Canvas 12 User Guide
User Guide
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The information in this manual is distributed on an "As Is" basis, without any representation or
warranty of any kind whether express or implied, including any implied warranty of merchantability,
title or fitness for a particular purpose or use. While every precaution was taken in the preparation of
this manual, neither the author nor ACD Systems of America, Inc. shall have any liability to any
person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or
indirectly in connection with the use or inability to use the instructions contained in this manual. ACD
Systems reserves the right to make changes to this manual without notice.
Trademarks and Copyrights
Canvas Software was designed, programmed and is Copyright © 2010 ACD Systems of America, Inc.
Canvas, SpriteEffects, SpriteLayers, Dynamic Objects, SmartMouse, and SmartLines are trademarks
of ACD Systems of America, Inc. and may be registered in certain jurisdictions. All Rights Reserved
Worldwide.
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used under license by ACD Systems of America, Inc.
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countries.
Canon is a registered trademark of Canon Inc. Code by Niles Ritter, Copyright © 1995 Niles D. Ritter.
Contains an implementation of the LZW algorithm licensed under U.S. Patent 4,558,302 and foreign
counterparts.
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FONTS are registered trademarks of URW++ Design & Development GmbH.
Canvas 12 User Guide
GeoSpatial Data Abstraction Library, Copyright © 2000, Frank Warmerdam.
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Kodak Color Management System and Photo CD are trademarks and KODAK is a registered trademark
of Eastman Kodak Company.
libTIFF,Copyright © 1988-1997 Sam Leffler, Copyright © 1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Oracle ® Outside In Viewer Technology. Copyright 2010 Oracle, and/or its affiliates. All rights
reserved
PANTONE® Computer Video simulations used in this product may not match PANTONE-identified
solid color standards. Use current PANTONE Color Reference Manuals for accurate color.
PANTONE Color Computer Graphics © Pantone, Inc. 1986, 1988.
Pantone, Inc. is the copyright owner of PANTONE Color Computer Graphics and Software which are
licensed to ACD Systems of America, Inc to distribute for use only in combination with Canvas.
PANTONE Color Computer Graphics and Software shall not be copied onto another diskette or into
memory unless as part of the execution of Canvas.
Shapefile C Library Copyright © 1999, Frank Warmerdam.
The Proximity/Merriam-Webster Hyphenation System ©1990 Merriam-Webster, ©1990 All rights
reserved Proximity Technology, Inc.
This software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group.
This software contains portions of imaging code owned and copyrighted by Pegasus Imaging Corp.,
Tampa FL, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Copyright
Manual Copyright © 2010 ACD Systems of America, Inc. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
This manual may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or converted to any electronic
or machine readable form in whole or in part without prior written consent of ACD Systems of
America, Inc.
Canvas was designed, programmed and is Copyright © 2010 ACD Systems of America, Inc. All Rights
Reserved Worldwide. Software is covered by a separate license agreement.
First Edition: July 2010
Part Number: C0710-0007-EN
Contact Information
ACD Systems of America
www.acdsee.com
Contents
C H AP TER 1 : I NTROD U C TI ON
1
Welcome To Canvas 12
2
What's New In Canvas 12
2
Technical Illustration And Enhancement With Greater Control
3
Even Greater Workflow Integration
4
Additional Capabilities For Publishing, Presenting And Collaborating
9
Enhanced Usability
About The Documentation
10
11
Keyboard Keys
11
Choosing Commands
11
Contacting ACD Systems And Updating Canvas
12
Enter License Code
12
Product Support And Resources
12
Customer Support
13
Product Registration
13
Community
13
Related Products
13
Purchase Canvas
13
Verify Document
13
Getting Help With Canvas
13
Using The Help
13
Showing The Startup Screen
14
Using The Canvas Assistant
14
Using The Dynamic Help
14
C H AP TER 2 : D OC U MENTS AND S ETU P
Running Canvas
17
18
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Starting And Exiting Canvas
18
Overview Of The Canvas Interface
19
Canvas Window
19
Layout Area
21
Document Navigation Controls
21
Viewing The Smart Toolbox
22
Using AutoSnap Palettes
25
Using The Toolbar
27
Using The Properties Bar
28
Using The Docking Bar
33
Using The Docking Pane
36
Dynamic Help
37
Using The Status Bar
38
Viewing Documents
39
Changing The View Magnification
41
Using Expressions For Numeric Values
45
Using Context-sensitive Menus
46
Document Basics
vi
47
Opening Canvas Documents
47
Placing Documents
49
Saving Canvas Documents
50
Saving Files
51
Saving Selections And Layers
51
Applying Password Protection To Canvas Documents
52
Undoing, Redoing, And Repeating Actions
53
Reverting To The Saved Version Of A Document
55
Working With Document Windows
55
Viewing And Editing Document Properties
56
Printing Documents
58
Closing Documents
Document Setup
68
68
Creating New Documents
68
Illustrations
70
Publications
70
Presentations
71
Animations
71
Setting Up Documents
72
Setting Up Rulers
74
Document Scale Methods
77
Using The Alignment Grid
80
Using Alignment Guides
81
Document Layout
About Document Pages And Layers
82
83
Pages
83
Layers
83
Master Pages
84
Using The Page Navigator Palette
85
Using The Document Layout Palette
85
Page And Layer Controls
90
Page And Layer Options
91
Using Guide And Grid Layers
95
Configuration & Customization
Setting Preferences
97
97
General Settings
100
Text Settings
110
Printing Settings
115
Measurements Settings
117
Image/multimedia Settings
120
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Color Management
120
Preferences For Two-byte Text Entry
123
Customizing The Keyboard And Toolbar
124
Saving Document Templates
128
File & Data Exchange
Importing And Exporting Files
Exporting Files
Importing And Exporting Images
129
130
131
Importing Images
131
Exporting Images
132
Using Canvas Templates
133
Working With Other File Formats
134
Using Object Linking And Embedding
151
Inserting ActiveX Controls In Documents
154
Exporting Files To Canvas Using The Canvas Print Driver
154
C H AP TER 3 : OB J EC TS AND ATTRI B U TES
157
Working With Objects
158
Types Of Objects
158
Selecting Objects
158
Selecting Objects With Selection Tools
viii
129
159
Editing Objects
162
Copying, Cutting, Pasting, And Deleting Objects
164
Making Multiple Copies
171
Grouping And Ungrouping Objects
177
Moving Objects
178
Arranging Objects In The Stacking Order
180
Arranging Objects On Layers And Pages
180
Locking And Unlocking Objects
181
Aligning And Distributing Objects
181
Rotating, Skewing, And Flipping Objects
186
Scaling Objects
195
Scaling Objects By Area/Perimeter
196
Using The Object Specs Palette
197
Setting Print Properties For Objects
201
Creating Attribute Styles
203
Setting Default Attributes
205
Attaching Comments To Objects And Using Markup Tools
206
Assigning And Modifying Custom Object Properties
210
Viewing Object Properties
217
Inks: Colors & Patterns
223
Presets Palette
223
Attributes Palette
229
Working With Gradient Inks
238
Working With Hatch Inks
244
Working With Symbol Inks
246
Working With Texture Inks
248
Working With Pattern Inks
249
Creating Favorite Inks
251
Applying Inks To Objects
252
Using The Color Dropper
254
Replacing Ink Attributes
257
Strokes: Outline Effects
257
Types Of Strokes
257
Applying Preset Strokes
260
Customizing Strokes
271
Creating Custom Arrowheads
281
Customizing Dashes
283
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Canvas 12 User Guide
C H AP TER 4 : D RAW I NG AND VEC TOR EF F EC TS
Drawing Basics
286
Drawing Basic Shapes
286
Drawing Shapes
287
Drawing With Snap Options
292
Drawing By Numbers
294
Drawing More Complicated Shapes
295
Using The Smart Vector Fill Tool
307
Adding Annotations
308
Creating Flowcharts
311
Using Math Expression 2-D Plot Commands
314
Drawing & Editing Paths
316
Drawing With The Path Tools
317
Editing Object Paths
324
Reshaping Paths By Editing Anchor Points
338
Simplifying Vector Paths
348
Converting Polygons To Bézier Objects
348
Joining Open Vector Objects
349
Exporting And Importing Geometric Data
350
Editing Views Of 3D Objects
353
3D View Editor Dialog Box
355
Precision Drawing & Dimensioning
356
Setting Up A Document’s Measurement Scale
356
Using The Dimensioning Tools
358
Using Smart Mouse For Precise Alignment
366
Vector Effects
x
285
371
Perspective Effects
371
Offsetting Paths
374
Using Clipping Paths
374
Combining Objects
377
Blending Objects
381
Enveloping Objects
384
Extruding Objects
387
Colorizing Objects
392
Fractalizing Objects
393
Creating Shadows For Objects
394
Binding Objects To Path
396
Dynamic Objects & Clipart
397
Working With The Symbol Library Palette
397
Creating New Symbols
401
Modifying Preinstalled Symbols
402
Converting Macro Files To Symbols
403
C H AP TER 5 : P AI NTI NG AND I MAG E ED I TI NG
Painting & Image-editing
405
406
Paint Objects And Images
406
Creating Paint Objects
406
Working With Painting Tools
410
Selecting Brushes And Painting Options
420
Selecting Colors For Painting
423
Painting Modes
424
Painting Context Menu
426
Adding Visibility Masks To Images
428
Rendering Objects And Images
430
Using Vector And Text Tools In Paint Objects
433
Image Modes For Canvas Paint Objects
435
Removing Red Eye
445
Scanning, Sizing & Tracing Images
446
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Using Scanners To Acquire Images
446
Choosing A Scanning Resolution
447
Changing Image Size
448
Changing Resolution
456
Auto-tracing Images
458
Image Adjustment & Correction
Applying Image-editing Commands
461
Consolidating Colors
462
Changing Color And Contrast
465
Color Balance
468
Levels
468
Adjusting Brightness Curves
470
Hue/Saturation
472
Color Equalization
474
Blur Filters
474
Sharpen Filters
479
Adding And Removing Noise
480
Selections & Channels
483
Selecting Pixels In Images
483
Selecting Areas Based On Color
487
Converting Paths To Selections
492
Working With Image Selections
493
Saving And Loading Selections In Channels
501
Using The Channels Palette
504
Customizing Alpha Channels
507
Channel Masks
509
Transparency Effects With Channel Masks
512
Image Filters & Effects
Applying Effect Filters
xii
461
515
515
Ripple Effects
526
Twirl Effects
529
Spherical Distortion
530
Artistic Effects
532
Using The High Pass, Maximum, And Minimum Filters
538
Filling Selections With Color
541
Creating Custom Image Filters
541
Rotating Images
543
Distorting Images
544
Combining Image Channels
547
Image Proxies
551
Using Proxies
551
Editing Proxies
554
Maintaining Proxies
556
Exporting Canvas Image Files
558
C H AP TER 6 : TEXT AND TY P OG RAP H Y
Text Entry & Layout
559
560
Typing Text In A Document
560
Using The Text Tool
561
Creating Text Layouts
563
Tools And Options For Two-byte And Vertical Text
564
Creating Column Layouts
567
Flowing Text From Column To Column
573
Text Form Field Tool
576
Formatting Text
577
Selecting Text And Objects
577
Applying Text Formats
580
Specifying Spacing Between Characters
585
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Positioning Tabs
587
Horizontal And Vertical Text Scaling
589
Applying Paragraph Formatting
590
Setting Indents
592
Paragraph Alignment
594
Using Vertical Justification
596
Paragraph Rules
597
Adjusting Letter And Word Spacing
599
Automatic Hyphenation
600
Specifying Text Flow Options
601
Setting Drop Caps
602
Inserting Headers And Footers
603
Working With Type Styles
606
Saving And Loading Type Styles
609
Using Type Styles
610
Applying Character Formatting
612
Text Editing & Proofing
613
Text Edit Mode
613
Text Selection And Navigation
614
Copying, Pasting, Deleting, And Moving Text Selections
616
Automatic Text Correction
620
Inserting Special Characters And Graphics In Text
622
Checking The Spelling Of Text
625
Importing Text From Other Applications
629
Exporting Text From Canvas Documents
630
Type Effects
xiv
605
Creating New Type Styles
631
Text Inks And Strokes
631
Wrapping And Repelling Text
634
Binding Text To Vector Objects
637
Applying Vector Effects To Type
643
C H AP TER 7 : S P RI TE TEC H NOL OG Y
SpriteEffects
649
650
Introduction To SpriteEffects
650
Using SpriteEffects
650
Using The SpriteEffects Palette
651
Selections Masks
656
Effects Area
657
Lens Effects
659
Sharing Documents With SpriteEffects
665
SpriteLayer Effects
666
Using The Transparency Palette
666
Opacity Effects
667
Controlling The Scope Of Transparency Effects
670
Transparency Masks
671
Channel Masks
672
Vector Masks
678
Transparency And Printing
687
C H AP TER 8 : MU L TI MED I A
Designing For The Web
689
690
About Hyperlinks And Hypertext
690
Using The Link Manager Palette
691
Pixel Mode
699
Creating Slices
699
Using Web Buttons
708
Working With Animated GIFs
712
Creating Web Pages From Canvas Documents
714
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Exporting As A Flash File
720
Exporting As PDF
722
Presentations
Creating Slide Shows
C H AP TER 9 : S EI S MI C D ATA
728
735
Seismic Data
736
Importing CGM Files
736
Seismic Traces Palette
738
Control Panel
738
Wiggle Options
739
Background Options
740
C H AP TER 1 0 : VI S U AL I ZATI ON AND ANAL Y S I S
Data Acquisition, Visualization And Analysis
743
744
Working With DICOM Images
744
RAW File Format
745
Image Types And Filters
748
Accessing Image Data
763
AP P END I C ES
System Requirements
769
770
Hardware
770
Software
770
I ND EX
xvi
728
771
Chapter 1: Introduction
Canvas 12 User Guide
Welcome to Canvas 12
Canvas is the preferred application for technical illustrators in many industries because it offers the
most flexible, scalable and integrated design environment. Canvas has the full range of precise
vector object illustration tools and advanced raster image editing tools that you need — all in one
single, workflow-accelerating application.
Canvas provides a complete solution for home, small business, school, and corporate users:
An array of tools for illustration, layout, editing, proofing, and final output, so you can take
projects from start to finish in Canvas.
A dynamic and flexible interface, including a Toolbar you can configure with commands,
tools, and styles as well as customizable keyboard shortcuts, a Docking pane and Docking
bar to store palettes, and a Properties bar for tool settings and object manipulation.
Help when you need it, in the form of a Dynamic Help window and the Canvas Assistant help
for the tool you're currently using, built right into the interface, as well as a fully searchable
Help system available from the Help menu.
What's new in Canvas 12
Canvas 12 provides the following new features:
Greater control and enhancements for technical illustrations: Learn about the
Symbol Library, Symbol Pen, Smart Vector Fill tool, Smart Join tools, and precise perimeterbased scaling. See "Technical illustration and enhancement with greater control" on page 3 .
Better integration in your technical illustration workflow: Learn about the new 3D
View and Enhanced AutoCAD file support, CGM4 file support, including WebCGM, geometric
import and export, multi-save, and EXIF data. See "Even greater workflow integration" on
page 4.
Added capabilities for publishing, presenting and collaborating on your technical
data: Learn about the improved Link Manager (with Hotspots), the new Page Navigator, and
the improved flowchart tools. See "Additional Capabilities for Publishing, Presenting and
Collaborating" on page 9.
Enhanced usability: Learn about the new Docking pane and many other usability
enhancements. See "Enhanced usability" on page 10.
2
Chapter 1: Introduction
Technical illustration and enhancement
with greater control
Canvas 12 includes many new features that allow
you to create and enhance technical illustrations
with even greater ease and control.
Symbol Library
Create custom symbols and easily organize new
Canvas symbol sets. With Canvas 12, any vector
object can be made into a symbol. Canvas 12 also
includes thousands of commonly used and highly
specialized technical symbols, with more
available for download. With the new and
improved Symbol Library, you can easily organize
your large library by adding keywords and recategorizing symbols to match your unique
workflow.
Symbol Pen
Create custom “pen strokes” made from symbols.
Draw with these repeated symbol motifs as you
would with any other digital pen stroke.
3
Canvas 12 User Guide
Smart Vector Fill
Color visually- enclosed regions created by overlapping objects. When
overlapping object shapes create a new shape where they intersect, you can
now instantly select this shape, and color it, with just one click. This
eliminates the need to redraw these regions as standalone objects before
selecting a fill ink.
Smart Join
Use the new Smart Join command to quickly rejoin segmented objects into a
singular object.
Precise perimeter-based illustration scaling
Quickly and accurately scale illustrations numerically. Scale simple vector objects based on area or
perimeter values. Simply enter a value in the Scale By Area/Perimeter dialog box, choose Percentage
or Absolute, and click a different origin point if desired. You can even scale a pen weight.
Even greater workflow integration
Canvas 12 provides an integrated and highly precise technical illustration and publishing
environment which enables you to manipulate and visualize technical data. You can import over 100
file formats, from the most common to the most specialized, and export to over 80 formats and
presentation media. With Canvas 12, this capability has been extended even further.
4
Chapter 1: Introduction
3D view and enhanced AutoCAD file support
View and enhance the latest AutoCAD® DXF/DWG 3D object file formats. Just import your 3D file, use
step rotation on an X, Y, or Z axis, edit and enhance color, scale, light source, and preview it in
Wireframe. With Canvas 12, you can now fit seamlessly into AutoCAD® 3D workflows.
5
Canvas 12 User Guide
CGM4 file support, including WebCGM
Import, edit and export CGM and WebCGM files. Canvas 12 can be fully integrated into CGM
workflows because it supports the latest CGM file types, including Version 4 CGM-PIP I/II (Petroleum
Industry Profile), and CGM-ATA (Airline Transportation Association). And now when you import and
modify CGM files, WebCGM tags are retained. After editing and visually augmenting files, export them
back into CGM work environments and specialized CGM applications. The Canvas 12 integration into
CGM workflows allows for new possibilities in the visual presentation of CGM files, including on the
web.
Geometric import and export
Import and export an object’s precise geometry. The new Geometric Import And Export feature lets
you import and export mathematical data that numerically describes an object’s exact geometry. This
allows for powerful integration with other applications such as Microsoft® Excel ® and specialized
software. It also lets you precisely specify and manipulate both the location and geometric
dimensions of Rectangles, Ovals, Lines, Polygons, Beziers and Arcs.
6
Chapter 1: Introduction
Object Properties Table View
Additionally, you can now see an object’s geometric properties in a spreadsheet-like grid, directly in
Canvas itself, using the Object Properties Table View palette. Or use the Statistics by Property or
Select by Property commands to view or select particular objects based on a property.
7
Canvas 12 User Guide
Multi-save
Export to many formats simultaneously. Export documents to many formats at once with just one
click by using the new Multiple Save command. In the Save As dialog box, choose your desired export
formats, including BMP, CGM, GIF, JPG, PCX, PDF, PNG, TGA, and TIF. Select the Multiple Save check
box, then click Save. From then on, Canvas will save to all the formats you have selected.
EXIF metadata
See the Exchangeable Image File Format (EXIF) metadata that’s attached to imported digital images
(primarily photos), such as: date and time; camera settings including aperture, shutter speed, focal
length and ISO speed; and GPS coordinates and other GIS data including elevation, facing and more.
8
Chapter 1: Introduction
Additional Capabilities for Publishing, Presenting and Collaborating
Link Manager (with hotspots)
Add hyperlinks to documents and then export
them. Create links throughout Canvas documents,
making them out of graphics, images, or text.
Then export to PDF or HTML with the links intact.
You can also create hotspots (linked regions
within graphics) for PDF export. Use Canvas 12 to
add interactivity and connectivity to your
technical documents.
Page Navigator
Easily move within multiple page documents. In
the Page Navigator palette you can instantly
navigate within multiple page Illustration,
Publication, Animation and Presentation
documents. Just click on a page thumbnail. Page
Navigator is both dockable and floatable for extra
convenience.
Improved Flowchart tools
Create rich data flowcharts almost automatically.
With the Flowchart palette you can make data
flowcharts with new speed and flexibility. Just
choose your symbol size, shape, and Smart Line
attributes, and click to place. Then click
repeatedly in the document at the points where
you want your flowchart to appear. It’s almost
automatic, and yet it allows for custom design
flexibility too with a wide variety of connection line
and shape editing options. You can customize
how your flowcharts will look ahead of time, or
edit them after the fact. Present complex and
visually rich information in a logical and easy to
understand flow.
9
Canvas 12 User Guide
Enhanced usability
Docking pane
Efficiently manage your palettes and work area. Display, re-arrange, and instantly float or re-dock
multiple core Canvas palettes quickly and easily. Use the navigation tabs to further increase your onscreen organizing capabilities. The Docking Pane, located on the right side of the window, saves you
time and helps free up valuable work space for visually complex projects.
Many workflow enhancements
Canvas 12 includes many enhanced and dynamic user interface (UI) elements, and improvements to
existing features, such as: Acre (an additional area format unit); new Area of Object displays; a
10
Chapter 1: Introduction
Dimension Area global setting override; new Properties bar shortcuts for Number Format,
Coordinates Format, and X,Y Arrows of Direction; a Set Default Attributes button in the Toolbar;
Windows 7 support (with related UI enhancements); and increased Points Limits (crucial for GIS
documents).
About the documentation
Please take a few minutes to read the following information about the Canvas documentation. The
Canvas 12 Help/User Guide describes the commands, tools, and features of Canvas. Certain terms
and abbreviations are used to describe procedures.
You’ll find tips for working efficiently and exploring creative possibilities.
Important items provide information to help you avoid problems.
Other items of note are highlighted with a note icon.
Keyboard keys
Standard names and abbreviations are used for keyboard keys; your keyboard might use different
labels.
Key name
Description
Alt
The Alternate key, usually labeled “Alt”.
Ctrl
The key labeled “Ctrl”.
Shift
The key used to type uppercase characters.
Enter
The key labeled “Enter”.
Choosing commands
When a procedure tells you to choose a command, the instruction is written:
Choose Edit | Paste.
This tells you to open the Edit menu and choose the Paste command. You can use a keyboard shortcut
if the command has one.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Some menu items open a submenu of related commands. When the documentation tells you to
choose a submenu command, the instruction is written:
Choose Object | Arrange | Bring To Front.
This tells you to open the Object menu, choose Arrange to open the submenu, and then choose the
Bring To Front command.
Choosing commands in the context menu
You can choose commands from a menu that pops up wherever the pointer is in Canvas. The
commands in the menu are based on what you are doing; therefore, the menu is called the context
menu.
To choose a command from the context menu, press the secondary mouse button, usually the right
button.
Using modifier keys
For some actions, you need to press a keyboard key while you click or drag the mouse; e.g., to select
several objects, press the Shift key while you click each object. This can be written as Shift-click. If
you press the Ctrl key, for example, while you drag the mouse, the action can be written as Ctrl-drag.
Some instructions say to “right-click” an object. This means to click the object using the secondary
button, usually the right button, on the mouse.
Contacting ACD Systems and updating Canvas
The following functions are available by opening the Help menu in Canvas.
Enter License Code
When you purchase Canvas, you receive a unique license number. When you install Canvas, you can
enter the license number as part of the install process. However, if you have been using a free trial
version of Canvas, you can simply enter your license number by choosing Help | Enter License Code.
Product Support and Resources
Choose Help | Product Support and Resources to open the Canvas Product Support and Resources
page on the ACDSee Web site, where you can find links to additional documentation and the
12
Chapter 1: Introduction
Knowledge Base.
Customer Support
Choose Help | Customer Support to open the Support page on the ACDSee Web site.
Product Registration
Choose Help | Product Registration to register Canvas.
Community
Choose Help | Community to open the ACDSee Community Web page on the ACDSee Web site, where
you can find links to the ACDSee Product Forums, Blogs and Contests.
Related Products
Choose Help | Related Products to open the Products page of the ACDSee Web site.
Purchase Canvas
If you are using a free trial of Canvas and decide to purchase a license, choose Help | Purchase
Canvas. You can choose to purchase Canvas online or by phone.
Verify Document
If your Canvas document contains errors, you can verify your document to find out additional
information. Choose Help | Verify Document. Errors are listed in the dialog box. The Verify on Save
check box is selected by default so that this check is completed every time you save your document.
Getting help with Canvas
If you need help while using Canvas, there are various utilities for your use.
Using the Help
Canvas includes a Help file to provide assistance right within the program.
13
Canvas 12 User Guide
For the latest information on Canvas, be sure to view any “Read Me” files included with the
program.
To view Help in Canvas:
Do one of the following:
Press the F1 key.
Choose Help | Canvas 12 Help.
When you first open the Help, the Contents topic appears. You can also search for topics or use the
Index.
Showing the Startup screen
Select this command to open the Canvas Startup dialog box. You can create a new document, open
documents, or access recent documents. You also have links to tutorials, online forums, knowledge
base articles, among others.
To open the Startup screen:
Choose Window | Show Startup.
Using the Canvas Assistant
Open by default, the Canvas Assistant dynamically displays information related to document setup,
selected tools, and selected objects. Information is sorted according relevancy; i.e., specific, related,
or general.
To open the Canvas Assistant:
Choose Help | Show Canvas Assistant.
To close the Canvas Assistant:
Choose Help | Hide Canvas Assistant.
Using the Dynamic Help
The Dynamic Help is a quick way to learn about the currently selected tool. In order to use the
Dynamic Help, the Properties bar must be visible.
14
Chapter 1: Introduction
To open the Dynamic Help:
Do one of the following:
Choose Help | Show Dynamic Help.
Click the Show Dynamic Help icon.
To close the Dynamic Help:
Do one of the following:
Choose Help | Hide Dynamic Help.
Click the Hide Dynamic Help icon.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Canvas 12 User Guide
Running Canvas
This section explains how to start and end a Canvas work session. It also provides an overview of the
Canvas interface and describes the following basic procedures:
Selecting tools from the Smart Toolbox™
Using and arranging palettes
Using the Properties bar
Using information displayed in the Status bar
Undoing, redoing, and repeating actions
Starting and exiting Canvas
To start Canvas, do one of the following:
Double-click the Canvas program icon if you’ve made a shortcut.
Double-click a Canvas document to start Canvas and open the document.
Double-click a Canvas template file to start Canvas and create a new document based on the
template.
Choose Canvas from the Start | Programs menu.
To view start-up screen information:
When Canvas is running, choose Help | About Canvas. Do this when you want to check your serial
number, version number, and other program information.
Checking optional software at start up
Canvas displays a message if it encounters a problem, such as missing system software components,
as it starts. If a message appears, click OK to continue loading Canvas.
Canvas depends on some system software components for importing and exporting certain types of
files, managing colors, and working with some graphics formats. The Canvas installer places some
software called “Dynamic Link Libraries” on your system, if needed. If Canvas can’t find the required
component later, it’s possible the file was moved or disabled.
If you encounter a problem when starting Canvas, refer to the “Read Me” file, which includes the
most up-to-date information on required software.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Startup dialog box and new documents
Whenever you launch Canvas, the Startup dialog box opens. You can quickly create a new document,
open documents, or access recent documents from this screen.
To disable the Startup dialog box:
Select the Don't Show Me This Screen Again check box.
To enable the Startup dialog box:
Choose Window | Show Startup.
Quitting Canvas
Choose File | Exit. If you try to quit without saving a document that has changed, Canvas asks if you
want to save it first.
Overview of the Canvas interface
Canvas has four types of documents: Illustration, Publication, Animation, and Presentation. These
documents share some common elements, while some specialized controls apply to particular
documents types.
Canvas window
The Canvas interface contains eleven main components, providing you with a Layout area as the main
area for working on your illustrations, and a variety of toolbars and docks with all the tools you need.
Depending on your operating system and your Canvas customizations, your interface may look
different than what you see in the image below.
You can customize the interface in several ways, such as by hiding the Toolbar, Properties bar,
Docking bar, and Docking pane. You can also dock various palettes and customize the Toolbar. Each
document window has Zoom controls, Document controls, and scroll bars. All documents share the
Smart Toolbox, Properties bar, and Status bar. You can switch between Canvas documents using the
Window menu, or you can tile or stack windows to see more than one document at a time.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
1
Menu bar
Menus for all the Canvas features.
2
Toolbar
Shortcut icons for common tasks.
3
Properties bar
Lets you control the properties for the text, painting, or vector tools as
well as document setup. You can toggle this bar on or off.
4
Dynamic help
Open this window to display information for selected tools and objects.
5
Docking bar
Provides a customizable dock for the Canvas palettes you use often. You
can move the Docking bar to the left, right, or above the layout area.
6
Docking pane
Provides a large dock for the following palettes:
Canvas Assistant
Document Layout
Flowchart
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Page Navigator
Symbol Library
7
Toolbox
Tool palettes snap out to the right. If you use a specific tool palette
regularly, lock the palette so it remains open while you use other tools.
8
Zoom controls
Use these controls to zoom in and out of a document.
9
Document
controls
Add pages and move from one page or layer to another.
10
Status bar
Displays the status and properties of the currently selected item.
11
Layout area
The main working area for creating illustrations, page layouts,
presentations, and animations.
Layout area
The rectangle centered in the Canvas document window is the Layout area. The white space around
the Layout area is known as the pasteboard and is additional working space where you can place
objects before using them in an illustration. Objects on the pasteboard are saved with the document,
but they are not printed.
The Layout area represents different things in the different Canvas document types.
Illustration: A page, called a “sheet,” with layers.
Publication: A single-sided page or two facing pages with layers.
Presentation: A “slide” with layers.
Animation: A frame of an animation. If you select “onion-skinning”, you can see objects on
adjacent frames (see "All about onion skinning" on page 712).
You can change the color of the Layout area to represent the color of tinted paper.
To set the Layout area color:
1.
Choose Layout | Document Setup.
2.
Select a color from the Paper color popup palette.
Document navigation controls
A pop-up menu appears below the document window. Open this menu to move through a document.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Viewing the Smart Toolbox
Select any tool in the Smart Toolbox and its palette, as well as related tools, automatically opens and
snaps to the right of the Toolbox. The tool palette remains in that position until another tool is
selected.
To display the Toolbox:
If the Toolbox is hidden or closed, choose Window | Toolbox | Show Toolbox to
display it.
To dock the Toolbox:
Disable the Smart Toolbox option and then click the docking button or drag the
Toolbox by its title bar to the Docking bar.
By default, the Smart Toolbox is active when you launch Canvas for the
first time. You cannot dock the individual tool palettes when this option is
enabled.
To disable the Smart Toolbox option:
1.
Choose File | Configuration Center.
2.
Open the General settings and select Functionality options.
3.
Deselect the Smart Toolbox check box.
When the Smart Toolbox is disabled, you can dock the individual tool
palettes.
If the Smart Toolbox is disabled, you click an icon to open a tool palette and then
click again on the icon for the tool you want to select.
To temporarily retain a drawing tool, Shift-click the tool in the Toolbox.
This function applies not only to basic vector tools but also to complex
drawing tools, and path tools.
If you’ll often use a specific tool, or related tools found on the same palette, you
can also lock the palette so it stays “snapped” to the Toolbox.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
To lock a tool palette:
Click on the lock icon. When you select another tool, its palette snaps to the right of the locked
palette.
When palettes are locked, you can relocate them to another part of the layout area. To do so, place
the pointer on the palette title bar and Shift-drag the palette from the Toolbox.
Also, if you Ctrl-drag the palette, you can move a group of locked palettes or a single locked palette
away from the Toolbox.
To unlock a locked palette:
Click the lock icon.
Using the tools
In the Smart Toolbox, tools are represented by icons in two columns. The tools that aren’t displayed
are available on tool palettes that snap to the Toolbox when opened.
To select a tool displayed in the Toolbox or tool palette:
Click the tool. The selected tool is shaded, like a recessed button.
Tool palettes
This diagram identifies the default tool palettes in the Toolbox. The available tool palettes may change
depending on your selection in the Personality Manager (see "Setting preferences" on page 97 ). Click
on a tool icon and its respective palette opens (see "Viewing the Smart Toolbox" on page 22 ).
Selection
tools
Rectangle
tools
Line tools
Oval tools
Markup tools
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Path tools
Text tools
Miscellaneous
tools
Dimensioning
tools
Painting tools
Color Dropper tool
Smart Vector
Fill tool
View tools
Camera tool
Transparency
tools
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
To access tool palettes and tools via the Toolbox command:
If you are looking for a particular tool and are unsure where it is located in the Toolbox, choose
Window | Toolbox to see the various tool groups.
To open a tool palette:
Click on the arrow icon and select Show Group. The tool palette automatically opens and snaps to
the right of the Toolbox.
To access an individual tool:
Click on the arrow icon and select the particular tool from the menu. The tool will be selected in
the Toolbox.
Using AutoSnap palettes
Canvas organizes tools, special effects, object attributes, and other functions in palettes. Palettes
can remain open on screen, and they can be docked on the Docking bar. They can also attach
together due to Canvas’ “snapping” technology for floating palettes, or rather AutoSnap™ palettes.
If you have two or more palettes open, you can position them so they attach together. Once attached,
you can then move them around as a group.
To tear off a group of palettes:
Click on a palette’s title bar and hold down the Ctrl key while dragging the palette away. Any
palettes to the right of the selected palette move simultaneously.
To tear off a single palette:
Click on a palette’s title bar and hold down the Shift key while dragging the palette away. Only the
selected palette moves.
To disable the AutoSnap palettes option:
1.
Choose File | Configuration Center.
2.
Open the General settings and select Functionality options.
3.
Deselect the AutoSnap palettes check box.
Some palettes have an Apply button that you must click if you want to implement the current settings.
A palette stays open until you click its close box or use a command to close it.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
To roll up a palette so only its title bar is visible:
Click on the minus button on the palette title bar.
To dock a palette:
Click on the arrow button or drag the palette to the docking bar (see "Using the Docking bar" on
page 33 and "Using AutoSnap palettes" on page 25).
To arrange palettes:
Choose Window | Palettes | Clean Up Palettes. Canvas moves all open palettes except the ToolBox
and floating tool palettes to the upper-right corner of the document.
To close all palettes:
Choose Window | Palettes | Put Away Palettes. Canvas closes all open palettes, including the
Smart Toolbox and floating tool palettes.
Palettes submenu
All Canvas palettes are listed in the Window | Palettes menu. To display a palette, choose the name of
the palette in the submenu. If a palette is behind other palettes, it comes to the front. If a palette is
docked, the palette comes off the Docking bar and opens.
Tool palettes are listed in the Windows | Toolbox submenu.
Some palettes are also associated with commands in other menus; e.g., the Layout | Document
Layout command opens the Document Layout palette. The Image | Show Channels/Hide Channels
commands open and close the Channels palette.
Presets palette icons in the Toolbox
You can access the Presets palette from the Strokes icon, Dash styles icon, Arrow styles icon, Pen Ink
icon, and Fill Ink icon in the Toolbox. You can use these icons to select preset colors, dashes, arrows,
and pen widths. To open the Presets palette, click on one of these icons to open the palette and then
drag the palette away from the Toolbox.
Pen strokes
Dash styles
Arrow styles
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Pen ink
Fill ink
When editing an image, the Pen Ink icon is replaced by the Brushes icon.
For procedures on selecting inks and strokes, see "Inks: colors & patterns" on page 223 and
"Strokes: outline effects" on page 257. For information on selecting and using brushes, see "Painting
& image-editing" on page 406.
Using the Toolbar
The Toolbar contains buttons you click to choose commands and tools. The Toolbar appears below
the menu bar.
A standard set of commands appears on the Toolbar when you first run Canvas. You can use the
Customize command to change the buttons on the Toolbar. Add buttons to the Toolbar for
commands, tools, and custom colors and styles (see "Customizing the keyboard and Toolbar" on
page 124).
To display the Toolbar:
Choose Window | Show Toolbar.
To hide the Toolbar:
Choose Window | Hide Toolbar.
To select an item on the Toolbar:
Click its button.
You can identify Toolbar items by displaying tooltips. Point to an icon and a tooltip appears with the
name of the command or tool.
To display tooltips if they don’t appear:
Choose File | Configuration Center. Within the General settings, open the Functionality options
manager and and select Show information tooltips.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Using the Properties bar
Use the Properties bar to quickly modify the document setup, create some vector objects, modify tool
settings, apply a filter or effect to an object, cache objects, or apply text formatting.
If you hide the Properties bar, you won’t be able to display the Dynamic Help window.
To show the Properties bar:
Choose Window | Show Properties Bar.
To hide the Properties bar:
Choose Window | Hide Properties Bar.
Viewing and modifying document setup
When no items are selected in a document, the Properties bar displays document setup information.
You can quickly and easily change the various document controls.
Document Setup options
Paper
Select a standard paper size, or select Custom to enter a custom width
and height.
Units
Select the unit of measure to use in the document.
Width and Height
Displays the height and width of the document. If you change these
measurements, Paper is changed to Custom.
Click the Orientation icon to change the orientation between portrait and
landscape.
Drawing scale
Select a drawing scale or set a custom scale for the document.
Number format
Select a number format.
Coordinates
Select a format for displaying coordinates.
Grids
Displays a background grid. This can be helpful for laying out objects in
a document.
Guides
Displays any guides used in the document. To add a guide, drag the
cursor from the vertical or horizontal ruler across the document.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Rulers
Displays the vertical and horizontal rulers.
Breaks
Displays page breaks.
Margins
Displays page margins.
Print area
Displays the printable area.
Text boxes
Displays text boxes.
Spelling errors
Displays spelling errors.
Select Across layers
Enables selections of objects across more than one layer.
Changing tool settings
When you select a tool, its settings automatically appear in the Properties bar. Use the menus, check
boxes, and scroll boxes to change the tool settings.
For example, if you select the Brush tool, the following settings appear in the Properties bar:
Modifying object properties
When an object is selected, the Properties bar automatically displays the object’s reference point,
coordinates, height, width, rotation, and skew settings. You can also change the object’s opacity and
transfer mode.
Common object properties
X and Y
Displays the X and Y coordinates.
For line objects, the Properties bar displays the X/Y coordinates
for the start of the line and the end of the line, the length of the
line, and the angle of the line.
Coordinate arrows
Displays the default coordinate format for the document.
Reference point
Displays the reference point for the object. This is the point on the
selected object (or its bounding box) that position data is based on.The
reference point is also the fixed point used in an object’s transformation.
Width and Height
Displays the height and width of the object.
Scale
Click the down arrow to change between scaling the object
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Canvas 12 User Guide
proportionally or not proportionally. Proportional scaling means that if
you change the width of the object, the length is adjusted automatically
so that the object retains the same proportions.
Transform
Click the down arrow to transformed and untransformed dimensions.
Rotation
Click the down arrow to change the direction or rotation. Enter a degree
value in the Rotate field and press Enter. If you are rotating an image,
you can also use the Image Hard Rotate options.
Skew
Click the down arrow to change between horizontal and vertical skew.
Enter a degree value in the Skew field and press Enter.
Opacity
Move the opacity slider to the right or left depending on the desired
transparency. For vector objects, you can also choose to apply the effect
on the stroke and fill or only the fill by clicking on the Transparency
button.
For text objects, you can change the opacity and transfer mode
by using the Transparency palette (Window | Palettes |
Transparency).
Transfer
Select a Transfer mode. See "Using transfer modes" on page 685.
Transparency
Select transparency on the object's stroke and fill, or just on the fill.
SpriteEffects
Select an SpriteEffects effect. See "Using SpriteEffects" on page 650.
Make Lens
Click this button to make the object a lens. You can then apply
SpriteEffects to the lens. The effects appear on objects that are viewed
through the lens. See "Creating a lens" on page 659.
SpriteEffects Palette
Click to open the SpriteEffects palette. See "Using SpriteEffects" on page
650.
Anti-alias Object
Select this check box to smooth the edges of the object.
Scale by
Area/Perimeter
Click to open the Scale By Area/Perimeter dialog box, where you can
select scale settings.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
To move an object:
Do one of the following:
Click on the object to select it, then drag it to the new position.
Click on the object to select it, then modify the X/Y coordinates and (optionally) the
reference point in the Properties bar.
To copy an object and paste it in the same position on a different page, you can do so by
copying the object and then pressing Shift and choosing Edit | Paste.
To resize an object:
Do one of the following:
Click on the object to select it, then drag the object handles to resize it.
Click on the object to select it, then enter values in the width and height fields in the
Properties bar.
To cache vector objects:
Caching can be used to speed up the display of complex objects, which is useful when a document
contains complex objects that you do not need to edit often. When you cache an object, Canvas stores
a low-resolution preview in memory. The preview can be displayed quickly when you move the object
or change views. You can cache any type of object for faster display. To cache vector objects, group
the objects first. The Cache Object check box only appears if the vector objects are grouped.
1.
Group the selected vector objects.
2.
Click the Cache Object check box.
3.
Enter a value in the PPI field.
You can also group vector, image, and text objects and then cache the grouped object.
To align objects:
When you select more than one object the Align options are displayed on the Properties bar. You can
choose to align left edges, right edges, tops, bottoms, vertical or horizontal centers, or the centers of
the objects.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
1.
Select more than one object.
2.
Click one of the Align icons on the Properties bar.
Modifying images and paint objects
When an image or paint object is selected, the Properties bar automatically displays image and paint
object settings such as filters, adjust options, and export options.
Common image and paint object properties
Filters
Select a filter to apply to the object. The last five used filters appear at
the top of the menu on the Properties bar. If you don’t click on the arrow
icon to open the menu, the last filter used will be applied.
Adjust
Select an Adjust filter to apply to the object.
Export
Select an option to export the object to a different format.
Crop
Select a crop and scale default size, or select Custom to define a special
crop size. See "Changing image size" on page 448.
Res
Enter a resolution in pixels per inch (PPI).
Preserve Data
Click the check box to prevent resampling when the resolution is
changed.
Image Mode
Select an image mode. See "Image modes for Canvas paint objects" on
page 435.
Cache Object
Select the paint object and then click the Cache Object check box. Enter
a value in the PPI field.
When a cached paint object is placed into paint edit mode, it
returns to the original resolution.
Res
Enter a resolution in pixels per inch (PPI).
Formatting text
When using various tools to create or select text objects, the text formatting options appear in the
Properties bar. See "Formatting text with the Properties bar" on page 581.
You can also format text using the Type palette (Text | Type) and the Text menu settings.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
To cache text objects:
1.
Group the selected text objects.
2.
Click the Cache Object check box.
3.
Enter a value in the PPI field.
Using the Docking bar
You can use the Docking bar to customize the Canvas interface. By default, the Docking bar is
displayed near the top of the screen below the Properties bar when you launch Canvas for the first
time.
To display the Docking bar:
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Show Docking Bar. When you display the Docking bar, the
palettes that were docked the last time it was displayed will remain locked.
To hide the Docking bar:
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Hide Docking Bar.
You can move the Docking bar from the top to the right and left sides of your workspace.
To move the Docking bar:
Click and hold the pointer on the Docking bar (not on a palette tab). Drag the Docking bar from its
present position to either the top, left, or right.
The settings for the Docking bar are stored in the CVAppData.Set file.
Docking palettes
When you dock a palette, a tab with the palette’s name appears on the Docking bar. The tabs of
docked palettes give you quick access to tools or features. Docked palettes also leave more screen
space.
You can dock most Canvas palettes, including tool palettes (see "Tool palettes" on page 23). You can
dock other palettes from the Toolbox, including the Inks, Strokes, Transparency, and Brushes
palettes. You can also dock command or effects palettes such as Align, Blend, Envelope, Object
Specs, and Type. Dialog boxes that require you to click OK or Cancel before continuing can’t be
docked.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Docked palette
Floating palette
You can dock as many palettes as you want on the Docking bar, depending on the size of your screen
(see "To adjust the size of tabs on the docking bar:" on page 35).
To dock a palette:
Do one of the following:
Drag a palette to the Docking bar and drop it when a tab outline appears.
Click the Docking button located in the upper right corner of the palette.
To dock a tool palette from the Toolbox:
First drag the palette away from the Toolbox so its title bar appears. Then, drag the tool palette
onto the Docking bar.
To change the position of a docked palette:
Drag the palette’s tab to another position on the Docking bar.
To remove a docked palette:
Drag the palette's tab away from the Docking bar.
To dock all open palettes:
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Dock All Palettes.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
To access the Docking bar commands, you can also right-click an empty area of the Docking
bar.
To dock palettes when closed:
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Dock Palettes When Closed.
To arrange docked palettes:
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Clean Up to arrange the tabs of docked palettes evenly on the
Docking bar.
To arrange tabs by name:
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Clean Up By Name to arrange the tabs of docked palettes in
alphabetical order.
To adjust the size of tabs on the docking bar:
1.
Choose Window | Docking Bar | Set Tab Length.
2.
In the dialog box, select one of the following:
Auto: Displays the full name of docked palettes.
Max Characters: Sets a specific tab size. Enter the number of characters to display. A
smaller number results in smaller tabs.
3.
Click OK.
To make a selection from a docked palette:
Click the palette’s tab on the Docking bar. The palette pops open and you can click a tool or other
item in the palette to select it. When you click in the document or the Toolbox, the palette closes
again. To close the palette without selecting anything, click anywhere outside the palette.
You can use docked palettes as if they are floating, with one exception: you cannot drag objects into
docked palettes.
Palettes that are docked in the Docking bar when you quit Canvas will be docked the next
time you launch Canvas.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Using the Docking pane
You can use the Docking pane, located to the right
of the Layout Area, to dock the following palettes:
Canvas Assistant
Document Layout
Flowchart
Page Navigator
Symbol Library
To show or hide the Docking pane:
Click the Expand/Collapse button on the vertical
splitter bar.
If you remove all the palettes from the
Docking pane and close them, you will not
be able to see the vertical splitter bar and
the Docking pane will be hidden. To
reopen the Docking pane, open one of the
palettes, such as the Canvas Assistant,
and drag it to the Docking pane.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Docking palettes
When you dock a palette, a tab with the palette’s name appears in the Docking pane stacked with the
Canvas Assistant. The tabs of docked palettes give you quick access to tools or features and leave
more screen space for working on your document.
To dock a palette:
Do one of the following:
Drag a palette to the Docking pane and drop it when the palette window expands to fill
the pane.
Click the Docking button located in the upper right corner of the palette.
To remove a docked palette:
Click on the palette name at the top of the Docking pane and drag the palette away from the pane.
To view a docked palette:
Click the palette's tab to bring the palette forward.
To arrange docked palettes:
Click and drag a palette's tab to move it to another position in the Docking pane.
Palettes that are docked in the Docking pane when you quit Canvas will be docked the next
time you launch Canvas.
Dynamic Help
In addition to the Canvas Help, which you access from the Help menu, Canvas also includes a
Dynamic Help window that is located just below the Properties bar. Dynamic Help displays
information and tips for selected tools and objects, even while you are performing tasks in edit mode.
The Properties bar must also be displayed if you want to open the Dynamic Help window.
To display the Dynamic Help window:
Do one of the following:
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Choose Help | Show Dynamic Help.
Click on the Question Mark icon that appears on the right in the Properties bar when the
Dynamic Help window is closed.
To close the Dynamic Help window:
Do one of the following:
Choose Help | Hide Dynamic Help.
Click on the X icon on the right side of the open Dynamic Help window.
Using the Status bar
The Status bar is at the bottom of the Canvas window. The Status bar provides information about
commands, tools, objects, and program operations.
To set the number of information fields:
Point to the Status Bar, open the context menu, and choose from the Number of Fields submenu.
To add fields:
Point to the Status Bar, open the context menu, and choose a function in the Add to Right or Add to
Left submenu.
To remove a field:
Point to the field, open the context menu, and choose Remove.
New fields that you add to the Status Bar are blank until you assign a function to each field. If you
reduce the number of fields, Canvas removes fields from the right end of the status bar.
To adjust the width of a field:
Drag its border right or left.
During certain actions, such as saving a document, Canvas displays a progress bar in the Status bar.
Assigning functions to fields
To assign a function to a field in the Status bar, right-click on a field to open the context menu, and
choose a function in the Show submenu.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Hintline: The Hintline area displays tool names, tips, and status messages. When you move
the pointer over a tool icon or other item, the Message area shows the tool’s name and
function. You can use this feature to take a tour of the Canvas tools and interface.
Mouse position: When you move the pointer, draw, resize, or rotate objects, Canvas
displays the coordinates of the pointer.
Object Name & Number: Displays the current page number and layer number. Symbols
indicate layer options, including non-printing, locked, and color override. When an object is
selected, the field displays the object’s number in the sequence of objects on the layer.
Object Type: Displays information about selections. When one object is selected, the field
displays the type of object selected. When multiple objects are selected, the field shows the
number of objects selected. When you select an object group, the field displays “Group of n
objects,” with n as the number of objects.
Object Details: Displays various details about selected objects, such as the position of
points on the bounding box of a rectangle (as measured from the rulers’ zero point) and the
number of points in a path object. For other objects, the field displays data such as the
diameter of ovals and the angle of arcs.
Image Edit Data: Displays information about paint objects.
GIS Position: Displays the GIS position of the cursor.
Viewing documents
This section describes how you can adjust your view of a document. Viewing options in Canvas let
you:
Control when Canvas redraws objects.
Scroll to any area with the Hand tool or scroll bars.
Increase or decrease the view magnification.
Restore any view magnification and location.
Display wireframe and process- color views.
Controlling when Canvas refreshes the display
Canvas refreshes the display, which redraws all visible objects, when you scroll or change
magnification. When you work with complex images, you can interrupt the redraw to save time, then
refresh the display when you’re ready.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
To interrupt display redraw:
Press Esc during normal redraw.
To refresh the display:
Choose Layout | Display | Refresh. You can refresh the display after interrupting screen redraw,
or when you want to refresh the display.
Scrolling documents
You can use scroll bars or the Hand tool to move to areas of a document that aren’t displayed in the
document window.
Using scroll bars
Document scroll bars represent the full document area. The position of the scroll box within a scroll
bar indicates the current view area.
To scroll using scroll bars:
Do one of the following:
Click one of the arrows to move in the arrow direction.
Drag the scroll box toward the part of the document you want to see. For example, drag
up to see more of the top.
Click the scroll bar to scroll one screen length toward the side of the scroll box that you
clicked. For example, click to the right of the scroll box to move one screen to the right.
Using the Hand tool
Using the Hand tool to scroll a document is like sliding a piece of paper on a desktop.
To temporarily switch to the Hand tool while using another tool, press the Spacebar and
drag with the Hand pointer.
To scroll with the Hand tool:
1.
2.
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Select the Hand tool. The pointer becomes a hand.
Drag to make the document follow the pointer. e.g. To move a document up so you can see
the bottom, drag toward the top of the screen.
Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Changing the view magnification
You can change your view of a document by changing the view magnification. Zoom in to enlarge
objects or zoom out to see a larger area.
Zooming changes the view on screen, but doesn’t change the actual size of anything in the
document.
You can zoom with the Magnifying Glass tool, the Zoom controls, and Zoom commands. You can use
magnification levels from 0.0001 to 102400 percent. Normal magnification is 100 percent.
To use a command to zoom:
Choose Layout | Views | Zoom In or Zoom Out. Zoom In increases magnification to the next higher
preset level; Zoom Out decreases magnification to the next lower preset level.
To enter a zoom percentage:
1.
Do one of the following:
Choose Layout | Views | Zoom.
Press Ctrl and the slash key (/).
2.
Enter a zoom percentage from 0.0001 to 102400 press Enter.
Using zoom shortcuts
You can use keyboard shortcuts to zoom in and out.
To zoom in with any tool selected:
Press Ctrl+Spacebar and click or drag a box around an area; to zoom out, press
Ctrl+Shift+Spacebar and click or drag a box around an area.
To zoom in directly:
Press Ctrl+Alt+Plus (+).
To zoom out:
Press Ctrl+Alt+Minus (-).
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Using the Zoom controls
You can use the Zoom controls at the bottom left of the document window to adjust the view
magnification. The Zoom controls display the current magnification and let you change magnification.
To zoom to the next preset magnification level:
Click the Zoom-in or Zoom-out button. The Zoom-in button increases magnification. The Zoom-out
button decreases magnification.
To open the preset magnification menu:
Click on the menu icon and the zoom menu pops open. Select a magnification level.
To enter any magnification percentage:
Type the magnification percentage in the Magnification Level field of the Zoom controls.
Using the magnifying glass
Use the Magnifying Glass tool to zoom in and out from an area that you select in the document.
To use the magnifying glass:
1.
Select the Magnifying Glass tool. The pointer becomes a magnifying glass with a + sign.
2.
Click the center of the area you want to magnify. Canvas zooms to the next preset
magnification level and centers the view at the point you clicked.
3.
To reduce rather than magnify, shift-click the area you want to center on screen at reduced
magnification.
To magnify an area to fill the screen:
With the Magnifying Glass tool, drag a box around the area you want to magnify.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Using Views commands
You can use Views commands to quickly change your view of the current document. Choose the
following commands in the Layout | Views submenu.
Home view: Displays the upper-left corner of the document at normal (100 percent)
magnification.
Fit to Window: Reduces or increases magnification to the maximum magnification level for
the layout area to fill the document window.
Fit to Selection : Reduces or increases magnification to the maximum magnification level
for the selected objects to be visible in the document window.
Fit to Objects: Reduces or increases magnification to the maximum magnification level for
all objects on the current page, sheet, slide, or frame to be visible in the document window.
Using custom views
You can create custom views to save the current magnification level and position in the document.
To create a custom view:
1.
Choose Layout | Views | New View.
2.
In the New View dialog box, enter a name for the view and click OK. The new view will appear
beneath Home View in the Layout | Views submenu.
A checkmark appears next to the view name when a custom view is selected. Canvas assigns shortcut
keys (which appear in the menu) so you can quickly select the custom views you have created.
To delete a custom view:
Choose Layout | Views | Delete View.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
If only one custom view exists, Canvas deletes it.
If more than one custom view appears in the Views submenu, the Delete Views dialog box
opens. Select a view and click OK. Canvas removes the selected view from the Views
submenu.
Using the Navigator palette
The Navigator palette provides an overview of a document. You can use this floating palette to scroll
the document and zoom in and out.
To display the Navigator palette:
Choose Window | Palettes | Navigator.
Zooming and scrolling
The Navigator palette shows a reduced-size view of the entire layout area. A red rectangle, the View
box, represents the current view position in the document. The box is small when you zoom in to view
details and becomes large (relative to the layout area) as you zoom out.
Scrolling: In the Navigator palette, move the view box to change your view of the layout
area. Drag the view box to the part of the layout area you want to see. e.g. To see the top of a
page, drag the view box to the top of the layout area.
Zooming: You can use the zoom controls to change the magnification level. Type a number
in the text box to change the magnification level. Type a higher number to zoom in or a lower
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
number to zoom out. Normal magnification is 100%. Click the Zoom-in button on the right to
double the magnification level. Click the Zoom-out button on the left to reduce magnification
by half. The Zoom controls are at the bottom of the document window (see "Using the Zoom
controls" on page 42).
To quickly change the view area, click within the Navigator palette. The view box moves to
where you click and the layout area shifts as well.
View options
You can choose view options from the Navigator palette menu. This menu contains the same
commands as the Layout | Views submenu. You can choose Home View, Zoom In, and Zoom Out,
custom views that you have saved, and commands that make all objects or the entire layout area
visible in the window.
Using expressions for numeric values
You can type basic mathematical expressions to specify numeric values in Canvas dialog boxes and
palettes. You can use addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication operators in simple
expressions; e.g., you can type a fractional value, such as 2/3, in place of a decimal value.
To type an expression:
To enter operators in expressions, type a plus sign (+) for addition; a minus sign (-) for
subtraction; a slash (/) for division; and an asterisk (*) for multiplication.
You can type parentheses to nest values and operators in expressions. Do not type an equal sign in
an expression.
Canvas calculates the result of a mathematical expression when you press Tab or Enter, or click an
Apply button, or move to another value in a dialog box.
To modify a value:
1.
To use an existing value in an expression, click after the number to place an insertion point.
2.
Type the remainder of the expression; e.g., to make the width of an object 3 times larger,
click after the existing value and type * 3, and then press Enter. To make the value one-third
as large, type / 3.
By entering expressions after existing values in the Transform palette, you can move objects
incrementally; e.g., to move an object 3/4 inch to the right, type + 3/4 after the X value.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Specifying measurement units
In most dialog boxes, you can type abbreviations to specify measurement units. You can use this
feature to override a document’s measurement units or the specific measurement units used in these
dialog boxes.
For example, when inches is a document’s unit of measurement, you can type 1 cm to specify 1
centimeter. Canvas converts 1 cm and displays it as .3937 inches.
The following are the abbreviations you can type to specify a unit of measurement.
Abbreviation
Unit of measure
in
inches
ftf
feet
y
yards
mi
miles
p
picas
pt
points
mm
millimeters
m
meters
km
kilometers
cmc
centimeters
To use an abbreviation for a measurement unit:
In a text box that accepts numerical values, type a value followed by the abbreviation for the
measurement unit.
Canvas converts the numerical value to the measurement units you are using in the document when
you press Tab or Enter, or click an Apply button, or click in another edit box.
You can even type a mathematical expression using more than one measurement unit; e.g., you can
type 1p+1cm.
Using context-sensitive menus
Canvas has context menus that you can pop up in the drawing area, giving you quick access to
common commands. The menus are context-sensitive; the available commands depend on the
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
current operation.
Choose common editing commands, such as Cut, Copy and Paste, when an object is selected. Other
commands are available when an object is in edit mode; e.g., image-editing commands appear in the
context menu when you edit a paint object. Path-editing commands appear when a vector object is in
edit mode.
When no objects are selected, you can choose view commands such as Zoom In, Zoom Out, Show
Rulers, and Show Guides. If the Clipboard contains objects or text, you can choose Paste. You can
choose Undo after performing an action that can be undone.
Using context menus
To apply a command to an object, select the object first. To use other commands, you do not need to
select an object before displaying the context menu.
Click the right mouse button. A context menu appears. Click a command in the menu to choose it.
When you are editing an object, you can point to a specific item to display commands for editing that
item; e.g., if you point to an anchor point on a path, you can choose commands to modify the anchor
point in the context menu.
For information on specific commands that appear in the context menu, refer to the command name
in the Index.
Document basics
Canvas documents are the containers for your work. You can create and save vector drawings, text,
raster images and effects in Illustration, Publication, Presentation and Animation documents.
This section describes the basics of working with Canvas documents, including how to open, save,
view, and print them.
Opening Canvas documents
Use the Open command to open Canvas documents. The general procedure is the same for opening
Canvas documents and any other type of file that Canvas supports.
Documents opened recently are listed in the File menu.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
To open a file:
1.
Choose File | Open.
2.
In the Open dialog box, select the file to open. Canvas displays a preview if the selected
document contains a preview.
3.
Click Open.
To open a document you worked with recently:
Choose the document name from the list of recently opened documents in the File menu.
To start Canvas and open a document simultaneously:
Double-click a Canvas document icon in a folder or directory on your system. The program starts
and the document opens.
Options for opening Canvas files
When you choose Open, a directory dialog box lets you select a file in the scroll list and see a preview.
You can select “Show All Files” to list all the files in a folder. This is different than Selecting “All” in
the File Format pop-up menu, which lists all files that Canvas can open.
If you need additional help working with files, folders, and directories, refer to your Windows
documentation.
You can open more than one document at a time in Canvas. When you open a document, Canvas loads
the document into your system’s memory. You need to have enough memory available to hold the
document’s contents. Documents that contain many complex objects or large high-resolution images
require more memory than simple documents.
When you work with a document, changes you make to the document are not saved until you use the
Save or Save As commands.
Substituting fonts when opening documents
If a document you open uses fonts that aren’t available on your system, Canvas displays a dialog box
before opening the document. Use the dialog box to review which fonts are required by the document
and to select substitute fonts, or you can let Canvas select substitutes.
To substitute fonts when opening a document:
1.
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Select a font listed under Original Font, or Shift-click to select multiple fonts. This column
lists fonts that are specified in the document but are not available.
Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
2.
Choose a substitute font in the “With” pop-up menu. The name of the font appears in the list
under Substitute Font. Canvas displays the font name in its corresponding typeface so you
can preview the font substitution.
3.
Select the check box to permanently replace the missing fonts with the fonts you choose in
this dialog box.
4.
After you select substitutes for the missing fonts, click OK to open the document. To cancel
the changes, click Clear Changes to let Canvas choose a substitute and open the document.
Placing documents
Use the Place command to incorporate a document stored on disk into an open Canvas document.
With the Place command, you can insert a Canvas document, an image, or a non-Canvas illustration
document; e.g., you can place a document containing your company logo within a document in which
you are preparing a sales brochure.
The Place command lets you visually set the location and dimensions of the incorporated document.
You can also control which layers, pages, or slides to place, and whether to place them on the
current layer, page, or slide, or on new ones, depending on the document type (Illustration,
Publication, Animation, or Presentation).
If you place one Canvas document type (Illustration, Publication, Animation, or Presentation) into
another document type, Canvas converts the placed pages, sheets, or slides to the format of the
current document. Document pages (and sheets or slides) can be added to the current document,
along with their layers.
To place a file in an open Canvas document:
1.
Choose File | Place.
2.
In the Place dialog box, select the file that you want to place and then click Place.
3.
If the file has more than one page or layer,in the Place Options dialog box, configure the
options and then click OK.
4.
Position the Place cursor in the open document where you want the top-left corner of the
placed file to be.
5.
Click to place the file at its original size; Canvas inserts the upper-left corner of the file at the
point you click.
To define the dimensions of the file you’re placing:
Drag to create a bounding box. Canvas inserts the file and scales it to fit the bounding box.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Place options
When you place a file with multiple pages or layers, the Place Options dialog box lets you specify how
the placed file should be added to the current document.
Place on current
layer
Places the file’s objects on the current layer of the current page. No
pages or layers are created in the current document.
Show Place Cursor
Select this option if you want to set the position or size of placed items on
the current page. After you click OK in the Place Options dialog box, a
place pointer appears. Click to set the position of the upper-left corner of
the placed items, or drag to enclose an area in which you want the
placed items to fit.
Add new layer(s) to
current page
Places the document’s layers as new layers on the current page in the
current document.
Add new page(s)
Places the document’s pages and layers as new pages and layers in the
current document.
Select
Click to choose specific pages or layers to place. A dialog box lists the
available items. Shift-click two items to select a range. Ctrl-click to select
multiple items and toggle selected items. Click OK to close the dialog
box.
Saving Canvas documents
In Canvas you can choose to save an entire document, a selection, or a layer. You can also use
compression, or apply a password to protect a document.
Use one of the following:
Save: Updates a document file on disk and overwrites the previously saved version.
Save As: Lets you create a new file on disk from an open document, save documents as
templates, and use other graphics and text file formats.
When you use these commands, the default format for storing documents is the native Canvas
format.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Saving files
To save a new Canvas document:
1.
