller VOD swing reduces power
consumption. You can statically adjust the VOD of the differential signal by changing
the VOD settings in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 83.
Differential VOD
This figure shows the VOD of the differential LVDS output.
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
VOD
Negative Channel (n)
VCM
Ground
Differential Waveform
VOD (diff peak - peak) = 2 x VOD (single-ended)
VOD
p-n=0V
VOD
Table 52.
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable VOD
This table lists the assignment name for programmable VOD and its possible values in the Quartus Prime
software Assignment Editor. Value "0" is available for the RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards only, and is not
available for the LVDS I/O standard.
Assignment
Field
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Differential Output Voltage (VOD)
Allowed values
0 (low), 1 (medium low), 2 (medium high), 3 (high).
Default is 2.
5.5.4 On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices
Serial (RS) and parallel (RT) OCT provides I/O impedance matching and termination
capabilities. OCT maintains signal quality, saves board space, and reduces external
component costs.
The Arria 10 devices support OCT in all FPGA and HPS I/O banks. For the 3 V and HPS
I/Os, the I/Os support only OCT without calibration.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 84.
Single-ended Termination (RS and RT)
This figure shows the single-ended termination schemes supported in Arria 10
deviceS. RT1 and RT2 are dynamic parallel terminations and are enabled only if the
device is receiving. In bidirectional applications, RT1 and RT2 are automatically
switched on when the device is receiving and switched off when the device is driving.
Driving Device
Receiving Device
V CCIO
V CCIO
2 × R T2
2 × R T1
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V REF
2 × R T1
2 × R T2
GND
Table 53.
GND
OCT Schemes Supported in Arria 10 Devices
Direction
Output
Input
Bidirectional
OCT Schemes
I/O Type Support
LVDS I/O
3 V I/O
HPS I/O
RS OCT with calibration
Yes
—
—
RS OCT without calibration
Yes
Yes
Yes
RT OCT with calibration
Yes
—
—
RD OCT (LVDS I/O standard only)
Yes
—
—
Dynamic RS and RT OCT
Yes
Yes
Yes
Related Links
•
Altera OCT IP Core User Guide
•
RS OCT without Calibration in Arria 10 Devices on page 130
•
RS OCT with Calibration in Arria 10 Devices on page 132
•
RT OCT with Calibration in Arria 10 Devices on page 134
•
Dynamic OCT on page 136
•
Differential Input RD OCT on page 137
•
OCT Calibration Block in Arria 10 Devices on page 138
You can calibrate the OCT using the OCT calibration block in any I/O bank in
the same I/O column. The I/O bank that contains the OCT calibration block
must have the same VCCIO as the I/O bank of the OCT.
5.5.4.1 RS OCT without Calibration in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 devices support RS OCT for single-ended and voltage-referenced I/O
standards. RS OCT without calibration is supported on output only.
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Table 54.
Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT Without Calibration
This table lists the output termination settings for uncalibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Device Variant Support
Uncalibrated OCT
(Output)
RS (Ω)
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
GX, SX
25/50
2.5 V LVCMOS
GX, SX
25/50
1.8 V LVCMOS
All
25/50
1.5 V LVCMOS
All
25/50
1.2 V LVCMOS
All
25/50
SSTL-18 Class I
All
50
SSTL-18 Class II
All
25
SSTL-15 Class I
All
50
SSTL-15 Class II
All
25
SSTL-15
All
34, 40
SSTL-135
All
34, 40
SSTL-125
All
34, 40
SSTL-12
All
40, 60, 120, 240
POD12
All
34, 40, 48, 60
1.8 V HSTL Class I
All
50
1.8 V HSTL Class II
All
25
1.5 V HSTL Class I
All
50
1.5 V HSTL Class II
All
25
1.2 V HSTL Class I
All
50
1.2 V HSTL Class II
All
25
HSUL-12
All
34.3, 40, 48, 60, 80
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
All
50
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
All
25
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
All
50
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
All
25
Differential SSTL-15
All
34, 40
Differential SSTL-135
All
34, 40
Differential SSTL-125
All
34, 40
Differential SSTL-12
All
40, 60, 120, 240
Differential POD12
All
34, 40, 48, 60
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
All
50
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
All
25
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
All
50
continued...
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I/O Standard
Device Variant Support
Uncalibrated OCT
(Output)
RS (Ω)
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
All
25
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
All
50
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
All
25
Differential HSUL-12
All
34.3, 40, 48, 60, 80
Driver-impedance matching provides the I/O driver with controlled output impedance
that closely matches the impedance of the transmission line. As a result, you can
significantly reduce signal reflections on PCB traces.
If you select matching impedance, current strength is no longer selectable.
Figure 85.
RS OCT Without Calibration
This figure shows the RS as the intrinsic impedance of the output transistors.
Receiving
Device
Driver
Series Termination
V CCIO
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RS
GND
Related Links
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
5.5.4.2 RS OCT with Calibration in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 devices support RS OCT with calibration in all LVDS I/O banks.
Table 55.
Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT With Calibration
This table lists the output termination settings for calibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Device Variant
Support
Calibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
1.8 V LVCMOS
All
25, 50
100
1.5 V LVCMOS
All
25, 50
100
1.2 V LVCMOS
All
25, 50
100
SSTL-18 Class I
All
50
100
continued...
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I/O Standard
Device Variant
Support
Calibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
SSTL-18 Class II
All
25
100
SSTL-15 Class I
All
50
100
SSTL-15 Class II
All
25
100
SSTL-15
All
25, 50
100
34, 40
240
SSTL-135
All
34, 40
240
SSTL-125
All
34, 40
240
SSTL-12
All
40, 60, 120, 240
240
POD12
All
34, 40, 48, 60
240
1.8 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
1.8 V HSTL Class II
All
25
100
1.5 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class II
All
25
100
1.2 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class II
All
25
100
HSUL-12
All
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
All
25
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
All
25
100
Differential SSTL-15
All
25, 50
100
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-135
All
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-125
All
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-12
All
40, 60, 120, 240
240
Differential POD12
All
34, 40, 48, 60
240
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
All
25
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
All
25
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
All
25
100
Differential HSUL-12
All
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
The RS OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer to the
external reference resistor connected to the RZQ pin and dynamically enables or
disables the transistors until they match.
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Calibration occurs at the end of device configuration. When the calibration circuit finds
the correct impedance, the circuit powers down and stops changing the characteristics
of the drivers.
Figure 86.
RS OCT with Calibration
This figure shows the RS as the intrinsic impedance of the output transistors.
Driver
Series Termination
Receiving
Device
V CCIO
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RS
GND
Related Links
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
5.5.4.3 RT OCT with Calibration in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 devices support RT OCT with calibration in all LVDS I/O banks but not in
the 3 V I/O banks. RT OCT with calibration is available only for configuration of input
and bidirectional pins. Output pin configurations do not support RT OCT with
calibration. If you use RT OCT, the VCCIO of the bank must match the I/O standard of
the pin where you enable the RT OCT.
Table 56.
Selectable I/O Standards for RT OCT With Calibration
This table lists the input termination settings for calibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Device Variant Support
Calibrated OCT (Input)
RT (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
SSTL-18 Class I
All
50
100
SSTL-18 Class II
All
50
100
SSTL-15 Class I
All
50
100
SSTL-15 Class II
All
50
100
SSTL-15
All
30, 40, 60,120
240
SSTL-135
All
30, 40, 60, 120
240
SSTL-125
All
30, 40, 60, 120
240
SSTL-12
All
60, 120
240
POD12
All
34, 40, 48, 60, 80, 120, 240
240
1.8 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
continued...
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
Device Variant Support
Calibrated OCT (Input)
RT (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
1.8 V HSTL Class II
All
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class II
All
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class I
All
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class II
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
All
50
100
Differential SSTL-15
All
30, 40, 60,120
240
Differential SSTL-135
All
30, 40, 60, 120
240
Differential SSTL-125
All
30, 40, 60, 120
240
Differential SSTL-12
All
60, 120
240
Differential POD12
All
34, 40, 48, 60, 80, 120, 240
240
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class
I
All
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class
II
All
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class
I
All
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class
II
All
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class
I
All
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class
II
All
50
100
The RT OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer to the
external resistor connected to the RZQ pin. The circuit dynamically enables or disables
the transistors until the total impedance of the I/O buffer matches the external
resistor.
Calibration occurs at the end of the device configuration. When the calibration circuit
finds the correct impedance, the circuit powers down and stops changing the
characteristics of the drivers.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 87.
RT OCT with Calibration
Transmitter
Receiving Device
V CCIO
2 × R T2
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V REF
2 × R T2
GND
Related Links
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
5.5.4.4 Dynamic OCT
Dynamic OCT is useful for terminating a high-performance bidirectional path by
optimizing the signal integrity depending on the direction of the data. Dynamic OCT
also helps save power because device termination is internal—termination switches on
only during input operation and thus draw less static power.
Note:
If you use the SSTL-15, SSTL-135, and SSTL-125 I/O standards with the DDR3
memory interface, Intel recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to
save board space and cost. OCT reduces the number of external termination resistors
used.
Table 57.
Dynamic OCT Based on Bidirectional I/O
Dynamic RT OCT or RS OCT is enabled or disabled based on whether the bidirectional I/O acts as a receiver or
driver.
Dynamic OCT
Dynamic RT OCT
Dynamic RS OCT
Bidirectional I/O
State
Acts as a receiver
Enabled
Acts as a driver
Disabled
Acts as a receiver
Disabled
Acts as a driver
Enabled
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 88.
Dynamic RT OCT in Arria 10 Devices
VCCIO
VCCIO
Transmitter
Receiver
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
50 Ω
GND
FPGA OCT
FPGA OCT
VCCIO
VCCIO
Receiver
Transmitter
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
50 Ω
GND
FPGA OCT
FPGA OCT
Related Links
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
5.5.4.5 Differential Input RD OCT
All I/O pins and dedicated clock input pins in Arria 10 devices support on-chip
differential termination, RD OCT. The Arria 10 devices provide a 100 Ω, on-chip
differential termination option on each differential receiver channel for LVDS
standards.
You can enable on-chip termination in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
Figure 89.
On-Chip Differential I/O Termination
Differential Receiver
with On-Chip 100 Ω
Termination
LVDS
Transmitter
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RD
Z 0 = 50 Ω
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Table 58.
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—On-Chip Differential Termination
This table lists the assignment name for on-chip differential termination in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
rx_in
Assignment name
Input Termination
Value
Differential
Related Links
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
5.5.4.6 OCT Calibration Block in Arria 10 Devices
You can calibrate the OCT using the OCT calibration block in any I/O bank in the same
I/O column. The I/O bank that contains the OCT calibration block must have the same
VCCIO as the I/O bank of the OCT.
You can use RS and RT OCT in the same I/O bank for different I/O standards if the I/O
standards use the same VCCIO supply voltage. You cannot configure the RS OCT and
the programmable current strength for the same I/O buffer.
The OCT calibration process uses the RZQ pin that is available in every calibration
block in a given I/O bank for series- and parallel-calibrated termination:
•
Each OCT calibration block has an external 240 Ω reference resistor associated
with it through the RZQ pin.
•
Connect the RZQ pin to GND through an external 100 Ω or 240 Ω resistor
(depending on the RS or RT OCT value).
•
The RZQ pin shares the same VCCIO supply voltage with the I/O bank where the
pin is located.
•
The RZQ pin is a dual-purpose I/O pin and functions as a general purpose I/O pin
if you do not use the calibration circuit.
Arria 10 devices support calibrated RS and calibrated RT OCT on all LVDS I/O pins
except for dedicated configuration pins.
Related Links
•
Altera OCT IP Core User Guide
•
On-Chip I/O Termination in Arria 10 Devices on page 129
5.5.5 External I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices
Table 59.
External Termination Schemes for Different I/O Standards
I/O Standard
External Termination Scheme
2.5 V LVCMOS
1.8 V LVCMOS
No external termination required
1.5 V LVCMOS
continued...
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
External Termination Scheme
1.2 V LVCMOS
SSTL-18 Class I
SSTL-18 Class II
Single-Ended SSTL I/O Standard Termination
SSTL-15 Class I
SSTL-15 Class II
SSTL-15
8
SSTL-135
8
SSTL-125
8
No external termination required
SSTL-128
POD12
Single-Ended POD I/O Standard Termination
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
Differential SSTL-15
8
Differential SSTL-135
8
Differential SSTL-125
8
No external termination required
Differential SSTL-128
Differential POD12
Differential POD I/O Standard Termination
1.8 V HSTL Class I
1.8 V HSTL Class II
1.5 V HSTL Class I
1.5 V HSTL Class II
Single-Ended HSTL I/O Standard Termination
1.2 V HSTL Class I
1.2 V HSTL Class II
HSUL-12
No external termination required
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
Differential HSUL-12
No external termination required
continued...
8 Intel recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost.
OCT reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
LVDS
LVDS I/O Standard Termination
RSDS
RSDS/mini-LVDS I/O Standard Termination
Mini-LVDS
LVPECL
Note:
External Termination Scheme
Differential LVPECL I/O Standard Termination
Intel recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best
termination scheme for your specific application.
5.5.5.1 Single-Ended I/O Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require an input VREF and a termination voltage
(VTT). The reference voltage of the receiving device tracks the termination voltage of
the transmitting device.
The supported I/O standards such as SSTL-12, SSTL-125, SSTL-135, and SSTL-15
typically do not require external board termination.
Intel recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and
cost. OCT reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
Note:
You cannot use RS and RT OCT simultaneously. For more information, refer to the
related information.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 90.
SSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of SSTL I/O termination on Arria 10 devices.
Termination
SSTL Class I
SSTL Class II
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
V TT
V TT
Series OCT 25 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Transmit
V REF
Transmitter
V TT
Series OCT 50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
V TT
FPGA
Parallel OCT
V CCIO
50 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
V REF
V REF
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
Series
OCT 50 Ω
100 Ω
Receiver
V CCIO
Series
OCT 25 Ω
V REF
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
V CCIO
V CCIO
100 Ω
V REF
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Receiver
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
FPGA
Parallel OCT
V CCIO
50 Ω
100 Ω
25 Ω
OCT Receive
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
GND
100 Ω
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
GND
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
GND
Series
OCT 25 Ω
FPGA
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 91.
HSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of HSTL I/O termination on the Arria 10 devices.
Termination
HSTL Class I
HSTL Class II
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
V TT
V TT
V TT
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Transmit
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
V CCIO
Transmitter
Receiver
V TT
FPGA
Parallel OCT
100 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Receive
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
100 Ω
Transmitter
Series
OCT 50 Ω
100 Ω
Receiver
GND
V CCIO
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series
OCT 25 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
V REF
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
V REF
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
Receiver
GND
V CCIO
V REF
100 Ω
FPGA
Parallel OCT
50 Ω
GND
FPGA
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
142
100 Ω
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
GND
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
GND
Series
OCT 25 Ω
FPGA
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 92.
POD I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of POD I/O termination on the Arria 10 devices.
POD
Termination
V CCIO
External
On-Board
Termination
Transmitter
Receiver
40 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
V CCIO
OCT
Transmit
Transmitter
Receiver
40 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Series OCT, RS
V CCIO
OCT
Receive
Transmitter
Receiver
40 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Parallel OCT RT
FPGA
V CCIO
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
Series
OCT RS
Series OCT RS
V CCIO
Parallel
OCT, RT
40 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
VREF
Related Links
Dynamic OCT on page 136
5.5.5.2 Differential I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices
The I/O pins are organized in pairs to support differential I/O standards. Each I/O pin
pair can support differential input and output buffers.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
The supported I/O standards such as Differential SSTL-12, Differential SSTL-15,
Differential SSTL-125, and Differential SSTL-135 typically do not require external
board termination.
Intel recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and
cost. OCT reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
Related Links
•
Differential HSTL, SSTL, HSUL, and POD Termination on page 144
•
LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination on page 146
•
LVPECL Termination on page 146
5.5.5.2.1 Differential HSTL, SSTL, HSUL, and POD Termination
Differential HSTL, SSTL, HSUL, and POD inputs use LVDS differential input buffers.
However, RD support is only available if the I/O standard is LVDS.
Differential HSTL, SSTL, HSUL, and POD outputs are not true differential outputs.
These I/O standards use two single-ended outputs with the second output
programmed as inverted.
Figure 93.
Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential SSTL I/O termination on Arria 10 devices.
Termination
Differential SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL Class II
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
25 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
Receiver
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
GND
100 Ω
Receiver
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144
Transmitter
GND
Receiver
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 94.
Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential HSTL I/O standard termination on Arria 10
devices.
Termination
Differential HSTL Class II
Differential HSTL Class I
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
Receiver
V TT
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
Figure 95.
100 Ω
Receiver
GND
Transmitter
Receiver
GND
Differential POD I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential POD I/O termination on the Arria 10
devices.
Differential POD
Termination
V CCIO V CCIO
40 Ω
40 Ω
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
50 Ω
Transmitter
Series OCT R
Receiver
V CCIO
Parallel OCT, R
S
T
RT
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
RT
Z 0 = 50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
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Related Links
Differential I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices on page 143
5.5.5.2.2 LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
All I/O banks have dedicated circuitry to support the true LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS
I/O standards by using true LVDS output buffers without resistor networks.
Figure 96.
LVDS I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the LVDS I/O standard termination. The on-chip differential resistor
is available in all I/O banks.
Termination
LVDS
Differential Outputs
Differential Inputs
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
100 Ω
50 Ω
Differential Outputs
OCT Receiver
(True LVDS
Output)
Differential Inputs
OCT
50 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
Related Links
•
Differential I/O Standards Specifications
•
National Semiconductor (www.national.com)
For more information about the RSDS I/O standard, refer to the RSDS
Specification on the National Semiconductor web site.
•
Differential I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices on page 143
5.5.5.2.3 LVPECL Termination
The Arria 10 devices support the LVPECL I/O standard on input clock pins only:
•
LVPECL input operation is supported using LVDS input buffers.
•
LVPECL output operation is not supported.
Use AC coupling if the LVPECL common-mode voltage of the output buffer does not
match the LVPECL input common-mode voltage.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Note:
Intel recommends that you use IBIS models to verify your LVPECL AC/DC-coupled
termination.
Figure 97.
LVPECL AC-Coupled Termination
LVPECL
Output Buffer
LVPECL
Input Buffer
0.1 µF
V ICM
Z 0 = 50 Ω
50 Ω
0.1 µF
Z 0 = 50 Ω
50 Ω
Support for DC-coupled LVPECL is available if the LVPECL output common mode
voltage is within the Arria 10 LVPECL input buffer specification.
Figure 98.
LVPECL DC-Coupled Termination
LVPECL
Output Buffer
LVPECL
Input Buffer
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
For information about the VICM specification, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Links
•
Differential I/O Standards Specifications
•
Differential I/O Termination for Arria 10 Devices on page 143
5.6 High Speed Source-Synchronous SERDES and DPA in Arria 10
Devices
The high-speed differential I/O interfaces and DPA features in Arria 10 devices provide
advantages over single-ended I/Os and contribute to the achievable overall system
bandwidth. Arria 10 devices support the LVDS, mini-LVDS, and reduced swing
differential signaling (RSDS) differential I/O standards.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 99.
I/O Bank Support for High-Speed Differential I/O
This figure shows the I/O bank support for high-speed differential I/O in the Arria 10
devices.
LVDS I/Os
I/Os with Dedicated
SERDES Circuitry
LVDS Interface
with 'Use External PLL'
Option Enabled
LVDS Interface
with 'Use External PLL'
Option Disabled
Related Links
•
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Arria 10 Devices on page 100
Provides information about the supported differential I/O standards.
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GX Packages on page 109
Provides the number of LVDS channels.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 GT Packages on page 110
Provides the number of LVDS channels.
•
FPGA I/O Resources in Arria 10 SX Packages on page 111
Provides the number of LVDS channels.
•
Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core User Guide
5.6.1 SERDES Circuitry
Each LVDS I/O channel in Arria 10 devices has built-in serializer/deserializer (SERDES)
circuitry that supports high-speed LVDS interfaces. You can configure the SERDES
circuitry to support source-synchronous communication protocols such as RapidIO®,
XSBI, serial peripheral interface (SPI), and asynchronous protocols.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 100. SERDES
This figure shows a transmitter and receiver block diagram for the LVDS SERDES
circuitry with the interface signals of the transmitter and receiver data paths. The
figure shows a shared PLL between the transmitter and receiver. If the transmitter and
receiver do not share the same PLL, you require two I/O PLLs. In single data rate
(SDR) and double data rate (DDR) modes, the data widths are 1 and 2 bits,
respectively.
2
Serializer
tx_in
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
–
DIN DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3 (load_enable, fast_clock, tx_coreclock)
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
rx_out
2
10
Deserializer
Bit Slip
Synchronizer
10
rx_divfwdclk
rx_coreclock
DOUT
DIN
DOUT
DIN
DOUT
fast_clock
2
(load_enable,
fast_clock) Clock Mux
fast_clock
FPGA
Fabric
LVDS Receiver
IOE
DIN
+ rx_in
–
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
DIN
Data
DPA Clock
dpa_fast_clock
10 bits
maximum
data width
10
IOE
3
(dpa_load_enable,
dpa_fast_clock, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (load_enable,
fast_clock, rx_coreclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
I/O PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
The Altera LVDS SERDES transmitter and receiver require various clock and load
enable signals from an I/O PLL. The Quartus Prime software configures the PLL
settings automatically. The software is also responsible for generating the various
clock and load enable signals based on the input reference clock and selected data
rate.
Note:
For the maximum data rate supported by the Arria 10 devices, refer to the device
overview.
Related Links
•
Summary of Features, Arria 10 Device Overview
•
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
5.6.2 SERDES I/O Standards Support in Arria 10 Devices
These tables list the I/O standards supported by the SERDES receiver and transmitter,
and the respective Quartus Prime software assignment values. The SERDES receiver
and transmitter also support all differential HSTL, differential HSUL, and differential
SSTL I/O standards.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Table 60.
SERDES Receiver I/O Standards Support
I/O Standard
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Value
True LVDS
LVDS
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class II
Differential HSUL-12
Differential 1.2-V HSUL
Differential SSTL-12
Differential 1.2-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-125
Differential 1.25-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-135
Differential 1.35-V SSTL
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-15
Differential 1.5-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class II
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class II
Differential POD12
Differential 1.2-V POD
Table 61.
SERDES Transmitter I/O Standards Support
I/O Standard
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Value
True LVDS
LVDS
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class II
Differential HSUL-12
Differential 1.2-V HSUL
Differential SSTL-12
Differential 1.2-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-125
Differential 1.25-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-135
Differential 1.35-V SSTL
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-15
Differential 1.5-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class II
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class II
continued...
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
I/O Standard
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Value
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class II
Differential POD12
Differential 1.2-V POD
mini-LVDS
mini-LVDS
RSDS
RSDS
5.6.3 Differential Transmitter in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 transmitter contains dedicated circuitry to support high-speed differential
signaling. The differential transmitter buffers support the following features:
Table 62.
•
LVDS signaling that can drive out LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS signals
•
Programmable VOD and programmable pre-emphasis
Dedicated Circuitries and Features of the Differential Transmitter
Dedicated Circuitry / Feature
Description
Differential I/O buffer
Supports LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS
SERDES
Up to 10-bit wide serializer
Phase-locked loops (PLLs)
Clocks the load and shift registers
Programmable VOD
Static
Programmable pre-emphasis
Boosts output current
Related Links
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
5.6.3.1 Transmitter Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
The dedicated circuitry consists of a true differential buffer, a serializer, and I/O PLLs
that you can share between the transmitter and receiver. The serializer takes up to 10
bits wide parallel data from the FPGA fabric, clocks it into the load registers, and
serializes it using shift registers that are clocked by the I/O PLL before sending the
data to the differential buffer. The MSB of the parallel data is transmitted first.
Note:
To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 101. LVDS Transmitter
This figure shows a block diagram of the transmitter. In SDR and DDR modes, the data
width is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
2
FPGA
Fabric
10 bits
maximum
data width
tx_in
Serializer
10
IOE
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
–
DIN DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3 (load_enable, fast_clock, tx_coreclock)
LVDS Clock Domain
tx_inclock
I/O PLL
5.6.3.2 Serializer Bypass for DDR and SDR Operations
The I/O element (IOE) contains two data output registers that can each operate in
either DDR or SDR mode.
You can bypass the serializer to support DDR (x2) and SDR (x1) operations to achieve
a serialization factor of 2 and 1, respectively. The deserializer bypass is supported
through the Altera GPIO IP core.
Figure 102. Serializer Bypass
This figure shows the serializer bypass path. In DDR mode, tx_inclock clocks the
IOE register. In SDR mode, data is passed directly through the IOE. In SDR and DDR
modes, the data width to the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
2
FPGA
Fabric
tx_in
Serializer
2
IOE
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
-
DIN DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(load_enable, fast_clock, tx_coreclock)
I/O PLL
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
5.6.4 Differential Receiver in Arria 10 Devices
The receiver has a differential buffer and I/O PLLs that you can share among the
transmitter and receiver, a DPA block, a synchronizer, a data realignment block, and a
deserializer. The differential buffer can receive LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS signal
levels. You can statically set the I/O standard of the receiver pins to LVDS, mini-LVDS,
or RSDS in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
Note:
To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode.
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Table 63.
Dedicated Circuitries and Features of the Differential Receiver
Dedicated Circuitry / Feature
Description
Differential I/O buffer
Supports LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS
SERDES
Up to 10-bit wide deserializer
Phase-locked loops (PLLs)
Generates different phases of a clock for data synchronizer
Data realignment (Bit slip)
Inserts bit latencies into serial data
DPA
Chooses a phase closest to the phase of the serial data
Synchronizer (FIFO buffer)
Compensate for phase differences between the data and the receiver’s input
reference clock
Skew adjustment
Manual
On-chip termination (OCT)
100 Ω in LVDS I/O standards
Related Links
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
5.6.4.1 Receiver Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 differential receiver has the following hardware blocks:
•
DPA block
•
Synchronizer
•
Data realignment block (bit slip)
•
Deserializer
Figure 103. Receiver Block Diagram
This figure shows the hardware blocks of the receiver. In SDR and DDR modes, the
data width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively. The deserializer includes shift
registers and parallel load registers, and sends a maximum of 10 bits to the internal
logic.
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
fast_clock
2
(load_enable,
fast_clock) Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
Synchronizer
+ rx_in
–
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
DIN
Data
DPA Clock
DIN
DOUT
dpa_fast_clock
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
IOE
10
fast_clock
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(dpa_load_enable,
dpa_fast_clock, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (load_enable,
fast_clock, rx_coreclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
I/O PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
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5.6.4.1.1 DPA Block
The DPA block takes in high-speed serial data from the differential input buffer and
selects one of the eight phases that the I/O PLLs generate to sample the data. The
DPA chooses a phase closest to the phase of the serial data. The maximum phase
offset between the received data and the selected phase is 1/8 unit interval (UI)9,
which is the maximum quantization error of the DPA. The eight phases of the clock are
equally divided, offering a 45° resolution.
Figure 104. DPA Clock Phase to Serial Data Timing Relationship
This figure shows the possible phase relationships between the DPA clocks and the
incoming serial data.
rx_in
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
Dn
0°
45°
90°
135°
180°
225°
270°
315°
0.125Tvco
Tvco
TVCO = PLL serial clock period
The DPA block continuously monitors the phase of the incoming serial data and selects
a new clock phase if it is required. You can prevent the DPA from selecting a new clock
phase by asserting the optional rx_dpa_hold port, which is available for each
channel.
DPA circuitry does not require a fixed training pattern to lock to the optimum phase
out of the eight phases. After reset or power up, the DPA circuitry requires transitions
on the received data to lock to the optimum phase. An optional output port,
rx_dpa_locked, is available to indicate an initial DPA lock condition to the optimum
phase after power up or reset. Use data checkers such as a cyclic redundancy check
(CRC) or diagonal interleaved parity (DIP-4) to validate the data.
An independent reset port, rx_dpa_reset, is available to reset the DPA circuitry. You
must retrain the DPA circuitry after reset.
Note:
The DPA block is bypassed in non-DPA mode.
Related Links
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
9 The unit interval is the period of the clock running at the serial data rate (fast clock).
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
5.6.4.1.2 Synchronizer
The synchronizer is a one-bit wide and six-bit deep FIFO buffer that compensates for
the phase difference between dpa_fast_clock—the optimal clock that the DPA block
selects—and the fast_clock that the I/O PLLs produce. The synchronizer can only
compensate for phase differences, not frequency differences, between the data and
the receiver’s input reference clock.
An optional port, rx_fifo_reset, is available to the internal logic to reset the
synchronizer. The synchronizer is automatically reset when the DPA first locks to the
incoming data. Intel recommends using rx_fifo_reset to reset the synchronizer
when the data checker indicates that the received data is corrupted.
Note:
The synchronizer circuit is bypassed in non-DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Related Links
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
5.6.4.1.3 Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip)
Skew in the transmitted data along with skew added by the link causes channel-tochannel skew on the received serial data streams. If you enable the DPA, the received
data is captured with different clock phases on each channel. This difference may
cause misalignment of the received data from channel to channel. To compensate for
this channel-to-channel skew and establish the correct received word boundary at
each channel, each receiver channel has a dedicated data realignment circuit that
realigns the data by inserting bit latencies into the serial stream.
An optional rx_bitslip_ctrl port controls the bit insertion of each receiver
independently controlled from the internal logic. The data slips one bit on the rising
edge of rx_bitslip_ctrl. The requirements for the rx_bitslip_ctrl signal
include the following items:
•
The minimum pulse width is one period of the parallel clock in the logic array.
•
The minimum low time between pulses is one period of the parallel clock.
•
The signal is an edge-triggered signal.
•
The valid data is available four parallel clock cycles after the rising edge of
rx_bitslip_ctrl.
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 105. Data Realignment Timing
This figure shows receiver output (rx_out) after one bit slip pulse with the
deserialization factor set to 4.
rx_inclock
rx_in
3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0
rx_coreclock
rx_bitslip_ctrl
rx_out
3210
321x
32x1
3x21
xx21
0321
The data realignment circuit has a bit slip rollover value set to the deserialization
factor. An optional status port, rx_bitslip_max, is available to the FPGA fabric from
each channel to indicate the reaching of the preset rollover point.
Figure 106. Receiver Data Realignment Rollover
This figure shows a preset value of four bit cycles before rollover occurs. The
rx_bitslip_max signal pulses for one rx_coreclock cycle to indicate that rollover
has occurred.
rx_inclock
rx_bitslip_ctrl
rx_coreclock
rx_bitslip_max
5.6.4.1.4 Deserializer
You can statically set the deserialization factor to x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, or x10 by
using the Quartus Prime software.
The IOE contains two data input registers that can operate in DDR or SDR mode. You
can bypass the deserializer to support DDR (x2) and SDR (x1) operations. The
deserializer bypass is supported through the Altera GPIO IP core.
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Figure 107. Deserializer Bypass
This figure shows the deserializer bypass path.
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
FPGA
Fabric
rx_divfwdclk
rx_coreclock
DOUT
DIN
DOUT
DIN
fast_clock
2
(load_enable,
fast_clock) Clock Mux
LVDS Receiver
Synchronizer
DOUT
DIN
+ rx_in
–
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
DIN
Data
DPA Clock
dpa_fast_clock
2
fast_clock
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
IOE
3
(dpa_load_enable,
dpa_fast_clock, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (load_enable,
fast_clock, rx_coreclock)
I/O PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
You cannot use the DPA and data realignment circuit when you bypass the deserializer.
5.6.4.2 Receiver Modes in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 devices support the following receiver modes:
Note:
•
Non-DPA mode
•
DPA mode
•
Soft-CDR mode
If you use DPA mode, follow the recommended initialization and reset flow. The
recommended flow ensures that the DPA circuit can detect the optimum phase tap
from the PLL to capture data on the receiver.
Related Links
Recommended Initialization and Reset Flow
Provides the recommended procedure to initialize and reset the LVDS SERDES IP
core.
5.6.4.2.1 Non-DPA Mode
The non-DPA mode disables the DPA and synchronizer blocks. Input serial data is
registered at the rising edge of the serial fast_clock clock that is produced by the
I/O PLLs.
You can select the rising edge option with the Quartus Prime parameter editor. The
fast_clock clock that is generated by the I/O PLLs clocks the data realignment and
deserializer blocks.
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Figure 108. Receiver Datapath in Non-DPA Mode
This figure shows the non-DPA datapath block diagram. In SDR and DDR modes, the
data width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
fast_clock
2
(load_enable,
fast_clock) Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
Synchronizer
DIN
DOUT
+ rx_in
–
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
DIN
Data
DPA Clock
dpa_fast_clock
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
IOE
10
fast_clock
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(dpa_load_enable,
dpa_fast_clock, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (load_enable,
fast_clock, rx_coreclock)
I/O PLL
LVDS Clock Domain
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
5.6.4.2.2 DPA Mode
The DPA block chooses the best possible clock (dpa_fast_clock) from the eight fast
clocks that the I/O PLL sent. This serial dpa_fast_clock clock is used for writing the
serial data into the synchronizer. A serial fast_clock clock is used for reading the
serial data from the synchronizer. The same fast_clock clock is used in data
realignment and deserializer blocks.
Figure 109. Receiver Datapath in DPA Mode
This figure shows the DPA mode datapath. In the figure, all the receiver hardware
blocks are active. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width from the IOE is 1 and 2
bits, respectively.
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
fast_clock
2
(load_enable,
fast_clock) Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
Synchronizer
DIN
DOUT
+ rx_in
–
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
DIN
Data
DPA Clock
dpa_fast_clock
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
IOE
10
fast_clock
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(dpa_load_enable,
dpa_fast_clock, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (load_enable,
fast_clock, rx_coreclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
I/O PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
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Note:
In DPA mode, you must place all receiver channels of an LVDS instance in one I/O
bank. Because each I/O bank has a maximum of 24 LVDS I/O buffer pairs, each LVDS
instance can support a maximum of 24 DPA channels.
Related Links
•
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
•
Receiver Blocks in Arria 10 Devices on page 153
Lists and describes the receiver hardware blocks.
5.6.4.2.3 Soft-CDR Mode
The Arria 10 LVDS channel offers the soft-CDR mode to support the GbE and SGMII
protocols. A receiver PLL uses the local clock source for reference.
Figure 110. Receiver Datapath in Soft-CDR Mode
This figure shows the soft-CDR mode datapath. In SDR and DDR modes, the data
width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
fast_clock
2
(load_enable,
fast_clock) Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
Synchronizer
+ rx_in
–
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
DIN
Data
DPA Clock
DIN
DOUT
dpa_fast_clock
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
IOE
10
fast_clock
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(dpa_load_enable,
dpa_fast_clock, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (load_enable,
fast_clock, rx_coreclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
I/O PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
In soft-CDR mode, the synchronizer block is inactive. The DPA circuitry selects an
optimal DPA clock phase to sample the data. This clock is used for bit slip operation
and deserialization. The DPA block also forwards the selected DPA clock, divided by
the deserialization factor called rx_divfwdclk, to the FPGA fabric, along with the
deserialized data. This clock signal is put on the periphery clock (PCLK) network.
If you use the soft-CDR mode, do not assert the rx_dpa_reset port after the DPA
has trained. The DPA continuously chooses new phase taps from the PLL to track parts
per million (PPM) differences between the reference clock and incoming data.
You can use every LVDS channel in soft-CDR mode and drive the FPGA fabric using the
PCLK network in the Arria 10 device family. In soft-CDR mode, the rx_dpa_locked
signal is not valid because the DPA continuously changes its phase to track PPM
differences between the upstream transmitter and the local receiver input reference
clocks. However, you can use the rx_dpa_locked signal to determine the initial DPA
locking conditions that indicate the DPA has selected the optimal phase tap to capture
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the data. The rx_dpa_locked signal is expected to deassert when operating in softCDR mode. The parallel clock, rx_coreclock, generated by the I/O PLLs, is also
forwarded to the FPGA fabric.