Choose File | Save As.
2.
In the Save As dialog box, select a location to store the document and type a file name.
3.
Click Save to store the document on disk.
To save changes to a document as you work:
Choose File | Save to update the document file on disk.
To save a document with a new name or in a new location:
Choose File | Save As. Enter a new name or select a new location in the directory dialog box, and
then click Save.
To avoid losing your work in the event of a power failure or system failure, use the Save
command frequently as you work to store changes on disk. Also use the AutoSave feature
located in the General settings in the Configuration Center (see "Setting preferences" on
page 97).
Saving selections and layers
In the Save As dialog box you can choose options to save selections or layers, and create previews.
Save Entire
Document
The default setting tells Canvas to save a complete document.
Save Selection
Choose this option after you select the objects in the document that you
want to save as a new document. If you don’t select anything, this option
is not available.
Save Layer
Select this option to save one or more layers in a new document. Then,
click Layers to specify which layers to save. This option isn’t available if
the document has only one layer.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Use Compression
Check this box to reduce the size of files saved on disk.
Save Preview
Select the this option to save a low resolution preview of the document.
In applications that support previews, you can see a thumbnail image of
the document before opening the file.
Applying password protection to Canvas documents
If you want to control who can open a Canvas document, you can protect the document with a
password.
To add a password to a document:
1.
In the Save As dialog box, select the Encrypt file check box.
2.
In the Password text box, enter a password.
3.
In the Confirm text box, enter the same password again.
4.
Click OK.
To change the password on a document:
1.
In the Save As dialog box, click the Modify key button.
2.
Enter and confirm the new password, and then click OK.
The encrypt option is only available when you save the document in the native Canvas
format. The PDF export has its own encryption method (see "Exporting as PDF" on page
722).
Saving documents in multiple formats
You can save a document in more than one format by setting the Multiple Save Options.
To save a document in multiple formats:
52
1.
Choose File | Save As.
2.
In the Save As dialog box, select the Multiple Save check box.
Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
3.
Click the Options button to select the formats you want to save.
Raster Formats /
Non-raster Formats
Select the formats you want to save the file in.
Display Options
dialog
Select this check box to display the Render Image or PDF Options dialog
boxes so that you can select the settings for each format.
Save companion files
in subfolder
Select this check box to save the files in a subfolder. The Canvas image
is saved in the folder you specify in the Save As dialog box, and the other
files are saved in a subfolder with the same name as the Canvas image.
For example, if your Canvas image is named New_1.cvx, the subfolder
containing the other files will also be named New_1.
If you do not select this check box, files are saved in the same folder as
the Canvas document.
Reset
Click this button to reset the Multiple Save options to the factory
defaults.
Once you have saved a document in multiple formats, next time you save the document, it will be
saved in all the formats you selected by default. If you want to choose different formats, click File |
Save As, and click the Options button to change the multiple format options.
The Multiple Save check box is only available if you have selected CVX - Canvas as the
document type in the Save As dialog box.
If you use the same Multiple Save options regularly, you might want to create a Canvas
Template TPL file to save your settings. When you create a new document using the
template file, your Multiple Save options are applied to the file.
Undoing, redoing, and repeating actions
You can easily correct mistakes, restore your work to an earlier state, and repeat commands using
the Undo, Redo, and Again commands. The minimum and maximum number of times you can undo
changes can be changed within the Configuration Center (see "Setting preferences" on page 97 ).
Canvas uses memory to store operations so they can be undone. The amount of memory depends on
the operation; e.g., undoing a filter applied to a 2 MB image requires significantly more memory than
reversing a change in type size.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Canvas allocates memory to ensure that you can undo the specified minimum number of actions.
Canvas tries to set aside enough memory so you can undo the specified maximum number of actions.
It uses this memory if it’s needed for other operations. Therefore, you should be able to undo the
specified minimum number of actions, but you might not be able to undo the specified maximum
number of actions. The memory allocation ensures that you’ll have the most memory available in
Canvas.
To cancel an action:
Do one of the following:
Choose Edit | Undo. You can choose Edit | Undo multiple times to undo canceled actions
in reverse order.
Press Ctrl+Z.
Choose Window | Palettes | Undos. In the palette, select an action that you want to undo.
Not all actions can be canceled with the Undo command. Actions that cannot be canceled
include scrolling; closing or reverting to an earlier version of a document; selecting and
deselecting objects; deleting settings in palettes; and saving documents.
To restore actions you canceled using Undo:
Do one of the following:
Choose Edit | Redo. You can choose Edit | Redo multiple times to reinstate canceled
actions in reverse order.
Press Ctrl+Shift+Z.
Choose Window | Palettes | Undos. In the palette, select an action that you want to redo.
To repeat a command or other action:
Choose Edit | Again.
When an action can be repeated, the Again command includes the name of the action; e.g., after you
rotate an object, the Again command appears as “Rotate Again.”
Not all actions can be repeated. The Again command isn’t available if the previous action
can’t be repeated.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Reverting to the saved version of a document
The Revert command lets you discard changes made to a document since it was last saved. This is
the same as closing the document without saving changes, and then opening the original from disk.
Be certain that you want to discard all changes to a document before choosing the Revert command,
because you cannot use the Undo command to restore your work after using the Revert command.
Keep in mind that you can use the Save As command to save a document with a new name. If you are
not certain that you want to discard changes to a document, use Save As to store a new version on
disk, then open the original document and compare the two.
To revert to a document’s saved version:
1.
Choose File | Revert.
2.
Confirm that you want to discard all changes.
Working with document windows
Each document you open appears in its own window. You can work with Canvas document windows
the same as other windows. You can resize a window, expand it to fill the screen, and minimize or roll
it up. Canvas provides commands to organize and select document windows when more than one is
open.
Selecting among open documents
When you open several documents at once, only one is active. The Window menu displays the names
of open Canvas documents. The name of the active document has a check mark.
To change the active window:
Do one of the following:
Choose the document’s name in the list at the bottom of the Window menu.
Click a document’s window.
When you open more than one document, information in the Properties bar and Status bar, such as
the pointer’s location, applies to the active document. The same is true of floating palettes; palette
settings apply to the active document and they change when you switch documents.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Arranging windows
When you open more than one document window, you can stack or distribute them on screen so they
are easier to work with.
When Canvas arranges document windows, it resizes them if necessary so they fit within the main
program window or screen area.
To arrange windows in rows:
Choose Window | Tile Down.
To arrange windows in columns:
Choose Window | Tile Across.
To stack all windows:
Choose Window | Stack.
To arrange icons of minimized windows:
Choose Window | Arrange Icons.
Viewing and editing document properties
With the Properties command, you can view the properties of documents. You can view standard data
and add your own meta data to a document.
To view or edit properties:
1.
Choose File | Properties to open the Document Properties dialog box. This dialog box contains
the following tabs: General, Statistics, Summary, and Custom.
2.
Click a tab to display its options. Use the procedures later in this section to edit the options,
where applicable, then click OK to implement the settings.
The document must be saved for some of its properties to be displayed.
Choosing a property
To view or customize a property, select a tab in the dialog box.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
The creation time can be different on the General and Statistics tabs. The Statistics tabs
displays the date and time the document was created as a new document. The General tab
displays the time it was first saved.
General: Describes general information about a saved document, such as type, location,
size, attributes, when it was created, and when it was last modified.
Statistics: Displays when the document was created and when it was last modified. It also
shows the last time the document was printed, the name of the person it was last saved by,
the number of revisions, and the total editing time. The Statistics box contains information
about the document and the objects contained in it.
Summary: Lets you customize information about the document. You can enter a title,
subject, author, manager, and company. In the Category and Keyword boxes, you can type
data to categorize the document. The Comments box lets you type comments about the
document.
Custom: Lets you add custom data to the document. You can choose names and data types
for these entries, as described next.
To enter custom data:
1.
Choose a name from the list for the data entry, or to create a new data name, type a name in
the Name text box.
2.
Choose a data type from the Type menu. You can choose Text, Date, Number, or Yes or No.
Then, depending on the type, enter a value in the Value box:
For Text, type any text value.
For Date, type a date from 1/1/1601 through 12/31/9999.
For Number, type a numeric value.
For Yes or No, click Yes or No.
3.
Click Add to add the data entry to the Properties box.
To modify a data entry:
Click the entry in the Properties box, then change the type or value. You cannot change the name
of the entry. Click Modify to apply the change.
To delete a data entry:
Select the entry in the Properties box and then click Delete.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Printing documents
In Canvas, you can print to any printer set up on your computer or network, including PostScript and
non-PostScript printers.
For information on installing, setting up, and selecting a printer to use, refer to your
operating system documentation.
Printing a document
If your document uses a standard paper size and you want to print all the visible objects on the page,
you can simply select a printer and print the document. However, Canvas also offers the flexibility to
print multiple pages on a page, scale the page to fit the paper, print color separations, print
registration marks, and much more.
To print a document:
1.
Choose File | Print.
2.
In the Print dialog box, select a printer from the Name drop-down list in the Printer section.
3.
On the General tab, select the print range and copy settings.
4.
Select any other options you want to use from the Advanced, Separations, and Page setup
tabs.
5.
Click the Print button.
Print options
The Print dialog box contains four tabs: General, Advanced, Separations, and Page Setup.
General options
Printer
Name: Select a printer from the drop-down list.
Properties: Click this button to modify the properties in the printer
driver.
Print to file: Select this check box if you want to generate a postscript
file rather than a printed document.
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Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
Print range
All pages: Prints all the pages in the document.
Pages: Prints the pages you specify.
Selection: Prints the currently selected object.
Odd-numbered pages only: Prints only the odd-numbered pages.
Even-numbered pages only: Prints only the even-numbered pages.
Copies
Number of copies: Enter the number of copies you want to print.
Collate copies: Prints all pages of the document in order based on the
number of copies requested, rather than printing all copies of page 1, all
copies of page 2, and so on.
Reverse order: Prints from the last page to the first, keeping pages in
the correct order if the printer stacks pages face-up in the output tray.
Print facing pages: If the document is formatted for spreads, Canvas
prints facing pages on a single page. This option is available for printing
Publications only.
Skip blank pages: Does not output document pages (or separation
plates) that are completely blank.
Preview
Click this button to see a preview of the printed page.
Some documents can be larger than the paper in your printer. To print the entire document,
select the Tile option in the Page Setup dialog box. Canvas will “tile” (divide) the document
into a series of pages matching the paper size of your printer.
Advanced options
Optimization
Optimize image resolution to printer: Optimizes the resolution of
images based on the printer capabilities.
Print proxied images at full resolution : Prints the high-resolution
images that are linked to the proxies in the document. Canvas outputs
the images from the linked files on your computer. If you do not select
this option, Canvas prints proxy images rather than the high-resolution
images. This is faster and could be adequate when you are proofing
other parts of a document.
Always send header: Sends a header to a Postscript printer.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Text always in front: Because of the way that Canvas renders
SpriteLayer effects, text that is not in front of all other objects can be
output as rendered images rather than text. If you want to avoid
rendering text for printing, select this option. Canvas will print the text
objects in front of all other objects.
If you have text that has special effects or is behind transparent objects,
you should not select this option, so the text will be rendered and printed
as it appears in the document.
Kanji fonts resident: Uses resident Kanji fonts on Postscript printers
when you are printing Japanese text.
Transparency rendering: Choose an option in the Transparency
Rendering menu to specify how transparency and SpriteEffects will be
rendered (converted to pixels for printing).
Smallest area: Renders the area inside the bounding box of all
transparent objects. This generates the least amount of additional
data to print transparency effects. Do not choose this option if you
are printing in color on non-PostScript printers and the document
has vector and transparent objects that share the same color,
because these printers will not match the colors precisely. In some
cases, non-standard PostScript printers might produce a slight
pixel shift between a transparent and non-transparent area of a
vector object. If this happens, select Complete Area.
Complete area: Renders the area within the bounding boxes of all
transparent objects, as well as objects that are overlapped by
transparent objects (or intervening objects). This is the best
setting to use when you print to a non-PostScript printer, such as a
Windows GDI printer, to avoid color-matching problems
Entire document : Renders all objects in the document as one or
more images that are sent to the printer. This is equivalent to
processing the document in an internal RIP (raster image
processor) in Canvas. This option produces the greatest amount of
image data. However, this option can be useful if you experience
problems producing accurate output of transparency or other
effects when you use a particular printer or printer driver.
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No transparency: Does not render any transparency effects in
the document. If you select this option, transparency (SpriteLayer)
and image (SpriteEffects) effects will not be printed; transparent
objects will be printed as opaque objects.
The one exception to this rule involves vector objects that have a
transparency Scope setting of Fill only when printing to a
PostScript printer, because PostScript can print transparent fill
inks in vector objects without rendering. For information on the
Scope setting, see "To set an object’s transparency scope:" on
page 671.
Select Don’t Render Transparent Objects if you need to
quickly print a proof of a complex document. This allows
you to check the positioning of objects without seeing the
final transparency effects.
Rendered transparency effects are transmitted as image
data when printing to PostScript printers.
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Color mode: Choose an option to control color accuracy when using a
color printer. In general, when you print to a color printer, it’s best to
choose a color specification that matches the colors in the document you’re
printing; e.g., choose CMYK if your document contains CMYK colors only.
RGB: Outputs colors using RGB color specifications. A non-color
printer will convert the color values to print as shades of gray.
Black & White: Prints all colors as black or white.
Colors As Grays: Canvas converts color values to shades of gray
for printing on any printer, including color printers.
CIE L*a*b: Uses color calibration to try to match printed colors to
their appearance on screen. Keep in mind that many on-screen
hues cannot be reproduced on paper with printing inks. For
example, colors that look bright and saturated on screen, such as
hot pink, cyan, and brilliant orange, will appear muted in printed
materials.
CMYK: Outputs colors using CMYK color specifications. A non-color
printer will convert the color values to print as shades of gray.
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Image compression: Choose a format for output of image data to a PostScript device or file. The format you choose affects the amount of data
transmitted and the size of a PostScript file. This setting can affect compatibility with networks and PostScript printers.
ASCII: Outputs image data as plain text. This is the most
compatible format, but it transmits (or saves in files) the largest
amount of data.
Binary: Outputs images as binary data, which might not be
compatible with all printers and networks. Binary data is half the
size of ASCII data.
Level 2 ASCII: Outputs images in an ASCII format that is
compatible with PostScript Level 2 devices. This produces files that
are approximately 20% smaller than regular ASCII PostScript files.
RLE: Outputs images using Run Length Encoding compression.
This format is compatible with PostScript Level 2 devices. This form
of compression is most efficient when documents contain images
that have large areas of flat color.
JPEG: Outputs images using JPEG compression. This format is
compatible with PostScript Level 2 devices. JPEG compression
requires more system memory and more processing time at the
printer than other compression methods. However, this format
achieves the fastest printing results with continuous-tone
(photographic) images and documents containing transparency
effects.
By default, Canvas uses JPEG compression for printing images.
This can reduce the amount of data sent to the printer. If a
network print spooler reports errors with a JPEG data stream,
select Images: ASCII or Level 2 ASCII and try printing again.
The Images setting affects printing of images and rendered
effects only.
Additional
Information
Registration marks: Adds registration marks, used for alignment in colored printing.
Canvas file name: Includes the Canvas filename at the top of the page.
Crop marks: Includes crop marks, short vertical and horizontal lines
that indicate the border where an illustration or page can be trimmed.
Plate names: Includes plate names when you are printing separations.
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Separations options
Print separations
Select this check box if you want to print color separations.
Plates
Halftone setting: Select the halftone setting. The default settings can
be used with most desktop printers.
Print spot colors as process: Prints any spot colors in the document
as process colors.
Trapping and
overprinting
Overprint black text: Overprints black text.
Overprint black objects: Overprints black objects.
Trap size: Enter the number of points to use for traps.
Page setup
Scale
Fit to paper: Scales a document to fit within the page’s printable area.
Remember that objects outside the layout area, will not be printed.
Center on paper: Centers a document on the printed page. If you’re
printing selected objects only, Canvas shifts the selected items to the
center of the printed media. This option can be useful when you have
selected objects that you want to print in the center of the page, but they
are not centered in the document itself.
Tile: Prints a large document by dividing it among “tiles” of printer
pages. Type an Overlap value in the text box so part of the document
repeats at the edge of adjoining tiles; the overlap makes it easier to
assemble the complete document after printing.
Thumbnails
Print thumbnails: Select the number of pages to print per page. The
preview area shows how your pages will be placed on the paper.
Previewing your printed document
The print preview reflects the current print settings and the page setup. In the preview, you can see
which objects, layers, and pages will be printed. You can make sure the layout fits in the printable
area of the paper. If you choose the Tile option in the Page Setup tab or dialog box, the preview shows
the tiles as separate pages.
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To preview a printed document:
1.
Do one of the following:
Choose File | Print Preview.
Choose File | Print, then click the Preview button.
2.
Do one or more of the following to preview the document:
Click the zoom buttons to increase or decrease the magnification of the preview.
Click the arrow buttons to view other pages.
If you are previewing separations, click the plate buttons to view the plates that will be
printed for each page.
3.
When you have finished previewing the document, do one of the following:
Click Print to send it to the current printer when you finish previewing a document and
the settings are correct.
Click Close to return to the document without printing.
Print Preview options
The Print Preview dialog box provides the Options, Separations, and Page setup tabs with the same
options as the Print dialog box (see "Print options" on page 58). You can use the Messages tab to
view any printing related warnings or errors, such as warnings about spot colors.
Additional options appear at the bottom of the dialog box:
Show rasterized area
Select this check box to see the objects that will be rendered when sent
to the printer. This option depends on the selection in the
Transparency rendering menu.
Show
These check boxes are related to the trapping technique that you can
overprint/choke/spread apply to objects via the Object Specs palette (Trap tab). If you have
applied any technique, select the appropriate check box.
Normal display
Select this radio button to switch to normal display if using wireframe
display.
Wireframe display
Select this radio button to switch to wireframe mode.
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Using Page Setup
If you always want to use the same settings when you print a particular document, you can save the
settings in the Page Setup dialog box. It’s a good idea to set these options when you create a
document so you can see page breaks correctly on the screen.
To set up pages for printing:
Choose File | Page Setup.
Page Setup options
Printer
Select a printer from the drop-down list.
PPD
If the printer you are using is a Postscript printer, also select a PPD
(Postscript Printer Description).
Fit To Paper
Scales a document to fit within the page’s printable area. Remember that
objects outside the layout area, will not be printed.
Center On Paper
Centers a document on the printed page. If you’re printing selected
objects only, Canvas shifts the selected items to the center of the printed
media. This option can be useful when you have selected objects that
you want to print in the center of the page, but they are not centered in
the document itself.
Tile
Prints a large document by dividing it among “tiles” of printer pages.
Type an Overlap value in the text box so part of the document repeats at
the edge of adjoining tiles; the overlap makes it easier to assemble the
complete document after printing.
Printer Properties
Click this button to set up the printer properties in the printer's print
driver.
Canvas can obtain the page orientation from the printer properties. Select the correct page
orientation in the Page Setup dialog box, deselect any objects in your document, and then,
in the Properties bar, select From Printer in the Paper menu.
Setting the print area
If you want to print only a selected area of a page, you can set the print area to define how much of
the page is printed. This can be especially useful for large documents that don't fit easily on standard
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sizes of paper or complex documents where you want to focus on a single component. Once you have
set a print area, you can choose to toggle it on or off depending on whether you want to print just the
print area or the entire document.
To set the print area:
1.
Choose File | Print Area | Set Print Area.
2.
Use the Print Area cursor to draw a box around the area you want to print.
3.
In the Print Area dialog box, check and adjust the Left, Top, Width, and Height
measurements as necessary.
4.
Click the OK button.
An orange box appears in the document to indicate the printable area.
To toggle the print area on or off:
In the Properties bar, select or deselect the Print area check box.
When the print area is on, an orange box appears to indicate the printable area. When the print
area is off, the orange box disappears.
To remove the print area:
Choose File | Print Area | Clear Print Area.
Troubleshooting document printing
A few key factors affect how Canvas prints a document. Canvas decides which objects to print based
on the following:
Document boundary: Canvas does not print objects that are outside the layout area (the
rectangle that represents the document on screen). Objects that are partly inside and partly
outside the layout area will be cropped in the printout.
Visible layers: Objects on layers that are not visible are not printed.
Printable layers: If a layer’s print option (in the Document Layout palette) is off, nothing on
the layer is printed.
Printable objects: If an object is made non-printable (in the Document Layout palette or
the Trap tab in Object Specs), the object will not print.
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Printable area: If you have set a print area, then only the area within the print area is
printed. You can toggle the printable area by selecting its check box in the Properties bar.
Closing documents
When you close a document, Canvas removes the document window from the screen. Closing a
document doesn’t save it (Canvas will warn you if you try to close a document that has changed).
To close a Canvas document:
Choose File | Close. You can also click the Close button in the document’s title bar to close the
document.
Document setup
When you create a new Canvas document, you select a document type. Then you specify the
document size and other options.
This section explains how to create new documents and how to set up document rulers, drawing
scales, guides, and alignment grids.
Creating new documents
In Canvas, you can create several different types of documents: Illustrations, Publications,
Presentations, and Animations.
There are two ways to create a new document:
Startup dialog box: When you first start Canvas, you can create a new document from the
Startup dialog box. The new document opens immediately. You can then use the
Configuration Center to change document attributes such as the document units and
drawing scale.
Inside Canvas: If you have Canvas open already, you can create a new document from the
File | New menu or by clicking the New Document icon. The New Document dialog box opens
so that you can set the document attributes immediately.
To create a new document from the Startup dialog box:
In the Startup dialog box, click a document type.
If you don't see the Startup dialog box, choose Window | Show Startup.
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To create a new document from inside Canvas:
1.
Do one of the following:
Choose File | New.
Click the New Document icon.
2.
In the New Document dialog box, select the document type.
3.
Select options for the new document.
4.
Click OK.
New document options
The items that you define in this dialog box can be modified via the Properties bar or Document Setup
manager (Layout | Document Setup).
Type of document
Select a type of document. Depending on your choice, the dialog box
may offer more or fewer options; i.e., Publication offers Margin
settings, rather than a Drawing scale, as well as a layout menu.
GIS Document
If you are using Canvas +GIS, for ilustrations, you can select this
check box to work with a GIS document. Once you click OK, the GIS
manager opens so you can configure the GIS settings.
Drop-down list
For a Publication document, select one of the following:
Full page: Creates a single page document.
Facing pages: Creates a document with pages designed to be
viewed side by side, like a spread in a magazine. A facing-pages
document has a master page with left and right pages.
Tent card: Creates a document with two landscape pages
designed to use as a tent card.
Greeting card: Creates a document with four pages designed for
use as a greeting card.
Choose document
template
Use a template instead of choosing a document type and defining page
size and orientation. Select templates for illustrations, publications, or
presentations (see "Using document templates" on page 71).
Paper
Define the document size and paper unit. The maximum document size
is 2000 miles x 2000 miles. Select preset sizes, or set the document
size to the printer paper, or enter a custom size. To set up a custom
size, choose Custom and enter the width and the height. Select the
paper unit from the menu.
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To change the page orientation of the document, click the Portrait or
Landscape button. This swaps the width and height values.
To change the paper color, select a color from the drop down.
Document units
Choose the measurement units for the rulers (see "Setting up rulers"
on page 74).
Select the Pixel mode check box to view graphics at 72 ppi before they
are rendered.
Drawing scale
For an illustration, animation, or presentation, select one of the preset
scale options or create a custom scale (see "Setting up rulers" on page
74).
Margins
For a publication, select the left, right, top, and bottom page margins.
Save as default
Select this check box if you consistently work with the same document
type and layout.
Choosing a document type
When you create a new document, you can select an Illustration, Publication, Presentation, or
Animation document.
Illustrations
The most commonly-used format, Illustration documents are the basis for most
Canvas technical illustrations.
Illustration documents are general-purpose documents for all types of illustrations
and graphics. You can specify a custom document size, and the document can have
multiple pages (called sheets), with multiple layers on each sheet.
Publications
Publish documents using one of the standard paper sizes or a custom size. Specify
full pages or facing pages, or choose one of the standard templates to create
brochures, flyers, labels, magazine pages, and more.
Publication documents are designed for publications printed with two-sided (facing)
pages, although you can also create a Publication that has pages with single sides.
You can use master pages to hold items that you want to appear throughout the
publication. You can also use multiple layers on each page.
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Presentations
Presentations and slideshows provide a powerful way of displaying technical data.
Presentation documents are designed for on-screen slideshow presentations. You can
use multiple layers and a master slide to hold background elements. You can use more
than a dozen transition effects, including wipe and dissolve, during slide show
playback.
Animations
Create simple animations from your technical illustrations.
An Animation document is designed for creating and editing web (GIF) animation files.
An animation is composed of multiple frames, which are equivalent to the image
frames of film-based animations.
You can use onion-skinning in an Animation document. When you select onionskinning, frames adjacent to the current frame appear in the background. This helps
set up object movement in an animation.
Using document templates
Templates are special Canvas documents that you can use as the basis for new documents. When
you select a template in the New dialog box, Canvas creates a new document containing the graphics
and text in the template and uses the template’s settings for layers, slides, pages, rulers, grids,
guides, views, and default object attributes.
How is a template different than a regular Canvas document? When you choose a template in the New
dialog box, Canvas creates a new document based on the template, but doesn’t actually open the
template file. When you make changes to the new document and save it to disk, the changes don’t
affect the template.
Canvas treats a template in a similar way when you open one by double-clicking its icon or using the
Open command. In either case, rather than open the actual template document, Canvas makes a new
document based on the template’s document type and contents.
Templates, like regular Canvas documents, are various types: Illustration, Presentation, Publication,
and Animation. In the New dialog box, the templates listed in the Use Template pop-up menu match
the document type selected in the Type of Document area.
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Setting up documents
After you create a document, you can use the Document Setup manager in the Configuration Center
to change the document type, measurement units, size, orientation, and other options (Layout |
Document Setup).
The Document Setup manager present similar options for each type of document, with some specific
options for a particular document type; e.g., in a Publication document, you can set facing pages and
page margins. In a Presentation document, you can specify screen size.
To set up a document:
1.
Choose Layout | Document Setup.
2.
In the Document Setup manager, select the options you want and click OK.
Document Setup options
The following options are available in all document types, except as noted.
Document units
Choose an option in the Document Units pop-up menu. The unit you select will be used in the rulers.
Document size
You can set the document size to match the paper in your printer, or set up a document based on a
standard or custom size. The controls for document size are labeled according to the type of
document (Illustration, Publication, and so on).
For illustrations larger than the current paper size, toggle the Breaks option in the
Properties bar to see or hide page breaks. A line around the layout area indicates page
boundaries.
To use a standard size, choose an option from the pop-up menu. You can choose standard sizes
based on the document type.
From Printer: To base the dimensions of the layout area on your printer’s page size, choose
From Printer. The layout area will match the settings in the Page Setup dialog box. For more
information, see "Matching documents to printer pages" on page 74.
Custom: To specify custom dimensions, choose Custom. Type the width in the first box and
the height in the second box.
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From Screen: In Presentations and Animations, you can base the size of the layout area on
the monitor’s size. To do this, choose From Screen.
Orientation
To change the orientation of the document, click the button in the Orientation area. This swaps the
width and height values of the document.
Margins
To set margin size for two-sided Publications, enter the Inside, Outside, Top, and Bottom margins in
the text boxes in the Margins area. For single-sided Publications, enter Right, Left, Top, and Bottom
margins. The margin is measured from the edge of the paper. Margins are not available in other
document types.
On screen, the document’s margins appear as a dashed line. The page boundary appears as a solid
line around the edge of the layout area. Make sure the margins are not outside the page boundary
(see "Matching documents to printer pages" on page 74 ).
Page layout
To specify multiple pages per sheet in a Publication, choose Tent Card or Greeting Card in the Sheet
Layout pop-up menu.
Facing pages
To create double-sided pages, select Facing Pages. When Facing Pages is on, the document has a left
and a right master page that you can apply to its left-hand and right-hand pages. This option is
available in Publication documents only. Note that once you select Facing Pages for a Publication, it
cannot be undone or changed to another document type.
Paper color
Lets you apply a solid color to the document layout area. The paper color is for display purposes only
and does not print. To apply a paper color, select a color from the pop-up palette.
When objects are partially transparent, the paper color is visible through the objects.
However, while the paper color is not visible through solid objects, in the real world, the
colors of objects will be affected by the color of the paper they are printed on; e.g., a yellow
circle printed on blue paper will appear green. This is not shown on screen in Canvas when
you use the Paper Color option.
Canvas includes the paper color when it renders transparent objects, so the paper color affects the
rendered image the same as it does on screen in Canvas.
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Matching documents to printer pages
Selecting “From Printer” in the Document Setup dialog box tells Canvas to use the page information
from the Page Setup dialog box. Canvas sets the orientation and dimensions In the Document Setup
dialog box to match the selected page size.
When From Printer is selected and you change the page settings, Canvas changes the dimensions of
the document to match. You can choose File | Page Setup to change the paper size, or its orientation;
Canvas will update the dimensions of the document and you do not have to choose Layout | Document
Setup.
When the document type is Illustration, and you select From Printer, the document size is equal to
the printable area or page boundary of the paper selected in the Page Setup dialog box. For all other
document types, the document size is equal to the paper size, rather than the page boundary.
If working with a large document, you can define a printable area (see "Troubleshooting
document printing" on page 67). You can then toggle the Printable area option in the
Properties bar.
On most printers, the page boundary is smaller than the paper size. Illustration documents are sized
to the page boundary, so illustrations will fit on the paper without being scaled. You should note that
the page boundary on many printers is not centered exactly on the paper.
Canvas takes scaling into account when it sets the document dimensions and you specify a scaling
factor in the Page Setup dialog box; e.g., if you specify 50% scaling, the document size will be twice
the page size (or twice the page boundary size in an Illustration).
To see or hide the page boundary, you can toggle the Breaks option in the Properties bar.
Canvas indicates the page boundary by a solid line around the border of the page.
When From Printer is selected, Canvas checks the Page Setup information each time you open the
document. If necessary, it adjusts the document’s dimensions to match the page information.
Setting up rulers
You can set up rulers for a document using various units of measure and display the rulers at the top
and left of the document window. Rulers help you track the pointer’s movement and let you create
alignment guides in the layout area.
When you create a new document, you can also set the document’s drawing scale. Canvas bases the
rulers and all object measurements on the drawing scale. Canvas uses scale measurements in the
Object Specs palette, Properties bar, and in Dimension objects. You can also change these settings
for the document in the Configuration Center (see "Setting preferences" on page 97).
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To display and hide rulers:
Toggle the Rulers check box in the Properties bar. The rulers must be displayed if you want to
create alignment guides in the layout area.
To set up rulers:
1.
Choose Layout | Rulers.
2.
In the Ruler dialog box, select a unit of measurement from the Document unit drop-down list.
This unit is displayed in the rulers, Object Specs palette, as well as Properties bar.
3.
Define the drawing scale in the Document scale section. You can use the Pre-defined scales
or establish a custom scale; e.g., if you set the drawing scale to 1 inch = 1 foot, and draw a
line 1 inch long on screen, Canvas displays the line’s length as 1 foot.
4.
Choose the formats for the numbers, angles, and coordinates. For the number format, you
can choose from no decimals to six decimals, or even use exponentials or fractions.
5.
Click OK.
Adding and modifying units of measurement
You can further customize the rulers by adding units of measurements or modifying the definitions of
existing ones.
The Add unit feature is a document-based function; i.e., any units that you add pertain to
that particular document and will not be available when you open another document.
To access these functions, choose File | Configuration Center to open the Configuration Center. Under
the Measurements manager, click on Define unit.
To delete a unit of measurement:
Select the unit in the menu and click the Remove button.
To add a unit of measurement:
1.
Click the Add button.
2.
In the Add Unit dialog box, enter the Unit name, Plural name, as well as Abbreviation.
3.
Set up the new unit’s drawing scale by using the Length and Minor divisions controls.
4.
Click OK to add the unit to the menu.
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To modify a unit of measurement:
You cannot change the unit name or plural name.
1.
Click the Modify button.
2.
In the Modify Unit dialog box, change the unit’s Abbreviation, if needed.
3.
Set up the unit’s new drawing scale by using the Size and Subdivisions controls.
4.
Click OK to close the dialog box.
Assigning X/Y position to points
If you are trying to recreate a portion of an illustration, you may need to move the zero points or
assign an X/Y position to a specific point in the drawing area.
To assign a position:
1.
Place the cursor over the intersection of the rulers in the upper left corner. The cursor
changes to a double-sided arrowhead.
2.
Click and drag the cursor to the location in the Canvas work area where you want to assign
the X/Y position.
3.
In the Assign Position dialog box, enter the X/Y coordinates in the fields or use the scroll
boxes.
4.
Click OK. The Rulers shift to reflect the assigned position.
To change rulers:
You can change the current document unit and drawing scale by using the Units and Drawing
Scale menus in the Properties bar. To view these items, deselect all objects.
To use ‘tear-off’ rulers:
When rulers are displayed, you can move a copy of a ruler into the layout area to measure specific
areas of an illustration. When you tear off a ruler and move it, Canvas takes a snapshot of the ruler
and pastes it into the document as a paint object. A tear-off ruler isn’t active like the rulers
displayed at the window edges.
To place a tear-off ruler in a document:
Point to the ruler you want to tear off, press Alt and drag a copy of the ruler into the document.
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Document scale methods
Canvas features scaling options that will certainly be useful to those who work with large documents,
such as shape files. When selecting certain options, the Scale Options dialog box opens. When
selecting the Set Document Scale command, the Define Document Scale dialog box opens.
To view these scaling methods:
Choose Layout | Document Scale.
When you use either method in a geo-referenced document, the GIS referencing is
adjusted.
Scale options
The Document Scale dialog box appears when you choose Crop And Fit To Sheet, Fit All Objects To
Sheet, or Fit Selection To Sheet. If you do not wish to scale a certain object, select its respective
check box.
You also have the option of applying this command to objects on hidden layers.
If you leave a check box deselected, the corresponding objects are scaled once you click OK.
What is a point object?
A point object represents a geometric shape that consists of a single point. You can select vector
objects in your document and switch their status to point object.
If you were creating a floor plan and had created small vector objects that represent items such as
tables, chairs, lamps, etc., you would probably not want them to change size if you decide to change
the scale. Therefore, you could select them and assign them the point object status.
To switch to point object status:
1.
Select all objects to be changed.
2.
Choose GIS | Tag selection as | Treat as point object to assign the point object status. When
you select an object that has point object status, Point Object is indicated in the Status bar.
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To remove the point object status:
1.
Select all point objects to be changed.
2.
Choose GIS | Tag selection as | Treat as regular object. The object returns to its previous
status; i.e., vector object.
Crop and fit to sheet
When applied, a hard crop is performed and the resulting objects is scaled proportionally. This
command can be used on both image and vector objects.
The document scale and origin are adjusted so that object position and dimensions are
preserved. In a GIS document, the geo-referencing information is also preserved.
To crop and fit to sheet:
Drag the crosshair diagonally across the objects to form a cropping rectangle. Place the cursor
within the cropping rectangle and click to complete the crop.
You can move or resize the cropping rectangle, if necessary.
Fit all objects to sheet
When applied all objects within the document will be scaled proportionally. The objects are contained
within the bounds of the top and bottom of the document.
If the document contains 5000+ objects, a warning dialog box appears. All previous
operations, including Fit All Objects To Sheet, cannot be undone.
Fit selection to sheet
When applied, the selected objects will be scaled proportionally. The objects are contained within the
bounds of the top and bottom of the document.
Set document scale
You can use this command to customize a document’s drawing scale, which is useful if you are
working with objects that have known measurements.
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To use the Set Document Scale command:
1.
Choose Layout | Document Scale | Set Document Scale. The Define Document Scale dialog
box opens. The cursor changes to a crosshair.
2.
Click the crosshair once to establish the scaling start point.
3.
Click a final time to set the scaling end point. The resulting distance is indicated in the Page
distance field. The Define Document Scale dialog box opens. The first value is the distance
that you measured. The unit of measurement corresponds to the ruler’s unit of
measurement.
4.
Enter the custom scale in the bottom field and select the unit of measurement from the
menu.
5.
Click OK.
Scale bar
The Scale Bar command draws a labeled scale bar. Scale bars are included in a variety of illustrations
and images.
The labels on the scale bar are created using the default text settings. Although you can
change the text appearance afterwards, you should establish the text settings before
making the scale bar.
To open the Create Scale Bar dialog box:
Choose Object | Options | Create Scale Bar.
Create Scale Bar dialog box
The current document scale is indicated at the top of the dialog box.
Units
Select a primary unit from the menu. The primary unit is displayed
above the scale bar.
Secondary Units
If necessary, select a secondary unit. The secondary unit is displayed
below the scale bar.
Major Division Length
Enter the desired length for the scale bar.
Major Division Count
Enter the number of major divisions for the primary unit.
Minor Division Count
Select the check box and enter the number of secondary divisions for
the primary unit.
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Style
Select a option for the scale bar’s appearance.
Font
Select a font for the scale bar. Select Title to indicate the current
document scale above the scale bar. If Title is enabled, you can control
the point size. Use the Text control to change the point size for the
scale bar labels.
Using the alignment grid
You can display a grid of vertical and horizontal lines to aid in positioning objects in a document. You
can also turn on the snap-to-grid feature to make Canvas snap objects into alignment with the grid
when you drag near a grid line.
When snap-to-grid is active, the pointer movements snap to the grid according to the settings in the
Grids manager.
To display grids:
Do one of the following:
Select the Grids check box in the Properties bar.
Choose Layout | Display | Show Grids.
To turn off grids:
Do one of the following:
Deselect the Grids check box in the Properties bar.
Choose Layout | Display | Hide Grids.
To turn on snap-to-grid:
Choose Layout | Snap To | Grid. Choose the command again to turn off snap-to-grid.
To temporarily override the grid constraint:
Press Tab as you create, resize, or move objects.
To set up the alignment grid:
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1.
Choose Layout | Grids.
2.
In the Grids manager, enter a value in the Line Distance X: Units text box.
Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
3.
Enter a value in the Line Distance Y: Units text box.
4.
Enter a value in the Snap Factor X: Fields text box.
5.
Enter a value in the Snap Factor Y: Fields text box.
You can enter decimal or fractional values; Canvas converts fractional values to decimal
values; e.g., if the Line Distance is 1 inch, a Snap Factor of 1/2 Fields sets snap points every
1/2 inch.
6.
Select Snap to X and Snap to Y to make objects snap to the snap points on both sets of grid
lines.
7.
Click OK to implement the grid settings.
Using alignment guides
You can create alignment guides and alignment objects. Other objects can “snap” to alignment
guides and objects. Alignment guides are horizontal and vertical lines you drag into a document from
the rulers. When you create alignment guides, Canvas places the guides on a guide layer. You can
also create guide objects from any vector objects. Guide objects are placed on a guide layer; e.g., if
you draw a rectangle on a guide layer, objects can snap to the sides of the rectangle. Alignment
guides and objects normally do not print, because the guide layers are set to be non-printing.
To show or hide guides:
Do one of the following:
Toggle the Guides check box in the Properties bar. Deselect any objects to view the
check box.
Choose Layout | Display | Show Guides or Layout | Display | Hide Guides.
To activate snapping to guides:
Choose Layout | Snap To | Guides. When the snap-to feature is active, objects you move will snap
to alignment guides and objects on guide layers.
To set up alignment guides:
1.
Display the rulers by selecting the Rulers check box in the Properties bar.
2.
Point to either ruler and drag a guide into the document area.
To remove a guide:
Drag the guide back to its ruler.
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To move objects touching an alignment guide:
Press Ctrl as you drag an alignment guide. This method does not apply to alignment objects on a
guide layer.
To set up alignment objects:
1.
Select one or more vector objects.
2.
Choose Object | Arrange | Send to Guide Layer. Canvas moves the selected objects to the
guide layer on the current page.
The ink and stroke attributes of guide objects are overridden by default on guide layers. Guide
objects appear with a blue pen ink, a 1-point stroke, and no fill ink.
If you move an alignment object off a guide layer, its original attributes reappear.
You can edit guide objects without moving them off a guide layer; e.g., you can select a guide object,
drag its selection handles, use freeform mode to transform it, and use edit mode to reshape it.
To position guides numerically:
After you place a guide line in a document, you can set its position numerically.
1.
Double-click an alignment guide to open the Guides dialog box.
2.
Select Horizontal or Vertical to set the guide’s orientation.
3.
Enter the Guide position in the text box. Positive values go down and to the right from the
zero point. Negative values go up and to the left.
4.
Click OK.
When you enter a value for the position of a guide, you can use the current measurement units, or
enter a unit abbreviation; e.g., to place a vertical guide 3 inches to the right of the zero point, type
“3in” (without quotes) if the current units are not inches. To set a horizontal guide 2 picas above the
zero point, type “-2p”.
Document layout
You can use multiple pages and layers in any document as well as set up master pages, shared
layers, guide layers, and grid layers. Layout options also include slide transitions and timing for GIF
animations (see "Creating slide shows" on page 728 and "Working with animated GIFs" on page
712).
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This section describes document layout options and procedures, including how to add, delete, and
arrange pages and layers, and use the Document Layout palette.
About document pages and layers
Pages, layers, and master pages are a common element of all types of Canvas documents.
Pages
All Canvas documents can contain multiple pages. Here, “pages” is used as a general term for
elements that make up a document.
Publications can have single or facing pages.
Illustrations have pages, called “sheets,” which are single-sided.
Presentations have pages, called “slides,” which can be displayed in sequence as “slide
shows.”
Animations have pages, called “frames,” which form animation sequences for animated GIF
files.
In the Document Layout palette, pages are at the top level of the layout hierarchy, followed by layers,
groups, and objects.
The Layout area in Canvas represents a document page. Page and layer controls are located at the
bottom of the screen. The current page is shown in the Page menu and the Page Navigator palette.
Layers
A layer is a transparent level that objects are placed on. On a page you might have one or more
layers. You can use layers to organize similar objects together. For example, you might use one layer
for text and another layer for objects. By default, when you place or draw objects on a page, they are
placed on a single layer. Layers can help you work efficiently. You can organize objects on layers,
and you can display, print, and save layers individually.
In the Document Layout palette, a page’s layers are listed after the page name. Objects are listed
after the layer they are on. A new page has one layer (Layer #1). You can add layers to any page,
including master pages.
You can save time by sharing layers in a document. A shared layer is similar to a master page. As
with a master page, objects on a shared layer appear on every page where the shared layer is
applied. You can update multiple pages by editing a shared layer.
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Master pages
Master pages are available in Publication documents. Similar elements called “master slides” are
available in Presentation documents, and “master frames” are available in Animation documents.
Master pages are pages used as a master or background for other pages. The objects on the master
page can appear on every page in a document. For example, if you wanted to add a logo to every page
in your document, you could create a master page with the logo, and then apply the master page to
your other pages. If the logo is changed or updated, you can simply update the master page, rather
than having to update every page of your document.
In the Document Layout palette, the master page is listed under each page where the master page is
visible. The main master page is at the top of the list. As with other pages, you can use one or more
layers on a master page. By selectively hiding layers on the master page, you can control the master
page appearance throughout a document or on selected pages. The master page at the top of the
layout list can be locked.
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Using the Page Navigator palette
The Page Navigator palette displays thumbnail
previews of the pages in your document. Using the
Page Navigator palette, you can quickly find and go
to a particular page. Page names are displayed at
the bottom of each page preview. The current
page is highlighted with an orange border.
To open the Page Navigator palette:
Choose Window | Palettes | Page Navigator.
The Page Navigator palette floats, so you can place
it anywhere on screen. You can dock the palette on
the Docking bar or the Docking pane.
To resize the page preview:
1.
In the Page Navigator palette, right-click
on a page preview.
2.
Select one of the following:
Fit Preview to Frame Size: Resizes
the preview to display the whole page
in the frame.
Reduce Preview Size: Reduces the
size of the preview. You can see less
detail but more of the page.
Increase Preview Size: Increases
the size of the preview. You can see
less of the page but more detail.
Using the Document Layout palette
The Document Layout palette is the control center for working with pages, layers, and objects. The
palette is available in all types of documents (some options are based on document type). The palette
shows a list of the pages, layers, and objects in the current document. You can use the palette to
add, delete, and move items and set layout options. You can select, move, copy, and delete objects.
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To open the Document Layout palette:
Do one of the following:
Choose Layout | Document Layout.
Right-click on a Layer tab at the bottom of the document window to open the Layer menu,
and then select Show Document Layout.
The Document Layout palette floats, so you can place it anywhere on screen. You can dock the palette
on the Docking bar or the Docking pane.
Setting options in the palette
The Document Layout palette has columns of settings for several options: master pages, visibility,
locking, printing, layer override colors, and animation frame duration.
To display or hide columns:
1.
Choose Palette Options in the palette’s menu.
2.
In the Palette Options dialog box, select the options that you want to appear in the Document
Layout palette. Some options are not available in all types of documents.
We recommend that you select Master Visible to facilitate working with master pages.
The following are the options columns in the Document Layout palette. You can also use dialog boxes
to change options (see "Using the Options dialog box" on page 92).
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Palette options
Visible
Click to show or hide a page, layer, or object. Hiding a page hides all its
layers (unless one is the current layer). When something is hidden, a
hollow circle appears in the Visible column. If the object is visible, a
blue-filled circle appears in the column.
Printable
A bullet indicates an item will print. When no bullet appears, the item
will not print. If you change this option on a page, the setting is applied
to all the page’s layers.
Locked
Click to lock or unlock a page, layer, or object to prevent or allow
changes. A bullet indicates an item is locked and its contents can’t be
selected, moved, edited, or deleted. Grid layers are always locked. A
padlock icon indicates an item is also password-protected.
Color Override
Click in the column to apply an override color to a layer. A square with
the override color appears in the column. To select an override color in
the Layer Options dialog box, double-click the layer name. To hide a
layer’s override color, click in the column to remove the color square.
Master Visible
Click to show or hide the master page on a document page. If the master
page is hidden, a hollow circle with gray outline appears in the column.
When the master page is visible, the hollow circle has a blue outline.
Master pages are not available in Illustration documents.
You can hide master page layers using the Visible option. Hiding all
master page layers is the same as hiding the master page.
Frame Duration
In Animation documents, this column shows the duration of a frame in
hundredths of a second. To change the frame’s duration, double-click
the frame name, change the duration value in the Frame Options dialog
box, and click OK.
Using the layout list
You can use the list in the Document Layout palette to display and select pages, layers, and objects.
You can expand the list to display more detail, or collapse it to display fewer items.
Items in a document are listed in a tree format in the Document Layout palette. The layout list is a
hierarchy. Pages are at the top level, followed by layers, then group objects, then individual objects.
Each level is indented to the right from the level above. The master page and its layers are listed after
a page’s regular layers.
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The name of the selected item in the list is shaded. The active layer name is bold. Names of master
layers, shared layers and objects on shared layers are italic.
To expand or collapse items in the list:
Do one of the following:
Click a plus to expand the list; click a minus to collapse it.
Ctrl-click an item to toggle the state of its sub-items. If you Ctrl-click a page, its
expanded layers will collapse, and its collapsed layers will expand.
Choose Expand All or Collapse All in the palette’s menu. The current level (pages, layers,
or object groups) will expand or collapse. You can also Alt-click in the list to do the same
thing.
Selecting items
You can select one or more items at once in the layout list. The name of a selected item is shaded.
Selecting a page makes it the current page. The last current layer of the current page will be
the current layer.
Selecting a layer makes it the current layer.
Selecting an object selects the object in the document.
Selecting any item that is not visible makes the item visible.
To select one item:
Click the name of the item in the list.
To select multiple items:
Click the first item and Shift-click the last item. This selects a continuous range of pages, layers,
or objects. To select or deselect individual items in a selection, press Ctrl-click each item.
Searching for items
Canvas can find items in the layout list by searching their names. This means you can go to pages
and layers, and select objects in a document, by typing some or all of the text in an item’s name in
the search box.
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To select an item in the list:
Type the text to find in the search box in the Document Layout palette.
When you stop or press Enter, Canvas searches the list from the current page. The search
includes only items that are visible in the list (not collapsed pages).
You can type text in upper or lower-case. If an object in the list is named “Rectangle Fill 0c 67m 45y
23k” and you type “23K” Canvas will select the object. Default object names are object type and ink
values. Default page and layer names are item type and sequence number. Double-click on a layer,
page, and object in the layout list to assign names to these items. Their assigned names will appear
in the layout list.
Adding, deleting, and moving pages and layers
If you want to change a document’s layout, you can add, delete, as well as move pages and layers.
You can do this in the Document Layout palette, use commands in the Layout menu, or use the Page &
Layer controls (see "Page and layer controls" on page 90). In addition, you can arrange, copy, and
delete objects in the Document Layout palette.
To add pages:
In the Document Layout palette, click the New Page button.
Canvas adds a page, sheet, slide, or frame to the end of the document. In the list, the item’s name is
the next number in sequence.
You can also add pages by choosing Add Page (Sheet/Slide/Frame) in the palette’s menu. You can
assign a name to the page in the dialog box.
To add multiple pages:
1.
Choose Insert in the Layout | Pages (Sheets/Slides/Frames) | Insert submenu.
2.
In the Insert dialog box, enter the number of pages you want to add, choose a location to
insert the new pages, and click OK.
To add layers:
In the Document Layout palette, select a page or layer and click the Add Layer button.
Canvas adds a new layer to the current page. You can also click the New Layer icon at the bottom
of the document window.
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You can merge layers, which moves objects from a source to a destination layer and deletes
the source layer. Click the source layer to select it in the layout list. Shift-click the
destination layer. Choose Merge Layers in the palette’s menu.
In addition, you can add layers by choosing open the Document palette menu and selecting Add
Layer. A dialog box lets you change the layer’s name and select other options (see "Page and layer
options" on page 91).
Arranging items
If you want to move pages, layers, or objects, you can drag them in the layout list. If you drag to a
collapsed part of the list, the list expands.
Canvas does not rename layers if you change their order or move them to other pages in the list.
However, if you change the order of pages, Canvas does rename them, unless you have given them
unique names.
To copy items:
Select one or more items in the palette, and then Ctrl-drag them to a new layer.
To delete items:
Drag the items from the list to the Trash icon. You can also delete items by selecting them in the
palette and then choosing Delete in the palette’s menu.
To delete multiple pages:
1.
Choose Layout | Pages (Sheets/Slides/Frames) | Delete.
2.
In the Delete dialog box, enter the page range to delete, and click OK.
Page and layer controls
Canvas features additional page and layer controls at the bottom of the screen that can be used in
addition to the Document Layout palette.
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To add pages:
1.
Click the New page icon.
2.
In the Insert dialog box, enter the number of pages (sheets or slides) and indicate the
placement; i.e., before or after a certain page.
To add layers to a page:
Click the New layer icon.
Another layer is added automatically to that page.
To toggle between pages:
Open the Page menu and select the page that you want to view. You can also use the Page arrows
to the left of the Page menu.
To toggle between layers:
Use the Layer controls located to the right of the page & layer controls. If your document contains
multiple layers, these controls scroll through the various layers.
Page and layer options
In each type of document, you can set options for pages and layers. Use the Document Layout palette
to set some options (see "Setting options in the palette" on page 86 ). Additional options are in dialog
boxes.
You can set options for multiple items by selecting them and choosing Options in the
palette’s menu. Do this to set the duration for multiple frames of an animation, or to apply
transitions to multiple slides.
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Using the Options dialog box
To open the Options dialog box:
1.
In the Document Layout palette, do one of the following:
Double-click a page, master page, or layer to open an Options dialog box.
Select the item and choose Options in the palette’s menu.
2.
In the Options dialog box, select from the following options and click OK to apply the
settings. Some options, as noted, are not available for all items or document types.
Options dialog box
Name
In the text box, type a name for the item. By default, Canvas names
pages and layers based on their order in the list.
Locked
Select the Locked option to prevent changes to a page’s layers, to
individual layers, or to individual objects.
A locked page can be changed in some ways. If a master page is
visible, changes to the master page will appear on the locked
page. Also, a locked page does not prevent a document from
being deleted. If a locked page is copied, the copy is also locked.
Password
You can select the Password option when Locked is selected. When the
Password option is used, the assigned password must be entered to
unlock or change the page. To assign a password, select the Password
option and type at least three characters in the text box. After you click
OK, enter the password in the confirmation dialog box that appears and
click OK.
Visible
The Visible option can be changed only in the Document Layout palette
list. In Options dialog boxes, the Visible option is not available because a
current item can’t be hidden.
Grayed
Select Grayed to make solid color inks of objects on the layer appear to
be grayed (desaturated).
Color Override
Select Color Override to apply a color to a layer. Select White Fill to apply
a white fill ink to vector objects and text objects on a layer that has a
color override.
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When you apply a color override to a layer, you temporarily assign a
color to vector and text objects on the layers you specify. A color
override does not affect paint objects. When you turn off the Color
Override option, all affected objects revert to their original colors.
White Fill
The White Fill option lets you control how override colors appear on
vector objects. This option doesn’t change how override colors appear
on text.
When White Fill is selected, Canvas applies the override color to the pen
ink of vector objects and applies white as the fill ink; i.e., the override
color becomes the color of the stroke of vector objects, while the inside
of the object remains white. When White Fill is not selected, Canvas
applies the override color as both pen and fill inks.
If you use the White Fill option, objects without a visible stroke are not
visible against the white layout area.
Using master pages
Master pages (slides/frames) hold common elements that you want to appear on most pages. Objects
on the master page’s layers appear on pages where the Master Page option is selected.
You can unlink a master page. This lets you edit the page’s contents like you would any layer that
isn’t shared, without changing the appearance of the master page on other pages. Canvas also lets
you re-link a master page.
Illustration documents do not use master pages.
To unlink a master page:
1.
Select the page where you want to unlink the master page. (Do not select the master page
item or a layer).
2.
Choose Unlink Master in the palette’s menu. The layers of the master page become regular
layers of the current page.
To link a master page:
1.
Select the page to which you want to link the master page.
2.
Choose Link Master in the palette’s menu. Canvas links the master page to the current page.
Other elements on the page are not affected.
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Sharing layers
Sharing a layer means linking a layer to more than one page in a document. Since the shared layers
are linked, if you modify one layer, all the linked layers will change. Therefore, shared layers can be
used like additional master pages. The names of shared layers and objects on them are indicated in
italics in the Document Layout palette.
Unsharing a layer converts it from a shared layer into a regular, non-linked layer on one page or
throughout a document.
To share a layer:
1.
Select the layer you want to share in the Document Layout palette.
2.
Choose Share Layer in the palette’s menu.
3.
In the Select dialog box, select the pages in the list that you want to share the layer and click
Select. The shared layer name appears in the list of layers for each page you selected.
The name and content of the dialog box changes according to the type of document you are
creating; i.e., pages, sheets, frames, or slides.
You can also share a layer by pressing Shift and dragging the layer to another page (except
the master page).
To unshare a layer:
1.
Select the layer you want to unshare.
2.
Choose Unshare Layer in the palette’s menu.
3.
In the message box, click one of the following:
Yes: Unshares all instances of the shared layer in the document. Canvas unlinks the
layers and creates a copy of the layer on each page.
No: Unshares the layer on the currently selected page only. The rest of the layers remain
shared.
Dispersing objects
You can use the Disperse command to quickly move objects to pages throughout a document. This is
useful for creating frames and slides. For example, you can select a series of graphics, and use
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Disperse to place one graphic on each frame in an Animation document. You can spread objects over
existing pages or Canvas will create pages for the objects. Dispersed objects are placed on a new
layer on each page.
To disperse objects:
1.
Select the objects to disperse. The objects should be on the same layer and should not be
grouped.
2.
Choose Object | Arrange | Disperse.
3.
In the Disperse dialog box, select one of the following:
Dynamically allocated partitions: Canvas will create pages to hold the selected
objects.
Select partitions: Click Select to display a list of pages. Shift-click pages to select them,
and then click Select.
4.
In the Objects per partition text box, enter the number of objects to place on each page
(Canvas divides the number of objects evenly if you select pages; remaining objects go on
the last selected page).
5.
Click OK to disperse the selected objects.
Using guide and grid layers
In addition to general purpose layers, you can use special layers containing drawing aids called
guides and grids. Like other layers, guide layers and grid layers appear in the Document Layout
palette. You can arrange these layers by dragging them in the list to place them in front of or behind
other layers.
Guide layers
When the command Layout | Snap To | Guides is selected, objects that you draw and move will snap
to guides on the guide layer. Guides that you drag from the rulers, and text sections you draw with
the Section tool will appear on the current page’s guide layer. You can also draw on a guide layer to
create “magnetic” guide objects. You can move or copy a guide layer to another place within the
present page or to another page altogether.
By default, objects on guide layers are light blue. By changing the guide layer override color, you can
make the objects any color.
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To add a guide layer:
1.
Select the page to which you want to add a guide layer.
2.
Choose Add Guide Layer in the Document Layout palette’s menu.
3.
In the New Guide Layer dialog box, enter a name, select Visible check box to display the
layer, and click OK.
To change a guide layer’s name, override color, or other properties:
Double-click the layer and change the options in the Layer Options dialog box. See "Page and layer
options" on page 91.
To arrange guide layers:
Select the guide layer and then drag the guide layer to its new position.
To copy guide layers:
Select the guide layer and Ctrl-drag the guide layer to its new position.
To delete guide layers:
Do one of the following:
Select the guide layer and drag it to the trash can icon in the Document Layout palette.
Select the guide layer and choose Delete from the palette's menu.
Grid layers
Grid layers display gray grids that can help you position objects precisely. When the command
Layout | Snap To | Grid is selected, the bounding boxes of objects will snap to the grid. When you
create a grid it appears on a grid layer. Grid layers are locked by default. You can configure the
current page’s grid using the Layout | Grids command. You can move or copya grid layer to another
place within the present page or to another page altogether.
By default, grid layers are gray.
To add a grid layer:
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1.
Select the page to which you want to add a grid layer.
2.
Choose Add Grid Layer in the palette menu.
Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
3.
In the New Grid Layer dialog box, configure the options as desired, and then click OK. Canvas
adds a new grid layer.
To change a grid layer’s name or other properties:
Double-click the grid layer and change the options in the Layer Options dialog box. See "Page and
layer options" on page 91.
To arrange grid layers:
Select the grid layer and drag the grid layer to its new position.
To copy grid layers:
Select the grid layer and Ctrl-drag the grid layer to its new position.
To delete grid layers:
Do one of the following:
Select the grid layer and drag it to the trash can icon in the Document Layout palette.
Select the grid layer and choose Delete from the palette menu.
Configuration & customization
You can customize your Canvas work environment to best suit the needs of a specific project and
maximize your productivity. This section describes how to set preferences, customize keyboard
shortcuts and the Toolbar, save document templates, and create custom sets of Canvas tools.
Setting preferences
The Configuration Center provides a central place for you to set preferences for a range of Canvas
options, including general application settings, text, printing, measurement, and image/multimedia
tool settings.
To open the Configuration Center:
Choose File | Configuration Center.
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Configuration Center
The various application and document settings are organized in the left pane of the Configuration
Center dialog box.
View controls
When the Configuration Center is open, you can change the display by using the View controls
located in the upper left corner:
Categorized
The settings managers are grouped according to use. Five major
groups appear in the list; i.e., General, Text, Printing, etc. Open a
group to see its settings options.
Alphabetical
All the settings options are listed in alphabetical order in the left
pane. Click on an option to see its related manager.
Hide all groups
Click this icon to collapse the left pane.
Show all groups
If you have collapsed the left pane so you can only see the selected
settings managers, click this icon to see the entire dialog box.
To change a preference:
When turning on an option, you may also have to enter a value or choose a menu option. Remember
that an option is on when its check box is selected. An option is off when its check box is deselected.
1.
Open the Configuration Center.
2.
Open a category in the left pane and then click on a settings option, like Display Options. The
related settings manager appears in the right pane.
3.
Make any adjustments in the settings manager.
4.
To implement the current settings, click OK.
To save the settings as default:
Select the Save as default check box.
Hotkeys
Remember that you must be in vector edit mode to use the hotkeys.
Use these single-letter hotkeys when editing a vector object:
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Hotkey
Action
V
Selection Arrow
A
Direct Edit Selection Arrow
Y
Lasso Selection
W
Direct Edit Lasso Selection
B
Bézier Tool
T
Text Tool
O
Oval Tool
P
Polygon Tool
M
Smooth Polygon Tool
R
Rectangle Tool
F
Freehand Tool
E
Reshape Tool
L
Line Tool
S
Push Tool
I
Dropper Tool
C
Scissor Tool
K
Knife Tool
‘ (accent grave)
Set Default Stroke (or) Fill
D
Assign Default Stroke (or) Fill
X
Swap Fill/Stroke
Remember that you must be in image edit mode to use the hotkeys.
Use the following single-letter hotkeys when editing images:
Hotkey
Tool/Action
W
Wand Tool
M
Marque Tool
L
Image Lasso Tool
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Hotkey
Tool/Action
V
Remote Move Tool
P
Pencil Tool
E
Eraser Tool
H
Marker Tool
B
Paintbrush Tool
A
Airbrush Tool
K
Bucket Tool
G
Blend Tool
F
Blur Tool
Q
Sharpen Tool
S
Rubber Stamp Tool
N
Smudge Tool
O
Dodge Tool
B
Burn Tool
D
Sponge Tool
R
Red Eye Reduction Tool
X
Swap Fill / Stroke
‘ (accent grave) or C
Set Default Stroke / Fill
Ctrl 0 - 9
Switch Channels
General settings
In the Configuration Center, in the General folder, you can set preferences for a number of general
application and document settings.
Attributes
The Attributes manager contains options for both dashes and inks.
Dash Drawing
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If you are applying dashed pen stroke to objects, you can define how
dashes are handled if an object has corners.
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Preserve Corners: Select this option to keep the corners intact; i.e.,
dashes will not be applied to the corners of objects.
Continue with Dash: Select this option to apply dashes to the corners
of objects.
Inks
When working with objects that contain Hatch, Texture, Symbol, or
Pattern inks, it is possible to magnify these objects without magnifying
the ink as well.
The following examples show what happens when inks are scaled or not scaled:
Object at 200% magnification
(fill ink does not scale)
Object at 200%
magnification
(fill ink scales)
Color calibration
Use these options to change color settings within Canvas (see "Color management" on page 120).
Display options
In Display Options, you can configure most of the options for screen display. Change display options
and set the default display options for new documents. You can change these same settings in the
Display Options manager dialog box.
The items in the Show, Alert, and Preview groups can be individually toggled on and off by
choosing Layout | Display. When a special display option is active, a checkmark appears
next to the option in the menu.
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To open the Display Options manager:
Choose Layout | Display Options.