Note:
In soft-CDR mode, you must place all receiver channels of an LVDS instance in one
I/O bank. Because each I/O bank has a maximum of 12 PCLK resources, each LVDS
instance can support a maximum of 12 soft-CDR channels.
Related Links
•
Guideline: LVDS SERDES Pin Pairs for Soft-CDR Mode on page 183
You can use only specific LVDS pin pairs in soft-CDR mode. Refer to the pinout
file of each device to determine the LVDS pin pairs that support the soft-CDR
mode.
•
Periphery Clock Networks on page 75
Provides more information about PCLK networks.
5.6.5 PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices
To generate the parallel clocks (rx_coreclock and tx_coreclock) and high-speed
clocks (fast_clock), the Arria 10 devices provide I/O PLLs in the high-speed
differential I/O receiver and transmitter channels.
Related Links
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
Clocking Differential Transmitters on page 160
•
Clocking Differential Receivers on page 161
•
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
•
Guideline: Use High-Speed Clock from PLL to Clock LVDS SERDES Only on page
163
•
Guideline: Pin Placement for Differential Channels on page 163
Each I/O bank contains its own PLL. The I/O bank PLL can drive all receiver
and transmitter channels in the same bank, and transmitter channels in
adjacent I/O banks. However, the I/O bank PLL cannot drive receiver channels
in another I/O bank or transmitter channels in non-adjacent I/O banks.
•
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode on page 166
•
Guideline: I/O Standards Supported for I/O PLL Reference Clock Input Pin on page
180
5.6.5.1 Clocking Differential Transmitters
The I/O PLL generates the load enable (load_enable) signal and the fast_clock
signal (the clock running at serial data rate) that clocks the load and shift registers.
You can statically set the serialization factor to x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, or x10 using
the Quartus Prime software. The load enable signal is derived from the serialization
factor setting.
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You can configure any Arria 10 transmitter data channel to generate a sourcesynchronous transmitter clock output. This flexibility allows the placement of the
output clock near the data outputs to simplify board layout and reduce clock-to-data
skew.
Different applications often require specific clock-to-data alignments or specific datarate-to-clock-rate factors. You can specify these settings statically in the Quartus
Prime parameter editor:
•
The transmitter can output a clock signal at the same rate as the data—with a
maximum output clock frequency that each speed grade of the device supports.
•
You can divide the output clock by a factor of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10, depending on
the serialization factor.
•
You can set the phase of the clock in relation to the data at 0° or 180° (edge- or
center-aligned). The I/O PLLs provide additional support for other phase shifts in
45° increments.
Figure 111. Transmitter in Clock Output Mode
This figure shows the transmitter in clock output mode. In clock output mode, you can
use an LVDS channel as a clock output channel.
Transmitter Circuit
Series
Parallel
FPGA
Fabric
I/O
PLL
Txclkout+
Txclkout–
fast_clock
load_enable
Related Links
•
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
•
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
5.6.5.2 Clocking Differential Receivers
The I/O PLL receives the external clock input and generates different phases of the
same clock. The DPA block automatically chooses one of the clocks from the I/O PLL
and aligns the incoming data on each channel.
The synchronizer circuit is a 1-bit wide by 6-bit deep FIFO buffer that compensates for
any phase difference between the DPA clock and the data realignment block. If
necessary, the user-controlled data realignment circuitry inserts a single bit of latency
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in the serial bit stream to align to the word boundary. The deserializer includes shift
registers and parallel load registers, and sends a maximum of 10 bits to the internal
logic.
The physical medium connecting the transmitter and receiver LVDS channels may
introduce skew between the serial data and the source-synchronous clock. The
instantaneous skew between each LVDS channel and the clock also varies with the
jitter on the data and clock signals as seen by the receiver. The three different modes
—non-DPA, DPA, and soft-CDR—provide different options to overcome skew between
the source synchronous clock (non-DPA, DPA) /reference clock (soft-CDR) and the
serial data.
Non-DPA mode allows you to statically select the optimal phase between the source
synchronous clock and the received serial data to compensate skew. In DPA mode, the
DPA circuitry automatically chooses the best phase to compensate for the skew
between the source synchronous clock and the received serial data. Soft-CDR mode
provides opportunities for synchronous and asynchronous applications for chip-to-chip
and short reach board-to-board applications for SGMII protocols.
Note:
Only the non-DPA mode requires manual skew adjustment.
Related Links
•
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 162
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O
PLLs operate in integer mode only.
•
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
5.6.5.2.1 Guideline: Clocking DPA Interfaces Spanning Multiple I/O Banks
DPA interfaces that use more than 24 channels span multiple I/O banks. Intel
recommends that you feed the I/O PLL in each I/O bank of the DPA interface with its
own dedicated refclk pin. Follow this recommendation to achieve the maximum DPA
LVDS specifications listed in the device datasheet.
Related Links
High-Speed I/O Specifications
5.6.5.2.2 Guideline: I/O PLL Reference Clock Source for DPA or Non-DPA Receiver
The reference clock to the I/O PLL for the DPA or non-DPA LVDS receiver must come
from the dedicated reference clock pin within the I/O bank.
Note:
This requirement is not applicable to LVDS transmitters.
5.6.5.3 Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS
Each I/O bank has its own PLL (I/O PLL) to drive the LVDS channels. These I/O PLLs
operate in integer mode only.
Related Links
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
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5.6.5.4 Guideline: Use High-Speed Clock from PLL to Clock LVDS SERDES Only
The high-speed clock generated from the PLL is intended to clock the LVDS SERDES
circuitry only. Do not use the high-speed clock to drive other logic because the allowed
frequency to drive the core logic is restricted by the PLL FOUT specification.
For more information about the FOUT specification, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Links
•
PLL Specifications
•
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
5.6.5.5 Guideline: Pin Placement for Differential Channels
Each I/O bank contains its own PLL. The I/O bank PLL can drive all receiver and
transmitter channels in the same bank, and transmitter channels in adjacent I/O
banks. However, the I/O bank PLL cannot drive receiver channels in another I/O bank
or transmitter channels in non-adjacent I/O banks.
PLLs Driving Differential Transmitter Channels
For differential transmitters, the PLL can drive the differential transmitter channels in
its own I/O bank and adjacent I/O banks. However, the PLL cannot drive the channels
in a non-adjacent I/O bank.
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Figure 112. PLLs Driving Differential Transmitter Channels
Valid: PLL driving transmitter channels in
adjacent banks
Invalid: PLL driving transmitter channels
across banks
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
PLL
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
PLL
Diff TX
Diff TX
Bank A
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff Channel
Diff TX
Diff TX
PLL
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff Channel
Diff Channel
PLL
Diff Channel
Diff Channel
Bank B
Diff TX
Diff Channel
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
PLL
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
PLL
Diff TX
Diff TX
Bank C
Diff TX
Bank A
Bank B
Bank C
Diff TX
PLLs Driving DPA-Enabled Differential Receiver Channels
For differential receivers, the PLL can drive all channels in the same I/O bank but
cannot drive across banks.
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Each differential receiver in an I/O bank has a dedicated DPA circuit to align the phase
of the clock to the data phase of its associated channel. If you enable a DPA channel
in a bank, you can use both single-ended I/Os and differential I/O standards in the
bank.
DPA usage adds some constraints to the placement of high-speed differential receiver
channels. The Quartus Prime compiler automatically checks the design and issues
error messages if there are placement guidelines violations. Adhere to the guidelines
to ensure proper high-speed I/O operation.
Figure 113. PLLs Driving DPA-Enabled Differential Receiver Channels
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
PLL
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Bank A
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
PLL
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Bank B
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Interleaved PLLs Driving DPA-Enabled Differential Transmitter and Receiver
Channels
If you use differential transmitter channels and DPA-enabled receiver channels
simultaneously in a bank, you can interleave the receiver channels driven by the I/O
PLL in the bank with transmitter channels driven by an I/O PLL in an adjacent bank.
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Figure 114. Interleaved PLLs Driving DPA-Enabled Differential Transmitter and Receiver
Channels
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
Diff TX
PLL
Bank A
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
Diff TX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Bank B
PLL
DPA-enabled Diff RX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
Diff TX
DPA-enabled Diff RX
Diff TX
Related Links
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
5.6.5.6 LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode
The Altera LVDS SERDES IP core parameter editor provides an option for
implementing the LVDS interface with the Use External PLL option. With this option
enabled you can control the PLL settings, such as dynamically reconfiguring the PLL to
support different data rates, dynamic phase shift, and other settings. You must also
instantiate an Altera IOPLL IP core to generate the various clocks and load enable
signals.
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If you enable the Use External PLL option with the Altera LVDS SERDES transmitter
and receiver, the following signals are required from the Altera IOPLL IP core:
•
Serial clock input to the SERDES of the Altera LVDS SERDES transmitter and
receiver
•
Load enable to the SERDES of the Altera LVDS SERDES transmitter and receiver
•
Parallel clock used to clock the transmitter FPGA fabric logic and parallel clock
used for the receiver
•
Asynchronous PLL reset port of the Altera LVDS SERDES receiver
•
PLL VCO signal for the DPA and soft-CDR modes of the Altera LVDS SERDES
receiver
The Clock Resource Summary tab in the IP core parameter editor provides the
details for the signals in the preceding list.
Related Links
•
Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core User Guide
•
PLLs and Clocking for Arria 10 Devices on page 160
•
Altera IOPLL Signal Interface with Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core on page 167
•
Altera IOPLL Parameter Values for External PLL Mode on page 168
•
Connection between Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES on page 171
5.6.5.6.1 Altera IOPLL Signal Interface with Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core
Table 64.
Signal Interface between Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES IP cores
This table lists the signal interface between the output ports of the Altera IOPLL IP core and the input ports of
the Altera LVDS SERDES transmitter and receiver.
To the Altera LVDS SERDES
Transmitter
To the Altera LVDS SERDES
Receiver
lvds_clk[0] (serial clock output
ext_fclk (serial clock input to the
ext_fclk (serial clock input to the
signal)
• Configure this signal using
outclk0 in the PLL.
transmitter)
receiver)
From the Altera IOPLL IP core
•
Select Enable LVDS_CLK/
LOADEN 0 or Enable LVDS_CLK/
LOADEN 0 & 1 option for the
Access to PLL LVDS_CLK/
LOADEN output port setting. In
most cases, select Enable
LVDS_CLK/LOADEN 0.
The serial clock output can only drive
ext_fclk on the Altera LVDS SERDES
transmitter and receiver. This clock
cannot drive the core logic.
loaden[0] (load enable output)
ext_loaden (load enable to the
ext_loaden (load enable for the
•
Configure this signal using
outclk1 in the PLL.
transmitter)
deserializer)
•
Select Enable LVDS_CLK/
LOADEN 0 or Enable LVDS_CLK/
LOADEN 0 & 1 option for the
Access to PLL LVDS_CLK/
LOADEN output port setting. In
most cases, select Enable
LVDS_CLK/LOADEN 0.
continued...
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From the Altera IOPLL IP core
outclk2 (parallel clock output)
To the Altera LVDS SERDES
Transmitter
ext_coreclock (parallel core clock)
—
locked
To the Altera LVDS SERDES
Receiver
ext_coreclock (parallel core clock)
pll_areset (asynchronous PLL reset
port)
—
phout[7:0]
•
•
•
ext_vcoph
This signal is required only for LVDS
receiver in DPA or soft-CDR mode.
Configure this signal by turning on
Specify VCO frequency in the PLL
and specifying the VCO frequency
value.
Turn on Enable access to PLL
DPA output port.
Note:
This signal is required only for LVDS
receiver in DPA or soft-CDR mode.
With soft SERDES, a different clocking requirement is needed.
Related Links
•
Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the different clocking requirement for soft
SERDES.
•
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode on page 166
5.6.5.6.2 Altera IOPLL Parameter Values for External PLL Mode
The following examples show the clocking requirements to generate output clocks for
Altera LVDS SERDES using the Altera IOPLL IP core. The examples set the phase shift
with the assumption that the clock and data are edge aligned at the pins of the device.
Note:
For other clock and data phase relationships, Intel recommends that you first
instantiate your Altera LVDS SERDES interface without using the external PLL mode
option. Compile the IP cores in the Quartus Prime software and take note of the
frequency, phase shift, and duty cycle settings for each clock output. Enter these
settings in the Altera IOPLL IP core parameter editor and then connect the appropriate
output to the Altera LVDS SERDES IP cores.
Table 65.
Example: Generating Output Clocks Using an Altera IOPLL IP core (No DPA
and Soft-CDR Mode)
This table lists the parameter values that you can set in the Altera IOPLL parameter editor to generate three
output clocks using an Altera IOPLL IP core if you are not using DPA and soft-CDR mode.
outclk0
outclk1
(Connects as lvds_clk[0] to
the ext_fclk port of Altera
LVDS SERDES transmitter or
receiver)
(Connects as loaden[0] to
the ext_loaden port of Altera
LVDS SERDES transmitter or
receiver)
outclk2
(Used as the core clock for
the parallel data registers for
both transmitter and
receiver, and connects to the
ext_coreclock port of Altera
LVDS SERDES)
Frequency
data rate
data rate/serialization factor
data rate/serialization factor
Phase shift
180°
[(deserialization factor – 1)/
deserialization factor] x 360°
180/serialization factor
(outclk0 phase shift divided by
the serialization factor)
Duty cycle
50%
100/serialization factor
50%
Parameter
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The calculations for phase shift, using the RSKM equation, assume that the input clock
and serial data are edge aligned. Introducing a phase shift of 180° to sampling clock
(c0) ensures that the input data is center-aligned with respect to the outclk0, as
shown in the following figure.
Figure 115. Phase Relationship for External PLL Interface Signals
refclk
VCO clk
(internal PLL clk)
lvds_clk[0]
(180° phase shift)
loaden[0]
(324° phase shift)
outclk2
(18° phase shift)
RX serial data
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
tx_outclk
TX serial data
Table 66.
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
Example: Generating Output Clocks Using an Altera IOPLL IP core (With DPA
and Soft-CDR Mode)
This table lists the parameter values that you can set in the Altera IOPLL parameter editor to generate four
output clocks using an Altera IOPLL IP core if you are using DPA and soft-CDR mode. The locked output port
of Altera IOPLL must be inverted and connected to the pll_areset port of the Altera LVDS SERDES IP core if
you are using DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Parameter
outclk0
(Connects as
lvds_clk[0] to the
ext_fclk port of
Altera LVDS SERDES
transmitter or
receiver)
outclk1
(Connects as
loaden[0] to the
ext_loaden port of
Altera LVDS SERDES
transmitter or
receiver)
outclk2
(Used as the core
clock for the parallel
data registers for
both transmitter and
receiver, and
connects to the
ext_coreclock port
of Altera LVDS
SERDES)
VCO Frequency
(Connects as
phout[7:0] to the
ext_vcoph[7:0] port
of Altera LVDS
SERDES)
Frequency
data rate
data rate/serialization
factor
data rate/serialization
factor
data rate
Phase shift
180°
[(deserialization factor 1)/deserialization factor]
x 360°
180/serialization factor
(outclk0 phase shift
divided by the
serialization factor)
—
Duty cycle
50%
100/serialization factor
50%
—
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Table 67.
Example: Generating Output Clocks Using a Shared Altera IOPLL IP core for
Transmitter Spanning Multiple Banks Shared with Receiver Channels (With
DPA and Soft-CDR Mode)
This table lists the parameter values that you can set in the Altera IOPLL parameter editor to generate six
output clocks using an Altera IOPLL IP core. Use these settings if you use transmitter channels that span
multiple banks shared with receiver channels in DPA and soft-CDR mode. The locked output port of Altera
IOPLL must be inverted and connected to the pll_areset port of the Altera LVDS SERDES IP core if you are
using DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Parameter
outclk0
(Connects as
lvds_clk[0] to the
ext_fclk port of
Altera LVDS SERDES
receiver)
outclk1
(Connects as
loaden[0] to the
ext_loaden port of
Altera LVDS SERDES
receiver)
outclk2
(Connects as
lvds_clk[1] to the
ext_fclk port of
Altera LVDS SERDES
transmitter)
outclk3
(Connects as
loaden[1] to the
ext_loaden port of
Altera LVDS SERDES
transmitter)
outclk4
(Used as the core
clock for the parallel
data registers for
both transmitter and
receiver, and
connects to the
ext_coreclock port
of Altera LVDS
SERDES)
VCO Frequency
(Connects as
phout[7:0] to the
ext_vcoph[7:0] port
of Altera LVDS
SERDES)
Frequency
data rate
data rate/serialization
factor
data rate/serialization
factor
data rate
Phase shift
180°
[(deserialization factor 1)/deserialization factor]
x 360°
180/serialization factor
(outclk0 phase shift
divided by the
serialization factor)
—
Duty cycle
50%
100/serialization factor
50%
—
Related Links
•
Receiver Skew Margin for Non-DPA Mode on page 176
RSKM equation used for the phase shift calculations.
•
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode on page 166
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5.6.5.6.3 Connection between Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES
Figure 116. LVDS Interface with the Altera IOPLL IP Core (Without DPA and Soft-CDR
Mode)
This figure shows the connections between the Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES
IP core if you are not using DPA and soft-CDR mode.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
Q
LVDS Transmitter
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
tx_in
tx_coreclk
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Q
D
ext_fclk
ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
rx_out
Altera IOPLL
lvds_clk[0]
loaden[0]
outclk2
refclk
rst
locked
ext_fclk
ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
pll_areset
Figure 117. LVDS Interface with the Altera IOPLL IP Core (With DPA)
This figure shows the connections between the Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES
IP core if you are using DPA. Invert the locked output port and connect it to the
pll_areset port.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
Q
tx_in
tx_coreclk
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
LVDS Transmitter
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
Q
D
ext_fclk
ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
Altera IOPLL
lvds_clk[0]
loaden[0]
outclk2
phout[7..0]
locked
refclk
rst
ext_fclk
ext_vcoph[7..0]
rx_out ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
pll_areset
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Figure 118. LVDS Interface with the Altera IOPLL IP Core for Transmitter Channels
Spanning Multiple Banks Shared with Receiver Channels (With DPA) Using
Shared I/O PLL
This figure shows the connections between the Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES
IP core if you use transmitter channels spanning multiple banks and shared with DPA
receiver channels, using shared I/O PLL.
•
Connect the I/O PLL lvds_clk[1] and loaden[1] ports to the ext_fclk and
ext_loaden ports of the LVDS transmitter.
•
Connect the I/O PLL lvds_clk[0] and loaden[0] ports to the ext_fclk and
ext_loaden ports of the LVDS receiver.
•
Invert the locked output port and connect it to the pll_areset port.
FPGA Fabric
D
Transmitter
Core Logic
LVDS Transmitter
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
Q
tx_in
tx_coreclk
ext_fclk
ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
lvds_clk[1]
loaden[1]
Altera IOPLL
outclk4
LVDS Receiver
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
rx_coreclk
Q
Receiver
Core Logic
D
ext_fclk
ext_vcoph[7..0]
rx_out ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
pll_areset
refclk
rst
lvds_clk[0]
phout[7..0]
loaden[0]
locked
Figure 119. LVDS Interface with the Altera IOPLL IP Core (With Soft-CDR Mode)
This figure shows the connections between the Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES
IP core if you are using soft-CDR mode. Invert the locked output port and connect it
to the pll_areset port.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
LVDS Transmitter
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
Q
tx_in
tx_coreclk
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Q
D
ext_fclk
ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
LVDS Receiver
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
ext_fclk
rx_out ext_vcoph[7..0]
rx_divfwdclk ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
pll_areset
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lvds_clk[0]
loaden[0]
outclk2
phout[7..0]
locked
Altera IOPLL
refclk
rst
5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 120. LVDS Interface with the Altera IOPLL IP Core for Transmitter Channels
Spanning Multiple Banks Shared with Receiver Channels (With Soft-CDR
Mode) Using Shared I/O PLL
This figure shows the connections between the Altera IOPLL and Altera LVDS SERDES
IP core if you use transmitter channels spanning multiple banks and shared with softCDR receiver channels, using shared I/O PLL.
•
Connect the I/O PLL lvds_clk[1] and loaden[1] ports to the ext_fclk and
ext_loaden ports of the LVDS transmitter.
•
Connect the I/O PLL lvds_clk[0] and loaden[0] ports to the ext_fclk and
ext_loaden ports of the LVDS receiver.
•
Invert the locked output port and connect it to the pll_areset port.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
Q
LVDS Transmitter
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
tx_in
tx_coreclk
ext_fclk
ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
lvds_clk[1]
loaden[1]
Altera IOPLL
outclk4
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Table 68.
Q
D
LVDS Receiver
(Altera LVDS SERDES)
refclk
rst
lvds_clk[0]
phout[7..0]
loaden[0]
ext_fclk
rx_out ext_vcoph[7..0]
rx_divfwdclk ext_loaden
ext_coreclock
pll_areset
locked
PLL Mode Setting to Generate Altera IOPLL IP Core
When you generate the Altera IOPLL IP core, use the PLL setting in this table for the corresponding LVDS
functional mode.
PLL Setting
LVDS Functional Mode
TX, RX DPA, RX Soft-CDR
Direct mode
RX non-DPA
LVDS compensation mode
The ext_coreclock port is automatically enabled in the LVDS IP core in external PLL
mode. The Quartus Prime compiler outputs error messages if this port is not
connected as shown in the preceding figures.
Related Links
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode on page 166
5.6.6 Timing and Optimization for Arria 10 Devices
5.6.6.1 Source-Synchronous Timing Budget
The topics in this section describe the timing budget, waveforms, and specifications for
source-synchronous signaling in the Arria 10 device family.
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The LVDS I/O standard enables high-speed transmission of data, resulting in better
overall system performance. To take advantage of fast system performance, you must
analyze the timing for these high-speed signals. Timing analysis for the differential
block is different from traditional synchronous timing analysis techniques.
The basis of the source synchronous timing analysis is the skew between the data and
the clock signals instead of the clock-to-output setup times. High-speed differential
data transmission requires the use of timing parameters provided by IC vendors and is
strongly influenced by board skew, cable skew, and clock jitter.
This section defines the source-synchronous differential data orientation timing
parameters, the timing budget definitions for the Arria 10 device family, and how to
use these timing parameters to determine the maximum performance of a design.
5.6.6.1.1 Differential Data Orientation
There is a set relationship between an external clock and the incoming data. For
operations at 1 Gbps and a serialization factor of 10, the external clock is multiplied by
10. You can set phase-alignment in the PLL to coincide with the sampling window of
each data bit. The data is sampled on the falling edge of the multiplied clock.
Figure 121. Bit Orientation in the Quartus Prime Software
This figure shows the data bit orientation of the x10 mode.
incloc k/outcloc k
10 LVDS Bits
MSB
9
data in
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
LSB
0
1
5.6.6.1.2 Differential I/O Bit Position
Data synchronization is necessary for successful data transmission at high
frequencies.
Figure 122. Bit-Order and Word Boundary for One Differential Channel
This figure shows the data bit orientation for a channel operation and is based on the
following conditions:
•
The serialization factor is equal to the clock multiplication factor.
•
The phase alignment uses edge alignment.
•
The operation is implemented in hard SERDES.
Transmitter Channel Operation (x8 Mode)
tx_coreclock
tx_out
Current Cycle
Previous Cycle
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
7
X
MSB
6
5
4
3
Next Cycle
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LSB
X
X
X
X
Receiver Channel Operation (x8 Mode)
rx_inclock
rx_in
rx_coreclock
rx_out [7..0]
7
6
5
4
XXXXXXXX
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
XXXXXXXX
X
X
X
XXXX7654
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
3210XXXX
Note: These waveforms are only functional waveforms and do not convey timing information
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For other serialization factors, use the Quartus Prime software tools to find the bit
position within the word.
Differential Bit Naming Conventions
Table 69.
Differential Bit Naming
This table lists the conventions for differential bit naming for 18 differential channels. The MSB and LSB
positions increase with the number of channels used in a system.
Receiver Channel Data Number
Internal 8-Bit Parallel Data
MSB Position
LSB Position
1
7
0
2
15
8
3
23
16
4
31
24
5
39
32
6
47
40
7
55
48
8
63
56
9
71
64
10
79
72
11
87
80
12
95
88
13
103
96
14
111
104
15
119
112
16
127
120
17
135
128
18
143
136
5.6.6.1.3 Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew
The receiver skew margin calculation uses the transmitter channel-to-channel skew
(TCCS)—an important parameter based on the Arria 10 transmitter in a sourcesynchronous differential interface:
•
TCCS is the difference between the fastest and slowest data output transitions,
including the TCO variation and clock skew.
•
For LVDS transmitters, the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer provides the TCCS value in
the TCCS report (report_TCCS) in the Quartus Prime compilation report, which
shows TCCS values for serial output ports.
•
You can also get the TCCS value from the device datasheet.
For the Arria 10 devices, perform PCB trace compensation to adjust the trace length of
each LVDS channel to improve channel-to-channel skew when interfacing with nonDPA receivers at data rate above 840 Mbps. The Quartus Prime software Fitter Report
panel reports the amount of delay you must add to each trace for the Arria 10 device.
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You can use the recommended trace delay numbers published under the LVDS
Transmitter/Receiver Package Skew Compensation panel and manually compensate
the skew on the PCB board trace to reduce channel-to-channel skew, thus meeting the
timing budget between LVDS channels.
Related Links
•
High-Speed I/O Specifications
•
Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the LVDS Transmitter/Receiver Package Skew
Compensation report panel.
5.6.6.1.4 Receiver Skew Margin for Non-DPA Mode
Different modes of LVDS receivers use different specifications, which can help in
deciding the ability to sample the received serial data correctly.
•
In DPA mode, use DPA jitter tolerance instead of the receiver skew margin
(RSKM).
•
In non-DPA mode, use RSKM, TCCS, and sampling window (SW) specifications for
high-speed source-synchronous differential signals in the receiver data path.
Related Links
•
Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the LVDS Transmitter/Receiver Package Skew
Compensation report panel.
•
The Quartus Prime TimeQuest Timing Analyzer
Provides more information about .sdc commands and the TimeQuest Timing
Analyzer.
RSKM Equation
The RSKM equation expresses the relationship between RSKM, TCCS, and SW.
Figure 123. RSKM Equation
Conventions used for the equation:
Note:
•
RSKM—the timing margin between the clock input of the receiver and the data
input sampling window, and the jitter induced from core noise and I/O switching
noise.
•
Time unit interval (TUI)—time period of the serial data.
•
SW—the period of time that the input data must be stable to ensure that the LVDS
receiver samples the data successfully. The SW is a device property and varies
according to device speed grade.
•
TCCS—the timing difference between the fastest and the slowest output edges
across channels driven by the same PLL. The TCCS measurement includes the tCO
variation, clock, and clock skew.
If there is additional board channel-to-channel skew, consider the total receiver
channel-to-channel skew (RCCS) instead of TCCS. Total RCCS = TCCS + board
channel-to-channel skew.
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You must calculate the RSKM value, based on the data rate and device, to determine if
the LVDS receiver can sample the data:
•
A positive RSKM value, after deducting transmitter jitter, indicates that the LVDS
receiver can sample the data properly.
•
A negative RSKM value, after deducting transmitter jitter, indicates that the LVDS
receiver cannot sample the data properly.
Figure 124. Differential High-Speed Timing Diagram and Timing Budget for Non-DPA
Mode
This figure shows the relationship between the RSKM, TCCS, and the SW of the
receiver.
Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal
Clock
TCCS
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
RSKM
SW
tSW (min)
Bit n
Timing Budget
External
Clock
Internal
Clock
Falling Edge
TUI
RSKM
tSW (max)
Bit n
Clock Placement
Internal
Clock
Synchronization
Transmitter
Output Data
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
2
Receiver
Input Data
SW
RSKM Report for LVDS Receiver
For LVDS receivers, the Quartus Prime software provides an RSKM report showing the
SW, TUI, and RSKM values for the non-DPA LVDS mode.
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•
To generate the RSKM report, run the report_RSKM command in the TimeQuest
Timing Analyzer. The RSKM report is available in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer
section of the Quartus Prime compilation report.
•
To obtain a more realistic RSKM value, assign the input delay to the LVDS receiver
through the constraints menu of the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer. The input delay
is determined according to the data arrival time at the LVDS receiver port, with
respect to the reference clock.
•
If you set the input delay in the settings parameters for the Set Input Delay
option, set the clock name to the clock that references the source-synchronous
clock that feeds the LVDS receiver.
•
If you do not set any input delay in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, the receiver
channel-to-channel skew defaults to zero.
•
You can also directly set the input delay in a Synopsys Design Constraint file
(.sdc) by using the set_input_delay command.
Assigning Input Delay to LVDS Receiver Using TimeQuest Timing Analyzer
To obtain the RSKM value, assign an appropriate input delay to the LVDS receiver from
the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer constraints menu.
1. On the menu in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, select Constraints ➤ Set Input
Delay.
2.
In the Set Input Delay window, select the desired clock using the pull-down
menu. The clock name must reference the source synchronous clock that feeds
the LVDS receiver.
3.
Click the Browse button (next to the Targets field).
4.
In the Name Finder window, click List to view a list of all available ports. Select
the LVDS receiver serial input ports according to the input delay you set, and click
OK.
5.
In the Set Input Delay window, set the appropriate values in the Input delay
options and Delay value fields.
6. Click Run to incorporate these values in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer.
7.
Repeat from 1 on page 178 to assign the appropriate delay for all the LVDS
receiver input ports. If you have already assigned Input Delay and you need to
add more delay to that input port, turn on the Add Delay option.
Example: RSKM Calculation
This example shows the RSKM calculation for FPGA devices at 1 Gbps data rate with a
200 ps board channel-to-channel skew.
•
TCCS = 100 ps (pending characterization)
•
SW = 300 ps (pending characterization)
•
TUI = 1000 ps
•
Total RCCS = TCCS + Board channel-to-channel skew = 100 ps + 200 ps = 300 ps
•
RSKM = (TUI – SW – RCCS) / 2 = (1000 ps – 300 ps – 300 ps) / 2 = 200 ps
If the RSKM is greater than 0 ps after deducting transmitter jitter, the non-DPA
receiver will work correctly.
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5.7 Using the I/Os and High Speed I/Os in Arria 10 Devices
5.7.1 I/O and High-Speed I/O General Guidelines for Arria 10 Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of
your designs. Unless noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of
this device family.
Guideline: VREF Sources and VREF Pins on page 179
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.0 V Interfacing on page
180
Guideline: I/O Standards Supported for I/O PLL Reference Clock Input Pin on page
180
5.7.1.1 Guideline: VREF Sources and VREF Pins
For Arria 10 devices, consider the following VREF pins guidelines:
•
Arria 10 devices support internal and external VREF sources. You can use the
internal VREF with calibration to support DDR4 using the POD12 I/O standard.
—
There is an external VREF pin for every I/O bank, providing one external VREF
source for all I/Os in the same bank.
—
Each I/O lane in the bank also has its own internal VREF generator. You can
configure each I/O lane independently to use its internal VREF or the I/O bank's
external VREF source. All I/O pins in the same I/O lane will use the same VREF
source.
•
You can place any combination of input, output, or bidirectional pins near VREF
pins. There is no VREF pin placement restriction.
•
The VREF pins are dedicated for single-ended I/O standards. You cannot use the
VREF pins as user I/Os.
For more information about pin capacitance of the VREF pins, refer to the device
datasheet.
Related Links
•
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Arria 10Devices on page 102
•
Pin Capacitance
•
Single-Ended I/O Standards Specifications
•
Single-Ended SSTL, HSTL, and HSUL I/O Reference Voltage Specifications
•
Single-Ended SSTL, HSTL, and HSUL I/O Standards Signal Specifications
•
I/O Bank Architecture in Arria 10 Devices on page 121
In each I/O bank, there are four I/O lanes with 12 I/O pins in each lane. Other
than the I/O lanes, each I/O bank also contains dedicated circuitries including
the I/O PLL, DPA block, SERDES, hard memory controller, and I/O sequencer.
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5.7.1.2 Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.0 V
Interfacing
To ensure device reliability and proper operation when you use the device for 3.0 V
I/O interfacing, do not violate the absolute maximum ratings of the device. For more
information about absolute maximum rating and maximum allowed overshoot during
transitions, refer to the device datasheet.
Tip:
Perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to make sure the overshoot and undershoot
voltages are within the specifications.
Single-Ended Transmitter Application
If you use the Arria 10 device as a transmitter, use slow slew-rate and series
termination to limit the overshoot and undershoot at the I/O pins. Transmission line
effects that cause large voltage deviations at the receiver are associated with an
impedance mismatch between the driver and the transmission lines. By matching the
impedance of the driver to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, you
can significantly reduce overshoot voltage. You can use a series termination resistor
placed physically close to the driver to match the total driver impedance to the
transmission line impedance.
Single-Ended Receiver Application
If you use the Arria 10 device as a receiver, use an external clamping diode to limit
the overshoot and undershoot voltage at the I/O pins.
The 3.0 V I/O standard is supported using the bank supply voltage (VCCIO) at 3.0 V
and a VCCPT voltage of 1.8 V. In this method, the clamping diode can sufficiently clamp
overshoot voltage to within the DC and AC input voltage specifications. The clamped
voltage is expressed as the sum of the VCCIO and the diode forward voltage.
Related Links
•
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Arria 10Devices on page 102
•
Absolute Maximum Ratings
•
Maximum Allowed Overshoot and Undershoot Voltage
5.7.1.3 Guideline: I/O Standards Supported for I/O PLL Reference Clock Input
Pin
The I/O PLL reference clock (REFCLK) input pin supports the following I/O standards
only:
•
Single-ended I/O standards
•
LVDS
Arria 10 devices support Differential HSTL and Differential SSTL input operation using
LVDS input buffers. To support the electrical specifications of Differential HSTL or
Differential SSTL signaling, assign the LVDS I/O standard to the REFCLK pin in the
Quartus Prime software.
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5.7.2 Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O
Standards
Each I/O bank can simultaneously support multiple I/O standards. The following
sections provide guidelines for mixing non-voltage-referenced and voltage-referenced
I/O standards in the devices.
5.7.2.1 Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
An I/O bank can simultaneously support any number of input signals with different I/O
standard assignments if the I/O standards support the VCCIO level of the I/O bank.
For output signals, a single I/O bank supports non-voltage-referenced output signals
that drive at the same voltage as VCCIO. Because an I/O bank can only have one VCCIO
value, it can only drive out the value for non-voltage-referenced signals.
For example, an I/O bank with a 2.5 V VCCIO setting can support 2.5 V standard inputs
and outputs, and 3.0 V LVCMOS inputs only.
5.7.2.2 Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
To accommodate voltage-referenced I/O standards:
•
Each Arria 10 FPGA I/O bank contains a dedicated VREF pin.
•
Each bank can have only a single VCCIO voltage level and a single voltage
reference (VREF) level.
The voltage-referenced input buffer is powered by VCCPT. Therefore, an I/O bank
featuring single-ended or differential standards can support different voltagereferenced standards under the following conditions:
•
The VREF are the same levels.
•
On-chip parallel termination (RT OCT) is disabled.
If you enable RT OCT, the voltage for the input standard and the VCCIO of the bank
must match.
This feature allows you to place voltage-referenced input signals in an I/O bank with a
VCCIO of 2.5 V or below. For example, you can place HSTL-15 input pins in an I/O bank
with 2.5 V VCCIO. However, the voltage-referenced input with RT OCT enabled requires
the VCCIO of the I/O bank to match the voltage of the input standard. RT OCT cannot
be supported for the HSTL-15 I/O standard when VCCIO is 2.5 V.