Save as default
Any settings you select in the dialog box are saved as the default setup
for new documents.
Show
The normal Canvas display shows all objects with their inks, strokes,
and other attributes as they are in the document.
Alert
Gamut Warning: This mode highlights colors that are outside the
CMYK color gamut. It replaces out-of-gamut colors with a special
indicator color. Bright greeen is the default indicator color.
Ink Coverage: This mode shows all areas of the image that exceed a
specified ink coverage. Bright greeen is the default indicator color.
Preview
Wireframe: Wireframe mode shows vector objects without their
assigned ink or stroke attributes. When Wireframe is selected, vector
objects are hollow and have 1-point black pen strokes. Text characters
appear solid black. Paint objects are hollow and only their bounding box
appears. With this mode, the screen display tends to speed up.
Pixel Mode: The Pixel Mode setting allows users to view graphics at 72
ppi before they are rendered.
When creating Web graphics, the standard resolution is 72 ppi. At the
same time, all of your images will remain fully editable. Pixel Mode also
prevents pixel shifting, which sometimes occurs when objects are
exported to the Web (see "Designing for the Web" on page 690).
Cache
Caching in Canvas is a technique that can dramatically increase display
speed. When an object is cached, Canvas creates a low-resolution
version of the object to display on screen. This can make it much easier
to work in documents that contain complex vector objects or highresolution images, which can significantly slow down zooming and
scrolling.
When you are not editing cached objects, it usually won’t matter that
they are displayed at lower resolution. You’ll enjoy significantly faster
display without losing any capabilities. When you want to edit a cached
object, Canvas loads the original; you do not need to take any special
action or uncache the object.
Draw with Cache: Select this option to display low-resolution versions
of cached objects for faster display. Cached objects are objects that
have been cached with either the Cache Object command or the Auto
Cache Images option (see "Cache" on page 102).
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When Draw with Cache is not selected, Canvas retains any lowresolution previews that it has created in memory, but displays the full
paths of vector objects and displays paint objects at normal resolution.
Auto Cache Images: Select Auto Cache Images to automatically cache
paint objects whose resolution is above a threshold that you specify.
If Auto Cache Images is selected, but Draw with Cache is not
selected, Canvas will cache paint objects (if their resolution is
above the set threshold), but will not display the low-resolution
versions.
Cached paint objects are displayed at low resolution for faster display.
Enter the desired display resolution in the second text box.
To uncache all paint objects, deselect Auto Cache Images. A message
appears. Click Yes to uncache all paint objects. This is equivalent to
using the Uncache Object command on each paint object individually.
If you want to uncache paint objects and Auto Cache Images is
already cleared, use the Uncache Object command instead (see
"To uncache an object:" on page 104).
Document Resolution
To set the resolution threshold, enter a value from 72-2540 ppi in the
first text box. When the resolution of a paint object is equal to or greater
than the specified resolution, Canvas caches the paint object.
To change the Gamut Warning color:
Choose Edit | Calibration | Gamut Warning. Select a color from the pop-up menu.
To change the ink coverage color or value:
Choose Edit | Calibration | Ink Coverage. Select a color from the menu. Enter an amount
percentage value in the Amount box.
Caching objects
This command can be used to speed up the display of complex objects, which is useful when a
document contains complex objects that you do not need to edit often. When you cache an object,
Canvas stores a low-resolution preview in memory. The preview can be displayed quickly when you
move the object or change views. You can cache any type of object for faster display.
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To cache an object:
1.
Select the object to cache.
2.
Choose Object | Options | Cache Object.
3.
In the dialog box, enter a preview resolution value, from 2 to 300 pixels per inch, in the text
box. Lower resolutions produce rougher previews.
4.
Click OK. Canvas displays a preview of the cached object at the cached resolution.
To uncache an object:
1.
Select a cached object.
2.
Choose Object | Options | Uncache Object. Canvas returns the object to its normal
resolution.
Document setup
In Document Setup, you can switch the current document type, modify document size and
orientation, as well as change document units and scale. You can change these same settings in the
New Document dialog box.
Although you can switch to another document type in midstream, you should save the
current document in its entirety and then change the document type.
Defining a drawing scale
The Document scale section has several options in the Pre-defined scales menu. You can also select
Custom from the menu and then define your scale with the “Page distance = world distance”
controls.
If you select “1:1” as the scale, you are actually drawing in real-world units; i.e., you aren’t drawing
“to scale”.
You can also establish a drawing scale by using the Set Document Scale command (see "Set
document scale" on page 78).
Functionality options
Use the Functionality Options to setup a range of document options.
Maximize on Opening
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Opens documents at full screen size. Otherwise, documents open at a
Chapter 2: Documents and Setup
standard size that fits any monitor, but might not fill the screen
completely.
Fit to Window
Opens documents so the full layout area can be seen in the center of the
window. When this option is off, documents open in Home View (100%
magnification with the upper-left corner of the page in the upper-left
corner of the window).
Paste as MetaObject
When copying from other applications, select this option to paste as a
metaobject (see "Inserting objects into Canvas documents" on page
152). Text, however, is pasted as OLE if this option is enabled. If you
copy both an object and text, they will paste as OLE.
Create backup when
saving
Saves a copy of the current document each time you save changes to the
document. The backup copy has the extension “.bak,” and Canvas saves
to this same file each time.
Canvas 6-style object
locking
When you lock an object or group of objects, you can select and copy
locked object(s) by clicking on the object or group of objects. Copied
objects will not be locked.
No Background
Updates
Prevents Canvas from redrawing open Canvas documents when you are
working in another application. This option lets other applications run
faster when Canvas is in the background.
Show information
tooltips
Displays information, tips and shortcuts in small boxes that appear
when you point at an item, such as a tool, button, or object. For example,
if you move the pointer over the Copy button in the Tool Bar, Canvas
displays the command name and shortcut. Canvas also displays user
comments when you point to an object that has comments, and displays
information when you point to an ink in the Inks palette. For color inks,
Canvas displays color system information. For example, if you point to a
CMYK ink, the color values such as “5c 2m 92y 0k” appear in a pop-up
box. For other inks, Canvas displays the ink name.
Select Across Visible
Layers
Lets you select objects on all visible layers in a document, rather than
just the active layer.
If this option is off, you can still select objects on other visible
layers by pressing Tab and clicking the objects.
Search selection on
clicks
When this option is on, you can drag a selected object from behind
another object. If this option is off, you can drag only the front object,
because dragging deselects a back object.
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Scale Stroke Weight
When you scale an object by dragging its selection handles, if the object
has a solid pen stroke, Canvas will scale the pen weight proportionately
with the object.
AutoSave
Select this check box if you want Canvas to automatically save a
document after a certain period of time. The time periods are designated
in minutes.
Freeform Selection
Lets you place objects in freeform mode by clicking already- selected
objects. Otherwise, you must use the Effects | Freeform command to put
an object in freeform mode.
Number of Undo
Levels
Enter a number in the Min box to set the minimum number of actions
that Canvas can reverse. The default is three. Enter a number in the Max
box to specify the maximum number of actions that Canvas reverse. The
default is 10.
To undo an action in Canvas:
Do one of the following:
Choose Edit | Undo.
Choosing Window | Palettes | Undos.
See "Undoing, redoing, and repeating actions" on page 53.
Painting
The Painting manager lets you set preferences for displaying and editing paint objects and images.
Brush Pointer
These options let you change the pointer displayed for painting tools.
The default pointer is a symbol of the current painting tool.
Standard Pointer: Displays the icon for the current painting tool.
Precise Pointer: Displays a crosshair pointer. The intersection of the
crosshair is the center of the current brush.
Brush Size Pointer: Displays an outline of the current brush as the
pointer.
Open the context menu to change the pointer while you edit a
paint object.
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Filter Operations
Apply individually: Apply filter operations individually.
Combine channels & apply: Combine channels and then apply filter
operations.
Legacy Plug-ins
Click the Browse button to set the location of Photoshop-compatible
plug-ins for use in Canvas. In the directory dialog box that appears,
select the folder containing the plug-ins. The path name of the folder
appears below the Plug-ins button on the Painting tab. Installed plug-in
filters appear in the Image | Filters submenu.
Hide Plug-in Host Warning: Suppresses the message that Canvas
displays if it tries to load a software plug-in that requires a specific host
program. Deselect this option if you want Canvas to display the message
so you can choose whether to load the plug-in.
Additional options
Separate grayscales as black: Select to separate grayscale paint
objects on the black plate only. Deselect this option for Canvas to treat
gray color values as RGB colors that will be separated as CMYK grays.
Select through transparency: Select through transparency.
Display channel previews in color: Makes channel previews in the
Image Channels palette appear in color rather than shades of gray.
Anti-aliased clipboard: Anti-aliases vector and text objects pasted
from the Clipboard into a paint object.
Anti-aliased Canvas objects: Anti-aliases Canvas vector and text
objects drawn in a paint object. For example, if you add text to a paint
object in edit mode, Canvas rasterizes and anti-aliases the text.
Personality manager
Use the Personality Manager to select your use of Canvas and color output needs. The Toolbox and
related tool palettes will be rearranged to suit your needs.
At any time, you can make modifications to the Personality Manager if your needs change.
To access the Personality Manager:
Choose File | Configuration Center or Canvas | Configuration Center and click the Personality
Manager option in the General settings. Make your changes and restart the program.
Changes in the Personality Manager affect the Canvas settings file.
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Screen rendering
Use the Screen Rendering options to setup the way images are rendered.
Vector quality
The options in this menu affect the entire screen display in Canvas.
Draft: Provides the fastest screen display by drawing vector objects
less smoothly. Choosing this option can increase display speed by
300%.
Normal: Provides fast screen display and draws smooth vector objects.
This is the recommended setting and is selected by default.
Anti-aliased: Significantly smooths all objects on screen, including text
and vector objects by anti-aliasing their edges. However, this antialiasing slows the display compared to Draft or Normal settings. The
effect of the anti-aliased option is independent of the anti-aliased option
on the Display tab. If either option is selected, text is anti-aliased and
vice-versa.
Anti-aliased is especially useful when you create screen shots or
display slide shows on screen.
Image
When activated, this feature will significantly enhance the visual quality
of scaled images. Interpolation takes place whenever an image needs to
be reduced or downsampled. In other words, whenever the number of
pixels being displayed is less than the available number of pixels at the
destination. An example of downsampling would be when a 300 ppi
image is set to be displayed at 100%.
Interpolation is a mathematical procedure which estimates
values of a function at positions between listed or given values.
Nearest Neighbor: will remove some pixel information from your
image; however, if used, this setting will be the fastest. Nearest
Neighbor setting merely gathers pixel data from the “Nearest Neighbor”
of each pixel, therefore Interpolation does not actually occur.
Bilinear: Uses a bilinear interpolation algorithm during downsampling.
This setting can be used if you work with line art and may be applied to
some photographic images.
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Bicubic: Is an appropriate setting if you work primarily with
photographs.
Due to a blurring effect, we do not recommend the Bicubic setting if you
work with line art.
Auto: Is the optimal setting for interpolation of a photographic image.
The Auto setting automatically chooses the best Interpolation option
based on the image, its resolution, and current magnification.
Pasteboard Color
Use the color palette to select a color for the pasteboard area.
Object Caching
Keeps screen images in memory so the display refreshes significantly
faster when you move or edit objects. This is the recommended option.
If you deselect this option, less memory (up to 4 MB) is used for screen
display, but displaying complex images might be very slow.
Compatibility Mode
(Slower)
Uses compatibility mode.
Show All Previews in
File Open
Shows all previews in the Open dialog box.
Image Edit
Lets you control how transparency appears when a paint object is in edit
mode.
No preview: Displays a checkerboard pattern to represent
transparency in an image. This isolates an image from background
objects, which can be helpful for editing complex compositions.
Items in background only: Displays transparency in an image during
editing. Objects behind the image are rendered realistically while you
edit. (If no objects are behind the paint object, the document’s white
layout area shows through transparent areas.) Objects in front of a paint
object are hidden during image editing.
Preview all: Displays both background and foreground transparency
during image editing. This is the most accurate preview.
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Selection
Show originals when
dragging and resizing
When you drag or resize an object, it will follow the pointer and also
appear in its original position until you release the mouse button.
Selecting this option means that when you drag an object, an outline of
the object (without pen ink, fill ink, or stroke) will follow the pointer.
Allow Drag in Path
Edit Mode
Allow dragging in path edit mode.
Offset for duplicating
objects
Tells Canvas how far (in pixels) from the original to put object copies
when you choose Edit | Duplicate or Edit | Paste.
Offset for moving
objects
You can specify the number of pixels that objects move when you use a
combination of modifier and arrow keys. For example, with the settings
shown here, Ctrl+Right Arrow moves a selected object 50 pixels to the
right, and Alt+Right Arrow moves it 10 pixels to the right.
Selection Handle Size
Select a size for selection handles.
Auto-scroll to
selection
Keeps objects that you move using the arrow keys in view by scrolling
the document window.
User info
Specify a name and initials for object comments, which you can insert using the Comments command
(see "Attaching comments to objects and using Markup tools" on page 206). You can also establish
the default directory for downloading clipart with the Symbol Library palette.
Name
Type a name in the text box. When you attach a comment to an object,
Canvas associates the name you enter with the comment. By default,
Canvas uses the name entered when Canvas was installed.
Initials
Type initials in the text box. When you attach comments to an object,
Canvas associates these initials with the comment.
Text settings
In the Configuration Center, in the Text folder, you can set preferences for how the application
handles text.
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Auto correct
Use these options to specify corrections you want Canvas to make as you type.
Correct Two Initial
Capitals
Corrects a word that you type beginning with two capitalized letters.
Capitalize first letter
of sentences
Capitalizes the first letter you type following typical sentence-ending
punctuation, such as periods, question marks, or exclamation points,
even if these marks are followed by a quotation mark or parenthesis.
Canvas may or may not capitalize the first letter following unusual
punctuation, such as Web site addresses or abbreviations in the middle
of sentences, so sentences containing unusual punctuation should be
checked.
Auto Correct does not capitalize the next word if you insert
sentence-ending punctuation in existing text.
Capitalize names of
days
Capitalizes the full name of weekdays; e.g., this option replaces
“saturday” with “Saturday.” It does not expand abbreviations for day
names, such as “wed.” or “Thurs.,” unless you add these abbreviations
to the replacement list.
Correct Accidental
Usage of the Caps
Lock Key (Windows
only)
Corrects non-standard word capitalization. If the first letter of a word is
lowercase and the other letters are uppercase, this changes the first
letter to uppercase and the rest of the letters to lowercase; e.g., this
option replaces “rEPEL” with “Repel.” If the first two letters of a word are
uppercase and the rest are lowercase, this changes the first letter to
uppercase and the rest of the letters to lowercase; e.g., replacing
“REpel” with “Repel”.
Replace Text as You
Type
Replaces text that you type with any specified replacement text. Each set
of typed text and replacement text appears in the scrolling list in the
Auto Correct dialog box (see "Setting up text replacement" on page
621).
Dictionary
Use this option to add an unlimited number of words to the personal dictionary. You can also delete
words. By adding words to the User Dictionary, you can “teach” Canvas new words and special
terms, and prevent Canvas from stopping unnecessarily while checking spelling (see "Modifying the
User Dictionary" on page 628).
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Type
The Type settings in the Configuration Center let you customize options for text and typography.
Text Input
When Typing Into Document: Select either Auto type into object or
Allow single letter shortcut.
Auto type into object: This option allows you to automatically begin
typing text characters into a selected object.
Allow single letter shortcut: If activated, you will be allowed to
access the vector and image editing tools using simple single-letter
shortcuts. The list below details the various hotkey commands and how
they may be applied.
Use Smart Quotes: Select this option if you want Canvas to insert true
typographical apostrophes (’), single quotation marks (‘’), and double
quotation marks (“”) when you type these characters with the Text tool.
Otherwise, these characters appear as straight tick marks, or foot (')
and inch (") marks. Of course, the actual appearance of the characters
depends on the design of the typeface in use.
The character that Canvas inserts when you type a quotation mark
depends on the position of the insertion point in the text, and its position
relative to other quotation marks; e.g., Canvas always inserts an open
quotation mark (“) when you type a quotation mark immediately
following a space.
Use Smart Quotes has no effect on text that you type with the
Path Text tool.
Use Greeked text: Select this option if you want Canvas to replace
lines of text characters with gray bars, which speeds up screen redraw.
The Greeked text setting does not affect printing. You should
set the size the same as most body text in your documents. This
lets you view headlines and display type normally, while Canvas
replaces the body text at 100% magnification. Then, when you
zoom in to edit the body text, it will appear normally at the
higher magnification.
Enter a size in points in the adjacent text box. When this setting is
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selected, Canvas replaces text at the specified size and smaller when the
display magnification is 100% or less; e.g., if you specify 12 points, and
zoom to 200%, Canvas replaces any text that is 6 points or smaller. If
you zoom to 50%, Canvas replaces text that is 24 points or smaller.
Drag & Drop Text: Enable this option so you can highlight text and
drag that text to a new location within the same text object.
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Copy & Paste
Smart Copy: With this option on, if you copy and paste text that begins
a paragraph, Canvas pastes the text as a new paragraph using the
original paragraph settings. With this option off, Canvas pastes text into
the current paragraph using the existing paragraph settings.
Replace Selection: Activating this function allows you to automatically
replace selected text when you paste into a Canvas document. If this
option is not activated, text will be pasted into the center of your
document.
Pasted Text Box Size: Enter the point size that you would like your
text box to be when you paste text into your document. The setting that
you choose will become the default size for all text boxes that will be
created when you paste text into your document.
Font History
Activate font history: Select this option to list the most recently used
fonts at the top of your Fonts menu.
# of fonts to keep in history: Select the number of fonts that are to
be stored in the history.
Clear font history: Click this button to empty the recent font history.
Additional Options
Enable two-byte script: This option tells Canvas to accommodate text
characters that require twice as much data (two bytes) as text
characters in most Western languages. This makes it possible to create
documents using specialized two-byte fonts, including Chinese, Korean,
and Japanese (see "Tools and options for two-byte and vertical text" on
page 564).
Auto word select: When you use the I-beam pointer to highlight
specific text, this option ensures that you select only whole words (all
characters between blank spaces). As you drag to highlight text, Canvas
detects when you drag over a space. As you continue to drag, Canvas
locates the next space and selects the characters in between.
Draw text as Bézier: When using a 256-color display, Windows
cannot dither colors in text to approximate a non-system color; instead,
Windows uses the closest solid colors. Turning this option on tells
Canvas to redraw text as objects, which lets Windows dither colors when
necessary. This method is resource-intensive and can be slow; turn this
option on only if you need to see dithered color in text on a system with a
256-color display.
Multi-Column Font Menu: When activated, you will view all of the
fonts in your system in a multi-column format. If this feature is not
activated, then you will view your fonts in a single-column format.
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If you elect to use the single-column format, use the navigation
arrows located at the top and bottom of the list to scroll through
the fonts list. To see the list of available fonts, choose Text |
Font.
Printing settings
The Printing settings let you control the appearance of printed output. These settings affect printed
output when you use the Print as: Composite setting in the Print dialog box, and do not affect printing
when you use the Print as: Separations setting.
Gamut warning
This mode highlights colors that are outside the CMYK color gamut. It replaces out-of-gamut colors
with a special indicator color. By default, the indicator color is bright green (see "Printing settings"
on page 115).
Ink coverage
This mode shows all areas of the image that exceed a specified ink coverage. By default, the indicator
color is bright green (see "Printing settings" on page 115).
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Output settings
Resolution
Use these settings to control the appearance of printed documents.
Output to maximum resolution: Select this check box to print
documents at the printer’s highest resolution. This setting disables
image-reduction options and fast-printing features of QuickDraw®
printers, which require a setting of 72 dpi (see "Output resolution of
transparency effects" on page 687).
If you print documents to a PostScript printer, it’s a good idea to select
this option; however, if you are using Japanese fonts (two-byte), you
can deselect the Output to maximum resolution check box, and then use
the menu to select 300 dpi to speed up printing.
When Output to maximum resolution is not selected, you can choose the
resolution (from 72 to 2,540 dpi) to use in the Resolution menu.
Halftone
Set the halftone screen frequency and the halftone screen angle for
composite printing. You can also use the printer’s default halftone
settings.
For most desktop publishing purposes, the printer’s default settings are
probably the best to use. For commercial printing, you might need to
specify a particular frequency and angle for the best output. If you are
sending documents to a commercial printer, ask about the appropriate
halftone screen settings.
Use printer default: Select this option when you often print to desktop
devices such as laser printers, and the default halftone screen
frequency and angle are appropriate for your documents.
Frequency: To specify a halftone screen frequency, deselect the Use
printer default check box, and enter the frequency in lines per inch in
the text box. A higher frequency requires a higher printer resolution to
produce the same number of grayscale levels in printed halftones.
Angle: If you want to specify the angle of the screens used for
halftoning, rather than use the printer’s default setting, deselect the Use
printer default check box, and enter the angle in the Angle check box.
Postscript text type
All Bezier
No Bezier
Combination
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Printer Options
PS L2 (Faster printing of text): Allows you to send a block of text to
the printer for faster printing of text. If disabled, text is sent character
by character.
Screen enhancement feature for true halftones: This option,
when enabled, always prints halftones at the highest possible LPI. If
disabled, a halftone is printed at the printer’s resolution.
Document bleed size: By default, the bleed size is set to 9 pt (1/8 in).
Enter a new value in the text field.
Registration marks
Define the appearance of the registration marks. By default, the fill is white and the size is 72 pts
(see "Drawing registration marks manually" on page 302).
Measurements settings
In the Configuration Center, in the Measurements folder, you can define units, setup grids and
guides, and set the unit of measure used in the rulers and drawing scale.
Define units
You can further customize the rulers by adding units of measurements, modifying the definitions of
existing ones, or deleting them (see "Setting up rulers" on page 74).
Units
To add units: Click the Add button. In the Add Unit dialog box, enter a
Unit name, Plural name, and Abbreviation. Select a Length and unit of
measurement on which to base the new unit. Select the Minor divisions
for the unit; e.g., if you wanted to have a unit that was based on 1 inch,
enter 1 for Length and select inches from the menu. Then, select the
Minor divisions that you want to use.
You can add this unit to any future documents by selecting the
Add to all new documents check box in the Add Unit dialog box.
To modify units: Select an existing unit and then click the Modify
button. In the Modify Unit dialog box, you can change the Abbreviation
and Minor divisions.
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To delete units: Select a user-defined unit and click the Remove
button.
You cannot delete default units; i.e., inches, centimeters, etc.
You also cannot delete units that are currently being used as the
document unit. Change the document unit first.
Grids and guides
You can use grids and guides to aid in positioning objects in a document. You can also turn on the
snap-to-grid and snap-to-guide features to make Canvas snap objects into alignment with the
nearest grid or guide.
Use these settings to create an alignment grid (see "Using the alignment grid" on page 80).
Grid
Line distance X: This is the distance from one vertical grid line to
another.
Line distance Y : This is the distance from one horizontal grid line to
another.
Snap factor X: This value sets the snap points along the horizontal
lines of the grid and guide.
Snap factor Y: This value sets the snap points along the vertical lines
of the grid and guide.
Snap to X/Snap to Y: Select one or both options to make objects snap
to the snap points on both sets of grid and guide lines.
Guides
Snap distance in points.
You can also change these settings using the Grids and Guides manager, available from the Layout
menu.
To open the Grids and Guides manager:
Choose Layout | Grids and Guides.
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To show or hide grids:
Do one of the following:
Toggle the Grids check box in the Properties bar.
Choose Layout | Display | Show Grids/Hide Grids.
To show or hide guides:
Do one of the following:
Toggle the Guides check box in the Properties bar.
Choose Layout | Display | Show Guides/Hide Guides.
To turn on snap-to-grid:
Choose Layout | Snap To | Grid. Choose the command again to turn off snap-to-grid.
To turn on snap-to-guide:
Choose Layout | Snap To | Guide. Choose the command again to turn off snap-to-guide.
Ruler
The Ruler manager lets you choose measurement settings, such as document units, document scale,
and numerical format. If you’re accustomed to creating large illustrations, such as billboards or 2-D
architectural drawings, Canvas gives you the freedom to create a document in its actual size and
draw in real-world units.
Document unit
Select a unit of measurement from the drop-down list. This unit is
displayed in the rulers, in the Object Specs palette, and in Properties
bar.
Document scale
Select a pre-defined scale or set a custom scale.
Pre-defined scales: Select a common scale from the drop-down list.
Page distance/World distance: Create a custom scale by entering
the ratio and units of measurement for the page distance versus the
world distance. For example, you could create a scale that was 1 inch on
the page to 1 foot in the world.
Format
Select the formats for the numbers, angles, and coordinates. For the
number format, you can choose from no decimals to six decimals, or
even use fractions (see "Floating point technology" on page 357).
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Numbers: Select a number format.
Coordinates: Select a format for displaying coordinates.
Area format: Select a format for displaying area.
Angles: Select Euclidean or Clock-like.
Image/multimedia settings
In the Configuration Center, in the Image/Multimedia folder, you can set preferences for a number of
application tools and effects.
Color management
Canvas uses the Kodak Digital Science Color Management System or its own internal color
management system to achieve accurate color reproduction in printing and display. The active color
management system handles conversions from one color mode to another.
The Kodak Color Management System supports ICC (International Color Consortium) profiles. Use ICC
profiles to calibrate monitors and output devices.
File installation and placement
During installation, several files that are required to use the Kodak Color Management System are
copied to the system. After installation, do not move, rename, or delete these files; otherwise, the
Kodak external tool won’t load.
Installation places various.DLL files throughout the system. It also creates a KPCMS folder at the root
level of the hard disk if one doesn’t exist already.
To install additional ICC profiles, refer to your system documentation.
On Windows 2000, XP, and Vista, Kodak ICC profiles are stored in the Color Profiles folder in the
Canvas folder. By default, Canvas installs Kodak’s generic ICC profiles only.
Kodak ICC profiles
ICC profiles are used for color management by Canvas and other programs. Canvas installs Kodak ICC
profiles that are appropriate for most monitors and color printers.
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You can obtain additional ICC profiles for specialized devices, such as film writers, graphics
arts monitors, and prepress proofing devices from the device’s manufacturer.
To download ICC profiles from ACD Systems of America:
1.
Go to www.acdamerica.com.
2.
Click the Downloads link on the navigation bar.
3.
On the Downloads page, click the ICC Profiles in the Canvas Add-on Files section.
4.
Select the folder, then click profile_index. This displays a list of all available ICC profiles.
5.
Scroll through the list to find your device name. The profile file name appears first on the line
for each device.
6.
To download the file, click Back in your browser. Open the appropriate device folder and click
a file name to download the ICC profile file.
To change color settings within Canvas:
1.
To change the color management settings, choose Edit | Calibration | Color Settings.
2.
In the Configuration Center, iIn the Color Calibration manager, select profiles and other
options (see "Color Settings options" on page 121).
3.
Click OK to implement the settings.
Color Settings options
Use
RGB
Selects the ICC profile for conversion to and from RGB color space.
CMYK
Selects the ICC profile for conversion to and from CMKY color space.
Lab
Selects the ICC profile for conversion to and from LAB color space.
Monitor
Select a monitor ICC profile that matches your monitor, or use the default
profile. To change the profile, choose Other. In the dialog box, in the
upper pane, select a profile and click Open.
Printer
Select an ICC profile for your printer or use the default profile. To change
the profile, choose Other. In the dialog box, in the upper pane, select a
profile and click Open.
Engine
Choose the Kodak Digital Science CMS or the internal Canvas color
management system.
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Color Settings options
Use
Intent
Choose a rendering intent:
Perceptual (Images): Maintains relative color values as the values are
mapped to the printer gamut. This method preserves the relationship
among colors, though color values can change.
Saturation (Graphics): Maintains relative saturation values of colors.
Colors that are outside the printer gamut are converted to the closest
colors with the same saturation that are inside the printer gamut.
Relative Colorimetric: Leaves colors that fall inside the gamut
unchanged. This method usually converts out-of-gamut colors to colors
that have the same lightness but fall just inside the gamut.
Absolute Colorimetric: Disables white-point matching when
converting colors. This option is not generally recommended.
Simulate print colors
on display
Select to simulate on the monitor the appearance of the CMYK colors that
will be printed.
Color management tips
If you require the highest quality color matching and output, becoming familiar with the factors that
can cause problematic color shifts can help you to avoid unexpected results.
In general, the Kodak color management system handles conversion between color systems, such as
RGB and CMYK. The system makes the conversion as accurate as possible, taking into account the
characteristics of the color display and color printing devices.
If you want to prevent even slight changes in color values, avoid conversion from one color system to
another. When you paint in an image, use the color system that matches the image mode; e.g., use
RGB colors for RGB Color mode, and CMYK colors for CMYK Color mode.
If you paint a CMYK color into an RGB Color mode image, Canvas converts the CMYK color values to
RGB values. When color calibration is active, the color management system uses the specifications of
the selected ICC profiles in the conversion process.
You must use a printed swatchbook to view the printed appearance of a color. You should
never rely entirely on the appearance of a color on screen.
Avoid using RGB color in a document that will be printed commercially using process (CMYK) colors.
When you specify process colors, it’s best to use a matching system ("Color systems" on page 232).
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Preferences for two-byte text entry
The options for the Inline preferences let you specify whether you want to always enter two-byte text
directly into a document, or use a text-entry window when the apparent type size is outside a range
that you have set. This feature is available only when you are running system software that supports
two-byte fonts, and are using two-byte fonts to enter text into a document. This preference does not
affect printing.
Using a low zoom level can make it difficult to see text as you type. By using the text-entry window,
you can see and edit text in the window, regardless of the current view magnification level.
To set inline text-entry preferences:
1.
Choose File | Configuration Center.
2.
In the Configuration Center, open the Inline manager within Text settings.
You must first enable two-byte script in the Type manager.
3.
Specify the following options, and then click OK to implement the current settings:
If you always want to use a text-entry window, regardless of the size of the type, select
the Never option.
If you want a text entry window to appear when you type text at some apparent type
sizes, select the “For text from” option. Type a number from 6 and 255 in each text box.
These numbers set the range in which the text-entry window does not appear and you
type directly into a document.
A character’s apparent size is the size at which it appears on screen, based on the current view
magnification level; e.g., 12 point type appears to be 12 points at 100%; at 200%, it appears to be
24 points; at 50%, it appears to be the size of 6 point type.
Using the text-entry window
If you choose the “For text from” option and type text in a document at an apparent point size that is
outside the specified range, the text-entry window appears at the bottom of the screen. You can type
and edit text directly in the window. To enter the text into the current document, press Enter.
If the apparent size of text changes because you change the view magnification, actual point sizes
that are beyond the specified “For text from” range might not cause the text-entry window to open. In
this case, you can type the text directly into the document.
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Customizing the keyboard and Toolbar
Via the Customize dialog box, you can assign keyboard shortcuts to commands, tools, attributes,
object styles, and font styles. You can also place buttons for these items on the Toolbar.
To customize the keyboard and Toolbar:
Choose File | Customize.
Customize dialog box
Use the options in the Customize dialog box to select items, and then create keyboard shortcuts and
place buttons on the Toolbar.
Category
Choose the category of items to customize. The contents of the scrolling
list change according to the selected category.
Sub-Category
Only active if Menus is selected in the Category menu. The commands in
the selected menu appear in the scrolling list.
Scrolling list
Displays all tools or styles in the selected category or subcategory (for
menus). For inks and strokes, the list contains the inks or strokes you
select from the pop-up palettes. Select an item in the scrolling list to
assign a shortcut to it or to place a button for it on the Toolbar. The
selected item is highlighted.
Current Shortcut Key
Displays the current keyboard shortcut for the selected item, if a
shortcut exists.
Press New Shortcut
Key
With an item selected in the scrolling list, press the keyboard keys you
want to assign to the item. To use a modifier key, press and hold Shift,
Ctrl, or Alt. Press a letter, number, or function key. The new shortcut
keys appear in the box.
Menu icon
Click Modify to open the Modify icon dialog box and customize the menu
bar icons. Click Restore to return the icons to their default appearance.
Assign
Click to assign the keystrokes in the Press New Shortcut Key box to the
selected item.
Remove
Click to remove the current shortcut keystrokes from the selected item.
Reset All
Click to restore the default shortcut keys to all items.
Reset
Click to restore the default shortcut keys to the item selected in the
scrolling list.
Palettes
A pop-up palette appears when the Category selection is Inks; three
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palettes appear when the Category is Strokes. Select an ink or stroke
from the palette. The selected item appears in the scrolling list and on
the Toolbar.
Remove Selection
When the Category selection is Inks, Strokes, Object Styles, or Font
Names and Sizes, click the Remove Selection button to remove a selected
item from the scrolling list. This also removes a button for the item from
the Toolbar.
Save Set
After you customize Canvas, you can save the current configuration in a
file. You can create other custom configurations and save these in
configuration files. A configuration file stores all the current keyboard
shortcut assignments and the setup of buttons on the Toolbar.
Click Save Set to create a file of all current shortcut keys and Toolbar
buttons. In the directory dialog box, type a name for the file and click
Save.
Load Set
Click Load Set to import a file of shortcut keys and Toolbar buttons. In
the directory dialog box, select the file to load and click OK. Canvas
resets the shortcut keys and the Toolbar according to the configuration
stored in the file.
Clear All
Click Clear All to clear all of the customized settings in the scrolling list
and all buttons on the Toolbar.
Close
Click to close the Customize dialog box. Inks or strokes added to the
scrolling list remain in the list when you close the dialog box.
Choosing a category to customize
You can choose items to which you want to assign shortcuts or add to the Toolbar. The following
items are available in the Category menu.
Menus: If you select this item, you must choose one of the following menus from the SubCategory menu: File, Edit, Text, Object, Layout, Effects, Image, and Window.
Tools: The names of the tools and their icons appear in the scrolling list. Their respective
keyboard shortcuts are also indicated in the Current Shortcut Key field.
Inks/Strokes: Next to the scrolling list, a pop-up palette displays preset inks, or three popup palettes display pen strokes, dashes, and arrows. Select an ink or stroke from a palette.
The item you select appears in the scrolling list and as a button on the Toolbar.
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To remove an ink or stroke from the scrolling list:
1.
Select it and click Remove Selection; if the item is on the Toolbar, this removes it from the
Toolbar also.
2.
In the font size box, select a size and then press the Add Size button. The font size appears
in the main scrolling list, and a font size button appears on the Toolbar.
To choose a font:
Select a name from the menu. The font appears on the scrolling list, and a font button appears on
the Toolbar.
To customize keyboard shortcuts:
1.
In the Customize dialog box, select an item in the scrolling list. If the item has a keyboard
shortcut, the Current Shortcut Key box shows the shortcut keys.
2.
To assign a keyboard shortcut, press the keyboard keys you want to use. The keys you type
appear in the Press New Shortcut Key box. Click Assign to assign the new keys to the item.
If the keys you type are assigned to another shortcut, the message Currently assigned to: appears
beneath the Press New Shortcut Key box.
Certain keys are restricted, so pressing them will not display their values. Other shortcuts
are reserved by Canvas, so they can be assigned, but not applied to some procedures; e.g.,
Ctrl+1, Ctrl+2, and Ctrl+3 cannot be used in painting.
You can’t assign single keys as shortcuts; e.g., you can’t assign “H” or “F7” to an item.
To remove shortcut keys from the selected item:
Click Remove.
To restore the default shortcut keys to all commands:
Click Reset All.
To restore the default shortcut keys to one command:
Select the command in the scrolling list and click Reset.
To assign shortcuts to inks:
Create shortcut keys for specific fill inks and pen inks.
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To assign a shortcut key to a fill or pen ink:
1.
In the Customize dialog box, select the ink in the scrolling list.
2.
Type the keyboard keys you want to use. The keys you type appear in the Press New Shortcut
Key box.
3.
Under the box, select whether you want the ink to be a Fill or Pen ink.
4.
Click Assign to assign the new keys to the ink.
To place buttons on the Toolbar:
Do one or both of the following:
Select an item in the scrolling list. Inks, Strokes, Object Styles, and Fonts appear on the
Toolbar automatically.
For Menus and Tools, double-click the item in the scrolling list to add it to the Toolbar. A
button for the selected item appears on the Toolbar when it is displayed.
To remove an Ink, Stroke, Object Style, or Font button:
Click the Remove Selection button under the scrolling list, or double-click the item in the scrolling
list.
To remove a Menu or Tools button:
Double-click the item in the scrolling list.
To arrange buttons on the Toolbar:
After you place buttons on the Toolbar, you can change their position directly on the Toolbar.
To move a button: Shift-drag the button to a new location.
To remove a button from the Toolbar: Shift-drag the button away from the Toolbar.
To add a separator between Toolbar buttons: Shift-drag the button on the right slightly
to the right. A separator line appears between the button and the one to its left.
Using ink buttons
When you place buttons for inks on the Toolbar, use the buttons to apply fill and pen inks or
foreground and background colors.
You can apply fill and pen inks to vector objects and text as well as select foreground and
background colors for painting.
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To apply a fill ink or select a background color for painting:
Click the ink button on the Toolbar. If no objects are selected, the ink becomes the current fill ink
or background color.
To apply a pen ink or select a foreground color for painting:
Press Ctrl and click the ink button. If no objects are selected, the ink becomes the current pen ink
or foreground color.
Saving document templates
You can use a special kind of Canvas document, called a template, as the basis for new documents.
Canvas includes many ready-made templates, and you can create your own template documents.
Then, when you use the New command, you can select a template — either one supplied with Canvas
or one you have created — to create a new document based on the contents and configuration of the
template.
A template document stores almost all preferences settings, as well as the settings you specify with
the Document Setup command, and other document setup options, including the following:
Document type
Configuration of layers, slides, pages, sheets and frames
Settings for rulers, grids, guides, and views
Current inks and strokes settings
Text styles and default text settings
Multiple Save options
Canvas stores some settings with the application and not in particular documents, so these settings
are not included in a template document. The settings that aren’t stored in a template include the
position of palettes on the screen and the current set of external tools.
If you create a template with a small amount of type, such as for a letterhead, convert the
type to paths so the template can be used without particular fonts being available.
To save a template document:
1.
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Choose File | New to create a new Illustration, Presentation, Animation, or Publication
document.
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2.
Choose Layout | Document Setup to select measurement units, document size and
orientation, and, for Publications, the margins and column layout.
3.
Choose Canvas | Configuration Center to set up preferences for the document.
4.
Create or import objects that you want to store in the template.
5.
Choose File | Save As. In the Save as type menu, select Canvas Template and click Save.
For more information, see "Saving Canvas documents" on page 50 .
File & data exchange
Canvas supports many standard formats for exchanging files and data with other programs. This
section explains how to use non-Canvas file formats, including Web image formats. It includes
information on exchanging files on the Internet and Object Linking and Embedding.
Importing and exporting files
Canvas lets you import and export files in many different formats, letting you easily work with
colleagues who use different applications and formats. Since the native Canvas format (.CVX) saves
all the objects, properties, and effects that your document can contain, it's recommended that you
always save your document in this format, in addition to saving or exporting the document in other
formats.
When you save or export a document in a non-Canvas format, you should be aware of the capabilities
and limitations of that file format, so that you can avoid problems such as lost information and
printing errors. For example, some formats support only one type of data (vector, raster, or text),
while others support multiple types.
Importing files
In Canvas you can open a file directly, or you can create a Canvas document and then place one or
more files into it. This lets you work on a single file, or combine files of different formats into a single
document.
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To open or place a file:
1.
Choose File, then choose one of the following:
Open: Opens the file as a new Canvas document.
Place: Inserts the file in the current Canvas document. This command is available only if
a Canvas document is open.
2.
In the Open or Place dialog box, select the file you want to open, then click the Open or Place
button.
For some file formats, a dialog box presents options for opening files. Select the appropriate
settings, then click OK.
If you open the file, Canvas creates a new document.
If you are place the file, a Place pointer appears. Click where you want to place the top-left
corner of the file.
To import image files, you can also use the Image | Import command (see "Importing
images" on page 131).
Exporting files
In Canvas, exporting files in different formats is as simple as saving the file in your selected format.
Because not all the different file formats support all Canvas objects and effects, it's recommended
that you always save your document in the standard Canvas (.CVX) format in addition to other
formats.
For example, a TIFF file can save only a single raster image; it does not support text or vector objects.
If you save a Canvas document containing vector objects or text in TIFF format, all the objects in the
document are changed into an image. If you then open the TIFF file, its contents appear as one raster
image, so you can’t edit the original text or reshape the vector objects.
When you save a document in another format, Canvas creates a new file on disk, but does not close
the document or change the name of the document in the title bar. If you then try to close the Canvas
document (without saving it in Canvas format), a message asks you to confirm that you want to close
the document without saving it.
Always save your work as a Canvas (.CVX) document, so you can edit your work later in
Canvas if necessary.
For more information about exporting files, see "Saving Canvas documents" on page 50 .
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Rendering images
When you are saving objects and select a file format that supports images only, Canvas renders the
document or selected objects. Rendering creates an image that can be saved in the selected format.
The Render Image dialog box has options for rendering (see "Rendering objects and images" on page
430 for more information).
Importing and exporting images
In Canvas there are several ways to import raster images into your document. You can open an image
file directly, place an image in your document, or import the image. When you use the Import
command, the Import dialog box filters the files you see, so that you can easily find your image files.
Importing images
Importing an image places it in the current document as a paint object. In most cases, Canvas stacks
imported images at the center of the current view. You can also choose to import a low-resolution
proxy of an image. The proxy image is linked to the original image file. The Acquire as Proxy option is
only available when you import TIFF, JPEG, and CVI files.
To import an image:
1.
Choose Image | Import.
2.
In the Select images to import dialog box, select the image you want to import.
3.
Click the Import button.
To import an image proxy:
1.
Choose Image | Import.
2.
In the Select images to import dialog box, select a TIFF, JPEG, or CVI image.
3.
Select the Acquire as Proxy check box.
4.
Click the Import button.
The proxy image is linked to the image file.
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For information about importing images with a TWAIN scanner, see "Using TWAINcompatible scanners" on page 447.
Exporting images
When you export an image from a Canvas document, Canvas creates a file on disk from a single
selected paint object. Using Export is similar to using Save As, except that you must select a paint
object before you choose Export.
To export an image:
1.
Select the paint object or image to export.
Images in edit mode can't be exported. Press Esc to exit edit mode.
2.
Choose Image | Export, and select a file format.
3.
In the Export Image dialog box, type a file name, select a location for the exported file, and
then click Save.
If the image mode of the selected paint object is not supported by the chosen format, the
Render Image dialog box appears. In the dialog box, select an image format supported by the
file format. If an image mode is not available in the Mode menu, the selected file format does
not support that mode (see "Rendering objects and images" on page 430 for more
information).
Viewing EXIF information
EXIF (Exchangeable Image File) is a format that stores information in digital images. Almost all new
digital cameras use EXIF to store information on the image such as shutter speed, exposure
compensation, F number, what metering system was used, if a flash was used, ISO number, date
and time the image was taken, white balance, auxiliary lenses that were used, and resolution.
Canvas provides quick and easy access to most of the information that is attached to these images.
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To view EXIF information:
1.
Select an image in your Canvas document.
2.
Do one of the following:
Choose Image | DCS information (EXIF).
Right-click the image and choose DCS information (EXIF).
If the image does not contain any EXIF information, the DCS information (EXIF)
option is not available.
Exporting EXIF information
When you export an image, if you choose JPEG (8-bit/channel) or TIFF (8-bit/channel or 16bit/channel) format, you can export the EXIF information with the image. (See "Creating Web pages
from Canvas documents" on page 714). However, the EXIF data is only preserved if you have not
made changes to the image in the Canvas document, or if you have made changes to the image's
pixels, such as if you've fixed red eye. If you have made other changes to the image, such as rotated,
skewed, or adjusted the transparency, or if you have composited other objects with the image, the
EXIF information is not preserved.
To export EXIF Information:
1.
Select an image in your Canvas document.
2.
Choose Image | Export | JPEG or TIFF.
3.
Type a filename and select a location for the exported image.
4.
Click Save.
5.
In the Export Options dialog box, select the Include EXIF Data check box.
6.
Click OK.
Using Canvas templates
Canvas includes many ready-made templates, and you can create your own template documents.
Then, when you use the New command, you can select a template — either one supplied with Canvas
or one you have created — to create a new document based on the contents and configuration of the
template.
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A template document stores almost all preferences settings, as well as the settings you specify with
the Document Setup command, and other document setup options, including the following:
Document type
Configuration of layers, slides, pages, sheets and frames
Settings for rulers, grids, guides, and views
Current inks and strokes settings
Text styles and default text settings
Canvas stores some settings with the application and not in particular documents, so these settings
are not included in a template document. The settings that aren’t stored in a template include the
position of palettes on the screen and the current set of external tools.
If you create a template with a small amount of type, such as for a letterhead, convert the
type to paths so the template can be used without particular fonts being available.
To save a template document:
1.
Choose File | New to create a new Illustration, Presentation, Animation, or Publication
document.
2.
Choose Layout | Document Setup to select measurement units, document size and
orientation, and, for Publications, the margins and column layout.
3.
Choose File | Configuration Center to set up preferences for the document.
4.
Create or import objects that you want to store in the template.
5.
Choose File | Save As.
6.
In the Save As dialog box, navigate to the Canvas\Templates folder.
7.
In the Save as type drop-down list, select TPL - Canvas Template.
8.
Click Save.
Working with other file formats
When you use other file formats that Canvas supports, you can select options when you open, place,
import, save, or export some types of files. The most common file formats and their options are
described in this section. For more information on using file formats, refer to the “Read Me” file. New
information that is not in the printed or online documentation will be provided in the “Read Me” file
distributed with the Canvas software.
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Opening PDF files
When opening PDF files, you can select your import options in the PDF & PS Import dialog box.
Default ColorSpace
Select RGB or CMYK.
Embedded fonts
Select either Substitute or Convert to paths.
Vector precision
Select from one to three decimal points for precision.
Text merging
Select an option for text tolerance.
Disabled: Select this option for no merging, even for text/letters
that are exactly next to each other
Precise: Select this option for a very small amount of tolerance, so
only letters next to each other will be merged
Tight: Select this option for a higher level of tolerance (spaces up
to approximately 2 points between letters will be ignored)
Loose: Select this option for the highest level of tolerance, meaning
“merge whenever it makes sense”)
Page selection
Use this option to specify pages for import. The default is [all pages].
Other predefined values are [even pages] and [odd pages], which would
import only the even and odd pages, respectively. Other page selections
may be specified as a combination of numbers separated with commas;
e.g, 2, 5, 8, 13. Consecutive pages may be specified using two numbers
separated with a dash; e.g., 6-9. You can even use combinations like 1,
5 - 7, 9, which would import pages 1, 5, 6, 7, and 9. The combination 1,
2, 4, 6- would import pages 1, 2, 4, 6 and all subsequent pages.
Layers
Select an option for importing PDF documents that contain layers.
Import layers if present: Select this option to import all visible
layers in the file. If deselected, all objects from a PDF file are
imported to one layer with a default name.
Import hidden layers: Select this option to also import hidden
layers and all objects that may be on those layers. This would work
even if the option above is turned off.
Save these settings
as default
Saves the current settings as the default.
Default
Click Default to obtain the default settings.
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Saving in PDF format
When saving in PDF - Acrobat® format, you can select export options in the PDF Options dialog box
that appears before the file is saved (see "Exporting as PDF" on page 722).
Saving in Illustrator format
You can also save files in an Adobe® Illustrator® format by choosing File | Save As and then
selecting AI - Adobe Illustrator. In the AI Export Options dialog box select the Illustrator settings.
Illustrator Version
Choose the version of Illustrator in which you wish to save the file.
Object attributes
Ignore Transparency: If your Canvas file contains objects with
SpriteLayer transparencies, then you will need to check this option.
If this feature is not activated, then all of the objects that contain
transparency effects (in your Canvas file) will be converted into
images. Therefore, you will not be able to edit these objects after
exporting except as bitmapped images.
Basic Stroke Only: The editing tools in Illustrator may not
recognize a texture, hatch, or gradients for a stroke which you have
created in your Canvas file. Therefore, you may wish to activate this
option if you excpect to use some of the more specialized tools in
Illustrator after exporting the file. When activated, this feature will
automatically remove all complex strokes from a Canvas file during
export.
Resolution: Choose from 72 to 600 DPI.
Working With CGM files
Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) format is a standard for exchanging 2-D graphics and text.
With Canvas, you can open, modify, and save CGM files created in other applications. CGM file
properties, including WebCGM tags are retained, and can be viewed in the Object Properties palette.
Variations and extensions to the “standard” format can create incompatibilities with the Canvas file
filter. When you save a Canvas document in CGM format, Canvas makes the following image color
mode conversions:
Canvas image mode
CGM image mode
CMYK, Duotone,
RGB cell arrays
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Canvas image mode
CGM image mode
Grayscale, and LAB color
Black & White
CGM versions 1 and 2: RGB cell arrays
CGM versions 3 and 4: Black & White
Multichannel
First channel becomes an RGB cell array; other channels ignored
To export as CGM:
1.
Choose File | Save As.
2.
Select CGM as the file format in the Save As dialog box.
3.
In the CGM Export Options dialog box, select the CGM export options.
CGM Version
Select a version. If your original document was Version 4 (WebCGM), be
sure to select this version for export so that any imported data is
preserved in the exported file.
Compliance
Select either CALS or ATA.
VDC Precision
Select either 16 Bit Integer or 32 Bit Fixed.
Scaling Mode
Select either Abstract or Metric.
Export Paint Object
If your file contains paint objects, select this option to export them.
Deselect this option if you do not want to export the paint objects.
Export Layer As
Picture
If selected, each layer is exported as a separate image. If deselected, the
file will be exported as one image.
Beziers As Polygons
If objects contain a fill ink, select this option to preserve it. All beziers
will export as polygons. If this option is deselected and the objects are
exported as beziers, the fill color is removed.
Bitonal Image
Compression
This option is enabled if Version 3 or 4 is selected in the CGM Version
menu. Select either Not Compressed, Group 3 (1-dimensional), or Group
4 (2-dimensional).
Font Match
Click this button to open the CGM Font Matching dialog box. Select a
substitute font if you want to change the font when exported to CGM
format. The font remains the same in the original file.
Canvas also supports importing CGM and CGM*PIP files (see "Importing CGM files" on page 736).
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Using AutoCAD DWG format
Defined by AutoCAD, DWG is accepted as the standard file format for data interchange by CAD users
worldwide. The AutoCAD DWG import filter lets you import native AutoCAD® 2004 files. into Canvas.
This filter fits an AutoCAD drawing into a specified page format.
To open DWG files:
1.
Choose File | Open or File | Place and select DWG - AutoCAD format in the directory dialog
box.
2.
In the DWG & DXF Import dialog box, enter the following information:
Source Unit
Select the source unit from the menu. The chosen unit will become the
document unit.
Drawing Scale
Select a scale from the menu. You can even use Fit to Paper if necessary.
Paper Format
Select a paper size from the menu.
Landscape mode
Select this option to change the page orientation.
Dark background
Select this option to use a black paper color. The lines will be white on
import. The paper color can be changed after in the Document Setup
manager (Layout | Document Setup).
Ignore Line Widths
Select this option to set a hairline stroke for each object.
Explode AutoCAD
hatches
Select this option to convert any hatch inks in the original to objects.
Explode AutoCAD
blocks
Select this option to convert blocks to objects.
Merge imported
layers
Select this option to merge all imported layers into one layer in Canvas.
Import empty layers
Select this option to import any empty layers in the original file.
Save these settings
as default
Saves the current settings as the default.
Default
Click Default to obtain the default settings.
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Using Drawing Interchange format (DXF)
Drawing Interchange Format (DXF) is a format developed by Autodesk, Inc., for exchanging data with
AutoCAD and other drawing applications. DXF format provides platform- independent storage of 2D
and 3D technical drawings and supports multiple layers. Canvas supports DXF files containing ASCII
data, but does not support DXF files that contain data in binary format.
Opening DXF files
When opening or placing DXF files, the DWG & DXF Import dialog box opens. The DXF filter fits a DXF
file to a specified page format. As with, the DWG import, you should know the Source Unit, Paper
Format, and Drawing Scale (see "To open DWG files:" on page 138).
When opening a DXF file, Canvas makes the following conversions from DXF objects to Canvas
objects:
DXF objects
Canvas objects
Blocks
Groups
Traces, Solids, and Quadratic
polylines
Polygons
B-spline Polylines
Bézier curve paths
ATTDEF and ATTRIB
Text objects
Canvas doesn’t support 3D objects (3D lines and 3D Face objects in DXF files), so these objects are
not imported into Canvas.
Exporting DXF files
When you save a document in DXF format, Canvas converts the following Canvas objects and
attributes to DXF objects and attributes:
Canvas objects/attributes
DXF objects/attributes
Paint object
Not converted
Pen and fill patterns
Solid pens are exported; fills are not exported
Arcs
Polylines
Calligraphic pen strokes
Fixed-width pen strokes
Continuous dashes
Dashes start in each segment
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Canvas objects/attributes
DXF objects/attributes
Layer names with spaces or nonuppercase characters
Spaces removed and characters become uppercase
Grayed layers
Objects appear in original colors
In the DXF export options dialog box, select the platform format to use. You can also select options for
exporting lines and circles.
Using Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a file format used to save individual PostScript graphics.
To open EPS files:
When you open or place an EPS file, a dialog box prompts you to choose an import method.
Choose an option and click OK.
Create EPSF Object: Imports the EPS file as an EPS object. This object can be rotated
or scaled, but you can’t select or edit parts of the graphic. Canvas displays a preview
image if the file contains a preview in a supported format.
Create Canvas Objects: Interprets the EPS file’s PostScript code to convert the EPS
graphic to editable Canvas objects. Raster images become Canvas paint objects and
vector objects are maintained as vector objects. Text is imported as one or more text
objects. The EPS preview image is not imported. Specialized objects and attributes that
have no Canvas equivalent might not be imported.
Place EPSF Reference: Inserts a link to the EPS file and displays its preview image in
the Canvas document. This option is useful for keeping the size of the Canvas file smaller
than if EPS files are imported directly into the document. If you use this option, the EPS
file must be available when you print the Canvas document. If the EPS file changes, the
Canvas document is updated when you print it.
Saving as EPS
To save a file in EPS format:
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1.
Choose File | Save As.
2.
In the Save As dialog box, select EPS format.
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3.
Select options in the dialog box that appears and click OK to save the file.
When you save a Canvas document in EPS format, you could lose specialized objects and attributes
that are not supported in EPS. Canvas transparency effects are rendered and stored as images in EPS
graphics, using the Transparency Rendering option and resolution that you select.
EPSF Type: Choose EPS to create a composite (non-separated) EPS file. Choose DCS Version
2 to create a single, pre-separated EPS file in DCS version 2.0 format. You can use a DCS file
to output color separations from programs that support this format.
Current Page: Saves the current page, slide, sheet, or frame only. To save a range of
pages, enter the starting and ending page numbers in the From and To boxes.
Preview: Select a format to store a preview image in the EPS file. Canvas and other
programs that support EPS previews will display the preview when the EPS file is placed in a
document. The image format and color mode you select are applied to the preview image
only.
Choose None for no preview, or choose a color mode to save a preview image. Preview images
are saved in TIFF format. A preview will not appear in programs that support only WMF or
EMF previews.
Use Compression: Select this option to compress TIFF preview images. Some programs can
display only non-compressed TIFF previews. If TIFF preview images do not appear correctly,
try deselecting this option.
Image Compression: Select a format for storing raster image data. Binary is the most
compact non-compressed format. ASCII encodes raster data as text, the least compact
format. Level 2 ASCII is somewhat more compact than ASCII format. RLE compresses binary
data and makes the most compact EPS files. To save EPS files for Photoshop or Illustrator,
use Binary format.
Color Mode for EPS format: Select a color mode to apply to colors in the EPS file. The
available modes correspond to RGB, CMYK, Grayscale, and Black & White modes for paint
objects. Colors created with RGB, HSL, CMYK, or grayscale values will be converted to the
selected mode in the EPS file. Spot colors defined in Canvas with the Spot Color option in the
Color manager or a spot color library will be saved in the EPS file as spot colors, and also with
color values in the selected mode. If you print color separations from an EPS file in another
program, you can usually output process and spot color plates, or just process color plates,
depending on whether you specify spot and process separations or process-only
separations.
Color Mode for DCS format: Select a color mode for the separations stored in the EPS file.
Select CMYK to separate all colors, including spot colors, as process (CMYK) colors. Select
CMYK + Spot to separate all colors, except spot colors, as process (CMYK) colors. Spot colors
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will not be converted to process and will be separated as spot colors.
When you use DCS Format and print color separations, the program you use simply outputs
the color separation plates as defined in the DCS file; it does not apply its separation method
or options to colors in the file. Therefore, if you want to be able to output process and spot
color plates, you should select CMYK + Spot Color Mode when you use DCS Format to save
illustrations in EPS files.
Transparency Rendering: Select a method for SpriteLayer and SpriteEffects rendering into
EPS format. These options are similar to the rendering options that are available when you
print a document. Choose Smallest Area, Complete Area, or Entire Document. Smallest Area
results in rendering the minimum area necessary to show transparency and SpriteEffects.
Complete Area renders the minimum area, plus any object that touches the rendered area.
This setting can prevent a slight color shift between rendered and non-rendered areas
within an object. Entire Document renders everything in the document (or selection) as an
image to be saved in the EPS file. If you choose Don’t Render Transparent Objects,
transparency and SpriteEffects won’t be rendered.
Text Always in Front: Select this option to always place text in front of other objects.
Rendering Resolution: Select a resolution for rendering effects. In general, you should
specify a resolution based on the publication requirements for images.
Embed Fonts: Select this option to embed fonts in the file, so text can appear as intended if
the required fonts aren’t available.
Use Page Dimensions: Select this option to save the full area of the document page, sheet,
slide, or frame in the EPS file. If this option is not selected, the EPS graphic will be only as
large as the saved objects.
Use Kearning Pairs: Select this option to use kearning pairs.
Converting EPS objects
After you import an EPS file, choose options from the context menu to convert the object or view
information about it.
You can view linking information if the file was imported as an EPSF reference. If the file was
imported as an EPSF object, you can convert it to an EPSF reference. If it was imported as an EPSF
object, you can create Canvas objects from it.
To use EPSF Object commands:
Select the EPS graphic and right-click. In the context menu, choose one of the options described
below.
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Convert EPSF into Canvas Objects: If you choose to create Canvas objects from an
EPSF object, the EPSF object is replaced in the document by equivalent Canvas objects.
Depending on the contents of the original EPS file, you might not be able to edit some
objects as you expect after the conversion. For example, you would not be able to edit
text if the EPS file contained outlines (paths) for text characters, rather than the
characters themselves; you could use path-editing techniques to edit the objects.
Embed EPSF Into Document: If an EPS graphic has been imported with the Place
EPSF Reference option, you can use the context menu to convert the graphic from a
linked EPS graphic to an EPS graphic that is placed in the document. The result is the
same as importing an EPS file and selecting Create EPSF Object.
EPSF Info: You can get information from an EPS graphic if it was imported with the
Place EPSF Reference option. Canvas will display information on the location of the EPS
file that is linked into the document. If the file can’t be found in its original location,
Canvas displays a message. To re-link the file, click File, and use the directory dialog box
to select the EPS file. Then, click OK in the message box.
Saving Web graphics (GIF/JPEG)
For saving graphics in GIF and JPEG formats (the standard Web image formats), you have the choice
of using the integrated dialog box (Web Images) or the individual GIF or JPEG dialog boxes.
To export or save as GIF:
1.
Do one of the following:
Choose File | Save As.
Choose Image | Export.
2.
Select GIF as the file format.
3.
Select GIF options in the GIF Export Options dialog box.
To export or save as JPEG:
1.
Do one of the following:
Choose File | Save As.
Choose Image | Export.
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2.
Select JPEG as the file format. Make your adjustments in the JPEG Export Options dialog box.
GIF format: GIF is the best format for graphics that contain a small number of colors,
such as vector art with flat colors. GIF format supports Black & White, Grayscale, and
Indexed color images, with 1 to 8 bits of color data for a maximum of 256 colors.
JPEG format: JPEG format provides compression of high resolution, full-color (24- bit)
RGB images. JPEG is designed for efficient storage of continuous-tone images such as
photographs. JPEG is an abbreviation of Joint Photographic Experts Group, a standards
organization that promoted the format.
To save graphics as Web Images:
1.
Select the objects to save, or Canvas will save the current document page. Choose File | Save
As.
You can use a wizard to save graphics for the Web. Select the images you want to save,
and choose File | Save to Web.
2.
In the directory dialog box, select Web Images in the file format pop-up menu. Type a name
for the file and select the save location.
To save only the selected objects, click Save Selection.
3.
Click Save.
4.
If the Render Image dialog box opens, select rendering options and click OK.
5.
In the Export Preview dialog box, select either format and use multiple preview panes to
compare how the format and other settings will affect your images before saving.
6.
Click Export to save the file.
To export images in GIF or JPEG format:
Exporting lets you save selected images, but not entire documents. The difference between Save As
and Export is that Save As will render objects or an entire document to create an image that can be
saved. Export will save only a single paint object, without rendering.
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1.
Select a paint object to export.
2.
Choose Image | Export | Web Images.
3.
In the Export Preview dialog box, select either format and use multiple preview panes to
compare how the format and other settings will affect your images before saving.
4.
Click Export to save the file.
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5.
In the dialog box, type a name for the file and choose a location to save the file, and then click
Save.
Export Preview options
The Export Preview dialog box shows one, two, or four previews of a graphic image when you choose
Save As or Export and select GIF or JPEG file format. You can select settings for each preview image
to compare how the file format, palette options, and other settings will affect the image you are
saving.
A color tile shows the color you point to in a preview image. Two pairs of coordinates are displayed
below the preview panes. One pair are the X,Y coordinates of the pointer. The other pair are the
coordinates of the pixel at the upper-left corner of the preview panes.
Preview setup
Click a preview button to change the preview setup. You can select one preview, two previews
(horizontal or vertical), or four previews.
One preview pane is active and has a highlighted border. Click a pane to make it active. The settings
in the dialog box apply to the active preview. The settings in the dialog box can be different for each
preview. When you select a preview, Canvas updates the dialog box to show the settings for the
active preview.
All panes show the image at the same view location and zoom level. Drag on a preview image to move
the view location.
Use the zoom menu to zoom in or out. Or, click the Magnifying Glass button, then click a preview
image to zoom in. To zoom out, Shift-click a preview image.
Without selecting the Magnifying Glass button, you can zoom in or out by clicking in a preview image.
Press Ctrl or Ctrl+Shift and click.