5.7.2.3 Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage Referenced I/O Standards
An I/O bank can support voltage-referenced and non-voltage-referenced pins by
applying each of the rule sets individually.
Examples:
•
An I/O bank can support SSTL-18 inputs and outputs, and 1.8 V inputs and
outputs with a 1.8 V VCCIO and a 0.9 V VREF.
•
An I/O bank can support 1.5 V standards, 1.8 V inputs (but not outputs), and
1.5 V HSTL I/O standards with a 1.5 V VCCIO and 0.75 V VREF.
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5.7.3 Guideline: Do Not Drive I/O Pins During Power Sequencing
The Arria 10 I/O buffers are powered by VCC, VCCPT, and VCCIO.
Because the Arria 10 devices do not support hot socketing, do not drive the I/O pins
externally during power up and power down. This includes all I/O pins including FPGA
and HPS I/Os. Adhere to this guideline to:
•
Avoid excess I/O pin current:
—
Excess I/O pin current affects the device's lifetime and reliability.
—
Excess current on the 3 V I/O pins can damage the Arria 10 device.
•
Achieve minimum current draw and avoid I/O glitch during power up or power
down.
•
Avoid permanent damage on the 3 V I/O buffers in 2.5 V or 3 V operation.
Related Links
Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences on page 315
Arria 10 devices require power-up and power-down sequences. The power
sequence is divided into three power groups.
5.7.4 Guideline: Using the I/O Pins in HPS Shared I/O Banks
In Arria 10 SX devices, modular I/O banks 2K, 2J, and 2I connect the HPS to an
SDRAM device through a dedicated HPS external memory interface.
Each of the I/O bank has four lanes:
•
Lane 3—IO[47..36]
•
Lane 2—IO[35..24]
•
Lane 1—IO[23..12]
•
Lane 0—IO[11..0]
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If you do not include any HPS external memory interface in your system, you can use
banks 2K, 2J, and 2I in the Arria 10 SX device as FPGA GPIOs.
If you include an HPS external memory interface in your system, adhere to these
guidelines if you want to use the unused pins in banks 2K, 2J, and 2I for FPGA GPIOs:
•
•
Bank 2K is used for SDRAM ECC, and address and command signals:
—
Lane 3 is used for SDRAM ECC signals. You can use the remaining pins in this
lane for FPGA inputs only.
—
Lanes 2, 1, and 0 are used for SDRAM address and command signals. You can
use the remaining pins in these lanes for FPGA inputs and outputs.
Bank 2J is used for SDRAM data signals [31..0] and bank 2I is used for SDRAM
data signals [63..32].
—
16 bits data width—two lanes of bank 2J is used for data. You can use the
remaining pins in these two data lanes as FPGA inputs only. You can use the
pins in the other two lanes of bank 2J, and all lanes of bank 2I as FPGA inputs
or outputs.
—
32 bits data width—you can use the remaining pins in all lanes of bank 2J as
FPGA inputs only. You can use the pins in all lanes of bank 2I as FPGA inputs
and outputs.
—
64 bits data width—you can use the remaining pins in all lanes of banks 2J and
2I as FPGA inputs only.
5.7.5 Guideline: Maximum DC Current Restrictions
There are no restrictions on the maximum DC current for any number of consecutive
I/O pins for Arria 10 devices.
Arria 10 devices conform to the VCCIO Electro-Migration (EM) rule and IR drop targets
for all I/O standard drive strength settings—ensuring reliability over the lifetime of the
devices.
5.7.6 Guideline: Altera LVDS SERDES IP Core Instantiation
In DPA or soft-CDR mode, you can instantiate only one Altera LVDS SERDES IP core
instance for each I/O bank.
Related Links
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX Devices on page 112
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT Devices on page 115
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX Devices on page 116
5.7.7 Guideline: LVDS SERDES Pin Pairs for Soft-CDR Mode
You can use only specific LVDS pin pairs in soft-CDR mode. Refer to the pinout file of
each device to determine the LVDS pin pairs that support the soft-CDR mode.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Pin-Out Files
Provides the pin-out file for each Arria 10 device. For the SoC devices, the pinout files also list the I/O banks that are shared by the FPGA fabric and the HPS.
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•
Soft-CDR Mode on page 159
•
Periphery Clock Networks on page 75
Provides more information about PCLK networks.
5.7.8 Guideline: Minimizing High Jitter Impact on Arria 10 GPIO
Performance
In your Arria 10 design flow, follow these guidelines to minimize undesired jitter
impact on the GPIO performance.
•
Perform power delivery network analysis using Intel PDN tool 2.0. This analysis
helps you to design a robust and efficient power delivery networks with the
necessary decoupling capacitors. Use the Arria 10 Early Power Estimator (EPE) to
determine the current requirements for VCC and other power supplies. Perform the
PDN analysis based on the current requirements of all the power supply rails
especially the VCC power rail.
•
Use voltage regulator with remote sensor pins to compensate for the DC IR drop
associated with the PCB and device package from the VCC power supply while
maintaining the core performance. For more details about the connection guideline
for the differential remote sensor pins for VCC power, refer to the pin connection
guidelines.
•
The input clock jitter must comply with the Arria 10 PLL input clock cycle-to-cycle
jitter specification to produce low PLL output clock jitter. You must supply a clean
clock source with jitter of less than 120 ps. For details about the recommended
operating conditions, refer to the PLL specifications in the device datasheet.
•
Use dedicated PLL clock output pin to transmit clock signals for better jitter
performance. The I/O PLL in each I/O bank supports two dedicated clock output
pins. You can use the PLL dedicated clock output pin as a reference clock source
for the FPGA. For optimum jitter performance, supply an external clean clock
source. For details about the jitter specifications for the PLL dedicated clock output
pin, refer to the device datasheet.
•
If the GPIO is operating at a frequency higher than 250 MHz, use terminated I/O
standards. SSTL, HSTL, POD and HSUL I/O standards are terminated I/O
standards. Intel recommends that you use the HSUL I/O standard for shorter trace
or interconnect with a reference length of less than two inches.
•
Implement the GPIO or source synchronous I/O interface using the Altera PHYLite
for Parallel Interfaces IP core. Intel recommends that you use the Altera PHYLite
for Parallel Interfaces IP core if you cannot close the timing for the GPIO or
source-synchronous I/O interface for data rates of more than 200 Mbps. For
guidelines to migrate your design from the Altera GPIO IP core to the Altera
PHYLite for Parallel Interfaces IP core, refer to the related information.
•
Use the small periphery clock (SPCLK) network. The SPCLK network is designed
for high speed I/O interfaces and provides the smallest insertion delay. The
following list ranks the clock insertion delays for the clock networks, from the
largest to the smallest:
—
Global clock network (GCLK)
—
Regional clock network (RCLK)
—
Large periphery clock network (LPCLK)
— SPCLK
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Related Links
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
•
GPIO to PHYLite Design Migration Guidelines
5.7.9 Guideline: Usage of I/O Bank 2A for External Memory Interfaces
Other than for general purpose I/O usages, Arria 10 devices also use I/O bank 2A for
operations related to device configuration. Because of the configuration-related usage,
there are several guidelines that you must follow to use I/O bank 2A for external
memory interfaces.
•
Do not use I/O bank 2A's pins that are required for configuration-related
operations as external memory interface pins, even after configuration is
complete. For example:
—
Pins that are used for the Fast Passive Parallel (FPP) configuration bus
—
Pins that are used for Partial Reconfiguration control signals
•
Ensure that the external memory interface I/O voltage is compatible with the
configuration I/O voltage.
•
Run the Quartus Prime Fitter to determine if the placement of pins for external
memory interfaces in your device is valid.
For more information about the configuration pins, refer to the "Configuration
Function" column in the pin-out file for your device.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Pin-Out Files
Provides the pin-out file for each Arria 10 device. For the SoC devices, the pinout files also list the I/O banks that are shared by the FPGA fabric and the HPS.
•
Configuration Schemes on page 225
•
Device Configuration Pins on page 255
•
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins on page 256
•
Memory Interfaces Support in Arria 10 Device Packages on page 194
5.8 Document Revision History
Date
May 2017
Version
2017.05.08
Changes
•
•
•
•
March 2017
2017.03.15
Updated the vertical migration table to remove vertical migration between
Arria 10 GX and Arria 10 SX device variants.
Updated the topic about the LVDS interface with external PLL mode to
clarify that the Clock Resource Summary tab in the IP core parameter
editor provides the details for the signals required from the IP core.
Updated the table that lists the programmable IOE features supported by
the I/O buffer types and I/O standards.
Removed all "Preliminary" marks.
Rebranded as Intel.
continued...
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Date
October 2016
Version
2016.10.31
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
June 13
2016.06.13
•
•
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
December 2015
2015.12.14
•
•
•
•
•
Added information about the default predefined current strength if you do
not specifically assign a current strength in the Quartus Prime software.
Updated the topic about OCT calibration block to verify that you can
calibrate the OCT using OCT calibration block in any I/O bank of the same
I/O column.
Removed the F36 package from the Arria 10 GX device family variant.
Updated the topic about receiver skew margin for non-DPA mode to clarify
TCCS and RCCS usage in calculating the RSKM value.
Updated the guideline about not driving the I/O pins during power
sequencing to stress that excess I/O pin current can affect device
reliability and damage the device.
Updated the I/O vertical migration figure to add the KF40 package for the
SX 570 and SX 660 devices.
Updated the table listing the I/O standards voltage levels to add 2.5 V
input to 3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS, and 3.0 V input to 2.5 V LVCMOS.
Removed the NF40 and UF45 packages from the Arria 10 GT device family
variant.
Corrected the modular I/O banks information for the Arria 10 GT 1150
device by updating the package from NF45 to SF45.
Updated the tables listing the I/O standards to clarify Class I and Class II
support for SSTL-12, SSTL-125, SSTL-135, Differential SSTL-12,
Differential SSTL-125, and Differential SSTL-135 I/O standards.
Corrected the table listing programmable IOE features to remove
differential output voltage support for 3 V I/O banks.
Updated the list of programmable current strengths to add support for
SSTL-135, SSTL-125, SSTL-12, POD-12, Differential SSTL-135, Differential
SSTL-125, Differential SSTL-12, and Differential POD12 I/O standards.
Added 120 Ω OCT option for SSTL-12 and Differential SSTL-12 I/O
standards.
Added guideline about clocking DPA interfaces that use more than 24
channels.
Added guideline about the I/O PLL reference clock source.
Added guideline about the I/O standards supported for the I/O PLL
reference clock input pin.
Added guideline about using I/O pins in the HPS shared I/O banks.
Updated the maximum DC current restrictions guideline topic to specify
that there are no restrictions for any number of consecutive I/O pins.
Updated the topics about using the LVDS interface with external PLL
mode. The update adds examples and connection diagrams for using
transmitter channels that span multiple banks and shared with receiver
channels in DPA and soft-CDR modes.
Removed the restriction of using I/O bank 2A for external memory
interfaces and added guidelines for using I/O bank 2A for external
memory interfaces.
Updated the table listing the I/O standards voltage support to remove
3.0 V VCCIO input from the 2.5 V I/O standard.
Updated the topic about MultiVolt I/O interface to update VCCP to VCC.
Corrected the I/O standards supported for the open-drain output, bushold, and weak pull-up resistor features in the table summarizing the
programmable IOE features.
Updated the topic about the data realignment block (bit slip) to specify
that valid data is available four parallel clock cycles after the rising edge of
rx_bitslip_ctrl. Previously, valid data is available after two parallel
clock cycles.
Updated the topic about external I/O termination for devices to add
footnotes about using OCT for SSTL-12 and Differential SSTL-12 I/O
standards, and note about recommendation to perform IBIS or SPICE
simulations.
continued...
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Date
Version
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated the topic about uncalibrated RS OCT:
— Updated the RS values of SSTL-15 to remove 25 Ω and 50 Ω.
— Added the Differential SSTL-15, Differential SSTL-135, Differential
SSTL-125, Differential SSTL-12, Differential POD12, and Differential
HSUL-12 I/O standards.
Updated the topic about calibrated RS OCT to add the Differential POD12
I/O standard.
Updated the topic about calibrated RT OCT to remove 20 Ω RT OCT
support and to add the Differential POD12 I/O standard.
Removed the Differential SSTL-2 Class I and Class II I/O standards from
the tables listing the SERDES receiver and transmitter I/O standards
support.
Updated the topic about the voltage-referenced I/O standard under the
guideline for mixing voltage-referenced and non-voltage-referenced I/O
standards.
Added design guideline for minimizing high jitter impact on the GPIO
performance.
Updated the following signal names:
— dpa_diffioclk to dpa_fast_clock
— dpa_load_en to dpa_load_enable
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated the topic about serializer bypass for SDR and DDR operations to
specify that the serializer bypass is supported through the Altera GPIO IP
core.
Added a footnote with the definition of unit interval (UI) in the topic about
the DPA block.
Updated the topic about the data realignment block (bit slip). The bit slip
rollover value is now automatically set to the deserialization factor.
Updated the topic about the deserializer to specify that the deserializer
bypass is supported through the Altera GPIO IP core.
Updated the topic about PLLs and clocking to correct the parallel clock
names from rx_outclock and tx_outclock to rx_coreclock and
tx_coreclock.
Updated the topic about using the PLLs in integer mode for LVDS to clarify
that the I/O PLLs operate in integer mode only.
Updated the following port/signal names:
— rx_dpll_hold to rx_dpa_hold
— rx_reset to rx_dpa_reset
— rx_channel_data_align to rx_bitslip_ctrl
— rx_cda_max to rx_bitslip_max
— rx_outclock to rx_coreclock
— lvds_diffioclk and diffioclk to fast_clock
— lvds_load_en and load_en to load_enable
•
•
•
•
•
June 2015
2015.06.15
Updated the topic about pin placement for differential channels:
— Improved clarity about PLLs driving interleaved differential transmitter
and DPA-enabled receiver channels
— Removed the note about bank placement DDIO and SDR I/Os
Updated the topic about the signal interface between Altera IOPLL and the
Altera LVDS SERDES IP core in external PLL mode.
Updated the topic about Altera IOPLL IP core parameter values for
external PLL mode:
— Phase shift of outclk0 from -180° to 180°
— Phase shift of outclk2 from -180/serialization factor to 180/serialization
factor (-18° to 18°)
Updated the definition of RSKM for the RSKM equation in the topic about
the receiver skew margin in non-DPA mode.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
Corrected label for Arria 10 GT product lines in the vertical migration figure.
continued...
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Date
May 2015
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
•
•
•
•
January 2015
2014.01.23
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated the statements in the topic about the I/O and differential I/O
buffers to improve clarity.
Updated the I/O resources information for the U19 package of the Arria 10
GX 160, GX 220, SX 160, and SX 220 devices:
— Updated LVDS I/O count from 144 to 148
— Updated total GPIO from 192 to 196
— Updated number of LVDS channels from 72 to 74
— Added bank 3A and removed bank 3C in the figures and related
modular I/O banks tables
Updated the figure showing the IOE structure to clarify that the delay
chains are separate.
Updated the modular I/Os for banks 3A (from null to 48) and 3B (from 48
to null) for the F27 package of the Arria 10 GX 270, GX 320, SX 270, and
SX 320 devices.
Added topic about programmable open-drain output.
Restructured the topic about pin placement for differential channels to
enhance clarity.
Corrected contents that specified DPA-enabled transmitter channels. There
is no DPA for transmitter channels.
Added guideline about instantiating only one Altera LVDS SERDES IP core
instance for each I/O bank.
Added guideline about using only specific LVDS pin pairs in soft-CDR
mode.
Updated the section that describes usage of the LVDS interface with
external PLL:
— Updated information about the required signals in Altera IOPLL and
Altera LVDS SERDES IP cores.
— Updated the examples of parameter values to generate output clocks
using Altera IOPLL IP core.
— Updated the LVDS clock phase relationship diagram for external PLL
interface signals.
— Updated the diagrams that show the connections between Altera IOPLL
and Altera LVDS SERDES IP cores.
Added footnote to clarify that you can use pre-emphasis for LVDS and
POD12 I/O standards. The POD12 I/O standard supports DDR4.
Updated description of the 3 V I/O bank regarding support for
programmable IOE features.
Added statement to clarify that apart from FPGA I/O buffers, the Arria 10
SoC devices also contains HPS I/O buffers with different I/O standards
support.
Separated I/O bank 2A in each I/O banks location figures to signify that it
is not consecutive with other I/O banks.
Updated LVDS I/O and SERDES circuitry descriptions to clarify that each
LVDS channel have built-in transmit SERDES and receive SERDES.
Removed reference to on-chip clamping diode. Arria 10 devices do not
have on-chip clamping diode. Use an external clamping diode where
applicable.
Added a related information link to the Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User
Guide that describes the transceiver I/O banks locations.
Updated the I/O vertical migration figure to show vertical migration
between Arria 10 GX and Arria 10 SX devices.
Updated all references to "megafunction" to "IP core".
continued...
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5 I/O and High Speed I/O in Arria 10 Devices
Date
Version
Changes
•
•
•
Updated all references to "MegaWizard Plug-in Manager" to "parameter
editor".
Updated all references to Altera PLL IP core to Altera IOPLL IP core.
Updated the signal names for using the LVDS interface with the External
PLL mode:
— tx_inclock and rx_inclock to ext_fclk
— tx_enable rx_enable to ext_loaden
— rx_dpaclock to ext_vcoph[7..0]
— rx_synclock to ext_coreclock
December 2013
2013.12.02
Initial release.
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
The efficient architecture of the Arria 10 external memory interface allows you to fit
wide external memory interfaces within the small modular I/O banks structure. This
capability enables you to support a high level of system bandwidth.
Compared to previous generation Arria devices, the new architecture and solution
provide the following advantages:
•
Pre-closed timing in the controller and from the controller to the PHY.
•
Easier pin placement.
For maximum performance and flexibility, the architecture offers hard memory
controller and hard PHY for key interfaces.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
•
Arria 10 FPGA and SoC External Memory Resources
Provides more resources about the Arria 10 external memory solution.
•
External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
Provides a parametric tool that allows you to find and compare the
performance of the supported external memory interfaces in Intel FPGAs.
6.1 Key Features of the Arria 10 External Memory Interface
Solution
•
The solution offers completely hardened external memory interfaces for several
protocols.
•
The devices feature columns of I/Os that are mixed within the core logic fabric
instead of I/O banks on the device periphery.
•
A single hard Nios® II block calibrates all the memory interfaces in an I/O column.
•
The I/O columns are composed of groups of I/O modules called I/O banks.
•
Each I/O bank contains a dedicated integer PLL (IO_PLL), hard memory controller,
and delay-locked loop.
•
The PHY clock tree is shorter compared to previous generation Arria devices and
only spans one I/O bank.
•
Interfaces spanning multiple I/O banks require multiple PLLs using a balanced
reference clock network.
Related Links
External Memory Interface Architecture of Arria 10 Devices on page 210
Provides more information about the I/O columns and I/O banks architecture.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.2 Memory Standards Supported by Arria 10 Devices
The I/Os are designed to provide high performance support for existing and emerging
external memory standards.
Table 70.
Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory Controller
This table lists the overall capability of the hard memory controller. For specific details, refer to the External
Memory Interface Spec Estimator and Arria 10 Device Datasheet.
Memory Standard
DDR4 SDRAM
DDR3 SDRAM
Rate Support
Ping Pong PHY
Support
Maximum Frequency
(MHz)
Quarter rate
Yes
1,067
—
1,200
Yes
533
—
667
Yes
1,067
—
1,067
Yes
533
—
667
Yes
933
—
933
Half rate
—
533
Quarter rate
—
800
Half rate
Quarter rate
DDR3L SDRAM
Half rate
Quarter rate
LPDDR3 SDRAM
Table 71.
Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory Controller
Memory Standard
RLDRAM 3
10
QDR IV SRAM10
QDR II SRAM
QDR II+ SRAM
QDR II+ Xtreme SRAM
Rate Support
Maximum Frequency
(MHz)
Quarter rate
1,200
Quarter rate
1,067
Full rate
333
Half rate
333
Full rate
333
Half rate
550
Full rate
333
Half rate
633
10 Arria 10 devices support this external memory interface using hard PHY with soft memory
controller.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 72.
Memory Standards Supported by the HPS Hard Memory Controller
The hard processor system (HPS) is available in Arria 10 SoC devices only.
Memory Standard
Rate Support
Maximum Frequency
(MHz)
DDR4 SDRAM
Half rate
1,200
DDR3 SDRAM
Half rate
1,067
DDR3L SDRAM
Half rate
933
Related Links
•
External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
Provides a parametric tool that allows you to find and compare the
performance of the supported external memory interfaces in Intel FPGAs.
•
Ping Pong PHY IP on page 209
Provides a brief description of the Ping Pong PHY.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
6.3 External Memory Interface Widths in Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 devices can support the following external memory interface widths:
Table 73.
•
Up to x144 interfaces for DDR4 and DDR3
•
Up to x72 for RLDRAM 3 and QDR II+ Xtreme
Required I/O Banks for Interface Widths
This table lists the number of I/O banks required to support different external memory interface widths. You
must implement each single memory interface using the I/O banks in the same I/O column.
This table is a guideline and represents the worst-case scenario for these interface widths. Certain interfaces
can be implemented using fewer I/Os and will not take up the full I/O bank.
Except for DDR4 interfaces, if the total number of address/command pins exceeds 36, you require one more
I/O bank than the number listed in this table. For DDR4 interfaces, the additional I/O bank is required if the
number of address/command pins exceeds 37.
Interface Width
Required Number of I/O Banks
x8
1
x16, x24, x32, x40
2
x48, x56, x64, x72
3
x80, x88, x96, x104
4
x112, x120, x128, x136
5
x144
6
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.4 External Memory Interface I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices
The memory interface circuitry is available in every I/O bank. The Arria 10 devices
feature differential input buffers for differential read-data strobe and clock operations.
The controller and sequencer in an I/O bank can drive address command (A/C) pins
only to fixed I/O lanes location in the same I/O bank. The minimum requirement for
the A/C pins are three lanes. However, the controller and sequencer of an I/O bank
can drive data groups to I/O lanes in adjacent I/O banks (above and below).
Pins that are not used for memory interfacing functions are available as general
purpose I/O (GPIO) pins.
Figure 125. I/O Banks Interface Sharing
Sequencer
NIOS II
processor
Data pins
Address command pins (fixed)
Unused (available as GPIO)
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
Memory 2
I/O Bank
Controller
Memory 1
This figure shows an example of two x16 interfaces shared by three I/O banks.
Related Links
External Memory Interface Architecture of Arria 10 Devices on page 210
Provides more information about the I/O columns and I/O banks architecture.
6.4.1 Guideline: Usage of I/O Bank 2A for External Memory Interfaces
Other than for general purpose I/O usages, Arria 10 devices also use I/O bank 2A for
operations related to device configuration. Because of the configuration-related usage,
there are several guidelines that you must follow to use I/O bank 2A for external
memory interfaces.
•
Do not use I/O bank 2A's pins that are required for configuration-related
operations as external memory interface pins, even after configuration is
complete. For example:
—
Pins that are used for the Fast Passive Parallel (FPP) configuration bus
—
Pins that are used for Partial Reconfiguration control signals
•
Ensure that the external memory interface I/O voltage is compatible with the
configuration I/O voltage.
•
Run the Quartus Prime Fitter to determine if the placement of pins for external
memory interfaces in your device is valid.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
193
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
For more information about the configuration pins, refer to the "Configuration
Function" column in the pin-out file for your device.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Pin-Out Files
Provides the pin-out file for each Arria 10 device. For the SoC devices, the pinout files also list the I/O banks that are shared by the FPGA fabric and the HPS.
•
Configuration Schemes on page 225
•
Device Configuration Pins on page 255
•
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins on page 256
•
Memory Interfaces Support in Arria 10 Device Packages on page 194
6.5 Memory Interfaces Support in Arria 10 Device Packages
Note:
The number of I/O pins in an I/O bank and the availability of I/O banks vary across
device packages. Each memory interface requires at least one I/O bank with 48 I/O
pins for the A/C pins. I/O banks with less than 48 I/O pins can support data pins only.
For details about the I/O banks available for each device package and the locations of
consecutive I/O banks, refer to the related information.
Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x40 with ECC on page 195
Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x72 with ECC Single and Dual-Rank on page 197
Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x40 with ECC on page 199
Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Single-Rank on page 201
Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Dual-Rank on page 203
HPS External Memory Interface Connections in Arria 10 on page 204
Related Links
•
GPIO Banks, SERDES, and DPA Locations in Arria 10 Devices on page 104
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GX Devices on page 112
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 GT Devices on page 115
•
Modular I/O Banks for Arria 10 SX Devices on page 116
•
Guideline: Usage of I/O Bank 2A for External Memory Interfaces on page 185
Other than for general purpose I/O usages, Arria 10 devices also use I/O bank
2A for operations related to device configuration. Because of the configurationrelated usage, there are several guidelines that you must follow to use I/O
bank 2A for external memory interfaces.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
194
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.1 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x40 with ECC
To support one DDR3 x40 interface with ECC (32 bits data + 8 bits ECC), you require
two I/O banks.
Table 74.
Number of DDR3 x40 Interfaces (with ECC) Supported Per Device Package
(without HPS Instance)
Note:
Product
Line
For some device packages, you can also use the 3 V I/O banks for external memory
interfaces. However, the maximum memory interface clock frequency is capped at 533 MHz.
To use higher memory clock frequencies, exclude the 3 V I/O bank from external memory
interfaces.
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
GX 160
1
1
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 220
1
1
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 270
—
1
2
3
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 320
—
1
2
3
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 480
—
—
2
4
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 570
—
—
—
4
3
5
611
—
—
—
—
GX 660
—
—
—
4
3
5
611
—
—
—
—
GX 900
—
—
—
4
—
5
—
1
7
6
4
GX 1150
—
—
—
4
—
5
—
1
7
6
4
GT 900
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
6
—
GT 1150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
6
—
SX 160
1
12
112
212
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
112
112
2
12
—
—
2
12
2
12
2
12
SX 270
SX 320
SX 480
SX 570
SX 660
—
—
—
—
—
1
12
1
12
—
—
—
—
—
3
12
3
12
4
12
4
12
4
12
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
12
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
12
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
12
—
3
12
3
12
—
—
—
—
—
5
12
611 12
—
—
—
—
5
12
611 12
—
—
—
—
11 This number includes using the 3 V I/O bank for external memory interfaces. Otherwise, the
number of external memory interfaces possible is reduced by one.
12 This number includes HPS shared I/O banks to implement core EMIF configurations.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
195
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 75.
Number of DDR3 x40 Interfaces (with ECC) Supported Per Device Package
(with HPS Instance)
The number of supported interfaces shown in this table excludes the interface used to connect the HPS to
external SDRAM. Masters in the FPGA core can access the HPS-connected external memory interface via FPGAto-SDRAM bridge ports configurable in the HPS.
Note:
Product
Line
For some device packages, you can also use the 3 V I/O banks for external memory
interfaces. However, the maximum memory interface clock frequency is capped at 533 MHz.
To use higher memory clock frequencies, exclude the 3 V I/O bank from external memory
interfaces.
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
SX 160
0
0
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 320
—
0
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 480
—
—
1
3
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
4
413
—
—
—
—
4
13
—
—
—
—
SX 570
—
SX 660
—
—
—
—
—
3
3
2
2
4
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
13 This number includes using the 3 V I/O bank for external memory interfaces. Otherwise, the
number of external memory interfaces possible is reduced by one.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
196
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.2 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x72 with ECC Single and DualRank
To support one DDR3 x72 interface with ECC (64 bits data + 8 bits ECC)
single and dual-rank, you require three I/O banks.
Table 76.
Number of DDR3 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Single and Dual-rank Supported
Per Device Package (without HPS Instance)
Note:
Product
Line
For some device packages, you can also use the 3 V I/O banks for external memory
interfaces. However, the maximum memory interface clock frequency is capped at 533 MHz.
To use higher memory clock frequencies, exclude the 3 V I/O bank from external memory
interfaces.
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
GX 160
114
114
114
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 220
114
114
114
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
114
214
214
214
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
114
214
214
214
—
—
—
—
—
—
314
214
GX 270
GX 320
GX 480
—
—
214
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 570
—
—
—
314
214
314
3
—
—
—
—
GX 660
—
—
—
314
214
314
3
—
—
—
—
GX 900
—
—
—
3
—
3
—
0
4
3
2
GX 1150
—
—
—
3
—
3
—
0
4
3
2
GT 900
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
—
GT 1150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
—
SX 160
11415
114
15
114
15
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
11415
114
15
114
15
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
114
15
214
15
214
15
214
15
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 320
—
114
15
214
15
214
15
214
15
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 480
—
—
214
15
314
15
214
15
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
314
15
214
15
314
15
3
15
—
—
—
—
SX 660
—
—
—
314
15
214
15
314
15
3
15
—
—
—
—
14 This number includes using the 3 V I/O bank for external memory interfaces. Otherwise, the
number of external memory interfaces possible is reduced by one.
15 This number includes HPS shared I/O banks to implement core EMIF configurations.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
197
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 77.
Number of DDR3 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Single and Dual-rank Supported
Per Device Package (with HPS Instance)
The number of supported interfaces shown in this table excludes the interface used to connect the HPS to
external SDRAM. Masters in the FPGA core can access the HPS-connected external memory interface via FPGAto-SDRAM bridge ports configurable in the HPS.
Note:
Product
Line
For some device packages, you can also use the 3 V I/O banks for external memory
interfaces. However, the maximum memory interface clock frequency is capped at 533 MHz.
To use higher memory clock frequencies, exclude the 3 V I/O bank from external memory
interfaces.
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
1
16
116
116
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 320
—
0
1
16
116
1
16
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
16
2
16
1
16
—
2
16
1
16
2
16
1
16
SX 480
—
SX 570
—
SX 660
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
2
16
2
—
—
—
—
2
16
2
—
—
—
—
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
16 This number includes using the 3 V I/O bank for external memory interfaces. Otherwise, the
number of external memory interfaces possible is reduced by one.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
198
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.3 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x40 with ECC
To support one DDR4 x40 interface with ECC (32 bits data + 8 bits ECC), you require
two I/O banks.
Table 78.
Product
Line
Number of DDR4 x40 Interfaces (with ECC) Supported Per Device Package
(without HPS Instance)
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
GX 160
1
1
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 220
1
1
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 270
—
1
2
3
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 320
—
1
2
3
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 480
—
—
2
4
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 570
—
—
—
4
3
5
5
—
—
—
—
GX 660
—
—
—
4
3
5
5
—
—
—
—
GX 900
—
—
—
4
—
5
—
1
7
6
4
GX 1150
—
—
—
4
—
5
—
1
7
6
4
GT 900
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
6
—
GT 1150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
7
6
—
SX 160
1
17
1
17
2
17
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
1
17
1
17
2
17
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
17
2
17
3
1
17
2
17
SX 270
SX 320
SX 480
SX 570
SX 660
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
17
3
17
2
417
—
4
17
4
17
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
17
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
17
—
3
17
3
17
—
—
—
—
—
5
17
61817
—
—
—
—
5
17
61817
—
—
—
—
17 This number includes HPS shared I/O banks to implement core EMIF configurations.
18 This number includes using the 3 V I/O bank for external memory interfaces. Otherwise, the
number of external memory interfaces possible is reduced by one.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
199
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 79.
Number of DDR4 x40 Interfaces (with ECC) Supported Per Device Package
(with HPS Instance)
The number of supported interfaces shown in this table excludes the interface used to connect the HPS to
external SDRAM. Masters in the FPGA core can access the HPS-connected external memory interface via FPGAto-SDRAM bridge ports configurable in the HPS.
Product
Line
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
SX 160
0
0
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 320
—
0
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 480
—
—
1
3
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
3
2
4
4
—
—
—
—
SX 660
—
—
—
3
2
4
4
—
—
—
—
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Examples of External Memory Interface Implementations for DDR4
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
200
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.4 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Single-Rank
To support one DDR4 x72 interface (64 bits data + 8 bits ECC) single-rank, you
require three I/O banks.
Table 80.
Product
Line
Number of DDR4 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Single-Rank Supported Per
Device Package (without HPS Instance)
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
GX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 270
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 320
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 480
—
—
1
2
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 570
—
—
—
2
1
2
3
—
—
—
—
GX 660
—
—
—
2
1
2
3
—
—
—
—
GX 900
—
—
—
3
—
3
—
0
4
3
2
GX 1150
—
—
—
3
—
3
—
0
4
3
2
GT 900
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
—
GT 1150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
—
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
SX 320
SX 480
SX 570
SX 660
—
—
—
—
0
—
—
—
1
19
1
19
1
19
—
—
1
19
1
19
2
19
2
19
2
19
1
19
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
19
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
19
—
—
1
19
1
19
2
19
2
19
—
—
—
—
3
19
—
—
—
—
3
19
—
—
—
—
19 This number includes HPS shared I/O banks to implement core EMIF configurations.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
201
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 81.
Number of DDR4 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Single-Rank Supported Per
Device Package (with HPS Instance)
The number of supported interfaces shown in this table excludes the interface used to connect the HPS to
external SDRAM. Masters in the FPGA core can access the HPS-connected external memory interface via FPGAto-SDRAM bridge ports configurable in the HPS.
Product
Line
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 320
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 480
—
—
1
2
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
2
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
SX 660
—
—
—
2
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Examples of External Memory Interface Implementations for DDR4
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
202
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.5 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Dual-Rank
To support one DDR4 x72 interface with ECC (64 bits data + 8 bits ECC) dual-rank,
you require 3.25 I/O banks (three I/O banks and one I/O lane in an adjacent I/O
bank).
Table 82.
Product
Line
Number of DDR4 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Dual-Rank Supported Per Device
Package (without HPS Instance)
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
GX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 270
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 320
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 480
—
—
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
GX 570
—
—
—
1
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
GX 660
—
—
—
1
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
GX 900
—
—
—
2
—
3
—
0
4
3
2
GX 1150
—
—
—
2
—
3
—
0
4
3
2
GT 900
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
—
GT 1150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3
—
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
SX 270
SX 320
SX 480
SX 570
SX 660
—
—
—
—
—
0
0
—
—
—
1
20
1
20
1
20
—
—
1
20
1
20
1
20
1
20
1
20
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
20
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
20
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
20
—
—
1
20
1
20
2
20
2
20
—
—
—
—
2
20
—
—
—
—
2
20
—
—
—
—
20 This number includes HPS shared I/O banks to implement core EMIF configurations.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 83.
Number of DDR4 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Dual-Rank Supported Per Device
Package (with HPS Instance)
The number of supported interfaces shown in this table excludes the interface used to connect the HPS to
external SDRAM. Masters in the FPGA core can access the HPS-connected external memory interface via FPGAto-SDRAM bridge ports configurable in the HPS.
Product
Line
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
RF40
NF45
SF45
UF45
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 320
—
0
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 480
—
—
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
1
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
SX 660
—
—
—
1
1
2
2
—
—
—
—
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Examples of External Memory Interface Implementations for DDR4
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
6.5.6 HPS External Memory Interface Connections in Arria 10
You must use the Arria 10 External Memory Interfaces for HPS Qsys IP component to
connect external SDRAM to the HPS. You can instantiate the Arria 10 External Memory
Interfaces for HPS component in your Qsys subsystem in addition to the HPS Qsys
component. You must connect the HPS component's EMIF conduit to the Arria 10
External Memory Interfaces for HPS's EMIF conduit to connect the HPS to external
SDRAM memory.
The HPS memory interface is fixed to I/O Banks 2Kand 2J for x40 widths and 2K, 2J,
and 2I for x64/x72 widths. When an external SDRAM memory is connected to the
HPS, there are restrictions on the availability of unused I/O to the FPGA core in the
I/O banks (2K, 2J, 2I) utilized for the HPS memory interface.