Previewing the current settings
Each preview pane shows the original image. To view how the selected file format and other settings
will affect the image, select the Show Preview option above a preview pane. Canvas will apply all the
settings in the dialog box to the preview image. If you change a setting, Canvas will apply the new
setting.
Image file information: When Show Preview is selected, the estimated file size and the number of
colors in the image appear above the active preview pane. The first value is the estimated file size in
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kilobytes. The second value is the number of discrete colors that will be saved in a GIF file; the value
is not shown for JPEG format.
JPEG options
To use JPEG format, select JPEG from the Format menu. Canvas applies the JPEG format and settings
to the active preview pane.
Quality: Enter a percentage value from 1-100%. Higher Quality values result in less
compression and better retention of original image quality.
Smoothing: Enter a smoothing value from 1 to 6. JPEG compression can cause color blocks
to appear in an image. Smoothing softens the image to make color blocks less noticeable.
Higher values produce more smoothing.
Progressive: Select this option to create a JPEG file that Web browsers can display at
increasing resolution as the image is loaded.
Downsampling: This option can help improve compression. Downsampling reduces the
image resolution by averaging color values while preserving luminosity details. Programs
displaying the image will “upsample” to the original resolution, so greater compression is
achieved without changing the display resolution of the image.
Optimized: This option can help produce smaller file sizes. When Optimized is selected,
some of the least important color information is discarded to produce more efficient
compression.
GIF options
To use GIF format, select GIF from the Format menu. Canvas applies the GIF format and settings to
the active preview pane.
Max colors
Use the menu or type in the box to specify the maximum number of
colors to be used in the image. Fewer colors can result in a smaller file,
but too few colors will degrade an image.
Palette
A palette is a set of colors used in an image. To be saved in GIF format,
an image can contain no more than 256 colors. If the image contains
more colors, the original colors are mapped to the colors in the palette
that you choose.
Adaptive: Creates a palette that tries to match as close as possible
all the colors in the image. This option is the best for preserving the
original color range of an image.
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Web: Uses a standard color palette supported by major Web
browsers. The range of colors in the Web palette, however, can
cause color shifts in images with many shades of a few colors.
Uniform: Uses a palette of colors that are uniformly distributed
through the range of possible RGB colors.
Exact: Creates a palette from the actual colors in the image, if the
image contains fewer than 256 colors. If the image contains more
than 256 colors, Canvas uses the Adaptive option.
To apply a custom or system color palette to a paint object
before saving in GIF format, select the paint object and choose
Image | Mode | Indexed. In the dialog box, select a palette
option and click OK. To modify an Indexed mode paint object,
choose Image | Mode | Color Table
Optimized
Select this option to merge single pixels into similar colored areas to
produce smaller file sizes. However, in images with fine lines or detail,
this option can reduce image quality. This option is less effective when
Dither is also selected and an image has a limited number of colors.
Dither
Select this option if you want Canvas to use dithering to simulate a
greater range of colors. Dithering can make an image appear to have
more colors than are in a limited color palette, but it can also make an
image appear grainy or noisy. To control the amount of dithering, enter a
percentage from 1 to 100 in the text box.
Interlaced
Select this check box to save the image as an interlaced GIF. Interlacing
divides the image data for faster initial display in Web browsers that
support interlaced GIF images; i.e., the image appears progressively on
the Web page.
Selecting transparent colors
The Dropper tools in the Export Preview dialog box let you make colors in a GIF image transparent.
Click in the color palette or the current preview image to select colors for transparency. When you
select a color, it becomes highlighted in the grid.
Use the regular dropper to select one transparent color. If you click another color, it replaces the
current transparent color.
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Use the add/subtract dropper to select additional colors to be transparent. Each color you click
becomes transparent. To restore a transparent color, click it again.
A checkerboard pattern appears in areas of the preview image that are transparent.
Color palette: The area below the GIF options shows the current color palette for the image. The
palette changes when you change the Palette or Max Color option.
Saving settings
Save the current options in the Export Preview dialog box and then apply the same setup to other
images.
To save the current options in the dialog box, choose Save Setting in the menu above the current
preview pane. Type a name for the saved setting and click OK. This setting will be available in the
menu above each preview pane.
To use a saved setting:
Select the Show Preview option above a preview pane and then select the saved setting in the
menu.
To delete a saved setting:
Select the setting in the menu, and then choose Delete Setting. Canvas will ask you to confirm that
you want to delete the setting.
Importing Photoshop files
When you open or import a Photoshop file that contains layers, Canvas imports the file’s layers as
separate objects and stacks them in the document on the current layer.
Layers that have transparency are imported with visibility masks. Canvas creates an alpha channel
and a channel mask for a Photoshop layer mask. Canvas also imports alpha channels.
Using Tag Image File format (TIFF)
Tag Image File Format is a high resolution, raster image format. Canvas supports both RGB and CMYK
TIFFs. Although TIFF is a common format, many TIFF variations exist. Different resolutions, color
systems, previews, and compression schemes make the format flexible, but can cause compatibility
problems.
Canvas can read tiled TIFFs. A tiled TIFF is an image divided into smaller, rectangular
portions.
When you save TIFF files, you have various options in the Export TIFF dialog box.
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TIFF Compression
Various compression options are available, depending on the mode of the image you are saving.
Compression
None: Saves an image without compression (the most compatible
format).
Group 3 and Group 4: Are available to compress images that are
in black-and-white mode.
LZW: Can be applied to all image modes, except CMYK Color.
Deflate: Applies a lossless compression to the image.
JPEG: Applies a JPEG lossy compression to the image.
Adobe Deflate: Reduces image size but does not affect image
quality since it is a lossless compression.
Resolution
Indicates the default resolution. Enter a value in the Horizontal and
Vertical field if necessary.
To export as TIFF with transparency:
Canvas supports transparency in TIFF images upon import and export. In Canvas, you can create
transparency in images using either a clipping path, channel mask, or visibility mask.
1.
Create the object and apply one of the aforementioned transparency techniques.
If you are using vector objects, the vector objects will be rendered before exporting.
2.
Choose File | Save As or Image | Export.
Saving as SVG
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is a vector graphics language written in Extensible Markup Language
(XML). This format enables two-dimensional images to be displayed in XML pages on the Web. With
the SVG format, graphics are coded directly into an XML document.
In contrast to JPEG and GIF images on the Web, which are bitmapped and always remain a specified
size, SVG images are scalable to the size of the viewing window and will adjust in size and resolution
according to the window in which it is displayed.
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To save as SVG:
1.
Choose File | Save As and select SVG as the file format.
2.
Click Save to open the SVG Options dialog box.
This dialog box is similar to the HTML Options dialog box (see "HTML options" on page 715).
General options
Create new folder: Organizes files by placing them in a new
folder in the specified location. The name that you enter when you
are saving a SVG is used for the folder’s name.
Put images in subfolder: Creates a subfolder for the image files.
Separate pages
Image options
The HTML options dialog box offers identical choices for image export
(see "Image options" on page 717).
Exporting as AVI
AVI is the abbreviation of Audio Video Interleave, which is the most common format for audio/video
data on the Windows system. When opened, an AVI file plays in a similar fashion to an animated GIF
file.
Canvas has the capability of saving certain Canvas files in AVI format. Canvas documents that contain
frames, animations or presentations, can be saved as Audio Video Interleave. Even a document with a
single frame can be saved in AVI format providing a default time for the single frame is set to 1
second.
When working with Animation documents, you set the timing via the Document Layout palette
("Setting options in the palette" on page 86). If you are creating a Presentation document, use the
Slide Show palette to control timing ( "Slide Show palette" on page 728).
To export as AVI:
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1.
Create your document in Canvas and choose File | Save As.
2.
Select the AVI file format.
3.
Click Save.
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4.
In the Save AVI Options dialog box, select one or more of the following:
Auto Crop: This feature optimizes the size of each frame and the document. The Auto
Crop option will create the minimum size needed to accommodate all of the objects in the
document.
Antialiasing: Objects from the Canvas document will be rendered with an overall
softened effect.
Quality: This option affects the compression of the images. Move the slider bar to the
right to lower the image quality or to the left to increase the compression, thus improving
image quality.
Using text files
Text is a standard format for files containing only ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
Interchange) encoded characters.
Text format is available on nearly every computer platform; it’s the “plain vanilla” format, the lowest
common denominator for words and numbers. Text files don’t include proprietary or applicationspecific character or formatting codes. Some punctuation marks, symbols, and all accented letters
are non-ASCII characters that display incorrectly when used in text files. Still, ASCII text can be used
to transfer text among a variety of applications, including text editors, word processors, and
databases.
When you open a text file, Canvas creates one text object containing the file’s contents, and assigns
the default font and text formatting attributes to it. If the file contains more text than can fit in the
Canvas workspace, Canvas truncates the text object and displays an overflow indicator. You can then
flow the truncated text into other columns.
Using Object Linking and Embedding
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) lets you easily exchange graphics among programs. Since
Canvas provides full OLE support, objects you exchange retain their full functionality and are editable
with all the tools of the original application.
Windows programs provide various levels of OLE support. In OLE parlance, Canvas is a fully capable
object and containerapplication. Briefly, this means Canvas can transfer objects to and from other
programs through OLE.
In the world of OLE, objects created in Canvas are identified as “Canvas Drawing” objects. If you use
the Insert Object command in another application, you should be able to select “Canvas Drawing” as
a type of object to insert.
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Inserting objects into Canvas documents
You can use three methods to insert objects in a Canvas document: the Clipboard, drag-and-drop,
and the Insert Object command. The objects you insert can be either linked or embedded.
Clipboard: When you copy Canvas objects to the Clipboard, Canvas places OLE formats, as
well as lower-fidelity formats, on the Clipboard. When you paste into another program, that
program receives the highest-fidelity format it can accept. If the other program is an OLE
container, pasting creates an embedded OLE object.
When pasting into Canvas from other applications, a MetaObject container is created. The
MetaObject is a Canvas “Container” for a system metafile (WMF/EMF). It will draw, print, and
act like a normal Canvas object using the system to render it. This should preserve the
fidelity of the metafile.
The MetaObject container method eliminates problems in scaling, positioning, and overall
look. OLE and pasting as metafile will automatically create a MetaObject. To convert the
MetaObject to a Canvas object, choose Path | Convert To Paths.
Drag-and-drop: In Windows, you can drag objects from Canvas documents to almost any
destination on the Desktop (including local and network folders) to create a “scrap” file
containing the objects. You can also drag Canvas objects into other documents, and drag
objects, such as scrap files and other program’s objects, directly into Canvas documents.
When you drag an object to another program, it creates an embedding.
You can copy an object when you drag it by pressing a modifier key. Normally, dragging
moves the object. If you want to copy the object, rather than move it, Ctrl-drag the object to
another document. This copies the object and creates an embedding.
Insert Object: Choose Edit | Insert Object to open a dialog box in which you can choose any
registered OLE object type to insert into a document. Create a new object or choose a file as
the source of the embedded object.
To embed objects:
When you embed an object in another document, use the original program’s tools and commands to
edit the object.
Not all programs support OLE and can create embeddings.
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1.
Select the objects you want to embed in another document.
2.
Choose Edit | Copy to put the selection on the Clipboard.
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3.
Switch to the document where you want to embed the selection and choose Edit | Paste. The
object is embedded into the document.
To link objects:
If you want an object to be updated when it changes in the original document, create a link to the
object. The Canvas document from which you copy objects to be linked must have been saved before
you copy the objects.
Not all OLE programs support OLE linking.
1.
Select the objects to link and choose Edit | Copy.
2.
Switch to the document where you want to paste the linked object and choose Edit | Paste
Special. In the dialog box, Canvas Drawing format is selected.
3.
Click Paste Link to link the object.
To manage linked objects:
Use the Links command to check the source file of a linked object and repair a broken link if a source
file has been moved.
1.
Select a linked object in a document.
2.
Choose Edit | Links. The Links dialog box displays the link type and update method. To
change the update method, choose the Automatic or Manual option.
3.
Use the buttons to update or change the linked object:
To update the object from its source: Click Update Now.
To open the source document: Click Open Source.
To select a different source document: Click Change Source.
To remove the link so changes to the source do not affect the linked object:
Click Break Link.
Differences between linking and embedding
When you insert an object into a Canvas document, or insert an object from Canvas into another
program’s document, you create an association between the object and its application. Linking and
embedding create different types of associations.
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Linking: When you link an object, the object remains in the file where it was created. Only a
link (reference) to the source object winds up in the document, which makes linking an
efficient method of storing commonly-used objects and files. Linking makes a dynamic
connection between an object and all documents in which it appears. When you edit the
object, changes are automatically sent to linked instances of the object in all documents.
Since the object is linked by only a reference to another file, if any of the linked files change
locations, the link will be disrupted. To move linked files without disrupting the references,
you must move all linked files as well as the entire directory structure so that the relative
locations of the files don’t change.
When you edit a linked object, the object’s application opens in a separate window. When
you finish editing, close the application to return to the document containing the link.
Embedding: When you embed an object in a document, the object itself (not just a
reference) is copied into the document. Therefore, a document can be moved to another
computer without losing the object.
Inserting ActiveX Controls in documents
ActiveX controls may include Microsoft Office Excel Charts, scroll bars, command buttons, option
buttons, toggle buttons, etc. To set the properties for the ActiveX control, refer to the documentation
for Visual Basic.
To insert an ActiveX control:
1.
Click the ActiveX icon.
2.
Select the control to be inserted. If the control is not in the list, select Options to open the
Custom Controls dialog box.
3.
Click Add to open the Insert Object dialog box.
4.
Select the object or control to be added to the Custom Controls dialog box.
5.
Click OK to return to the Custom Controls dialog box.
To remove a control from the Custom Controls dialog box:
Select the control in the list and click the Trash icon.
Exporting files to Canvas using the Canvas Print Driver
Another method for converting files to the Canvas format, is to open them in their native application,
such as CorelDraw, and use the Print command. In the Print dialog box, select the Canvas print
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driver. Canvas converts the objects in the document and opens the document in Canvas.
Before you can use this method, you must install the Canvas print driver.
To install the Canvas Print Driver:
In Canvas, choose Help | Install Canvas Print Driver 2.
To create a Canvas file using the Print command:
1.
In your external application, open the document that you want to convert to Canvas.
2.
Choose File | Print.
3.
In the Print dialog box, select the Canvas Print Driver from the list of printers, and any other
settings, such as a selection of pages.
4.
Click OK.
The Canvas print driver creates a temporary postscript file, and then opens the file in
Canvas.
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Working with objects
This section explains how to work with objects in Canvas. It tells you how to select objects with
selection tools or the Find command. It describes common actions, including how to copy, group,
lock, move, arrange, flip, and align objects, plus effects you can apply to all objects, including
scaling, rotation, and skew. It also tells you how to use the object position data in the Object Specs
palette.
Types of objects
An object is a distinct item such as a circle, an image, or a paragraph of text. There are different
types of objects with unique properties, and some commands apply only to some types of objects.
But objects in Canvas also share many properties. You can perform common operations, including
selecting, moving, rotating, copying, and deleting, using the same methods for all types of objects.
The following object categories are used in Canvas:
Vector objects: Geometric shapes such as lines, circles, rectangles, polygons, and smooth
curves. Canvas defines them internally by formulas, and they print smoothly on all printers.
Paint objects: Rectangular containers for pixel-based images, such as photos, screen
captures, and scanned artwork. Each pixel that makes up an image has a color (or grayscale)
value.
Text objects: Containers for text that can be formatted at the character and paragraph
levels. Text objects can be empty or contain up to a page of text, and they can be linked
together.
Group objects: Collections of objects that have been united with the Group command. A
group object can be made from more than one type of original object.
Selecting objects
When you select an object, you distinguish it from other, unselected objects, so that when you
choose a command or apply a color, Canvas knows to apply it to the selected object. In most cases,
you select objects first, then apply a command or attribute. If you can’t apply an attribute, or a
command is not available, check to be sure you have correctly selected an object first.
Canvas provides several tools and commands for you to select objects. Use the most convenient
method for each situation. The Selection tools are the primary object-selection tools. You can also use
the Select All and Find commands from the Edit menu to select objects.
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In some cases, you can select parts of objects; e.g., you can select an anchor point within a vector
object, a word within a text object, and an image area within a paint object. Selection techniques for
various types of objects are described in the drawing, text editing, and image editing sections of the
manual.
Selecting objects with Selection tools
Selection tool: Select this tool when you need to Select a single object. To select multiple
objects, you can Shift-click.
Direct Edit Selection tool: This tool allows you to select all curve- edit points of an object in
one step. Click this tool and then click on a vector object to place that object into edit mode.
Direct Group Selection tool: Using this tool, you may select individual objects within a
group without the need to ungroup the object.
Lasso Selection tool: Select this tool and then encircle or draw a line around an object or
series of objects. Doing this will select all of the objects that are touching the selection. You
can also use this tool to select objects by simply drawing a line through them.
Direct Edit Lasso tool: You can quickly edit any path point of an object by enclosing it with
this tool. This feature places the object or objects into edit mode and highlights the edit
points that fall inside the selection area drawn by the Direct Edit Lasso Tool. Likewise, you
may also draw a line through an object to allow editing of a path point.
To select one object:
1.
Click a selection tool in the Toolbox.
2.
Click an object.
To select multiple objects:
Do one of the following:
Hold down Shift, and click each object you want to select.
Hold down the right mouse button and click multiple objects to select them.
With the Selection tool, drag a selection box around objects to select them. Canvas
selects all objects inside the selection box.
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To select all objects on a single layer:
Choose Edit | Select All to select every object in a single-layer document.
To select all objects on all visible layers in a multi-layer document, change the default
selection setting in the Configuration Center (see "Setting preferences" on page 97 ).
Selection methods
The following table gives you a quick description of all the methods for selecting objects.
To select
Do this
A single object
Click the object with a Selection tool.
Multiple objects
Shift-click each object with a Selection tool.
Objects using a selection box
Drag a box around the objects with a Selection tool.
All objects touched by a
selection box
With a selection tool, press Ctrl and drag out a box that touches
the objects.
One object within a group
object
Click the object with the Direct Group Selection tool (hollow
arrow).
No objects (deselect all
objects)
Click a Selection tool in a blank area, or press Esc.
All objects
Choose Edit | Select All.
The inverse of the current
selection
Choose Edit | Invert Selection
An object behind another
object
Tab-click the object’s location until it is selected.
Unfilled object
Click the object’s border, or press Tab and click inside the
object.
An object on a layer other
than the current layer, or an
object on a master page
Tab-click the object with a Selection tool.
All objects created by a
particular tool
Select the tool, then choose Edit | Select All.
Objects based on their
attributes
Choose Edit | Find.
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Selection indicators
Canvas indicates that an object is selected by displaying the object’s bounding box, a rectangle with
solid blue squares, called handles, at each corner and side midpoint.
A bounding box with handles surrounds a selected object
The first object selected is called the key object. The key object is indicated with solid blue squares
in the bounding box. If several objects are selected, the other selected objects have solid white
squares in their respective bounding boxes. The key object may affect alignment and distribution of
the other objects (see "Aligning and distributing objects" on page 181).
When an object is selected, its bounding box is visible even if it has attributes (the same
color as the background, for example) that make the object itself invisible. Also, a selected
object’s bounding box is visible even if it’s covered by other objects.
When selected, Canvas displays the object type at the right end of the Status bar. When more than
one object is selected, the Status bar shows the number of selected objects.
To change the key object:
The key object in a selection can be changed via the context menu.
To switch the key object with multiple objects selected:
Select the objects and then right-click the object that you want to be the key object. Select Make
Key Object in the context menu. Note that this change is only temporary.
To add the key object to a selection:
Select one object (by default it’s the key object). Press Shift and right-click the object that you
want to add to the selection but also designate as key object. Select Make Key Object in the
context menu. The object becomes part of the selection as well as the key object.
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Editing objects
All types of objects in Canvas can be easily modified. In general, you place an object in edit mode to
modify it.
Edit mode lets you use various features to edit each type of object; e.g., when a text object is in edit
mode, use word-processing features to select, cut, copy, paste, and edit text. When a vector object
is in edit mode, you can modify anchor points and segments to reshape its path. When a paint object
is in edit mode, you can use painting tools and commands to modify the image it contains.
Some other objects, including spirals, EasyShapes, objects that have transparency masks, and
SpriteEffects, have special editing modes (besides their standard edit modes); e.g., if you place a
vector object in edit mode, you can edit the object’s path. If the object also has a transparency mask,
you can edit its path in path edit mode, or use the Sprite tool to edit its transparency mask in mask
edit mode.
To place objects in edit mode:
Select an object and choose Object | Edit | Object to place it in object edit mode or double-click
the object.
To exit edit mode:
Press the Esc key.
Selecting and editing objects with the context menu
Use the context menu to select an object or place an object in edit mode. The context menu can make
it easier to select and edit objects that are covered by other objects.
To display the context menu:
Right-click the object.
To select objects using the context menu:
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1.
When no objects are selected or in edit mode, point to the object you want to select. If the
object is hidden behind other objects, point to its location.
2.
Choose Select | Object Name in the context menu. Canvas selects the object whose name you
choose in the Select submenu. Choose a vector, text, paint, or group object.
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To edit objects using the context menu:
1.
When no objects are selected or in edit mode, point to the object you want to edit. If the
object is hidden behind other objects, point to its location.
2.
Choose Edit | Object Name in the context menu. Canvas places the object whose name you
choose in the Edit submenu into edit mode. Choose a vector, text, or paint object.
Selecting objects based on their properties
To select an object based on its properties:
1.
Choose Edit | Find to select objects by type and attributes.
2.
Click the Objects tab to set up selection criteria.
Find Palette Options tab
Type
Choose an object type icon in the menu. Selecting text or paint objects
makes Fill, Stroke, and Pen options unavailable.
Fill
Choose the fill ink in the menu. Only inks used in the document, plus
process colors and white, appear in the menu.
Pen
Choose the pen in the menu.
Stroke
Choose the stroke in the menu. Only strokes used in the document
appear in the menu.
Object Name
Type the name in the text box. Select Object # and type a number in the
box to select an object by its number.
SpriteLayers
Use this option to select objects that have transparency effects.
SpriteEffects
Use this option to select objects (including lenses) that have
SpriteEffects.
Lens Objects
Use this option to select objects that have been converted to lenses.
Group Level
Select a value from the menu if you wish to search in grouped objects.
Search all visible
layers
To select objects in the current layer only, uncheck this option.
Add result to
selection
Check to select additional objects without deselecting objects that are
already selected.
Use Selected Object’s
Attributes
When an object is selected, select this option to enter the object’s
properties in the Objects tab.
Grab Attributes
Click to select objects based on the current settings.
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Using selection sets
Click the arrows to expand the palette to work with selection sets, which let you broaden a search.
Selection criteria symbols make up a selection set. The current selection set is boxed. Changing
selection options updates this selection set. Click a set to make it the current selection set.
Or: Click to create an empty selection set.
Copy: Click to duplicate the current selection set.
Clear: Click to delete the current selection set. With only one set, Clear is unavailable.
Copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting objects
Once you select one or more objects, you can perform various basic editing functions. The following
are the basic editing commands in the Edit menu:
Command
Result
Copy
Copies a selection to the Clipboard
Cut
Removes a selection and places it on the Clipboard
Clear
Removes a selection without changing the Clipboard
Duplicate
Copies a selection into the same document without changing the
Clipboard
Duplicate with
Transform
Creates copies of objects that have been skewed, rotated, or offset.
Paste
Places the Clipboard contents into the active document
Paste and Place
Places the Clipboard contents into the active document with the upperleft corner at the point where you click
Copying objects to the Clipboard
The Clipboard is a part of the system that temporarily stores selected objects when you choose the
Copy or Cut command. The Clipboard stores the results of one editing action (which can include
multiple objects). Whatever is on the Clipboard is replaced by the next selection you place there,
including a selection placed by using the Cut or Copy command in another application.
You can bypass the Clipboard by using the Duplicate command to quickly copy a selected
object in the same document without replacing the Clipboard contents.
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Using the Clear command or the Delete keyboard key does not replace the contents of the
Clipboard.
When you paste objects into other programs, the Clipboard uses a format that the receiving program
understands. However, special types of objects and special object attributes can be lost when
pasting objects into other applications. If you can’t transfer an object successfully using the
Clipboard, consider using a compatible file format to import the object as a file into other programs.
Using Cut, Copy, and Paste commands
The Cut, Copy, and Paste commands let you make copies of objects using the Clipboard. Use Cut or
Copy to place objects on the Clipboard, and then choose Paste to place copies in the same document,
other open Canvas documents, and also into other programs.
You select one or more Canvas objects before choosing Cut or Copy. You can select text objects, paint
objects, vector objects, specialized objects such as dimensions, and group objects. When you
choose Cut or Copy, the selected items appear on the Clipboard.
The Cut command removes selections from the document.
The Copy command leaves selections in the document.
Using the Paste command to insert the Clipboard contents into a document does not erase the
Clipboard. You can use Paste to insert the Clipboard contents as many times as you want. The
Clipboard contents remain intact until you use the Copy or Cut command in any application to replace
the Clipboard contents with a new selection.
To paste copied objects:
1.
Select the objects that you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit | Copy. Canvas puts the selected objects on the Clipboard.
3.
If you want to paste the copied selection into another document, switch to that document.
You can switch to an open Canvas document by choosing its name at the bottom of the
Window menu.
4.
Choose Edit | Paste. Canvas pastes the Clipboard contents into the active document. Pasted
objects appear selected in the center of the document window.
Options for copying objects
The Copy Options dialog box lets you select formats when you copy objects to the Clipboard. This
command is useful when you want to copy a selection using a format that can be pasted into another
program.
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These options have no effect when you paste selections in Canvas.
You can select the program into which you want to paste objects. Canvas selects the best format for
copying the selection to the Clipboard. You can select common programs, such as Microsoft Word,
Microsoft PowerPoint, and Microsoft Excel.
To use Copy options:
1.
Select the items to copy and choose Edit | Copy Special | Copy Options.
2.
Select options in the dialog box.
3.
Click OK and Canvas will copy the selection to the Clipboard.
Copy options
Preset for
Choose a program name. This sets up the dialog box so objects will be
copied in the best format for pasting into the selected program. If the
program you want to use is not listed, use the other options to select the
format for copying objects to the Clipboard.
Copy vector object(s)
Uses the standard format to copy objects to the clipboard in Windows
(WMF). In most cases, this option is the same as using the standard
Copy command. WMF does not support transparency; transparent
Canvas objects are not rendered and will appear opaque when pasted
into other programs.
Copy as image
Copies objects to the Clipboard as images.
Resolution
Select a resolution option, or select Other and enter the desired
resolution. This option preserves transparency effects among Canvas
objects. However, most programs don’t support transparency, so
Canvas objects pasted into other programs won’t appear transparent
relative to objects in the other programs.
Anti-Alias
Softens the edges of objects copied to the Clipboard. Anti-Alias is
available when you select Copy as Image.
Copy as 96 dpi
Select this check box to copy the object at 96 dpi.
Use Settings for Copy
Command
Applies the dialog box settings to the Copy command. When you select
this option, you don’t have to choose Edit | Copy Special | Copy Options
to use the same settings again.
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Copy special commands
Several commands let you perform special operations for copying objects to the Clipboard. To view
these commands, choose Edit | Copy Special.
Copy as image
When you want to copy an object, and then paste it into a document created in another application,
use the Copy as Image command to enhance the printed appearance of the Canvas object you intend
to paste. This procedure can smooth out jagged edges and help maintain the object’s details.
To use the Copy as Image command:
1.
Select the objects you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit | Copy Special | Copy as Image.
Canvas places the selected objects on the Clipboard.
3.
Use another application’s Paste command to place the Clipboard contents into a document.
Copy at 4X, Copy at 8X
Use the Copy at 4X command or Copy at 8X command to place vector objects on the Clipboard as
objects at specific resolution levels. You might want to do this if you are pasting Canvas vector
objects into another program and the objects appear jagged when printed. This can happen when a
program prints Canvas vector objects at the low resolution of the screen display.
When copying and pasting within Canvas documents, these commands perform the same
function as the standard Copy command. Using these commands is not recommended for
copying paint objects, which are already at a specific resolution.
The Copy at 4X and Copy at 8X commands place selected objects on the Clipboard at specific
resolution levels: “4X” indicates resolution 4 times greater than screen resolution and “8X” indicates
resolution 8 times greater than screen resolution. 4X approximates the resolution of a 300 dpi
printer; 8X approximates the resolution of a 600 dpi printer. Choose the resolution level based on the
printing device you are going to use.
To copy vector objects at increased resolution:
1.
Select the objects to copy.
2.
Choose Edit | Copy Special | Copy At 4X or Edit | Copy Special | Copy at 8X.
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Canvas places the selected objects on the Clipboard.
3.
Paste the Clipboard contents into other applications.
Copying selections in objects
Besides using Cut or Copy to place entire objects on the Clipboard, use these commands to place
selected parts of Canvas objects on the Clipboard.
Cut or copy the following parts of objects:
Text selections made by highlighting text in a text object.
Image selections made by defining areas, ranges of colors, or loading alpha channels in a
paint object.
Segment selections made by selecting anchor points of vector objects in path edit mode.
Pasting selections and pasting into objects
When you paste a selection, the result depends on whether an object is in edit mode at the time:
Pasting with no object in edit mode creates a new, separate object containing the selection.
Pasting with an object in edit mode usually pastes the selection into the object.
For example, if you copy a highlighted text selection, and then choose Paste when no object is in
edit mode, you create a new text object containing only the text you selected. If you choose
Paste when a text object is in edit mode, the pasted text appears at the insertion point in the text
object. If you choose Paste when a paint object is in edit mode, the selected text appears as a
floating image selection in the paint object.
Pasting into text: You can paste text into a text object in edit mode. This lets you insert
new text cut or copied from another object, and move text from one place to another while
editing a text object.
Pasting pixels into images: You can paste an image selection into a paint object in edit
mode. The pixels that you paste become a floating selection in the paint object.
Pasting objects into images: You can paste a vector object or text into a paint object in
edit mode. Canvas converts the object into pixels pasted as a floating selection in the paint
object.
Pasting and placing objects: You can use the Paste and Place command to copy objects
and position the copies anywhere in the document. Copy the objects to be pasted. Press Ctrl
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and choose Edit | Paste and Place. You must press the modifier key to make this command
appear.
To copy an object and paste it in the same position on a different page, you can do so by
copying the object and then pressing Shift and choosing Edit | Paste.
To paste the copy:
Do one of the following:
Click to place the copy at full size.
To set the dimensions of the copy, drag to create a bounding box to contain the selection.
Transferring object attributes
Transfer attributes from one object to other objects using the Paste Attributes command.
Transferring attributes can help you maintain consistency between objects.
You can transfer attributes from a source selection — an object or text that has been copied to the
Clipboard — to a target selection, which is one or more objects selected in the document. Or, you can
retain the source selection attributes as the current attributes — those attributes that you can apply
to new objects.
Vector object
Text object
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Attributes pasted on text object
Use Paste Attributes to transfer inks and stroke settings, object dimensions, effects, and text
attributes.
Depending on the source selection and target selection, choose options listed in the Paste Attributes
dialog box.
An option is available if the attribute was copied from the source selection and can be applied to the
selected target objects. The exception to this rule is the Text Style option. The Text Style option is
available whenever the source selection is text, even if the target objects are not. In this case, no
Text Style attributes will be applied to the target selection, but the Text Style attributes will be
retained as the current attributes and can be applied to new text objects.
To paste attributes:
1.
Select an object or text whose attributes you want to transfer.
If you select multiple objects, you can only paste the dimensions of a bounding rectangle
encompassing all the objects.
If you select a group object, only attributes that apply to the entire group, including the
bounding box size and transformations applied to the group object, will be available.
If you select a text object, only the attributes common to the entire object will be
available.
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2.
Choose Edit | Copy to place the selection on the Clipboard.
3.
Select the one or more target objects to receive the attributes. If no objects are selected, the
source attributes will be retained as the current attributes and can be applied to new
objects.
4.
Choose Edit | Paste Attributes. In the Paste Attributes dialog box, select the attributes to
paste. Options that appear dimmed were not available in the source selection or cannot be
applied to the target selection.
5.
Click OK to paste the attributes.
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Paste Attributes options
Pen ink
Transfers the source selection’s pen ink. You can transfer pen inks if the
source selection is a vector object or text that has a pen ink, and the
target objects are vector or text objects.
Fill ink
Transfers the source selection’s fill ink. You can transfer fill inks if the
source selection is a vector object or text that has a fill ink, and the
target objects are vector or text objects.
Stroke
Transfers the source selection’s stroke, including pen, dash, and arrow
attributes. You can transfer strokes if the source selection is a vector
object or text that has a stroke, and the target objects are vector or text
objects.
Dimensions
Transfers the dimensions of a rectangle “bounding box” that
encompasses the source selection. You can transfer bounding box
dimensions from any source object to any selected objects, but not to
text selected within a text object. This makes all target objects the same
size as the source.
If the source object has been rotated or skewed, you can transfer its
original dimensions by selecting Dimensions. To transfer its
transformed dimensions, select Transform.
Transform
Transfers rotation and skewing applied to the source selection’s
bounding box. You can transfer these effects to any selected objects.
Transparency
Transfers the transparency effects applied to the source selection.
Text Style
Transfers certain text attributes from a text source selection to a text
target selection: font, type size, text style (bold, italic, and so on),
leading, kerning, and justification. You can transfer text attributes when
a particular attribute is uniform in the source selection; e.g., if different
kerning values are applied to characters in the source text, kerning will
not be available for transfer to the target text.
SpriteEffects
Transfers filters and adjustments that have been applied with the
SpriteEffects palette from the source to the target objects.
Making multiple copies
Use the Copy and Paste commands to make multiple copies of selected objects through the Clipboard.
If you want more control over placement, number of copies, scaling or rotation, use the Duplicate and
Replicate commands to make multiple copies.
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With a selection on the Clipboard, choose Paste to insert the selection in the center of the
active document’s current view. Repeat the Paste command to make multiple copies.
The Duplicate command copies selections immediately and lets you space copies evenly. The
Replicate command lets you scale, rotate, and offset multiple copies.
Duplicating selections
The Duplicate command quickly copies selected objects into the same document, without affecting
the contents of the Clipboard.
The Duplicate command offsets copies a preset distance horizontally and vertically from the original.
You can move the copy (without deselecting it) to adjust the offset distance and direction and then
repeat the Duplicate command to make more evenly-spaced copies.
You can change the Duplicate command’s preset offset values (see "Setting preferences" on page
97).
To duplicate and space copies evenly:
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1.
Select one or more vector, text, paint, or group objects to copy.
2.
Choose Edit | Duplicate. Canvas duplicates the selection and offsets the copy a preset
distance from the original.
3.
The copy must remain selected as you drag it or use the keyboard arrow keys to move it into
position. The new position establishes the offset distance and direction from the original
selection.
4.
Choose Edit | Duplicate again. Canvas creates the next copy using the offset defined from the
original selection to the first copy. Repeat this step to create additional evenly-spaced copies.
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Canvas offsets and stacks duplicates, placing
the newest copy in front of the stack.
Duplicated objects are offset a preset
amount (gray circles). By moving the first
copy and repeating Duplicate, you can set a
custom offset distance and direction (light
gray circles).
To duplicate selected objects with modifier key:
You can duplicate an object by pressing a modifier key as you drag the object. When an object is
selected, press a modifier key to duplicate and resize it as you drag a handle. In Freeform mode, you
can press a modifier key to duplicate while rotating or skewing an object.
1.
Select the objects you want to duplicate.
2.
Press Ctrl as you drag the objects.
To make multiple copies while dragging:
Select the objects you want to duplicate. Press Ctrl+Alt as you drag the objects.
To duplicate while resizing:
1.
Select an object to duplicate.
2.
Begin to drag a handle on the object’s bounding box to the size you want the duplicate to be.
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3.
As you drag, press and hold Ctrl. When you release the mouse button and the modifier key,
the duplicate object appears in front of the original.
To duplicate while rotating or skewing:
1.
Select an object and choose Effects | Freeform to put the object in Freeform mode.
2.
Point to a handle and press Ctrl as you drag the handle.
To rotate the object: Drag one of the four corner handles.
To skew the object horizontally: Drag a horizontal skew handle to the left or right.
To skew vertically: Drag a vertical skew handle up or down.
The duplicated object rotates or skews depending on which handle you drag. You cannot rotate and
skew the object at the same time. When you release the mouse, the duplicate is in front of the
original.
Duplicate with Transform
You can now create duplicates of objects that have been skewed, rotated, or offset.
1.
Select the original object.
2.
Duplicate the object.
3.
Select the duplicate and apply a transformation, such as rotation, to the duplicate object.
4.
Choose Edit | Duplicate with Transform.
The duplicate object is then duplicated as well as transformed.
Remember that each time you choose Edit | Duplicate with Transform, the duplicate object is
duplicated and transformed once again; e.g., duplicate an object and then rotate the duplicate by
20°. Choose Duplicate with Transform and the new duplicate is transformed by another 20°.
The multigon on the left was duplicated and then
rotated 20°. Each time Duplicate with Transform
was applied, the resulting duplicate would
rotate an additional 20°. The final duplicate had
a rotation of 200°.
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To create multiple duplicates:
After you duplicate an object using a modifier key, make more copies with the same offset distance,
angle of rotation, or skew factor.
1.
Select the duplicated object.
2.
Choose Edit | Duplicate. Canvas creates another duplicate and applies the same offset
distance, angle of rotation, or skew factor.
Scaling, rotating, and offsetting copies
The Replicate command offers powerful capabilities for duplicating objects. Use the Replicate dialog
box to set the number of copies and to rotate, scale, and position copies with one command.
To replicate a selection:
1.
Select one or more objects to copy and choose Edit | Replicate.
2.
In the Replicate dialog box, specify the number of copies. Enter the scaling, rotation, and
offset values you want to apply. For information on these settings, see "Replicate options" on
page 176.
To preview the replication: Click Apply. Canvas draws the copies and the dialog box
stays open. You can change settings and click Apply to preview the new settings.
To cancel the replication: Click Cancel. Canvas closes the Replicate dialog box and
erases preview copies.
3.
Click OK to copy the selection and close the Replicate dialog box. The original object is
deselected and the copies are selected.
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Replicate options
Copies
Enter the number of objects you want to create.
Rotate
To rotate each copy relative to the preceding object, select Rotate. Type
the rotation amount from (minus) -359.0 to 359.0 degrees. The center
of rotation is shown in the “Around” box by a hollow handle; click to
select another handle as the rotation center.
Scale by
To incrementally change the size of each copy, select Scale by. In the
pop-up menu, choose Percentage, Length, or Ratio. In the text boxes,
enter horizontal and vertical scaling factors.
Percentage scales each copy by the specified percentages of the
proceeding object’s dimensions. Enter whole numbers from 1% to
999%.
Ratio lets you resize copies by fractional amounts. Canvas scales each
copy to ratios of the previous object’s horizontal and vertical
dimensions.
Type ratios with whole numbers from 1 to 999. The left number
represents the copy; the right number represents the previous object. A
1/1 ratio maintains dimensions; 1/2 halves dimensions; 2/1 doubles
dimensions.
Length increases or decreases by a fixed amount each copy of the object
using the values in the horizontal and vertical text boxes.
Proportional
If selected, Canvas makes the vertical value in the Scale by or Offset area
equal to the horizontal value.
Offset
Check this option to place copies a specified distance from the previous
object. In the text boxes, enter the horizontal and vertical offset
distance. Positive numbers offset copies up and right; negative numbers
offset objects down and left.
Object data
Displays the selection’s height and width. These values can’t be edited.
To replicate and position objects:
You can replicate objects and then strategically position them according to specified X/Y
coordinates.
To replicate and position an object:
Select an object and then choose Edit | Replicate and Position.
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Replicating and positioning options
Coordinate space
The Length radio button must be selected to position objects according
to X/Y coordinates. To enable the Angular radio button, you must first
configure your world with the GIS palette (see GIS palette).
Bounding box icon
Canvas performs the positioning according to the selected handle. By
default, the center handle is selected. Select another handle, if
necessary.
Coordinate table
Enter the X/Y coordinates in the appropriate fields. The # column lists
the replicates in sequence.
Position original
object
If selected, the coordinates for the first replicate correspond to the
original object; i.e., the original object will move to the coordinates
entered for replicate #1.
Menu icon
Click to access the Paste and Load commands.
Paste: Paste points that have been copied to the Clipboard.
Load: Open .txt, .csv (comma delimited), and .prn (space delimited)
files that contain points.
Grouping and ungrouping objects
Use the Group command to unite objects that you want to keep together as one unit. You can group
individual objects as well as already-grouped objects. When you no longer want to keep a group
together, separate the original objects with the Ungroup command.
When you apply a command to a group object, the effect in most cases is the same as if you applied
the command to each object in the group individually.
To group objects:
1.
Select the objects that you want to group.
2.
Do one of the following:
Choose Object | Group.
In the Properties bar, click the Group button.
Canvas replaces the bounding boxes of the individual objects with a single bounding box.
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After you group objects, you can select individual objects in the group with the Direct
Selection tool.
To ungroup objects:
1.
Select one or more grouped objects that you want to separate.
2.
Do one of the following:
Choose Object | Ungroup.
In the Properties bar, click the Ungroup button.
Canvas separates the group and leaves the individual objects selected. If any of these
objects are group objects, you can ungroup them by choosing Object | Ungroup again.
Grouping and stacking order
Grouping objects can change the stacking order of the objects relative to objects outside the group;
e.g., you have three overlapping objects. If you group the front and back objects, the group moves to
the back and the middle (not grouped) object becomes the front-most object.
The square is behind the triangle, which is behind the circle in the
stacking order
After selecting the square and circle and grouping them, the group goes
behind the triangle in the stacking order
Moving objects
Move objects by dragging them, using the Properties bar, or using the keyboard arrow keys. You can
also use the Move command to specify a position change, and the Object Specs palette to specify
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exact coordinates.
When you drag an object, the Properties bar and Status bar shows the change in the object’s X/Y
position.
Make precise positioning easier by turning on the autogrid so that objects you drag snap to preset
ruler increments. You can also place alignment guides that objects will snap to in a document.
To move an object using the Selection tool:
Position the pointer on the object and drag. If you drag as soon as you press the mouse, an outline
of the object follows the pointer. To see the entire object as you drag, pause after you press the
mouse button, and then drag.
Press modifier keys as you drag objects to constrain movements and perform other functions.
To
Do this
Constrain movement to 45° increments
Press Shift while dragging
Copy objects by dragging
Press Alt while dragging
Leave a trail of object copies
Press Ctrl + Alt while dragging
To move objects using the arrow keys:
To move objects left, right, up, or down, press the corresponding arrow key. Use the modifier
keys shown in the following table to move greater distances.
You can change the default distances that keyboard keys move objects (see "Setting
preferences" on page 97 ).
To move objects
Do this
1 pixel to the left, right, up or down
Press an arrow key
10 pixels to the left, right, up or down
Press Alt and an arrow key
50 pixels to the left, right, up or down
Press Ctrl and an arrow key
To move objects a specified distance:
Use the Move command to specify distance and direction.
You can specify angular movement in 0.01° increments.
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1.
Select the objects and then choose Object | Move.
2.
In the Move dialog box, enter values to move the object horizontally or vertically, or to change
the angle. Use negative numbers to move up and to the left. Use positive numbers to move
down and to the right.
3.
Click Apply to preview or OK to implement the Move settings.
Arranging objects in the stacking order
Each object in a Canvas document is part of a stack of objects on the same layer. Each object has a
position in the stack. Unless you rearrange objects, the newest object, created or pasted, is in front
of the stack and the oldest object in the back.
Stacking order affects the appearance of objects when you view and print them. Like actual objects
placed in a stack, the front object in the stack blocks objects behind it. An object’s position in the
stack also is a factor in alignment and combining operations.
Commands in the Object | Arrange menu let you change an object’s position in the stack. Move
objects to the front or back, and move objects one level at a time toward the front or back of the
stack.
To change an object’s position in the stack:
Select the object and choose a command in the Object | Arrange menu.
Command
Result
Bring to Front
Moves selected objects to the front of the stack
Send to Back
Moves selected objects to the back of the stack
Shuffle Up
Moves selected objects one step toward the front
Shuffle Down
Moves selected objects one step toward the back
Arranging objects on layers and pages
Commands in the Object | Arrange menu let you move and copy selected objects to other layers on
the same page and to layers on other pages.
The destination layer for the objects cannot be locked.
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To send or copy objects to another location:
1.
Select the objects, and then do one of the following:
Choose Object | Arrange | Send to Layers to move objects to new locations.
Choose Object | Arrange | Copy to Layers to copy objects to new locations.
2.
In the Layer Select dialog box, click one or more layers to designate them as the destination
for the selected objects.
3.
Click Select. Canvas copies or moves the selected objects to the destination layer or layers.
Locking and unlocking objects
When you want to secure objects from unintentional changes, you can lock them. Once an object is
locked, it can only be selected by Tab-clicking the object. However, if the “Canvas 6-style object
locking” option in the Configuration Center is selected, you can select locked objects by clicking on
them. Locked objects can be copied, but the copies won’t be locked.
To lock or unlock objects:
1.
Select the objects that you want to lock or unlock.
2.
Choose Object | Lock or Object | Unlock (Unlock All, if no objects are selected).
How commands affect locked objects
If you apply the Align command to several selected objects, and one object is locked, the other
objects align to the locked object.
If you group several objects and one of the objects is locked, all the objects are positioned behind the
locked object in the stacking order.
Aligning and distributing objects
In Canvas you can quickly and easily align or distribute selected objects from the Align menu, the
Properties bar, or the Align palette.
To open the Align palette:
Choose Window | Palettes | Align.
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To align or distribute objects:
1.
Select two or more objects.
2.
Do one of the following:
Choose Object | Align, and select an alignment option.
In the Properties bar, select an alignment option.
In the Align palette, select an alignment or distribution option, then click Apply.
You can apply alignment and distribution options to vector objects, group objects, paint objects, and
text objects. You can align and distribute objects in separate or combined operations. As the
reference point for alignment and distribution, you can choose points on the objects or the
document.
Aligning objects: When aligning objects, Canvas lines up key points on the objects in
relation to the key object. Choose left, right, top, bottom, or center alignment.
Distributing objects: When distributing objects, Canvas spreads them out over a specified
area and equalizes the space between the key points. Choose inside, top, center, bottom, and
outside as methods for distribution; e.g., if you choose left edges for distribution, the leftmost point in each object is an equal distance from the leftmost point in each of its
neighbors.
If one of the objects you select for alignment is locked, other objects align relative to it. When
distributing objects, Canvas may place all objects relative to the option selected in the Distribute to
menu.
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Align palette
Vertical
Align:
None
Top
Center
Bottom
Edge to Edge (Top to Bottom)
Edge to Edge (Bottom to Top)
Distribute:
Inside
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Top
Center
Bottom
Outside
Horizontal
Align:
Left
Center
Right
Edge to Edge (Top to Bottom)
Edge to Edge (Bottom to Top)
Distribute:
Inside
Top
Center
Bottom
Outside
Selection Rectangle
Select this option to ignore the stroke of the objects when aligning or
distributing objects. Deselect the option to use the outside edge of
objects’ strokes.
Arrange Z-Order
This option is most applicable to distribution. When you select Arrange
Z-Order, the command Arrange | Bring to Front is performed on each
object. In the end, the objects are stacked on top of each other in the
same order in which they were distributed. Results are most notable
when the operation results in overlapping objects). Only available when
either horizontal or vertical alignment/distribution is selected. Both
cannot be selected. Horizontal and vertical sorting may differ and the
result of rearranging would then not be clearly defined.
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Align to
Choose a reference for alignment:
Key Selection Object: Aligns all the objects in relation to the key
selection object. Key selection object does not move.
Grid: Aligns all objects to the grid. If no grid is defined, the objects
don’t move. The key selection object has no effect.
Printable Area: Aligns all objects with the edge of printable area.
If no printable area is defined, the entire document is selected.
Document: To a specified location in the document. If you center
an object in a multi-page illustration, portions can appear on
multiple tiles.
Distribute to
Choose a reference for distribution:
Selection Bounds: Distributes all the objects over the area
defined by current selection bounds. Key selection object may
move.
Printable Area: Distributes all objects with the edge of printable
area. If no printable area is defined, the entire document is
selected.
Document: Distributes all objects over the entire area of the
document. Key selection object may move.
Fixed Amount: Distributes all objects over a fixed distance. Key
selection object doesn’t move and remaining objects are positioned
accordingly within that distance. Enter the amount in the Horizontal
and Vertical fields below the Distribute to menu.
Spacing: Distributes all objects so the distance between each
object is the amount indicated in the Vertical and Horizontal fields
below the Distribute to menu. The key selection object doesn’t
move and the remaining objects are positioned accordingly. The
amount of spacing may be a negative number.
When applying either horizontal or vertical edge-to-edge alignment, the order of the aligned
objects depends on the order in which the objects were created; i.e., the object furthest to
the left or at the very top in an edge-to-edge alignment was created first. Both Edge to Edge
options have the same effect. They align all the remaining objects edge to edge with the key
selection object.
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Rotating, skewing, and flipping objects
You can rotate Canvas objects clockwise or counter-clockwise, flip them on one or both axes, and
skew their bounding boxes. Rotate and skew around an object’s center, or move the centerpoint to
any location.
When you rotate an object, the object’s bounding box also rotates. If you drag a selection handle of a
rotated object, the bounding box changes shape in the rotated orientation, so you can resize an
object without distorting its basic shape.
To remove effects:
After you rotate, skew, or flip objects, you can return them to their original orientation and shape.
Select the objects and choose Effects | Remove Effects.
To return the rotated bounding box to its original orientation:
Choose Path | Convert To Paths.
Rotating and skewing in freeform mode
When you put an object in freeform mode, you can rotate and skew it by dragging special handles.
To put an object in freeform mode:
Select the object and choose Effects | Freeform. Rotation and skewing handles and the object’s
centerpoint appear.
You can also put a selected object in freeform mode by clicking it. This depends on a setting in the
Configuration Center (see "Setting preferences" on page 97).
To end freeform mode:
Click away from the object, or press Esc.
Rotating objects in freeform mode
In freeform mode, the circular handles at each corner of the bounding box are rotation handles. The
circle and crosshair in the center of the object is the point around which the object rotates.
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To rotate an object in freeform mode:
Drag one of the four corner handles. An outline of the object rotates as you drag a handle.
To set the center of rotation:
Drag the centerpoint to a new location anywhere on the screen. To make the centerpoint snap to
one of the handles or the center, press Shift as you drag.
Rotating objects
If you prefer to rotate objects a specified amount, use the following commands from the Effects
menu:
Rotate Right: Choose 90, 45, or 30°, or Other to open the Rotate dialog box and specify
rotation options.
Rotate Left: Choose 90, 45, or 30°, or Other to open the Rotate dialog box and specify
rotation options.
Horizontalize: The Horizontalize command rotates a selected object along a defined
horizontal line. This command is useful when trying to straighten image objects.
Rotate options
Direction
Click the Clockwise or Anticlockwise button to set the direction of
rotation.
Center
Set the center of rotation. By default the center of the object is selected.
Angle
Set the angle of rotation.
Hard rotate for image
Choose this option to render and rotate the background area of the
image.
Anti-alias image
Select this option to have a smoother, better quality image.
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To apply the Horizontalize command:
1.
Select the object.
2.
Choose Effects | Horizontalize. The cursor changes to a crosshair.
3.
Click the crosshair to establish the start point of the horizontal line.
4.
Click the crosshair again to indicate the end point of the horizontal line.
5.
In the Rotate dialog box, select a handle in the bounding box icon to define the center of
rotation.
6.
Enter the direction and angle of rotation.
7.
Click Apply to see the effect and then OK to close the dialog box.
Skewing objects in freeform mode
When an object is in freeform mode, slant its shape by dragging the horizontal and vertical skew
handles. Skewing an object reshapes it by changing the relationship of the horizontal and vertical
axes to the skew centerpoint.
Canvas skews objects around a centerpoint that you can position to achieve the desired effect. Drag
the centerpoint to any position inside or outside the object. The location of the skew centerpoint
changes the effect of dragging a skew handle on the object.
You can also skew objects by clicking the Skew button in the Properties bar. Select a skew
option, then enter a degree value in the field, and press Enter.
To position the centerpoint on one of the freeform handles or in the center of the object, Shift-drag
the centerpoint to place it.
To skew an object horizontally:
Drag a horizontal skew handle to the left or right.
To skew vertically:
Drag a vertical skew handle up or down.
Transformed dimensions vs. untransformed dimensions
If you plan on transforming objects, you have the option of maintaining the object’s original
dimensions or allowing the object’s dimensions to be altered after the transformation.
Click on the Transform icon in the Properties bar and select either Transformed Dimensions or
Untransformed Dimensions.
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If you select Transformed Dimensions, the object’s original dimensions will be retained after being
transformed.
If, however, you select Untransformed Dimensions, the object’s dimensions will change when the
transformation is applied.
In the example above, a 2” x 1” rectangle is horizontally skewed by 20°.
When Transformed Dimensions is applied, the rectangle maintains its original width when
horizontally skewed.
When Untransformed Dimensions is used, the rectangle’s width changes.
Freeform editing of floating image selections
Use the Freeform command to place floating image selections in freeform edit mode. When you put an
image selection in freeform mode, rotate and skew it by dragging special handles.
To float a copy of a selection:
1.
With a paint object in edit mode, make a selection with the Marquee or Lasso tool. The
selection can encompass the entire paint object.
2.
Do one of the following:
Choose Image | Select | Float.
Ctrl-drag the selection. This moves the selection and puts it in freeform mode.
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You can also paste an object into an image in edit mode. The object pastes into the image as a
floating selection.
For more information on image selections, see "Working with image selections" on page 493.
To put a floating image selection in freeform mode:
While a floating image selection is active, choose Effects | Freeform. Handles appear on the
corners and sides of the floating selection.
To move a selection in freeform mode:
Place the pointer inside of the selection. The pointer becomes an arrow head. Drag to move an
outline of the selection.
Rotating selections in freeform mode
In freeform mode, while the pointer is outside of the selection, the pointer is a curved line with an
arrow at both ends. This is the rotation pointer.
Drag around the selection in the direction you want it to rotate. An outline of the selection rotates as
you drag.
Press the Shift key to constrain the rotation to 15° increments.
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Rotation pointer
Scale pointer
Scaling selections in freeform mode
You can scale a floating selection in freeform mode by dragging the corner or side handles.
To scale a selection:
Point to one of the handles at the edges of the selection. The pointer changes to a straight line
with an arrow at each end. Drag any of the handles. The selection scales as you drag.
If you drag a side handle, the scaling is constrained to the direction of the arrows in the
pointer – the direction perpendicular to the handle side.
If you drag a corner handle, the scaling is unconstrained unless you press the Shift key.
Press the Alt key to mirror the scale on the opposite side of the selection.
Skewing selections in freeform mode
When a selection is in freeform mode, you can slant its shape by dragging the side handles with the
Ctrl key pressed. Skewing a selection reshapes it by changing the relationship of the sides of the
selection.
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Skew outline and Skew pointer
To skew a selection:
Press the Ctrl key and move the pointer over one of the side handles. The pointer changes to an
arrow head. Drag the handle to skew the selection freely.
Press the Shift key to constrain the skew along the axis of the handle side.
Press Alt to have the opposite side of the selection skew to maintain its relationship to the
side you are skewing around the center of the selection.
The modifier keys can be combined to produce both skewing effects simultaneously.
To end freeform editing:
Double-click inside the selection or press Enter twice. The floating selection is still active. Then
double-click outside the paint object or press Enter twice to paste the pixels as defined by the
floating selection into the image.
If you do not want to change your original image, press Esc to leave freeform mode. Canvas makes no
changes to the image.
Rotating objects with the Rotate command
For precise rotations, use the Rotate command to rotate selected objects in 0.01° increments around
a specified center of rotation. This command is useful if you need to rotate multiple objects an exact
amount.
You can also rotate objects by clicking the Rotate button in the Properties bar. Select a rotate
option, then enter a degree value in the field, and press Enter.
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To rotate objects:
1.
Select the object you want to rotate.
2.
Choose Effects | Rotate Right/Left | Other to open the Rotate dialog box.
3.
In the Rotate dialog box, click the clockwise or counter-clockwise button to choose a rotation
direction.
4.
Enter the rotation angle in degrees in the Angle text box.
5.
The Center edit box shows the center of rotation as a gray handle. To change it, click one of
the black handles on the bounding box; the gray handle snaps to the new location.
6.
Click Apply to preview the settings, or click OK to implement the settings and close the dialog
box.
Editing rotated objects
When you rotate an object, the object’s bounding box also rotates, so you can reshape and resize the
object in rotated space. If you drag a handle, the object’s sides keep their rotated orientation. This
prevents distortion of the original shape.
Rotated bounding box
The bounding box of a rotated square has the same orientation as
the rotated object so the object maintains its rectangular shape,
shown by the dotted lines, when you drag the bounding box
handles.
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Unrotated bounding box
If you choose Convert to Paths, Canvas re-orients the bounding box
of a rotated object so the object’s rectangular shape distorts when
you drag a handle on the bounding box, as shown by the dotted
lines.
Flipping objects
Flip objects horizontally, vertically, and both horizontally and vertically, with the Flip commands. You
can flip individual objects, multiple selected objects, or grouped objects. When you flip a group
object, objects included in the group flip around the axes of the group’s bounding box.
To flip a selected object from top to bottom:
Choose Effects | Flip | Vertical. The Vertical command flips the selection’s vertical coordinates
over its horizontal axis.
To flip a selected object from left to right:
Choose Effects | Flip | Horizontal. The Horizontal command flips the selection’s horizontal
coordinates over its vertical axis.
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To flip a selection around both axes:
Choose Effects | Flip | Both Axes. Canvas flips the selection’s horizontal coordinates over its
vertical axis and its vertical coordinates over its horizontal axis.
Scaling objects
The Scale command provides several options for enlarging or reducing objects. Scale by a
percentage or ratio, horizontally and vertically. You can also scale text and stroke weights when you
scale objects.
To scale an object:
1.
Select one or more objects.
2.
Choose Object | Scale to open the Scale dialog box.
3.
Select the Scale options.
4.
Do one of the following:
Click Apply. The object is scaled, but the dialog box remains open. If you want to change
the options you can do so and click Apply again, or you can click Cancel to discard the
changes and close the dialog box.
Click OK. The object is scaled, and the dialog box is closed.
You can also scale an entire document when you print it, without changing the objects
in the document, by specifying a scaling factor in the Print dialog box.
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Scale options
Scale by
Select a method to scale by:
Percentage: Specify vertical and horizontal percentages. Scaling an
object 150% is the same as increasing the object’s size by a factor of
1.5.
Ratio: Specify horizontal and vertical scaling factors as ratios by
entering numbers in each set of two boxes; e.g., to scale an object to
one-third its original height, enter “1” in the first text box, and “3” in
the second.
Proportional
Select this check box to scale an object vertically and horizontally by the
same amount.
Keep As Group
Select this check box to retain the spacing between the selected items
when they are scaled.
Scaling
Enter the percentage of horizontal and vertical scaling.
Scale Pen
Select this check box to maintain the proportion between an object’s pen
size and the overall size of the object.
Scale Text
If one of the selected objects contains text, select Scale Text to change the
size of the characters. Otherwise, text remains the same size.
Scaling objects by Area/Perimeter
The Scale by Area/Perimeter command lets you scale simple path objects by area or perimeter.
To scale an object:
1.
Select a simple path object.
2.
Do one of the following:
Choose Object | Scale By Area/Perimeter.
Click the Scale By Area/Perimeter icon in the Properties bar.
3.
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4.
Do one of the following:
Click Apply. The object is scaled, but the dialog box remains open. If you want to change
the options you can do so and click Apply again, or you can click Cancel to discard the
changes and close the dialog box.
Click OK. The object is scaled, and the dialog box is closed.
You can also scale an entire document when you print it, without changing the objects
in the document, by specifying a scaling factor in the Print dialog box.
Scale By Area/Perimeter options
Scale by
Select a method to scale by:
Percentage: Specify a percentage for scaling. Scaling an object
150% is the same as increasing the object’s size by a factor of 1.5.
Absolute: Specify an absolute value for scaling.
Origin
Set the origin of scaling. By default the origin is the center of the object.
Area
Scales the object by its area.
Perimeter
Scales the object by its perimeter.
Scaling
Enter the percentage of scaling or an absolute value. If you choose to scale
by absolute value, you can select the unit of measure.
Scale Pen
Select this check box to maintain the proportion between an object’s pen
size and the overall size of the object.
Using the Object Specs palette
The Object Specs palette provides several important features for working with objects. It displays
data for selected objects and lets you modify settings for selected objects.
The Object Specs palette contains the following tabs:
Data: Create objects, and edit the size, position, and other data for a selected object.
Trap: Set printing options, including overprinting and trapping for color separations.
To display the Object Specs palette:
Choose Object | Object Specs. Change coordinates, dimensions, or other settings, and then click
Apply to implement them.
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To edit an object:
Click on the Data tab to view and edit data for selected objects. The Data tab displays information
for a selected object or group object. If you select a group object, you can change the group’s
size and coordinates, but not an individual object within the group.
When more than one object is selected, the boxes on the Data tab are not available. You
can’t edit the position or dimensions of multiple selected objects.
1.
On the Data tab, choose an object type from the Object Type drop-down.
2.
Enter values for the object’s size and position in the text boxes. The type of data you can
enter depends on the object type.
3.
Click Apply.
Data tab settings
This tab includes object size and position data and related options. Additional options are shown for
text objects. The text options let you change the shape of a text object or change the way text wraps
in its bounding box.
Object type
For a selected object, shows the object type, usually an icon of the tool
that created the object. To modify an object, select oval, rectangle, arc,
line, or polygon.
Data type
Select the type of data to display (see "Data display options" on page
199).
When an object is selected, change the values in the text boxes to resize
or reposition the selected object. If Keep Proportions is checked, Canvas
maintains the proportion of the object if you change either the height or
width.
Position data
The type of data that appears in the boxes, and their labels, depends on
the selected data display option (see "Position data" on page 200).
Area
Shown when Canvas can calculate the area occupied by a selected
object’s bounding box. When you select text, the horizontal insets text
box replaces the Area text box.
Perimeter
Shown when Canvas can calculate the perimeter, or distance around, a
selected object’s bounding box. When you select text, the vertical insets
text box replaces the Perim text box.
Object #
The object number assigned by Canvas.
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Name
Type a name for the object.
Keep Proportions
Select this option to keep an object’s height and width proportional when
you are editing the object’s dimensions.
Apply
Click to apply the current settings. The Apply button changes to Create
when no object is selected and you choose an object type to create.
Text object settings
Insets
Change the proportions of a text object’s background. Type values, in
pixels, in the text boxes to specify the horizontal and vertical size of the
text object’s background.