When the HPS is connected to external SDRAM memory, no other Arria 10 External
Memory Interface IP instances can be placed in the same I/O column.
Related Links
External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 3: Reference Material - Functional
Description - HPS Memory Controller
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
204
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
More detail regarding Arria 10 EMIF Hard Processor Subsystem restrictions and
placement information.
6.5.6.1 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x40 with ECC for HPS
To support one DDR3 x40 interface with ECC (32 bits data + 8 bits ECC) for HPS, you
are required to use two I/O banks below the top 3 V I/O bank in the DDR column.
Table 84.
Number of DDR3 x40 Interfaces (with ECC) for HPS Supported Per Device
Package
This table lists the number of external memory interfaces supported for HPS only.
Product Line
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
SX 160
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
SX 220
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
1
1
1
1
—
—
SX 320
—
1
1
1
1
—
—
SX 480
—
—
1
1
1
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
1
1
1
1
SX 660
—
—
—
1
1
1
1
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.6.2 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR3 x72 with ECC Single and Dual-Rank
for HPS
To support one DDR3 x72 interface with ECC (64 bits data + 8 bits ECC)
single and dual-rank for HPS, you are required to use three I/O banks below the top
3 V I/O bank in the DDR column.
Table 85.
Number of DDR3 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Single and Dual-Rank for HPS
Supported Per Device Package
This table lists the number of external memory interfaces supported for HPS only.
Package
Product Line
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
0
0
0
—
—
SX 320
—
0
0
0
0
—
—
SX 480
—
—
0
0
0
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
0
0
0
1
SX 660
—
—
—
0
0
0
1
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
6.5.6.3 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x40 with ECC for HPS
To support one DDR4 x40 interface with ECC (32 bits data + 8 bits ECC) for HPS, you
are required to use two I/O banks below the top 3 V I/O bank in the DDR column.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
206
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Table 86.
Number of DDR4 x40 Interfaces (with ECC) Supported Per Device Package for
HPS
This table lists the number of external memory interfaces supported for HPS only.
Product Line
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
SX 160
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
SX 220
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
1
1
1
1
—
—
SX 320
—
1
1
1
1
—
—
SX 480
—
—
1
1
1
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
1
1
1
1
SX 660
—
—
—
1
1
1
1
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.5.6.4 Arria 10 Package Support for DDR4 x72 with ECC Single-Rank for HPS
To support one DDR4 x72 interface with ECC (64 bits data + 8 bits ECC) single-rank
for HPS, you are required to use three I/O banks below the top 3 V I/O bank in the
DDR column.
Table 87.
Number of DDR4 x72 Interfaces (with ECC) Single-Rank for HPS Supported
Per Device Package
This table lists the number of external memory interfaces supported for HPS only.
Product Line
Package
U19
F27
F29
F34
F35
NF40
KF40
SX 160
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
SX 220
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
SX 270
—
0
0
0
0
—
—
SX 320
—
0
0
0
0
—
—
SX 480
—
—
0
0
0
—
—
SX 570
—
—
—
0
0
0
1
SX 660
—
—
—
0
0
0
1
Related Links
•
Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the device packages such as the types, sizes,
and number of pins.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Hard Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported by the Soft Memory
Controller
Provides information on supported memory interface clock frequency per
device speed grade.
6.6 External Memory Interface IP Support in Arria 10 Devices
Table 88.
Types of Intel FPGA IP Support for Each Memory Standard
This table lists the memory controller IP provided by Intel. You can also use your own soft memory controller
for all memory standards supported by Arria 10 devices.
Controller
Memory Standard
DDR4
SDRAM21
DDR3 SDRAM
22
Hard Sequencer
Hard
Soft
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
continued...
21 x4/x8 DQ group, POD12 I/O standard, and burst lengths BL8.
22 x4/x8 DQ group and burst lengths BL8.
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Memory Standard
DDR3L SDRAM
Controller
22
LPDDR3
SDRAM23
RLDRAM
324
Hard Sequencer
Hard
Soft
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
QDR IV SRAM
—
Yes
Yes
QDR II/II+/II+ Xtreme SRAM
—
Yes
Yes
Related Links
Memory Standards Supported by Arria 10 Devices on page 191
Lists all memory standards that the Arria 10 devices support.
6.6.1 Ping Pong PHY IP
The Ping Pong PHY IP allows two memory interfaces to share address/command buses
using time multiplexing. The Ping Pong PHY IP gives you the advantage of using less
pins compared to two independent interfaces, without any impact on throughput.
Figure 126. Ping Pong PHY 1T Timing
With the Ping Pong PHY, address and command signals from two independent
controllers are multiplexed onto shared buses by delaying one of the controller
outputs by one full-rate clock cycle. The result is 1T timing, with a new command
being issued on each full-rate clock cycle.
CK
CSn[0]
CSn[1]
Addr, ba
Cmd
Dev1
Cmd
Dev0
Related Links
•
Memory Standards Supported by Arria 10 Devices on page 191
The I/Os are designed to provide high performance support for existing and
emerging external memory standards.
23 Arria 10 devices support single component x32 data using x8 DQ group.
24 Arria 10 devices support this external memory interface using hard PHY with soft memory
controller.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
209
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
•
Hard Memory Controller Features on page 212
6.7 External Memory Interface Architecture of Arria 10 Devices
The Arria 10 external memory interface solution is designed to provide a high
performance, rapid, and robust implementation of external memory interfacing.
Instead of periphery I/Os like in the previous generation Arria devices, Arria 10
devices feature columns of I/Os.
Figure 127. I/O Column Architecture
The I/O column consists of the I/O banks and an I/O-AUX block.
IO-AUX
Hard NIOS
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Bank
Controller
Sequencer
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
Related Links
•
Key Features of the Arria 10 External Memory Interface Solution on page 190
•
External Memory Interface I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices on page 193
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210
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.7.1 I/O Bank
The hard IP is organized into vertical I/O banks. These modular I/O banks can be
stitched together to form large interfaces.
Each I/O bank consists of the following blocks:
•
Embedded hard controller
•
Hard sequencer
•
Dedicated DLL
•
Integer PLL
•
OCT calibration block
•
PHY clock network
•
Four I/O lanes
6.7.1.1 Hard Memory Controller
The Arria 10 hard memory controller is designed for high speed, high performance,
high flexibility, and area efficiency. The hard memory controller supports all the
popular and emerging memory standards including DDR4, DDR3, and LPDDR3.
The high performance is achieved by implementing advanced dynamic command and
data reordering algorithms. In addition, efficient pipelining techniques are also applied
to the design to improve the memory bandwidth usage and reduce the latency while
keeping the speed high. The hard solution offers the best availability and shorter
time-to-market. The timing inside the controller and from the controller to the PHY
have been pre-closed by Intel—simplifying timing closure.
The controller architecture is a modular design and fits in a single I/O bank. This
structure offers you the best flexibility from the hard solution:
•
You can configure each I/O bank as either one of the following paths:
—
A control path that drives all the address/command pins for the memory
interface.
—
A data path that drives up to 32 data pins for DDR-type interfaces.
•
You can place your memory controller in any location.
•
You can pack up multiple banks together to form memory interfaces of different
widths up to 144 bits.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
For more flexibility, you can bypass the hard memory controller and use your custom
IP if required.
Figure 128. Hard Memory Controller Architecture
Global Timer
Command
Generator
Burst
Adapter
Timing
Bank Pool
Arbiter
Burst_gen
AFI Interface
Input Interface / AMM Adapter
Sideband
Control
Data Buffer
Control
ECC / RMW
Controller
Register
Control MMR
Read / Write Data Buffer
The hard memory controller consists of the following logic blocks:
•
Core and PHY interfaces
•
Main control path
•
Data buffer controller
•
Read and write data buffers
The core interface supports the Avalon® Memory-Mapped (Avalon-MM) interface
protocol. The interface communicating to the PHY follows the Altera PHY Interface
(AFI) protocol. The whole control path is split into the main control path and the data
buffer controller.
6.7.1.1.1 Hard Memory Controller Features
Table 89.
Features of the Arria 10 Hard Memory Controller
Feature
Description
Memory devices support
Supports the following memory devices:
• DDR4 SDRAM
• DDR3 SDRAM
• LPDDR3 for low power
Memory controller support
•
•
Custom controller support—configurable bypass mode that allows you to
bypass the hard memory controller and use custom controller.
Ping Pong controller—allows two instances of the hard memory controller to
time-share the same set of address/command pins.
Interface protocols support
•
•
Supports Avalon-MM and Avalon-ST interfaces.
The PHY interface adheres to the AFI protocol.
Rate support
You can configure the controller to run at half rate or quarter rate.
Configurable memory interface width
Supports widths from 8 to 144 bits, in 8 bits increments.
Multiple ranks support
Supports up to 4 ranks.
continued...
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Feature
Description
Burst adaptor
Able to accept bursts of any size up to a maximum burst length of 255 on the
local interface of the controller and map the bursts to efficient memory
commands.
Efficiency optimization features
•
•
•
•
Open-page policy—by default, data traffic is closed-page on every access.
However, the controller will intelligently keep a row open based on incoming
traffic, which can improve the efficiency of the controller especially for
random traffic.
Pre-emptive bank management—the controller is able to issue bank
management commands early, which ensure that the required row is open
when the read or write occurs.
Data reordering—the controller reorders read/write commands.
Additive latency—the controller can issue a READ/WRITE command after the
ACTIVATE command to the memory bank prior to tRCD, which increases the
command efficiency.
User requested priority
You can assign priority to commands. This feature allows you to specify that
higher priority commands get issued earlier to reduce latency.
Starvation counter
Ensures all requests are served after a predefined time out period, which ensures
that low priority access are not left behind while reordering data for efficiency.
Timing for address/command bus
To maximize command bandwidth, you can double the number of memory
commands in one controller clock cycle:
• Quasi-1T addressing for half-rate address/command bus.
• Quasi-2T addressing for quarter-rate address/command bus.
Bank interleaving
Able to issue read or write commands continuously to "random" addresses. You
must correctly cycle the bank addresses.
On-die termination
The controller controls the on-die termination signal for the memory. This feature
improves signal integrity and simplifies your board design.
Refresh features
•
•
•
User-controlled refresh timing—optionally, you can control when refreshes
occur and this allows you to prevent important read or write operations from
clashing with the refresh lock-out time.
Per-rank refresh—allows refresh for each individual rank.
Controller-controlled refresh.
ECC support
•
•
8 bit ECC code; single error correction, double error detection (SECDED).
User ECC supporting pass through user ECC bits as part of data bits.
Power saving features
•
Low power modes (power down and self-refresh)—optionally, you can request
the controller to put the memory into one of the two low power states.
Automatic power down—puts the memory device in power down mode when
the controller is idle. You can configure the idle waiting time.
Memory clock gating.
•
•
Mode register set
Access the memory mode register.
DDR4 features
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bank group support—supports different timing parameters for between bank
groups.
Data Bus CRC—data bus encoding and decoding.
Command/Address parity—command and address bus parity check.
Alert reporting—responds to the error alert flag.
Multipurpose register access— supports multipurpose register access in serial
readout mode.
Fine granularity refresh—supports 1x, 2x, and 4x fixed refresh rates.
continued...
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Feature
Description
•
•
•
LPDDR3 feature
•
•
•
ZQ calibration command
Temperature controlled refresh—adjust refresh rate according to temperature
range.
Low power auto self refresh— operating temperature triggered auto
adjustment to self refresh rate.
Maximum power saving.
Deep power down mode—achieves maximum power reduction by eliminating
power to memory array. Data will not be retained when the device enters the
deep power down mode.
Partial array self refresh.
Per bank refresh.
Support long or short ZQ calibration command for DDR3 or DDR4.
Related Links
Ping Pong PHY IP on page 209
Provides a brief description of the Ping Pong PHY.
6.7.1.1.2 Main Control Path
The main control path performs the following functions:
Table 90.
•
Contains the command processing pipeline.
•
Monitors all the timing parameters.
•
Keeps track of memory access commands dependencies.
•
Guards against memory access hazards.
Main Control Path Components
Component
Input interface
Description
•
•
•
•
Command generator and
burst adapter
•
•
•
Timing Bank Pool
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Accepts memory access commands from the core logic at half or quarter rate.
Uses the Avalon-MM or Avalon-ST protocol. The default protocol is Avalon-ST. You can
enable a hard adapter through a configuration register to make the input interface
Avalon-MM compatible.
The hard memory controller has a native Avalon-ST interface. You can instantiate a
standard soft adaptor to bridge the Avalon-ST interface to AMBA AXI.
To support all bypass modes and keep the port count minimum, the super set of all port
lists is used as the physical width. Ports are shared among the bypass modes.
Drains your commands from the input interface and feeds them to the timing bank pool.
If read-modify-write is required, inserts the necessary read-modify-write read and write
commands into the stream.
The burst adapter chops your arbitrary burst length to the number specified by the
memory types.
Key component in the memory controller.
Sets parallel queues to track command dependencies.
Signals the ready status of each command being tracked to the arbiter for the final
dispatch.
Big scoreboard structure. The number of entries is currently sized to 8 where it monitors
up to 8 commands at the same time.
Handles the memory access hazards (RAW, WAR and WAW) while part of the timing
constraints are being tracked.
High responsibility to assist the arbiter in implementing reordering:
— Row command reordering (activate and pre-charge).
— Column command reordering (read and write).
When the pool is full, a flow control signal will be sent back upstream to stall the traffic.
continued...
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Component
Arbiter
Description
•
•
•
•
Enforces the arbitration rules.
Performs the final arbitration to select a command from all ready commands, and issues
the selected command to the memory.
Supports quasi-1T mode for half rate and quasi-2T mode for quarter rate.
For the quasi modes, a row command must be paired with a column command.
Global Timer
Tracks the global timing constraints including:
• tFAW—the Four Activates Window parameter that specifies the time period in which only
four activate commands are allowed.
• tRRD—the delay between back-to-back activate commands to different banks.
• Some of the bus turnaround time parameters.
MMR/IOCSR
•
•
•
•
Sideband
Executes the refresh and power down features.
ECC controller
Although ECC encoding and decoding is performed in soft logic25, the ECC controller
maintains the read-modify-write state machine in the hard solution.
AFI interface
The memory controller communicates to the PHY using this interface.
The host of all the configuration registers.
Uses Avalon-MM bus to talk to the core.
Core logic can read and write all the configuration bits.
The debug bus is routed to the core through this block.
6.7.1.1.3 Data Buffer Controller
The data buffer controller has the following main responsibilities:
•
Manages the read and write access to the data buffers:
—
Provides the data storing pointers to the buffers when the write data is
accepted or the read return data arrives.
—
Provides the draining pointer when the write data is dispatched to memory or
the read data is read out of the buffer and sent back to users.
•
Satisfies the required write latency.
•
If ECC support is enabled, assists the main control path to perform
read-modify-write.
Data reordering is performed with the data buffer controller and the data buffers.
Each I/O bank contains two data buffer controller blocks for the data buffer lanes that
are split within each bank. To improve your timing, place the data buffer controller
physically close to the I/O lanes.
6.7.1.2 Delay-Locked Loop
The delay-locked loop (DLL) finds the delay setting for 9 bits delay chain so that the
delay of the chain is equivalent to one clock cycle.
Each I/O bank has one delay-locked loop (DLL) located in the center that supports a
frequency range of 800 MHz to 1.3 GHz.
25 ECC encoding and decoding is performed in soft logic to exempt the hard connection from
routing data bits to a central ECC calculation location. Routing data to a central location
removes the modular design benefits and reduces flexibility.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
The reference clock for the DLL comes from the output of the PLL in the same I/O
bank. The DLL divides the reference clock by eight and creates two clock pulses—
launch and measure. The phase difference between launch and measure is one
reference clock cycle. The clock pulse launch is routed through the delay setting
controlled by the delay chain. The delayed launch is then compared to measure.
The setting for the DLL delay chains is from a 9 bit counter, which moves up or down
to alter the delay time until the delayed launch and measure are aligned in the same
phase. Once the DLL is locked, the delay through the delay chain is equivalent to one
reference clock cycle, and the delay setting is sent out to the DQS delay block.
6.7.1.3 Sequencer
The sequencer enables high-frequency memory interface operation by calibrating the
interface to compensate for variations in setup and hold requirements caused by
transmission delays.
The sequencer implements a calibration algorithm to determine the combination of
delay and phase settings that are necessary to maintain center-alignment of data and
clock signals, even in the presence of significant delay variations. Programmable delay
chains in the FPGA I/Os then implement the calculated delays to ensure that data
remains centered.
A sequencer is embedded in every I/O bank. The sequencer is comprised of the
following components:
•
A read-write manager.
•
An address/command set or instruction ROM.
•
Helper modules such as PHY manager, data manager, and tracking manager.
•
Data pattern and data out buffers on a per-pin basis that are managed by the
read-write manager.
All major components of the sequencer are connected on the Avalon bus, providing
controllability, visibility, and flexibility to the Nios II subsystem.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 129. Sequencer
Bridge
IO48
Sequencer
IO48
Sequencer
IO48
Sequencer
Avalon Bus
Write, Read, Clock, Address[19:0], Write_Data[31:0], Read_Data[31:0]
87
Cmd_decoder
IO48
Sequencer
IO48
Sequencer
Current
Mirror
Sequencer
IO AUX
dq_out_delay
LFIFO
dqs_out_delay
VFIFO
dq_in_delay
Postamble_tracking
dqs_in_delay
Inst_ROM (128)
IO48
dqs_en_delay
x12_checker
AC ROM (512)
PHY Manager
rd pattern RAM (64)
x4
Bridge
External Memory
Interface Microcontroller
x1_checker
AC DO ROM (64)
write decoder
x48
Per bank control
Per lane control
Per I/O control
6.7.1.4 Clock Tree
The Arria 10 external memory interface PHY clock network is designed to support the
1.2 GHz DDR4 memory standard.
Compared to previous generation devices, the PHY clock network has a shorter clock
tree that generates less jitter and less duty cycle distortion.
The PHY clock network consists of these clock trees:
•
Reference clock tree
•
PHY clock tree
•
DQS clock tree
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 130. Clock Network Diagram
The reference clock tree adopts a modular design to facilitate easy integration.
2
I/O Bank
2
x16/x18 DQS/DQSB
x8/x9 DQS/DQSB
2
x32/x36 DQS/DQSB
2
2
2
13
I/O Lane
2
48
13
I/O Lane
48
I/O Center
Hard Memory
Controller and
Sequencer
Clock in pins
Splitter
2
2
2
DQS clock tree
6
x8/x9 DQS/DQSB
2
x16/x18 DQS/DQSB
2
x8/x9 DQS/DQSB
I/O PLL
4
13
2
2
2
GPIO register clocks
from core clock network
To core clock network
To core fb clock network
Core reference clock
core_clk_in[1:0]
core_clk_out[1:0]
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
13
48
6
6
6
6
48
2
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
218
Only half of the
recovered clock
connect to PCLK
ioclkin[3:0]
8
I/O Lane
I/O Lane
Recovered clock to
PCLK network
fbclk_in
DLL
2
pllcout[8:0]
pllmout
coreclk
GPIO register clocks
from core clock network
13
dll clk
core fb
lvds fb
phy_clk_phs
lvds fb
Phase Align
core fb
phy_clk[1:0]
pa_clkout
2
2
ext_clk
9
pll ccnt out
pll mcnt out
clkpin_in
4
Reference CLK
Clock out pins
cascad_out
cascad_in
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
PHY CLK
x8/x9 DQS/DQSB
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
LVDS/DPA
GPIO register clocks
from core clock network
Recovered clock to
PCLK network
Only half of the
recovered clock
connect to PCLK
GPIO register clocks
from core clock network
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.7.1.5 I/O Lane
There are four I/O lanes in each I/O bank. Each I/O lane contains 12 I/O pins with
identical read and write data paths and buffers.
Figure 131. I/O Lane Architecture
PLL
I/O Lane
DLL
To IO_AUX Avalon bus
Dynamic
OCT Control
Avalon-MM
To hard logic and core
Read
Data
Buffer
Read
FIFO
Write
Data
Buffer
Write
FIFO
DQ Delay
DDIO
DQS Delay
To buffers
Phase
Interpolator
FIFO
Control
Post-amble
Data Path Component
Per bit logic
Per lane logic
Per bank logic
Description
Input path
Contains capture registers and read FIFO.
Output or output enable (oe) path
Consists of:
• Write FIFO
• Clock mux
• Phase intepolater— supports around 5 to 10 ps resolution based on frequency
• Double data rate control
Input delay chain
Supports around 5 ps resolution with a delay range of 0 to 625 ps.
Read/write buffer
The write data buffer has built in options to take data from the core or from the
hard memory controller.
Related Links
General Pin-Out Guidelines for Arria 10 EMIF IP
6.7.1.5.1 DQS Logic Block
The DQS logic block contains:
•
Post-amble register
•
DQS delay chain
•
FIFO control
•
Multi-rank switch control block
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
DQS Delay Chain
The DQS delay chain provides variable delay to the DQS signal, allowing you to adjust
the DQS signal timing during calibration to maximize the tsetup and thold for DQ
capture.
To keep the delay value constant, the DQS delay chain also contains:
•
Logic to track temperature and low frequency voltage variation
•
Shadow registers to hold calibrated delay settings for multi-rank interfaces, and
switch the DQS delay chain setting to one of up to four different settings.
6.7.2 I/O AUX
There is one I/O AUX block in each I/O column:
•
Contains a hard Nios II processor and supporting embedded memory block
•
Handles the calibration algorithm for the entire I/O column
•
Communicates to the sequencer in each I/O bank through a dedicated Avalon
interface
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 132. IO AUX Block Diagram
IO AUX
JTAG
Debug
Core
Interrupt
Hard
NIOS
RAM
Interval
Timer
Address Wrapper
to use ECC bit for data
Avalon
Decoder
Avalon Decoder
Avalon
Decoder
Master 1
Slave 2
Configuration
Data Wrapper
Slave 1
Slave 5
Master 2
Slave 4
Slave 3
Avalon
Decoder
Avalon
Decoder
Async.
Clock
Crossing
FIFO
Avalon
Decoder
Async.
Clock
Crossing
FIFO
Avalon Decoder
Debug
Registers
CORE
SLD node
SLD Hub
Sequencer
Bridge
Calibration bus
to I/O banks
Avalon Interconnect
Generates wait
for NIOS
To
Signal Tap
To Debug Console
The hard Nios II processor performs the following operations:
•
Configures and starts calibration tasks on the sequencers
•
Collects and processes data
•
Uses the final results to configure the I/Os
A combination of both Nios II code and the sequencers, the algorithm implementation
supports calibration for the following memory interface standards:
Note:
•
DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4 SDRAM
•
QDR II and QDR IV SRAM
•
RLDRAM 3
•
LPDDR2 and LPDDR3
Intel recommends that you use the Nios subsystem for memory interface calibration.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
6.8 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
June 2017
2017.06.21
Updated the note about the memory interfaces support to clarify that I/O
banks with less than 48 pins can be used for data pins only. Therefore, all
external memory interfaces require at least one 48-pins I/O bank to place the
A/C pins.
March 2017
2017.03.15
•
•
Removed Avalon Streaming (Avalon ST) interface protocol support for
hard memory controller.
Rebranded as Intel.
October 2016
2016.10.31
Removed the F36 package from the Arria 10 GX device family variant.
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated maximum frequency for QDR II, QDR II+ and QDR II+ Xtreme
SRAM.
Updated maximum supported frequency for DDR4 SDRAM.
Removed NF40 and UF45 packages support for Arria 10 GT devices.
Added Guideline: Usage of I/O Bank 2A for External Memory Interfaces
section in External Memory Interface I/O Pins in Arria 10 Devices chapter.
Removed LPDDR3 support in HPS Hard Memory Controller.
Added HPS External Memory Interface Connections in Arria 10 chapter to
explain the restriction for using HPS EMIF with non-HPS EMIF within the
same the device.
Updated number of interfaces supported for DDR4 x40 with ECC in F36
and KF40 packages (GX 570 and GX 660 devices).
Removed note and footnote about using 3 V I/O bank to support DDR4
x40 with ECC interfaces.
Added tables to show numbers of supported memory interfaces for
Arria 10 SX device packages when HPS EMIF instances are used within the
same device.
Removed burst chop feature for DDR3 and DDR4 in Table Main Control
Path Components.
Removed DDR4 gear down mode feature in Table Hard Memory Controller
Features.
Removed DQS tracking feature in Hard Memory Controller in Table Hard
Memory Controller Features.
Removed BC4 and On-the-fly supports for DDR4, DDR3 and DDR3L
SDRAM in Table Types of Altera IP Support for Each Memory Standard.
Change supported DQ Group for DDR4, DDR3, and DDR3L SDRAM to
x4/x8 in Table Types of Altera IP Support for Each Memory Standard.
Added LPDDR3 SDRAM in hard memory controller and IP support.
Added link to Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory Standards Supported
by the Hard Memory Controller and Arria 10 Device Datasheet - Memory
Standards Supported by the Soft Memory Controller.
Added Arria 10 package support for DDR3 x32 with ECC for HPS, DDR3 x
72 Single and Dual-Rank for HPS, DDR4 x32 with ECC for HPS, and DDR3
x72 Single-Rank tables.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.15
Removed the DFI label on the figure showing the hard memory controller
architecture. Arria 10 devices do not support DFI.
May 2015
2015.05.15
Corrected the DDR3 half rate and quarter rate maximum frequencies in the
table that lists the memory standards supported by the Arria 10 hard memory
controller.
May 2015
2015.05.04
Updated the table that lists the memory standards supported by the hard
memory controller in Arria 10 devices.
continued...
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222
6 External Memory Interfaces in Arria 10 Devices
Date
January 2015
Version
2015.01.23
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated the table that lists the memory standards supported by Arria 10
devices.
Removed hard memory controller and IP support for LPDDR3 SDRAM.
Removed support for RLDRAM 2.
Updated support for QDR II+/II+ Xtreme SRAM to also include QDR II
SRAM.
Added soft memory controller support for QDR IV.
Added footnote to clarify that the number of DDR4 x32 interfaces support
for the F34 package of the Arria 10 SX 480 device includes using I/O bank
2K. If you use I/O bank 2K in a DDR4 x32 interface for the FPGA, the HPS
will not have access to a DDR4 x32 interface.
Added information to clarify that the DDR3 and DDR4 x32 interface with
ECC includes 32 bits data and 8 bits ECC.
Removed information about hard and soft portions of the Nios subsytem.
The hard memory controller IP for Arria 10 calibrates the external memory
interface using the hard Nios II processor only.
Removed hard memory controller half rate support for DDR4 SDRAM.
Removed hard memory controller and IP support for DDR3U SDRAM.
Added soft memory controller full rate support for QDR II+ SRAM and
QDR II+ Xtreme SRAM.
Updated the list of external memory standards supported by the HPS.
Updated the number of DDR3 x72 (single-rank) memory interfaces
supported for the U19 package.
Removed the note about using 3 V I/O banks for the HPS. For the HPS,
the 3 V I/O bank is not used for external memory interfaces.
Updated the number of DDR3 x72 (dual-rank) memory interfaces
supported for the Arria 10 SX devices.
Updated the number of DDR4 x32 (with ECC) memory interfaces
supported for the NF45 package of the Arria 10 GT 1150 device.
Added soft memory controller IP support for QDR II+ SRAM.
Added information to clarify that RLDRAM3 support uses hard PHY with
soft memory controller.
Updated the table that lists the features of the hard memory controller to
improve accuracy and add missing information.
Added a note before the topics listing external memory interface package
support to clarify that not all I/O banks are available for external memory
interfaces.
Moved the external memory interface pins guidelines and the examples of
external memory interface implementations for DDR4 to the External
Memory Interface Handbook.
December 2013
2013.12.10
Updated the HPS memory standards support from LPDDR2 to LPDDR3.
December 2013
2013.12.02
Initial release.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System
Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
This chapter describes the configuration schemes, design security, and remote system
upgrade that are supported by the Arria 10 devices.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the estimated uncompressed .rbf file sizes,
FPP DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio, and timing parameters for all supported
configuration schemes.
•
PLLs and Clock Networks Chapter of the Arria 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide
For more details about the need to configure unused transceiver channels when
Arria 10 devices are powered up to normal operating conditions.
7.1 Enhanced Configuration and Configuration via Protocol
Table 91.
Configuration Schemes and Features of Arria 10 Devices
Arria 10 devices support 1.8 V programming voltage and several configuration schemes.
Scheme
JTAG
Active Serial (AS)
through the
EPCQ-L
configuration
device
Data
Width
1 bit
1 bit,
4 bits
Max
Clock
Rate
(MHz)
Max Data
Rate
(Mbps)
Decompression
33
33
—
100
Design
Security2
Partial
Reconfiguration
Remote
System
Update
—
Yes29
—
Yes
Yes29
Yes
7
28
26
400
Yes
continued...
26 Enabling either compression or design security features affects the maximum data rate. Refer
to the Arria 10 Device Datasheet for more information.
27 Encryption and compression cannot be used simultaneously.
28 Partial reconfiguration is an advanced feature of the device family. If you are interested in
using partial reconfiguration, contact Intel for support.
29 Partial configuration can be performed only when it is configured as internal host.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Scheme
Data
Width
Max
Clock
Rate
(MHz)
Max Data
Rate
(Mbps)
Decompression
Design
Security2
Partial
Reconfiguration
Remote
System
Update
7
28
26
Passive serial (PS)
through CPLD or
external
microcontroller
1 bit
100
100
Yes
Yes
Yes29
Parallel
Flash
Loader
(PFL) IP
core
Fast passive
parallel (FPP)
through CPLD or
external
microcontroller
8 bits
100
3200
Yes
Yes
Yes30
16 bits
Yes
Yes
PFL IP
core
32 bits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes30
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes29
—
Configuration via
HPS
Configuration via
Protocol [CvP
(PCIe*)]
16 bits
100
3200
32 bits
x1, x2,
x4, x8
lanes
—
8000
You can configure Arria 10 devices through PCIe using Configuration via Protocol
(CvP). The Arria 10 CvP implementation conforms to the PCIe 100 ms
power-up-to-active time requirement.
Related Links
Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation in Intel FPGAs User Guide
Provides more information about the CvP configuration scheme.
7.2 Configuration Schemes
This section describes the AS, PS, FPP, and JTAG configuration schemes.
Related Links
•
Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation in Intel FPGAs User Guide
Provides more information about the CvP configuration scheme.
•
Design Planning for Partial Reconfiguration
Provides more information about partial reconfiguration.
26 Enabling either compression or design security features affects the maximum data rate. Refer
to the Arria 10 Device Datasheet for more information.
27 Encryption and compression cannot be used simultaneously.
28 Partial reconfiguration is an advanced feature of the device family. If you are interested in
using partial reconfiguration, contact Intel for support.
30 Supported at a maximum clock rate of 100 MHz.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
7.2.1 Active Serial Configuration
Figure 133. High-Level Overview of EPCQ-L Programming for the AS Configuration
Scheme
Quartus Prime
Software
Configuration Data
using JTAG
FPGA
SFL
EPCQ-L
In the AS configuration scheme, configuration data is stored in the EPCQ-L
configuration device. You can program the EPCQ-L device in-system using the JTAG
interface with the Serial Flash Loader (SFL) IP core. The SFL acts as a bridge in the
FPGA between the JTAG interface and the EPCQ-L device. The AS memory interface
block in the Arria 10 device controls the configuration process.
The AS configuration scheme supports AS x1 (1-bit data width) and AS x4 (4-bit data
width) modes. The AS x4 mode provides four times faster configuration time than the
AS x1 mode. In the AS configuration scheme, the Arria 10 device controls the
configuration interface.
Note:
For Active Serial programming using SFL, the MSEL pins must be set to Active Serial
setting to allow the programmer to read the EPCQ-L ID.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the AS configuration timing.
•
AN 370: Using the Serial Flash Loader with the Quartus Prime Software
•
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
•
EPCQ-L Serial Configuration Devices Datasheet
•
EPCQ-L Device Package Information
Provides more information about EPCQ-L packaging specifications, thermal
resistance and dimensions.
7.2.1.1 DATA Clock (DCLK)
Arria 10 devices generate the serial clock, DCLK, that provides timing to the serial
interface. In the AS configuration scheme, Arria 10 devices drive control signals on the
falling edge of DCLK and latch the configuration data on the following falling edge of
this clock pin.
The maximum DCLK frequency supported by the AS configuration scheme is 100 MHz.
You can source DCLK using CLKUSR or the internal oscillator. If you use the internal
oscillator, you can choose a 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 MHz clock under the Device and Pin
Options dialog box, in the Configuration page of the Quartus Prime software.
After power-up, DCLK is driven by a 12.5 MHz internal oscillator by default. The Arria
10 device determines the clock source and frequency to use by reading the option bit
in the programming file.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
226
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Provides more information about the DCLK frequency specification in the AS
configuration scheme.
7.2.1.2 Active Serial Single-Device Configuration
To configure Arria 10 device, connect the device to a quad-serial configuration (EPCQL) device, as shown in the following figures.
Figure 134. Single Device AS x1 Mode Configuration
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at 1.8-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ-L Device
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
GND
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO[0]
ASDO
nCEO
MSEL[2..0]
CLKUSR
N.C.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
You can use CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 135. Single Device AS x4 Mode Configuration
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at 1.8-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ-L Device
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA0
DATA1
GND
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
AS_DATA0/
ASDO
AS_DATA1
AS_DATA2
AS_DATA3
DCLK
nCSO[0]
nCEO
N.C.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
MSEL[2..0]
CLKUSR
You can use CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
7.2.1.3 Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple devices that are connected in a chain. Only AS x1 mode
supports multi-device configuration.
The first device in the chain is the configuration master. Subsequent devices in the
chain are configuration slaves.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
7.2.1.3.1 Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
•
Hardwire the MSEL pins of the first device in the chain to select the AS
configuration scheme. For subsequent devices in the chain, hardwire their MSEL
pins to select the PS configuration scheme. Any other Intel FPGAs that support the
PS configuration can also be part of the chain as a configuration slave.
•
Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
—
nCONFIG
—
nSTATUS
—
DCLK
—
DATA[]
—
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE, nSTATUS, and nCONFIG pins together, the devices
initialize and enter user mode at the same time. If any device in the chain detects
an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and you must reconfigure all the
devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the nSTATUS
pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
•
Ensure that DCLK and DATA[] are buffered every fourth device to prevent signal
integrity and clock skew problems.
7.2.1.3.2 Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Arria 10 devices in a chain using multiple configuration data,
connect the devices to an EPCQ-L device, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 136. Multiple Device AS Configuration When Both Devices in the Chain Receive
Different Sets of Configuration Data
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 1.8-V power
supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ-L Device
FPGA Device Master
FPGA Device Slave
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
GND
DATA
DCLK
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
nCSO[0]
ASDO
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user I/O
pin when it does not feed another
device’s nCE pin.
MSEL[2..0]
CLKUSR
DATA0
DCLK
MSEL [2..0]
For the appropriate MSEL settings
based on POR delay settings, set the
slave device MSEL setting to the PS
scheme.
For more information, refer to the
MSEL pin settings.
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for AS_DATA1
or DATA0 and DCLK for every fourth device.
You can use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock source to
drive DCLK during configuration.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the
nCE pin of the next device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the
second device in one clock cycle.
7.2.1.4 Active Serial Configuration with Multiple EPCQ-L Devices
Arria 10 devices support up to three EPCQ-L devices for configuration and remote
system upgrade.
You can use up to three EPCQ-L devices per Arria 10 device. Each EPCQ-L device gets
a dedicated nCSO pin, but shares other pins, as shown in the following figure.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 137. AS Configuration with Multiple EPCQ-L Devices
VCCPGM VCCPGM
10 KΩ
EPCQ-L 0
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
EPCQ-L 1
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
CONFDONE
nSTATUS
nCE
10 KΩ
10 KΩ
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS_DATA1
AS_DATA2
AS_DATA3
FPGA
nCEO
MSEL[2:0]
DCLK
nCS[0]
nCS[1]
nCS[2]
DCLK
nCS
EPCQ-L 2
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
You can choose the number of EPCQ-L devices using the Quartus Prime software.
7.2.1.5 Using EPCQ-L Devices
EPCQ-L devices support AS x1 and AS x4 modes.
Note:
Arria 10 devices support EPCQ-L devices only.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Each Arria 10 device has three nCSO pins—nCSO[2..0]. This allows Arria 10 device
to connect up to three EPCQ-L devices.
The advantages of connecting up to three EPCQ-L devices:
•
Ability to store multiple design files for remote system upgrade.
•
Increase storage beyond the largest single EPCQ-L device available.
Related Links
•
EPCQ-L Serial Configuration Devices Datasheet
•
EPCQ-L Device Package Information
Provides more information about EPCQ-L packaging specifications, thermal
resistance and dimensions.
7.2.1.5.1 Controlling EPCQ-L Devices
During configuration, Arria 10 devices enable the EPCQ-L device by driving its nCSO
output pin low, which connects to the chip select (nCS) pin of the EPCQ-L device. Arria
10 devices use the DCLK and ASDO pins to send operation commands and read
address signals to the EPCQ-L device. The EPCQ-L device provides data on its serial
data output (DATA[]) pin, which connects to the AS_DATA[] input of the Arria 10
devices.
Note:
If you wish to gain control of the EPCQ-L pins, hold the nCONFIG pin low and pull the
nCE pin high. This causes the device to reset and tri-state the AS configuration pins.
7.2.1.5.2 Trace Length Guideline
The maximum trace length apply to both single- and multi-device AS configuration
setups as listed in the following table. The trace length is the length from the Arria 10
device to the EPCQ-L device.
Note:
The maximum skew between board level DCLK and AS_DATA [3..0] traces should
not be more than 400 ps.
Table 92.
Maximum Trace Length for AS x1 and x4 Configurations for Arria 10 Devices
Arria 10 Device AS Pins
Maximum Board Trace Length (Inches)
12.5/ 25/ 50 MHz
100 MHz
DCLK
10
6
AS_DATA[3..0]
10
6
nCSO[2..0]
10
6
Related Links
AS Timing Parameters in Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about data setup time and hold time requirement.
7.2.1.5.3 Programming EPCQ-L Devices
You can program EPCQ-L devices in-system using an Intel FPGA download cable.
Alternatively, you can program the EPCQ-L using a microprocessor with the SRunner
software driver.
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In-system programming (ISP) offers you the option to program the EPCQ-L either
using an AS programming interface or a JTAG interface. Using the AS programming
interface, the configuration data is programmed into the EPCQ-L by the Quartus Prime
software or any supported third-party software. Using the JTAG interface, an Intel
FPGA IP called the SFL IP core must be downloaded into the Arria 10 device to form a
bridge between the JTAG interface and the EPCQ-L. This allows the EPCQ-L to be
programmed directly using the JTAG interface.
Related Links
•
AN 370: Using the Serial Flash Loader with the Quartus Prime Software
•
AN 418: SRunner: An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device
Programming
•
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Programming EPCQ-L Using the JTAG Interface
To program an EPCQ-L device using the JTAG interface, connect the device as shown
in the following figure.
Figure 138. Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ-L Using the JTAG Interface
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ-L Device
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
GND
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 1.8-V
power supply.
V CCPGM V CCPGM
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
TCK
CONF_DONE
TDO
nCONFIG
nCE
TMS
TDI
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS_DATA1
AS_DATA2 Serial
Flash
AS_DATA3
Loader
DCLK
nCSO[0] MSEL[2..0]
CLKUSR
Instantiate SFL in your
design to form a bridge
between the EPCQ-L and
the 10-pin header.
V CCPGM
The resistor value can vary
from 1 k Ω to 10 kΩ. Perform
signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for your
setup.
Pin 1
1 kΩ
Download Cable
GND 10-Pin Male Header GND
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK during configuration.
Programming EPCQ-L Using the Active Serial Interface
To program an EPCQ-L device using the AS interface, connect the device as shown in
the following figure.
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Figure 139. Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ-L Using the AS Interface
Using the AS header, the programmer serially transmits the operation commands and
configuration bits to the EPCQ-L on DATA0.
Connect the pull-up resistors to V CCPGM
at a 1.8-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ 10 kΩ 10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nCEO
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCE
EPCQ-L Device
10 kΩ
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS_DATA1
AS_DATA2
AS_DATA3
MSEL[2..0]
DCLK
CLKUSR
nCSO[0]
Pin 1
N.C.
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply
the external clock source to
drive DCLK during
configuration.
V CCPGM
Power up the download cable’s
VCC(TRGT) to VCCPGM
Download Cable
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
When programming the EPCQ-L devices, the download cable disables access to the AS
interface by driving the nCE pin high. The nCONFIG line is also pulled low to hold the
Arria 10 device in the reset stage. After programming completes, the download cable
releases nCE and nCONFIG, allowing the pull-down and pull-up resistors to drive the
pin to GND and VCCPGM, respectively.
During the EPCQ-L programming using the download cable, DATA0 transfers the
programming data, operation command, and address information from the download
cable into the EPCQ-L. During the EPCQ-L verification using the download cable,
DATA1 transfers the programming data back to the download cable.
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7.2.2 Passive Serial Configuration
Figure 140. High-Level Overview of Flash Programming for PS Configuration Scheme
Quartus Prime
Software
Configuration Data
using JTAG
CPLD
FPGA
PFL
Common
Flash
Interface
FPGA Not Used for
Flash Programming
CFI Flash
Memory
The PS configuration scheme uses an external host. You can use a microprocessor,
MAX II device, MAX V device, or a host PC as the external host.
You can use an external host to control the transfer of configuration data from an
external storage such as flash memory to the FPGA. The design that controls the
configuration process resides in the external host.
You can store the configuration data in Programmer Object File (.pof), .rbf, .hex,
or .ttf. If you are using configuration data in .rbf, .hex, or .ttf, send the LSB of each
data byte first. For example, if the .rbf contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01 FA,
the serial data transmitted to the device must be 0100-0000 1101-1000 0111-0111
1000-0000 0101-1111.
You can use the PFL IP core with a MAX II or MAX V device to read configuration data
from the flash memory device and configure the Arria 10 device.
For a PC host, connect the PC to the device using an Intel FPGA download cable.
The configuration data is shifted serially into the DATA0 pin of the device.
If you are using the Quartus Prime programmer and the CLKUSR pin is enabled, you
do not need to provide a clock source for the pin to initialize your device.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Hard Processor System Technical Reference Manual
Provides more information about the configuration via HPS.
•
Parallel Flash Loader IP Core User Guide
7.2.2.1 Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an External Host
To configure Arria 10 device, connect the device to an external host, as shown in the
following figure.
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Figure 141. Single Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
ADDR
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable
input signal for the FPGA device. VCCPGM must be high enough to
meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external
host. Intel recommends powering up all the configuration system
I/Os with VCCPGM .
V CCPGM V CCPGM
DATA0
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
GND
nCEO
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
N.C.
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[2..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
7.2.2.2 Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an Intel FPGA Download
Cable
To configure Arria 10 device, connect the device to a download cable, as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 142. Single Device PS Configuration Using an Intel FPGA Download Cable
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
Connect the pull-up resistor to the
same supply voltage (VCCIO ) as the
download cable.
10 kΩ
MSEL[2..0]
nCE
GND
nCEO
DCLK
DATA0
nCONFIG
N.C.
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
Pin 1
V CCIO
GND
You only need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK if the download
cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This ensures that
DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating
after configuration. For example, if you
are also using a MAX II device, MAX V
device, or microprocessor, you do not
need the pull-up resistors on DATA0
and DCLK.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
Shield
GND
7.2.2.3 Passive Serial Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Arria 10 devices that are connected in a chain.
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7.2.2.3.1 Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
•
Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
—
nCONFIG
—
nSTATUS
—
DCLK
—
DATA0
—
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together, the devices initialize and
enter user mode at the same time. If any device in the chain detects an error,
configuration stops for the entire chain and you must reconfigure all the devices.
For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the nSTATUS pin, it
resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
•
If you are configuring the devices in the chain using the same configuration data,
the devices must be of the same package and density.
7.2.2.3.2 Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Arria 10 devices in a chain using multiple configuration data,
connect the devices to the external host as shown in the following figure.
Note:
By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For the multidevice configuration chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime
software. Otherwise, device configuration could fail.
Figure 143. Multiple Device PS Configuration when Both Devices Receive Different Sets of
Configuration Data
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable input signal for
the FPGA device. VCCPGM must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the
I/O on the device and the external host. Intel recommends powering up all the
configuration system I/Os with VCCPGM .
V CCPGM
V CCPGM V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device 1
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
MSEL[2..0]
DCLK
10 kΩ
FPGA Device 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a
user I/O pin when it does not
feed another device’s nCE
pin.
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[2..0]
For more information, refer
to the MSEL pin settings.
After a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the
nCE pin of the next device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the
second device in one clock cycle.
7.2.2.3.3 Using One Configuration Data
To configure multiple Arria 10 devices in a chain using one configuration data, connect
the devices to an external host, as shown in the following figure.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Note:
By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For the multidevice configuration chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime
software. Otherwise, device configuration could fail.
Figure 144. Multiple Device PS Configuration When Both Devices Receive the Same Set of
Configuration Data
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable input
signal for the FPGA device. VCCPGM must be high enough to meet the VIH
specification of the I/O on the device and the external host. Intel
recommends powering up all the configuration system I/Os with VCCPGM .
V CCPGM V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
FPGA Device 2
FPGA Device 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
N.C.
GND
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
MSEL[2..0]
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[2..0]
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
You can leave the nCEO
pin unconnected or use it
as a user I/O pin.
The nCE pins of the devices in the chain are connected to GND, allowing configuration
for these devices to begin and end at the same time.
7.2.2.3.4 Using PC Host and Download Cable
To configure multiple Arria 10 devices, connect the devices to a download cable, as
shown in the following figure.
Note:
By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For the multidevice configuration chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime
software. Otherwise, device configuration could fail.
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Figure 145. Multiple Device PS Configuration Using an Intel FPGA Download Cable
Connect the pull-up resistor to the
same supply voltage (VCCIO) as the
download cable.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
MSEL[2..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
Pin 1
V CCPGM
nCEO
nCE
10 kΩ
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
10 kΩ
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
GND
V CCPGM
You only need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK if the download cable
is the only configuration scheme used
on your board. This ensures that
DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating
after configuration. For example, if you
are also using a configuration device,
you do not need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK.
10 kΩ
FPGA Device 1
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
GND
FPGA Device 2
MSEL[2..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
nCE
DATA0
nCONFIG
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the
nCE pin of the next device. Configuration automatically begins for the second device.
7.2.3 Fast Passive Parallel Configuration
Figure 146. High-Level Overview of Flash Programming for FPP Configuration Scheme
Quartus Prime
Software
Configuration Data
using JTAG
CPLD
FPGA
PFL
Common
Flash
Interface
FPGA Not Used for
Flash Programming
CFI Flash
Memory
The FPP configuration scheme uses an external host, such as a microprocessor,
MAX® II device, or MAX V device. This scheme is the fastest method to configure Arria
10 devices. The FPP configuration scheme supports 8-, 16-, and 32-bits data width.
You can use an external host to control the transfer of configuration data from an
external storage such as flash memory to the FPGA. The design that controls the
configuration process resides in the external host. You can store the configuration data
in Raw Binary File (.rbf), Hexadecimal (Intel-Format) File (.hex), or Tabular Text File
(.ttf) formats.
You can use the PFL IP core with a MAX II or MAX V device to read configuration data
from the flash memory device and configure the Arria 10 device.
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Note:
Two DCLK falling edges are required after the CONF_DONE pin goes high to begin the
initialization of the device for both uncompressed and compressed configuration data
in an FPP configuration.
Related Links
•
Altera Parallel Flash Loader IP Core User Guide
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the FPP configuration timing.
7.2.3.1 Fast Passive Parallel Single-Device Configuration
To configure an Arria 10 device, connect the device to an external host as shown in
the following figure.
Note:
If you are using the FPP x8 configuration mode, use DATA[7..0] pins. If you are
using FPP x16 configuration mode, use DATA[15..0] pins. If you are using FPP x32
configuration mode, use DATA[31..0] pins.
Figure 147. Single Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Connect the resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal
for the FPGA device. V CCPGM must be
high enough to meet the V IH
specification of the I/O on the device
and the external host. Intel
recommends powering up all
configuration system I/Os with VCCPGM .
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
V CCPGM V CCPGM
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
240
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
MSEL[2..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
GND
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
7.2.3.2 Fast Passive Parallel Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Arria 10 devices that are connected in a chain.
7.2.3.2.1 Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
•
Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
—
nCONFIG
—
nSTATUS
—
DCLK
—
DATA[]
—
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together, the devices initialize and
enter user mode at the same time. If any device in the chain detects an error,
configuration stops for the entire chain and you must reconfigure all the devices.
For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the nSTATUS pin, it
resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
•
Ensure that DCLK and DATA[] are buffered for every fourth device to prevent
signal integrity and clock skew problems.
•
All devices in the chain must use the same data width.
•
If you are configuring the devices in the chain using the same configuration data,
the devices must be of the same package and density.
7.2.3.2.2 Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Arria 10 devices in a chain using multiple configuration data,
connect the devices to an external host as shown in the following figure.
Note:
If you are using the FPP x8 configuration mode, use DATA[7..0] pins. If you are
using FPP x16 configuration mode, use DATA[15..0] pins. If you are using FPP x32
configuration mode, use DATA[31..0] pins.
Note:
By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For multi-device
configuration chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software.
Otherwise, device configuration could fail.
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Figure 148. Multiple Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices
Receive a Different Set of Configuration Data
Connect the resistor to a supply
that provides an acceptable input
signal for the FPGA device.
V CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the V IH specification of the
I/O on the device and the external
host. Intel recommends
powering up all configuration
system I/Os with V CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
V CCPGM V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
FPGA Device Master
MSEL[2..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
nCEO
FPGA Device Slave
MSEL[2..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for DATA[]
and DCLK for every fourth device.
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the
nCE pin of the next device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the
second device in one clock cycle.
7.2.3.2.3 Using One Configuration Data
To configure multiple Arria 10 devices in a chain using one configuration data, connect
the devices to an external host as shown in the following figure.
Note:
If you are using the FPP x8 configuration mode, use DATA[7..0] pins. If you are
using FPP x16 configuration mode, use DATA[15..0] pins. If you are using FPP x32
configuration mode, use DATA[31..0] pins.
Note:
By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For multi-device
configuration chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software.
Otherwise, device configuration could fail.
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Figure 149. Multiple Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices
Receive the Same Data
Connect the resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal for the
FPGA device. VCCPGM must be high
enough to meet the V IH specification of
the I/O on the device and the external
host. Intel recommends powering up all
configuration system I/Os with V CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
V CCPGM V CCPGM
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
FPGA Device Slave
FPGA Device Master
MSEL[2..0]
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
nCEO
MSEL[2..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C.
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
GND
N.C.
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for DATA[]
and DCLK for every fourth device.
The nCE pins of the device in the chain are connected to GND, allowing configuration
for these devices to begin and end at the same time.
7.2.4 JTAG Configuration
In Arria 10 devices, JTAG instructions take precedence over other configuration
schemes.
The Quartus Prime software generates an SRAM Object File (.sof) that you can use for
JTAG configuration using a download cable in the Quartus Prime software programmer.
Alternatively, you can use the JRunner software with .rbf or a JAM™ Standard Test and
Programming Language (STAPL) Format File (.jam) or JAM Byte Code File (.jbc) with
other third-party programmer tools.
Note:
You cannot use the Arria 10 decompression or design security features if you are
configuring your Arria 10 device using JTAG-based configuration.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins on Arria
10 devices do not affect JTAG boundary-scan or programming operations.
The Intel FPGA download cable can support VCCPGM supply at 1.5 V or 1.8 V; it does
not support a target supply voltage of 1.2 V.
Related Links
•
Device Configuration Pins on page 255
Provides more information about JTAG configuration pins.
•
JTAG Secure Mode on page 268
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the JTAG configuration timing.
•
Programming Support for Jam STAPL Language
•
Intel FPGA USB Download Cable User Guide
•
ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
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243
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
•
EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide
•
EthernetBlaster II Communications Cable User Guide
7.2.4.1 JTAG Single-Device Configuration
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software sets the other
devices to bypass mode. A device in a bypass mode transfers the programming data
from the TDI pin to the TDO pin through a single bypass register. The configuration
data is available on the TDO pin one clock cycle later.
The Quartus Prime software can use the CONF_DONE pin to verify the completion of
the configuration process through the JTAG port:
•
CONF_DONE pin is low—indicates that configuration has failed.
•
CONF_DONE pin is high—indicates that configuration was successful.
After the configuration data is transmitted serially using the JTAG TDI port, the TCK
port is clocked an additional 1,222 cycles to perform device initialization.
To configure Arria 10 device using a download cable, connect the device as shown in
the following figure.
Figure 150. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable
The resistor value can vary from
1 kΩ to 10 kΩ. Perform signal
integrity analysis to select the
resistor value for your setup.
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
GND
V CCPGM
FPGA Device
10 kΩ
nCE
N.C. nCEO
You must connect
nCE to GND or drive
it low for successful
JTAG configuration.
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[2..0]
DCLK
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect
nCONFIG to VCCPGM and MSEL[2..0] to GND. Pull
DCLK either high or low, whichever is convenient
on your board. If you are using JTAG in
conjunction with another configuration scheme,
connect MSEL[2..0], nCONFIG, and DCLK based
on the selected configuration scheme.
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPGM.
TCK
TDO
TMS
TDI
V CCPGM
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
Pin 1
V CCPGM
TRST
GND
1 kΩ
GND
GND
To configure Arria 10 device using a microprocessor, connect the device as shown in
the following figure. You can use JRunner as your software driver.
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7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 151. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Microprocessor
Memory
ADDR
V CCPGM V CCPGM
DATA
TRST
TDI
TCK
TMS
TDO
Microprocessor
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[2..0]
nCEO
nCE
N.C.
GND
The microprocessor must use
the same I/O standard as
V CCPGM to drive the JTAG pins.
Connect the pull-up resistor to a
supply that provides an
acceptable input signal for all
FPGA devices in the chain.
V CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the VIH specification of the
I/O on the device.
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect
nCONFIG to VCCPGM and MSEL[2..0] to GND. Pull
DCLK high or low. If you are using JTAG in
conjunction with another configuration scheme, set
the MSEL[2..0] pins and tie nCONFIG and DCLK
based on the selected configuration scheme.
Connect nCE to GND or
drive it low.
Related Links
AN 414: The JRunner Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG
Configuration
7.2.4.2 JTAG Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple devices in a JTAG chain.
7.2.4.2.1 Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
•
Isolate the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins to allow each device to enter user
mode independently.
•
One JTAG-compatible header is connected to several devices in a JTAG chain. The
number of devices in the chain is limited only by the drive capability of the
download cable.
•
If you have four or more devices in a JTAG chain, buffer the TCK, TDI, and TMS
pins with an on-board buffer. You can also connect other Intel FPGAs with JTAG
support to the chain.
•
JTAG-chain device programming is ideal when the system contains multiple
devices or when testing your system using the JTAG boundary-scan testing (BST)
circuitry.
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7.2.4.2.2 Using a Download Cable
The following figure shows a multi-device JTAG configuration.
Figure 152. JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPGM .
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode)
Pin 1
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect nCONFIG to V CCPGM and MSEL[2..0]
to GND. Pull DCLK either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board. If you are
using JTAG in conjunction with another configuration scheme, connect MSEL[2..0],
nCONFIG, and DCLK based on the selected configuration scheme.
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[2..0]
nCE
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
GND
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[2..0]
nCE
GND
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
FPGA Device
V CCPGM V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[2..0]
nCE
GND
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
1 kΩ The resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10
kΩ. Perform signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for your setup.
Related Links
AN 656: Combining Multiple Configuration Schemes
Provides more information about combining JTAG configuration with other
configuration schemes.
7.3 Configuration Details
This section describes the MSEL pin settings, configuration sequence, device
configuration pins, configuration pin options, and configuration data compression.
7.3.1 MSEL Pin Settings
To select a configuration scheme, hardwire the MSEL pins to VCCPGM or GND without
pull-up or pull-down resistors.
Note:
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Table 93.
MSEL Pin Settings for Each Configuration Scheme of Arria 10 Devices
•
Do not drive the MSEL pins with a microprocessor or another device.
•
Use PS or FPP MSEL pin setting for configuration via HPS.
Configuration Scheme
JTAG-based configuration
—
AS (x1 and x4)
1.8
PS and
FPP (x8, x16, and x32)
Note:
VCCPGM (V)
1.2/1.5/1.8
Power-On Reset (POR)
Delay
—
Valid MSEL[2..0]
Use any valid MSEL pin
settings below
Fast
010
Standard
011
Fast
000
Standard
001
You must also select the configuration scheme in the Configuration page of the
Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software. Based on your
selection, the option bit in the programming file is set accordingly.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Hard Processor System Technical Reference Manual
Provides more information about the configuration via HPS.
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about JTAG pins voltage-level connection.
7.3.2 CLKUSR
You can use CLKUSR pin as the clock source for Arria 10 device configuration and
initialization. CLKUSR pin can also be used for configuration and transceiver calibration
simultaneously.
For transceiver calibration, CLKUSR must be a free-running clock running between 100
MHz to 125 MHz at power-up depending on the device’s configuration scheme as
shown in the following table. Transceiver calibration starts utilizing the CLKUSR during
device configuration and may continue to use it even when the device enters user
mode.
Table 94.
Available Configuration Clock Source and Transceiver Calibration CLKUSR
Frequency for Arria 10 Devices
Configuration
Scheme
Supported Clock Source for
Device Configuration
Supported Clock Source for
Device Initialization
AS
Internal Oscillator, CLKUSR
Internal Oscillator, CLKUSR
100 MHz
PS
DCLK only
Internal Oscillator, CLKUSR,
100 to 125 MHz
FPP (x8, x16, x32)
Supported CLKUSR
Frequency for Transceiver
Calibration
DCLK
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about CLKUSR pin.
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7.3.3 Configuration Sequence
Describes the configuration sequence and each configuration stage.
Figure 153. Configuration Sequence for Arria 10 Devices
Power Up
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
driven low
• All I/Os pins are tied to an
internal weak pull-up
• Clears configuration RAM bits
Power supplies including VCCPGM reach
recommended operating voltage
Reset
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
remain low
• All I/Os pins are tied to an
internal weak pull-up
• Samples MSEL pins
nSTATUS and nCONFIG released high
CONF_DONE pulled low
Configuration Error Handling
• nSTATUS pulled low
• CONF_DONE remains low
• Restarts configuration if option
enabled
Configuration
Writes configuration data to
FPGA
CONF_DONE released high
Initialization
• Initializes internal logic and
registers
• Enables I/O buffers
INIT_DONE released high
(if option enabled)
User Mode
Executes your design
You can initiate reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG pin low to at least the
minimum tCFG low-pulse width except for configuration using the partial
reconfiguration operation. When this pin is pulled low, the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
pins are pulled low and all I/O pins are tied to an internal weak pull-up.
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7.3.3.1 Power Up
Power up all the power supplies that are monitored by the POR circuitry. All power
supplies, including VCCPGM, must ramp up from 0 V to the recommended operating
voltage level within the ramp-up time specification. Otherwise, hold the nCONFIG pin
low until all the power supplies reach the recommended voltage level.
VCCPGM Pin
The configuration input buffers do not have to share power lines with the regular I/O
buffers in Arria 10 devices. Connect VCCPGM to 1.8 V.
The operating voltage for the configuration input pin is independent of the I/O banks
power supply, VCCIO, during configuration. Therefore, Arria 10 devices do not require
configuration voltage constraints on VCCIO.
Intel recommends connecting the I/O banks power supply, VCCIO, of the dual-purpose
configuration pins for FPP x8, x16, and x32 to VCCPGM.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the ramp-up time specifications.
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about configuration pin connections.
•
Device Configuration Pins on page 255
Provides more information about configuration pins.
7.3.3.2 Reset
POR delay is the time frame between the time when all the power supplies monitored
by the POR circuitry reach the recommended operating voltage and when nSTATUS is
released high and the Arria 10 device is ready to begin configuration.
Set the POR delay using the MSEL pins.
The user I/O pins are tied to an internal weak pull-up until the device is configured.
Related Links
•
MSEL Pin Settings on page 246
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the POR delay specification.
7.3.3.3 Configuration
For more information about the DATA[] pins for each configuration scheme, refer to
the appropriate configuration scheme.
7.3.3.3.1 Configuration Error Detection
When the Quartus Prime software generates the configuration bitstream, the software
also computes a 32-bit CRC value for each CRAM frame. A configuration bitstream
contains one CRC value for each data frames. The length of the data frame can vary
for each device.
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As each data frame is loaded into the FPGA during configuration, the precomputed
CRC value shifts into the CRC circuitry. At the same time, the CRC engine in the FPGA
computes the CRC value for the data frame and compares it against the precomputed
CRC value. If both CRC values do not match, the nSTATUS pin is set to low to indicate
a configuration error.
7.3.3.4 Configuration Error Handling
To restart configuration automatically, turn on the Auto-restart configuration after
error option in the General page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the
Quartus Prime software.
If you do not turn on this option, you can monitor the nSTATUS pin to detect errors.
To restart configuration, pull the nCONFIG pin low for at least the duration of tCFG.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about t
STATUS
and t
CFG
timing parameters.
7.3.3.5 Initialization
The initialization clock source is from the internal oscillator, CLKUSR pin, or DCLK pin.
By default, the internal oscillator is the clock source for initialization. If you use the
internal oscillator, the Arria 10 device will be provided with enough clock cycles for
proper initialization.
Note:
If you use the optional CLKUSR pin as the initialization clock source and the nCONFIG
pin is pulled low to restart configuration during device initialization, ensure that the
CLKUSR or DCLK pin continues toggling until the nSTATUS pin goes low and then goes
high again.
The CLKUSR pin provides you with the flexibility to synchronize initialization of
multiple devices or to delay initialization. Supplying a clock on the CLKUSR pin during
initialization does not affect configuration. After the CONF_DONE pin goes high, the
CLKUSR or DCLK pin is enabled after the time specified by tCD2CU. When this time
period elapses, Arria 10 devices require a minimum number of clock cycles as
specified by Tinit to initialize properly and enter user mode as specified by the tCD2UMC
parameter.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about t
and initialization clock source.
CD2CU
,t
init
, and t
CD2UMC
timing parameters,
7.3.3.6 User Mode
You can enable the optional INIT_DONE pin to monitor the initialization stage. After
the INIT_DONE pin is pulled high, initialization completes and your design starts
executing. The user I/O pins will then function as specified by your design.
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7.3.4 Configuration Timing Waveforms
7.3.4.1 FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 154. FPP Configuration Timing Waveform When the DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio is 1
The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode,
nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE are at logic high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled
low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
Reconfiguration triggered
t CF2CK
tCFG
nCONFIG
tCF2ST1
t CF2ST0
nSTATUS (1)
CONF_DONE (2)
tST2CK
DCLK
DATA[31..0] (4)
tSTATUS
(5)
tCLK
tCH tCL
tCF2CD
(3)
(7)
tDH
Word 0 Word 1 Word 2 Word 3
User Mode
Word n-1
Word 0 Word 1
tDSU
User I/O
High-Z
High-Z
User Mode
INIT_DONE (6)
CONFIGURATION
Power-up & Reset
STATE
tCD2UM
Configuration
Initialization
User Mode
Reset
Configuration
(1) After power-up, the device holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
(2) After power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) For FPP ×16, use DATA[15..0]. For FPP ×8, use DATA[7..0]. DATA[31..0] are available as a user I/O pin after configuration. The state of this pin depends on
the dual-purpose pin settings.
(5) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the device. CONF_DONE is released high when the device receives all the
configuration data successfully. After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(6) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
(7) Do not toggle the DCLK high before nSTATUS is pulled high.
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Figure 155. FPP Configuration Timing Waveform When the DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio is >1
The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode,
nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE are at logic high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled
low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
Reconfiguration triggered
t CF2CK
tCFG
nCONFIG
t CF2ST0
tCF2ST1
nSTATUS (1)
CONF_DONE (2)
DCLK (4)
DATA[31..0] (6)
(6)
tCLK
tST2CK
(8)
tSTATUS
tCH tCL
1
tCF2CD
r
2
(5)
1
2
r
r
(3)
1
tDSU
User I/O
Word 0
Word 2
User Mode
Word (n-1)
Word 0
tDH
High-Z
High-Z
User Mode
INIT_DONE (7)
CONFIGURATION
Power-up & Reset
STATE
tCD2UM
Configuration
Initialization
User Mode
Reset
Configuration
(1) After power-up, the device holds nSTATUS low for the time as specified by the POR delay.
(2) After power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. You can drive it high or low, whichever is more convenient.
(4) “r” denotes the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio. For the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio based on the decompression and the design security feature enable settings.
(5) If needed, pause DCLK by holding it low. When DCLK restarts, the external host must provide data on the DATA[31..0] pins prior to sending the first DCLK rising edge.
(6) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the device. CONF_DONE is released high after the device receives all the configuration data successfully.
After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(7) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
(8) Do not toggle the DCLK high before nSTATUS is pulled high.
Related Links
DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio (r) for FPP Configuration
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7.3.4.2 AS Configuration Timing
Figure 156. AS Configuration Timing Waveform
tCF2ST1
tCF2ST1
Reconfiguration
triggered
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
(4)
nCSO
DCLK
tCO
AS_DATA0/ASDO
Read Address
tDH
tSU
AS_DATA1 (1)
User I/O
bit 0
bit 1
bit(n-2) bit(n-1)
User Mode
High-Z
High-Z
tCD2UM (2)
INIT_DONE (3)
CONFIGURATION
Power-up & Reset
STATE
Configuration
Initialization
User Mode
Reset Configuration
(1) If you are using AS ×4 mode, this signal represents the AS_DATA[3..0] and EPCQ-L sends in 4-bits of data for each DCLK cycle.
(2) The initialization clock can be from internal oscillator or CLKUSR pin.
(3) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
(4) The time between the falling edge of nCSO to the first toggling of DCLK is more than 15ns.
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7.3.4.3 PS Configuration Timing
Figure 157. PS Configuration Timing Waveform
The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode,
nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE are at logic high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled
low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
Reconfiguration triggered
t CF2CK
tCFG
nCONFIG
tCF2ST0
tCF2ST1
nSTATUS (1)
CONF_DONE (2)
tST2CK
DCLK
DATA0
tSTATUS
(5)
tCLK
tCH tCL
tCF2CD
(3)
(7)
tDH
Bit 1 Bit 2
Bit 0
Bit 3
(4)
Bit (n-1)
Bit 0
tDSU
User I/O
High-Z
High-Z
User Mode
INIT_DONE (6)
CONFIGURATION
Power-up & Reset
STATE
tCD2UM
Configuration
Initialization
User Mode
Reset
Configuration
(1) After power-up, the device holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
(2) After power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. You can drive it high or low, whichever is more convenient.
(4) DATA0 is available as a user I/O pin after configuration. The state of this pin depends on the dual-purpose pin settings in the Device and Pins Option.
(5) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the device. CONF_DONE is released high after the device receives all the
configuration data successfully. After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(6) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
(7) Do not toggle the DCLK high before nSTATUS is pulled high.
7.3.5 Estimating Configuration Time
The configuration time is mostly the time it takes to transfer the configuration data
from a CFI flash memory or an EPCQ-L device to the Arria 10 device.
Use the following equations to estimate the configuration time:
AS Configuration
By default, the AS x1 mode is used. The Arria 10 device determines the AS mode by
reading the option bit in the programming file.
•
AS x1 mode
Estimated minimum configuration time=
.rbf size x (minimum DCLK period / 1 bit per DCLK cycle)
•
AS x4 mode
Estimated minimum configuration time
= .rbf size x (minimum DCLK period / 4 bits per DCLK cycle)
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PS Configuration
Estimated minimum configuration time = .rbf size x (minimum DCLK period / 1 bit per
DCLK cycle)
FPP Configuration
Estimated minimum configuration time = .rbf size/FPP data width x r x minimum
DCLK period
where r is the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio.
Note:
Compressing the configuration data decreases the configuration time. The amount of
time increased varies depending on the configuration method and corresponding DCLK
ratio.
Related Links
DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio (r) for FPP Configuration
7.3.6 Device Configuration Pins
Configuration Pins Summary
The following table lists the Arria 10 configuration pins and their power supply.
Note:
The TDI, TMS, TCK, TDO, and TRST pins are powered by VCCPGM.
Note:
The CLKUSR, DEV_OE, DEV_CLRn, DATA[31..1], and DATA0 pins are powered by
VCCPGM during configuration and by VCCIO of the bank in which the pin resides if you
use it as a user I/O pin.
Table 95.
Configuration Pin Summary for Arria 10 Devices
Configuration Pin
Configuration Scheme
Input/Output
User Mode
Powered By
TDI
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPGM
TMS
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPGM
TCK
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPGM
TDO
JTAG
Output
—
VCCPGM
TRST
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPGM
CLKUSR
All schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
CRC_ERROR
Optional, all schemes
Output
I/O
VCCPGM /Pull-up
CONF_DONE
All schemes
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM/Pull-up
DCLK
FPP and PS
Input
—
VCCPGM
Output
—
VCCPGM
AS
32
DEV_OE
Optional, all schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
DEV_CLRn
Optional, all schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
INIT_DONE
Optional, all schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
continued...
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Configuration Pin
Configuration Scheme
Input/Output
User Mode
Powered By
MSEL[2..0]
All schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
nSTATUS
All schemes
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM/Pull-up
nCE
All schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
nCEO
All schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
nCONFIG
All schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
DATA[31..1]
FPP
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
DATA0
FPP and PS
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
nCSO[2..0]
AS
Output
—
VCCPGM
nIO_PULLUP31
All schemes
Input
—
VCC
AS_DATA[3..1]
AS
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM
PR_REQUEST
Partial Reconfiguration
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
PR_READY
Partial Reconfiguration
Output
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
PR_ERROR
Partial Reconfiguration
Output
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
PR_DONE
Partial Reconfiguration
Output
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO
32
Related Links
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about each configuration pin.
7.3.6.1 I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
The standard I/O voltage for Arria 10 devices is 1.8 V. The drive strength setting for
dedicated configuration I/O are hardwired. The default drive strength for dual function
configuration I/O pins during configuration is 1.8V at 50 Ω. When you enable the
configuration pins, the Quartus Prime software sets the CVP_CONF_DONE pin to a
drive strength of 1.8 V CMOS 4 mA, and the INIT_DONE and CRC_ERROR pins to a
drive strength of 1.8 V CMOS 8 mA.
Table 96.
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
Configuration Pin
Input/Output
Drive Strength
nSTATUS
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 4 mA
CONF_DONE
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 4 mA
TDO
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 12 mA
continued...
31 If you tie nIO_PULLUP pin to VCC, ensure that all user I/O pins and dual-purpose I/O pins are
at logic 0 before and during configuration to prevent additional current to be drawn from the
I/O pins.
32 This pin is powered by VCCPGM before and during configuration and is powered by VCCIO if used
as a user I/O pin during user mode.