Object shape
Change the shape of the text object’s background to a rectangle, round
rectangle, oval, or diamond.
Caption
Select or deselect to change the way text wraps in its bounding box. Text
that is not captioned wraps to the next line based on the boundaries of
the text’s bounding box.
You can’t use the Caption or Insets options with text that you created
using the Path Text tool, or text that you converted to paths.
Data display options
Choose the data to display. Select Height/Width or Top/Bottom for all objects except lines. For lines,
select Start/End, Delta V/H, or Length/Angle.
Height/Width: Type values in the text boxes to specify the vertical and horizontal
dimensions of the object.
Top/Bottom: Type values in the text boxes to specify the position of the top, bottom, left,
and right edges of the object, relative to the document rulers.
Start/End: Type values in the text boxes to specify the position of the first and last
endpoints of a line.
Delta V/H: Type values in the text boxes to specify the position of the first endpoint, and
the distance from the first endpoint to the last endpoint of the line.
Length/Angle: Type values in the text boxes to specify the position of the first endpoint,
and the length and angle of the line.
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Position data
The type of data that is displayed depends on whether you choose Height/Width or Top/Bottom,
Start/End, Delta V/H, or Length/Angle.
Left: Type the horizontal distance from the ruler’s zero point to the left edge of the object.
Top: Type the vertical distance from the ruler’s zero point to the top edge of the object.
Height: Type the height of the object, relative to the top edge of the object.
Width: Type the width of the object, relative to the left edge of the object.
Bottom: Type the vertical distance from ruler’s zero point to the bottom edge of the object.
Right: Type the horizontal distance from the ruler’s zero point to the right edge of the
object.
St V: Type a value to position the first endpoint of a line, relative to the vertical ruler’s zero
point.
St H: Type a value to position the first endpoint of a line, relative to the horizontal ruler’s
zero point.
End V: Type a value to position the last endpoint of a line, relative to the vertical ruler’s zero
point.
End H: Type a value to position the last endpoint of a line, relative to the horizontal ruler’s
zero point.
Delta V: Type a value to position the last endpoint of a line, relative (vertically) to the first
endpoint of the line.
Delta H: Type a value to position the last endpoint of a line, relative (horizontally) to the first
endpoint of the line.
Length: Type a value to specify the length of a line.
Angle: Type a value to specify the angle of a line.
X: Type a value to position a handle of a polygon, relative to the horizontal ruler’s zero point.
Y: Type a value to position a handle of a polygon, relative to the vertical ruler’s zero point.
Start: Type a value to specify the starting point of an arc in degrees.
Delta: Type a value to specify the length of an arc segment in degrees.
Diag: Type a value to specify the roundness of the corners of a rounded rectangle.
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Setting print properties for objects
Click on the Trap tab of the Object Specs palette to view the overprinting and trapping options for
color separations. Click Apply to apply the settings to selected objects.
Overprinting in color separations
When you output color separations in Canvas, you can specify that an object should overprint, rather
than knock out, objects behind it.
In color separations designed for commercial printing, a front object usually knocks out a hole where
it overlaps other objects; however, you can apply the Overprint Object option to an object to prevent
it from creating knockouts in objects behind it. This can compensate for registration problems on
some printing presses.
For example, if you draw a cyan circle on a yellow background, Canvas knocks the circle out of the
background in color separations so cyan and yellow don’t mix in the circle. If you select the circle and
use the Overprint Object option, the circle prints over a solid yellow background, and the cyan in the
circle mixes with the background yellow, resulting in a green circle.
The effect of the Overprint Object option is not visible on screen. This effect is visible only in the
printed output when you produce color separations. Verify the settings for a particular object by
viewing the Trap tab in the Object Specs palette and then selecting the object.
Color mixing as described previously is not the primary reason for overprinting. It’s more common for
designers to overprint dark objects on lighter backgrounds as a way to prevent a gap from appearing
between the colors if the press registration (alignment) isn’t perfect.
To specify overprinting for objects:
1.
Select the vector or text objects to be overprinted.
2.
Select the Overprint Object check box on the Trap tab.
3.
Click Apply. The appearance of the selected objects does not change on screen, but the
objects will be overprinted in color separations.
To remove overprinting:
Select the objects and deselect the Overprint Object check box. Then click Apply.
Trapping in color separations
When objects of different colors touch, there is the potential for an unsightly gap to appear between
the colors if the piece isn’t printed precisely aligned, or in register.
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Choke trapping reduces the background knockout slightly
to trap into a dark foreground object.
Spread trapping enlarges the stroke of a foreground object
slightly to trap into a dark background object.
Trapping is a technique that purposely distorts the shapes of objects in color separations where
different colors meet. The slight distortion creates tiny areas called traps where colors overlap. The
trap areas can help avoid the appearance of gaps if the page is printed slightly out of register.
Before you use trapping in color separations, determine how likely it is that the piece will not be
printed in register. Consider how beneficial it will be to distort the shape of some objects to
compensate for possible misregistration; e.g., trapping type can ruin the appearance of the text, and
probably isn’t necessary.
Trapping choices
Canvas lets you specify two types of trapping, Choke and Spread.
Choke trapping: Used to make light background colors trap to dark foreground objects.
Canvas creates a choke trap by slightly reducing, (“choking”) the knockout area in the light
background object; e.g., if a dark blue “A” is printed on a pale yellow background with choke
trapping applied to the “A,” the “A” remains exactly the same, but the knockout area in the
yellow background becomes a slightly smaller “A” shape. The result is that some of the
yellow overlaps the edges of the dark blue “A.”
Spread trapping: Used to make light foreground objects trap into dark backgrounds. The
trap is created by slightly enlarging the foreground object without changing the knockout in
the background color; e.g., if a light circle is printed on a dark background with spread
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trapping applied to the circle, the circle expands slightly to overlap, or trap into, the circle
knockout in the dark background.
Trapping limitations
Whenever possible, design illustrations to avoid certain trapping problems, and always discuss
trapping with your service bureau and printer to avoid unnecessary expense and inferior results.
In Canvas, trapping is best applied to vector objects that use a solid pen stroke and solid pen ink
color. The following limitations apply to trapping:
Canvas will not create a choke trap for text.
Canvas will not create a choke trap for a vector object that has no stroke or has a stroke that
is not a solid pen stroke.
Canvas will not create a choke trap for an object that has a gradient pen ink.
Canvas will not create a spread trap for a paint object.
To specify trapping for objects:
1.
Select the object you want to trap. In most cases, this will be a foreground object that
touches a highly contrasting color.
2.
Click the Trap tab.
3.
Select the Trap Object check box, and then click the Choke or Spread radio button (see
"Trapping choices" on page 202).
4.
Click Apply to set the trapping option for the selected object. No change is apparent in the
object on screen, because the trap is created only when you print color separations.
To apply trapping to selected text:
You can apply trapping options to text that you select within a text object using the Overprint and
Spread options in the Text | Style menu.
To adjust the trap size:
Before printing color separations, specify the trap size. Select the Separations options in the Print
dialog box to change the trap size value.
Creating attribute styles
Illustrators and designers may often find themselves applying the same attributes to various vector
objects within a layout. An attribute style is a set of attributes that you save and then apply to other
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objects. These styles help you maintain consistency and facilitate applying attributes.
If you want to use the same attributes for all vector objects, see "Setting default attributes" on page
205.
Attribute Styles palette
With the Attribute Styles palette, you can create attribute styles and edit saved attribute styles and
then reapply them to objects, rather than editing each individual attribute. You can even share
attribute styles with others.
To open the Attribute Styles palette:
Choose Window | Palettes | Attribute Styles.
To create an attribute style:
1.
Open the Attribute Styles palette.
2.
Select an object on which you want to base a style.
3.
Click the Create button.
4.
In the Define Style dialog box, enter a name for the style.
5.
Select all the attributes that will be included in the style.
6.
Click OK to save the style.
To apply an attribute style:
1.
Open the Attribute Styles palette.
2.
Select the vector object to which you wish to apply the style.
3.
Click on the style name in the palette to apply it.
To save attribute styles:
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1.
Open the palette menu and select Save Styles.
2.
Enter a name for the file.
3.
Select a folder.
4.
Click Save.
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To load or append attribute styles:
1.
Open the palette menu and select Load or Append Styles.
2.
Navigate to the folder and select the file.
3.
Click Open.
To modify an attribute style:
Press Esc twice to ensure that no object is selected.
1.
Select the style in the Attributes palette.
2.
Click the Edit icon.
3.
In the Edit Style dialog box, modify the existing attributes. Selected check boxes indicate an
existing attribute.
4.
Define and add other attributes by first selecting their check boxes and then using the popup
palettes.
5.
Click OK when finished.
To delete an attribute style:
Press Esc twice to ensure that no object is selected.
1.
Select the attribute style to be deleted.
2.
Click the trash can icon.
Setting default attributes
You can set default attributes for vector objects so that each time you create a new object, it uses the
same attributes. For example, if you often draw objects with a standard 3pt blue pen stroke, you can
set the default attributes for objects to use those settings.
The following types of objects use the default attributes:
Rectangle
Oval
Cube
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EasyShapes
Markup
Dimensioning (excluding Area and Perimeter)
To set the default attributes:
1.
Create a vector object that has the attributes you want to use as the default attributes.
2.
Select the object.
3.
Do one of the following:
Select Object | Set Default Attributes.
Right-click and select Set Default Attributes from the context menu.
Click the Set Default Attributes icon in the Toolbar.
Attaching comments to objects and using Markup tools
Use the Comments & Markup function to attach written notes called comments to any object in a
Canvas document. This can be useful for individuals and coworkers who share documents. Anyone
who works on a document can use the Markup tools and attach multiple comments to any object,
including paint, vector, and text objects.
Marking up a document
To facilitate group work or revision, Canvas has a complete palette of tools that you can use to mark
up documents, the Markup & Redline tools. This functionality keeps the markups and comments with
the original document, yet separate. Using the Markup tools doesn’t alter the original document at all.
Markups and comments can be easily created on another layer.
The Markup tools consist of the following tools:
Markup Highlighter: Creates a thick Bézier curve.
Markup Pen : Creates a freeform line.
Circle Redline: Creates an oval-shaped bounding box.
Rectangle Redline: Creates a rectangle bounding box.
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To use a Markup tool:
1.
Select the Markup Pencil tool, Markup Highlighter tool, Rectangle Redline tool, or Oval Redline
tool. The tool settings appear in the Properties bar.
2.
Click-drag the crosshair where you want to create your markup and release the mouse.
3.
In the New Markup Comment dialog box, open the Layer menu and select one of the
following:
Current Layer: The markup object will be on the current layer.
Markup Layer: This option creates another layer named Markup Layer. The markup
object will be on this layer.
My Markup Layer: This option creates another layer with the initial of the user. This
information is retrieved from the User Info in the Configuration Center.
4.
Enter your comments, if any, in the field.
5.
Click OK. The markup object is selected and its settings appear in the Properties bar.
Markup properties
Color
Select a defined color ink from the menu for the pen stroke. You can also
select an ink from the popup palette. To define color inks for the menu,
click Customize. Name the ink to add it to the menu.
If an ink from the popup palette is selected, Custom appears in
the menu.
Pen Size
Select a pen stroke width (only available for Markup Highlighter,
Rectangle Redline, and Oval Redline tools).
Opacity
Adjust the transparency of the markup object.
Use Tapered Stroke
Gives the stroke tapered ends.
Prompt For Comment
By default, this check box is selected to enable the New Markup
Comment dialog box. Deselect the option if you don’t want the dialog box
to appear when using these tools.
If you disable the New Markup Comment dialog box, you can use
the text field in the Properties bar to enter your comment, if any.
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If you deselect Always Display This Dialog, the New Markup Comment dialog box doesn’t
appear when you create a markup. To enable this dialog box again, select the Prompt For
Comment option in the Properties bar when a markup object is selected or created. Click the
Display Palette button to open the Comments & Markup palette.
To attach comments to objects:
1.
Select an object.
2.
Choose Object | Options | Comments & Markup.
3.
In the Comments & Markup palette, click the New button.
4.
In the New Comment dialog box, type the comment text, then click OK.
The comment appears in the Comments & Markup palette.
A comment can contain up to 64 KB of text (about 65,500 characters). The text appears in a fixed
size and typeface.
When you create comments, you can select, copy, cut, and paste text using the standard keyboard
shortcuts. Spell checking, text formatting, and text colors cannot be applied to comments.
Viewing and editing comments
When you open a document, you can view all comments attached to objects and markup objects.
Be sure that Show information tool tips is selected in the Functionality Options page in the
Configuration Center.
You can edit comments that you create, but not those made by others.
When you select an object that has one or more comments attached to it, the object displays yellow
selection handles. You can view comments by pointing to objects. When the pointer is on an object,
the object’s comments appear in a pop-up window.
Object with comments
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To view, edit, and delete comments:
1.
Choose Object | Options | Comments & Markup.
If you select a markup object, click the Display Palette button in the Properties bar to
open the Comments & Markup palette.
2.
From the Author drop-down list, select one of the following:
An author’s name: Displays only that author’s comments in the list. The scrolling list
displays the first lines and the author’s initials for each comment. The initials preceding
comments are retrieved from the User Info in the Configuration Center.
All Authors: Displays comments by all authors.
3.
Click a comment to select it.
When you select a comment, Canvas selects the commented object or markup object in the
document. Yellow selection handles appear around the object to indicate that the object has
one or more comments.
4.
Do one of the following:
View: To view a selected comment, click View. The comment text appears in the View
Comments dialog box. Select text and copy it to the Clipboard using standard keyboard
shortcuts. You can edit your own comments in the View Comments dialog box, but you
can’t edit or remove others’ comments.
When you view a comment that you can’t edit, the dialog box appears grayed out.
If you changed a comment, click OK to save the changes or click Cancel to discard them
and close the dialog box.
If you select a markup object with an attached comment, you can view the
comments in the Properties bar. You can edit your own comments in the
Properties bar.
Remove: Select a comment you created. Click Remove to delete the comment from the
object and the Comments palette.
Comments remain attached to objects until you remove them. However, comments are not
preserved by operations that convert objects to different forms. These operations include
Knife, Combine, Extrude, Fractalize, Join, Make Composite, Convert to Paths, and Insert
Picture.
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Generate Text Objects: Click this button to create text objects of any comments that
are attached to objects or markup objects. In the Comment Attributes dialog box, select
the options you want to use.
Comment attributes
Font
Name: Select a font family.
Size: Enter a value or use the scroll box.
Color: Select a color ink for the text object.
Adjust the attributes using the Bold, Italic, and Underlined options.
Properties
Layer: Open the menu and select an option. Current Layer places the
text object on the current layer. Markup Layer places the text object on
another layer named Markup Layer. My Markup Layer places the text
object on another layer with the initial of the user. This information is
retrieved from the User Info in the Configuration Center.
Author Name: Select this check box if you want the author’s name to
appear beside the comment.
Max Line Length: Enter a value or use the scroll box. The default is 2
inches.
Position: The position is in relation to the commented object’s
bounding box. Select an anchor point.
Assigning and modifying custom object properties
Canvas contains the ability to attach specific user-definable data to any object. This information is
stored with the objects and can be viewed or edited from within Canvas.
Assigning custom object properties
The Object Properties function allows you to assign specific information to each component of a
complex object. The properties of an object can include information that will allow you to efficiently
track cost, inventory, location, and availability. As a result, those who design and manufacture items
such as fuel pumps, jet engines or other sophisticated components can better manage production
workflow.
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If you are working with GIS vector files, such as Shapefiles or Tigerfiles, the attribute
information is available in the Object Properties palette. Click on an object and its
information appears.
Attaching information to an object does not affect the size or appearance of the item. All data remains
attached to the object and may be edited at any time within Canvas. Therefore, if the object is shared
or used in another project, then the properties of that object are carried over into the new project.
To open the Object Properties palette:
Select a Canvas object and choose Object | Object Properties.
If the selected item does not have any properties assigned to it, then you will need to create some
properties.
If the object is grouped, then you will need to ungroup it. This allows you to select the
various individual items to which you wish to assign a property.
To assign properties to an object:
1.
From the Object Properties palette menu, select Define Property.
2.
In the Define Properties dialog box, click the New button.
3.
Select the options for the property.
4.
When you have finished defining properties, click OK to close the dialog box.
Once created, the labels are listed in the Properties panel. At any time, you can access and edit your
entries by clicking on any of the properties that are listed in the Properties panel.
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Define Properties options
Label
In this field, you may enter the name of the property; e.g., Size, Weight,
Location, Part Number, Tracking Code.
You can also attach multiple labels to each object. Doing so allows you to
identify the object by using one of the assigned labels.
Next, select an option in the Type menu. This allows you to choose the
search value for the object.
Type
The Type field has the following options: String, Number, Fixed List,
Variable List, Boolean, Currency, or Date.
String: You can place just about anything that you want in this field. If a
Format field is used, then it is possible to impose limits on what is
entered, use only numbers, or specify n-number of characters. The
following format modifiers are available for String:
“#”: Indicates number
“X”: Indicates character
“?”: Indicates that you can assign any character
[any other character]: Indicates that this character will appear
in the value string at that exact position and exactly as it is entered
in the format.
An example would be assigning the value of:
“XXXXX XXXXX” to the handle of the object “Water Valve.” This
value would not apply to “Gas Valve.”
Using the symbols “####.##” means that “1234.12” is a valid
entry; however, “1234.123” would not be a valid value for the
object. It will return incorrect results during a search for an item.
If a format is not entered, then any string will be accepted.
Number: This option allows you to enter a numerical value for an object.
To do so, you must use one of the following formats:
Whole (e.g., 1)
Whole with units (e.g., 1 kg)
Decimal (e.g., 1.5)
Decimal with Units (e.g., 5.1 kg)
Fraction (e.g., 1/2)
Fraction with Units (e.g., 1/2 kg)
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Fixed List: You can think of this as assigning a key word that can be
used to search for items. Be certain to separate each word with a
semicolon (;); e.g., “earth;wind;fire”. After setting this property type,
you should define a set of items that appear on the list of available values
for the property. Enter the desired values in the Format field; e.g., you
may enter values such as “Earth;Wind;Fire” in the Format field. These
entries will then appear on the list in the Object Properties palette.
Variable List: This option is the same as a fixed list except that you can
enter new values at the time of assignment to the object. After you
define a set of values, you may want to add a new value to the set that
appears in the Object Properties menu. To make these changes, you
need only to enter a value in the Object Properties palette.
Boolean: This is used when the value will be Yes or No. You may change
the value to True or False, Positive or Negative, 0 or 1, etc.
Currency: There are two format types for the currency property. They
are Monetary Sign Leads (e.g., USD 100.00) and Monetary Sign Follows
(e.g., 100.00 USD).
The default setting for the currency property is Monetary Sign Leads.
This property is set in the same manner as the previously described
numbers with units. You need only to enter a value and a monetary sign
in the Value field to have a default monetary sign set. The sign that you
enter will then become the default setting. It will be automatically added
each time that you change a value.
If you enter a value and a monetary sign that differs from the default,
then the change will be rejected. If the default sign was not defined,
then you have to enter a number and a monetary sign each time that you
change the value of the property. An advantage of not having a default
monetary sign is that you are not constrained to the use of the default
setting when entering a different sign.
A monetary sign must always be present in the value when
working with currencies. If there is not a default setting, you
must enter a number and the monetary sign.
Date: The Date property can be set in any of six different formats. They
are grouped into two major format types:
Full Date formats: This setting forces you to set a date which
consists of a two-digit day, two-digit month, and four-digit year;
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e.g, for February, you must enter “02” instead of “2”. Therefore,
February 7th, 2001 could be entered as 02/07/2001.
Short Date formats: Using this setting the date will consist of
either a one-digit or two-digit day and a one-digit or two-digit
month. A two-digit year will always be required. This means that
zero (‘0’) will not be used as the first number for month or day;
e.g., February should be represented as “2” (not as “02”);
however, zero will be accepted as the first number of a year.
This means that you may enter 2001 as “01”. Therefore,
February 7th, 2001 could be entered as 2/7/01.
Each of the previously discussed sets have three separate
formats:
month/day/year: Represented in the palette as “03/29/1999”
and “3/29/99” respectively
day/month/year: Represented in the palette as “29/03/1999”
and “29/3/99” respectively
year/month/day: Represented in the palette as “1999/03/29”
and “99/3/29” respectively
Once you choose a Type from the above options, you must establish the
correct Format. The Format section provides details for each of the Type
choices and its associated Format options.
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Format
Assigning a format depends on which of the previously mentioned types
were selected.
Value
Allows you to enter a default value for an object.
Prompt
A message or other data that is entered here will be displayed whenever
you place the pointer over the property name in the Object Properties
palette.
To use this feature, select the Show Information Tooltips check
box in the Functionality options in the Configuration Center.
To define a unit:
1.
In the Define Properties dialog box, set the Type as “Number”.
2.
Set the Format to be one of those with units.
3.
Enter a number followed by unit as the Value; e.g., “100 kg”. The unit will become the
default for that property.
This means that if you were to enter the setting of “100 cm”, then “cm” will become your default
setting. Therefore, when you enter a new value for the property in the Object Properties palette,
you will only have to enter the number for that property. The unit will automatically be appended
to reflect the unit “cm.” If you enter both a number and a unit and the unit differs from the
default, then the entry will be rejected.
If you do not specify a default unit for the property, then you will need to enter a
number and a unit each time that you change the value. The advantage of not having a
default unit is that you can enter a different unit without being constrained by the
default setting.
4.
Once you have completed entering all of the properties to the object, click OK. When the
Object Properties palette is active, all assigned properties will appear in the palette whenever
you select the object.
Adding, modifying, and deleting properties
You can modify, delete, or add new properties. Although it is possible to add a property to two or
more selected objects, you can only delete or define properties while one object is selected.
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To add a property to an object or objects:
1.
Open the Object Properties palette menu and select Add Property.
If you have Canvas GIS+, the palette menu contains additional options: Select by
Property, Table View, Statistics, and Calculate Value.
2.
In the Add Property dialog box, enter a name in the Name field. In the Object Properties Table
View palette, a new column is created with this Name.
3.
Select either Text or Numeric from the Type menu.
4.
Enter the appropriate value in the Value field.
The Compute values and Expression feature are for users that have Canvas GIS+.
5.
Select the Compute values check box if you want to create an expression.
6.
Click the Expression button to open the Expression Builder dialog box. If you select Numeric,
the result of the expression must be numeric as well.
To delete a property:
1.
Open the Object Properties palette.
2.
Select the property in the palette.
3.
Open the palette menu and choose Delete Property.
To create common properties for objects:
When two or more objects are selected, the list of properties that are common for all of those objects
is shown. Working with common properties is similar to working with a list of properties from one
object.
1.
Select two or more objects to which you want to assign common properties.
2.
Open the palette menu and select Add Property to open the Add Property dialog box (see "To
add a property to an object or objects:" on page 216).
To modify object properties:
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1.
Select an object that has already defined properties.
2.
Open the Object Properties palette menu.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
3.
Select Define Property to open the Define Property dialog box (see "Assigning custom object
properties" on page 210).
To find all objects that share an identical property:
1.
Select the property item in the Object Properties palette that objects share.
2.
Click the Find button and all objects that contain that property item are selected.
To copy property items to another object:
1.
Select the object whose properties you want to copy.
2.
Click the Copy button.
3.
Select the other object and click the Paste button. The objects now share identical
properties.
Viewing object properties
If you want to view an object's properties, you can use the Object Properties Table View palette to see
all the properties in a table. This palette lets you view custom properties that you have assigned to an
object as well as geometric properties such as the width and height of the object, location
information, pen weight and color, and fill color.
To view object properties in a table:
1.
Choose Object | Object Properties Table View.
2.
Click one of the following:
All: Displays both custom and geometric properties.
Object Properties: Displays any custom properties you have added to the object.
Geometric Properties: Displays the geometric properties of an object.
3.
Do one of the following:
To show all the properties, click Show All.
To show just selected properties, select the properties you want to display, and click
Show Selected.
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To select properties to view:
1.
Choose Customize from the Object Properties Table View palette menu.
2.
In the Select Properties To Display dialog box, select the check boxes for the properties you
want to display.
3.
Click the Move First, Move Up, Move Down, and Move Last buttons to change the order of the
properties displayed.
4.
Click OK.
Saving properties
Once you have displayed the properties for an object, you can choose to save that data to a text file.
To save the displayed properties:
1.
Choose Save from the Object Properties Table View palette menu.
2.
In the Save Object Properties dialog box, select the location where you want to save the file,
type a file name, and click Save.
Selecting objects by property
The Select by Property command lets you select objects according to property information. Create a
query based on one or more selected properties and property values. For example, if you wanted to
select objects with a width greater than 2, you could create the following query:
"Width" >= 2.0
To select objects by property:
1.
Choose Select by Property from the Object Properties Table View palette menu.
2.
In the Select by Property dialog box, create a query with the properties you want to use for
selecting objects.
3.
Click OK.
To save a query:
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1.
In the Select by Property dialog box, create a query.
2.
Choose Save Query/Expression in the Select by Property palette menu.
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3.
In the Save query/expression dialog box, select the location where you want to save the file,
type a file name, and click Save.
To load a saved query:
1.
Choose Load Query/Expression in the Select by Property palette menu.
2.
In the Load query/expression dialog box, select the location where you saved the query file,
select the file, and click Open.
Select by property options
Method
Select either Create new selection, Add to selection, Remove from
selection, or Select from selection depending on the desired outcome.
Query field
The query will appear in this field. Use a combination of the Operator
buttons, Property list, Property Value list, and Function Category list to
create a query.
Operator buttons
These are the most common operators. Click the button and the operator
is added to the Query field.
Property list
Double-click a property to add it to the Query field. The Property Value
list loads the related property values.
Property Value list
After double-clicking an item in the Property list, select a value in the
Property Value list. Double-click the value to add it to the Query field.
Function Category
This list contains the possible operators. Double-click an operator to add
it to the Query field. To filter the operators, select a category of operator
from the Function Category drop-down list.
Statistics by property
Use the Statistics by Property command to obtain the total number of objects on the current layer or
within the current selection. The information is displayed in a histogram as well.
To view statistics by property:
Choose Statistics by Property from the Object Properties Table View palette menu.
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Statistics by property dialog box
Scope
Select the scope of the view:
Layer: Displays statistics for objects on the current layer.
Selection:Displays statistics for objects that are currently
selected.
Table View:
Property
Select an object property.
Expression
Click this button to open the Expression Builder dialog box to create a
query.
Statistics
This section indicates the statistics for the selected property.
Show StdDev
Select this check box to show the standard deviation. The standard
deviation appears as a dotted line.
Show Mean
Select this check box to show the average value for the selected property
within the scope.
Columns
Select the number of columns to display in the histogram.
Palette menu
You can select one of the following options:
Copy statistics (as text): Copies the statistics as text to the
clipboard. You can then paste it into your document.
Copy selected statistics value (as text): Copies the selected
value as text to the clipboard. You can then paste it into your
document.
Place histogram (as Canvas objects): Places the histogram in
the upper left corner of the layout area.
Calculating values
You can calculate values for a custom property in the Object Properties Table View palette.
To calculate values:
1.
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In the Object Properties Table View palette, click a column heading and choose Calculate
Values.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
2.
In the Expression Builder dialog box, create an expression by selecting properties, a function
category, and .
3.
Click OK.
Expression builder
The Expression Builder dialog box, accessible from the palettes such as the Statistics by Property
palette and the Calculate Values command from the Object Properties Table View palette, is very
similar to the Select by Property dialog box. It lets you create expressions, similar to queries.
Expression Builder dialog box
Expression field
The query will appear in this field. Use a combination of the Operator
buttons, Property list, Property Value list, and Function Category list to
create a query.
Operator buttons
These are the most common operators. Click the button and the operator
is added to the Query field.
Property list
Double-click a property to add it to the Query field. The Property Value
list loads the related property values.
Property Value list
After double-clicking an item in the Property list, select a value in the
Property Value list. Double-click the value to add it to the Query field.
Function Category
This list contains the possible operators. Double-click an operator to add
it to the Query field. To filter the operators, select a category of operator
from the Function Category drop-down list.
Adding properties
You can add custom text or numerical properties to objects while you are viewing them in the Object
Properties Table View palette using the Add Property command.
To add properties:
1.
Choose Add Property from the Object Properties Table View palette menu.
2.
In the Add Property Dialog Box, select the Add Property options.
3.
Click OK.
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Add Property dialog box
Name
Enter a name in this field. In the Object Properties Table View palette, a
new column is created with this Name.
Type
Select either Text or Numeric for the type of property you want to add.
Fixed Value
Select this radio button to enter a fixed value for the property.
Compute values
Select this radio button if you want to create an expression. Click the
Expression button to create an expression. If you select Numeric, the
result of the expression must be numeric as well.
From clipboard
Select this radio button to add a value from the clipboard.
To delete a property:
1.
Choose Edit Properties from the Object Properties Table View palette menu.
2.
In the Object Properties palette, select the property you want to delete.
3.
Choose Delete Property from the palette menu.
Object Properties Table View palette menu options
The following options are available in the palette menu.
Save
Opens the Save object properties dialog box so you can save the
properties in a TXT file.
Copy
Copies the properties currently in the palette. Paste the data in a
spreadsheet or text program.
Select by property
Opens the Select by property dialog box.
Clear selection
Deselects all selected objects.
Select All
Selects any object whose properties appear in the palette.
Switch selection
Reverses the current selection; i.e., any selected objects are deselected
and vice-versa.
Fit view to selection
Causes Canvas to magnify and center the selected objects.
Add property
Opens the Add Property dialog box.
Edit properties
Opens the Object Properties palette.
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Statistics by property
Opens the Statistics by property dialog box.
Customize
Opens the Select Properties to display dialog box in which you can select
the properties that you want to display.
Inks: colors & patterns
Inks in Canvas are solid colors or multicolored patterns that you apply to vector and text objects. You
can apply inks to the interiors and outlines of vector objects and text.
This section describes how to create and apply inks, from basic solid color inks to custom
multicolored inks. It also explains how to define inks.
Presets palette
Use the Presets palette to apply inks, select the current inks for new objects, load inks, and delete
inks.
To open the Presets palette:
Do one of the following:
Click one of the ink or stroke icons in the Toolbox, then drag the palette away from the
Toolbox to float it.
Choose Window | Palettes | Presets.
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Presets palette
Ink types
Select the type of ink you want to apply.
Color: Inks using solid colors.
Gradient: Inks with smooth blends between two or more
colors.
Hatches: Inks with line patterns. Hatch inks can incorporate
other pen and fill inks.
Texture: Inks with patterns of raster images. Texture inks
can include other inks as backgrounds.
Symbol: Inks with patterns of vector objects, image objects,
or text objects. Symbol inks can include any other ink as a
background.
Pattern: Inks that are 72 dpi bitmap representations with a
fixed size of 8 x 8 pixels.
Favorites: Drag inks here to add them to your favorites.
Preset inks
Select an ink in the grid. Use the scroll bars if all the preset inks
aren’t visible.
Indicates no ink color
Edit
Click to modify selected ink
Pen ink
Click to select pen inks for object outlines.
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Fill ink
Click to select fill inks for the insides of objects.
Trash can
Drag inks here to delete them from the preset inks.
Palette menu
Click to access the Palette menu.
Recently used inks
Select a recently used ink from the column of inks on the right of
the palette.
Loading, appending, saving, and clearing inks
The Presets palette menu, located at the bottom-right corner of the palette, contains all the
commands for you to load, append, save, or clear inks.
Commands correspond to the name of the current ink type.
Load: Loads a stored ink palette to replace the current palette. Save the current palette if
necessary.
Append: Adds inks from a palette file to the inks on the current tab.
Save: Saves the current ink palette as a palette file. Saved ink palettes can be shared with
other Canvas users.
Clear: Removes the inks (except “no ink”) from the current ink palette. For color inks,
Canvas restores black and white (CMYK) inks after clearing all the inks.
When you add or delete inks in the palette, the changes are recorded in a Canvas Settings file, not in
the Canvas document, so the palette contents remain the same the next time you use Canvas.
Canvas won’t load or append inks that don’t correspond to the current ink type.
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Identifying inks
You can display color names that identify the inks that are stored in the Presets palette. This function
affects all ink types in the palette. If an ink was not given a name, no name will appear.
You can also differentiate between RGB, CMYK, and spot colors when working with color inks by
showing color icons.
If the color ink type is selected, the inks will indicate RGB, CMYK, or grayscale percentages. For
gradient, hatch, symbol, pattern, and texture inks, a name is displayed.
To display ink names:
Open the Inks palette menu and choose Display Color Names.
To hide the ink names:
Open the Inks palette menu and deselect Display Color Names.
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To identify inks with color icons:
Color icons help you identify RGB, CMYK, and spot colors when working with the color inks.
Selecting Show Color Icons only affects the appearance of the color inks in the Presets
palette. The other inks are not affected.
To display color icons:
Select the color ink icon and open the palette menu. Choose Show Color Icons.
To hide the color icons:
Choose Hide Color Icons in the menu.
RGB color
CMYK color
Spot color
The color inks can contain inks defined with RGB, CMYK, grayscale, and spot colors.
The symbol for RGB color inks has tiny red and blue triangles and a green square. The
symbol appears at the upper-left of RGB color cells.
The symbol for spot color inks is a white triangle. The symbol appears at the lower-right of
spot color cells. If the Show Color Names option is activated, no symbol appears for the spot
color.
No symbol appears on CMYK or Grayscale ink cells.
When working with color inks, if the Ink tab contains only CMYK colors, no symbols appear
when you choose Show Color Icons.
Arranging ink cells
To rearrange ink cells in the Presets palette:
Drag a cell within the palette and drop it where you want to place it.
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To move contiguous ink cells to a new location:
Click the first ink cell and then Shift+click another cell. Canvas highlights all cells between the
colors you click.
To select non-contiguous cells:
Ctrl+click the cells you want to select. Drag the selected cells to a new location in the palette.
Applying preset inks
To apply inks to existing objects:
Select the objects and then choose pen and fill inks.
To change the inks that Canvas applies to new vector and text objects:
Deselect all objects, then choose pen and fill inks. The ink icons in the toolbox show the current
inks.
To remove an ink from the palette:
Drag the ink cell to the trash can.
Since pen inks are applied to the strokes of objects, the appearance of an object’s pen ink is affected
by the shape of the object’s stroke (see "How inks affect strokes" on page 258).
Attributes palette
Use the Attributes palette and its various ink managers to create your own inks. Each ink type has its
own manager. Flip open the managers to create inks, adjust inks in objects, and change the Presets
palette’s inks.
To open the Attributes palette:
Do one of the following:
In the Presets palette, click the Edit button.
Choose Window | Palettes | Attributes.
Ink managers
Six icons are located at the top of the Inks managers, which you click to access the available ink types
and their respective managers: color, gradient, hatch, texture, symbol, and pattern. The circular
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icon with a diagonal line represents “no ink”.
Each ink type has its own manager so you create custom inks and add them to the Presets
palette.
If you select color as the ink type, you can access the RGB, CMYK, HSL, and Pantone color
systems.
Using the Ink managers
Every ink manager shows a preview of the current ink. The preview changes as you modify the ink. If
an object is selected, the ink is applied immediately. You can also drag the ink from the preview box
to deselected objects.
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To edit an object’s ink:
Click the pen ink icon or fill ink icon. Then select an object; its ink becomes the current ink in the
manager. Modify the ink.
To make a new ink:
Use the appropriate manager to customize the current ink.
Type a name in the text box to name it.
To add an ink to the Presets palette:
Click the Add Preset button.
To make an ink the current ink:
Deselect any objects and click the pen ink icon or fill ink icon. Then select an ink in any of the
managers.
To apply an ink to a deselected object:
Drag from the preview box to the inside or outline of the object.
Creating color inks
The Color Manager gives you the ability to maintain and manage color inks by providing access to
RGB, CMYK, HSL, and Pantone models. A Color Spectrum Strip is also available for quick color pickup
of any color supported by Canvas.
Color manager controls
The Color Manager’s controls depend on the selected color system and model. Some controls are
common among the different color models.
Current ink
Shows the current ink.
Last-applied ink
Shows the last applied ink.
Bars
Use the sliders, or enter values in the text boxes, to specify color values.
RGB values go from 0 to 255. CMYK values go from 0--- to 100%. HSL
values go from 0 to 360° (hue) and 0 to 100% (saturation and
lightness).
Spot Color
Select to set up a spot color. Type a color name in the text box. Spot
colors print on separate plates when you make color separations.
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Tint Color
Select the color to apply to the current color.
Tint value
Enter the percentage of tint to be applied.
Swatchbook
Shows colors made from 0-100% mixtures of two CMYK colors. To select
a color, click in the swatchbook; the color values appear in the text
boxes.
Select the two colors for the swatchbook. To add a third or fourth color,
enter percentages in the C M Y K text boxes.
Color wheel
Click in the wheel or drag the selector to pick a color, or enter values in
the HSL text boxes.
Lightness
Drag the slider or enter a number in the L text box to set the lightness
for the entire color wheel.
Gamut warning
When the current color can’t be printed with CMYK inks, a warning
symbol and color box appear. Click the color box to replace the current
color with the closest color that is within the CMYK gamut.
Gamut warnings appear only in RGB and HSL systems.
PANTONE
You can use commercial reference system colors for process and spot
colors. Choose PANTONE in the pop-up menu in the Color manager (see
"PANTONE" on page 234).
The PANTONE System includes hundreds of spot colors designed to be
printed with special inks. You should select the correct color group for
the paper stock on which the colors will be printed; e.g., the PANTONE
CVC colors are calibrated for printing on coated paper stock. The
PANTONE Pro-Sim colors are not spot colors. These colors are designed
to be printed with standard process inks.
Color systems
Use the drop-down menus to access to the various color controls. This will allow you to select a color
matching system and select colors that are needed for commercial printing.
To access the color system controls:
In the Attributes palette, click on a color system icon.
CMYK
RGB/Grayscale
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HSL
PANTONE
To define colors in Canvas:
Use CMYK, RGB, and Grayscale color systems.
Colors displayed on a monitor can only approximate the appearance of printed colors. Be sure to
discuss color reproduction with your commercial printer and obtain accurate proofs for color
projects.
CMYK
The CMYK color system is used in four-color process printing. Define colors as mixtures of Cyan (C),
Magenta (M), Yellow (Y), and Black (K) printing inks; e.g., to create green, mix cyan and yellow.
The CMYK system is appropriate for illustrations that will be separated for commercial printing.
RGB
The RGB color system is used in computer monitors. Define colors as mixtures of Red (R), Green (G),
and Blue (B) light; e.g., to create purple, mix red and blue.
The RGB system is appropriate for graphics displayed on a monitor, such as presentations and Web
pages.
Avoid RGB colors in documents intended for commercial printing. Canvas will convert RGB
colors to CMYK colors if you output color separations.
Grayscale
The Grayscale model lets you define shades of gray. Grayscale colors are neutral when used with RGB
or CMYK colors. In RGB Color images, grayscale colors are equal amounts of red, green, and blue. In
image channels, Grayscale colors are pure gray. In vector objects, text, or CMYK Color images,
Grayscale colors are percentages of black. In color separations, Grayscale colors appear as
percentages of black.
HSL
The HSL models let you define RGB colors using Hue (H), Saturation (S), and Lightness (L) values.
This way of defining colors is familiar to artists. HSL models let you adjust saturation and lightness,
without changing a basic hue, such as red or green.
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PANTONE
When you choose a PANTONE reference system color set, you can search for and select colors by
name.
Color name
The selected color’s name. Names of reference colors can’t be changed.
Color system
Choose the reference system you want to use in the pop-up menu.
Color list
Click a color in the list to select it. Use the scroll bar to scroll the list.
Current color preview
Shows the current color.
Page
The page number of colors shown in the color list. Type a number to go
to the page.
Find
Click to select a color by name. In the Find dialog box, type the color
name or number and click OK. Canvas selects the color (if found) in the
color list.
Tint Value
Not available for process colors. Enter a screen percentage to apply to
the selected color. Use 100% for solid color and lower values for screens
of the solid color.
Spot Color option
Available with the Pro-Sim and Process systems, this option lets you
specify colors to use as spot colors in separations.
Specifying tints
Specify a tint color and amount in the CMYK or RGB system. Tinting with white screens the original
color. The screen percentage is 100 minus the tint value; e.g., 80% white tint results in 20% of the
original color.
For other tint colors, Canvas multiplies the tint values by the difference between the original and tint
color values, and then adds the result to the original color values.
After creating a new ink, make sure you click the Add Preset button on the Attributes
palette.
To create new color inks:
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1.
Choose a color system and model from the drop-down menu (see "Color systems" on page
232).
2.
Use the Color manager controls to change the ink’s color values.
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3.
Click the left preview box to restore the original ink.
To name the ink: Type the name in the text box.
To define it as a spot color: Select the Spot Color box.
To apply the ink to non-selected objects: Drag it from the preview box to the
objects.
To add the ink to the Presets palette: Click the Add Preset button on the Attributes
palette. The new ink is added to the appropriate ink type; i.e., if you create a Pattern ink,
the new ink is added to the Pattern type.
Creating blends of color inks
Select two color cells and create a blend of colors to add to the color inks tab of the Presets palette.
To blend colors:
1.
Select the Ink tab of the Presets palette.
2.
Select color as the Ink type.
3.
Click the ink cell that is to start the blend, then Ctrl-click the cell to end the blend.
4.
Open the palette menu and choose Blend.
5.
In the dialog box, enter the number of steps you want in the blend and then click OK. Canvas
creates the blend and adds the new cells to the color inks at the end.
The color editor
In Canvas, dialog boxes and palettes that let you choose colors have a color icon that opens a pop-up
color palette. On the color palette there is a color editor icon so you can access the Color Editor dialog
box to create a custom color.
To open the color editor:
1.
Click the color icon to see the color palette.
2.
Click the color editor icon to open the Color Editor dialog box.
The color icon appears in the following dialog boxes and palettes:
Attributes (Ink)
Color manager (CMYK Tints & RGB Tints only)
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Gradient manager
Hatch manager (pen color pop-up only)
Attributes (Pen)
Neon manager
Parallel manager
Layers
Layer Options dialog box
Color calibration
Gamut Warning dialog box
Image editing
Duotone Options dialog box
New Channel dialog box
Channel Options dialog box
Create Image dialog box
Effects
Extrude palette
Click the color icon to open a palette that has the color inks that are currently available in the Presets
palette. Click the Custom icon to open the Color Editor dialog box.
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Color Editor dialog box
To create a custom color with the Color Editor dialog box:
1.
Open the Color Editor dialog box. This dialog box is almost identical to the Color manager.
If you plan to export a document to another application in EPS format and make spot
color separations, be sure the spot color names match exactly in both applications. Any
variation will cause problems.
2.
To use a different color model, click on the color model button and choose an option in the
menu. Depending on the chosen option, the Color Editor shows a different set of controls
(see "Color manager controls" on page 231).
3.
Use the color controls to create a custom color.
4.
To specify that you want the color you define to be a spot color, make sure you enter a name
in the text box. Then select Spot Color.
5.
When you have the color you want, click OK. The color appears in the color icon.
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Working with gradient inks
A gradient is a gradual blending of colors. A gradient ink can blend two or more colors in a variety of
styles. Like other inks, gradient inks can be applied as fill inks or pen inks to vector and text objects.
The appearance of a gradient ink depends on several factors. Gradients appear smooth on monitors
that display millions of colors, but can appear coarse and dithered on monitors that display only 256
colors. The more extreme the difference in colors, the coarser a gradient can appear. When a
gradient has large color transitions, it appears smoother in an object that is large enough to show all
the transitions.
Applying gradient inks
Canvas gives you the option of applying gradients directly from the Presets palette or using the
Vector Gradient tool. When a gradient ink is applied via the Presets palette, the gradient effect is
centered within the object. If you want non-centered effects, use the Vector Gradient tool.
To apply gradient inks from the Presets palette:
Select the Pen or Fill ink icon on the Presets palette.
If object is selected, click on the gradient ink cell.
If object is not selected, click on the gradient ink cell and drag the ink to the object.
See "Applying preset inks" on page 229, for complete steps about applying inks.
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Gradient styles
Style
Appearance and edit controls
Radial
Colors sweep in a circle around the center. To move the center
point, drag the open dot. To set the starting angle, drag the solid
dot or enter the angle (0 to 360°) in the text box.
Directional
Linear gradient in which colors blend in the direction you specify.
To set the gradient orientation, drag the solid dot, or enter an
angle from 0 to 360° in the text box.
Shape
Gradient conforms to basic object shapes. To move the gradient
center, drag the rectangle. To resize the center area that contains
the end color, drag the solid handle and resize the rectangle.
Rectangular
Rectangular-shaped gradient. To move the gradient center, drag
the rectangle. To resize the center area that contains the end
color, drag the solid handle and resize the rectangle.
Elliptical
Elliptical-shaped gradient. To move the gradient center, drag the
oval. To resize the center area that contains the end color, drag
the solid dot and resize the oval.
Edit box
Vector Gradient tool
The Vector Gradient tool applies the gradient ink that was used last or that has been defined as the
default ink. The ink is applied either as a fill or pen ink according to the icon selected in the Presets
palette.
There are two factors that affect the appearance of the object after using the Vector Gradient tool:
Style of the gradient ink
Manner of dragging the Vector Gradient tool
When using this tool, you’re not limited to dragging directly inside the object. Drag inside or outside
selected objects to achieve different effects; e.g., if you’re applying a directional gradient, “stretch”
the gradient by dragging across the object, starting and finishing outside the object. This technique
places the start and end colors farther apart than if you drag a shorter distance within the object
only.
If the object already contains a gradient ink, the gradient ink will enter edit mode when you
click the object with the Vector Gradient tool.
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To apply gradients with the Vector Gradient tool:
1.
2.
Select the Vector Gradient tool.
If no objects are selected, choose an object.
If using the tool on a single object, the object does not have to be selected before using
the tool. For multiple objects, select all the objects before selecting the Vector Gradient
tool. The gradient flows across the selected objects as if they were one object.
3.
Drag in the object to position the gradient. As you drag, a vector indicates the gradient
position. The gradient appears on the selected objects.
Vector gradient styles
Description
Radial
A line that sets the center and angle of the gradient. The place where
you begin to drag is the center point of the gradient. The vector extends
from and rotates around the center point. The angle of the line
establishes the angle of the gradient. The length of the line does not
effect the gradient.
Directional
A line that sets the angle and length of the gradient. The place where
you begin to drag has the start color of the gradient. The vector line
extends from and rotates around the start point as you drag away from
it. The angle of the line establishes the angle. The place where you stop
dragging sets the end color of the gradient.
Shape
A rectangle that sets the size and location of the end color of the
gradient. The rectangle contains the end color. Drag diagonally from one
corner of the rectangle to another. The rectangle expands or contracts
as you drag away from or toward the starting point. When you finish
dragging, the gradient conforms to the object’s shape.
Rectangular
A rectangle that sets the size and shape of the gradient. The rectangle
contains the end color of the gradient. Drag diagonally from one corner
of the rectangle to another. The rectangle expands or contracts as you
drag away from or toward the starting point.
Elliptical
An ellipse that sets the size and shape of the gradient. The ellipse
contains the end color of the gradient. Drag diagonally from one corner
of the ellipse’s bounding box to another. The ellipse expands or
contracts as you drag away from or toward the starting point.
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Creating gradient inks
Use the Gradient manager to create gradient inks and then add them to the Presets palette.
To create a gradient ink:
1.
Select the Pen or Fill ink icon on the Presets palette.
2.
Click the Edit button to open the Attributes palette.
3.
Click the Gradient icon.
4.
Adjust the gradient options.
5.
Click Add Preset to add the new gradient ink to the Presets palette.
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Gradient options
Color bar
The gradient color sequence appears in the bar. Each pointer below the
bar represents a color and shows the color’s relative position in the
gradient. One pointer is always selected, and the pointer’s color appears
in the color icon.
The pointers at the ends of the bar represent the gradient start and end
colors. These pointers can’t be moved or deleted, but you can change
their colors. Click a pointer to select it; a selected pointer appears
highlighted.
To add an intermediate color, double-click in the bar and a new pointer
appears that represents the color of the gradient where you clicked. You
can drag intermediate pointers to adjust the color spacing, or delete a
color, by dragging its pointer to either end of the bar.
Choose a color for a selected pointer from the pop-up palette. To select a
custom color, see "The color editor" on page 235.
Style
Choose a gradient style from the menu.
Edit box
Drag handles in the box to adjust settings such as gradient shape, angle
and center.
Gradient preview
Shows the current gradient. The preview changes as you edit the
gradient.
Angle
For Radial and Directional styles, enter the angle of the gradient axis, or
drag the solid dot in the edit box to set the angle.
360º
When Radial is selected, select this check box to blend the gradient
through 360 ° around the center. If this option isn’t selected, the blend
runs through 180° in both directions, creating a mirror image around
the blend axis.
In addition, when 360° is selected, a button appears. Click the button to
reverse the gradient direction.
Rainbow
Select this to add all hues on the color wheel between the colors you set
in the gradient. Click a direction button to select a clockwise or
counterclockwise path around the HSL color wheel, which sets the
sequence of hues.
Edit
Click this button to place a gradient into edit mode.
Add Preset
Click this button to add a new ink to the Presets palette.
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Modifying gradients
There are various ways of modifying gradient inks.
To edit a gradient ink with the Gradient manager:
1.
Open the Gradient manager in the Attributes palette.
2.
Select the object. The Gradient manager indicates the ink settings when the object is
selected.
3.
Click the Edit button in the Gradient manager to put the gradient ink into edit mode. You can
now change the direction or position of the gradient. Modifications appear in the object
automatically.
To edit a gradient ink via a context menu:
1.
Select an object that contains either a gradient fill or pen ink.
2.
Right-click to open the menu.
3.
Select either Edit Frame Gradient or Edit Fill Gradient depending the use of the gradient ink.
The gradient ink should enter edit mode.
4.
Make the desired changes in position and direction.
5.
Right-click on the individual color nodes to open a color palette. The Gradient manager is also
available for color changes (see "To create a gradient ink:" on page 241).
6.
Press Esc to exit edit mode.
To edit a gradient ink with the Vector Gradient tool:
1.
Select an object that contains either a gradient fill or pen ink.
2.
Click on the Vector Gradient tool. The gradient ink is in edit mode.
3.
Make the desired changes in position and direction.
4.
Right-click on the individual color nodes to open a color palette. You can click on the Custom
button to open the Color Editor (see "Color Editor dialog box" on page 237). The Gradient
manager is also available for color changes (see "To create a gradient ink:" on page 241).
5.
Press Esc to exit edit mode.
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Working with hatch inks
Hatch inks are patterns made of groups of lines. These inks are often used in illustrations to
distinguish different materials in cross sections, machine diagrams, and maps.
Specify the number of line groups as well as the angle, offset, and origin of each group. Assign a pen
size, color, and dash to each line group, and select a fill ink for the background of the hatch ink.
Hatch inks
Click on the Hatch icon to open the hatch inks in the Presets palette. Use this palette to apply preset
hatch inks to objects or store customized hatch inks that you create in the Hatch manager (see
"Hatch manager" on page 244).
If you create a new ink in the Hatch manager, click the Add Preset button to add it to the
Presets palette.
To apply hatch inks:
Make sure you select either the Pen or Fill ink icon on the Presets palette.
If object is selected, click on the hatch ink cell.
If object is not selected, click on the hatch ink cell and drag the ink to the object.
See "Applying preset inks" on page 229, for complete steps about applying inks.
Creating hatch inks
Use the Hatch manager in the Attributes palette to create hatch inks and then add them to the Presets
palette.
Hatch manager
When you create a hatch ink, set the number of line groups and other attributes.
Preview
Click a line group in the preview box to select it. Tiny handles appear
where the selected group meets the edge.
Pen color
Choose a color for the selected line group in the palette. Choose a preset
color or define a custom color; see "The color editor" on page 235.
Fill ink
Select an ink to use as the hatch ink background.
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Dash
Choose a dash pattern for the selected line group.
Layer
If the hatch ink has different layers, choose the layer from this menu.
New
Click this button to add a new layer. When a new layer is active, you can
add another line group.
Clear
Click this button to delete the current layer.
See "To add or modify a line group:" on page 245 for information on setting Pen, Angle, Offset, and
Origin.
Modifying hatch inks
When you want to change an existing hatch ink, select the hatch ink and click the Edit button to open
the Hatch manager in the Attributes palette.
To change the background color:
1.
Click on the fill icon to open the pop-up Presets palette. This palette is identical to the Presets
palette. Use any ink type that is currently available on the palette.
2.
Select the new background ink.
3.
Click the Add Preset button to add the modified ink to the hatch inks in the Presets palette.
To add or modify a line group:
If you want to create a hatch ink that has crossing lines, the hatch ink will have to contain
different layers. If the hatch ink contains only one line group, then one layers is sufficient.
To add a new line group: Click the New button in the Hatch manager and then define
the line.
To adjust a line group: Select a layer from the Layer menu in the Hatch manager (if
the hatch ink contains more than one line group), and then make any modifications in the
Hatch manager. You can even add more line groups by adding layers.
A line group is selected when selection handles appear where the line group touches the Preview
window. Once selected, the following line group attributes can be modified:
Attribute
Description
Line group color
Click on the pen icon to open the pop-up color palette. Choose a preset
color or define a custom color in the Color Editor dialog box (see "Color
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Attribute
Description
Editor dialog box" on page 237).
Pen
The width in points (1/72 inch) of each line in the selected line group. If
a hatch ink overlaps the edges of an object, change the Pen value to
make the width of the hatch lines smaller than the pen size of the
object’s stroke.
Angle
The angle in degrees of the selected line group relative to vertical. When
you add a line group, the angle is initially 0 degrees.
Offset
The horizontal starting position of the line group, measured in points.
Increasing this value moves the line group to the right.
Origin
The vertical starting position of the line group, measured in points from
the top of the preview box. Increasing this value moves the line group
downward.
Working with symbol inks
In the Presets palette, click the Symbol ink icon to open the symbol inks. You can use the preset
symbol inks or create your own preset symbol inks from text, image, and vector objects. Use any of
the Canvas drawing tools to create objects for a symbol ink.
To apply symbol inks:
1.
In the Presets palette, select the Pen or Fill ink icon.
2.
Click the Symbol ink icon.
3.
Select a color.
4.
Do one of the following:
If an object is selected, click on the symbol ink cell.
If an object is not selected, click on the symbol ink cell and drag the ink to the object.
See "Applying preset inks" on page 229, for complete steps about applying inks.
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To create symbol inks:
1.
In your Canvas document, create an object to use in your new symbol ink.
If you want to use more than one object or object type in the symbol ink, you must
group the objects.
2.
Deselect any objects in your Canvas document by pressing Esc.
3.
In the Presets palette, click the Symbol ink icon and then the Edit button to open the Symbol
manager.
4.
Click the Create button.
5.
Click the object in your document that you want to use in the symbol ink.
6.
Adjust the settings for the symbol ink in the Symbol manager.
7.
Click the Add Preset button to add the new symbol ink to the preset inks.
Symbol manager
Adjust the position and spacing of the objects and apply a backdrop ink.
Symbol
Enter a name for the new symbol ink.
Preview
Displays the symbol ink. Any changes you make are reflected in the
Preview area.
Preview zoom
Click the left button to reduce or the right button to enlarge the preview.
X/Y Spacing
Sets the distance between objects as a percentage of the size of the
original objects; e.g., a spacing value of 100% makes the distance
between the objects equal to their size. X is horizontal distance and Y is
vertical distance.
Stagger
A positive value offsets the even-numbered rows of objects horizontally
relative to the odd-numbered rows. To keep all objects aligned, set
Stagger to zero. To align alternating rows of objects, enter a higher
Stagger value. To create a pattern in which the objects are spread out
and objects in alternating rows are aligned with the gaps in the rows
above, set the X Spacing and Stagger values to 100 percent.
Scaling
The percentage of the original object size for the symbol ink. A value of
100% maintains the original object size. To reduce the objects, enter a
value smaller than 100%. To enlarge the objects, enter a value greater
than 100%.
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Rotation
The amount of rotation, specified in degrees, that Canvas applies to the
original objects.
Backdrop
Select an ink in the pop-up menu. Select any ink, including a color,
gradient, hatch, texture, and symbol ink. The ink you select appears
behind the objects in the symbol ink.
Align To Object
Turn on this option to keep a symbol ink in the same position if the object
moves. Turn it off to let overlapping objects share a symbol ink without a
gap.
Working with texture inks
A texture ink consists of image objects. Canvas assembles a texture ink by repeating the image in
rows and columns, as if it were a grid of rectangular cells. You can control the spacing and
staggering of the images in a texture ink.
If you enter spacing values that spread the images apart, you create gaps between the image cells.
You can also include a background ink that will show through the gaps.
Click on the Texture ink icon to open the texture inks. Use the Presets palette to apply preset texture
inks to objects or store customized texture inks that you create in the Texture manager (see "Texture
manager" on page 249).
To apply texture inks:
Make sure you select either the Pen or Fill ink icon on the Presets palette.
If object is selected, click on the texture ink cell.
If object is not selected, click on the texture ink cell and drag the ink to the object.
See "Applying preset inks" on page 229, for complete steps about applying inks.
To create texture inks:
You can create a texture ink from any image object.
If you create a new ink in the Symbol manager, click the Add Preset button to add it to the
Presets palette.
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1.
Before creating a texture ink, deselect any objects by pressing Esc.
2.
Open the Texture manager and click the Create button. A prompt appears when you move the
cursor into the layout area.
3.
Click on the image object that you will use in the texture ink.
If you want to use text or vector objects in a texture ink, you must render them first.
Also, if you want to use more than one image object, you must select them all or group
them and then render them to create one image object.
4.
Adjust the settings for the texture ink in the Texture manager (see "Spacing" on page 249).
5.
Click the Add Preset button to add it to the texture inks in the Presets palette.
Texture manager
When creating a texture ink, you can set the spacing and offset of image cells and choose a
background ink.
Preview
Displays the texture ink. Any changes you make are reflected in the
Preview area.
Backdrop
Choose a background ink in the pop-up palette. The ink appears only in
gaps between the image cells.
Preview zoom
Click the left button to reduce or the right button to enlarge the preview.
Spacing
Enter the amount of space between cells as a percentage of the cell size.
X Spacing is the space between columns; Y Spacing is the space
between the rows of cells.
Stagger
Select the horizontal button (left) or vertical button (right) and enter the
distance (as a percentage of cell size) to shift the cells.
Align To Object
Turn on this option to keep a texture in the same position if the object
moves. Turn it off to let overlapping objects share a texture without a
gap.
Working with pattern inks
In technical illustrations, pattern inks are often used to provide a visual representation of the
different components of a project. Canvas gives you the ability to create your own personal set of
patterns.
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All pattern inks are bicolor 72 dpi bitmap representations with a fixed size of 8 x 8 pixels. Apply
pattern inks to text, vector, and image objects.
The use of patterns in a technical illustration
Click on the Pattern ink icon to open the pattern inks. Use the Presets to apply preset pattern inks to
objects or store customized pattern inks that you create in the Pattern manager (see "Pattern
manager" on page 251).
To apply pattern inks:
Make sure you select either the Pen or Fill ink icon on the Presets palette.
If you create a new ink in the Pattern manager, click the Add Preset button to add it to the
Presets palette.
If object is selected, click on the pattern ink cell.
If object is not selected, click on the pattern ink cell and drag the ink to the object.
See "Applying preset inks" on page 229, for complete steps about applying inks.
To create or pattern inks:
All pattern inks are created or modified in the Pattern manager. You can access the Pattern
manager via the Attributes palette when you click on the pattern ink icon.
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Pattern manager
Pencil tool
Color the cells within the Edit box.
Move tool
Click within the Edit box to see other parts of the pattern.
Switch Background
and Foreground
colors
Click this button to switch the colors.
Edit box
Create and modify patterns in this box. Changes appear in the Preview
box.
Preview box
Patterns are displayed in this box while being modified.
Background and
Foreground color
Choose foreground and background colors from a color palette or create
a custom color (see "Color Editor dialog box" on page 237).
Grayscale slider
Increase grayscale to use more foreground or decrease it to use more
background.
Add Preset
Click this button to add the new ink to the Presets palette.
Creating favorite inks
Favorites inks allows you to easily build and retain a set of often used inks, whether they are color,
gradient, texture, hatch, pattern, or symbol. You can create and save multiple palettes. Also, you can
share saved palettes with friends and co-workers for project consistency.
To add an ink to the Favorites inks:
1.
If you wish to place an ink in the Favorite inks (e.g., a Pattern ink), click on the Pattern ink
icon to view the Pattern inks palette.
2.
Select the Pattern ink and then drag the ink cell to the Favorite inks icon. The Pattern ink is
now available on the Favorite inks palette. Once placed inside the Favorite inks, you can then
use this ink at any time. Once you have placed several inks in the Favorite inks, you should
save the palette for future use.
To delete a Favorite ink:
Select the ink cell and drag it to the trash can.
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To save a Favorite inks palette:
1.
Click on the Favorite inks icon.
2.
Open the Presets palette menu.
3.
Select Save Favorites Inks.
4.
Enter a file name and click Save.
Loading, appending, and clearing inks
You can load, and append inks for one ink type at a time in the Presets palette.
Load: Loads inks from a palette file, replacing the ink type currently open in the Presets
palette. In the dialog box, select a file and click Open.
Append: Adds inks from a palette file to the ink type currently open in the Presets palette. In
the dialog box, select a palette file and click Open.
Clear: Removes the inks (except “no ink”) from the current palette.
Applying inks to objects
You can apply inks to two areas of vector objects and text:
Pen ink
Ink used for the strokes of objects and text characters.
Fill ink
Ink used for the interior of objects and text characters.
Objects can have different inks for a fill ink and a pen ink; e.g., a gradient fill and a pattern pen ink.
In addition, you can apply inks to the backgrounds, outlines, and frame of text objects.
If an object has neither a pen ink nor a fill ink, the object is not visible.
Remember that you don’t apply inks to paint objects. Instead, use painting tools to paint in a paint
object and give it color (see "Painting & image-editing" on page 406).
Applying fill inks to open and closed paths
Whether a vector object path is open or closed affects the appearance of its fill ink. In a closed path,
the ink completely fills the object’s interior; in an open path, the ink fills inside the path as if the path
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were closed by a straight segment between its endpoints.
This object has a pen ink and a fill ink; both are basic color inks.
This object has a pen ink but no fill ink, so the rectangle in back is
visible through it.
This path has a pen ink and no fill ink.
This path has a pen ink and a fill ink.
Default and current inks
By default, Canvas applies white fill ink, black pen ink, and a 1-point stroke to new vector objects. For
new text objects, Canvas applies black fill ink, no pen ink, and no stroke to the text characters.