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Configuration Pin
Input/Output
Drive Strength
DCLK
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 24 mA
nCSO[2..0]
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 12 mA
AS_DATA0/ASD0
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 24 mA
AS_DATA1
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 24 mA
AS_DATA2
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 24 mA
AS_DATA3
Dedicated
1.8 V CMOS 24 mA
INIT_DONE
Dual Function
1.8 V CMOS 8 mA
CRC_ERROR
Dual Function
1.8 V CMOS 8 mA
CvP_CONFDONE
Dual Function
1.8 V CMOS 4 mA
7.3.6.2 Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software
The following table lists the dual-purpose configuration pins available in the Device
and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
Table 97.
Configuration Pin Options
Configuration Pin
Category Page
Option
CLKUSR
General
Enable user-supplied start-up clock
(CLKUSR)
DEV_CLRn
General
Enable device-wide reset (DEV_CLRn)
DEV_OE
General
Enable device-wide output enable
(DEV_OE)
INIT_DONE
General
Enable INIT_DONE output
nCEO
General
Enable nCEO pin
CRC_ERROR
Error Detection CRC
Enable Error Detection CRC_ERROR pin
Enable open drain on CRC_ERROR pin
Enable internal scrubbing
PR_REQUEST
General
Enable PR pin
PR_READY
PR_ERROR
PR_DONE
Related Links
Reviewing Printed Circuit Board Schematics with the Quartus Prime Software
Provides more information about the device and pin options dialog box setting.
7.3.7 Configuration Data Compression
Arria 10 devices can receive compressed configuration bitstream and decompress the
data in real-time during configuration. Preliminary data indicates that compression
typically reduces the configuration file size by 30% to 55% depending on the design.
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Decompression is supported in all configuration schemes except the JTAG
configuration scheme.
You can enable compression before or after design compilation.
Note:
You cannot enable encryption and compression at the same time for all configuration
scheme.
7.3.7.1 Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation
To enable compression before design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the Assignment Menu, click Device.
2.
Select your Arria 10 device and then click Device and Pin Options.
3.
In the Device and Pin Options window, select Configuration under the
Category list and turn on Generate compressed bitstreams.
7.3.7.2 Enabling Compression After Design Compilation
To enable compression after design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2.
Select the programming file type (.pof, .sof, .hex, .hexout, .rbf, or .ttf). For
POF output files, select a configuration device.
3.
Under the Input files to convert list, select SOF Data.
4.
Click Add File and select an Arria 10 device .sof.
5.
Select the name of the file you added to the SOF Data area and click Properties.
6.
Turn on the Compression check box.
7.3.7.3 Using Compression in Multi-Device Configuration
The following figure shows a chain of two Arria 10 devices. Compression is only
enabled for the first device.
This setup is supported by the AS or PS multi-device configuration only.
Figure 158. Compressed and Uncompressed Serial Configuration Data in the Same
Configuration File
Serial Configuration Data
Compressed
Uncompressed
Configuration
Configuration
Data
Data
Decompression
Controller
FPGA
FPGA
Device 1
Device 2
nCE
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
GND
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EPCQ-L or
External Host
N.C.
7 Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Arria 10 Devices
For the FPP configuration scheme, a combination of compressed and uncompressed
configuration in the same multi-device configuration chain is not allowed because of
the difference on the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio.
7.4 Remote System Upgrades Using Active Serial Scheme
Arria 10 devices contain dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry. You can use this
feature to upgrade your system from a remote location.
Figure 159. Arria 10 Remote System Upgrade Block Diagram
1
Development
Location
Data
Data
Data
FPGA
Remote System
Upgrade Circuitry
2
Configuration
Memory
FPGA Configuration
3
You can design your system to manage remote upgrades of the application
configuration images in the configuration device. The following list is the sequence of
the remote system upgrade:
1.
The logic (embedded processor or user logic) in the Arria 10 device receives a
configuration image from a remote location. You can connect the device to the
remote source using communication protocols such as TCP/IP, PCI, user datagram
protocol (UDP), UART, or a proprietary interface.
2. The logic stores the configuration image in non-volatile configuration memory.
3. The logic starts reconfiguration cycle using the newly received configuration
image.
When an error occurs, the circuitry detects the error, reverts to a safe configuration
image, and provides error status to your design.
7.4.1 Configuration Images
Arria 10 devices offer a new remote system upgrade feature which provides direct-toapplication and application-to-application updates. When the Arria 10 device is
powered up in the remote update programming mode, the Arria 10 device loads the
factory or application configuration image as indicated by the start address pointer at
32'd0 address of the EPCQ-L device.
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Each Arria 10 device in your system requires one factory image. The factory image is
a user-defined configuration image that contains logic to perform the following:
•
Processes errors based on the status provided by the dedicated remote system
upgrade circuitry.
•
Communicates with the remote host, receives new application images, and stores
the images in the local non-volatile memory device.
•
Determines the application image to load into the Arria 10 device.
•
Enables or disables the user watchdog timer and loads its time-out value.
•
Instructs the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to start a reconfiguration
cycle.
You can also create one or more application images for the device. An application
image contains selected functionalities to be implemented in the target device.
Store the images at the following locations in the EPCQ-L devices:
•
Factory configuration image—PGM[31..0] = 32'h00000020 start address on the
EPCQ-L device.
•
Application configuration image—any sector boundary. Intel recommends that you
store only one image at one sector boundary.
•
Start address (0x00 to 0x1F)—storing the 32-bit address pointer to load the
application configuration image upon power up.
Figure 160. Start Address and Factory Address Location
The following diagram illustrates factory, user data, application 1, and application 2
sections. Each section starts at a new sector boundary.
Application 2
Application 1
User Data
Factory
Factory Address 32’d32
Start Address 32’d0
Note:
Programmed by
Quartus Prime Software
Address Pointer
Intel recommends that you set a fixed start address and never update the start
address during user mode. You should only overwrite an existing application
configuration image when you have a new application image. This is to avoid the
factory configuration image to be erased unintentionally every time you update the
start address.
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7.4.2 Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode
Figure 161. Transitions Between Factory and Application Configurations in Remote
Update Mode
Trigger reconfiguration & Start Address = 0
or externaly pulse nCONFIG
After POR or
nCONFIG Assertion
Trigger reconfiguration & Start Address = 0
or externaly pulse nCONFIG
Read Start Address
from Flash
Error Count <= 3
Factory Configuration
Load Factory POF
Application Configuration
Error Count > 3
Reconfiguration &
Start Address = 32
Load Application
Number POF
No Error
Watchdog
Timeout
Enter Application
User Mode
Enter Factory
User Mode
Reconfiguration &
Start Address > 0 and not 32
Reconfiguration &
Start Address > 0
and not 32
Reconfiguration &
Start Address = 32
Upon power up or reconfiguration triggered using nCONFIG, the AS controller reads
the start address from the EPCQ-L device and loads the initial configuration image,
either the factory or application configuration image. If the initial image is an
application configuration image and an error occurs, the controller tries to load the
same initial application configuration image for three times before loading the factory
configuration image. If the initial application configuration image encounters a user
watchdog timeout error, the controller loads the factory configuration image. You can
load a new application configuration image during factory user mode or application
user mode. If an error is encountered, the controller loads the factory configuration
image.
Note:
When error occurs, the AS controller will load the same application configuration
image for three times before reverting to factory configuration image. By that time,
the total time taken exceeds 100ms and violates the PCIe boot-up time when using
CvP. If your design is sensitive to the PCIe boot-up requirement, Intel recommends
that you do not use the direct-to-application feature.
Related Links
Remote System Upgrade State Machine on page 264
A detailed description of the configuration sequence in the remote update mode.
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7.4.3 Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
The remote system upgrade circuitry contains the remote system upgrade registers,
watchdog timer, and a state machine that controls these components.
Note:
If you are using the Altera Remote Update IP core, the IP core controls the RU_DOUT,
RU_CTL[1:0], , RU_CLK, RU_DIN, RU_nCONFIG, and RU_nRSTIMER signals
internally to perform all the related remote system upgrade operations.
Figure 162. Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Internal Oscillator
Status Register (SR)
[4..0]
Control Register
[45..0]
Logic Array
Update Register
[45..0]
update
dout
Bit [4..0]
Shift Register
din
dout
capture
Bit [45..0]
Remote
System
Upgrade
State
Machine
din
capture
User
Timeout Watchdog
Timer
clkout capture update
Logic Array clkin
RU_DOUT
RU_CTL[1:0]
RU_CLK
RU_DIN
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about remote system upgrade circuitry timing
specifications.
7.4.4 Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
To enable the remote system upgrade feature, select Active Serial or Configuration
Device from the Configuration scheme list in the Configuration page of the Device
and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
Intel-provided Altera Remote Update IP core provides a memory-like interface to the
remote system upgrade circuitry and handles the shift register read and write protocol
in the Arria 10 device logic.
Related Links
Altera Remote Update IP Core User Guide
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7.4.5 Remote System Upgrade Registers
Table 98.
Remote System Upgrade Registers
Register
Description
Shift
This register is accessible by the core logic and allows the update, status, and control registers to
be written and sampled by user logic.
Control
This register contains the current page address, watchdog timer settings, and one bit specifying
the current configuration image—factory configuration or application configuration image. This
register is used by the AS controller to load the configuration image from the EPCQ-L device
during remote system upgrade.
Update
This register contains similar data as the control register, but this register is updated by the
factory configuration or application configuration image by shifting data into the shift register,
followed by an update. The soft IP core of the remote system upgrade updates this register with
the values to be used in the control register during the next reconfiguration cycle.
Status
This register is written by the remote update block during every reconfiguration cycle to record
the trigger of a reconfiguration. This information is used by the soft IP core of the remote system
upgrade to determine the appropriate action following a reconfiguration cycle.
Related Links
•
Control Register on page 263
•
Status Register on page 264
7.4.5.1 Control Register
Table 99.
Control Register Bits
Bit
Name
Reset Value33
Description
0
AnF
1'b0
Application not Factory bit. Indicates the configuration
image type currently loaded in the device; 0 for factory
image and 1 for application image. When this bit is 1,
the access to the control register is limited to read only
and the watchdog timer is enabled.
Factory configuration design must set this bit to 1 before
triggering reconfiguration using an application
configuration image.
1..32
PGM[0..31]
32'h00000000
AS configuration start address.
33
Wd_en
1'b0
User watchdog timer enable bit. Set this bit to 1 to
enable the watchdog timer.
34..45
Wd_timer[11..0]
12'h000
User watchdog time-out value.
33 This is the default value after the device exits POR and during reconfiguration back to the
factory configuration image.
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7.4.5.2 Status Register
Table 100.
Status Register Bits
Bit
Name
Reset
Value34
Description
0
CRC
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates CRC error during application
configuration.
1
nSTATUS
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that nSTATUS is asserted by an external
device due to error.
2
Core_nCONFIG
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that reconfiguration has been triggered
by the logic array of the device.
3
nCONFIG
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that nCONFIG is asserted.
4
Wd
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that the user watchdog time-out.
7.4.6 Remote System Upgrade State Machine
The operation of the remote system upgrade state machine is as follows:
1.
After power-up, the remote system upgrade registers are reset to 0 and the
factory or application configuration image is loaded based on the start address
stored at 0x00 to 0x1F in the EPCQ-L device.
2.
In factory configuration image, the user logic sets the AnF bit to 1 and the start
address of the application image to be loaded. The user logic also writes the
watchdog timer settings.
3. When the configuration reset (RU_CONFIG) goes low, the state machine updates
the control register with the contents of the update register, and triggers
reconfiguration using the application configuration image.
4.
If error occurs, the state machine falls back to the factory image. The control and
update registers are reset to 0, and the status register is updated with the error
information.
5. After successful reconfiguration, the system stays in the application configuration.
7.4.7 User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration from stalling the
device indefinitely. You can use the timer to detect functional errors when an
application configuration is successfully loaded into the device. The timer is
automatically disabled in the factory configuration; enabled in the application
configuration.
Note:
If you do not want this feature in the application configuration, you need to turn off
this feature by setting the Wd_en bit to 1'b0 in the update register during factory
configuration user mode operation. You cannot disable this feature in the application
configuration.
34 After the device exits POR and power-up, the status register content is 5'b00000.
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The counter is 29 bits wide and has a maximum count value of 229. When specifying
the user watchdog timer value, specify only the most significant 12 bits. The
granularity of the timer setting is 217 cycles. The cycle time is based on the frequency
of the user watchdog timer internal oscillator.
The timer begins counting as soon as the application configuration enters user mode.
When the timer expires, the remote system upgrade circuitry generates a time-out
signal, updates the status register, and triggers the loading of the factory
configuration image. To reset the time, assert RU_nRSTIMER.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the operating range of the user watchdog internal
oscillator's frequency.
7.5 Design Security
The Arria 10 design security feature supports the following capabilities:
Table 101.
•
Enhanced built-in advanced encryption standard (AES) decryption block to support
256-bit key industry-standard design security algorithm (FIPS-197 Certified)
•
Volatile and non-volatile key programming support
•
Secure operation mode for both volatile and non-volatile key through tamper
protection mode
•
Limited accessible JTAG instruction during power-up in the JTAG Secure mode
•
Supports POF authentication and protection against Side-Channel Attack
•
Provides JTAG access control and security key control through fuse bit or option
bits
•
Disables all JTAG instructions from power-up until the device is initialized
•
Supports board-level testing
•
Supports off-board key programming for non-volatile key
•
Stand-alone Qcrypt tool to encrypt and decrypt with other security settings to
configuration bit stream.
•
Available in all configuration schemes except JTAG
•
Supports remote system upgrades feature
Design Security Approach for Arria 10 FPGAs
Design Security
Element
Description
Non-Volatile key
The non-volatile key is securely stored in fuses within the device. Proprietary security features
make it difficult to determine this key.
Volatile Key
The volatile key is securely stored in battery-backed RAM within the device. Proprietary security
features make it difficult to determine this key.
Key Generation
A user provided 256-bit key is processed by a one-way function before being programmed into
the device.
Key Choice
Both volatile and non-volatile key can exist in a device. User can choose which key to use by
setting the option bits in encrypted configuration file through the Convert Programming File tool
or the Qcrypt tool.
continued...
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Design Security
Element
Description
Tamper Protection
Mode
Tamper protection mode prevents the FPGA from being loaded with an unencrypted configuration
file. When you enable this mode, the FPGA can only be loaded with a configuration that has been
encrypted with your key. Unencrypted configurations and configurations encrypted with the wrong
key will result in a configuration failure. You can enable this mode by setting a fuse within the
device.
Configuration
Readback
These devices do not support a configuration readback feature. From a security perspective, this
makes readback of your unencrypted configuration data infeasible.
Security Key Control
By using different JTAG instructions and the security option in the Qcrypt tool, you have the
flexibility to permanently or temporarily disable the use of the non-volatile or volatile key. You can
also choose to lock the volatile key to prevent it from being overwritten or reprogrammed.
JTAG Access Control
You can enable various levels of JTAG access control by setting the OTP fuses or option bits in the
configuration file using the Qcrypt tool:
1. Force full configuration or partial configuration to be done through HPS only.
2. Bypass external JTAG pin or HPS JTAG. This feature disables external JTAG or HPS JTAG
access, but can be unlocked through internal core access.
3. Disable all AES key related JTAG instructions from external JTAG pins.
4. Allows only a limited set of mandatory JTAG instruction to be accessed through external JTAG,
similar to JTAG Secure mode.
Note:
•
You cannot enable encryption and compression at the same time for all
configuration scheme.
•
When you use design security with Arria 10 devices in an FPP configuration
scheme, it requires a different DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio.
Related Links
AN 556: Using the Design Security Features in Intel FPGAs
Provides more information about applying design security features in Arria 10
devices.
7.5.1 Security Key Types
Arria 10 devices offer two types of keys—volatile and non-volatile. The following table
lists the differences between the volatile key and non-volatile keys.
Table 102.
Security Key Types
Key Types
Key
Programmability
Volatile
•
•
Reprogrammable
Erasable
Non-volatile
One-time
programming
Power Supply for Key Storage
Required external battery, VCCBAT
35
Does not require an external battery
Programming Method
On-board
On-board and in-socket programming
36
Both non-volatile and volatile key programming offers protection from reverse
engineering and copying. If you set the tamper-protection mode, the design is also
protected from tampering.
35 VCCBAT is a dedicated power supply for volatile key storage. VCCBAT continuously supplies power
to the volatile register regardless of the on-chip supply condition.
36 Third-party vendors offer in-socket programming.
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Related Links
•
AN 556: Using the Design Security Features in Intel FPGAs
Provides more information about programming volatile and non-volatile key
into the FPGA.
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about the V CCBAT pin connection recommendations.
•
Arria 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about battery specifications.
•
Supported JTAG Instruction on page 289
7.5.2 Security Modes
Table 103.
Security Modes Available in Arria 10 Devices
Note:
Security Mode
JTAG
Secure37
For additional details on these instructions or how to burn the fuse for each mode, contact
your Intel technical support. Alternatively, you can use the Qcrypt tool to enable all of these
design security modes. The Qcrypt tool provides an impermanent solution compared to the
burning the fuse which has the one-time programming limitation.
JTAG Instruction
Security Feature
EXT_JTAG_SECURE
Allows only mandatory IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST JTAG instructions. See
Table 104 on page 268.
Tamper Protection
OTP_VOLKEY_SECURE
Allows only configuration file encrypted with the correct key to be
loaded into the Arria 10 device. Unencrypted or wrong encryption key
will result in configuration failure.
JTAG Bypass
EXTERNAL_JTAG_BYPASS
Disables all the direct control from external JTAG pins or HPS JTAG.
Compared to the JTAG Secure mode, devices in JTAG Bypass mode
allow access to external JTAG pins or HPS JTAG interface through
internal JTAG core.
Key Related
Instruction Disable
KEY_EXT_JTAG_DISABLE
Disables all JTAG instructions related to AES key issued from the
external JTAG pins.
HPS Configuration
Only
FORCE_HPS_CONFIG
Disables the external JTAG pins from configuring or partially
reconfiguring the device. Only HPS controls the configuration pins
and the MSEL pins will be in passive mode.
HPS JTAG Bypass
EXTERNAL_JTAG_BYPASS
Bypasses the HPS JTAG controller and disables the HPS internal
master control.
PR and Scrubbing
Disable
PR_SCRUBBING_DISABLE
Disables partial reconfiguration and external scrubbing from external
pins and HPS. Only the FPGA core can perform partial
reconfiguration.
Volatile Key Lock
VOLKEY_LOCK
Locks the volatile key being zeroed-out or reprogrammed. However,
you can erase the volatile key using KEY_CLR_VREG instruction. You
can issue the VOLKEY_LOCK instruction only after volatile key is
programmed into the device.
continued...
37 Enabling the JTAG Secure or Test Disable mode disables the test mode in Arria 10 devices and
disables programming through the JTAG interface. This process is irreversible and prevents
Intel from carrying out failure analysis.
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Security Mode
JTAG Instruction
Security Feature
Volatile Key Disable
VOLKEY_DISABLE
Disables any future volatile key programming. If there is an existing
volatile key programmed into the device, it will not be used to
decrypt the configuration file.
Non-Volatile Key
Disable
OTP_DISABLE
Disables any future non-volatile key programming. If there is an
existing non-volatile key programmed into the device, it will not be
used to decrypt the configuration file.
Test Disable Mode
TEST_DISABLE
Disables all test modes and all test-related JTAG instructions. This
process is irreversible and prevents Intel from carrying out failure
analysis.
Related Links
SoC Security of the Arria 10 Hard Processor System Technical Reference Manual
Provides more information about HPS Configuration Only and HPS JTAG Bypass
security modes.
7.5.2.1 JTAG Secure Mode
When the Arria 10 device is in the JTAG Secure mode, all JTAG instructions except for
the mandatory IEEE Standard JTAG 1149.1 BST JTAG instructions are disabled.
Table 104.
Mandatory and Non-Mandatory IEEE Standard 1149.1 BST JTAG Instructions
Mandatory IEEE Standard 1149.1 BST JTAG
Instructions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
BYPASS
EXTEST
IDCODE
LOCK
UNLOCK
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG
Non-Mandatory IEEE Standard 1149.1 BST JTAG
Instructions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Note:
CONFIG_IO
CLAMP
EXTEST_PULSE38
EXTEST_TRAIN38
HIGHZ
KEY_CLR_VREG
KEY_VERIFY38
PULSE_NCONFIG
USERCODE
After you issue the EXT_JTAG_SECURE instruction, the Arria 10 device cannot be
unlocked.
Related Links
Supported JTAG Instruction on page 289
7.5.3 Arria 10 Qcrypt Security Tool
The Qcrypt tool is a stand-alone encryption tool for encrypting and decrypting Arria 10
FPGA configuration bit-stream files. The Qcrypt tool can also be used to encrypt HPS
boot images through a script. Different kinds of security settings that are currently not
accessible from the Quartus Prime graphical user interface can be set through the
Qcrypt tool.
38 You can execute these JTAG instructions during JTAG Secure mode.
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The Qcrypt tool encrypts and decrypts raw binary files (.rbf) only and not other
configuration files, such as .sof and .pof files. Throughout the encryption flow, the
Qcrypt tool will generate an authentication tag while encrypting the .rbf file. The
authentication tag prevents any modification or tampering of the configuration bitstream. Besides encryption and decryption, the Qcrypt tool allows you to enable and
set various security features and settings. By incorporating security features and
settings into the .rbf file, you have the flexibility to use different kinds of security
features on Arria 10 devices without permanently burning the security fuses. To
generate the .ekp file or encrypted configuration file other than .rbf, you have to
use the Quartus Prime Convert Programming File tool.
Note:
The Qcrypt tool is not license-protected and can be used by all Quartus Prime software
user.
Related Links
•
Qcypt Tool Options of the AN 556: Using the Design Security Features in Intel
FPGAs
Provides more information about Qcrypt tool features.
•
AN 759: Arria 10 SoC Secure Boot User Guide
Provides more information about encrypting HPS boot images.
•
AN 556: Using the Design Security Features in Intel FPGAs
Provides more information about applying design security features in Arria 10
devices.
7.5.4 Design Security Implementation Steps
Figure 163. Design Security Implementation Steps
AES Key
Programming File
Step 3
FPGA Device
Key Storage
Step 1
AES Decryption
256-bit User-Defined Quartus Prime Software
Key
AES Encryptor
Step 4
Step 1
Encrypted
Configuration
File
Step 2
Memory or
Configuration
Device
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To carry out secure configuration, follow these steps:
1.
The Quartus Prime software generates the design security key programming file
and encrypts the configuration data using the user-defined 256-bit security key.
2.
Store the encrypted configuration file in the external memory.
3.
Program the AES key programming file into the Arria 10 device through a JTAG
interface.
4.
Configure the Arria 10 device. At the system power-up, the external memory
device sends the encrypted configuration file to the Arria 10 device.
Related Links
AN 556: Using the Design Security Features in Intel FPGAs
Provides more information about applying design security features in Arria 10
devices.
7.6 Document Revision History
Date
March 2017
Version
2017.03.15
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
October 2016
2016.10.31
•
Rebranded as Intel.
Added note to nIO_PULLUP pin in Configuration Pin Summary for Arria 10
Devices table.
Added pull-up resistor between nCEO and nCE in Multiple Device FPP
Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive a
Different Set of Configuration Data figure.
Added pull-up resistor between nCEO and nCE in Multiple Device AS
Configuration When Both Devices in the Chain Receive Different Sets of
Configuration Data figure.
Added pull-up resistor between nCEO and nCE in Multiple Device PS
Configuration when Both Devices Receive Different Sets of Configuration
Data figure.
Updated the drive strength for configuration pins:
— DCLK—from 1.8 V CMOS 12 mA to 1.8 V CMOS 24 mA.
— NCSO[2..0]—from 1.8 V CMOS 8 mA to 1.8 V CMOS 12 mA.
— AS_DATA0/ASD0, AS_DATA1, AS_DATA2, and AS_DATA3—from 1.8 V
CMOS 8 mA to 1.8 V CMOS 24 mA.
June 2016
2016.05.13
•
•
Updated design security features and approaches.
•
Added list of mandatory and non-mandatory IEEE Standard 1149.1 JTAG
BST instructions.
Updated security modes available in Arria 10 devices and instructions to
enable them.
Added the Qrypt secuity tool information.
•
•
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated instances of EX_JTAG_SECURE to EXT_JTAG_SECURE
Added FPP and PS configuration time estimation to Estimating
Configuration Time and moved subsection under Configuration Details
section.
Added note on possible PCIe timing violation when using direct-toapplication.
Added note on recommending user to set a fixed configuration image start
address.
Added I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins section.
Updated AS configuration timing waveform to include nCSO.
Updated TSU and TDH in AS configuration timing waveform.
continued...
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Date
December 2015
November 2015
Version
2015.12.14
2015.11.02
Changes
•
Updated CLKUSR information.
•
Moved CLKUSR subsection from Active Serial Configuration to
Configuration Details.
•
Updated the term configuration mode to configuration scheme for
consistency.
Added link at MSEL pin setting to Arria 10 Hard Processor System
Technical Reference Manual.
Combined PS and FPP row in MSEL pin settings table. Both schemes have
the same MSEL pin setting.
Added description to MSEL pin setting table for configuration via HPS to
use PS or FPP MSEL pin setting.
Updated configuration modes and features table to include Yes for partial
reconfiguration in JTAG, AS and PS configuration mode together with a
footnote mentioning only if partial reconfiguration is configured as internal
host.
Updated note about compression and encryption cannot be used a the
same time for all configuration scheme.
Updated timing waveforms FPP, AS and PS to include pre power-up state.
Removed step to select Remote from the Configuration mode list in the
Configuration page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the
Quartus II software.
Added note about setting the MSEL pin to active serial to prevent EPCQ-L
ID read failure during SFL programming.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
May 2015
2015.05.04
•
•
•
•
•
January 2015
2015.01.23
•
•
•
•
•
•
August 2014
2014.08.18
Added Timing waveforms for FPP, AS and PS configuration.
Updated 'Trace Length and Loading' to 'Trace Length Guideline' and
remove loading contents.
Added link to Arria 10 Device Datasheet for loading information.
Update FPP to support 8 and 32 bits in 'Configuration Modes and Features
of Arria 10 Devices'.
Added note in 'Design Security' and 'Configuration Data Compression'
about compression and encryption cannot be used a the same time.
Updated CLKUSR pin usage during AS configuration at 100 MHz.
Updated Max clock rate of PS, FPP x8, FPP x16 and Configuration via HPS
from 125 MHz to 100 MHz.
Updated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry diagram by replacing
RU_SHIFTnLD and RU_CAPTnUPDT to RU_CTL[1:0].
Updated ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction to Altera remote Update IP
Core.
Updated user watchdog time-out value from 34..46 to 34..45.
Updated nIO_PULLUP to be powered by VCC.
•
Added note to Max Data Rate in Configuration Modes and Features of
Arria 10 Devices table.
•
Added the Active Serial Configuration with Multiple EPCQ-L Devices
section.
Removed the Unique Chip ID section.
Updated the JTAG Configuration section to include details on the USBBlaster download cable support.
Updated the Power Up section.
Updated Configuration Images section to include start address.
Updated the Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode section.
Updated the Remote System Upgrade State Machine section.
Updated Figure 7-18: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a
Microprocessor to update the power reference of the JTAG pins.
Updated Figure 7-20: Configuration Sequence for Arria 10 Devices.
Updated Figure 7-22: Arria 10 Remote System Upgrade Block Diagram.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
continued...
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Date
Version
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
December 2013
2013.12.02
Updated Table 7-1: Configuration Modes and Features of Arria 10 Devices
to update the supported clock rate for Partial Reconfiguration.
Updated Table 7-3: MSEL Pin Settings for Each Configuration Scheme of
Arria 10 Devices to include the supported VCCPGM voltages for the FPP and
PS configuration schemes.
Updated Table 7-6: Remote System Upgrade Registers to update the
description for the shift, control, update, and status registers.
Updated Table 7-7: Control Register Bits.
Removed the Unique Chip ID section.
Initial release.
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8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices
8.1 SEU Mitigation Overview
Single event upsets (SEU) is the change in state of a storage element inside a device
or system, typically Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), caused by cosmic
radiation effects. This state is a soft error and can often be fixed by changing the state
of the storage element back to its original value with no permanent damage to the
device itself. Because of the unintended memory state, the device may operate
erroneously until this upset is fixed.
The Soft Error Rate (SER) is expressed as Failure-in-Time (FIT) units, defined as one
soft error occurrence every billion hours of operation. Often SEU mitigation is not
required because of the low chance of occurrence. However, for highly complex
systems, such as with multiple high-density components, error rate may be a
significant system design factor. If your system includes multiple FPGAs and requires
very high reliability and availability, you should consider the implications of the soft
errors, and use the available techniques for detecting and recovering from these types
of errors.
Related Links
•
Introduction to Single-Event Upsets
•
Understanding Single Event Functional Interrupts in FPGA Designs
•
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
•
AN 737: SEU Detection and Recovery in Arria 10 Devices
Describes the implementation of Arria 10 SEU detection and recovery with a
reference design.
8.1.1 SEU Mitigation Applications
Arria 10 SEU mitigation feature can help to ensure the system is functioning properly
all the time, to avoid the system being malfunction from an SEU event, or to handle
the SEU event if it is critical to the system. Common systems that requires SEU
mitigation feature are as follows:
•
Military or aerospace—flight systems
•
Automotive or industrial—safety applications
•
Telecom, data center or cloud computing—high system up-time
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices
8.1.2 Configuration RAM
FPGAs use memory both in user logic (bulk memory and registers) and in
Configuration RAM (CRAM). CRAM is the memory loaded with the user's design. The
CRAM configures all logic and routing in the device. If an SEU strikes a CRAM bit, the
effect can be harmless if the CRAM bit is not in use. However, functional error is
possible if it affects critical logic internal signal routing such as a lookup table bit.
8.1.3 Embedded Memory
The Arria 10 devices contain two types of memory blocks:
•
20 Kb M20K blocks—blocks of dedicated memory resources. The M20K blocks are
ideal for larger memory arrays while still providing a large number of independent
ports.
•
640 bit memory logic array blocks (MLABs)—enhanced memory blocks that are
configured from dual-purpose logic array blocks (LABs). The MLABs are ideal for
wide and shallow memory arrays. The MLABs are optimized for implementation of
shift registers for digital signal processing (DSP) applications, wide and shallow
FIFO buffers, and filter delay lines. Each MLAB is made up of ten adaptive logic
modules (ALMs). In the Arria 10 devices, you can configure these ALMs as ten
32 x 2 blocks, giving you one 32 x 20 simple dual-port SRAM block per MLAB.
Embedded memory is susceptible to SEU, Intel implement interleaving and special
layout techniques to minimize the FIT rate, and added Error Correction Code (ECC)
feature to reduce SEU FIT rate to close to zero.
Related Links
Embedded Memory Blocks in Arria 10 Devices
8.2 Arria 10 Mitigation Techniques
Arria 10 devices feature various single-event upset (SEU) mitigation approaches for
different application areas.
Table 105.
SEU Mitigation Areas and Approaches for Arria 10 Devices
Area
SEU Mitigation Approach
Silicon design: CRAM/SRAMs/flip flops
Intel uses various design techniques to reduce upsets and/or limit to correctable
double-bit errors.
Error Detection Cyclic redundancy
check (EDCRC) / Scrubbing
You can enable the EDCRC feature for detecting CRAM SEU events and automatic
correction of CRAM contents.
M20K SRAM block
Intel implemented interleaving, special layout techniques, and Error Correction
Code (ECC) reduces SEU FIT rate to almost zero.
Sensitivity processing
You can use sensitivity processing to identify if the SEU in CRAM bit is a used or
unused bit.
Fault injection
You can use fault injection feature to validate the system response to the SEU
event by changing the CRAM state to trigger an error.
Hierarchical tagging
A complementary capability to sensitivity processing and fault injection for
reporting SEU and constraining injection to specific portions of design logic.
Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR)
You can implement TMR technique on critical logic such as state machines.
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8.2.1 Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support
ECC allows you to detect and correct data errors at the output of the memory. ECC
can perform single-error correction, double-adjacent-error correction, and tripleadjacent-error detection in a 32-bit word. However, ECC cannot detect four or more
errors.
The M20K blocks have built-in support for ECC when in x32-wide simple dual-port
mode:
•
The M20K runs slower than non-ECC simple-dual port mode when ECC is engaged.
However, you can enable optional ECC pipeline registers before the output decoder
to achieve higher performance compared to non-pipeline ECC mode at the
expense of one cycle of latency.
•
The M20K ECC status is communicated with two ECC status flag signals—e (error)
and ue (uncorrectable error). The status flags are part of the regular output from
the memory block. When ECC is engaged, you cannot access two of the parity bits
because the ECC status flag replaces them.
Related Links
Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support
8.2.2 Error Detection and Correction for CRAM
8.2.2.1 Error Detection Cyclic Redundancy Check
In user mode, the contents of the configured configuration RAM (CRAM) bits can be
affected by soft errors. These soft errors, which are caused by an ionizing particle, are
not common in Intel FPGA devices. However, high-reliability applications that require
error-free device operation may require your design to consider these errors.
The hardened on-chip EDCRC circuitry allows you to perform the following operations
without any impact on the fitting or performance of the device:
•
Auto-detection of cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors during configuration.
•
Optional soft errors (SEU and multiple bit upset) detection and identification in
user mode.
•
Fast soft error detection. The error detection speed is improved.
•
Two types of check-bits:
—
Frame-based check-bits—stored in CRAM and used to verify the integrity of
the frame.
—
Column-based check-bits—stored in registers and used to protect integrity of
all frames.
During error detection in user mode, a number of EDCRC engines run in parallel for
Arria 10 devices. The number of error detection CRC engines depends on the frame
length—total bits in a frame.
Each column-based error detection CRC engine reads 128 bits from each frame and
processes within four cycles. To detect errors, the error detection CRC engine needs to
read back all frames.
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Figure 164. Block Diagram for Error Detection in User Mode
The block diagram shows the registers and data flow in user mode.
Readback
Bitstream
Correction
Syndrome Error Detection Pattern
CRC
Calculation
Search Engine
Write Back to
CRAM for Correction
CRC_ERROR
Error Message Register
JTAG Update User Update
Register
Register
Table 106.
HPS Update
Register
JTAG Shift
Register
User Shift
Register
HPS Shift
Register
JTAG
TDO
General
Routing
HPS
Output
Error Detection Registers
Name
Description
Error message registers (EMR)
Contains error details for single-bit and double-adjacent errors. The error detection
circuitry updates this register each time the circuitry detects an error.
User update register
This register is automatically updated with the contents of the EMR one clock cycle
after the contents of this register are validated. The user update register includes a
clock enable, which must be asserted before its contents are written to the user shift
register. This requirement ensures that the user update register is not overwritten
when its contents are being read by the user shift register.
User shift register
This register allows user logic to access the contents of the user update register via the
core interface.
You can use the Altera Error Message Register Unloader IP core to shift-out the EMR
information through user shift register. For more information, please refer to related
information.
JTAG update register
This register is automatically updated with the contents of the EMR one clock cycle
after the content of this register is validated. The JTAG update register includes a clock
enable, which must be asserted before its contents are written to the JTAG shift
register. This requirement ensures that the JTAG update register is not overwritten
when its contents are being read by the JTAG shift register.
JTAG shift register
This register allows you to access the contents of the JTAG update register via the
JTAG interface using the SHIFT_EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction.
Hard Processor System (HPS)
update register
This register is automatically updated with the contents of the EMR one clock cycle
after the content of this register is validated. The (HPS) update register includes a
clock enable, which must be asserted before its contents are written to the HPS shift
register. This requirement ensures that the HPS update register is not overwritten
when its contents are being read by the HPS shift register.
HPS shift register
This register allows you to access the contents of the HPS update register via the HPS
interface.
Related Links
•
Altera Error Message Register Unloader IP Core User Guide
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8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices
Provides more information about using the user shift register to shift-out the
EMR.
•
FPGA Manager Address Map and Register Definitions in Arria 10 Hard Processor
System Technical Reference Manual
Provides more information about using hard processor system to read the error
detection registers.
8.2.2.1.1 Column-Based and Frame-Based Check-Bits
Figure 165. Column-Based and Frame-Based Check-Bits
128-Bits
Data
128-Bits
Data
128-Bits
Data
128-Bits
Data
32-Bits Frame-Based
Check-Bits
32-Bits Frame-Based
Check-Bits
32-Bits Frame-Based
Check-Bits
128-Bits
Data
Frame 1
Frame 2
32-Bits Frame-Based
Last Frame
Check-Bits
32-Bits Column-Based
Check-Bits
Last Column
32-Bits Column-Based
Check-Bits
Column 0
Frame 0
Column 1
EDCRC Check-Bits Updates
Frame-based check-bits are calculated on-chip during configuration. Column-based
check-bits are updated after configuration.
When you enable the EDCRC feature, after the device enters user mode, the EDCRC
function starts reading CRAM frames. The data collected from the read-back frame is
validated against the frame-based check-bits.
After the initial frame-based verification is completed, the column-based check-bits
will be calculated based on the respective column CRAM. The EDCRC hard block will
recalculate the column-based check-bits in one of the following scenarios:
•
FPGA re-configuration
•
After successful partial reconfiguration (PR) session
•
After configuration via protocol (CvP) session
8.2.2.1.2 Error Message Register
The EMR contains information on the error type, the location of the error, and the
actual syndrome. This register is 78 bits wide in Arria 10 Device. The EMR does not
identify the location bits for uncorrectable errors. The location of the errors consists of
the frame number, double word location and bit location within the frame and column.
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You can shift out the contents of the register through the following:
•
EMR Unloader IP core—core interface
•
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction—JTAG interface
•
HPS Shift register—HPS interface
Figure 166. Error Message Register Map
MSB
LSB
Frame Address Column-Based Column-Based Column-Based
Double Word
Bit
Type
16 bits
2 bits
5 bits
3 bits
Frame-Based Frame-Based
Syndrome Double Word
32 bits
10 bits
Frame-Based
Bit
Frame-Based
Type
Reserved
Column-CheckBit Update
5 bits
3 bits
1 bit
1 bit
Column-Based Fields
Frame-Based Fields
Table 107.
Error Message Register Width and Description
Name
Frame Address
Width (Bits)
16
Description
Frame Number of the error location
Column-Based Double Word
2
There are 4 double words per frame in a column. It indicates the
double word location of the error
Column-Based Bits
5
Error location within 32-bit double word
Column-Based Type
3
Types of error shown in Table 108 on page 279
Frame-Based syndrome register
32
Contains the 32-bit CRC signature calculated for the current frame. If
the CRC value is 0, the CRC_ERROR pin is driven low to indicate no
error. Otherwise, the pin is pulled high.
Frame-Based Double Word
10
Double word location within the CRAM frame.
Frame-Based Bit
5
Error location within 32-bit double word
Frame-Based Type
3
Types of error shown in Table 108 on page 279
Reserved
1
Reserved bit
Column-Based Check-Bits Update
1
Logic high if there is error encountered during the column check-bits
update stage. The CRC_ERROR pin will be asserted and stay high
until the FPGA is reconfigured.
Retrieving Error Information
You can retrieve the EMR contents via the core interface or the JTAG interface using
the SHIFT_EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction. Intel provides the Error Message Register
Unloader IP Core that unload EMR content via core interface and allows it to be shared
between several design component.
Related Links
Altera Error Message Register Unloader IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about using the user shift register to shift-out the EMR.
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Error Type in EMR
Table 108.
Error Type in EMR
The following table lists the possible error types reported in the error type field in the EMR.
Error Types
Frame-based
Column-Based
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Description
0
0
0
No error
0
0
1
Single-bit error
0
1
X
Double-adjacent error
1
1
1
Uncorrectable error
0
0
0
No error
0
0
1
Single bit error
0
1
X
Double-adjacent error in a same frame
1
0
X
Double-adjacent error in a different frame
1
1
0
Double-adjacent error in a different frame
1
1
1
Uncorrectable error
8.2.2.1.3 CRC_ERROR Pin Behavior
The Arria 10 fast EDCRC feature runs all the column-based check-bits engine in
parallel. When an SEU is detected, the column-based check-bits asserts the
CRC_ERROR, the detected frame location is then passed to the frame-based check-bits
to further localize the affected bit. This process causes the CRC_ERROR pin to assert
twice. Column-based check-bits assert the first CRC_ERROR pulse and followed by the
frame-based check-bits asserting the second pulse.
In Arria 10, as soon as an SEU is detected, the CRC_ERROR will be asserted high and
remains high until the EMR is ready to be read. You can unload the EMR data as soon
as the CRC_ERROR pin goes low. Once EMR data is unloaded, can determine the error
type and the affected location. With these information you can decide how your
system response to the specific SEU event.
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8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices
Figure 167. Fast EDCRC Process Flow Chart
EDCRC Running
Start EDCRC ColumnBased Error Scan
NO
Start EDCRC FrameBased Error Scan
Error
Detected?
YES
Find Frame
Location(s)
CRC_ERROR Asserted
CRC_ERROR Asserted
Update EMR FrameBased Fields
Find Frame Location
CRC_ERROR Deasserted
Update EMR ColumnBased Fields
NO
CRC_ERROR Deasserted
YES
YES
Error
Correctable?
Error
Correctable?
Error Correction
NO
Figure 168. Timing Diagram for Column-Based Check-Bits
If the error is correctable, in most cases, there will be a second pulse in a single SEU
event .There are cases where the error is uncorrectable when the CRC_ERROR pin
asserts 2 pulses, refer to Correctable and Uncorrectable Error for complete correctable
and uncorrectable error cases. The complete EMR will only be available at the falling
edge of the second pulse.
EMR for the Second Frame (1)
One SEU Event
Column-Based Check-Bits
Assertion Time
Duration to expect 2nd
pulse triggered by
Frame-Based
Check-Bits
Frame-Based
Check-Bits
Assertion Time
CRC ERROR Pin
Column-Based
Error Detected
Column-Based EMR
is Available
(1) In a rare event of correctable double-adjacent error located in different frames.
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Complete EMR is Available
Unload EMR Starts
Unload EMR Ends
8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices
In the rare event of an uncorrectable and un-locatable error, the CRC_ERROR signal is
asserted only once. There will be no second pulse assertion by frame-based check-bits
due to the uncorrectable error location cannot be located. The statistical likelihood of
uncorrectable multi-bit SEU is less than one in 10,000 years for a device in typical
environmental conditions.
Figure 169. Timing Diagram for Column-Based or Frame-Based Check-Bits
Example of CRC_ERROR pin behavior for column-based/frame-based check-bits with a
single pulse observed in one SEU event.
Column-Based/Frame-Based Check-Bits
Assertion Time
CRC ERROR Pin
Column-Based/Frame-Based
Error Detected
Unload EMR
Starts
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about CRC_ERROR connection guidelines.
8.2.2.2 SEU Sensitivity
Reconfiguring a running FPGA has a significant impact on the system using the FPGA.
When planning for SEU recovery, account for the time required to bring the FPGA to a
state consistent with the current state of the system. For example, if an internal state
machine is in an illegal state, it may require reset. In addition, the surrounding logic
may need to account for this unexpected operation.
Often an SEU impacts CRAM bits not used by the implemented design. Many
configuration bits are not used because they control logic and routing wires that are
not used in a design. Depending on the implementation, 40% of all CRAM bits can be
used even in the most heavily utilized devices. This means that only 40% of SEU
events require intervention, and you can ignore 60% of SEU events. The utilized bits
are considered as critical bits while the non-utilized bits are considered as non-critical
bits.
You can determine that portions of the implemented design are not utilized in the
FPGA’s function. Examples may include test circuitry implemented but not important to
the operation of the device, or other non-critical functions that may be logged but do
not need to be reprogrammed or reset.
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Figure 170. Sensitivity Processing Flow
Normal
Operation
CRAM CRC
Error?
no
yes
Notify
System
Look Up Sensitivity
of CRAM Bit
Critical Bit?
no
yes
Take Corrective
Action
8.2.2.3 Hierarchy Tagging
Hierarchy tagging is the process of classifying the sensitivity of the portions of your
design.
You can perform hierarchy tagging using the Quartus Prime software by creating a
design partition, and then assigning the parameter Advanced SEU Detection (ASD)
Region to that partition. The parameter can assume a value from 0 to 15, so there are
16 different classifications of system responses to the portions of your design.
The design hierarchy sensitivity processing depends on the contents of the Sensitivity
Map Header file (.smh). This file determines which portion of the FPGA's logic design
is sensitive to a CRAM bit flip. You can use sensitivity information from the .smh file to
determine the correct (least disruptive) recovery sequence.
To generate the functionally valid .smh, you must designate the sensitivity of the
design from a functional logic view, using the hierarchy tagging procedure.
Related Links
Altera Advanced SEU Detection IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about hierarchy tagging using Altera Advanced SEU
Detection IP core.
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8.2.2.4 Evaluating Your System’s Response to Functional Upsets
The ratio of SEU strikes versus functional interrupts is the Single Event Functional
Interrupt (SEFI) ratio. Minimizing this ratio improves SEU mitigation. SEUs can
randomly strike any memory element, system testing is important to ensure a
comprehensive recovery response.
You can use fault injection to aid in SEU recovery response. The fault injection feature
allows you to operate the FPGA in your system and inject random CRAM bit flips to
test the ability of the FPGA and the system to detect and recover fully from an SEU.
You should be able to observe your FPGA and your system recover from these
simulated SEU strikes. You can then refine your FPGA and system recovery sequence
by observing these strikes. You can determine the SEFI rate of your design by using
the fault injection feature.
Related Links
•
Altera Fault Injection IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about injecting soft error to simulate SEU using
Altera Fault Injection IP Core.
•
Debugging Single Event Upset Using the Fault Injection Debugger
Provides more information about using Fault Injection Debugger.
8.2.2.5 Recovering from CRC Errors
Arria 10 devices support the internal scrubbing capability. The internal scrubbing
feature corrects correctable CRAM upsets automatically when an upset is detected.
However, internal scrubbing can not fix the FPGA to a known good state. The time
between the error and completion of scrubbing can be tens of millisecond. This
duration represents thousands of clock cycles in which data was legally written to
memories, or status registers. It is a good practice to always follow any SEU event
with a soft-reset to bring the FPGA operation to a known good state.
If a soft-reset is unable to bring the FPGA to a known good state, you can reconfigure
the device to rewrite the CRAM and reinitialize the design registers. The system that
hosts the Arria 10 device must control the device reconfiguration. When
reconfiguration completes successfully, the Arria 10 device operates as intended.
Related Links
Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades for Arria 10 Devices
Provides more information about configuration sequence.
8.2.2.5.1 Enabling Error Correction (Internal Scrubbing)
Arria 10 supports the internal scrubbing feature to automatically scrub away the
flipped bit induced by the SEU. To enable the internal scrubbing feature, follow these
steps:
1. On the Assignments menu, click Device.
2. Click Device and Pin Options and select the Error Detection CRC tab.
3.
Turn on Enable internal scrubbing.
4. Click OK.
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8.3 Specifications
This section lists the error detection frequencies and CRC calculation time for error
detection in user mode.
8.3.1 Error Detection Frequency
When you are unable to unload the EMR within the EMR update interval specification,
you can reduce the error detection frequency. You can control the speed of the error
detection process by setting the division factor of the clock frequency in the Quartus
Prime software.
Note:
There is no significant power benefited from reducing the error detection frequency.
The speed of the error detection process for each data frame is determined by the
following equation:
Figure 171. Error Detection Frequency Equation
Error Detection Frequency
Table 109.
=
Internal Oscillator Frequency
N
Error Detection Frequency Range for Arria 10 Devices
The following table lists the FMIN and FMAX for each speed grade.
Note:
Frequencies shown are when N = 1. For N = 2 or 4, divide the frequency shown accordingly.
Speed Grade
Error Detection Frequency
fMIN
fMAX
1
49
77
2
45
77
3
42
77
8.3.2 Error Detection Time
The time taken to detect the SEU error relative to the actual SEU event. This is
determined by the device in use and the frequency of the error detection clock.
Table 110.
CRC Calculation Time in Arria 10 Devices
Error detection timeMaximum = Error detection time x
Error Detection Frequency fMAX
( Error Detection Frequency f ) x N
MIN
Error detection timeMinimum = Error detection time x N
•
Speed grade 1: N=1, 2 or 4.
•
Speed grade 2 and 3: N=2 or 4 only.
Variant
Density
Error Detection Time (ms)
GX/SX
160 / 220
14.29
270 / 320
14.29
continued...
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Variant
GX/ GT
Density
Error Detection Time (ms)
480
21.13
570/ 660
27.84
900 / 1150
27.84
8.3.3 EMR Update Interval
You must unload the EMR data within the minimum EMR Update Interval to avoid the
current EMR data from being overwritten by the information of the next error.
However, Altera EMR Unloader IP Core can handle this by ensuring no EMR data loss
during unloading process. The IP core will detect the loss of EMR information by
flagging the emr_error signal.
The interval between each update of the error message register depends on the
device and the frequency of the error detection clock.
Table 111.
Estimated EMR Update Interval in Arria 10 Devices
EMR update interval Maximum = EMR update interval x
Error Detection Frequency fMAX
( Error Detection Frequency f ) x N
MIN
EMR update intervalMinimum = EMR update interval x N
•
Speed grade 1: N=1, 2 or 4.
•
Speed grade 2 and 3: N=2 or 4 only.
Variant
Density
EMR Update Interval (ms)
GX/SX
160 / 220
0.28
270 / 320
0.28
480
0.41
570/ 660
0.54
900 / 1150
0.55
GX/ GT
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8.3.4 Error Correction Time
Arria 10 offers fast error correction capability, the correction time for each device
variant are shown in the following table.
Table 112.
Error Correction Time
Note:
Error Detection Frequency fMAX
( Error Detection Frequency f ) x N
Correction timeMaximum
= Correction time x
Correction timeMinimum
= Correction time x N
MIN
•
Speed grade 1: N=1, 2 or 4.
•
Speed grade 2 and 3: N=2 or 4 only.
Variant
Density
Correction Time (µs)
GX/SX
160/220
19.73
270/320
27.62
480
27.21
570/660
27.21
900/1150
39.68
GX/GT
8.4 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2017
2017.03.15
Rebranded as Intel.
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
•
•
•
December 2015
2015.12.14
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Edited Error Detection Cyclic Redundancy Check.
Updated CRC check bit instances to column-based check-bits and framebased check-bits.
Updated Error Message Register Map figure.
Added Fast EDCRC Process Flow Chartfigure.
Added note stating that there is no significant power benefit from reducing
error detection frequency.
Updated chapter structure.
Added Error Correction Time specification.
Added brief description and external related information link for Embedded
Memory, Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support, SEU Sensitivity,
Hierarchy Tagging, and Evaluating your System Response to SEU.
Updated divisor value in Error Detection Frequency.
Updated Error Detection Frequency Range table showing fMAX and fMIN.
Updated Estimated EMR Update Interval and CRC Calculation Time table.
Added equation for EMR update interval and CRC calculation time.
November 2015
2015.11.02
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.15
Updated links to Altera EMR Unloader IP Core User Guide, Altera Fault
Injection IP Core User Guide and Altera Advance SEU Detection IP Core User
Guide.
continued...
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
286
8 SEU Mitigation for Arria 10 Devices
Date
May 2015
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Added links to Altera EMR Unloader IP Core User Guide, Altera Fault
Injection IP Core User Guide and Altera Advance SEU Detection IP Core
User Guide.
Updated CRC_ERROR pin behavior to included column-based and framebased CRC error detection and frame-based only CRC error detection.
Updated column-based type in 'Error Type in EMR' at Bit 0.
Editorial changes.
Updated the divisor value and range for error detection frequency.
Updated CRC calculation time by including speed grade and rearranged
accordingly.
Updated EMR update interval.
Updated Error Message Register Map and registers in Error Detection in
User Mode block diagram.
January 2015
2015.01.23
•
•
•
Added EMR timing interval.
Added CRC calculation time.
Added timing diagram
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
Updated the Error Detection Features section.
Updated the Configuration Error Detection section to revise the CRC value.
Updated the User Mode Error Detection section to add in the check bits
calculation for error detection CRC.
Updated the CRC_ERROR Pin Behavior section.
Updated the Retrieving Error Information section.
Updated the CRC_ERROR Pin section to update the pin description.
Updated Table 8-4 to updated the description of the frame-based
syndrome register, user update register, and user shift register.
Updated Table 8-5 to update the error types naming to frame-based and
column-based types.
•
•
•
•
•
December 2013
2013.12.02
Initial release.
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
This chapter describes the boundary-scan test (BST) features in Arria 10 devices.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
9.1 BST Operation Control
Arria 10 GX, Arria 10 GT, and Arria 10 SX devices support IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST and
IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST. You can perform BST on Arria 10 devices before, after, and
during configuration.
9.1.1 IDCODE
The IDCODE is unique for each Arria 10 device. Use this code to identify the devices in
a JTAG chain.
Table 113.
IDCODE Information for Arria 10 Devices
Variant
Arria 10 GX
Arria 10 GT
Arria 10 SX
Product Line
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Version (4 Bits)
Part Number (16 Bits)
Manufacture
Identity (11
Bits)
LSB (1
Bit)
GX 160
0000
0010 1110 1110 0010
000 0110 1110
1
GX 220
0000
0010 1110 0010 0010
000 0110 1110
1
GX 270
0000
0010 1110 1110 0011
000 0110 1110
1
GX 320
0000
0010 1110 0010 0011
000 0110 1110
1
GX 480
0000
0010 1110 0010 0100
000 0110 1110
1
GX 570
0000
0010 1110 1110 0101
000 0110 1110
1
GX 660
0000
0010 1110 0010 0101
000 0110 1110
1
GX 900
0000
0010 1110 1110 0110
000 0110 1110
1
GX 1150
0000
0010 1110 0110 0110
000 0110 1110
1
GT 900
0000
0010 1110 0010 0110
000 0110 1110
1
GT 1150
0000
0010 1110 0000 0110
000 0110 1110
1
SX 160
0000
0010 1110 0110 0010
000 0110 1110
1
SX 220
0000
0010 1110 0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
SX 270
0000
0010 1110 0110 0011
000 0110 1110
1
continued...
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Variant
Product Line
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Version (4 Bits)
Part Number (16 Bits)
Manufacture
Identity (11
Bits)
LSB (1
Bit)
SX 320
0000
0010 1110 0000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
SX 480
0000
0010 1110 0000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
SX 570
0000
0010 1110 0110 0101
000 0110 1110
1
SX 660
0000
0010 1110 0000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
9.1.2 Supported JTAG Instruction
Table 114.
JTAG Instructions Supported by Arria 10 Devices
JTAG Instruction
SAMPLE39/PRELOAD
Instruction Code
00 0000 0101
Description
•
•
EXTEST
00 0000 1111
•
•
BYPASS
11 1111 1111
•
•
USERCODE
00 0000 0111
Allows you to capture and examine
a snapshot of signals at the device
pins during normal device operation
and permits an initial data pattern
to be an output at the device pins.
Use this instruction to preload the
test pattern into the update
registers before loading the EXTEST
instruction.
Allows you to test the external
circuit and board-level
interconnects by forcing a test
pattern at the output pins, and
capturing the test results at the
input pins. Forcing known logic high
and low levels on output pins allows
you to detect opens and shorts at
the pins of any device in the scan
chain.
The high-impedance state of
EXTEST is overridden by bus hold
and weak pull-up resistor features.
Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal device operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the BST
data to pass synchronously through
the selected devices to adjacent
devices.
You will get a '0' reading in the
bypass register out.
Selects the 32-bit USERCODE register
and places it between the TDI and TDO
pins to allow serial shifting of
USERCODE out of TDO.
continued...
39 The SAMPLE JTAG instruction is not supported for high-speed serial interface (HSSI) pins.
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
JTAG Instruction
IDCODE
Instruction Code
00 0000 0110
Description
•
Identifies the devices in a JTAG
chain. If you select IDCODE, the
device identification register is
loaded with the 32-bit
vendor-defined identification code.
•
Selects the IDCODE register and
places it between the TDI and TDO
pins to allow serial shifting of
IDCODE out of TDO.
•
IDCODE is the default instruction at
power up and in the TAP RESET
state. Without loading any
instructions, you can go to the
SHIFT_DR state and shift out the
JTAG device ID.
HIGHZ
00 0000 1011
•
•
•
CLAMP
00 0000 1010
•
•
Sets all user I/O pins to an inactive
drive state.
Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal operation, the 1-bit
bypass register allows the BST data
to pass synchronously through the
selected devices to adjacent
devices while tri-stating all I/O pins
until a new JTAG instruction is
executed.
If you are testing the device after
configuration, the programmable
weak pull-up resistor or the bus
hold feature overrides the HIGHZ
value at the pin.
Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal operation, the 1-bit
bypass register allows the BST data
to pass synchronously through the
selected devices to adjacent
devices while holding the I/O pins
to a state defined by the data in the
boundary-scan register.
If you are testing the device after
configuration, the programmable
weak pull-up resistor or the bus
hold feature overrides the CLAMP
value at the pin. The CLAMP value
is the value stored in the update
register of the boundary-scan cell
(BSC).
PULSE_NCONFIG
00 0000 0001
Emulates pulsing the nCONFIG pin low
to trigger reconfiguration even though
the physical pin is not affected.
EXTEST_PULSE
00 1000 1111
Enables board-level connectivity
checking between the transmitters and
receivers that are AC coupled by
generating three output transitions:
continued...
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
•
•
•
Driver drives data on the falling
edge of TCK in the UPDATE_IR/DR
state.
Driver drives inverted data on the
falling edge of TCK after entering
the RUN_TEST/IDLE state.
Driver drives data on the falling
edge of TCK after leaving the
RUN_TEST/IDLE state.
EXTEST_TRAIN
00 0100 1111
Behaves the same as the
EXTEST_PULSE instruction except that
the output continues to toggle on the
TCK falling edge as long as the TAP
controller is in the RUN_TEST/IDLE
state.
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG
00 0001 0111
The JTAG instruction connects the EMR
to the JTAGpin in the error detection
block between the TDI and TDO pins.
Note:
If the device is in a reset state and the nCONFIG or nSTATUS signal is low, the device
IDCODE might not be read correctly. To read the device IDCODE correctly, you must
issue the IDCODE JTAG instruction only when the nCONFIG and nSTATUS signals are
high.
9.1.3 JTAG Secure Mode
In the JTAG secure mode, the JTAG pins support only the BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD,
EXTEST, and IDCODE JTAG instructions.
Related Links
JTAG Secure Mode in AN 556
Provides more information about JTAG Secure Mode
9.1.4 JTAG Private Instruction
Caution:
Never invoke the following instruction codes. These instructions can damage and
render the device unusable:
•
1100010000
•
1100010011
•
0111100000
•
0101011110
•
0000101010
•
0011100000
•
0000101010
•
0101000001
•
1110000001
•
0001010101
•
1010100001
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
9.2 I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation
The Arria 10 device operating in IEEE Std. 1149.1 and IEEE Std. 1149.6 mode uses
four required JTAG pins—TDI, TDO, TMS, TCK, and one optional pin, TRST.
The TCK pin has an internal weak pull-down resistor, while the TDI, TMS, and TRST
pins have internal weak pull-up resistors. The 1.8-, 1.5-, or 1.2-V VCCPGM supply
powers the TDI, TDO, TMS, TCK, and TRST pins. All user I/O pins are tri-stated during
JTAG configuration.
The JTAG pins support 1.8 V, 1.5V, and 1.2V TTL/CMOS I/O standard. For any
voltages higher than 1.8 V, you have to use level shifter. The output voltage of the
level shifter for the JTAG pins must be the same as set for the VCCPGM supply.
Note:
Do not drive a signal with a voltage higher than 1.8-, 1.5-, and 1.2-V VCCPGM supply
for the TDI, TMS, TCK, and TRST pins. The voltage supplies for TDI, TMS, TCK, and
TRST input pins must be the same as set for the VCCPGM supply.
Table 115.
TDO Output Buffer
TDO Output Buffer
Voltage (V)
VCCPGM
1.8
1.5
1.2
VOH (MIN)
1.7
1.4
1.1
9.3 Performing BST
You can issue BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE JTAG instructions before, after, or during
configuration without having to interrupt configuration.
To issue other JTAG instructions, follow these guidelines:
•
To perform testing before configuration, hold the nCONFIG pin low.
•
To perform BST during configuration, issue CONFIG_IO JTAG instruction to
interrupt configuration. While configuration is interrupted, you can issue other
JTAG instructions to perform BST. After BST is completed, issue the
PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction or pulse nCONFIG low to reconfigure the device.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins on
Arria 10 devices do not affect JTAG boundary-scan or configuration operations.
Toggling these pins does not disrupt BST operation (other than the expected BST
behavior).
If you design a board for JTAG configuration of Arria 10 devices, consider the
connections for the dedicated configuration pins.
Note:
For SoC devices, JTAG connections in the FPGA block and JTAG connections in the HPS
block are chained to the Arria 10 device. JTAG connections in the FPGA have higher
priority over the JTAG connections in the HPS block.
Note:
If you perform the HIGHZ JTAG instruction before or during configuration, you need to
pull the nIO_PULLUP pin to high to disable the internal weak pull-up resistors in the
I/O elements. If you perform this JTAG instruction during user mode, you can pull high
or pull low the nIO_PULLUP pin.
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Note:
If you perform BST during user mode, you are not able to capture the correct values
for the PR_ENABLE, CRC_ERROR, and CVP_CONFDONE pins when these pins are not
used as user I/O pins.
Note:
You can perform JTAG BST only when both nCONFIG and nSTATUS goes high after
power-up.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about pin connections.
•
JTAG Configuration
Provides more information about JTAG configuration timing.
•
JTAG Configuration
Provides more information about JTAG configuration timing.
•
JTAG Configuration on page 243
9.4 Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry is enabled after the Arria 10 device powers up.
However for Arria 10 SoC FPGAs, you must power up both HPS and FPGA to perform
BST.
To ensure that you do not inadvertently enable the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry when it
is not required, disable the circuitry permanently with pin connections as listed in the
following table.
Table 117.
Pin Connections to Permanently Disable the IEEE Std. 1149.1 Circuitry for
Arria 10 Devices
JTAG Pins41
Connection for Disabling
TMS
VCCPGM
TCK
GND
TDI
VCCPGM
TDO
Leave open
TRST
GND
41 The JTAG pins are dedicated. Software option is not available to disable JTAG in Arria 10
devices.
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
9.5 Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing
Consider the following guidelines when you perform BST with IEEE Std. 1149.1
devices:
•
If the “10...” pattern does not shift out of the instruction register through the TDO
pin during the first clock cycle of the SHIFT_IR state, the TAP controller did not
reach the proper state. To solve this problem, try one of the following procedures:
—
Verify that the TAP controller has reached the SHIFT_IR state correctly. To
advance the TAP controller to the SHIFT_IR state, return to the RESET state
and send the 01100 code to the TMS pin.
—
Check the connections to the VCC, GND, JTAG, and dedicated configuration
pins on the device.
•
Perform a SAMPLE/PRELOAD test cycle before the first EXTEST test cycle to
ensure that known data is present at the device pins when you enter EXTEST
mode. If the OEJ update register contains 0, the data in the OUTJ update register
is driven out. The state must be known and correct to avoid contention with other
devices in the system.
•
Do not perform EXTEST testing during in-circuit reconfiguration because EXTEST
is not supported during in-circuit reconfiguration. To perform testing, wait for the
configuration to complete or issue the CONFIG_IO instruction to interrupt
configuration.
•
After configuration, you cannot test any pins in a differential pin pair. To perform
BST after configuration, edit and redefine the BSC group that correspond to these
differential pin pairs as an internal cell.
Related Links
IEEE 1149.1 BSDL Files
Provides more information about the BSC group definitions.
9.6 IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register
The boundary-scan register is a large serial shift register that uses the TDI pin as an
input and the TDO pin as an output. The boundary-scan register consists of 3-bit
peripheral elements that are associated with Arria 10 I/O pins. You can use the
boundary-scan register to test external pin connections or to capture internal data.
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294
9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 172. Boundary-Scan Register
This figure shows how test data is serially shifted around the periphery of the
IEEE Std. 1149.1 device.
Each peripheral
element is either an
I/O pin, dedicated
input pin, or
dedicated
configuration pin.
Internal Logic
TAP Controller
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
9.6.1 Boundary-Scan Cells of an Arria 10 Device I/O Pin
The Arria 10 device 3-bit BSC consists of the following registers:
•
Capture registers—Connect to internal device data through the OUTJ, OEJ, and
PIN_IN signals.
•
Update registers—Connect to external data through the PIN_OUT and PIN_OE
signals.
The TAP controller generates the global control signals for the IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST
registers (shift, clock, and update) internally. A decode of the instruction register
generates the MODE signal.
The data signal path for the boundary-scan register runs from the serial data in (SDI)
signal to the serial data out (SDO) signal. The scan register begins at the TDI pin and
ends at the TDO pin of the device.
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 173. User I/O BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry for Arria 10 Devices
SDO
INJ
From or
to device
I/O circuitry
and/or
logic array
PIN_IN
0
1
D Q
Input
D Q
Input
0
1
D
D
OE
OE
0
1
D Q
Output
D Q
Output
CLK
UPDATE
Capture
Registers
Update
Registers
Input
Buffer
0
1
RDEBUG
OEJ
Q
Q
0
1 1
OUTJ
SHIFT SDIN
HIGHZ
MODE
0
1
PIN_OE
0
1
PIN_OUT
Pad
Output
Buffer
Global
Signals
Note:
TDI, TDO, TMS, TCK, TRST, VCC, GND, VREF, VSIGP, VSIGN, TEMPDIODE, and RREF
pins do not have BSCs.
Table 118.
Boundary-Scan Cell Descriptions for Arria 10 Devices
This table lists the capture and update register capabilities of all BSCs within Arria 10 devices.
Captures
Pin Type
Output
Capture
Register
OE Capture
Register
Drives
Input
Capture
Register
Output
Update
Register
OE Update
Register
Comments
Input
Update
Register
User I/O pins
OUTJ
OEJ
PIN_IN
PIN_OUT
PIN_OE
INJ
—
Dedicated
clock input
No Connect
(N.C.)
N.C.
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN
Dedicated
input
N.C.
N.C.
drives to the
clock
network or
logic array
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN
drives to the
control logic
continued...
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Pin Type
Captures
Output
Capture
Register
Dedicated
bidirectional
(open
drain)42
0
Dedicated
bidirectional4
OUTJ
Dedicated
output44
OUTJ
Drives
OE Capture
Register
OEJ
Input
Capture
Register
PIN_IN
Output
Update
Register
N.C.
OE Update
Register
N.C.
Comments
Input
Update
Register
N.C.
PIN_IN
drives to the
configuration
control
OEJ
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN
drives to the
configuration
control and
OUTJ drives
to the output
buffer
3
0
0
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
OUTJ drives
to the output
buffer
9.6.2 IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register
The BSCs for HSSI transmitters (GXB_TX[p,n]) and receivers/input clock buffers
(GXB_RX[p,n])/(REFCLK[p,n]) in Arria 10 devices are different from the BSCs for
the I/O pins.
Note:
You have to use the EXTEST_PULSE JTAG instruction for AC-coupling on HSSI
transceiver. Do not use the EXTEST JTAG instruction for AC-coupling on HSSI
transceiver. You can perform AC JTAG on the Arria 10 device before, after, and during
configuration.
42 This includes the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins.
43 This includes the DCLK pin.
44 This includes the nCEO pin.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
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9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 174. HSSI Transmitter BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST Circuitry for Arria 10
Devices
PMA
SDOUT
BSCAN
AC JTAG
Output Buffer
0
BSTX1
0
D
D
Q
Q
OE
1
1
Pad
Mission
0
D
D
Q
Q
(DATAOUT)
0
1
BSOEB
1
TX_BUF_OE
Tx Output
Buffer
nOE
Pad
OE Logic
MORHZ
ACJTAG_BUF_OE
0
0
D
D
Q
OE
BSTX0
Q
1
1
MEM_INIT SDIN
AC JTAG
Output Buffer
CLK
SHIFT
UPDATE
HIGHZ
Update
Registers
Capture
Registers
AC_TEST
AC_MODE
MODE
Figure 175. HSSI Receiver/Input Clock Buffer with IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST Circuitry for
Arria 10 Devices
SDOUT
BSCAN
PMA
BSRX1
AC JTAG Test
Receiver
Hysteretic
Memory
0
D
BSOUT1
Q
Pad
Mission (DATAIN)
Optional INTEST/RUNBIST
not supported
1
RX Input
Buffer
Pad
BSRX0
0
D
AC JTAG Test
Receiver
BSOUT0
Q
Hysteretic
Memory
1
HIGHZ
SDIN
SHIFT
CLK
AC_TEST
UPDATE
MEM_INIT
MODE
Capture
Registers
AC_MODE
Update
Registers
9.7 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2017
2017.03.15
Rebranded as Intel.
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
Updated IDCODE.
Added note about SAMPLE instruction is not available for HSSI pins.
continued...
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298
9 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Arria 10 Devices
Date
December
Version
2015.12.14
Changes
•
Updated User I/O BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry for Arria 10
Devices figure.
•
Added SHIFT_EDERROR_REG in Supported JTAG instruction table.
November 2015
2015.11.02
Added note to state that JTAG BST can be performed after nSTATUS and
nCONFIG are high.
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
•
December 2013
2013.12.02
Updated the JTAG Private Instruction section to add a new instruction
code.
Updated the I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation section to update the TDO
output buffer details.
Updated the Performing BST section to add a note on performing BST in
user mode.
Updated the Boundary-Scan Cells of an Arria 10 Device I/O Pin section.
Initial release.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
299
10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
This chapter describes the power consumption, power reduction techniques, power
sense line feature, on-chip voltage sensor, internal and external temperature sensing
diode (TSD), power-on reset (POR) requirements, power-up and power-down
sequencing requirements, and power supply design.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Arria 10 Device Handbook chapters.
•
PowerPlay Power Analysis chapter in volume 3 of the Quartus Prime Handbook
Provides more information about the Quartus Prime PowerPlay Power Analyzer
tool.
•
Recommended Operating Conditions
Provides more information about the recommended operating conditions of
each power supply.
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides detailed information about power supply pin connection guidelines and
power regulator sharing.
•
Board Design Resource Center
Provides detailed information about power supply design requirements.
•
PowerPlay Early Power Estimators (EPE) and Power Analyzer
Provides more information about the power supplies and the current
requirements for each power rail.
•
Intel Power Management PowerSoC Solutions
Provides more information about Intel's Power Management IC and PowerSoC
solutions designed for powering FPGAs.
10.1 Power Consumption
The total power consumption of an Arria 10 device consists of the following
components:
•
Static power—the power that the configured device consumes when powered up
but no user clocks are operating.
•
Dynamic power— the additional power consumption of the device due to signal
activity or toggling.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
10.1.1 Dynamic Power Equation
Figure 176. Dynamic Power
The following equation shows how to calculate dynamic power where P is power, C is
the load capacitance, and V is the supply voltage level. The frequency refers to the
clock frequency and data toggles once every clock cycle.
The equation shows that power is design-dependent and is determined by the
operating frequency of your design. Arria 10 devices minimize static and dynamic
power using advanced process optimizations. These optimizations allow Arria 10
designs to meet specific performance requirements with the lowest possible power.