The current inks are the inks that Canvas applies to new vector objects you draw. The pen ink and fill
ink icons in the Toolbox display the current inks. When you apply inks to existing objects, the current
inks do not change.
To change the current pen or fill ink:
1.
Make sure no objects are selected in the document.
2.
Click the Pen Ink or Fill Ink icon in the Toolbox.
3.
Select an ink.
To set the inks used in the selected object as the default inks:
1.
Select the object with the pen and fill inks you want to use as the defaults.
2.
Click the Set Default Attributes icon.
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Using the Color Dropper
Use the Color Dropper tool to select and apply colors. The Color Dropper tool is located in the Toolbox.
The Color Dropper can select colors from any object in a document.
Colors you select with the Color Dropper become the current foreground or background colors for
painting and the current pen inks and fill inks for new vector objects.
This tool helps keep color consistency within a document and is useful for photo retouching.
It can also help identify colors from documents imported into Canvas.
To use the Color Dropper tool:
1.
2.
Click the Color Dropper in the Toolbox.
Click on the color in your document that you want to select.
Color Dropper modes
Select the Color Dropper tool to view the settings in the Properties bar. Select a mode. The mode
remains set unless you change the setting in the Properties bar.
Object Ink
In vector or text objects, the Color Dropper selects object inks —color,
gradient, symbol, texture, pattern, and hatch inks. It does not take into
account transfer modes or transparency effects.
If you click an object’s stroke, you select its pen ink; if you click an
object’s interior, you select its fill ink. In the case of paint objects, which
do not have inks, the color you click is selected as a color ink.
For example, if you click a gradient ink with the Color Dropper, it selects
the gradient ink.
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In paint objects, paint colors are selected, not colors you see due to
transfer modes, channel masks, or other transparency effects; i.e., if
you click a black area that is 50% transparent, you select solid black.
Pixel Color
This mode works the same whether you click a paint, vector, or text
object. The color of the pixel is selected. The Color manager in the
Attributes palette indicates the color values.
Color Mode
Select RGB, CMYK, or Grayscale. The Color Dropper converts any color
you click to the selected color system. For best performance, choose the
color system that matches the colors you are sampling; however, you
may want to select a color system that differs from an image. You might
do this to see the effect of a color conversion, such as RGB to CMYK for
printing, for example.
To select an ink (Object Ink mode):
1.
Click the Color Dropper tool in the Toolbox.
2.
Select Object Ink for the mode in the Properties bar.
3.
Do one of the following:
To set the fill ink: Click an ink to make it the current fill ink. You can click a pen ink or a fill
ink; in either case, the ink you click becomes the current fill ink.
To set the pen ink: Right-click an ink to make it the current pen ink. You can click a pen
ink or a fill ink; in either case, the ink you click becomes the current pen ink.
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To select a color (Pixel Color mode):
1.
Click the Color Dropper tool in the Toolbox.
2.
Select Pixel Color for the mode in the Properties bar.
3.
Click a color to set the current fill ink color (vector and text objects) and background color
(image objects). Right-click to set the current pen ink color (vector and text objects) and
foreground color (image objects).
To select colors outside Canvas:
With the Color Dropper selected, drag from the Canvas window to anywhere on screen. As long as
you keep the mouse button pressed, the Color Dropper remains active; the ink icons in the
Toolbox show you the colors the tool can select. Release the mouse button to select the color
under the tip of the pointer.
While editing an image with a painting tool, you can quickly switch to the Color Dropper.
Press Alt to display the Color Dropper, and click to select a foreground color for painting.
The color you select becomes the current fill ink and background color. You can’t use this method to
select the pen color.
To apply colors to vector and text objects:
Do one or more of the following:
To apply the current fill ink to the object, Ctrl-click a vector or text object.
To apply the current pen ink to the object, Ctrl-right-click a vector or text object.
The Color Dropper mode does not affect the application of colors. You cannot apply colors to
paint objects using the Color Dropper tool.
Getting inks from vector and text objects
Canvas lets you add inks from vector objects and text objects to the Presets palette. If a text object
contains both a text fill and a background fill, only the text fill will be added to the palette. You can
also add the inks of multiple selected objects; however, the inks from group objects and macro
objects cannot be added.
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To add inks from objects to the Presets palette:
1.
Select either the pen ink or fill ink icon on the Presets palette, depending on the type of ink
you want to add.
2.
Drag the vector or text object onto the preset inks area of the appropriate ink type in the
Presets palette; i.e., gradient inks only apply to the gradient ink type, hatch inks to the hatch
ink type, etc.
Replacing ink attributes
Canvas has a quick way to change all instances of a selected ink in a single document: the Replace
Ink Attributes command. This function can be applied to pen and fill inks for both vector and text
objects.
To replace an ink:
1.
Choose Edit | Replace Ink Attributes.
2.
In the Replace Ink dialog box, select the ink that you want to replace.
3.
From the Replace With menu, select a replacement ink.
All the objects in the document using the selected ink are updated with the new ink.
4.
Click OK to close the dialog box.
Strokes: outline effects
When you create objects with drawing tools, Canvas applies a stroke to the objects according to
attributes set in the Presets palette. A stroke is a line centered on the path of vector objects and the
outlines of type. You can shape a stroke with standard and calligraphic pens, parallel lines, even
neon tubes. You can also add dashes and arrowheads to strokes.
This section explains basic stroke settings, how to customize strokes, and how to apply strokes to
objects and text.
Types of strokes
Canvas has five basic types of pen strokes, as well as arrows and dashes, which you can use to
create unlimited variations.
Pen Strokes
The following types of strokes appear on Pen tab of the Presets palette.
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Standard: Strokes made of a single line. You can specify
the width, type of line joins, and shape of end caps.
Calligraphic: Strokes that have a weight, width, and
angle.
Neon: Strokes shaded like glowing tubes. You can
specify width, colors, tube shape, line joins, and end
caps.
Parallel: Strokes made of two or more lines. You can
specify width, dashes, colors, and spacing.
Symbol: Strokes made of symbols.
Arrows and dashes
Arrows and dashes can be applied to strokes for additional effects. Click on the Dash tab or Arrow tab
in the Presets palette to apply these to a stroke.
Arrow: You can use preset or custom arrowheads that appear
at the endpoints of each path segment.
Dash: You can apply preset or custom dash sequences that
divide solid strokes into solid and blank segments.
How inks affect strokes
You define the colors that apply to strokes separately from the pen stroke settings. The pen ink
(specified in the Presets palette) and the pen stroke settings together produce the appearance of an
object’s outline. The pen ink is the color (or pattern) that “paints” the object’s stroke. Therefore, the
object must have a visible pen ink for the stroke to be visible. Conversely, the object must have a
stroke for the pen ink to be visible.
Some inks can make strokes invisible. If the pen ink is set to “no ink,” the stroke won’t be visible.
Also, if the pen ink is set to white or a color that matches the background, the stroke could disappear
against the background.
Current stroke
The Strokes icon in the Toolbox shows a sample of the current stroke, the stroke that Canvas applies
to new vector objects you create. For example, if the current pen stroke is 3 points wide, new objects
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you draw will have a 3-pt pen stroke. Canvas does not apply the current stroke to text (see "Applying
strokes to text" on page 259).
To change the current stroke:
1.
Make sure no objects are selected in the document.
2.
Click the Stroke icon in the Toolbox.
3.
Select a stroke.
To change the stroke for a selected object:
1.
Select an object.
2.
Click the Stroke icon in the Toolbox.
3.
Select a stroke.
When you first install Canvas, the current stroke defaults to a 1-pt pen stroke without
dashes or arrowheads.
Applying strokes to text
You can apply strokes to text the same as to vector objects, in most cases. For information about
selecting text objects and text characters, see "Formatting text" on page 577 and "Formatting text
with the Properties bar" on page 581).
When you first type or import text into a document, Canvas applies a black 1-point pen stroke to the
text, but does not assign a fill ink. You can apply pen, parallel, and neon strokes to text. You can also
apply dashes to text that has a pen or neon stroke. If you select a text object, Canvas applies a stroke
to all the text it contains. If you select specific characters within a text object, Canvas applies the
stroke to those characters only.
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Calligraphic pen stroke
Neon stroke
The appearance of a parallel stroke applied to text might not appear as you expect,
especially on characters with hollow centers (such as “O” and “P”) and characters with tight
corners or paths that meet or cross (including “G” and “X”).
Removing a neon or parallel stroke from text (by choosing “no stroke”) does not remove the stroke
entirely. Instead, the stroke reverts to a black 1-pt pen stroke.
Applying preset strokes
Using presets can help you save time and ensure graphic consistency.
Using the Presets palette
The Presets palette contains preset strokes and attributes that you can apply to objects and the
current stroke. Use the Presets palette to apply strokes to objects and save strokes in files that you
can later load into the palette.
To open the Presets palette:
Do one of the following:
Click the Strokes icon in the Toolbox. Drag the pop up palette away to see the full palette.
Choose Window | Palettes | Presets.
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A number of icons are located at the top of the Pen tab, which you click to access the available stroke
types. The circular icon with a diagonal line represents “no stroke”. For dashes and arrows, click on
their respective tabs in the palette. See "Types of strokes" on page 257.
Deleting strokes and stroke attributes
You can remove default and custom presets from the Presets palette. When you delete a preset,
Canvas permanently removes it from the palette, unless you save it to disk and load it again; see
"Saving and loading strokes settings" on page 262.
To remove a preset from the Presets palette:
Select the stroke type or stroke attribute and drag it to the trash can icon. The trash can appears
only when the Presets palette is floating or docked on the Docking bar.
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To remove all preset strokes or stroke attributes:
1.
Select the stroke type or stroke attribute in the Presets palette.
2.
Open the palette menu and choose Clear Palette Presets.
If you delete all arrowheads from the palette, dimension objects will not have arrows.
Saving and loading strokes settings
You can save preset strokes, arrows, and dashes in files on disk, and load the presets into the
Presets palette. You can use these strokes files to customize the Presets palette for particular
projects or types of documents, and to exchange custom settings with other Canvas users.
Commands for saving and loading strokes files are in the Presets palette menu. The menu icon
appears only when the Presets palette is separated from the Toolbox.
To save strokes in a file:
Use the following procedure to save the presets from one stroke type or stroke attribute in the
Presets palette to a file on disk.
1.
Open the Presets palette.
2.
Click the Pen tab and select the stroke type. Or click on the Arrow or Dash tab for a stroke
attribute.
3.
Open the palette menu and select Save Presets. The menu command will reflect the selected
stroke type or stroke attribute.
4.
In the dialog box, enter a name for the file, select a location on a disk, and click Save.
To load strokes from a file:
Use the following procedure to load stroke types or stroke attributes that are stored in a file. When
you load a file, you can either replace the strokes that are presently in the Presets palette or simply
append the stroke types or stroke attributes to the current ones.
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1.
Open the Presets palette.
2.
Click the Pen tab and select the stroke type. Or click on the Arrow or Dash tab for a stroke
attribute.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
3.
Open the palette menu and select Load Presets. The menu command will reflect the selected
stroke type or stroke attribute.
4.
In the dialog box, navigate to the file and click Open.
To apply preset strokes to objects:
Use the following general procedure to apply a preset stroke to one or more objects.
1.
Select the objects for which you want to change strokes.
2.
Click the Strokes icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette. The Pen tab will be selected
automatically.
3.
Select the stroke type.
4.
Choose a stroke in the preset strokes list. If necessary, use the scroll bar or window resize
button to view additional strokes. Canvas applies the stroke you choose to selected objects.
To make a preset stroke the current stroke:
Select a preset stroke as the current stroke to apply to new objects you create.
1.
Deselect all objects in the current document. To deselect all objects, press Esc a few times.
2.
Click the Strokes icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette. The Pen tab will be selected
automatically.
3.
Select the stroke type.
4.
Choose a stroke in the preset strokes list. Use the scroll bar to view additional strokes. The
Strokes icon in the Toolbox shows the current stroke.
Using standard pen strokes
The most common type of stroke is a standard pen stroke, a solid line of uniform width. This type of
stroke is used for many situations, such as technical illustrations, flowcharts, callout lines, etc.
By default, the width of pen strokes is measured in points (one point is 1/72 inch). Pen stroke widths
from 1 to 16 points appear in the Pen tab of the Presets palette.
To change the current pen stroke width:
1.
Deselect all objects.
2.
Open the Presets palette and click on the Pen tab.
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3.
Select the standard stroke type.
4.
Select the pen stroke width from the presets list.
To change the pen stroke width of specific objects:
Select one or more objects, then select a new pen stroke from the presets list for standard
strokes.
To change the ink of a pen stroke:
The color of a pen stroke comes from the object’s pen ink. The pen ink can be any of the available ink
types; i.e., gradient, pattern, symbol, color, hatch, or texture.
1.
Select one or more objects whose pen ink you want to change.
2.
Click the Pen Ink icon in the Toolbox. The Presets palette pops open with the Ink tab selected.
Drag this palette away from the Toolbox to keep the Presets palette open as you work.
3.
Select an ink type on the Ink tab. e.g. color, gradient, hatch, symbol, pattern, or texture (see
"Inks: colors & patterns" on page 223).
‘Invisible’ inks
A pen ink is one or more colors that Canvas uses to apply color to pen strokes. The pen ink can be set
to “no ink,” or to a color that blends into the background, which renders a pen stroke invisible.
In some situations, you might want to set an object’s pen ink to “no ink,” rather than remove the
object’s stroke. This can be useful to temporarily hide the stroke without removing the dash, arrow,
and other stroke settings, for example.
To set an object’s pen ink to “no ink”:
This procedure removes the pen ink and makes the stroke invisible.
1.
Select the object and click the Pen Ink icon to open the Presets palette with the Ink tab
selected.
2.
Click on the “no ink” icon.
Adding preset arrows to pen strokes
You can add arrowheads to pen, parallel, and neon strokes. You can apply strokes with arrows to
lines and open paths, such as those created with the Curve tool. Arrowheads can appear at one or
both endpoints of a path.
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You can also create custom arrowheads that you can add to the preset arrowheads (see "Creating
custom arrowheads" on page 281).
To add arrows to strokes:
Use the following procedure to apply arrows to objects or the current stroke:
1.
Depending on how you want arrows to apply, do one of the following:
To add an arrow to the current stroke: Deselect all objects.
To add arrows to specific objects’ strokes: Select the objects.
2.
Click the Arrow icons in the Toolbox to open the popup Presets palette showing the different
arrowheads available.
The Arrow icons in the Toolbox let you choose between starting, ending, and double-sided
arrowheads.
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To select a starting or ending arrowhead: Click either side of the icon. The left or right
arrow icon will be highlighted.
To select a double-sided arrowhead: Click the round button in the middle. Both the left
and right arrow icons are highlighted. The arrows in the scroll list preview the selected
arrowhead.
Starting arrow
Ending arrow
Double-sided
To apply different arrowheads to each end of a stroke:
1.
Select object to which you want to apply arrowheads.
2.
Apply the first arrowhead by clicking on either the left or right Arrow icon in the Toolbox and
selecting an arrowhead.
3.
Then, shift-click the other Arrow icon and select a different arrowhead. Now, both ends of
the stroke should have different arrows.
Adding dashes to strokes
You can add a variety of preset dash sequences to pen and neon strokes. You can apply a stroke with
dashes to most objects, including lines, open and closed Bézier curves, polygons, rectangles, ovals,
and stars.
Parallel line strokes can also include dashes. However, you select dashes for parallel lines when you
customize the stroke in the Parallel stroke manager in the Attributes palette (see "Customizing
parallel line strokes" on page 275).
To add dashes to pen and neon strokes:
1.
Depending on how you want dashes to apply, do one of the following:
To apply dashes to the current stroke: Deselect all objects.
To apply dashes to an object that has a pen or neon stroke: Select the object.
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2.
Click the Strokes icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette. Select the Dash tab.
3.
Choose the dash sequence that you want in the list of presets.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
Removing arrows, dashes, and strokes
You can remove a selected object’s stroke, or set the current stroke to “no stroke,” so you can create
objects that have no stroke. An object that has no stroke has no visible outline. Objects drawn with
the Line tool become invisible without a stroke; other objects are still visible if they have a visible fill
ink.
You can also remove dashes and arrows from a stroke. Because arrows and dashes are attributes of
strokes, you can remove them without removing the entire stroke.
Removing arrows, dashes, and strokes involves the same procedure as changing from one preset
stroke to another.
To remove arrows or dashes:
You can use the following procedure to remove arrows from pen, parallel, and neon strokes, and to
remove dashes from pen and neon strokes. For details about removing dashes from parallel strokes,
see "Customizing parallel line strokes" on page 275.
1.
Depending on how you want to remove arrows or dashes, do one of the following:
To remove stroke attributes from an object: Select the object.
To remove stroke attributes from the current stroke: Deselect all objects.
2.
Click the Strokes icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette. Choose the Dash or Arrow
tab, depending on the attribute you want to remove.
3.
Choose “no arrow” on the Arrow tab to remove arrows from a stroke. Choose “no dash” on the
Dash tab to remove dashes.
To use “no stroke” settings:
Remove strokes entirely from objects, or use “no stroke” as the current setting for new objects.
1.
Depending on how you want to remove strokes, do one of the following:
To remove the stroke from an object: Select the object.
To make “no stroke” the current setting: Deselect all objects.
2.
Click the Strokes icon in the Toolbox and choose “no stroke” on the Pen tab.
Applying tapered ends to standard and neon strokes
This option can be applied to standard pen strokes and neon strokes; however, it is best viewed
when a pen setting is larger than 3.00 pt.
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Neon stroke with tapered corners
To apply tapered ends to strokes:
1.
Depending on how you want to apply tapered ends, do one of the following:
To add tapered ends to an object: Select the object.
To add tapered ends to the current stroke: Deselect all objects.
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2.
Click on the Strokes icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette.
3.
Click on the Pen tab and select either standard pen stroke or neon stroke.
4.
Select a preset pen stroke and then click the Edit button to open the respective manager in
the Attributes palette.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
Use the Tapered End controls
in the Standard Pen Stroke
manager.
Select from no taper, end-toend taper, left taper, and right
taper.
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In the Neon Stroke manager,
open the Corners menu and
select Tapered. Both ends of
the stroke will be tapered.
Using symbol strokes
Canvas offers a number of preset symbol strokes which you can use as is, or customize. Or you can
create your own custom symbol strokes using any of the symbols in the symbol library or using your
own symbols. See "Customizing strokes" on page 271.
To use a symbol stroke:
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1.
Click on the Strokes icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette.
2.
Click on the Pen tab and click the symbol stroke icon.
3.
Select a symbol stroke from the preset list.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
Customizing strokes
You can customize strokes in the Attributes palette:
Display the strokes settings of selected objects.
Create custom pen, parallel, calligraphic, and neon strokes.
Create custom arrowheads and dash sequences.
Apply custom settings to objects or the current stroke.
Store custom strokes as presets in the palette.
Using the Attributes palette
To open the Attributes palette:
1.
Do one of the following:
Click the Stroke icon in the Toolbox to open the Presets palette, then click the Edit button.
Choose Window | Palettes | Attributes.
2.
Select the stroke type or stroke attribute that you want to define.
To use a preset stroke as the basis for a custom setting:
1.
In the Presets palette, select a stroke, then click the Edit button.
2.
Select an object in your document.
3.
In the Attributes palette, adjust the stroke settings.
4.
If you want to save the custom settings as a preset, click the Add Preset button.
To add custom settings:
1.
In the Attributes palette, specify the custom settings.
2.
Click the Add Preset button.
The new stroke or stroke attribute is added to the appropriate stroke type or tab in the
Presets palette.
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To add settings from an object to the palette:
1.
Choose Window | Palettes | Attributes.
2.
Select an object.
The respective stroke type manager or stroke attribute tab opens in the Attributes palette.
3.
Click the Add Preset button.
When you end a Canvas session, the program stores the stroke type and attribute presets with the
program.The same presets are available, whether you work with new documents, documents you
created, or documents created by another Canvas user.
If you create a custom stroke and want to apply it to more than one object, and especially if you want
to use it in a later work session, you should add the custom settings to the Presets palette.
Customizing standard & calligraphic strokes
If you want to create custom standard pen or calligraphic strokes, use the respective manager in the
Attributes palette.
Standard pen strokes have a uniform weight, specified offset, and may have tapered ends.
Calligraphic pen strokes have a separate width, weight, and angle setting. For both stroke types, you
can define the line joins (bevel, miter, or round) and end caps (flat, round, or square).
For basic information about setting pen size, see "Using standard pen strokes" on page 263.
You can choose another unit of measurement instead of points as the pen size unit using the
unit menu in the Attributes palette.
To create a standard pen:
1.
Click on the Pen tab of the Attributes palette.
2.
Select the standard pen stroke type to access its respective manager.
3.
Use the standard stroke manager controls to define the new stroke.
4.
Click the Add Preset button to add this new stroke to the Presets palette.
Standard pen stroke controls
Use these options to define standard strokes.
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Weight
Enter the weight of the pen stroke. Strokes are normally defined in
points but you can select another unit of measurement from the menu.
Tapered End
Select either no taper, end-to-end taper, left taper, or right taper.
Offset
Select above path, center of path, or below path.
Cap
Select an endcap: flat, round, or square.
Join
Select a line join style: miter, round, or bevel.
Miter Limit
This setting is measured in degrees. The miter limit indicates which
corners are too tight to miter so Canvas will bevel them instead.
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To create a calligraphic stroke:
1.
Enter a value in the Weight field or drag the blue arrows in the edit box. The Weight refers to
the thickness of the stroke.
2.
Enter a value in the Width field or drag the red arrow in the edit box. The Width refers to the
thinnest part of the stroke. The Width should differ from the Weight.
3.
Enter a value (in degrees) in the Angle field. You can also adjust the angle by moving the
blue arrows or red arrows in a circular motion. Typically, the angle is set to 45 degrees.
4.
Select endcaps and line joins for the pen stroke. For an explanation of the various cap and
join choices, see "Standard pen stroke controls" on page 272.
5.
Click Add Preset when you are completed.
Calligraphic pen stroke
Choosing line joins and end caps
For standard pen strokes and calligraphic strokes, you can specify the type of line joins and end
caps. Line joins determine the appearance of two path segments that meet at a corner. End caps
specify the shape of the endpoints of an open path.
Line joins
Canvas has three types of line joins: miter, round, and bevel. For preset pen strokes, Canvas
indicates the type of line join in the respective manager in the Attributes palette.
Miter: Joins path segments with sharp corners that extend to a single point. When you
choose miter joins, the Miter Limit field is enabled. Enter the miter limit in degrees (5, 10,
30, 60, or 90 degrees).
The miter limit setting tells Canvas which corners are too tight to miter; Canvas bevels these
corners instead; i.e., if the miter limit is set to 10°, and two path segments join at an angle of
9°, Canvas bevels the corner rather than creating a miter join. The miter limit lets you prevent
long, spiked corners that might result as a combination of a wide pen size and a small angle.
Round: Smooths corners, so the joint is rounded instead of pointed or flat.
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Bevel: Squares off path segment corners, so that the joint appears flat rather than rounded
or pointed.
Miter join,
miter limit = 10°
Bevel join
Round join
Miter join,
miter limit = 20°
End caps
Canvas has three types of end caps. For preset pen strokes, Canvas indicates the type of end cap in
the respective manager in the Attributes palette.
Flat: The end of the stroke is flush and square with the end of an open path or dash. By
default, end caps use this setting.
Round: A semi-circular cap extends half the pen width beyond the endpoint of an open path
or dash.
Square: The stroke tip is square, similar to the Flat option, but extends half the line width
beyond the endpoint, like the Round option.
Flush with endpoint
Rounded at endpoint
Square at endpoint
Customizing parallel line strokes
You can create custom parallel line strokes using the Parallel manager in the Attributes palette.
Specify the number of lines, color, dash pattern, and pen size of each line, and line spacing.
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To create custom parallel line strokes:
1.
Open the Attributes palette, if necessary.
2.
Click the Pen tab.
3.
Select the Parallel line as the stroke type. The Parallel manager comes to the front.
Parallel manager
Use these controls to create parallel line pen strokes.
Total lines
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Enter the number of parallel lines for the stroke. The minimum and
maximum are 2 and 12, respectively.
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
Orientation
Specify the placement of parallel lines relative to the object’s path.
Choose Center, Outside, or Inside.
Line Attributes
Use these controls to define the appearance of the stroke.
Pen: Select a pen width from the palette.
Color: Select a color from the palette. You can also specify custom
pen colors (see"The color editor" on page 235).
Dash: Select a dash if you want the stroke to contain one.
Spacing: Enter a number to specify the distance between the
selected line and the one below it. For Line #1, this setting defines
the space between this line and Line #2. Choose a number from the
menu to edit the line. Line #1 corresponds to the bottom line. You
can also click a line in the edit box to select it. The selected line is
indicated with handles.
Equidistant
Turn on this option to apply the spacing setting for the selected line to all
lines.
Use pen ink
Turn on this option to apply a color to the spaces between the parallel
lines.
Identical
Turn on this option to give all parallel lines the same appearance (pen
width, color, and dash).
Add Preset
Click the Add Preset button when you have finished defining the stroke.
Customizing neon strokes
You can create custom neon strokes using the Neon manager in the Attributes palette. Specify the
width, colors, line joins, and end caps as well as create uniform and calligraphic neon strokes.
To make the stroke appear round, experiment with lighter inside colors and darker outside
colors.
To create custom neon strokes:
1.
Open the Attributes palette and select the Pen tab.
2.
Select the Neon pen stroke type.
3.
Use the Neon manager to define either a standard pen stroke or calligraphic stroke.
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4.
Select colors for the neon stroke from the pop-up palettes. Canvas blends these colors to
create the neon effect.
Neon stroke with square corners
Neon stroke with tapered corners
Neon stroke with round corners
Neon manager
Use these options to define a Neon pen stroke.
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Weight
Enter a value in the Weight field. The Weight refers to the thickness of
the stroke.
Width
Enter a value in the Width field. The Width refers to the thinnest part of
the stroke. For a standard stroke, the Width is equal to the Weight. For a
calligraphic effect, the Width should differ from the Weight.
Angle
Enter a value (in degrees) in the Angle field. For a calligraphic stroke,
the angle is typically set to 45°.
Outer Color
Select the color for the exterior portion of the neon stroke.
Partial
Select this check box to give the stroke a gradient effect.
Inner Color
Select the color for the interior portion of the neon stroke.
Corners
Define the appearance of the stroke’s corners: Round, Square, or
Tapered.
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Add Preset
Click the Add Preset button when you have finished defining the stroke.
Customizing symbol strokes
You can create custom symbol strokes using the Symbol manager in the Attributes palette. Select a
symbol, and specify the width, color, gap, offset, angle and centerline of the stroke.
Symbol manager
Select Symbol
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Click the Select Symbol button to select a different symbol. By default,
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
Canvas symbol files are located in:
C:\Program Files\ACD Systems\Canvas 12\Symbols
Color
Select the color for the symbol stroke. This overrides the color of the
symbol.
Width
Enter the width of the thinnest part of the stroke.
Gap
Enter the gap between symbols.
Offset
Enter the offset between symbols and the centerline. This can be a
positive or negative value.
If you use a thick centerline, enter at least half the weight of the
centerline as the amount of offset so that the symbols appear at
the edge of the centerline.
Angle
Enter a value (in degrees) in the Angle field. "0" means no rotation,
"180" means the symbol is flipped on both axes.
Auto gap
Select this check box if you want Canvas to automatically adjust the gap
between the last and first symbols. For example, if you draw a circle
object and you select this check box, Canvas adjusts the gaps between
symbols, so that the gaps are consistent for all symbols on the path.
Gap first
Select this check box if you want to start the stroke with a gap.
Autorotate
Select this check box to automatically rotate the symbols based on the
direction of the stroke.
Centerline
The centerline is the line that the symbols follow. If you want a line to
appear, enter the weight, color and dash of the line. If you want the line
to disappear, set the weight to 0 or the color to None.
Add Preset
Click the Add Preset button when you have finished defining the stroke.
Creating custom arrowheads
You can create arrowheads using the Arrow manager in the Attributes palette. These arrowheads can
be used as starting, ending, or double-sided arrowheads. Canvas has several preset arrowhead
styles that you can use and edit, or you can use any vector, paint, or text object as an arrowhead.
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To modify classic arrowheads:
1.
Click on the Arrow tab of the Attributes palette.
2.
Select the arrow type (triangle, pie, diamond, circle, line, or custom) so you can access its
respective manager.
3.
Use the arrow manager controls to define the new arrow. You can even modify the arrow
within the edit box.
4.
Click the Add Preset button to add this new arrow to the Presets palette.
Classic arrow options
Witness
Adds an adjustable witness line to the end of the arrowhead.
Hollow
Removes the fill ink from the arrowhead.
Angle
Specifies the angle of the arrowhead. A larger angle creates a wider
arrowhead.
Full
Draws the complete arrowhead.
Magnification
Use the Magnification controls to zoom in and out.
Top
Draws the top of the arrowhead.
Bottom
Draws the bottom of the arrowhead.
Mimic Pen
Size: Applies the pen width to the arrow.
Color: Applies the pen ink to the arrow.
Place on Segments
Select this check box to add arrows to each segment of an object.
Arrow controls
Use these controls to select a right arrow, left arrow, or double-sided
arrow. Click in the center for the double-sided option.
Some options in the Arrow manager do not apply to all types of arrowheads.
Samples of classic arrowheads
Triangle
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Pie
Diamond
Circle
Line
Chapter 3: Objects And Attributes
To create a custom arrowhead:
1.
In the Attributes palette, select Custom from the Type menu.
2.
Select the Arrow settings you want to use.
3.
Click the Add Preset button to add the custom arrow to the Presets palette.
Custom arrow options
Type
Select Custom from the menu.
Flip
Click the buttons to flip the arrow horizontally and vertically.
Create
Click the Create button and the object appears in the edit box.
Edit box
Modify the arrowhead in this box. Drag the handles to resize the
arrowhead. A horizontal line indicates the horizontal axis of the path's
endpoint. A vertical line indicates the vertical axis of the path's endpoint.
Mimic Pen
Size: Applies the pen width to the arrow.
Color: Applies the pen ink to the arrow.
Place on Segments
Select this check box to add arrows to each segment of an object.
Arrow controls
Use these controls to select a right arrow, left arrow, or double-sided
arrow. Click in the center for the double-sided option.
Customizing dashes
Dashes are composed of alternating solid and blank segments. Using the Dash manager, you can
customize the length of up to 13 segments to create new, complex dash sequences.
Dash stroke
You can design dashes interactively using the edit window. To precisely set the length of each dash
segment, you can also specify an exact length. The ruler in the Dash manager displays inches;
however, you can enter dash lengths in any unit of measurement available.
Dashes in the Presets palette always appear as 1-point wide, black and white segments. However,
when you apply these dashes to an object’s pen, the black segments adopt the color and size of the
pen, and the white segments become transparent.
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To create a dash:
1.
Click on the Dash tab of the Attributes palette.
2.
Use the dash manager controls to define the new dash.
3.
Click the Add Preset button to the new dash to the Presets palette.
Creating custom dashes
Use these options to create a custom dash for your stroke.
Dash/Gap controls
Enter the size of the dashes and gaps in points.
Proportional
Tells Canvas to scale the length of the segments to match the pen width
of the object. The length of segments in the Dash manager are based on
a 1-point line. Therefore, if the pen width is 6 points and Proportional is
selected, Canvas multiplies the lengths by six.
Preview box
Displays a sample of the dash.
Magnification
Use the Magnification controls to zoom in and out. To zoom out, click the
left button. To zoom in, click the right button. Select the Magnification
check box to enable the Magnification area.
Edit box
Select a segment, indicated by a double-arrow.
Edit the segment by dragging the double-arrow.
The dash/gap length is indicated in the Length box.
Length
Enter a precise length for the selected segment in points.
Segment
Shows the selected segment’s number (its order in the sequence) and
its color. “Black” indicates it will use the pen ink. “White” means the
segment will be transparent (a gap).
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Canvas 12 User Guide
Drawing basics
This section describes how to draw and resize vector objects. The Canvas drawing tools let you easily
draw basic shapes—lines, rectangles, ovals, and arcs — and create precise squares, circles, and
straight lines. Specialized tools let you draw grids, stars, polygons, concentric circles, cubes, and
spirals.
Drawing basic shapes
In Canvas you can quickly draw simple shapes using the following drawing tools:
Line
Rectangle
Oval
Each of these tools belongs to a tool palette containing additional similar drawing tools.
To open a tool palette:
Click a tool in the Toolbox.
To float a tool palette:
Press Shift and drag the tool palette away from the Toolbox.
Drawing lines, rectangles, squares, ovals, circles, and arcs
To draw simple lines, rectangles, squares, ovals, circles, and arcs:
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1.
Click one of the drawing tools in the Toolbox.
2.
Click in your document and drag to draw the shape (or press Shift and drag).
Chapter 4: Drawing And Vector Effects
Drawing shapes
Lines
Drag from the starting point to the end
point in any direction
Lines at a 45°
angle
(horizontal,
vertical, or
diagonal)
Press Shift and drag from the starting
point to the end point
Rectangles
Drag from one corner to the opposite
corner
Squares
Press Shift and drag from one corner to
the opposite corner
Rounded
rectangles
Drag from one corner to the opposite
corner
Rounded
squares
Press Shift and drag from one corner to
the opposite corner
Ovals
Drag from one corner to the opposite
corner of the oval’s bounding box
Circles
Press Shift and drag from one corner to
the opposite corner of the circle’s
bounding box
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Arcs
Drag from one corner to the opposite
corner of the arc’s bounding box
Circlesegment arcs
Press Shift and drag from one corner to
the opposite corner of the arc’s bounding
box
When you draw a vector object, Canvas applies the current ink and stroke settings. The inks
and stroke icons in the Toolbox show a preview of the current settings. You can change
these attributes before or after you draw an object (see "Inks: colors & patterns" on page
223 and "Strokes: outline effects" on page 257).
Drawing objects from the center
You can draw many vector objects starting from the object’s center rather than an edge.
To draw an object from the center:
Position the cursor where you want the object’s center to be, then press Ctrl and drag away from
the center to draw the object.
When you draw an object from the center, you can also press Shift at the same time if you
want to also constrain the object’s bounding box to a square. Use this technique to draw a
perfect square or circle from the center outward.
Drawing circles
As well as drawing basic circles, you can draw circles by 3 points or by radius. The Circle 3 Points
tool draws a circle through three points that you set. The Circle Radius tool draws a circle from a
center point and a radius that you set. Both tools draw circles with the current fill ink, pen ink, and
stroke.
The Circle Radius and Circle 3 Points tools are located in the Oval tool palette.
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To draw circles by 3 points:
1.
Select the Circle 3 Points tool.
2.
Click in the document to set a first point on the circle’s circumference.
3.
Move to a second point on the circle’s circumference. A line indicates the chord from the first
point as you move the pointer.
4.
Click to set the second point.
5.
Move to a third point on the circumference. A line indicates the chord from the second point,
while the circle expands or contracts as you move the pointer.
6.
Click to set the third point and complete the circle.
To draw circles by radius:
1.
Select the Circle Radius tool.
2.
Click in the document to set the center of the circle.
3.
Move to anywhere on the circumference of the circle. A line extends from the center and
indicates the radius, while the circle expands or contracts as you move the pointer.
4.
Click to set the circumference and complete the circle.
Drawing arcs
As well as drawing basic arcs, you can draw arcs by 3 points or by radius. The Arc 3 Points tool
draws an arc through three points that you set. The Arc Radius tool draws an arc based on a center
point and radius that you set. Both tools draw arcs with the current fill ink, pen ink, and stroke.
The Arc 3 Points and Arc Radius tools are located in the Oval tool palette.
To draw arcs by 3 points:
1.
Select the Arc 3 Points tool.
2.
Click in the document to set one endpoint of the arc.
3.
Move to the second endpoint of the arc. A line extends from the first endpoint.
4.
Click to set the second endpoint.
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5.
Move to a point on the perimeter of the arc. A line indicates the chord from the second point,
while the arc expands or contracts as you move the pointer.
6.
Click to set the perimeter point and finish the arc.
To draw arcs by radius:
1.
Select the Arc Radius tool.
2.
Click in the document to set the center of the arc.
3.
Move to one endpoint of the arc. A line extends from the center and indicates the arc’s
radius.
4.
Click to set the endpoint.
5.
Move to the second endpoint of the arc. An arc segment extends from the first endpoint and
indicates the arc’s length.
6.
Click to set the second endpoint and finish the arc.
To change the length of an arc:
1.
Select the arc. Round handles appear near the beginning and end of the arc segment.
2.
To adjust the length of the arc, do one of the following:
To shorten the arc, drag the round handle back over the arc.
To lengthen the arc, drag the round handle to continue the arc segment.
You can also adjust the length of an arc by changing its Start angle and values in the Properties bar
or Object Specs palette.
To change the corner radius of a rounded rectangle:
1.
Select the rounded rectangle. A round handle appears near the lower-right corner of the
rectangle.
2.
Drag the handle to change the corner diameter.
You can also adjust the corner radius in the Properties bar or use the Diag setting in the Object
Specs palette.
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Resizing and reshaping vector objects
You can resize and reshape a vector object by changing the size and shape of the object’s bounding
box. You can also change the length of arc segments and the corner radius of rounded rectangles.
These techniques are described in the following section.
You can also edit most vector objects by changing the anchor points and segments that form their
paths. For information on these editing techniques, see "Editing object paths" on page 324.
To resize an object’s bounding box:
When you drag a handle on a vector object’s bounding box, you change the height or width (or both)
of the bounding box. This also changes the size (and possibly the shape) of the object; e.g., if you
select a circle and drag a side handle to make the bounding box wider, the circle becomes an oval
that is wider than it is tall.
1.
Choose a Selection tool.
Use the filled arrow to select a single object (including a group object).
Use the hollow arrow to select an individual object within a group object.
2.
Click the object to select it. Handles appear on the object’s bounding box.
3.
Drag a handle, as described below, to resize the object.
To change
Do this
Height
Drag the top or bottom handle
Width
Drag a side handle
Height and width
Drag a corner handle
Height and width
proportionally
Press Shift and drag a corner handle
Symmetrically (from center)
Press Ctrl and drag a handle
Symmetrically and
proportionally
Press Ctrl-Shift and drag a corner handle
Maintaining object proportions
When you resize vector objects and want to maintain the object’s height-to-width ratio, you have the
following options:
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Press Shift and drag a corner handle to resize the object proportionally.
Use the Scale command and select the Proportional option in the Scale dialog box. This keeps
the vertical and horizontal scaling factor in the dialog box equal.
Use the Scale control in the Properties bar. Click the Scale button and select Scale
Proportional. Then enter a value in the width or height field.
Use the Objects Specs command and select the Keep Proportions option in the Object Specs
palette. Canvas keeps the object proportional if you change an object dimension in the Object
Specs palette.
Drawing with snap options
Snap options can help you draw objects in precise positions relative to other objects; e.g., use Snap
options to draw lines that are parallel or perpendicular to other lines, to draw circles contained inside
other objects, and to start drawing from the center points of objects. You can also draw guide lines
that run to a vanishing point for illustrating perspective.
Objects drawn with snap options
Tangent
Included
Perpendicular
Parallel
Center
Snap options appear in the context menu, in a Snap submenu. You can select Snap options when you
use the following tools: Line, Smart Lines, Oval, Circle 3 Points, Circle Radius, Rectangle, Rounded
Rectangle, Arc, Arc 3 Points, Arc Radius, Curve, Polygon, Text, Spiral, Gridmaker, and Annotations.
Snap options are most useful when you draw with the Line tool. You can draw lines to be parallel,
tangent, or perpendicular to other objects. You can also snap lines to start at the center of an object,
and constrain lines to the interiors of objects.
Snap options (especially the Center and Included options) are also useful for drawing ovals,
rectangles, and arcs. For these objects, some Snap options constrain the first point you draw; other
Snap options constrain the start and end points when you draw an object.
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To use snap options:
1.
Select the Line tool or another tool (the available tools are listed previously).
2.
Point to the object to which you want to snap. (To use the Vanishing Point option, skip this
step; you do not need to point to an object.)
To draw parallel to a line: Place the pointer anywhere on the line.
To draw parallel to a rectangle or polygon: Point to the side to which you want to
draw parallel.
To draw perpendicular to an object: Point to the side to which you want to draw
perpendicular.
To snap to the center of an object: Place the pointer anywhere inside the object.
3.
Right-click to open the context menu and choose an option (described below) in the Snap
submenu.
4.
If you chose Parallel or Perpendicular, a reference line appears. Move the mouse and then
click to set the reference line.
For the Parallel option, in the dialog box, accept or change the indicated offset from the
object, and then click OK to continue.
5.
Move the pointer to where you want to start drawing. Depending on the tool you are using,
either drag to draw an object, or click to set the points of the object.
Objects that should be two-dimensional might appear one- dimensional if you try to draw
using certain Snap options; e.g., if you snap a rectangle to a line using the Included option,
two opposite corners of the rectangle will snap to the line. If the line is vertical or horizontal,
the rectangle will appear as a line.
Snap submenu options
To choose a Snap option, make sure the pointer is on the object or the object side that you want to
use as a reference, then open the context menu and choose an option in the Snap submenu.
Parallel: Lets you set a reference line parallel to a line or the side of an object. After
selecting this option, move the mouse to position the reference line, then click to set it. In the
dialog box that appears, you can enter the distance you want the reference line to be offset
from the object. Click OK to continue. Begin drawing and the object will snap to the reference
line.
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Perpendicular: Lets you set a reference line perpendicular to a line or the side of an object.
After selecting this option, move the mouse to position the reference line, then click to set it.
Begin drawing and the object will snap to the reference line.
Tangent: Lets you set a reference line tangent to a circle, an oval, or an arc. After selecting
this option, move the mouse to position the reference line, then click to set it. Begin drawing
and the object will snap to the reference line.
Included: Snaps an object’s start and end points to the outline of an object or to a line. For
example, you can use this option to snap the bounding box of a circle to the inside of a
rectangle.
Center: Snaps the first point you draw to the center of an object or a line.
Vanishing Point: Snaps the first point of an object to the document’s vanishing point. If
you draw with the Line tool, the line will snap to the vanishing point and run to the location of
the pointer when you begin dragging.
You can draw perspective lines with the Vanishing Point option, and make the lines into
alignment guides with the Object | Make Guide command.
There is one global vanishing point in a document. The vanishing point is used by the commands in
the Effects | Perspective submenu as well as the Snap | Vanishing Point command. The default
vanishing point is at ruler coordinates 0,0. You can use the Effects | Perspective | Vanishing Point
command to apply perspective to selected objects and establish the vanishing point. Using the 1 Side
and 2 Sides commands will also affect the location of the document’s vanishing point.
Drawing by numbers
Several drawing tools give you the option of entering dimensions to draw objects precisely. This
method can be easier than dragging the mouse and watching data in the Properties bar to draw
objects to precise dimensions.
You can enter dimensions in the Properties bar when you use the Oval, Arc, Rectangle, Rounded
Rectangle, Line, Annotations, Multigon, Concentric Circles, and Spiral tools. You can enter the X/Y
coordinates, width, height, or other values, and then click Create in the Properties bar to draw the
object. With these tools, you can still drag the mouse to draw interactively.
You can also enter values in the Properties bar for some Path tools.
You can also establish precise dimensions and locations for any object in a document with
the Data tab in the Object Specs palette.
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To draw objects with the Properties bar:
1.
Select one of the previously mentioned tools. The related value fields appear in the Properties
bar.
2.
Select a reference point by clicking a handle in the bounding box icon; e.g., to center an oval
where you clicked in a document, for example, click the center handle in the bounding box
illustration.
3.
Enter dimensions or other values in the Properties bar (see "Drawing more complicated
shapes" on page 295 for the related dimensions and values).
Ovals and rectangles: Enter height and width values. For rounded rectangles, also
enter the corner radius.
Lines: Enter the distance and angle from the point you clicked to the second point. Or,
enter the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) distance to the second point.
Arcs: Enter the width and height, the starting point in degrees, and the angular length of
the arc.
4.
Click Create to draw the object.
Drawing more complicated shapes
Several specialized drawing tools let you quickly create complex shapes in Canvas. Drawing grids,
stars, polygons, concentric circles, cubes, and spirals is as easy as drawing rectangles. The
following tools create specialized vector objects.
Concentric Circles: Nested circles or ovals
Cube: Square and rectangular boxes in isometric views
Gridmaker: Rows and columns of boxes
Multigon: Stars and complex polygons
Spiral: Lines in spiral patterns
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Registration Marks: Registration marks around a graphic for which you intend to print
separations
EasyShapes: All kinds of shapes, including arrows, flow chart boxes, dialog balloons,
symbols, and banners
Calendar: Calendars
Smart Lines: Connect objects with smart lines.
In most cases, you can treat these vector objects like all others. You can move them and resize their
bounding boxes. They can be rotated, flipped, and scaled. You can apply strokes, pen inks and fill
inks to them. However, most of these objects are compound objects, which means that they are made
up of separate objects. Therefore, some inks and other effects appear differently when applied to
these objects than to simple vector objects like rectangles and ovals.
Some of the specialized objects have unique editing features. For example, you can twirl the points of
a star, star outline, or framed star by dragging special handles. You can also specify the number of
points of a star, the number of rows and columns in a grid, the number of rings in concentric circles,
and the number of revolutions in a spiral. You can draw a cube with or without a perspective effect.
Methods for drawing and modifying all of the specialized objects appear with the individual tool
descriptions that follow.
You can also convert most specialized vector objects to paths, which lets you edit the object anchor
points and segments (see "Converting objects and text to paths" on page 343).
Drawing concentric circles
The Concentric Circles tool draws nested rings of ovals or circles. You can set the number and
spacing of the rings before or after you draw concentric circles.
To use the Concentric Circles tool:
1.
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Select the Concentric Circles tool.
2.
Drag to draw a bounding box that defines the size of the concentric circles object. A
rectangular bounding box creates concentric ovals; a square bounding box creates true
circles.
3.
When you finish, the concentric circles object is selected.
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To draw true concentric circles:
Press Shift to constrain the bounding box to a square when you drag the Concentric Circles tool.
To draw from the center:
Press Ctrl to draw from the center outward with the Concentric Circles tool.
Press Shift also to draw perfect circles outward from the center.
To edit a Concentric Circles object:
1.
Select the Concentric Circles object.
2.
In the Properties bar, adjust the settings such as the number of rings and the spacing.
3.
Press Enter to apply the settings to the object.
To configure the Concentric Circles tool before you draw an object:
1.
Before you draw an object, select the Concentric Circles tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, adjust the settings to configure the Concentric Circles tool.
Drawing cubes
The Cube tool draws 2D cubes.
To draw a cube:
1.
Select the Cube tool.
2.
Drag to draw the rectangular back face of the cube.
3.
Release the mouse button when the back face of the cube is set as you want. An unanchored
cube then follows the cursor.
4.
Position the front face of the cube so it appears at the length and angle you want, and then
click to anchor it.
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To constrain the faces of the cube to perfect squares, hold down the Shift key while drawing
the back face.
To give the cube a perspective effect by enlarging the front face:
Hold down the Alt key before you anchor the cube.
To edit cubes:
Do one or more of the following:
To change the height or width of a cube, click the cube to select it, and then drag a
corner handle.
To reshape a cube by moving a side, double-click the cube to place it in edit mode. A
black circular handle appears on each of the six faces of the cube.
When you point to a handle, the outline flashes on the corresponding side of the cube.
You can drag the handle to move that side. Click outside the cube to leave edit mode.
Drawing spirals
The Spiral tool draws a smooth, spiraling curve. You can set the number of spiral turns before or
after you draw a Spiral object.
To use the Spiral tool:
1.
2.
Select the Spiral tool.
Drag diagonally to specify the size of the spiral curve.
To create a circular spiral:
Press Shift and drag.
To configure the Spiral tool:
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1.
Select the Spiral tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, set the number of spirals and the spiral direction.
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To change the number of spirals in an object:
1.
Select the Spiral object.
2.
In the Properties bar, change the number of spirals and press Enter.
Drawing grids
The Gridmaker tool draws grids of rows and columns. Set the number of rows and columns before or
after you draw a grid object.
To use the Gridmaker tool:
1.
2.
Select the Gridmaker tool.
Drag diagonally to define the grid’s bounding box.
To create a square grid:
Press Shift and drag.
To configure the Gridmaker tool:
1.
Select the Gridmaker tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, set the number of boxes comprising the grid as well as the cell size.
If you set Boxes Across to 1, the grid has no vertical lines. If you set Boxes Down to 1, the
grid has no horizontal lines.
To modify grid object:
1.
Select the Grid object.
2.
In the Properties bar, change the number of boxes or cell size and press Enter.
To separate a grid into lines:
Adjust the individual lines that comprise a grid by converting it to a path and then ungrouping it.
1.
Select the Grid object.
2.
Choose Path | Convert to Paths.
3.
Choose Object | Ungroup. The grid object separates into individual lines.
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Drawing multigon shapes
Use the Multigon tool to draw all types of multi-sided objects, including triangles, hexagons,
pentagons, octagons, stars, circular starbursts, and similar shapes. To set the number of sides and
the style of a multigon, configure the Multigon tool before you draw.
To draw with the Multigon tool:
1.
2.
Select the Multigon tool.
Drag diagonally to define the multigon’s bounding box.
To make the bounding box square:
Press Shift and drag.
To configure the Multigon tool:
1.
Select the Multigon tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, set the multigon options.
3.
Press Enter.
Multigon options
The available options depend on the selected multigon style.
Style
Select the style of the multigon:
Frame: No interior lines.
Framed Star: Combination of Frame and Star objects.
Spoke: No sides connecting the spoke points.
Star: Points connected by interior lines.
Star Outline: Multiple points with no interior lines.
Wheel: Combination of Frame and Spoke objects.
Points
For stars, framed stars, and star outlines, enter the number of star
points from 3 to 100. For other styles, enter the number of sides from 3
to 100.
Smooth
Turn this option on to smooth the object’s angles.
Inset Ratio
Drag the slider to change the interior area of stars, framed stars, and
star outlines.
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Pinwheel angle
For stars, enter a value of more or less than 0 degrees to bend the
points. Negative values bend the points counterclockwise.
Presets
Choose a preset style in the pop-up menu.
To save Multigon presets:
1.
Select the Multigon shape you want to save as a preset.
2.
In the Properties bar, click the Presets menu, and select Save shape.
3.
In the Save Shape dialog box, enter a name for the shape, then click OK.
To delete Multigon presets:
1.
Select the Multigon tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, click the Presets menu, and select Delete shape.
3.
In the Delete Shape dialog box, select the preset you want to delete, then click OK.
When you save and delete styles, they remain saved or deleted whether you click OK or
Cancel to close the Multigon dialog box.
To edit Star Multigon objects:
You can edit Star Multigons (framed star, star, and star outline styles) to adjust the twirl and radius
of the object’s points. The following procedures do not apply to frames, spokes, or wheels.
1.
Double-click the Star Multigon object to put it in edit mode.
An outer handle and inner handle appear on one point of the star.
2.
Do one or more of the following:
To change the length of the star points: Drag the outer handle inward or outward
from the center of the star.
To twirl the points: Drag the handle clockwise or counterclockwise.
To change the position of the inner points: Drag the inner handle inward or
outward from the center.
3.
Press Esc or double-click outside the object to exit edit mode.
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Drawing registration marks manually
Use the Registration Mark tool to manually draw registration marks around a graphic for which you
intend to print separations. Use the Registration Mark tool when:
The size of the graphic occupies the printable area, therefore preventing the print separation
marks from appearing.
You layout different graphics on a single sheet and plan to print each graphic individually.
To draw registration marks:
1.
2.
Select the Registration Mark tool.
In the Properties bar, set the location, default size, and fill color of the registration mark,
then click the Create button.
This draws the first registration mark, and sets the defaults for registration marks in the
current Canvas session.
3.
Select the Registration Mark tool again, then click in your document to draw additional
registration marks.
If you want to place a registration mark in a precise location, you can select the registration
mark in your document, and set the X/Y coordinates in the Properties bar.
Drawing crop marks
For print production, you can draw crop marks around specific objects in your document. This is
useful when you want to control the exact placement of crop marks, or you want to output several
illustrations with crop marks around each illustration on one page.
Crop marks are short vertical and horizontal lines that indicate the border where an illustration or
page can be trimmed.
When you use the Crop Marks commands, Canvas draws the crop marks as vector lines on the
current layer in the document. Each crop mark consists of two lines. You can select the lines and
perform operations on them as you would other vector objects.
To place crop marks:
1.
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Select the objects you want to place crop marks around. You can select one or more objects
of any type.
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2.
Choose Object | Options | Crop Marks.
3.
In the Crop Marks dialog box, in the Outset box, enter the distance you want the crop
boundary to be from the selection.
If one object is selected, the selection boundary is the object’s bounding box.
If more than one object is selected, the selection boundary is the smallest rectangle that
would enclose all the selected objects.
4.
Select the Use Registration Ink option to assign Registration ink color to the crop marks.
Registration ink appears black, but it prints on all plates when you output color separations.
This option should be selected if you want the crop marks to print on all plates.
5.
Click OK to create the crop marks.
Drawing calendars
To use the Calendar tool:
1.
Define at least a 1-inch x 1-inch rectangle.
2.
Select the Calendar tool and the cursor changes to a crosshair.
3.
Drag the crosshair to form at least a 1-inch x 1-inch rectangle and the Calendar dialog box
opens so you can define your calendar.
To create a calendar:
1.
Enter the starting month and year. The default month is the current month and year.
2.
Enter the ending month and year. The default month is the current month and year.
3.
Enter the number of columns; e.g., if your calendar is for 8 months and you enter 4 in this
field, your calendar would have 4 columns and 2 rows.
Select the Include Lunar Phases check box if you want lunar phases to appear on your
calendar.
Drawing EasyShapes
You can use EasyShapes to quickly add all kinds of shapes, including arrows, flowchart symbols,
dialog balloons, symbols, and banners.
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To use the EasyShapes tool:
1.
Select the EasyShapes tool.
2.
Select an EasyShapes tool from the palette. The cursor switches to a crosshair in the drawing
area.
3.
Drag the cursor in the drawing area. The new object appears with the current fill ink, pen
ink, and stroke properties, and is selected.
4.
If the EasyShapes tool you used is one that creates a preset text object, an insertion point
appears inside the shape. Type the text. When you finish, press Esc to end text edit mode.
If the EasyShapes tool you used does not create a preset text object, Canvas will create a text
object if you begin typing. When you finish typing, press Esc.
5.
When you have finished using EasyShapes, press Esc.
You can also create an EasyShapes by entering values in the X/Y and width/height fields in
the Properties bar and then clicking the Create button. By default, the X/Y coordinates are
set at 0,0.
Connecting objects with smart lines
Use Smart Lines to link one or more objects to a single object. Draw multiple Smart Lines between
objects and link Smart Lines to other Smart Lines. Smart Lines change length and angle to maintain
connection to the linked objects. Or use the Polygon and Smooth Polygon Smart Line tools to draw
connecting polygon lines between objects.
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Basic
Kinked
Smooth Kinked
Dogleg Connector
Polygon
Smooth Polygon
Connection Point
To use a Smart Line tool:
1.
Select a Smart Line tool.
2.
Drag from one object to another object. When you release the mouse button, Canvas creates
the Smart Line.
To change Smart Line type:
1.
Select the Smart Line with the Selection tool. The Type menu appears in the Properties bar.
2.
Choose another Smart Line type from the menu. The line changes immediately.
To change the position of start and end points:
1.
Select the Smart Line with the Selection tool. The Properties bar displays the X/Y values
coordinates for the start and end points.
2.
Enter new values in these fields in the Properties bar and press Enter. The Smart Line shifts
accordingly.
Start Direction : For Kinked Smart Lines, select either Auto, Horizontal, or Vertical to
change the slope of the Start direction. For Dogleg connections, select either Auto, Left
Always, or Right Always to change the direction of the dogleg portion.
End Direction: Select either Auto, Horizontal, or Vertical to change the slope of the End
direction.
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Tab Length: This value refers to the horizontal portion of a dogleg connection created
with the Dogleg Connector tool. Enter a value in this field and press Enter. The angled
portion of the connection does not change.
If the Dogleg Connector or a Kinked or Smooth Kinked Smart Line is selected, the Properties
bar contains additional information, which is not applicable to Basic Smart Lines.
To unsmooth a Smooth Kinked Smart Line:
Select the line and choose Kinked from the Type menu in the Properties bar.
To smooth a Kinked Smart Line:
Select the Kinked Smart Line and choose Smooth Kinked from the Type menu.
To use the Connection Point tool:
This tool is used to move the anchor points of a vector object. You can also add and remove anchor
points.
1.
Select the Connection Point tool. The cursor changes to a crosshair.
2.
Click on an existing vector object. The anchor points appear. When you place the crosshair
on an anchor point, the anchor point is emphasized.
3.
Click the crosshair on an anchor point and drag it to its new location. You cannot move an
anchor point beyond an object’s bounding box.
To add an anchor point: Ctrl-click the crosshair anywhere within the vector object.
To remove an anchor point: Press Control+Shift and click the crosshair on the existing
anchor point that you want to delete.
To use the Polygon or Smooth Polygon Smart Line tool:
These tools are used to draw polygon lines between objects.
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1.
Select the Polygon or Smooth Polygon Smart Line tool. The cursor changes to a crosshair.
2.
Click on an existing vector object. The anchor points appear.
3.
Click the crosshair on an anchor point.
4.
Click on a second object and click the crosshair on an anchor point.
5.
Press Esc to exit edit mode.
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If you move one of the objects, the connecting polygon line retains the connections between
the objects.
Using the Smart Vector Fill tool
With the Smart Vector Fill tool you can apply a fill to overlapping areas of vector objects. The tool
creates a closed vector object which is equivalent to the area defined by multiple vector segments.
To use the Smart Vector Fill tool:
1.
2.
Draw two or more vector objects with the objects overlapping.
Select the Smart Vector Fill tool from the Toolbox.
3.
In the Properties bar, select the Attributes, Position, and Tolerance.
4.
Select a fill ink, or select a fill ink, pen ink, and stroke, depending on which attributes you
selected in the Properties bar.
5.
Click an overlapping area of the vector objects to create the vector fill object.
In this example, the triangle and rectangle overlap areas on the
circle. The Smart Vector Fill tool has been used to create vector fill
objects for the overlapping areas.
To select different overlapping areas:
Arrange the objects by moving them forward or backward in relation to the other objects. Rightclick an object and select Arrange | Bring to Front, Send to Back, Shuffle Up, or Shuffle Down.
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Smart Vector Fill properties
Attributes
Default Fill Ink: Creates a vector object using the fill ink selected in the
Toolbox.
Default Fill and Pen Ink, and Stroke: Creates a vector object using
the fill ink, pen ink, and stroke selected in the Toolbox.
If you want to use the Fill, Pen Ink, and Stroke option, you might
want to set these attributes before you create your overlapping
objects and use the Smart Vector Fill tool.
To set the attributes, create an object with these attributes first,
and then click the Set Default Attributes button to make those
attributes the default. The Smart Vector Fill tool uses these
default attributes to create the fill in the overlapping areas you
select.
Position
Behind vector paths: Creates a vector object behind the other vector
segment objects.
Above vector paths: Creates a vector object in front of the other vector
segment objects.
Tolerance
Select a level of tolerance. This value sets the threshold for how close vector
segments need to be before an area is considered enclosed.
Exact: Offers the lowest level of tolerance.
Fine: Offers a low level of tolerance.
Loose: Offers the highest level of tolerance.
Adding annotations
You can use the annotations tools to add labels, callouts, or comments to your diagrams or
illustrations, or to create simple flowcharts. The annotation tools can be found in the Toolbox with the
Markup tools.
Basic: Adds a single annotation and points to a single object.
Multiple Sources: Adds a single annotation and points to one or more objects.
Multiple Notes: Adds multiple annotations and points to a single object.
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Flowchart: Creates a simple flowchart.
When you draw in the Layout area with these tools, Canvas creates an object shape and connector
lines. You can change the shape of the object or the type of connector line in the Properties bar. You
can also edit the label (before you place the annotation), and modify the font and style of the text.
You can also modify the outline and fill of the flowchart shapes and connectors using the Pen and Fill
inks in the Toolbox.
Before you add annotations to your illustration, consider whether you want to print the
annotations. If you do not want to print them, you might consider creating a new layer for
the annotations, which you could hide when you print the illustration.
To add a basic annotation:
1.
Select the Basic annotation tool.
2.
In the Layout area, click on the object you want the annotation to point to.
3.
Move the cursor to place the annotation and click to release the tool.
4.
Double-click the annotation text to edit it.
To add an annotation with multiple sources:
1.
Select the Multiple Sources annotation tool.
2.
In the Layout area, click where you want to place the annotation.
3.
Move the cursor to the first object you want the annotation to point to, then click.
4.
Move the cursor to another object you want the annotation to point to, then click.
5.
When you have finished pointing to objects, press Esc or double-click to release the tool.
6.
Double-click the annotation text to edit it.
To add multiple annotations to a single source:
1.
Select the Multiple Notes annotation tool.
2.
In the Layout area, click on the object you want the annotations to point to.
3.
Move the cursor to place the first annotation, then click.
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4.
Move the cursor to place another annotation, then click.
5.
When you have finished adding annotations, press Esc or double-click to release the tool.
6.
Double-click the annotation text to edit it.
To create a simple flowchart:
1.
Select the Flowchart annotation tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, click the Shape icon to open the Shape popup palette, then select a
flowchart shape to start the flowchart.
3.
In the Layout area, click to place the first flowchart shape.
4.
In the Properties bar, click the Shape icon to select the next flowchart shape to add to the
flowchart.
5.
In the Layout area, click to place the second flowchart shape.
6.
When you have finished adding flowchart shapes, press Esc or double-click to release the
tool.
7.
Double-click the annotation text to edit it.
For more complex flowcharts, use the Flowchart palette. See "Creating flowcharts" on page
311.
To change the shape of the annotation object:
1.
Select the annotation object.
2.
In the Properties bar, click the Type icon to open the Shape popup palette.
3.
Select another object shape. The object shape changes immediately.
To edit the text in an annotation:
Do one of the following:
If you have not placed the annotation, enter the text in the Text field in the Properties
bar.
If you have already placed your annotations, select the Text tool and click on the text in
the object to enter text edit mode.
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Creating flowcharts
In Canvas, you can use the Flowchart palette to create a flowchart using standard flowchart symbols
and lines. You can adjust the pen, fill, dash, and arrow attributes of the lines, the amount of offset
spacing between symbols, the size of the symbols, and the position of symbols relative to each other.
To create a flowchart:
1.