10.2 Power Reduction Techniques
Arria 10 devices leverage on advanced 20nm process technology, an enhanced core
architecture, and optimization to reduce total power consumption. The optional power
reduction techniques listed below are offered and supported in the Arria 10 PowerPlay
Early Power Estimator (EPE), which can be used to estimate the power reduction
impact by enabling each of them in an Arria 10 design.
•
SmartVID
•
Programmable Power Technology
•
Low Static Power Device Grades
10.2.1 SmartVID
The SmartVID feature allows a power regulator to provide the Arria 10 device with a
lower VCC and VCCP voltage level while maintaining the performance of the specific
device speed grade. Operating the Arria 10 device at lower than nominal VCC and VCCP
voltage levels reduces total power consumption. The minimum voltage level required
by Arria 10 devices is programmed into a fuse block during device manufacturing.
Intel provides an IP core to read these values and communicate them to an external
power regulator or system power controller. This feature is supported in –2 and –3
speed grades devices with –V power option only.
When the SmartVID feature is used, Arria 10 devices need to be powered up at
nominal voltage level. During configuration and partial reconfiguration modes, Arria 10
devices continue to operate at nominal voltage level. Upon entering user mode, the
Arria 10 device can operate at a lower voltage as in the fuse block. The error detection
cyclic redundancy check (EDCRC) feature is supported for –2 speed grade devices
even when the SmartVID feature is used. However, for other speed grades, Arria 10
devices need to operate at nominal voltage when performing the EDCRC feature. The
scrubbing and partial reconfiguration features are supported only when the device is
operated at nominal voltage.
Related Links
•
Power Reduction Features in Arria 10 Devices
•
SmartVID Controller IP Core User Guide
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10.2.2 Programmable Power Technology
Arria 10 devices offer the ability to configure portions of the core, called tiles, for highspeed or low-power mode of operation. This configuration is performed by the Quartus
Prime software automatically and without the need for user intervention. Setting a tile
to high-speed or low-power mode is accomplished with on-chip circuitry and does not
require extra power supplies. In a design compilation, the Quartus Prime software
determines whether a tile should be in high-speed or low-power mode based on the
timing constraints of the design.
Arria 10 tiles consist of the following:
•
Memory logic array block (MLAB)/ logic array block (LAB) pairs with routing to the
pair
•
MLAB/LAB pairs with routing to the pair and to adjacent digital signal processing
(DSP)/ memory block routing
•
TriMatrix memory blocks
•
DSP blocks
All blocks and routing associated with the tile share the same setting of either highspeed or low-power mode. By default, tiles that include DSP blocks or memory blocks
are set to high-speed mode for optimum performance. Unused DSP blocks and
memory blocks are set to low-power mode to minimize static power. Unused M20K
blocks are set to sleep mode by disabling VCCERAM to reduce static power. Clock
networks do not support programmable power technology.
With programmable power technology, faster speed grade FPGAs may require less
static power compared with FPGA devices without programmable power technology.
For device with programmable power technology, critical path is a small portion of the
design. Therefore, there are fewer high-speed MLAB and LAB pairs in high-speed
mode. For device without programmable power technology, the whole FPGA has to be
over designed to meet the timing at critical path.
The Quartus Prime software sets unused device resources in the design to low-power
mode to reduce the static power. It also sets the following resources to low-power
mode when they are not used in the design:
•
LABs and MLABs
•
TriMatrix memory blocks
•
DSP blocks
If a phase-locked loop (PLL) is instantiated in the design, you may assert the areset
pin high to keep the PLL in low-power mode.
Table 119.
Programmable Power Capabilities for Arria 10 Devices
This table lists the available Arria 10 programmable power capabilities. Speed grade considerations can add to
the permutations to give you flexibility in designing your system.
Feature
Programmable Power Technology
LAB
Yes
Routing
Yes
continued...
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Feature
Programmable Power Technology
Memory Blocks
Fixed setting
45
DSP Blocks
Fixed setting
45
Clock Networks
No
Related Links
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about the required voltage levels for each power rail.
10.2.3 Low Static Power Device Grades
Intel offers some Arria 10 device grades that consume lower static power than
standard power devices while maintaining performance. The low static power device
grades feature is only offered for selected devices with the power option 'L'.
Related Links
Arria 10 Device Variants and Packages
Provides more information about the ordering code.
10.2.4 SmartVID Feature Implementation
The implementation of the SmartVID feature consists of 7-bit VID that is programmed
into a fuse block during device manufacturing.
The 7-bit VID represents a voltage level in the range of 0.85 V to 0.9 V. Each device
has its own specific 7-bit VID. You can read the 7-bit VID using the SmartVID
Controller IP core. You have the option to enable or disable the VID bit reading.
The 7-bit VID is read from the fuse block and sent to the external regulator or system
power controller through the Intel FPGA-supported interface. Upon receiving the 7-bit
VID value, an adjustable regulator tunes down the VCC and VCCP voltage levels to a
lower voltage as specified by the 7-bit VID. Multiple interface methods are supported
for the Arria 10 device to communicate the VID value to an external regulator or
system power controller. The first method to be available is the 7-bit parallel interface.
Intel offers external regulators and system power controllers that support the
SmartVID feature and are compatible with the multiple interfaces methods utilized by
the Arria 10 device.
The 7-Bit Parallel Interface Solution
The 7-bit parallel solution is a parallel VID bit interface that is supported by Intel. This
interface requires seven I/O pins for seven parallel VID bits and one pin for the
VID_EN to communicate with the external regulator.
Intel recommends you to use the RZQ_2A pin for the VID_EN function. If bank 2A is
used for DDR interface, and the RZQ_2A pin must be used for calibration purpose, you
can use other available general-purpose I/O pins for the VID_EN pin function. Before
45 Tiles with DSP blocks and memory blocks that are used in the design are always set to highspeed mode. By default, unused DSP blocks and memory blocks are set to low-power mode.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
the VID_EN pin is asserted, you need to ensure the I/O bank that hosts the VID_EN
pin and VID pins are powered up. Connect the VID_EN pin to a 1-kΩ pull-down
resistor.
The VID pins need to be tri-stated during power-up and before the VID_EN pin is
asserted. Intel recommends using a level shifter to isolate the VID signals and voltage
regulator controller. This is because some of the VID bit settings may exceed the
maximum VCC and VCCP values.
Figure 177. External Interface Connection for the 7-Bit Parallel Solution
7-bit parallel VID
IP Core
Regulator
VCC and VCCP
power supplies
RZQ_2A pin
Fuse
FPGA
The following table lists the regulator requirement to meet the Intel SmartVID
solution.
Table 120.
Regulator Requirement for Intel SmartVID Solution
Specification
Voltage range
Voltage step
Value
46
0.82 V – 0.93 V
10 mV step
VCC power supply
VID input
10 W – 100 W
7-bit VID
Nominal voltage
0.85 V – 0.9 V
Ramp time
0.5 mV/us
VID_EN pin
1 pin
47
Related Links
SmartVID Controller IP Core User Guide
46 This voltage range is the output of the regulator to the Arria 10 device, inclusive of tolerance.
47 The nominal device power-up voltage is 0.9 V.
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10.3 Power Sense Line
Arria 10 devices support the power sense line feature. VCCLSENSE and GNDSENSE
pins are differential remote sense pins to monitor the VCC power supply.
Intel recommends connecting the VCCLSENSE and GNDSENSE pins for regulators that
support the power sense line feature. The following lists the required conditions to
connect VCCLSENSE and GNDSENSE lines to the regulator's remote sense inputs:
•
The VCC or VCCP current is > 30A.
•
The SmartVID feature is used.
10.4 Voltage Sensor
Arria 10 supports an on-chip voltage sensor. The voltage sensor provides a 6-bit
digital representation of the analog signal being observed. The voltage sensor
monitors two external differential inputs and six internal power supplies as shown in
the following figure. To get the ADC input, the VCCPT voltage value is divided by two.
To get the actual VCCPT voltage value, multiply the ADC output by two.
Figure 178. Voltage Sensor
Two External
Differential
Inputs
VSIGP_0
VSIGN_0
VSIGP_1
VSIGN_1
V CC
V CCP
Six Internal
V CCPT
Power
Supplies V CCERAM
V CCL_HPS
ADCGND
V REFP_ADC
6-Bit ADC
500 ksps
6-Bit Output
Channel
Status
Register
FPGA Core
V REFN_ADC
ADCGND
The conversion speed of the ADC is 500 ksps cumulative. When multiple channels are
used, the speed per channel is reduced accordingly.
Note:
VREFP_ADC pins consume very little current, most of the current drawn is attributed
to the leakage current, which is less than 10 µA. For VREFN_ADC pins, the current is
less than 0.1 mA.
For better ADC performance, tie VREFP_ADC and VREFN_ADC pins to an external 1.25
V accurate reference source (±0.2%). An on-chip reference source (±10%) is
activated by connecting the VREFP_ADC pin to GND. Treat VREFN_ADC as an analog
signal together with the VREFP_ADC signal provides a differential 1.25 V voltage.
Connect both VREFP_ADC and VREFN_ADC pins to GND if no external reference is
supplied.
Related Links
Altera Voltage Sensor IP Core User Guide
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10.4.1 Input Signal Range for External Analog Signal
You can configure the ADC to measure unipolar analog external input signal.
10.4.1.1 Unipolar Input Mode
In unipolar input mode, the voltage on the VSIGP pin which is measured with respect
to the VSIGN pin must always be positive. The VSIGP input must always be driven by
an external analog signal. The VSIGN pin is connected to a local ground or common
mode signal.
10.4.2 Using Voltage Sensor in Arria 10 Devices
You can use the voltage sensor feature to monitor critical on-chip power supplies and
external analog voltage. The voltage sensor block for Arria 10 devices supports access
from the FPGA core. The following sections describe the flow in using the voltage
sensor for Arria 10 devices.
Figure 179. Voltage Sensor Components
confin
clk
Configuration
Register
ch_sel[3:0]
corectl
reset
clk
Signals from
Control Block
Logic
CONV_BEGIN
Internal ADCCLK
2 External
Inputs
V sigp/n_0
V sigp/n_1
VCC
VCCP
6 Internal
VCCPT
Power Supplies VCCERAM
VCCHPS
ADCGND
eos
State Machine
CH0
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
6 Bits
500 KSPS
ADC
eoc
6 Bits Output
Register Address
Multiplexer
Result0
Result1
Result2
Result3
Result4
Result5
Result6
Result7
ch_sel[3:0]
dataout[5:0]
Multiplexer
10.4.2.1 Accessing the Voltage Sensor Using FPGA Core Access
During user mode, you can implement a soft IP to access the voltage sensor block. To
access the voltage sensor block from the core fabric, you need to include the following
WYSIWYG atom in your Quartus Prime project:
Example 1.
WYSIWYG Atom to Access the Voltage Sensor Block
twentynm_vsblock<name>
(
.clk (<input>, clock signal from core),
.reset(<input>, reset signal from core),
.corectl(<input>, core enable signal from core),
.coreconfig(<input>, config signal from core),
.confin(<input>, config data signal from core),
.chsel(<input>, 4 bits channel selection signal from core),
.eoc(<output>, end of conversion signal from vsblock),
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
.eos(<output>, end of sequence signal from vsblock),
.dataout(<output>, 12 bits data out of vsblock)
);
Table 121.
Description for the Voltage Sensor Block WYSIWYG
Port Name
Type
Description
clk
Input
Clock signal from the core. The voltage sensor supports up to 11MHz clock.
reset
Input
Active high reset signal. The reset signal has to asynchronously
transition from high-to-low for the voltage sensor to start
conversion. All registers are cleared and the internal voltage sensor
clock is gated off when the reset signal is high.
corectl
Input
Active high signal. "1" indicates the voltage sensor is enabled for
core access. "0" indicates the voltage sensor is disabled for core
access.
coreconfig
Input
Serial configuration signal. Active high.
confin
Input
Serial input data from the core to configure the configuration
register. The configuration register for the core access mode is 8bit wide. LSB is the first bit shifted in.
chsel[3:0]
Input
4-bit channel address. Specifying the channel to be converted.
eoc
Output
Indicates the end of the conversion. This signal is asserted after
the conversion of each channel data.
eos
Output
Indicates the end of sequence. This signal is asserted after the
completion of the conversion in one cycle of the selected sequence.
dataout[11:0]
Output
•
•
dataout[11:6]—6-bit output data.
dataout[5:0]—Reserved.
10.4.2.1.1 Configuration Registers for the Core Access Mode
The core access configuration register is an 8-bit register.
Figure 180. Core Access Configuration Register
Table 122.
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
NA
CAL
NA
NA
BU1
BU0
MD1
MD0
Description for the Core Access Configuration Register
Bit Number
Bit Name
Description
D0
MD0
D1
MD1
D2
BU0
Channel 0—Register bit that indicate channel 0. Set to "0" for
unipolar selection.
D3
BU1
Channel 1—Register bit that indicate channel 1. Set to "0" for
unipolar selection.
Mode select for channel sequencer:
• MD[1:0]=2'b00—channel sequencer cycles from channel 2 to
channel 7
• MD[1:0]=2'b01—channel sequencer cycles from channel 0 to
channel 7
• MD[1:0]=2'b10—channel sequencer cycles from channel 0 to
channel 1
• MD[1:0]=2'b11—controlled by IP core. Specify the channel to
be converted on chsel[3:0].
continued...
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Bit Number
Bit Name
Description
D4
NA
Reserved. Set to "0".
D5
NA
Reserved. Set to "0".
D6
CAL
Calibration enable bit. "0" indicates calibration is off, "1" indicates
calibration is on. The calibration result is not included in the final
12-bit converted data when calibration is off.
D7
NA
Reserved. Set to "0".
10.4.2.1.2 Accessing the Voltage Sensor in the Core Access Mode when MD[1:0] is not
Equal to 2'b11
The following timing diagram shows the requirement of the IP core to access the
voltage sensor in the core access mode when MD[1:0] is not equal to 2'b11.
Figure 181. Timing Diagram when MD[1:0] is not Equal to 2'b11
clk
corectl
Minimum 2 Clock Pulse
reset
Minimum 2 Clock Pulse
22 Cycles
coreconfig
confin
22 Cycles
22 Cycles
Configuration Data (8 bit)
eos
eoc
Core Sample Data
dataout[5:0]
Core Sample Data
Core Sample Data
Previous Data
First Converted Data
1
2
3
4
5
Second Converted Data
6
Last Converted Data
7
1. Low-to-high transition for the corectl signal enables the core access mode.
Wait for a minimum of two clock pulses before proceeding to step 2.
2.
De-asserting the reset signal releases the voltage sensor from the reset state.
Wait for a minimum two clock pulses before proceeding to step 3.
3.
Configure the voltage sensor by writing into the configuration registers and
asserting the coreconfig signal for eight clock cycles. The configuration register
for the core access mode is 8-bit wide and configuration data is shifted in serially
into the configuration register.
4.
The coreconfig signal going low indicates the start of the conversion based on
the configuration defined in the configuration register.
5.
Poll the eoc and eos status signals to check if conversion for the first channel
defined by MD[1:0] is completed. Latch the output data on the dataout[5:0]
signal at the falling edge of the eoc signal.
6. Poll the eoc and eos status signals to check if conversion for the subsequent
channels defined by MD[1:0] are completed. Latch the output data on the
dataout[5:0] signal at the falling edge of the eoc signal.
7.
Repeat step 6 until the eos signal is asserted, indicating the completion of the
conversion of one cycle on the channels specified by MD[1:0].
a.
Both the eoc and eos signals are asserted on the same clock cycle when the
voltage sensor completes the conversion for the last channel.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
b.
8.
To interrupt the operation of the voltage sensor by writing into the
configuration register can only be done after one cycle of the eos signal is
over.
When is sequence is completed, and if the corectl and reset signals remain
unchanged, the conversion will repeat the same sequence again until corectl is
0 and reset is 1. If you want to measure other sequence, repeat step 2 to step 7.
10.4.2.1.3 Accessing the Voltage Sensor in the Core Access Mode when MD[1:0] is Equal
to 2'b11
The following timing diagram shows the requirement of the IP core to access the
voltage sensor in the core access mode when MD[1:0] is equal to 2'b11.
Figure 182. Timing Diagram when MD[1:0] is Equal to 2'b11
clk
corectl
Minimum 2 Clock Pulse
reset
Minimum 2 Clock Pulse
22 Cycles
coreconfig
confin
22 Cycles
22 Cycles
Configuration Data (8 bit)
chsel[3:0]
First chsel
Second chsel
Subsequent chsel
eoc/eos
Core Sample Data
Core Sample Data
Core Sample Data
dataout[5:0]
Converted Data
for First chsel
1
1.
2
3
4
5
6
Converted Data
for Second chsel
7
Converted Data
for Subsequent chsel
8
Low-to-high transition for the corectl signal enables the core access mode.
Wait for a minimum of two clock pulses before proceeding to step 2.
2. De-asserting the reset signal releases the voltage sensor from the reset state.
Wait for a minimum two clock pulses before proceeding to step 3.
3. Configure the voltage sensor by writing into the configuration registers and
asserting the coreconfig signal for eight clock cycles. The configuration register
for the core access mode is 8-bit wide and configuration data is shifted in serially
into the configuration register.
4. Specify the channel for conversion on the chsel[3:0] signal. Data on the
chsel[3:0] signal needs to be ready before the coreconfig signal is deasserted.
5. The coreconfig signal going low indicates the start of the conversion based on
the configuration defined in the configuration register and the chsel[3:0] signal.
6.
Specify the next channel for conversion on the chsel[3:0] signal. Data on the
chsel[3:0] signal needs to be ready one cycle before the eoc signal asserts.
Poll the eoc and eos status signals to check if conversion for the first channel
defined by the chsel[3:0] signal in step 4 is completed. Latch the output data
on the dataout[5:0] signal at the falling edge of the eoc signal.
7.
Repeat step 6 for all the subsequent channels.
10.4.2.2 Voltage Sensor Transfer Function
The following figure shows the voltage sensor transfer function for the unipolar mode.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 183. Voltage Sensor Transfer Function for the Unipolar Mode
03F
03E
6-bit Output
Code (Hex)
006
005
004
003
1250
1230.4
97.6
117.2
78.1
58.6
39.0
19.5
002
001
000
Input Voltage (mv)
10.5 Temperature Sensing Diode
The Arria 10 temperature sensing diode (TSD) uses the characteristics of a PN junction
diode to determine die temperature. Knowing the junction temperature is crucial for
thermal management. You can calculate junction temperature using ambient or case
temperature, junction-to-ambient (ja) or junction-to-case (jc) thermal resistance, and
device power consumption. Arria 10 devices monitor its die temperature with the
internal TSD with built-in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuitry or the external
TSD with an external temperature sensor. This allows you to control the air flow to the
device.
Related Links
Altera Temperature Sensor IP Core User Guide
10.5.1 Internal Temperature Sensing Diode
The Arria 10 device supports an internal TSD with a built-in 10-bit ADC circuitry to
monitor die temperature. The Arria 10 device uses a set of NPN transistors to sense
the temperature and generates its own reference voltage for conversion. The
conversion speed of the internal TSD is around 1 ksps.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 184. Internal TSD Block Diagram
This power is sourced
from VCCA_PLL
VCCADC
Temperature
Sensor Diode
Using NPN
Transistors
10-Bit ADC
Circuitry
1 ksps
10-Bit Output
Temperature
Data
Registers
FPGA Core
ADCGND
To read the temperature of the die during user mode, assert the CORECTL signal from
low to high. Active high RESET signal is used to reset the registers at any time. The
ADC circuitry takes 1,024 clock cycles to complete one conversion. The EOC signal
goes high for one clock cycle indicating completion of the conversion. The FPGA core
reads out the data on the TEMPOUT[9:0] signal at the falling edge of the EOC signal.
Figure 185. Internal TSD Timing Diagram
1,024 Cycles
ADCCLK
POR
EOC
TEMPOUT[9:0]
Previous Data
Current Data
Core
Samples
Data
RESET
CORECTL
Related Links
•
Internal Temperature Sensing Diode Specifications
Provides more information about the Arria 10 internal TSD specification.
•
Altera Temperature Sensor IP Core User Guide
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
10.5.1.1 Transfer Function for Internal TSD
The following figure shows the transfer function for internal TSD.
Figure 186. ADC Transfer Function
576
431
10 Bit
Output
(Dec)
337
-40 -39.4
25
124.4 125
Temperature (° C)
You can calculate the temperature from tempout[9:0] value using this formula:
Temperature = {(AxC)÷1024} - B
Where:
•
A = 693
•
B = 265
•
C = decimal value of tempout[9..0]
10.5.2 External Temperature Sensing Diode
The Arria 10 external TSD requires two pins for voltage reference. The following figure
shows how to connect the external TSD with an external temperature sensor device to
allow external sensing of the Arria 10 die temperature.
Figure 187. TSD External Pin Connections
External TSD
TEMPDIODEP
External
Temperature
Sensor
FPGA
TEMPDIODEN
The TSD is a very sensitive circuit that can be influenced by noise coupled from other
traces on the board or within the device package itself, depending on your device
usage. The interfacing signal from the Arria 10 device to the external temperature
sensor is based on millivolts (mV) of difference, as seen at the external TSD pins.
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Switching the I/O near the TSD pins can affect the temperature reading. Intel
recommends taking temperature readings during periods of inactivity in the device or
use the internal TSD with built-in ADC circuitry.
The following are board connection guidelines for the TSD external pin connections:
•
The maximum trace lengths for the TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN traces must be
less than eight inches.
•
Route both traces in parallel and place them close to each other with grounded
guard tracks on each side.
•
Intel recommends 10-mils width and space for both traces.
•
Route traces through a minimum number of vias and crossunders to minimize the
thermocouple effects.
•
Ensure that the number of vias are the same on both traces.
•
Ensure both traces are approximately the same length.
•
Avoid coupling with toggling signals (for example, clocks and I/O) by having the
GND plane between the diode traces and the high frequency signals.
•
For high-frequency noise filtering, place an external capacitor (close to the
external chip) between the TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN trace. For Maxim devices,
use an external capacitor between 2200 pF and 3300 pF.
•
Place a 0.1 uF bypass capacitor close to the external device.
•
You can use the internal TSD with built-in ADC circuitry and external TSD at the
same time.
•
If you only use internal ADC circuitry, the external TSD pins (TEMPDIODEP/
TEMPDIODEN) can be connected to GND because the external TSD pins are not
used.
For details about device specification and connection guidelines, refer to the external
temperature sensor device datasheet from the device manufacturer.
Related Links
•
External Temperature Sensing Diode Specifications
Provides details about the external TSD specification.
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides details about the TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN pin connection when you
are not using an external TSD.
10.6 Power-On Reset Circuitry
The POR circuitry keeps the Arria 10 device in the reset state until the power supply
outputs are within the recommended operating range.
A POR event occurs when you power up the Arria 10 device until all power supplies
reach the recommended operating range within the maximum power supply ramp
time, tRAMP. If tRAMP is not met, the Arria 10 device I/O pins and programming
registers remain tri-stated, during which device configuration could fail.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 188. Relationship Between tRAMP and POR Delay
Volts
POR trip level
first power
supply
last power
supply
Time
POR delay
tRAMP
configuration
time
The Arria 10 POR circuitry uses an individual detecting circuitry to monitor each of the
configuration-related power supplies independently. The main POR circuitry is gated by
the outputs of all the individual detectors. The main POR signal is asserted when the
power starts to ramp up. This signal is released after the last ramp-up power reaches
the POR trip level followed by a POR delay. You can select the fast or standard POR
delay time by setting the MSEL pin.
For the configuration via protocol (CvP) configuration scheme, the total ramp time
must be less than 10 ms, from the first power supply ramp-up to the last power
supply ramp-up. You must select fast POR to allow sufficient time for the PCIe* link
initialization and configuration.
In user mode, the main POR signal is asserted when any of the monitored power
supplies go below its POR trip level. Asserting the POR signal forces the device into the
reset state.
The POR circuitry checks the functionality of the I/O level shifters powered by the
VCCPT and VCCPGM power supplies during power-up mode. The main POR circuitry waits
for all the individual POR circuitries to release the POR signal before allowing the
control block to start programming the device.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 189. Simplified POR Diagram for Arria 10 Devices
V CC
V CCBAT
V CC POR
Modular
Main POR
V CCBAT POR
Main POR
V CCPGM
Related Links
•
POR Specifications
Provides more information about the POR delay specification.
•
MSEL Pin Settings
Provides more information about the MSEL pin settings for each POR delay.
•
Recommended Operating Conditions
Provides more information about the power supply ramp time.
10.6.1 Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
Table 123.
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the Arria 10 POR Circuitry
Power Supplies Monitored
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Note:
VCCBAT
VCC
VCCIO 48
VCCERAM
VCCP
VCCPT
VCCPGM
VCCL_HPS5049
Power Supplies Not Monitored
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCCH_GXB
VCCR_GXB
VCCT_GXB
VCCA_PLL
VCCIO_HPS50
VCCPLL_HPS 50
For the device to exit POR, you must power the VCCBAT power supply even if you do
not use the volatile key.
10.7 Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences
Arria 10 devices require power-up and power-down sequences. The power sequence is
divided into three power groups.
48 Only for VCCIO of bank 2A.
49 VCCL_HPS is a power supply monitored for the HPS block only and does not gate the main POR.
If you do not use the HPS block, connect VCCL_HPS to GND.
50 These are only supported by system-on-a-chip (SoC) FPGA.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Note:
Do not drive the I/O pins externally during the power-up and power-down time to
avoid excess current on the I/O pins:
Table 124.
•
Excess I/O pin current affects the device's lifetime and reliability.
•
Excess current on the 3 V I/O pins can damage the Arria 10 device.
Power Groups Ramping Sequence
Power Group
Order to Ramp
Power Up
Group 1
First
Conditions
Power Down
Last
•
•
•
Group 2
Second
Second
•
•
•
•
Group 3
Third
First
•
•
During power up, all power rails in Group 1 must ramp up to 90%
of the nominal voltage before any other power rails from Group 2
can start to ramp up. If the VCC and VCCP voltage levels are
different from VCCT_GXB, VCCR_GXB, and/or VCCERAM, ramp up VCC
and VCCP first to 90% of the nominal voltage. Next, ramp up
VCCT_GXB, VCCR_GXB, and VCCERAM in any order.
During power down, VCC in Group 1 must ramp down last.
VCC, VCCP, and VCCERAM must be tied to the same regulator unless
you are using the SmartVID feature, where VCCERAM must be
sourced from a separate regulator.
During power up, all power rails in Group 2 must ramp up to 90%
of the nominal voltage before any other power rails from Group 3
can start to ramp up.
During power down, all power rails in Group 2 must ramp down
10% of the nominal voltage before any other power rails from
Group 1 can start to ramp down.
Power rails within Group 2 can ramp in any order.
VCCIO, VCCPGM, and VCCIO_HPS in Group 3 may ramp together with
the other power rails in Group 2, only if these power rails are
1.8V and sharing the same regulator with Group 2.
During power down, all power rails in Group 3 must ramp down
to 10% of the nominal voltage before any other power rails from
Group 2 can start to ramp down.
Power rails within Group 3 can ramp in any order.
If you cannot adhere to the full power-down sequence, you must fulfill these
conditions during power down to minimize any unwanted behavior seen by the FPGA:
•
Power down Group 1 last
•
Avoid board level power surge and glitch in all power rails
The power-down sequence is the reverse of the power-up sequence. When the proper
power sequence is followed, I/O pins are tri-stated during power-up or power-down.
For power down, ensure that all power rails are powered down within 100 ms from the
start of the power-down sequence.
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 190. Power-Up Sequence Requirement for Arria 10 Devices
All the power rails in Group 3 may ramp together with other power rails in Group 2,
only if these power rails are 1.8V and sharing the same regulator with Group 2.
Power-Up
Sequence Requirement
Group 1
V CC , V CCP ,
V CCR_GXB ,
V CCT_GXB ,
V CCERAM ,
V CCL_HPS
Group 2
V CCPT ,
V CCH_GXB ,
V CCA_PLL ,
V CCPLL_HPS ,
V CCIOREF_HPS
These are only
supported by
system-on-a-chip
(SoC) FPGA
Group 3
90% of nominal voltage
Group 1
90% of nominal voltage
V CCPGM ,
V CCIO ,
V CCIO_HPS
Group 2
Group 3
Figure 191. Power-Down Sequence Requirement for Arria 10 Devices
All the power rails in Group 3 may ramp together with other power rails in Group 2,
only if these power rails are 1.8V and sharing the same regulator with Group 2.
Power-Down
Sequence Requirement
Group 1
V CC , V CCP ,
V CCR_GXB ,
V CCT_GXB ,
V CCERAM ,
V CCL_HPS
Group 2
V CCPT ,
V CCH_GXB ,
V CCA_PLL ,
V CCPLL_HPS ,
V CCIOREF_HPS
These are only
supported by
system-on-a-chip
(SoC) FPGA
Group 3
V CCPGM ,
V CCIO ,
V CCIO_HPS
Group 1
Group 2
10% of nominal voltage
10% of nominal voltage
Group 3
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Figure 192. Power-Down Sequence Requirement for Arria 10 Devices Only If All of the
Power Rails in Group 3 are 1.8V and Sharing the Same Regulator with Group
2
Power-Down
Sequence Requirement
Group 1
V CC , V CCP ,
V CCR_GXB ,
V CCT_GXB ,
V CCERAM ,
V CCL_HPS
Group 2
V CCPT ,
V CCH_GXB ,
V CCA_PLL ,
V CCPLL_HPS ,
V CCIOREF_HPS
These are only
supported by
system-on-a-chip
(SoC) FPGA
Group 3
V CCPGM ,
V CCIO ,
V CCIO_HPS
Group 1
Group 2
10% of nominal voltage
10% of nominal voltage
Group 3
Sharing the same regulator with
Group 2 power rails when all power
rails in Group 3 are 1.8V
Note:
VCCBAT can be powered up or powered down at any order during the power-up or
power-down sequence.
All power rails must ramp monotonically. Ramp all the power rails to the nominal
voltage level within the tRAMP time as specified in the device datasheet. The power-up
sequence must meet either the standard or fast POR delay time.
10.8 Power Supply Design
The power supply requirements for Arria 10 devices will vary depending on the static
and dynamic power for each specific use case. To reduce dynamic power of the Arria
10 device to a negligible amount before power down, hold the nCONFIG pin low to
force the Arria 10 device into a reset stage. Intel’s Enpirion® portfolio of power
management solutions, combined with comprehensive design tools, enable optimized
Arria 10 device power supply design. The Enpirion portfolio includes power
management solutions that are compatible with the multiple interface methods utilized
by the Arria 10 device and designed to support Arria 10 power reduction features such
as the SmartVID feature.
Arria 10 devices have multiple input voltage rails that require a regulated power
supply in order to operate. Multiple input rail requirements may be grouped according
to system considerations such as voltage requirements, noise sensitivity, and
sequencing. The Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
provides a more detailed recommendation about which input rails may be grouped.
The PowerPlay Early Power Estimators (EPE) tool for Arria 10 devices also seamlessly
and automatically provides input rail power requirements and specific device
recommendations based on each specific Arria 10 use case. Individual input rail
voltage and current requirements are summarized on the “Report” tab while input rail
groupings and specific power supply recommendations can be found on the “Main” and
“Enpirion” tabs, respectively.
Related Links
•
Arria 10 GX, GT, and SX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
318
10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Provides detailed information about power supply pin connection guidelines and
power regulator sharing.
•
PowerPlay Early Power Estimators (EPE) and Power Analyzer
Provides more information about the power supplies and the current
requirements for each power rail.
•
Intel FPGA Power Management PowerSoC Solutions
Provides more information about Intel's Power Management IC and PowerSoC
solutions designed for powering FPGAs.
•
Power Delivery Network (PDN) Tool for Arria 10 and MAX 10 Devices
10.9 Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2017
2017.03.15
•
•
Rebranded as Intel.
Updated the Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences section.
October 2016
2016.10.31
•
•
•
Removed the link to AN692.
Updated the Description for the Voltage Sensor Block WYSIWYG table.
Updated the topic about power-up and power-down sequences to stress
that excess I/O pin current can affect device reliability and damage the
device.
June 2016
2016.06.13
•
Updated the value of the VID_EN pin in the Regulator Requirement for
Altera SmartVID Solution table.
Updated the Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences section to include
more information for the power-down sequence.
Added the Voltage Sensor Transfer Function for the Unipolar Mode
figure.
•
•
May 2016
2016.05.02
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
December 2015
2015.12.14
Updated the WYSIWYG Atom to Access the Voltage Sensor Block
example.
Updated the voltage range and nominal voltage range in the Regulator
Requirement for Altera SmartVID Solution table.
Updated the Description for the Voltage Sensor Block WYSIWYG table.
Updated the Description for the Core Access Configuration Register
table.
Updated the condition for the Group 1 power-up sequence in the Power
Groups Ramping Sequence table.
Updated the requirement for the CvP configuration scheme in the
Power-On Reset Circuitry section.
Removed support for the VCC PowerManager feature.
•
Added a note to VCCIO and VCCL_HPS power rails in the Power Supplies
Monitored and Not Monitored by the Arria 10 POR Circuitry table.
•
Updated the RESET and CORECTL signals of the Internal TSD Timing
Diagram figure.
Updated the formula for the ADC Transfer Function.
Updated the supported speed grades devices for the SmartVID feature.
Updated the conditions for Group 1 in the Power Groups Ramping
Sequence table.
Updated the Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences section.
Updated the Voltage Sensor section.
Updated the External Temperature Sensing Diode section.
Removed the Bipolar Input Mode support from the Voltage Sensor
feature.
Removed the JTAG Access Mode support from the Voltage Sensor
feature.
Removed the Voltage Sensor Transfer Function section.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
continued...
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10 Power Management in Arria 10 Devices
Date
Version
Changes
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
•
Updated the ADC Transfer Function figure.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.15
•
Added a note to describe the current for the VREFP_ADC and
VREFN_ADC pins in the Voltage Sensor section.
•
Updated the ADC Transfer Function figure.
•
Updated the Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences with requirements
for the power-down sequence for each group of power rails.
May 2015
2015.05.04
•
Updated the description of the config port in Table 10-4.
•
Updated the Transfer Function for Internal TSD section with the formula
to calculate temperature from the tempout[9:0] value.
•
Updated the supported parallel VID bit interface to 7 bit in the
SmartVID and VCC PowerManager Features Implementation section.
Updated the note to the voltage range of the SmartVID and VCC
PowerManager, in which the range includes tolerance.
Updated the on-chip reference source to ±10%.
•
•
January 2015
2015.01.23
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
August 2014
2014.08.18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
December 2013
2013.12.02
Updated the Unipolar Input Mode section.
Updated the on-chip reference source for the VREFP_ADC pin in the
Voltage Sensor section.
Updated the steps in the Accessing the Voltage Sensor Using JTAG
Access section.
Updated the description for reset and corectl ports in the
Description for the Voltage Sensor Block WYSIWYG table.
Updated the Internal Temperature Sensing Diode section on how to
read the temperature of the die during user mode.
Updated the Timing Diagram when MD[1:0] is not Equal to 2'b11
figure.
Updated the Timing Diagram when MD[1:0] is Equal to 2'b11 figure.
Updated the Internal TSD Timing Diagram figure.
Added the SmartVID and VCC PowerManager Features Implementation
section.
Added the Using Voltage Sensor in Arria 10 Devices section.
Added the Transfer Function for Internal TSD section.
Added the Power Supply Design section.
Updated the Dynamic Power Equation section.
Updated the Power Reduction Techniques section.
Updated the SmartVID section.
Updated the Programmable Power Technology section.
Updated the Voltage Sensor section.
Updated the Power-Up and Power-Down Sequence section.
Initial release.
Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook
320
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