Choose Window | Palettes | Flowchart.
2.
Drag a flowchart symbol into your document.
3.
Add additional symbols, by doing one or more of the following:
Select a symbol in the Flowchart palette, and then click one of the red arrow direction
buttons in the Create Controls section.
Select a symbol in the Flowchart palette, and then click one of the blue arrow direction
buttons in the Branch Controls section.
To set the default attributes of flowchart lines:
In the Flowchart palette, set the Smart Line Attributes to control the pen, fill, dash, and arrow
attributes.
To set the default attributes of flowchart symbols:
1.
Make sure that no objects are selected in the document.
2.
Set the pen, fill, dash, and arrow attributes in the Toolbox.
To change the attributes of flowchart lines or symbols:
1.
Select the flowchart lines or symbols in the document.
2.
Set the pen, fill, dash, and arrow attributes in the Toolbox.
As with any Canvas object, you can also change the size of the selected symbols, the
opacity, and effects such as bevel and shadow. You can also align symbols, rotate
them, or skew them.
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To replace one symbol with another:
1.
Select the symbol you want to replace in your document.
2.
Select the replacement symbol in the Flowchart palette.
3.
Click the Replace button.
To add text to symbols and lines:
1.
2.
3.
In the document, select the symbol or line that you want to add text to.
Select the Selection tool from the Toolbox.
Type the text you want to add.
You can edit the text, change the font, size, color and other attributes as you would for any
text you enter in Canvas.
Flowchart Symbol properties
Before you place a symbol from the Flowchart palette, be sure to review the symbol properties in the
Properties bar.
X and Y
Displays the X and Y coordinates where the symbol will be placed by
default.
Reference point
Displays the reference point for the symbol. This is the point on the
selected object (or its bounding box) that position data is based on.The
reference point is also the fixed point used in an object’s transformation.
Width and Height
Displays the height and width of the object.
Preserve original
proportions
Uses the symbol's original proportions.
Use original colors
Uses the symbol's original colors. If you do not select this check box, the
symbol uses the default attributes from the Toolbox.
Create
Click Create to place the selected symbol in the document.
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Flowchart options
Symbols
Click and drag symbols into your document. You must place at least one
symbol in your document before you can use the Create and Branch
buttons.
Create
Select a symbol in your document, and then select a symbol in the
palette and use the following buttons:
Add Top: Places the symbol above the symbol selected in the
document.
Add Bottom: Places the symbol below the symbol selected in the
document.
Add Left: Places the symbol to the left of the symbol selected in the
document.
Add Right: Places the symbol to the right of the symbol selected in
the document.
Branch
Select a symbol in your document, and then select a symbol in the
palette and use the following buttons to branch the chart:
Branch Top: Places two symbols above the symbol selected in the
document.
Branch Bottom: Places two symbols below the symbol selected in
the document.
Branch Left: Places two symbols left of the symbol selected in the
document.
Branch Right: Places two symbols right of the symbol selected in
the document.
Symbol Size
Enter the width and height of the symbols. Select the Preserve original
proportions check box to retain the proportions of symbols when you
resize them.
Symbol Offset
Enter the amount of offset spacing between symbols:
Offset: Defines the distance between one symbol and the next
when you place symbols using the Create buttons.
Branch Offset: Defines the distance between two symbols placed
using the Branch buttons.
Smart Line Attributes
Select the following attributes to apply to the flowchart lines:
Pen
Fill
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Dash
Arrow
Loading additional symbols
Canvas comes with a set of standard flowchart symbols, but if you have additional symbols you want
to use, you can load them into the Flowchart palette. Any new symbols you add must be in the Canvas
symbol file format (.CSY).
To load an additional set of symbols:
1.
Save the symbols you want to use in Canvas symbol format (.CSY) and note the location of
the folder where you have saved them.
The name of this folder is used as the name of the flowchart symbol set in Canvas.
2.
Open the Flowchart palette. Choose Window | Palettes | Flowchart.
3.
Choose Load Flowchart Symbols from the Flowchart palette menu.
4.
In the Browse For Folder dialog box, select the folder where the symbols are located, and
click OK.
The new set of symbols are available from the drop-down list.
To delete a symbol, use a program such as Windows Explorer to delete the symbol, and then
reload the set of symbols in the Flowchart palette to refresh the palette.
Using Math Expression 2-D Plot commands
In Canvas you can use Math Expressions to create a visual representation of an equation. The visual
representation is created as a vector object that uses the current Pen and Fill inks. You can also apply
any vector object effect as well as change the Pen and Fill inks. These objects can also be rendered
and exported as images.
To open the Math expression 2-D Cartesian Plot dialog box:
Choose Path | Math Expression 2-D Plot | Cartesian.
To open the Math expression 2-D Polar Plot dialog box:
Choose Path | Math Expression 2-D Plot | Polar.
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To use the Math Expression 2-D Plot commands:
1.
Define the mathematical equation using the Categories and Items scroll boxes.
2.
Double-click an item to add it to the Expression field.
The lower portion of the dialog box indicates the correct syntax and shows an example
of the expression.
3.
Enter values in the range fields. The maximum range must be greater than the minimum
range. You can also enter a value in the “1 Unit of” fields to set a scale.
4.
Use the Steps menu to control the quality of the curve.
5.
Click OK to create the visual representation.
To save an expression:
1.
Click on the menu icon and select Save expression as.
2.
In the Save expression as dialog box, enter a name for the expression and click OK.
Saved expressions appear at the bottom of the menu list.
To load a saved expression:
Click on the menu icon and select the expression’s name from the list. The equation appears in the
Expression field.
To delete a saved expression:
1.
Click on the menu icon and select Delete expression.
2.
In the Delete expression preset dialog box, select the expression you want to delete, and
click OK.
Examples
The following visual representations were created using the Math Expression 2-D Polar Plot dialog
box.
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Formula: r=1-sin(q)
Expression: r=1-sin(x)
x: 0 - 6.29
r: -10 - 10
Counterclockwise
1/1
Formula: r=sin(2q)
Expression: r=sin(x)
x: 0 - 6.29
r: -10 - 10
Counterclockwise
1/1
Formula: r=sin(6q)+log(1.5)
Expression: r=sin(6*x)+log(1.5)
x: 0 - 6.29
r: -10 - 10
Counterclockwise
1/1
Formula: r=qsin 2(q)
Expression: r=x*(sin(x))^2
x: 0 - 6.29
r: -10 - 10
Counterclockwise
1/3
Formula: r=2q
Expression: r=2*x
x: -31.4 - 31.4
r: -50 - 50
Counterclockwise
1/40
Drawing & editing paths
Path tools let you draw and edit vector object paths of any shape. This section explains how to draw
paths, edit paths, and edit curves segments using the control points that define them.
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Drawing with the Path tools
You can use the Curve, Polygon, Smooth Polygon, Freehand, and Auto Curve tools to draw vector
objects as open or closed paths. When you use the Curve, Polygon, Smooth Polygon, and Auto Curve
tools, you set anchor points to define path segments. With the Freehand tool, you simply drag to
draw a path. The Reshape and Push tools let you edit paths.
Curve
Push
Polygon
Reshape
Smooth Polygon
Auto Curve
Freehand
The Polygon tool draws paths with straight segments. The Smooth Polygon tool draws paths with
smooth line segments. The Curve and Auto Curve tools can draw paths with straight and curved
segments. Paths drawn with the Freehand tool generally are made of curved segments based on the
movement of the pointer.
When you draw with the Path tools, Canvas uses the current pen ink, fill ink, and stroke settings for
the vector objects you create.
Drawing polygons
When you use the Polygon or Smooth Polygon tool to draw an object, you set anchor points that define
a path of straight line segments or smooth line segments, respectively. You can later curve the
straight segments, as with any path object. For editing information, see "Editing object paths" on
page 324.
To draw polygons:
1.
Select the Polygon tool or Smooth Polygon tool.
2.
Click to set the first anchor point, shown as a small square.
3.
Click where you want to place the second anchor point.
You can press the pointer to display the segment, drag to position it, and then release the
mouse button.
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To constrain placement of a segment to 45° intervals, press Shift while drawing the
segment.
4.
Repeat the last step to draw more segments.
To remove the last segment you drew, press the Delete key.
5.
To complete the polygon:
For an open polygon, after you place the last anchor point, press Esc or double-click to
place the last anchor point.
For a closed polygon, click the starting anchor point, and then press Esc or double-click
the starting anchor point.
Click to place first point
Click additional points, doubleclick last point
Completed polygon (selected)
Polygon finished with solid black
fill ink
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Smoothing polygons with straight segments
If you created a path object with the Polygon tool, use the Smooth command to convert a straightsegment polygon to a path with smooth curves. You can smooth any paths made of straight
segments, including rectangles and paths drawn with the Curve tool, as long as they have only
straight segments. The Smooth command is a convenient way for those who haven’t mastered curve
drawing to create smooth shapes.
Polygon
Smoothed
If you require that the polygon object have smooth curves, you should use the Smooth
Polygon tool if you haven’t yet created the object.
To smooth a straight-segment polygon:
Select the polygon and choose Path | Smooth. Canvas converts the polygon’s corner points into
smooth points, which changes the path’s straight line segments into curved segments. For more
information about editing smooth points and curved segments, see "Reshaping paths by editing
anchor points" on page 338.
Use the Unsmooth command to restore the straight segments of a polygon that was smoothed with
the Smooth command. However, you can use Unsmooth only if the smoothed polygon wasn’t edited
after it was smoothed.
To unsmooth a smoothed polygon:
Select the smooth polygon and choose Path | Unsmooth. Canvas restores the polygon’s straight
line segments.
Drawing freehand paths
You can draw objects with the Freehand tool by simply dragging the pointer. The Freehand tool
creates paths with curved segments based on the movement of the pointer.
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Paths drawn with the Freehand tool
As with any path object, you can later edit the path and reshape its segments; see "Editing object
paths" on page 324.
To draw a freehand path:
1.
Select the Freehand tool in the Path Tools toolbar.
2.
Position the pointer where you want the path to begin. Drag to create a path.
To create a closed path, release the mouse button when the pointer is on the starting point.
To set the curve tolerance:
You can tell Canvas to use relatively more or fewer anchor points to represent a curve.
1.
Select the Freehand tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, in the Set tolerance to box, type a value from 1 to 5, where a value of 5
tells Canvas to use as few anchor points as possible.
If you have difficulty drawing smooth curves with this tool, try lowering the speed setting for your
mouse (or other pointing device). Refer to your system documentation for information on these
settings.
Drawing curved paths
The Curve tool is the most versatile of the path tools. You can use it to draw precise paths with
straight and curved segments. When you draw curved segments, you place an anchor point and a
tangent line at the start of each segment. The position and length of the tangent line controls the
shape of the curved segment.
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Defining curves
Anchor points determine where path segments start and end. Tangent lines at each anchor point
control the shape of curve segments. A tangent line affects the adjacent segment.
The tangent line of a segment’s other anchor point (not shown) also affects the segment’s shape. You
can also draw straight paths by clicking with the Curve tool, similar to the way you use the Polygon
tool (see "Drawing polygons " on page 317).
To draw a path with curved segments:
1.
Select the Curve tool.
2.
Where you want the path to begin, do one of the following:
Click to set the anchor point and, before releasing the mouse button, drag to position its
tangent line.
Click to set the anchor point without creating a tangent line.
When you release the mouse button, the anchor point appears.
3.
Where you want the segment to end, do one of the following:
Drag to simultaneously set an anchor point and position a tangent line.
Click to set the anchor point without creating a tangent line.
This finishes the first curve segment.
4.
Repeat the previous step to draw additional segments.
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5.
To complete the path, use one of the following options:
For an open path, after you place the last anchor point, press Esc. You can also doubleclick to place the last anchor point.
For a closed path, click the starting anchor point, and then press Esc. You can also
double-click the starting anchor point.
Shaping and editing segments as you draw
As you draw with the Curve tool, you can use modifier keys to constrain and edit the path segments.
To place an anchor point at a 45° interval relative to the previous one:
Press Shift as you set the second anchor point.
To create a straight segment:
Press Ctrl as you click to set the segment’s endpoint.
To remove the last segment:
Press the Delete key. You can continue to remove segments in the reverse order you created
them, until you delete the entire object.
To constrain a tangent line to 45° increments:
Press Shift as you drag the tangent line.
Drawing auto curves
The Auto Curve tool draws and edits curved paths. This tool makes it easy to draw smooth curves
because it automatically curves path segments as you simply click or drag the mouse.
When you use the Auto Curve tool, you don’t have to position tangent lines that control the shape of
curves. Instead, you simply click to set anchor points and smooth curve segments appear. You can
drag the mouse to see how the path will curve before you set each anchor point.
Like the other path tools, you can use the Auto Curve tool to draw new paths and to add segments to
paths as you edit them.
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To use the Auto Curve tool:
1.
Select the Auto Curve tool.
2.
Click in the drawing area to set the beginning point of a path. If you are editing a path, click
to set the path’s next anchor point.
3.
Move the mouse and click to set the second anchor point. A straight segment connects the
first and second points. You can press Shift when you click to snap the first segment to a
45° angle.
4.
To set the third anchor point, do one of the following:
Click to set the anchor point. This completes a smooth curve from the first anchor point to
the new anchor point.
Hold down the mouse button and move the mouse to preview the curve. You can see the
segments bend as you move the pointer. Release the mouse to set the new anchor point.
5.
Repeat the previous step to continue adding anchor points to the path. You can also select
other path tools (Curve, Polygon, Push, and Reshape) to continue adding segments to the
path.
6.
To finish drawing the path, do one of the following:
Press Esc.
Double-click to set the final anchor point. You must double-click on the starting point to
complete a closed path.
When you finish drawing, the path object is selected. Canvas applies the current pen ink, fill ink, and
stroke to the path. You can use path editing tools and techniques to modify the path.
With the Auto Curve tool, click to
set anchor points 1 and 2 to start
a path.
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Click to set point 3. The first and
second segments bend to form a
smooth curve.
You can click to set more anchor
points and draw additional
curved segments. Press Esc to
finish the path.
Path with pen and fill inks
Editing object paths
Most vector objects in Canvas are paths. Whether you draw with Path tools (Curve, Freehand,
Polygon, Smooth Polygon, Auto Curve) or other shape tools (Rectangle, Oval, Line, Arc), you create
paths, and you can use the same path-editing techniques to modify them.
Of course, you can also change a path object by using handles on the bounding box when the object
is selected (see "To resize an object’s bounding box:" on page 291).
Canvas has two display modes you can use when you edit paths. You can display the fill inks, pen
inks, and stroke on paths, or you can hide the attributes while you work in path edit mode.
To display attributes on paths:
Be sure that Path | Live Curve Editing is selected.
To hide attributes in path edit mode:
Select Path | Live Curve Editing again.
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You can change the path-editing display at any time. To use the Live Curve Editing command, objects
do not have to be selected or be in path edit mode.
Editing paths with the Reshape tool
The Reshape tool provides an easy-to-use, interactive way to edit paths. Using the tool is as simple as
dragging the mouse. The tool will reshape the parts of a path that you drag over.
To use the Reshape tool:
1.
2.
Select an object to edit. To use the Reshape tool, one vector object can be selected or be in
path edit mode.
Select the Reshape tool.
3.
Move the pointer close to the path and a reshape symbol (~) will appear at the pointer. The
symbol indicates that you can drag to reshape the path.
4.
Drag to draw a new segment in the shape you want. When you release the mouse, Canvas
applies the segment you drew to the path.
After you use the Reshape tool, the object remains selected or in edit mode. Continue to use the
Reshape tool to modify the path.
Reshape techniques
When you drag the Reshape tool, the direction that you drag affects the way the tool modifies the
path.
If you drag in one direction and finish on the path, the tool will reshape the path to match the line that
you draw.
If you finish dragging away from the path, the Reshape tool can create a new segment that opens a
closed path. If you drag the tool on an open path, you can draw a new segment that closes the path.
You can also drag the tool so it reshapes part of a path and removes the rest.
Dragging in one direction reshapes the
circle
Changing direction adds a segment and
opens the path
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In general, if you drag in one direction along a path, the tool will change the shape of a segment
without removing the rest of the path or opening the path. For example, if you follow the curve of a
circle as you drag from the top toward the bottom, you can make the circle narrower. If you drag from
one part of the circle and change direction, you can create a segment that changes the circle to an
open path.
Experimenting with the Reshape tool is the best way to learn the various techniques you can use to
modify paths.
Editing paths with the Push tool
The Push tool provides an alternative way of editing paths. The tool lets you form curves without
having to edit anchor points and tangent lines. The Push tool is useful for people who are not experts
at editing paths and who want to simply drag on path segments to bend them into shape.
The Push tool bends a path where you “push” (drag) on it. Imagine that a rope is laid out straight on
a table. If you push your finger against the middle of the rope, you form a curve at that point. Using
the Push tool has a similar effect on a straight segment of a path.
Dragging a path with the Push tool bends the path. The Range setting controls the width of the
effect.
You can adjust the range of the Push tool effect. A smaller range results in sharper bends, and a
larger range results in smoother bends.
To use the Push tool:
1.
2.
Select an object to edit. One vector object can be selected or be in path edit mode.
Select the Push tool.
3.
If you want to change the Range of the Push tool, enter a value in the text box in the
Properties bar.
4.
Drag on the path where you want to push a segment into a curve shape. When you release
the mouse, Canvas reshapes the path.
After you use the Push tool, the object remains selected or in edit mode. Continue to use the Push tool
to modify the path.
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To change the range of the Push tool:
Use the Range settings in the Properties bar when the tool is selected. The Range value is
expressed in the rulers’ measurement units.
To specify the range value:
Enter a value in the Range text box. You can type an abbreviation for the measurement units
following the range value; e.g., to set the Range to 10 picas when the ruler units are inches, enter
“10p” in the text box.
Depending on the Range setting, editing a path with the Push tool can add or remove anchor point
from the path; e.g., when the Range value is low, the Push tool is likely to add anchor points where
you push a path. However, when the range is high and a path is not straight, the Push tool can
smooth out a part of the path, which can result in fewer anchor points.
Range:
3 in.
2 in.
1 in.
Working with objects in edit mode
To edit points and segments of a path, place the path object in edit mode. In edit mode, a path’s
anchor points appear as small squares along the path. Every path has at least two anchor points.
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Object path drawn with Curve tool
Object in edit mode, with anchor points visible
When an object is in edit mode, you can select one or more anchor points. You can even select anchor
points and segments on more than one object at once, as long as the objects are in edit mode.
To place an object in edit mode:
Do one of the following to place a path object in edit mode:
Select the object with the Direct edit selection tool.
Double-click the object with the Selection tool.
Select the object and choose Path | Edit Path or choose Object | Edit | Object.
Select the Selection tool after placing an anchor point while you are drawing a path.
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To place multiple objects in edit mode:
Place two or more objects in edit mode by selecting them with the Direct edit lasso selection tool or
by selecting them with the Selection tool and then choosing Path | Edit Path.
To return from edit mode:
When you finish editing an object, click outside the object with either the Direct edit selection tool
or Direct edit lasso selection tool. You can also double-click outside the object with the Selection
tool. In addition, you can press the Esc key to leave edit mode.
To edit special vector objects:
Some Canvas drawing tools create specialized objects. When you double-click one of these
objects to place it in edit mode, Canvas displays special editing handles or configuration options,
rather than the anchor points and segments of a regular path object.
The tools that create special vector objects are the Concentric Circles, Cube, Polygon, Grid Maker,
Multigon, or Spiral. Also, when you modify objects with the Envelope or Extrude commands, Canvas
creates specialized objects.
If you want to use path-editing techniques to modify these objects, convert them to paths. This
usually produces a group of objects. After you ungroup these objects, you have regular paths that
can be edited using the techniques that follow. You can also convert text characters to paths so that
you can edit the shapes of individual characters (see "Converting objects and text to paths" on page
343).
Editing paths with the context menu
When a path is in edit mode, use the context menu to quickly add, delete, and change anchor points
and tangent lines. To see this menu, right-click with at least one object in path edit mode. The
available options vary depending on the location of the pointer. Each option is described next.
Delete Point: Available when the pointer is on an anchor point and appears as a crosshair.
Removes the anchor point from the path, and connects the adjacent anchor points with a
new segment.
Cusp: Available when the pointer is on a tangent line handle or an anchor point. On anchor
points, this option deletes the point’s tangent lines. On tangent line handles, this option
makes the path either smooth or cornered at the anchor point. To be smooth, the anchor
point must have both sides of a tangent line. When smooth, the halves of the tangent line are
always 180° from each other and rotate around the anchor point like a propeller. When the
anchor point is a corner, the tangent line segments can move independently around the
anchor point, like the hands of a clock.
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Smooth: Available when two or more points of an object are selected. You can smooth any
paths made of straight segments.
Fillet: Available when the pointer is on a corner point (with less than two tangent lines
between two segments. Fillet creates a radius corner between the two segments. When you
choose Fillet, in the dialog box, enter a radius value in the text box and click OK. The larger
the radius value, the larger the curved segment. A message appears if the radius value is too
large for the angle of the segments.
Add Point: Available when the pointer is on a path segment and appears as a gray
arrowhead. Inserts an anchor point with a tangent line where you click.
Break: Available when the pointer is a gray arrowhead on a path. Splits the path segment at
that location, and adds anchor points to the ends of the resulting segments.
Join: Available when you select two anchor points that are not connected. Connects the
selected points with a straight segment.
Delete Handle: Available when the pointer is on a tangent line handle and appears as a
crosshair. Removes the handle and the effects of the tangent line on the path (see "To delete
tangent lines:" on page 341).
Add Handle: Available when the pointer is on an anchor point and there are fewer than two
tangent line segments at the anchor point. Adds one or two tangent line segment to the
anchor point (see "To add a tangent line:" on page 341).
Straighten: Available when the pointer is on a path segment and appears as a gray
arrowhead. Makes the path segment straight by removing tangent lines from the segment’s
anchor points.
Enable Symmetrical Drag: Available when an object is in path edit mode. You can easily
create a symmetrical design from a circle, rectangle, or a complex group of objects (see "To
symmetrically resize path points:" on page 347).
Selecting anchor points and segments
When you edit paths, you need to select particular anchor points or segments before you can delete,
move, or reshape them. Before you can select anchor points and segments, a path object must be in
edit mode (see "To place an object in edit mode:" on page 328).
When a path is in edit mode and you point to an anchor point with a Selection tool, the pointer
becomes a crosshair. When you point to a segment, the pointer becomes a gray arrowhead. The
Selection tools are explained in "Selecting objects with Selection tools" on page 159.
When an anchor point is selected, the Properties bar displays settings for angle and length. You can
even add/delete handles or adjust the point to smooth or cusp.
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You can select points in more than one path. When you move any selected point, all points in the
selection move the same way. (If all the points in a path are selected and you drag one, the entire
path moves.) This also works for segments belonging to separate paths.
Use the Selection tool to select multiple anchor points.
To select anchor points and segments:
With the path object in edit mode, click an anchor point or segment to select it. To select multiple
points or segments, use either the Direct edit selection tool or the Selection tool to drag a selection
box around them or Shift-click each point or segment.
To select all anchor points:
With the path object in edit mode, choose Edit | Select All.
To select parts of separate paths:
Place the paths in edit mode, and Shift-click the point or segments.
To inverse a selection:
Choose Edit | Invert Selection. The other points are selected and the current one is deselected.
When an anchor point is selected, it changes from a solid to hollow square. If the anchor point has
tangent lines, they appear when the anchor point is selected. All tangent lines that affect the
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segments that touch the selected anchor point also appear. When you select a segment, the anchor
point at each end is selected.
Adding and deleting points and segments
If a segment’s anchor points are too far apart for you to adjust the shape as needed, add more. If you
create or add more anchor points than you need, delete unnecessary ones.
Keep in mind that the more points on a path, the more complex and system resource-intensive it
becomes. In particular, too many anchor points can cause printing problems. It’s best to use the
fewest possible anchor points placed as far apart as possible to create a path.
To add an anchor point:
With an object in edit mode, right-click a segment to which you want to add an anchor point. In
the path Context menu, choose Add Point. You can also Ctrl-click a segment to add a point.
To delete an anchor point:
With an object in edit mode, right-click the point you want to delete. In the path Context menu
that appears, choose Delete Point. You can also Ctrl+Shift-click a point to delete it, or select points
and press the Delete key.
To delete a segment:
Select the anchor points at each end and press the Delete key. Deleting a segment of a closed path
does not open the path; the remaining segments are joined and the path remains closed.
To add segments to an open path:
Add segments to the end of an open path using the Curve tool or Polygon tool.
If you create the open path with the Smooth Polygon tool, use the Smooth Polygon tool to add
segments.
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1.
With the object in edit mode, select the endpoint where you want to add a segment.
2.
Select the Curve tool (to add straight or curved segments) or Polygon tool (to add straight
segments).
3.
Click to add a straight segment beyond the selected endpoint. With the Curve tool, add a
curved segment by clicking the mouse to establish the new anchor point and then dragging
to position the tangent line.
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4.
To add additional segments, repeat the previous step. When you finish, press Esc to leave
edit mode.
To add points to a curve:
Often technical illustrators need to quickly add more editing points to a Bézier curve.
1.
Select the object.
2.
Choose Path | Add Points.
3.
In the Add Points dialog box, enter the number of points that you wish to add to the object.
4.
Click OK to accept your choice.
Closing and opening paths
A closed path is one that starts and ends at the same anchor point. An open path has separate
starting and ending points. You can close an open path by letting Canvas create a new segment to
join the path’s two endpoints. Open a closed path by breaking the path.
To close an open path:
With the path in edit mode and the Curve or Polygon tool selected, click one of the endpoints.
Canvas closes the path by connecting the endpoints with a new segment. If the adjacent
segments are curved, the new segment follows the curve.
To break a closed path:
With the object in edit mode, right-click an anchor point or segment to open the path Context
menu. In the menu, choose Break; Canvas inserts segment end points to open the object at that
location.
Using the Scissors tool to open and divide paths
Use the Scissors tool to open a closed path and divide a path into two objects. Splitting a path opens
the path at the point where the scissors clip the path.
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To use the Scissors tool:
1.
Select the Scissors tool. The pointer changes to a pair of scissors.
2.
Point to the path where you want to split it (you don’t need to select the object first). The
pointer becomes a crosshair when it is on a point or segment that can be split.
3.
Click the path when the crosshair is displayed. Canvas adds two endpoints where you click
the path, and the path opens.
4.
If the path is closed and you want to split it into two paths, click the path again where you
want to split it.
Dividing objects with the Knife tool
Divide vector objects into separate pieces using the Knife tool. When you drag the Knife tool, it draws
a cutting path. If the cutting path divides an object into two parts, the result is two new objects. If
the cutting path crosses itself, the area inside the path becomes a new object.
The Knife is similar to the Scissors tool; both tools divide vector objects. The Scissors tool divides an
object with a straight line between the two points that you click. The Knife tool slices objects along a
freeform cutting path. Therefore, use the Knife tool to cut curved edges.
Use the Knife tool on open and closed vector objects. If you slice one or more open paths, the
resulting objects are open paths.
If you slice an open path that crosses itself, the path separates where it crosses itself and where you
slice it.
To use the Knife tool:
1.
2.
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Select the Knife tool.
Drag in the document to draw a cutting path that intersects the objects you want to divide.
The cutting path must intersect at least two points on an object’s perimeter.
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Constraining the path: To constrain the path of the Knife tool to 45° increments, press
Shift as you drag. Release the Shift key to drag freely.
Partial cuts: If you stop dragging before the cutting path intersects a second point on
an object's perimeter, the cutting path appears but the object stays intact. To use this
cutting path to divide the object, drag a second cutting path so it intersects the perimeter
of the object and the first cutting path. Or, you can intersect the cutting path with other
cutting paths to create a closed shape. The part of the object that falls within the closed
shape becomes a separate object.
Cutting holes: Cut out pieces of a vector object by dragging inside the object and
creating a closed path. The parts of the object that fall within the closed cutting path
become separate objects. To create a closed cutting path, the path must cross itself.
Gradient inks: If an object’s fill ink is a gradient, and the style is Radial, Directional,
Rectangular, or Elliptical, the gradient remains intact across the separated objects.
However, if the gradient style is Shape, the gradient fills each divided object separately.
To configure the Knife tool:
Use the settings in the Properties bar.
Cut Only Selected Objects: Select this option to make the Knife tool slice only vector
objects that are selected and intersected by the cutting path. This setting can prevent
unintentional changes to nearby objects.
Cut All Objects: Select this option to make the Knife tool slice any vector objects that
the cutting path intersects, whether the objects are selected or not.
Cropping vector and image objects
Canvas contains a Page Crop tool that can be used to crop several objects at once. This tool can be
used on both image and vector objects.
If some vector objects contain SpriteEffects, you should render those objects before
applying the Page Crop tool.
Any objects that are outside of the cropping rectangle will be deleted after completing the crop. After
applying the Page Crop tool, images remain paint objects. Vector objects, however, become Bézier
curves. The pen stroke, if any, becomes a composite object.
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You cannot crop text objects or images to which a soft rotate effect has been applied. If you
plan on using or editing the original file in the future, ensure that you save a copy of the file
before applying the Page Crop tool.
To use the Page Crop tool:
1.
Select the Page Crop tool. The cursor changes to a crosshair.
2.
Drag the crosshair diagonally across the objects to form a cropping rectangle.
3.
Move the cropping rectangle, if necessary. Place the cursor on the border of the cropping
rectangle and a hand appears.
4.
Resize the cropping rectangle, if necessary.
5.
Place the cursor within the cropping rectangle and click to complete the crop.
Periodic waveforms
In Canvas, you can easily add a sine wave, sawtooth wave, or square wave to a Bézier or polygon
segment that is in curve edit mode.
This command can be applied to one segment at a time.
To create a waveform:
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1.
Ensure that the Bézier curve or polygon is in curve edit mode.
2.
Right-click on the path segment to access the context menu.
3.
Select one of the wave options: Insert Sine Wave, Insert Square Wave, or Insert Sawtooth
Wave.
4.
In the Wave Configuration dialog box, enter a value for the frequency in the # Cycles field.
5.
Enter a value for the Amplitude.
6.
Click OK.
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Waveform examples
Joining two paths
Use the Join command to create one path from two separate, open path objects.
Remember that the object must have an open path. If the object’s path is closed, you must
break it (see "Editing paths with the context menu" on page 329).
To join two paths:
Select the two open path objects that you want to join. Choose Path | Join. Canvas connects the
two paths by extending the existing segments or creating a new segment.
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To join paths at selected endpoints:
Canvas, by default, joins paths at the closest endpoints; however, you can select which endpoints to
join.
1.
Place an open object or multiple open objects in edit mode.
2.
Click an endpoint you want to join to another path. The endpoint becomes hollow to indicate
that it is selected.
You can also draw a selection box around the object’s endpoints with either the
Selection tool or Direct edit selection tool.
3.
Shift-click another endpoint. The endpoint also becomes hollow to indicate that it is selected.
4.
Choose Path | Join or right-click one of the selected points. In the context menu, choose Join.
Moving anchor points and segments
With a path in edit mode, you can move points and segments to alter the shape of the path.
Drag an anchor point or segment to move it. You can also press the keyboard arrow keys to move
selected points and segments. Moving reshapes the segments you drag or the segments attached to
the points that you move.
Pressing Shift while dragging points or segments will constrain their movement to 45°
intervals.
When you begin to drag a segment, the anchor points display their tangent lines. You can control the
movement of the tangent lines by using modifier keys when you drag the segment.
Expand or contract curves: Press Tab and drag a segment to change the length of its
tangent lines without changing their angles. This is the way that segments could be
reshaped (without pressing Tab) in Canvas 3.5 and earlier versions.
Reshape adjacent segments: To reshape a segment and adjacent segments together (if
they are joined with smooth anchor points), press Alt and drag the segment.
Reshaping paths by editing anchor points
A path can contain two kinds of anchor points: smooth points and corner points.
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Smooth point: An anchor point that connects two curve segments where the curve flows
smoothly through the anchor point without a sharp change in direction. Circles and sine
waves are examples of paths that have only smooth anchor points.
Corner point: An anchor point where the path makes a sharp turn at the anchor point.
Corner points can connect two straight segments, two curved segments, or one curved and
one straight segment.
Tangent lines
All smooth points, and some corner points, have tangent lines passing through them. Canvas
displays the tangent lines when a point is selected.
A corner point can have one, two, or no tangent lines.When you select a corner anchor point with two
tangent lines, each tangent line can move independently.
A corner anchor point with
independent tangent lines
When you create paths with only straight segments, the anchor points are corner points. When you
draw curved paths with the Curve, Freehand, or Auto Curve tools, the anchor points are smooth
points. Adding anchor points to curved segments produces smooth points.
To change a smooth point to a corner point:
You can edit, reshape, and resize two adjoining curve segments independently by converting their
smooth anchor point to a corner point.
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1.
With the object in edit mode, click the anchor point to reveal its tangent lines.
2.
Press Tab and drag one of the handles to move one of the tangent lines. The tangent line
pivots at the anchor point and affects only one side of the anchor point.
Tab-click a corner point’s handle to snap the
other tangent line into alignment and smooth
the path
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To change a corner point to a smooth point:
To smooth out a sharp turn in curved segments, change the corner point between them to a smooth
point.
The corner point must have two tangent lines for this procedure. If it has fewer than two,
first add tangent lines to the point.
1.
With the object in edit mode, click the anchor point to display its tangent lines.
2.
Tab-click the handle of the tangent line you want to keep in place; the other tangent line
snaps into alignment.
Adding and removing tangent lines
An anchor point can have as many as two tangent line segments. Corner points can have one, two, or
no tangent lines, and smooth points must have two. You can quickly convert a smooth point to a
corner point by deleting one of its tangent lines. Also, to convert a corner point with one or no
tangent lines to a smooth point, you must add tangent lines.
To add a tangent line:
1.
In path edit mode, select an anchor point with one or no tangent lines. The anchor point
cannot be an endpoint with one tangent line, because endpoints can have only one tangent
line.
2.
Press Tab and drag away from the anchor point to place a new tangent line segment. You can
also right-click and choose Add Handle in the context menu. As you do this, the new tangent
line begins altering the segment based on how you drag to position the tangent line.
3.
Repeat the previous step to add a second tangent line.
To delete tangent lines:
1.
In edit mode, click an anchor point to display its tangent lines.
2.
Depending on how you want to edit the anchor point, do one of the following:
To delete one tangent line: Right-click the tangent line handle and choose Delete
Handle in the context menu. You must use this method for anchor points with only one
tangent line, and to delete one of two tangent lines attached to an anchor point.
To delete an endpoint’s tangent line: You can also Tab-click the anchor point.
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To simultaneously delete both tangent lines of an anchor point: Tab-click the
point.
Straightening curve segments
Straighten a curved segment by selecting it and using the Straighten command in the context menu.
This command deletes the tangent line(s) that curve the segment.
To straighten a segment:
1.
With the object in edit mode, right-click the curved segment that you want to straighten.
2.
Choose Straighten in the context menu.
Reshaping curve segments
To adjust the shape of a curve, in addition to moving points and segments along the path itself, you
can adjust the tangent lines that control the curve. The angle of the tangent line affects the curve
shape, while the length of the tangent line affects the size of the segment.
At a smooth anchor point, adjusting the angle of a tangent line affects the curves on both sides of the
anchor point. At a corner anchor point, you can reshape the segments on each side independently
(see "Reshaping paths by editing anchor points" on page 338).
To reshape a curved segment:
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1.
With the object in edit mode, click one of the segment’s anchor points to display its tangent
lines.
2.
Drag the handle of the tangent line to change the shape of the associated curve. In the case
of a smooth point, the tangent line affects both adjacent curve segments.
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Path editing shortcuts
To do this
Shortcut
Add an anchor point
Ctrl-click path
Delete an anchor point
Ctrl+Shift-click anchor point
Change the length of the tangent lines on both
sides of a smooth anchor point at the same time
Ctrl-drag tangent line handle
Constrain tangent line to 45-degree increments
Shift-drag tangent line handle
Move tangent line segment independently
(change anchor point from smooth to cusp)
Tab-drag tangent line handle
Align tangent line segments (change corner point Tab-drag tangent line handle
with two tangent lines to smooth point)
Add tangent line to an anchor point
Tab-drag an anchor point
Delete an anchor point’s tangent lines
Tab-click the anchor point or endpoint
Close an open path
Alt-click an endpoint
Reshape a segment without changing the tangent Press Tab and drag the segment
line angles
Reshape A segment and adjacent segments
Press Alt and drag a segment
Converting objects and text to paths
Some vector objects have specialized properties and unique edit modes instead of the standard path
edit mode; e.g., you cannot directly edit the path segments of dynamic objects, concentric circles,
grids, multigons, spirals, and objects modified by the Envelope or Extrude commands; however, you
can convert these objects to paths so you can edit them the same as any other vector object.
If you create paths from a specialized vector object, the new shape does not have the same unique
editing capabilities as the original; e.g., if you convert a Multigon star object to paths, you can no
longer use the edit handles that let you adjust the depth and twirl of the points. Similarly, placed
dynamic objects are no longer linked to their parent objects in the Symbol Library palette after you
convert them to paths.
You can also convert text so you can reshape characters as vector objects. This has the benefit of
making the characters independent of their fonts; the font is no longer required to view and print the
characters properly. However, once you convert text to paths, you can no longer perform text
operations, such as editing, spell-checking, and formatting, on the text. Also, characters with
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“holes” in them (such as a, b, d, e, g, o, p, r, and q) are converted to composite paths, which cannot
be extruded.
To convert an object to paths:
1.
Select the object you want to convert.
2.
Choose Path | Convert To Paths. Canvas converts the object to one or more paths.
To convert objects to simple paths:
This operation facilitates the rapid conversion of vector objects into a simple path. Now any Canvas
object or a group of objects can be converted into simple paths. At the same time, these objects will
maintain their Canvas inks settings and stroke types.
The Convert to simple paths command breaks down everything Convert to path does not. It also
breaks down strokes and inks to simple, yet editable, Bézier paths and polygons.
1.
First select the object.
2.
Choose Path | Convert to Simple Paths.
3.
After completing this operation, choose Object | Ungroup.
At this point, all high level drawing features that are contained in the object are reduced to
individually editable polygon and Bézier objects.
Outlining path stroke
An illustrator may find it necessary to outline a path stroke when working with logos, intricate
artwork, or traced images, etc., especially if the illustrations will be resized.
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Illustration with a 6—point stroke
resized to be 50% smaller
Illustration with a converted stroke
resized by 50%
Even when reduced, the object
maintains stroke size
After conversion, the stroke size is no
longer a factor when reducing objects
To outline a path stroke:
Select the vector object and choose Path | Outline Path Stroke.
You can apply this command to more than one selected vector object or even a grouped
object.
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Original illustration
Illustration with outlined path stroke
To ungroup objects made of multiple paths:
When you convert multiple objects, characters, or specialized vector objects to paths, Canvas
creates a separate path for each shape and groups them.
Choose Object | Ungroup to separate them.
For example, if you convert a five-letter word to paths, the resulting object is a group of five paths.
To edit just one of the five paths, first choose Object | Ungroup. Or, use the Direct Selection tool to
select one path without ungrouping.
Making and breaking composite paths
Create openings in a filled path by incorporating multiple paths into a single, composite path. Areas
between the paths and areas where the paths intersect are transparent.
To create a composite path from multiple paths:
Select the paths you want to make into a composite path. Choose Object | Make Composite or click
the Make Composite button in the Properties bar.
To separate a composite path:
Select the composite path and choose Object | Break Composite or click the Break Composite
button in the Properties bar.
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To symmetrically resize path points:
When using the Symmetrical Drag feature, you can easily create a symmetrical design from a circle,
rectangle, or a complex group of objects.
1.
Select an object and place it into path edit mode.
2.
Right-click to open the context menu.
You also have the ability to select all of the control points, and drag. Doing so will allow
you to quickly resize the object while retaining proper object constraints.
3.
Choose Enable Symmetrical Resize.
4.
Release the mouse and select any of the object’s control points.
5.
Drag to create a new shape for the object.
When you drag the selected control points, notice that the shape is resized from the center of the
object.
Dragging will resize the object
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Simplifying vector paths
The Reduce Points command lets you simplify vector paths by reducing the number of anchor points
in the path.
Simplifying is a good practice when paths you import or create have a very high number of anchor
points. These paths can cause slow printing or printer errors, especially when memory is limited. If
you have problems printing a complex vector path, try simplifying it.
Use the Reduce Points command when one vector object is in path edit mode, or when one or more
vector objects are selected.
Reduce Points works with objects created with the Curve, Auto Curve, Freehand, Smooth Polygon,
and Polygon tools. You can apply it to objects created with other tools if you use the Path | Convert to
Paths command to convert the objects to vector paths.
Reduce Points is not available when specialized vector objects (Concentric Circles, Smart Shapes,
Multigons, and similar objects) are selected or in edit mode. These objects must be converted to
paths to simplify them.
To use the Reduce Points command:
1.
Select one or more vector objects, or place one object in path edit mode (select it and choose
Object | Edit). In edit mode, you can select three or more anchor points and apply Reduce
Points.
2.
Choose Path | Reduce Points.
3.
In the dialog box, drag the slider to set the relative number of anchor points to use for the
path.
Loose: Leaves fewer points in the path by tracing the original path more smoothly.
Tight: Removes fewer points by tracing the original more closely. When more points are
removed, the change in the path can be greater.
4.
Click OK to modify the path.
Converting polygons to Bézier objects
The Fit Bézier command changes a polygon to a Bézier curve path. This command can be applied to a
single selected polygon that is not in edit mode. Fit Bézier is useful when you want to use handles
attached to smooth anchor points to “bend” straight path segments into curves. Using Fit Bézier adds
handles to all the corner points (which do not have handles) that define a polygon.
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Using this command can have varied results, depending on the settings you use. You can convert a
polygon without changing its shape. Or, use the command to smooth the straight segments of a
polygon into gentle curves.
To use the Fit Bézier command:
1.
Select a polygon (open or closed).
A polygon can be created with the Polygon tool, Smooth Polygon tool, or Curve tool if the path
has only corner points, not smooth points. Objects created with the Rectangle tool or Line
tool can be converted to polygons with the Path | Convert to Paths command.
2.
Choose Path | Fit Bézier.
3.
In the dialog box, use these the sliders to adjust the following conversion settings:
Loose-Tight: Controls how closely the modified path will conform to the original path.
Tight results in little deviation from the original path. Loose allows the modified path to be
smoother and deviate farther from the original.
Round-Sharp: Controls how many corners will become rounded in the modified path.
Sharp preserves corners where segments meet at acute angles. Round allows all corners
to become rounded.
These settings can interact and produce similar results at different slider positions; e.g.,
setting one slider at Tight and the other at Round can produce a path that closely
matches the original, but with all corners being rounded. Setting one slider at Loose and
the other at Sharp can result in a path that overall is smoother, but which has some
corners that are not smoothed at all.
4.
Click OK when you’re done. Canvas modifies the object based on the settings you specified.
Joining open vector objects
The Smart Join function lets you join two or more open vector objects together to become a single
object.
To join objects together:
1.
Select the open vector objects you want to join by holding down the Shift key and clicking
objects.
If you do not select any objects, the command will be applied to all open objects in the
document.
2.
Choose Path | Smart Join.
3.
Select the Smart Join options.
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4.
Do one of the following:
Click Apply. The objects are joined according to the Smart Join options, but the dialog box
remains open. If you want to change the options you can do so and click Apply again, or
you can click Cancel to discard the changes and close the dialog box.
Click OK. The objects are joined according to the Smart Join options, and the dialog box is
closed.
Smart Join options
Max distance
between 2 points
Select the maximum distance allowed between two points in order to join
them. For example, if you set the maximum distance to 3 pt, end points
whose distance between two given lines are within 3 points will be
joined.
Max segment at
crossed point
Select the maximum length of a segment from the point where the two
crossed lines join. Unnecessary segments extended from this point are
trimmed.
Source Line
Attributes
Select the types of line attributes for lines that can be joined:
Polygons only: Allow joins between polygons only. This includes
lines.
Beziers only: Allow joins between beziers only. This includes
arcs.
Both: Allow joins between beziers and polygons, or a combination
of the two types.
Matched Stroke: Select this check box to only join lines with the
same stroke. This includes dashes.
Matched Pen Color: Select this check box to only join lines with
the same pen color.
Result Line Attributes
Select the line attributes to be applied to the joined object:
Most Front: Use the line attributes of the front-most object.
Most Behind: Use the line attributes of the rear-most object.
Exporting and importing geometric data
Canvas lets you export numerical data about a geometric object to a text file. You can also import
geometric data from a text file or from a .CSV file.
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Exporting geometric data
To export geometric data:
1.
Open a Canvas document that contains simple, geometric vector objects.
2.
Choose Path | Geometric Export.
3.
In the Geometric Export Options dialog, select the options you want to use.
4.
Click OK.
5.
In the Geometric Export dialog box, select the location where you want to save the file, type a
file name, and click Save.
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Geometric Export options
File Coordinates
System
Displays the current coordinates.
File Coordinates Unit
Displays the current document unit.
Delimiter Option
Select a delimiter option.
Object Type to Export
Select the type of object you want to export.
Objects that are not simple vector objects such as Rounded
Rectangles, Smooth Polygons, Concentric Circles, Spirals,
EasyShapes, Multigons, and Smart Lines should be converted to
paths and/or ungrouped. Otherwise, such objects are not
exported.
Add a header line to
describe export
settings
Select this check box to add a line at the top of the file describing the
export settings.
Field Data
This section displays the data types that are available to be exported. If
the Write column has a Yes, the data type will be exported. By default, all
the data types are set to Yes.
If you do not want to export a type of data, click in the Write column to
change the data type to No.
At least one data type must be set to Yes in order to export
geometric data.
Save as default
If you want to save these settings as your default settings for exporting
geometric data, select this check box.
Importing geometric data
To import geometric data:
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1.
Open the Canvas document you want to import the geometric data into.
2.
Choose Path | Geometric Import.
3.
In the Geometric Import Options dialog, select the options you want to use.
4.
Click OK.
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Geometric Import options
File
Select a .TXT or .CSV file to import.
File Coordinates
System
Select the document coordinate system.
File Coordinates Unit
Select the document unit.
Delimiter Option
Select a delimiter option.
Object Type to Import
Select the type of object you want to import.
Import data starting
from line (skip
header)
If the first line or more of the file you are importing is contains
information describing the export settings, set this to the line number
where the geometric data begins. If there is no header information, leave
this as the default.
Pen Unit
If you want to import Pen Weight, select a pen unit from the drop-down
list.
Field Data
This section displays the data types that are available to be imported. If
the Read column has a Yes, the data type will be imported. By default, all
the data types are set to Yes.
If you do not want to import a type of data, click in the Read column to
change the data type to No.
If you want to change a field number, click in the Field # column.
At least one data type must be set to Yes in order to import
geometric data.
Editing views of 3D objects
In Canvas, you can place a 2D view of a 3D object in your document. After you've placed the object,
you can edit the view, adjusting the orientation, rotation, zoom, and lighting of the object.
This feature works best with the latest video card drivers. If an object is slow to load,
consider updating your video card driver.
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To place a 2D view of a 3D object:
1.
Select the 3D View tool from the Toolbox.
2.
Drag and define a rectangular area where the view of the 3D object will be placed.
3.
In the AutoCAD 3D File Import dialog box, click the Browse button, select the 3D DWG or DXF
file you want to place, then click Open.
4.
Click OK.
A 2D view of the object is placed in the document. By default, the object is cached at a
resolution of 300 ppi to optimize redrawing.
You can change the resolution of the cached image. Select the object, then enter the
resolution in the Res text box in the Properties bar.You can also choose to not cache the
object by deselecting the Cache Object check box.
To modify the view of the 3D object:
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1.
Double-click the 3D object in your Canvas document.
2.
In the 3D View Editor dialog box, use the View, Rotation Angles, and Lighting tools to modify
the view of the object.
3.
Click OK.
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3D View Editor dialog box
View Controls
Adjust the orientation, rotation, and zoom of the object.
Magnifying glass: Select this tool, then click on the preview
image to zoom in. To zoom out, click the tool, then right-click the
preview image.
Hand tool: Select this tool, then drag the preview to change the
part of the image that is displayed in the view.
Free rotation: Drag the preview image through any angle.
X-axis rotation : Drag the preview image along the X axis.
Y-axis rotation : Drag the preview image along the Y axis.
Z-axis rotation : Drag the preview image along the Z axis.
Step rotation: Activated when the X-axis, Y-axis, or Z-axis
rotation icon is selected. Set the step of rotation that will be applied
with the Down and Up icons.
Zoom controls: Zoom in or out using the zoom icons, or enter a
specific level of zoom.
Revert: Click this button to revert the transform (rotation,
positioning, and zoom) of the viewed object to the state it was in
before you opened the 3D View Editor.
Reset: Click this button to reset the transform of the viewed object
to the default setting in the original file.
Rotation Angles
Use the Rotation Angles to set the degree of rotation precisely.
Lighting
Select the Lighting check box to adjust the lighting.
Light color: Set a color of the light source by dragging R, G, and B
sliders or entering in numerical values, or select a color by clicking
on the color spectrum bar with the color picker mouse pointer.
Light source: Enter X, Y, and Z coordinates to set the position of
the light source. Also, you can drag the light source handle in the
Preview window to set X and Y positions intuitively.
Back/Front slider: Drag the slider to set the depth of the light
source along the Z axis (0 – 100).
Light intensity: Drag the slider to adjust the overall brightness of
the light source.
Ambient light color: Set the color of the ambient light. The
default color is white.
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Wireframe
Displays the preview image in wireframe.
Background
Select the background color of the image. By default the color comes
from the original file, or it's set to black.
Only opaque, solid colors can be used. ie. Transparent is not a
valid background color.
Precision drawing & dimensioning
This section describes precision drawing tools and techniques that can help you create scale
drawings, floor plans, architectural designs, and other types of technical drawings. This section
explains how to:
Display size information as you draw.
Set up the scale for scale drawings.
Add dimension objects to illustrations.
Use Smart Mouse to align objects.
Some of the techniques described elsewhere in this book also apply to precision drawing. For
information on document setup and using rulers, see "Document setup" on page 68.
Setting up a document’s measurement scale
Canvas offers a variety of options for creating scale drawings. You can use the Add unit feature to
define a new unit of measurement for a particular document or redefine an existing unit (see "Adding
and modifying units of measurement" on page 75 ). You can also set up a ruler to control the scale of
an entire document as well as customize scale settings for individual dimension objects (see "Setting
up rulers" on page 74). Other settings affect the format of measurement and position data.
The following settings affect the measurement of objects in a document:
Rulers: Set up a document’s overall drawing scale using the Ruler manager and document
scale. The document scale affects all object measurements, including those made with the
Dimensioning tools. The document scale also affects data in the Properties bar and Object
Specs palette (see "Setting up rulers" on page 74 and "Set document scale" on page 78).
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Number Form: A setting in the Ruler manager affects the format of data in the Properties br
and other displays. This option controls the precision of data and the number format
(decimal or fractions) (see "To set up rulers:" on page 75).
Dimensions: You can customize individual dimension objects with the Dimensioning
controls in the Properties bar.
Floating point technology
Projects in the scientific, engineering, medical, and biotechnology industries demand the highest
levels of precision.
When working with very small units of measure, errors can occur since no human system of
numeration can give a unique representation to every real number because there are simply too many
of them.
To meet the demand for increased decimal precision, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) has produced a standard for binary floating point arithmetic (IEEE 754-1985). This
standard specifies how single-precision (32 bit) and double-precision (64 bit) floating point
numbers are to be represented, as well as how arithmetic should be carried out on them. An
application that supports this technology will generate a floating point number; i.e., the decimal
point literally “floats,” and, therefore, achieves a more precise fractional result.
Without installed support for the floating point standard the computations within a computer design
environment will generate only a close approximation of a requested command. Although these
calculations may generate satisfactory results for most purposes, the demands that exist within the
science, engineering, medical, and other related professions dictate that only extremely accurate
results be used within projects.
Canvas’ drawing engine fully supports the IEEE floating point standard.
Displaying dimensions as you draw
Canvas can display the horizontal and vertical dimensions of an object as you draw it. The Show Size
command makes dimensions (in scale) appear at the pointer as you drag with any drawing tool.
These dimensions do not remain in the document.
When Show Size is active, Canvas
displays the scaled size of the
object as you draw.
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To display dimensions when you use drawing tools:
Choose Layout | Display | Show Size. When you select a drawing tool and drag the pointer in an
illustration, the object’s vertical and horizontal measurements appear at the pointer.
The Show Size option can also be toggled in the Display Options manager in the
Configuration Center.
To turn off the dimensions display:
Choose Layout | Display | Hide Size.
Using the Dimensioning tools
You can easily add formatted dimensions to documents with the Dimensioning tools. These tools can
measure horizontal, vertical, oblique and perpendicular distances; measure diameter, radius, angle,
area, and perimeter; and mark the centers of arcs and ovals.
The dimensioning tools are grouped in a single palette (see "Tool palettes" on page 23). The Linear,
Chain, and Baseline tools allow you to create horizontal, vertical, or oblique dimensions, depending
on the position of the cursor upon creation.
In addition, when using the Chain and Baseline Dimensioning tools, you define the first two points as
you would for a Linear dimension. Then, just click on every point you want to add to the dimension,
and the tool creates the dimension object automatically. The result of using the Chain or Baseline
Dimensioning tool is one single object. The current limit for Chain Dimensions is 16.
Baseline dimensions are a series of measurements made from a common starting point.
Chain dimensions are a series of measurements in a row.
Create dimension objects that conform to industry standards, including ANSI, DIN and JIS. You can
also customize the standard settings — the size of lines, gaps, text, and tolerances—and then save
these settings as new standards (see "Using industry standards for dimension objects" on page
364).
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Dimensioning tool
Prompts
Procedure
Click 1st Point,
Click 2nd Point
Click the start point for the measurement, then
click the end point and anchor the dimension
object.
Click 1st Point,
Click Next Point
Click the start point and then click the end
point for the first measurement; anchor the
first part of the dimension object. Click the
next measurement point and anchor the next
part of the dimension object. Continue until
finished, then press Esc.
Linear (Horizontal,
Oblique, and Vertical)
Baseline and Chain
(Horizontal, Oblique, and
Vertical)
Click 1st Line, Click Click the start point for the angular
2nd Line
measurement, then click the end point.
Angle
Click Line, Click
Point
Click the line to measure from, then click a
point anywhere to take a perpendicular
measurement from the line to the point.
Click Object Side
Click the side of the object to be measured.
Click Arc/Ellipse
Click anywhere on the arc or ellipse and then
anchor the dimension object.
Click Object
Click anywhere on the object to be measured
and then anchor the dimension object.
Perpendicular
Object Side
Radius, Diameter, and
Center
Area and Perimeter
To use the Linear Dimensioning tool:
1.
Select the Linear Dimensioning tool. When you move the cursor into the drawing area, a
prompt appears.
2.
Define the first two points of the dimension as indicated by the prompt. Depending on the
cursor’s position, the type of dimension changes according to the mouse movement.
3.
Click the third time to create the dimension object.
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To use the Chain and Baseline Dimensioning tools:
1.
Select either the Chain or Baseline Dimensioning tool. When you move the cursor into the
drawing area, a prompt appears.
2.
Define the first two points of the dimension as indicated by the prompt. Depending on the
cursor’s position, the type of dimension changes according to the mouse movement.
3.
Click the third time to create the first dimension.
4.
Click on other points to add them to the dimension object.
Types of dimensioning tools and measurements
Use the dimensioning tools to add measurements to illustrations. Different tools let you create
different types of dimension objects.
Baseline and chain dimensioning tools create a single dimension object. Baseline dimensions contain
several measurements from a common starting point. Chain dimensions are a series of
measurements.
Vertical
Oblique
Radius
Diameter
Vertical Baseline
Oblique (with aligned text)
Vertical Chain
Angle
Horizontal
Using the dimensioning settings
You can customize the measurement units, scale, arrow position, tolerance text, and other settings
for dimension objects. Use the Dimensioning settings in the Properties bar. These settings are
available when you select a Dimensioning tool or have selected a dimension object. Depending on the
selected Dimensioning tool or object, the Properties bar will display various settings.
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Dimensioning settings
Prefix
Select a prefix from the menu. The available prefixes depend on the
Dimensioning tool used. You can also enter a customized prefix.
Value
Indicates the size of the dimension object. You can change the text value
of the dimension object by entering a value in this field. The actual
object size does not change. If you want to change the actual size of the
dimension object, select the Allow Change Size check box. Click Reset
Value to recalculate the measurement.
Units
Select a unit of measurement from the menu. If you have several
dimension objects in a document, each dimension object can use its own
unit of measurement. Use the document unit or a different unit of
measurement from the menu. Selecting a different unit of measurement
overrides the document unit for that dimension object.
Postfix
Enter a message that is to follow the value; e.g., 10.2 cm R, where “R” is
the Postfix, indicating a radius of 10.2 cm.
Tolerance
Add a tolerance to the end of the measure. “None” is the default, which
means nothing is added; however, you can choose to add Bilateral
tolerance “± value” or Unilateral tolerance “+ value - value”.
Bilateral prints the tolerance amount with “± “ and the dimension text.
Unilateral tolerance prints both tolerance amounts and the dimension
text.
Arrows
This controls the placement of the arrows. Select either Inside, Outside,
None, or Auto (default) (see "Style and Text Display settings" on page
364).
Witness Lines
This controls the length of witness lines. Select either None, Short, or
Long.
Precision
You can choose from no decimals to six decimals, or even use fractions.
Each dimension object can have a different precision.
Scale
Define the scale for the dimension object. If you select Define custom
scale, the Custom scale dialog box opens. Each dimension object can
have a its own scale. The dimension object scale is independent of the
document scale.
Leaders
This controls the placement of the leaders. Select either None, Left,
Right, or Auto (default).
Display Units
Select this check box to make the unit of measurement appear in the
dimension object.
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Separate Thousands
Select this check box if you want to have a comma separator for digit
grouping.
Outside Lines Only
Select this check box to keep the dimension object outside of the object.
This option applies to Radius and Diameter objects.
Use Secondary Units
Select this check box if you want your dimensioning object to display two
different units of measurement; e.g., inches and centimeters (cm).
Choose the secondary unit of measurement from the menu.
Text Display
This controls the placement of the dimension text (see "Text Display" on
page 363).
Standard
Select a dimensioning standard from the menu: ANSI, BS-380, DIN, ISO,
or JIS. The Standard refers to the length of lines, size of tolerance text,
placement of the text, placement of the arrows, etc.
Add
Click this button to add a custom dimension standard (see "New
standard definition" on page 365).
Edit
Click this button to modify a dimension standard (see "New standard
definition" on page 365).
Remove
Click this button to remove the selected dimension standard (see "To
delete a custom standard:" on page 365).
To change the properties of existing dimension objects:
1.
Select the dimension object. The settings appear in the Properties bar.
The Properties bar must be displayed to view the Dimensioning settings. If not open,
choose Window | Show Properties Bar.
2.
Make any adjustments with the settings.
You can change the properties of multiple selected dimension objects as long as the
dimension objects are of the same type.
To change the settings for dimensioning tools:
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1.
Select the Dimensioning tool. The settings appear in the Properties bar.
2.
Make any adjustments to the tool settings and then create the dimension object (see
"Dimensioning settings" on page 361).
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Attributes of dimension objects
When you are using a dimensioning tool, the pen ink of the dimension object appears black with a 1pt stroke; however, once you complete the object, the pen ink switches to the current ink and stroke
settings. By default, the dimension text is 10 pt and uses Arial. In addition, the current stroke color is
applied to the dimension text.
You can change the current ink, stroke, and text settings for new dimension objects, and you can
change these settings for existing dimension objects.
To change the appearance of a dimension object:
Select the object and use the Presets palette to select ink color, pen size, and arrows for the
dimension object.
Dimension objects can still display arrows if all the preset arrows have been deleted from
the Arrow tab in the Presets palette.
To change attributes for new dimension objects:
Make sure that no objects are selected in the document, and then use the Presets palettes to
change the current stroke and ink settings for new objects and text.
To change the text attributes of a dimension object:
The Properties bar allows you quick access to text formatting options for various dimension
objects.
You can scroll the Properties bar if all the options are not visible. Arrows appear on the left
and right indicating that other options are available.
Text Display
Refers to the placement of dimension text in relation to the object.
Horizontal
Text is aligned horizontally in the dimension object.
Aligned
Text is aligned with the angle of the dimension arrows.
Above
Text runs above the dimension arrows.
Below
Text runs below the dimension arrows.
Font & Size
Select a new font and font size for the text from the menus.
Style
Click the buttons to apply a style to the text (Bold, Italic, Underline, and
Frame).
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You can also change the font, size, and styles by using the Text
menu or Type palette.
Style and Text Display settings
Use the following style options in the Properties bar to customize the appearance of dimension
objects.
Text Always Centered
Select this option to keep the text between the arrows. Must be off to
drag dimension text outside the witness lines.
Frame Text
Turn this option on to frame the dimension text.
Use Fill Color for Text
Select this check box if you want the dimension text to use the fill color
rather than frame color of the object.
Linking dimensions to measured objects
Since dimension objects aren’t attached to the objects they measure, dimensions do not change
when you resize objects you have measured. However, you can group a dimension object and the
object that it measures. When you do this and then resize the object, the dimension changes
accordingly.
To group an object and a dimension object:
Select the dimension object and the measured object and choose Object | Group.
Using industry standards for dimension objects
If you want to use industry standard settings for dimension objects, open the Standards menu in the
Properties bar. Select a dimensioning standard from the menu: ANSI, BS-380, DIN, ISO, or JIS. The
Standard refers to the length of lines, size of tolerance text, placement of the text, placement of the
arrows, etc.
Choose from five standard measurement systems:
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
DIN: Deutches Institut für Normung
BS-380: British Standards Institute
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ISO: International Organization for Standardization
JIS: Japanese Industrial Standard
To add a custom standard definition:
1.
Click the Add button.
2.
In the New Standard Definition dialog box, use the controls to create and define
dimensioning standards (see "New standard definition" on page 365).
New standard definition
Once defined, custom standards appear in the Standard menu in the Properties bar.
Standard Name
Enter a name for the new standard.
Units
Select the unit of measurement that you want to use for all settings in
the dialog box.
Extension
Set the length of the witness lines’ extensions and the center line
extension.
Gap
Set the size of the gap between the witness lines and measurement
points on objects; the gap between the center extension and center
point mark; and the gap between the dimension text and dimension
arrows.
Length
Set the length of the arrow lines (applies only when arrows are outside
the witness lines); the length of center extension lines’ leader
characters; and the length of the center extension line.
Tolerance Scale
The size of tolerance text and space between tolerance text, as a
percentage of the dimension text size and spacing.
To edit a standard definition:
1.
Select a dimensioning standard from the menu.
2.
Click the Edit button.
3.
In the Edit Standard Definition dialog box, edit the settings.
To delete a custom standard:
1.
Open the Standards menu.
2.
Select the custom standard definition to be removed.
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3.
Click the Remove button.
Using Smart Mouse for precise alignment
Smart Mouse is a drawing aid that can help the cursor precisely snap to a point on another object
when you are drawing. Snap constraints like Smart Mouse are particularly useful when creating
technical illustrations or documents in which micron-precision is paramount since it can snap the
pointer to the corners, edges, and other points of objects.
Turn off Snap To Grid by choosing Layout | Snap To | Grid. If there is no checkmark, the
option is already turned off. If Snap To Grid is on, the pointer will snap to the grid and not to
active Smart Mouse constraints.
To open the Smart Mouse palette:
Choose Layout | Smart Mouse or Window | Palettes | Smart Mouse.
Types of Smart Mouse constraints
The Smart Mouse tool has 14 types of constraints for your use. The constraints make the pointer (and
objects that you draw or drag) snap to corners or centers of objects, even divisions (such as the
midpoints) of object fractions, specified lengths or angles, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal
movement, tangential or perpendicular alignment with objects, or edges of vector objects.
Relative constraints: Indicate the relationship between the beginning position and current
position when you draw or drag an object. These constraints can display indicators to
indicate a constraint is met. The relative constraints are: Horizontal, Vertical, Diagonal,
Angle, Multiple Angle, Length, Parallel, and Tangential & Perpendicular.
Absolute constraints: Indicate the relationship between the pointer and objects. These
constraints (except Object Edges) can display indicators to show a constraint is met. The
absolute constraints are: Object Corners, Object Fractions, Polygon & Bézier Anchors,
Polygon Fractions, and Object Edges.
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Smart Mouse constraints
When this constraint is Smart Mouse snaps objects and constrains the pointer to
active
Angle
A specified angle
Diagonal
Straight diagonal movement — all multiples of 45°
Horizontal
Straight horizontal movement— 90° and 270°, or 0° and 180°,
depending on the current coordinate system
Vertical
Straight vertical movement — 0° and 180°, or 90° and 270°, depending
on the current coordinate system
Length
A specified length in points (based on 100% magnification)
Multiple Angle
All multiples of the specified angle
Tangential &
Perpendicular
Movement in a straight line, tangent or perpendicular to vector objects
Object Bounds
The bounding box of vector objects
Object Bounds
Fractions
A specified division of vector objects; e.g., specify 1/2 to snap to the
center of objects
Object Points
Any anchor point on the paths of vector objects
Object Paths
Edges of the paths of vector objects (not their bounding boxes); when
Object Paths is active, other constraints don’t affect the pointer
Object Paths
Fractions
Specified divisions of the paths of vector objects; e.g., the pointer snaps
to the midpoints of paths if you specify 1/2
Parallel
Mainly used to facilitate drawing parallelograms. When drawing a
polygon, the Parallel constraint checks all previously drawn lines and
attempts to make the next line parallel with some of them.
To add and activate constraints:
When you add a constraint, it appears in the Smart Mouse palette.
1.
To add a constraint, select New Constraint from the palette or click the New Constraint
button.
2.
In the New Constraint dialog box, select a constraint from the Constraint type menu. The
individual constraint settings at the bottom of the dialog box change according to the
constraint selected in the menu.
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For this constraint
Enter this value
Object Bounds
Fractions, Object
Paths Fractions
Number of divisions; e.g., type 2 if you want the constraint to snap
to the middle (1/2 point) of an object or object path.
Angular
Angular measurement in degrees.
Length
The distance
All constraints require a Snap Tolerance, which is indicated in points. Snap Tolerance
is the maximum distance, horizontally or vertically, from a target point at which the
constraint causes the pointer to snap to the target point.
3.
Click OK to close the New Constraint dialog box. The constraint now appears in the Smart
Mouse palette. When a constraint is added, the check box is automatically selected indicating
that the constraint is active.
Priority of constraints
When multiple constraints are active, the constraint at the top of the constraint list takes precedence.
When a new constraint is added, it appears at the bottom of the constraint list. To change the priority
of a constraint, drag it to a new position in the list.
To activate a constraint:
In the Smart Mouse palette, select the constraint’s check box.
To deactivate a constraint:
In the Smart Mouse palette, deselect the constraint’s check box.
To modify an active constraint:
Select the active constraint. The individual constraint settings appear at the bottom of the palette.
Make any changes to the constraint and press Enter.
To remove a constraint:
Select the constraint in the palette and then click the Trash icon. You can also select the
constraint and choose Remove Constraint from the palette menu. Choose Remove All from the
palette menu to delete all current active constraints.
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Smart Mouse settings
To access Smart Mouse settings:
Open the Smart Mouse palette menu and select Smart Mouse settings.
Select the Show Snap Indicators check box if you want to show that Smart Mouse is active. This
setting also indicates that constraints are met. If this option is selected, you’ll notice that a small
square appears by the cursor.
You can also select the range for the snap function.
Option
Definition
Within Screen
Object must be within the screen area to trigger the constraint. This
range is useful if layout area contains several objects and the zoom in
feature is used.
Within Document
Object must be within the document area to trigger the constraint.
Within x.xx pixels
For absolute constraints only, specifies how close the pointer must be to
an object for the object to trigger the constraint.
Object path editor
This function allows you to view and edit the X/Y coordinates of each individual point of a basic vector
object, polygon, or Bézier curve.
Basic vector objects are rectangles, lines, ovals, and arcs.
To view the points of a single object:
1.
Select the object.
2.
Open the Object Path Editor palette by choosing Object | Object Path Editor. The individual
points are listed in the left column with their corresponding X/Y coordinates in the middle
and right columns.
If you have the GIS+, you can select the Angular Units in the palette menu to view the
points’ coordinates in angular units as opposed to the X/Y position.
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To view the points of multiple objects:
1.
Press Shift and double-click each object to place it in edit mode.
2.
Open the Object Path Editor (Object | Object Path Editor). The Curve menu is now active.
3.
Select the curve whose points you want to appear. The curve number in the menu is
according to the stacking order. The individual points are listed in the left column with their
corresponding X/Y coordinates in the middle and right columns.
To edit X/Y coordinates:
1.
Click in the X or Y field of the point to be modified.
2.
Enter the new coordinate.
3.
Press Enter.
To copy X/Y coordinates:
1.
Select the object.
2.
Open the menu of the Object Path Editor palette.
3.
Select Copy.
4.
Paste the coordinates in the other application.
To paste as polygon or Bézier:
With the Object Path Editor, you can create a polygon or Bézier curve with point values copied from a
spread sheet or tab-delimited file.
1.
Copy the point values in the spreadsheet or tab-delimited file.
2.
Open the menu of the Object Path Editor palette.
3.
Select either Paste As Polygon or Paste As Bézier.
To load polygon or Bézier:
With the Object Path Editor, you can create a polygon or Bézier curve with point values found in a
.txt, .csv, or .prn file.
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1.
Open the menu of the Object Path Editor palette.
2.
Select either Load Polygon or Load Bézier.
3.
Navigate to the file and click Open.
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To save a path:
1.
Open the menu of the Object Path Editor palette.
2.
Select Save Path.
3.
Enter a name for the file in the dialog box and navigate to the folder. You can use .txt, .csv,
or .prn format.
4.
Click Save.
To insert points:
With the Object Path Editor, you can insert points within a path.
1.
Place an object into edit mode.
2.
Select an anchor point.
3.
Open the Object Path Editor palette menu.
4.
Select Insert Point.
5.
In the Insert New Point dialog box, enter the X/Y coordinates for the new point.
6.
Click OK.
Vector effects
Canvas has several special effects that let you develop complex illustrations from basic objects. You
can apply the effects described in this section to any vector object; some can be applied to text
objects, too (see "Type effects" on page 631). These commands help save time by quickly generating
new objects and letting you easily modify the appearance of existing objects.
As you apply effects to objects, keep in mind that some of these operations are system memoryintensive and might significantly increase the resource and storage requirements of a document.
Perspective effects
Commands in the Path | Perspective menu can be used to modify vector objects. The 1 Side, 2 Sides,
and Vanishing Point commands let you slant the bounding boxes of vector objects to align with
vanishing points. By applying these commands, you can make vector objects appear to be drawn in
perspective views.
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About the vanishing point
The Perspective commands apply perspective effects based on a vanishing point. There is one global
vanishing point in a Canvas document. When you use the 1 Side or 2 Sides commands, you set the
vanishing point by dragging a control handle. When you use the Vanishing Point command, you can
set the vanishing point by clicking in the document or entering coordinates.
Using the 1 Side and 2 Sides commands
The 1 Side and 2 Sides commands let you apply perspective effects to vector objects by dragging
control handles. To use these commands, select a single vector object or a group of vector objects.
These commands are not available if multiple objects are selected, or if a paint or text object is
selected.
To apply perspective with 1 Side or 2 Sides:
1.
Select a vector object or a group of vector objects.
2.
In the Path | Perspective menu, choose 1 Side or 2 Sides.
3.
Control handles appear at the corners of the bounding box of the selected object. Drag any of
the handles to apply the perspective effect. As you drag a handle, guide lines indicate the
position of the vanishing point, which extend beyond the current view.
If you choose 1 Side, the side of the object’s bounding box where you drag a handle will
slant to a vanishing point. You can adjust the object’s sides independently.
If you choose 2 Sides, as you drag a handle, the opposite sides of the object’s bounding
box will slant equally toward a vanishing point located along the object’s vertical or
horizontal center axis.
When the pointer is on a control handle, a four-arrow symbol indicates that you can drag
horizontally or vertically. To change directions, point to a control handle until the fourarrow symbol appears again.
4.
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When you finish, press Esc to deselect the object.
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1 Side perspective
2 Sides perspective
Using the Vanishing Point command
The Vanishing Point command applies a perspective effect to one or more vector objects. The
command slants the bounding boxes of selected vector objects so the objects appear in perspective
based on a vanishing point that you select.
The Vanishing Point command is available when vector objects or groups of vector objects are
selected. The command is not available if a paint or text object is selected.
To apply perspective using a vanishing point:
1.
Select one or more vector objects or groups of vector objects.
2.
Choose Path | Perspective | Vanishing Point.
3.
In the dialog box, change the coordinates to move the vanishing point, or click in the
document to set the vanishing point.
To enter coordinates: Type coordinate values in the text boxes. Coordinates are based
on the document’s rulers.
To set the vanishing point visually: Click Choose. Move the pointer and click to set
the vanishing point. The coordinates of the point you click appear in the text boxes.
To restore the previous vanishing point coordinates: Click Reset.
4.
Click OK to apply the perspective effect.
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The Effects | Remove Effects command will not remove perspective effects that have been
applied to objects.
Offsetting paths
Use the Offset Path command to create new objects that follow the path of a vector object.
Composite objects created by the Concentric Circles, Spiral, Cube, Gridmaker, or Multigon
tools cannot be offset.
An offset object’s path follows the inside or outside of the original object’s path. Specify the offset
distance and the number of objects to create. You can offset one vector object at a time.
To offset an object:
1.
Select a vector object and choose Effects | Offset Path.
2.
In the Offset Path dialog box, type the offset distance in the Distance box. In the Copies box,
type the number of copies to make.
3.
Click OK to create the offset objects.
Canvas applies the current inks and stroke to offset objects (see "Inks: colors & patterns" on page
223 and "Strokes: outline effects" on page 257). The new objects appear in front of the original if
they are smaller; otherwise, they appear behind it.
The direction of the offset depends on whether you type a positive or negative Distance value.
When you offset an object that has an open path, type a negative value to offset the new object to the
inside of the curve. Type a positive value to offset the new object to the outside of the curve.
When you offset an object that has a closed path, type a negative number to offset the new object to
the inside of the original path. Type a positive number to offset the new object to the outside of the
original path.
An offset object can differ in shape from the original object, if a large offset distance makes the path
cross itself to follow narrow angles or tight curves of the original object.
Using clipping paths
A clipping path is a special object that creates a frame or window on an object. You can use text
objects and vector objects as clipping paths.
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You can apply a clipping path to one or more objects. The clipping path frames the objects to which it
is applied. Anything inside the clipping path remains visible, while anything outside the path is
hidden, or “clipped.”
If you apply an oval clipping path to a photo, for example, the photo is visible inside the oval, while
any part of the photo outside the oval is not visible.
Since clipping paths are vector objects, clipping effects print smoothly at maximum resolution on any
printer, including PostScript and non-PostScript devices.
Clipping paths create hard-edged effects. Clipping paths are often used to “cut” photos and
illustrations into shapes such as circles or curves. Use text as a clipping path to create the effect of
text characters filled with photos or other graphics (see "Using text as clipping paths" on page 642).
If you want to create feathered or graduated clipping effects, use vector transparency masks and
channel masks instead of clipping paths (see "SpriteLayer effects" on page 666).
To apply a clipping path:
1.
Position a text or vector object in front of the objects to be clipped. (select an object and
choose Object | Arrange | Bring to Front to put the clipping object in front of other objects.)
2.
Select both the clipping object and objects to be clipped.
3.
Choose Object | Clipping Path | Make to clip the selected objects.
If you want to use a special object (such as a star created by the Multigon tool) as a clipping path, the
object must be converted to a vector path first. Select the object and choose Path | Convert to Paths.
If a selected object can’t be used as a clipping path, the Clipping Path | Make command is
not available.
To hide clipping paths:
Choose Object | Clipping Path | Hide. Canvas makes the strokes of all clipping paths invisible.
To show clipping paths:
Choose Object | Clipping Path | Show. Canvas shows the clipping paths with a 1-point black
stroke.
To remove a clipping path:
Select the clipping path or a clipped object and choose Object | Clipping Path | Release. Canvas
restores the clipped objects to full view, and the clipping path object appears with its original
attributes.
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Text in front of paint object
Text clipping path
Editing clipping paths
After applying a clipping path, you can move it and the clipped objects independently. Dragging the
clipping path frames a different part of the clipped objects. Dragging a clipped object changes its
position inside the frame of the clipping path.
You can apply several effects to a clipping path. Select the clipping path and choose Effects |
Freeform to display handles that you can drag to skew and rotate the clipping path. You can also
apply the Fractalize, Rotate, and Flip commands to a selected clipping path.
You can reshape a clipping path in several ways. Select a clipping path and drag its handles to
change the size or shape of its bounding box. To reshape a vector object path, double-click it, or
select it and press Ctrl+E. With the path in edit mode, use path-editing techniques to move, add, or
delete anchor points. When you finish editing, press Esc to reapply the clipping path.
To edit a text clipping path:
Use the Text tool or double-click the text to put it in edit mode. You can insert and delete
characters in edit mode. When you finish, press Esc to reapply the clipping path.
To change the formatting of a text clipping path:
Select the clipping path and use the Text menu or the Type palette to change its font, style, size,
or other attributes. When a text clipping path is selected, you can use the Spell Check Selection
command to check its spelling.
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Because clipping paths are special objects, they do not display the pen inks, fill inks, or strokes of
their original objects. Canvas displays clipping paths with 1-point black strokes (which the Clipping
Path | Hide command makes invisible).
If you select a clipping path and change its inks or stroke, Canvas applies the attributes to the object,
but the attributes aren’t visible unless you use the Release command to convert the clipping path
back into a vector or text object.
Combining objects
The Combine command in Canvas allows you to create new objects from the intersection of two or
more vector objects. You can outline the overlapping objects, delete all except the overlapping area,
subtract the overlapping area, and perform other combinations.
Combine effects
To access the Combine menu, select more than one vector object. To use a combine method, each
selected object must overlap at least one other selected object.
To combine objects:
1.
Select two or more objects that you want to combine.
2.
Open the Combine menu or use the Combine palette (Effects | Combine).
3.
Select a combine method and the effect immediately happens.
Selecting a combine method
The Combine menu contains various methods for combining objects. Some methods require that the
paths of overlapping objects intersect for the effect to be visible or work properly. In addition, some
methods work only with closed vector objects, and not with lines and open curves.
Trim: Trims intersecting lines or arcs by shortening them until they meet at a vertex. You
can trim a line to a line, an arc to an arc, or an arc to a line. In each case, Canvas trims the
shorter segments of the intersecting lines and arcs. Trimmed lines and arcs remain separate
and retain their attributes.
Trim also trims lines or arcs where they intersect closed vector objects. The vector objects do
not change.
If Canvas can’t trim the selected objects, a message tells you that the operation requires at least
one open path.
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Original objects
Trim applied
Outline: Creates one path around the selected objects and fills the interior of the new shape
with the ink of the front object.
Original objects:
two circles and
a rotated square
Objects combined
with the Outline method
Outline shape smoothed
into a heart using pathediting techniques
Add: Joins two objects where they overlap to create a compound path, and fills the new
shape with the ink of the front object. Compound paths can include multiple closed shapes
that have holes in them, unlike objects created with the Outline option.
With the Add method, Canvas merges the cigarette to the prohibited symbol to create a no
smoking sign.
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Original objects
Combined with Add
method
Intersect: Creates a new object from the intersection of all selected objects and fills the
new object with the ink of the front object. All selected objects must be closed paths and
share a common area.
The Intersect method helps you
create some useful, basic shapes.
Here, the intersection of two
circles (highlighted) results in an
eye shape.
Punch: Removes the area where selected objects intersect and fills the new object with the
ink of the front object. If you select more than two objects, Canvas starts with the back
object and continues forward through the stacking order.
Subtract Front: Removes from the back object the areas of overlapping objects in front.
The back object retains its ink attributes.
Create a quick illustration of a holly leaf by combining a group of circles with a rectangle and
then applying the Subtract Front command to that selected group of objects.
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Create and group objects
With objects selected, Finished
choose Subtract Front object
Subtract Back: Removes from the front object the areas of overlapping objects behind it.
The front object retains its ink attributes.
Crop: Removes areas of objects that are not behind the top object.
Oval used to crop a vector drawing of an
airplane
A symbol-filled oval provides a background
Divide: Creates new objects where selected objects overlap. This option lets you use lines to
“cut” other objects in pieces.
Slice: Cuts the path of an object where it intersects with objects in front of it in the stacking
order. The slice method results in two closed paths; e.g., slicing a circle in half with a line
produces two closed semicircles.
Mix: Creates new objects where selected objects overlap, similar to the Divide option.
However, Canvas fills overlapping areas with a new color (the original colors must be solid).
To determine the new color, Canvas compares the CMYK values of all the overlapping objects
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and uses the highest value of each color. (If you are using RGB colors, Canvas first converts
the colors to CMYK.) For example:
Cyan
Magenta
Yellow
Black
Color 1
50
30
25
5
Color 2
25
40
20
0
New Color
50
40
25
5
Transparency: Creates new objects where selected objects overlap, and fills overlapping
areas with a new RGB color (the original colors must be solid). However, transparency lets
you specify the level of transparency. When you select the Transparency option, enter a
percentage in the text box that appears; 100% is completely transparent, and zero is
opaque.
Using the Transparency method,
the artist created the illusion that
you can see through the cover of
the CD case. You can see the
bottom of the case through the
cover.
If multiple overlapping objects are grouped, Canvas treats the group as a single object and
doesn’t apply the transparency or mix effect within the group.
Blending objects
Using the Blend effect, create gradual transitions in shape, color, and stroke width between two or
more objects. Canvas generates a series of objects (from back-to-front through the stacking order)
that appear to transform one object into another.
Canvas can blend solid color inks only. If you blend objects with hatches, symbols, textures,
or gradients, Canvas generates the blend objects but doesn’t fill them with an ink.
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Artists often use blends to create highlights and shadows in vector drawings that provide the illusion
of roundness and lighting. In addition, use blends to copy and evenly distribute objects around
shapes to create borders.
To blend objects:
1.
Select two or more vector objects.
2.
Choose Effects | Blend.
3.
Configure the settings.
4.
Click Apply.
Blend Object options
# of shapes
The number of objects Canvas creates for the blend. Higher numbers
result in smoother blends.
Rainbow colors
Creates a rainbow-like blend of colors between objects. This introduces
more color variations than a standard blend, which uses only
combinations of the original colors. When you turn on this option, two
buttons appear; choose a clockwise or counter-clockwise path around
the color wheel.
Bind to a path
Select to use the path of an object (not in the current selection) to
arrange blend objects. Click Apply and then you have to choose a path.
Click the object to which you want to bind the blend objects.
Point to point
Available when blending two objects. This option lets you rotate blend
objects, creating the illusion that one object is twisting into another.
When you click Apply, Canvas prompts you to Choose 1st Point; click an
anchor point on one object. Canvas then prompts you to Choose 2nd
Point; click an anchor point on the other object. To reverse the blend
direction, Ctrl-click when you choose the two points.
Dynamic
Lets you use the Direct Selection tool (hollow arrow) to accelerate,
decelerate, expand, contract, and redirect the blend after Canvas
creates it. Dynamic blends aren’t available for specialized objects, such
as multigons, spirals, concentric circles, and grids.
Using blends for dimensional effects
By specifying a high number of blend objects, you can create gradual transitions between shapes
and colors. With the appropriate settings, colors seem to fade and mix into each other, and the blend
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objects do not appear as distinct objects. This effect is often used to add realistic highlights and
shadows to objects so they appear three-dimensional.
When configuring the blend settings, remember that the size of the final output affects the number
of shapes required to make the blend appear smooth. For large posters, you might need to use a lot of
shapes, but fewer shapes are required for small illustrations.
To ensure that blended objects have the same number of anchor points, copy an object, edit
its shape, and blend between these objects.
In addition, objects that you blend must have the same number of anchor points for the blend to
appear smooth. Canvas uses the anchor points to calculate the steps and shapes in a blend; an
inconsistent number of anchor points can cause unwanted twists and distortions.
Using blends to create patterns
Although blends are often used to create gradual, smooth transitions between shapes and colors, you
can also use the Blend command to create and evenly space a pattern across a layout. By specifying a
low number of shapes and widely spacing the front and back objects, you can make each blend
object a distinct object. This effect can be useful for creating borders and other patterns.
The artist created this border by first creating a flower-like multigon, copying it, and drawing an
oval. To distribute the flowers evenly around the oval, the artist selected the two multigons, turned
on the “Bind to a path” option in the Blend palette, specified a relatively low number of shapes (10)
for the blend, and chose the oval as the binding path.
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Enveloping objects
The Envelope command lets you distort shapes and text, as if an illustration was drawn on a rubber
sheet and then stretched.
When an object is in envelope edit mode, its bounding box acts like the rubber sheet. Canvas
includes several envelope styles that offer various handles you can use to stretch an object’s
bounding box. Using this effect, you can create new shapes, add a sense of motion to an illustration,
arrange text so it appears to be painted on a three-dimensional object, or distort an image (see
"Envelope effect" on page 546).
The Envelope command distorted the
type to match the contour of the ship’s
hull
Using envelope templates
Canvas has several envelope templates that you use to instantly distort shapes. The silhouettes in the
template scroll list show the distortion created by each template. In addition, you can create your
own envelope templates. After you apply the envelope effect to an object, you can acquire the shape
of the envelope as a template.
To apply an envelope template:
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1.
Select a vector object.
2.
Choose Effects | Envelope to open the Envelope palette.
3.
In the palette, choose Template in the menu.
4.
Select a preview shape in the scroll list to select it, and click Apply.
Chapter 4: Drawing And Vector Effects
To save an envelope as a template:
To store an object’s envelope as a template, you must first use the envelope effect on the object (see
"To apply an envelope effect:" on page 385). You can’t acquire a standard vector shape, such as a
circle, unless you first apply the envelope effect.
1.
Select an object that has been edited using the envelope effect. The object cannot be in
envelope edit mode.
2.
Choose Effects | Envelope to open the Envelope palette.
3.
In the menu, choose Template.
4.
Click Acquire; a preview of the envelope shape appears in the scroll box.
To delete an envelope template:
1.
In the Envelope palette, choose Template in the menu.
2.
Click a preview shape in the scroll box to select it, and click Delete.
Using envelope styles
In addition to envelope templates, Canvas has six envelope styles that let you edit shapes in different
ways. Each style moves and changes the bounding box in a particular way. See "Envelope styles and
editing options" on page 386 for information on the attributes of each style.
To apply an envelope effect:
1.
Select a vector object.
2.
Choose Effects | Envelope to open the Envelope palette.
3.
Choose an envelope style in the menu and click Apply.
4.
Drag the envelope handles that appear on the bounding box of the object to edit the shape.
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Envelope styles and editing options
Example
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Style
Number of handles
Envelope behavior
Warp
Enter the number of
horizontal and vertical
handles in the text
boxes.
Each handle behaves like a path anchor
point and can move in any direction.
Distort
Four
Each side of the envelope edit box is a
straight line; handles can move in all
directions. This style is useful for creating
perspective.
Straight Line
Eight
All handles are connected by straight
lines. Corner handles are constrained to
right-angle movements; side handles can
move in all directions.
Single Cusp
Eight
Side handles form convex or concave
curves between corner handles. Side
handles can move in any direction; corner
handles are constrained to right-angle
movements.
Double Cusp
Eight
Side handles form S-shaped curves
between corner handles. Side handles can
move in any direction; corner handles are
constrained to right-angle movements.
Bézier
Eight
All handles behave like smooth anchor
points and can move in any direction.
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Extruding objects
The Extrude command lets you create objects that appear to have three dimensions. Extrude vector
and text objects in parallel style, and vector objects in circular and semi-circular (“sweep”) style.
You can rotate and scale extruded objects in three-dimensional space. You can set the placement,
intensity, and color of a simulated light source for shading extruded objects. Solid color fill inks can
be applied to extruded objects. Strokes and other inks are not supported.
To extrude an object:
1.
Select an object for the extrusion you want to create:
For parallel extrusion, select a text or vector object, or a group object containing one or
both types of objects.
For circular or sweep extrusion, select a vector object.
2.
Choose Effects | Extrude to display the Extrude palette.
3.
Select a preset or custom extrusion setting:
Using presets: From the preset extrusion palettes, select an extrusion icon to extrude
the selected object. The icons show the angle and position of the extruded object. Canvas
uses a default extrusion depth for parallel extrusions, and a default Steps setting for
circular extrusions.
Using custom settings: Click the arrow to expand the palette. Choose an extrusion
style, lighting color, and other options. Click Apply to extrude the selected object.
4.
If you select Circular or Sweep style, an extrusion axis appears (see "Completing a circular or
sweep extrusion" on page 388).
Extrusion palette
Rotate buttons
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Parallel presets
Circular presets
Lighting presets
Completing a circular or sweep extrusion
When you set up a circular or sweep extrusion, specify the number of steps you want Canvas to use.
The more steps, the smoother and less “blocky” the extrusion appears.
To specify the number of steps for a circular or sweep extrusion:
In the Extrude palette, enter a number between six and 60 in the “# of Steps” text box.
After you apply a circular or sweep extrusion to an object using the expanded Extrude palette, you
need to set the extrusion axis, which is represented by a black bar. A mirror image of the selected
object shows the extrusion at 180°.
To set the extrusion axis:
Drag the black bar right, left, up, or down, depending on the direction you want to extrude. The
mirror image of the object moves as you drag the axis. Press Enter or double-click to complete the
extrusion.
Circular and sweep extrusions
Original object
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Axis
Circular
extrusion
Axis
180º sweep
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Extrusion options
Use palettes of extrusion and lighting presets in the Extrusion palette to modify extruded objects. If
you expand the Extrude palette, you can use options to control lighting and rotation of extrusions.
You can set these options before you extrude an object, or to edit an extruded object.
Before extruding a selected object, set up the options you want and click Apply to extrude
the object.
After extruding an object, double-click it, change the settings you want, and click Apply to
apply the settings.
You can control the color and position of the light source to change the shading of extruded objects.
Canvas uses shades of gray to create highlights and shadows. Canvas then mixes the highlights and
shadows with the color of the light source and fill color of the object.
Extrusion styles
In the expanded Extrude palette, select the extrusion style from the pop-up menu.
Parallel: Adds depth to an object, as though the shape were cut out of a slab of clay. You
can create parallel extrusions with text objects and vector objects.
Circular: Extrudes a shape in a circular path. You can set the diameter of the extrusion path
and number of steps (6-60) in the extrusion. You can apply circular extrusions to vector
objects, but not text.
Sweep: Extrudes a shape along a circular path, and lets you specify the number of degrees
(10 to 360) to extrude. You can also set the diameter of the extrusion path and the number of
steps (6-60) in the extrusion. You can apply sweep extrusions to vector objects, but not
text.
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Extrude options
Extrusion style
Select an extrusion style. For Sweep style, also enter the angular length,
from 10° to 360°.
# of Steps
For Circular or Sweep style, number of steps controls the number of
facets on the surface of the extrusion. Enter a value from 6 to 60.
Light color
Choose a light source color from the palette.
Back/Front
Drag the slider to specify the depth of the light source in 3D space
(along the Z axis).
Intensity
Drag the slider to adjust the overall brightness of the light source.
Drag the handle to set the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) position of the
light source and preview the effect.
Light Source
Use the handle and Back/Front slider, or enter X, Y, and Z coordinates to
set the position of the light source.
Ambient Light
Drag the slider to adjust the highlight and shadow contrast.
Rotation Angles
Enter X, Y, and Z values in degrees to rotate the extruded object in 3D
space.
Extruding objects
When you drag a handle, Canvas extrudes the object outward, along the corresponding axis; i.e.,
dragging a handle to the right extrudes the object to the right and left simultaneously.
Editing extruded objects
Immediately after you extrude an object, the object is in extrusion edit mode. In edit mode, Canvas
displays three axes, representing the three dimensions. Each axis has a handle, and when you roll
the pointer over a handle, it changes to an extrusion pointer. Otherwise, the pointer appears as a
rotation pointer.
When an extruded object is selected or in edit mode, the extrusion options are available in the
Extruded palette as well as in the Properties bar.
To exit extrusion edit mode:
Double-click outside the object or press Esc.
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To change the shape of extruded objects:
When an extruded object is not in edit mode, you can resize and reshape it like other twodimensional vector objects:
Drag a handle on the bounding box to resize the object.
Place the object in Freeform mode to skew the object.
Use the Scale command or Properties bar to resize the object.
In addition to these two-dimensional editing functions, extruded objects have unique, threedimensional properties. When an object is in extrusion edit mode, you can make it thicker, wider, or
taller, and Canvas redraws the object to account for lighting changes.
To change the color of extruded objects:
When you extrude a vector object, Canvas uses combinations of a solid-color fill ink, shades of gray,
and the light-source color to create a three-dimensional appearance.
In the Extrude palette or the Properties bar, apply solid fill inks and change the color of the light
source.
When you change colors, Canvas redraws the object to show the interaction of the new colors with
the object’s shape and shading.
To rotate extruded objects:
You can rotate extruded objects in several ways:
Click the rotation buttons on the Extrude palette or Properties bar.
Enter values in the Rotation Angles text boxes in the expanded Extrude palette.
Rotate and scale extruded objects interactively.
To rotate and scale an extruded object, the object can either be selected or in extrusion edit mode.
To place an extruded object in edit mode:
Double-click the extruded object with the Selection tool.
To rotate an extruded object interactively:
When you first apply the Extrude effect, the object might appear flat if it is facing you (with the Z axis
pointing directly at you).
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1.
Rotate an edge of the object toward you.
2.
With the rotation pointer, drag a side in the direction you want to rotate the object.
As you drag, Canvas displays a circle to show the space in which the object can rotate.
3.
Drag inside the circle to rotate the object in all three dimensions.
4.
Drag outside the circle to rotate the object on the plane that is facing you.
You can also rotate an extruded object in two dimensions, like other vector objects, choosing Effects
| Rotate or Freeform. The object can’t be in extrusion edit mode to use these commands. When you
use the Rotate and Freeform commands, Canvas does not reapply lighting effects as with threedimensional rotation; i.e., the light source appears to move with the object, instead of remaining in
the same place as the object rotates.
Colorizing objects
Use the Colorize command to tint vector objects with solid color fill or pen inks when you want to mix
two colors, or shade one color with another. Doing this in the Presets palette can be complicated,
since you have to create a custom color and set the correct values to approximate a two-color
mixture. The Colorize command lets you simply select two colors and choose the percentage of each.
To colorize a vector object:
1.
Select at least one vector object that has a solid color fill or pen ink. Colorize has no effect on
gradient, hatch, texture, and symbol inks.
2.
Choose Effects | Colorize.
3.
In the Colorize dialog box, turn on the Fill and Stroke options to colorize both, or select the
one ink you want to colorize.
4.
In the pop-up color palettes, select the colors you want to add to the inks of the selected
objects.
5.
Use the sliders or enter a percentage in the text boxes to set the amount of color to mix with
the object’s color.
6.
Turn on Preview to see the effect or click OK to colorize the object.
How colorization works
Canvas uses the specified percentages to determine the new color values for the selected object. For
each color value (e.g., Red, Green, and Blue in the RGB color model), Canvas finds the difference
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between the tint and the original color. Then, Canvas multiplies the differences by the percentage
you specify, and adds these values to the original color values.
Colorization calculations
An object’s color has a red value of 40%. To tint 50% with a color that has a red value of 100%,
Canvas calculates a new red value of 70%. The same calculations apply to the green and blue values
for an RGB color.
Fractalizing objects
Fractals are mathematical transformations that simulate the irregularities and patterns in natural
shapes, such as coastlines and mountain ranges. When you fractalize a vector object, its outline
becomes jagged. You can use the Fractalize command to add a fractal effect to any vector object
except dimension objects and Smart Lines.
Vector objects
Fractalized mountains
To fractalize an object:
1.
Select at least one object and choose Effects | Fractalize.
2.
Enter the Wiggle and Density values, and choose Curves or Polygon fractals.
3.
Click Apply to preview the effect. Click OK to apply the effect and close the dialog box.
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Fractalize options
Wiggle
The amount a fractalized path can deviate from the original path. Enter a
number between 0 and 20; higher numbers increase the amount of
wiggle.
Density
The smoothness of the fractalized path. Enter a number between 0 and
5. Higher values increase the number of anchor points Canvas add to the
path. Lower densities result in sharper angles.
Curves or Polygon
Polygon fractals can be jagged and use many anchor points, while
curves fractals are smoother and require fewer additional anchor points.
Canvas fractalizes objects by adding several anchor points to an object’s path. High wiggle
and density settings and polygon fractals can add numerous anchor points, which require
more memory to print. Lower settings and curves fractals can help to conserve system
resources and eliminate problems you might have while printing.
Creating shadows for objects
The Shadow command lets you apply two types of offset (“drop”) shadows to selected objects. Use
the command to apply a shadow made of vector objects or an image. Canvas places the shadow
directly behind the selected object in the stacking order.
You can edit shadow objects independently from the objects they are shadowing. Skew them to
create oblique shadows and use filters to change their appearance. The original object and shadow
are not grouped, so editing or moving one doesn’t affect the other.
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Vector and image type shadows with
different offsets
You can apply shadow effects to any vector or text object except dimension objects and Smart Lines.
If you apply a vector shadow to a group of objects, Canvas groups the shadow objects and places the
shadow behind the original group. If you apply a shadow to a paint object, Canvas creates a shadow
of the paint object’s bounding box.
To create an offset shadow:
1.
Select an object and choose Effects | Shadow.
2.
In the Shadow dialog box, select options (see "Shadow options" on page 396).
3.
Click Apply to see the effect. To accept the settings and close the dialog box, click OK.
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Shadow options
Shadow type
Select Object to create a vector object shadow. Select Image to create a
paint object shadow. A vector shadow has a hard edge and can be edited
like any vector object. An image shadow can be softened using the
Gaussian Blur option and can be edited like any paint object.
Shadow color
Select the color to apply to the shadow object from the color palette.
Offset
Specify the location of the shadow relative to the original object. Enter
the distance and angular direction to offset the shadow in the first text
boxes, or enter the horizontal and vertical distances to offset the shadow
in the second text boxes.
Image options
These options are available when Image is selected. Specify the amount
of blur in the Gaussian Blur box. Select the color mode of the paint object
from the Mode menu. Set the image resolution in the “Res” box. To apply
anti-aliasing, select an option from the menu.
Size
The value shows the amount of memory required for the paint object
based on the current Image Options settings.
Binding objects to path
The Bind to Path command is used to bind and align vector objects to a selected path.
If you create your object before you create the path, any irregular object must first be
converted to paths (Path | Convert to Paths) before choosing Effects | Bind to Path. This
method applies to objects created with the Multigon, Polygon, Spiral, Concentric Circles, and
Cube tools.
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To bind an object to a path:
1.
First create the path to which you are going to bind an object.
2.
Then create the object and then select both.
3.
Choose Effects | Bind to Path to open the Bind to Path dialog box.
Enter number of copies of objects.
Choose alignment of Top, Centers, or Bottom of path.
Rotate Objects to Path. When checked, the object will rotate based on the direction of the
path.
4.
Click the OK button to accept.
Dynamic objects & clipart
You can speed up many projects by taking advantage of reusable dynamic objects and ready-made
illustrations. This section describes how to use the Symbol Library.
Working with the Symbol Library palette
The Symbol Library palette comes stocked with a range of symbols you can use in your Canvas
documents, or you can create your own symbols and add them to the Symbol Library. You can create
symbols from any vector, text, group, or paint object. If you change the symbol in the palette, all the
copies in the document will also change. For example, if you add a logo to the Symbol Library, and the
logo is updated, you can simply replace the logo in the Symbol Library, and all instances of the logo in
your document are updated.
To open the Symbol Library palette:
Choose Window | Palettes | Symbol Library.
Preview Size
You can preview the symbols in one of three sizes:
Small: 72 x 72 px
Medium: 108 x 108 px
Large: 144 x 144 px
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To change the symbol preview size:
1.
Click the Symbol Library palette menu button.
2.
Select Toggle Preview Size.
Symbol Library options
To set the Symbol Library options:
1.
Click the Symbol Library palette menu button.
2.
Select Symbol Library Options.
Replace Options
Select the options for replacing an element with a symbol:
Preserve source object size: Preserves the size of the object you
are replacing with a symbol.
Preserve aspect ratio of placed symbol: Preserves the aspect
ratio of the symbol, regardless of the size of the object you are
replacing.
Directory Paths of My
Symbols
This section lists the directory paths of the folders in the Symbol Library
palette, including the default path to the folder where your My Symbols
are located.
Add Path: Click this button to add a directory path to symbols
located on your computer.
Delete Path: Click this button to delete a selected directory path.
Symbol properties
Before you place a symbol from the Symbol Library palette, be sure to review the symbol properties in
the Properties bar.
X and Y
Displays the X and Y coordinates where the symbol will be placed by
default.
Reference point
Displays the reference point for the symbol. This is the point on the
selected object (or its bounding box) that position data is based on.The
reference point is also the fixed point used in an object’s transformation.
Width and Height
Displays the height and width of the object.
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Original size
Uses the symbol's original size.
Use original color
Uses the symbol's original color. If you do not select this check box, the
symbol uses the default attributes from the Toolbox.
Preserve original
proportions
Uses the symbol's original proportions.
Create
Click Create to place the selected symbol in the document.
Placing symbols
To place symbols:
1.
Select the symbol in the Symbol Library palette.
2.
Move the cursor into the layout area. The cursor changes to a place pointer.
3.
Do one of the following:
To place the symbol at its original size, click in the layout area where you want to place
the upper left corner of the symbol.
To scale the symbol while you place it, drag the pointer to set the bounding box size.
Canvas scales the symbol to fit the bounding box.
To constrain the proportions as you drag the point to set the bounding box, press Shift while
scaling.
Searching for and replacing symbols
To search for a symbol in the Symbol Library:
1.
2.
In the Symbol Library palette, type a search term in the search box.
Click the Search icon.
To search for a symbol in your document:
1.
Right-click the symbol in the Symbol Library palette.
2.
Choose Search and Select.
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Canvas searches your document and selects every instance of the symbol.
To replace a symbol:
1.
Select the symbol you want to replace in the document.
2.
Select the replacement symbol in the Symbol Library palette.
3.
Click Replace. The symbol in the document is replaced with the symbol selected in the
Symbol Library palette.
Managing and organizing symbols and categories
To create a new category:
1.
Select an existing category in the My Symbols section of the Symbol Library palette.
2.
Right-click the category and select Create Category.
3.
In the Add Category dialog box, type a name for the category, then click OK.
To rename a category:
1.
Double-click a category in the My Symbols section of the Symbol Library palette.
2.
Type a new name for the category.
To remove a category:
1.
In the Symbol Library palette, click the Symbol Library palette menu button.
2.
Select Symbol Library Options.
3.
Select the category you want to remove.
4.
Click Delete Path.
5.
Click OK.
The path to the category is removed, so the category will no longer appear in the Symbol
Library palette. However the folder and any symbols in it are not deleted. If you want to show
this category again, you can re-add the path to the category.If you no longer need the
category or symbols, you can delete the folder and symbols in Windows Explorer.
To delete a symbol:
You can delete symbols from the My Symbols section of the Symbol Library.
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1.
In the Symbol Library palette, select the symbol you want to delete.
2.
Right-click and select Delete.
To select more than one symbol, hold down the Shift key while you click one or more
symbols.
To add a set of symbols to the Symbol Library:
If you have an existing set of symbols you want to add to the Symbol Library, you can simply add the
directory path to the Symbol Library Options dialog box.
1.
In the Symbol Library palette, click the Symbol Library palette menu button.
2.
Select Symbol Library Options.
3.
Click Add Path, browse for the folder containing your set of symbols, and then click OK.
4.
Click OK to close the Symbol Library Options dialog box.
Canvas creates a new category corresponding to the folder name of the directory you
selected.
To move a symbol to another category:
Drag the symbol from the Preview area to the name of the new category.
To add keywords:
1.
In the Symbol Library palette, select the symbols you want to add keywords to.
2.
Right-click one of the selected symbols, and select Add Keywords.
3.
In the Add Keywords dialog box, type the keywords, then click OK.
To delete keywords:
1.
In the Symbol Library palette, select the symbols you want to delete keywords from.
2.
Right-click one of the selected symbols, and select Delete All Keywords.
3.
Click Yes.
Creating new symbols
You can create your own symbols from a single vector object, a group of vector objects, or a
composite object. Text is converted to a path when an object is saved as a symbol.
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Save your new symbols in the My Symbols folder so that they are available in the Symbol
Library palette. If you prefer to create a new folder for your symbols, you can add the path
to the folder in the Symbol Library Options dialog box so that you can see the symbols in the
Symbol Library palette.
To create a symbol:
1.
Create a vector object, group of vector objects, or composite object in Canvas.
2.
Select Object | Export As Symbol.
3.
In the Browse For Folder dialog box, select a location for the symbol, and click OK.
4.
In the Name Symbol dialog box, do one of the following:
If you want Canvas to automatically name the symbol for you, select the Automatic
Naming check box, and enter a Prefix and Keyword.
If you want to create a name for the symbol yourself, deselect the Automatic Naming
check box, and type the name in the Name field.
5.
Click OK.
If you want to add a new symbol to an existing category under My Symbols, you can simply
drag an object from your Canvas document to the category in the Symbol Library palette. In
the Name Symbol dialog box, enter a name or use automatic naming, and enter any
keywords you want to add to the symbol.
Modifying preinstalled symbols
Canvas comes with hundreds of preinstalled symbols, many of which do not contain any fill. Because
they don't contain any fill, if you try to apply a fill ink from the Toolbox, nothing happens. However, if
you place the symbol in your document and ungroup the objects in the symbol, you can then add a fill
ink.
To modify a preinstalled symbol:
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1.
Select the symbol in the Symbol Library palette.
2.
Click in your document to place the symbol.
3.
In the Properties bar, click the Ungroup button.
4.
Select one or more objects in the symbol that you want to edit.
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5.
If the symbol contains objects stacked on top of each other, arranged the objects in an
appropriate stacking order. Select an object, then choose Object | Arrange | Bring to Front
or Send to Back.
6.
To modify the Pen Ink, select the objects you want to edit, then select a Pen Ink in the
Toolbox.
7.
To modify the Fill Ink, select the objects you want to edit, then do one of the following:
Select a Fill Ink in the Toolbox.
Apply a fill ink with the Smart Vector Fill tool.
8.
When you have finished editing the symbol objects, select all the objects, and click the
Group button in the Properties bar.
9.
If you want to save the edited symbol, select Object | Export As Symbol, select a location for
the symbol, enter a name, and then click OK.
To place the modified symbol:
1.
Select the symbol in the Symbol Library palette.
2.
In the Properties bar, select the Use original color check box.
3.
Click in your document to place the symbol.
Converting macro files to symbols
If you have used previous versions of Canvas (versions 3.5 to 11), you might have a set of legacy
Canvas Macro files. You can convert these Macro files (.MCR) to the new Symbol file format (.CSY) so
that you can use them in the Symbol Library.
Save your new symbols in the My Symbols folder so that they are available in the Symbol Library
palette. If you prefer to create a new folder for your symbols, you can add the path to the folder in the
Symbol Library Options dialog box so that you can see the symbols in the Symbol Library palette.
To convert macro files to the new Symbol format:
1.
Choose Object | Convert Macro File.
2.
In the Select a Macro File dialog box, select the file you want to convert, then click Open.
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3.
In the Convert Macro File dialog box, do one or more of the following:
If you want to add a prefix to the filenames of the symbols contained in the Macro file,
enter the prefix.
If you want to add a keyword to the symbols, enter a keyword.
4.
Click Export.
5.
In the Browse For Folder dialog box, select a location for the symbols, and click OK.
A message is displayed when the file has been successfully converted.
6.
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Chapter 5: Painting And Image Editing
Canvas 12 User Guide
Painting & image-editing
Canvas provides a full palette of painting tools, including the digital equivalents of markers,
airbrushes, and paintbrushes, plus tools for creating effects like neon and blends. The Painting tools
palette also provides tools to select, retouch, color-correct, and clone images (see "Tool palettes" on
page 23). This section explains how to use these painting tools, choose image modes, and convert
objects into images.
Paint objects and images
A paint object is a Canvas object that contains an image. Paint objects are always rectangular and the
same size as the images they contain. Images are pictures defined by pixels. A scanned photo, TIFF,
or Photoshop (.PSD) file, and pictures you paint in Canvas are all images composed of pixels. Each
pixel in an image is a solid color. Pixels can also be semi-transparent or completely clear. You can
adjust the color, opacity, and transparency of pixels by using painting tools and commands.
About paint objects and images in Canvas
You can perform common object operations, including move, copy, and duplicate, on paint objects.
For details, see "Working with objects" on page 158. Or you can create images entirely in Canvas by
making a new paint object that you can paint in, or creating an image from vector or text objects, as
described in this section.
You can import images into Canvas documents using the following methods:
Place an existing image in a document using the Place, Paste, or Import commands. See
"Placing documents" on page 49 and "Importing and exporting images" on page 131.
Scan a photo using the Acquire command. See "Using scanners to acquire images" on page
446.
Creating paint objects
You can make new paint objects containing blank images or convert objects into images by rendering
them. You can also scan images directly into a Canvas document (see "To open or place a file:" on
page 130 and "Importing images" on page 131 as well as "Using scanners to acquire images" on
page 446).
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Using the Paint Object Creator tool
The Paint Object Creator tool creates blank paint objects that you can use as a painting canvas. In the
Properties bar, you can select settings for image mode, resolution, and background to be applied to
new paint objects you create with the Paint Object Creator tool or any painting tool (except the Crop
tool).
To select settings for new paint objects:
1.
2.
Select the Paint Object Creator tool from the Toolbox.
In the Properties bar, select the settings you want to use for paint objects.
Image mode
Choose an image mode in the menu. The image mode controls the
number of colors that can be stored in an image (see "Image modes for
Canvas paint objects" on page 435).
Resolution
Enter a value from 1 to 2,540 pixels per inch and press Enter.
Background
Choose the background color for the paint object: Opaque or
Transparent.
To create a blank paint object:
1.
Select the Paint Object Creator tool from the Toolbox.
2.
Drag diagonally in the document to create a rectangular paint object.
A blank paint object appears in edit mode. You can now use the painting tools to paint on the
paint object.
3.
When you have finished with the paint object, press Esc to exit edit mode.
Drag the Paint Object Creator tool
to create a blank paint object
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A paint object in edit mode,
indicated by crop marks at each
corner.
If the Auto Create check box is selected in the Properties bar for a painting tool, only the
Paint Object Creator tool can be used to create blank paint objects. If the Auto Create check
box is not selected, you can use any painting tool (except Crop) to create blank paint
objects.
To constrain the height and width of a paint object:
Do one of the following:
To constrain the height and width proportionally, press Shift as you drag with the Paint
Object Creator tool.
To constrain the height and width symmetrically from the center, press Ctrl as you drag
with the Paint Object Creator tool.
To constrain the height and width proportionally and symmetrically, press Ctrl+Shift as
you drag with the Paint Object Creator tool.
Using the Create command
The Create command creates new paint objects using the mode, size, resolution, and transparency
settings that you specify. Use the Create command to create paint objects that are opaque or
transparent (see "Create Image options" on page 409).
To create a paint object:
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1.
With no objects selected, choose Image | Area | Create.
2.
In the Create Image dialog box, set the image mode, type of background, background color
(for an opaque image), size, and resolution of the image.
3.
Click OK. The new paint object appears in the center of the view and is selected.
Chapter 5: Painting And Image Editing
Setting paint object dimensions
When you use the Create command, you can set the dimensions of a paint object using relative or
absolute values, depending on what you choose in the menus next to the Width and Height text
boxes. If you choose pixels to set the dimensions of the paint object, the size of the object is relative
to its resolution; higher resolution makes pixels smaller, so the resulting object is smaller at the
same width and height values. If you choose inches, centimeters, picas, or points, enter absolute
values for the paint object’s dimensions.
Create Image options
The Create Image dialog box has options for new images.
File Size
The amount of memory required by the paint object, based on
resolution, size, and mode. Black & White mode requires the least
memory; CMYK Color requires the most.
Mode
Choose an image mode. See "Image modes for Canvas paint objects" on
page 435.
Background
Choose Transparent or Opaque. For Opaque, you can select a color from
the color palette.
Transparent creates a clear background for the image. When you choose
this option, the color palette is not available.
Width and Height
Enter the object’s width and height. In the adjacent menus, choose
pixels or a unit of measurement.
Res
Enter the image resolution. Choose pixels per inch or pixels per
centimeter in the adjacent menu.
Auto
Click Auto to calculate the resolution based on halftone screen frequency
and image quality.
To create a paint object with the Properties bar:
1.
Select the Paint Object Creator tool.
2.
In the Properties bar, enter the dimensions and resolution of the paint object.
3.
Select the mode and background.
4.
Specify the X/Y coordinates for the new paint object.
5.
Click Create.
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Working with painting tools
Apply color, make selections, edit, retouch, color-correct, and clone images with Painting tools. For
some tools, you can adjust opacity, pressure, exposure, or other settings. See the specific tool
entries in this section for details. These tools are located in the Painting tools palette.
Paint Brush
Blur
Pencil
Sharpen
Eraser
Rubber Stamp
Marker
Smudge
Airbrush
Dodge
Neon
Burn
Bucket
Sponge
Blend
These tools can be used to place paint objects into paint edit mode. Point to a selected paint object
with a painting tool, the pointer becomes a hand. Click the cursor on the paint object to enter edit
mode.
To use a painting tool:
1.
Double-click on a paint object to place it in edit mode.
2.
Select a foreground or background color for painting (see "Selecting colors for painting" on
page 423).
3.
Select a brush shape in the Brushes palette located in the Properties bar. You can also
choose a mode or other option for most tools.
You can start dragging outside an image; a tool’s effect begins when the pointer is
inside the image.
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4.
Click in the image to apply a spot of color, or drag to paint a brush stroke, depending on the
tool.
To constrain a brush stroke to horizontal or vertical, press Shift as you drag.
Selected paint object
Paint object in edit mode
Paint tool options
Painting opacity
Painting opacity affects the intensity of painting. Adjust this setting in the Properties bar for the
following painting tools: Eraser, Marker, Paintbrush, Bucket, Blend, and Rubber Stamp.
For the other painting tools, Opacity is replaced by either Pressure, Glow, or Exposure.
Painting opacity can be set from 1 to 100%. Higher opacity makes the color more opaque. Lower
opacity makes color appear more transparent. Painting opacity works with painting modes (see
"Painting modes" on page 424). If you use the Paintbrush tool to apply black at 100% opacity in
Normal mode, black replaces the original color wherever you paint. At 50% opacity, the strength of
the black is reduced, so it mixes with the underlying color. If you also use a different painting mode,
the strength of the mode’s effect is reduced.
To quickly change the opacity setting, you can press a number key; “1” equals 10%, “2”
equals 20%, “3” equals 30%, etc. “0” equals a setting of 100%.
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To set painting opacity:
1.
Select a painting tool that uses the opacity setting.
2.
Move the Opacity slider or enter a percentage in the text box.
Canvas remembers each tool’s painting opacity setting; e.g., if you use the Blend tool at 30% opacity
and then use the Paintbrush tool at 100% opacity, the setting changes back to 30% when you select
the Blend tool again.
The Opacity slider in the Brushes palette affects subsequent brush strokes by the current
painting tool only. It is not the same as the Opacity slider in the Toolbox and the
Transparency palette, which are linked and control overall opacity of selected objects.
Fade settings
The following tools have Fade settings: Paintbrush, Airbrush, Blur, Dodge, Burn, Eraser, Marker,
Sponge, Smudge, Sharpen, and Rubber Stamp.
Select the options you want to use in the Fade area. In the Fade within field, enter the distance in
which Canvas will complete the fade.
To gradually diminish the brush size as you drag:
Select the Size check box.
To fade the color to transparent:
Select the Opacity check box. Depending on the selected tool, the check box may be labeled as
Pressure or Exposure.
Pressure Sensitive settings
If you are using a pressure-sensitive, plug-in device, such as a Wacom™ tablet, the Pressure Varies
options are located within the Image/Multimedia managers in the Configuration Center.
To access the Pressure Varies options:
Double-click on the tool icon in the Toolbox to open the tool settings in the Configuration Center.
You need to use a pressure-sensitive, plug-in device, such as a Wacom™ tablet. Use these
options to make a pressure-sensitive stylus.
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Painting with the Paintbrush tool
The Paintbrush tool applies the foreground color. Apply a soft (anti-aliased) brush stroke by
choosing a soft-edged brush in the Properties bar or Brushes palette. Use the settings in the
Properties bar to configure this tool.
Spraying soft strokes with the Airbrush tool
The Airbrush tool applies the foreground color with a very soft (anti-aliased) stroke. The Airbrush
tool paints as long as you press the mouse. The Pressure setting in the Properties bar and Brushes
palette controls how fast the Airbrush applies color. Use the settings in the Properties bar to
configure this tool.
Painting with the Marker tool
The Marker tool paints with the foreground color, applying a hard-edged stroke. Use the options in
the Properties bar to configure the Marker tool.
Painting individual pixels with the Pencil tool
Use the Pencil tool to apply the foreground color to a single pixel or create a one-pixel, freehand line.
If the pixel already uses the foreground color, the Pencil applies the background color instead. You
can use the Pencil tool for precise image editing at high magnifications (see "Fat Bits" on page 428).
To paint a straight line:
Shift-drag the Pencil to confine the line to 90° angles.
Painting two-toned “neon” strokes
Use the Neon tool to paint a neon-tube stroke, with the foreground color inside and the background
color outside. Use the Glow setting in the Properties bar and Brushes palette to adjust the color ratio.
Painting modes are not available with the Neon tool.
Filling areas with color
Use the Bucket tool to pour color on an image. The Bucket applies the background color where you
click. You can adjust its tolerance so the color covers adjacent pixels of the same color only, or
adjacent pixels of similar colors.
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Tolerance
The Tolerance setting is located in the Properties bar.
To affect only identically-colored pixels:
Type 0 in the Tolerance text box.
To affect more pixels:
Type a larger number.
To soften the edge of the filled area:
Turn on Anti-Aliased.
Painting in the background color with the Eraser tool
Paint with the background color using the Eraser tool. If a paint object has a visibility mask, the
Eraser clears the pixels it touches, revealing a clear background. If the paint object does not have a
visibility mask, the Eraser applies the background color.
Opacity and paint mode options are not available with the Eraser.
Painting with the Blend tool
Paint a blend of colors in an image with the Blend tool. The default behavior (Foreground To
Background) creates a blend of the foreground and background colors. This tool is very useful for
creating blends from black to white in channels, to make selection masks that fade gradually from full
selection to no selection.
Linear blend
Radial blend
Set the style and behavior using the settings in the Properties bar.
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To create a linear blend:
Enter a Skew value and select a Behavior. Drag in the direction of the blend. Shift-drag to confine
the blend’s direction to a 90° or 45° angle.
To create a radial blend:
Enter both a Skew and Offset value. Drag from the center of the image.
Blend options
Style
Choose Radial or Linear.
Skew
To set the midpoint between blend colors, enter a number from 13 to 87.
The default is 50.
Offset
For Radial style, enter a value to set the percentage of starting color in
the blend. To use more of the starting color in the blend, enter a number
from 50 to 100.
Behavior
Choose a blending method. Foreground and Background refer to the
current colors in the Toolbox. Transparent options fade from the
foreground color to transparency. Spectrum blends create rainbow
blends in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction around the color
wheel.
Example of a blend used to vignette a photograph. The following Blend options were used:
Radial-style blend
Behavior = Transparent to Foreground
(Foreground color white)
Offset = 10
Skew = 70
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Copying areas with the Rubber Stamp tool
Make a copy (“clone”) of an image area with the Rubber Stamp tool. This tool is very useful for
retouching scanned photographs, removing lines and scratches, as well as hiding seams when
compositing images. Use the settings in the Properties bar to configure the Rubber Stamp tool.
Cloning styles
The effect of dragging the Rubber Stamp tool in an image depends on the option you choose in the
Style menu in the Properties bar.
Clone (aligned) : The first time you drag the Rubber Stamp tool in the image after setting
the reference point, Canvas establishes a fixed direction and distance from the reference
point to the pointer. The Rubber Stamp tool copies any area of the image that is this distance
and direction from the pointer.
Clone (non-aligned): Dragging the Rubber Stamp tool always begins copying the image
from the same reference point.
Impressionist: This option smears pixels to create an impressionistic effect. You don’t need
to set a reference point to use this effect.
To use the Rubber Stamp tool:
Rubber Stamp pointer with Alt pressed
Rubber Stamp pointer without modifier key
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1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar (see "Painting opacity" on page
411, "Painting modes" on page 424, and "Cloning styles" on page 416).
2.
Alt-click in the image to set the reference point for sampling an image area.
3.
Drag in the image to paint a copy of the sampled area around the reference point.
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Clone (aligned option)
Clone (Non-aligned option)
Smudging colors
With the Smudge tool, pull color from one area of an image and drag it into adjacent areas. Use the
settings in the Properties bar to configure the tool.
To use the Smudge tool:
1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar.
Select a brush size and shape from the Brushes palette (see "Selecting brushes and
painting options" on page 420).
Adjust the Pressure setting. A setting of 1 affects the image slightly; 85 drags the color
through many pixels.
2.
Drag the Smudge tool in the image area you want to edit.
To smudge the foreground color into the image:
Choose the Finger Painting option.
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Lightening (‘dodge’) areas
The Dodge tool lightens specific areas of an image. Use the settings in the Properties bar to configure
the tool.
To use the Dodge tool:
1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar.
Select a brush size and shape from the Brushes palette (see "Selecting brushes and
painting options" on page 420).
Adjust the Exposure setting. Increasing the Exposure increases the lightening effect of
the tool. Decreasing the setting decreases the effect.
Choose Shadows, Midtones, or Highlights from the Mode menu. The Dodge tool lightens
pixels that fall within the selected range only.
2.
Drag the Dodge tool in the image area you want to edit.
Darkening (‘burn’) areas
Darken specific areas of an image by dragging the Burn tool over the pixels you want to darken. The
tool’s effect can be controlled by your selection of brush and adjustment of the tool’s Fade setting.
Use the settings in the Properties bar to configure the tool.
To use the Burn tool:
1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar.
Select a brush size and shape from the Brushes palette (see "Selecting brushes and
painting options" on page 420).
Adjust the Exposure setting. Increasing the Exposure increases the darkening effect of
the tool. Decreasing the setting decreases the effect.
Choose Shadows, Midtones, or Highlights from the Mode menu. The Burn tool darkens
pixels that fall within the selected range only.
2.
Drag the Burn tool in the image area you want to edit.
Blurring areas
Soften specific areas in an image with the Blur tool. The Blur tool decreases the contrast between
pixels the tool drags over. Use the settings in the Properties bar to configure the tool.
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Select the Blur tool and click a paint object to put the image in edit mode, if necessary.
To use the Blur tool:
1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar.
Select a brush size and shape from the Brushes palette (see "Selecting brushes and
painting options" on page 420).
Adjust the Pressure setting. A setting of 1 affects the image slightly; 85 softens the
image greatly.
Choose Normal, Darken, or Lighten from the Mode menu. The Blur tool darkens pixels that
fall within the selected range only.
2.
Drag the Blur tool in the image area you want to edit. Canvas applies the effect to pixels
touched by the tool.
Sharpening areas
Increase the contrast between specific pixels in an image with the Sharpen tool. Use the settings in
the Properties bar to configure the tool.
To use the Sharpen tool:
1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar.
Select a brush size and shape from the Brushes palette (see "Selecting brushes and
painting options" on page 420).
Adjust the Pressure setting. A setting of 1 affects the image slightly; 85 dramatically
sharpens the image.
Choose Normal, Darken, or Lighten from the Mode menu.
2.
Drag the Sharpen tool in the image area you want to edit. Canvas applies the sharpening
effect to pixels touched by the tool.
Saturating and desaturating colors
With the Sponge tool, add or remove gray content from specific areas of an image. Use the settings in
the Properties bar to configure the tool.
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To use the Sponge tool:
1.
Configure the tool using the settings in the Properties bar.
Select a brush size and shape from the Brushes palette (see "Selecting brushes and
painting options" on page 420).
Adjust the Pressure setting. Increase the pressure to increase the effect.
Choose Saturate or Desaturate in the Mode menu. Saturate removes gray; desaturate
increases the amount of gray.
2.
Drag the Sponge tool over the image area you want to edit.
Selecting brushes and painting options
The Properties bar contains the Brush icon as well as other options for painting and image editing.
The Opacity slider lets you adjust opacity for painting. The Mode menu lets you choose painting
modes to control color application and target tonal ranges. Open the Brushes palette to select preset
brushes and create new brushes.
The Brushes palette contains the same painting options as the Properties bar; e.g., the
Opacity slider, painting modes, etc.
The Brush icon appears in the Properties bar when one of the following Painting tools is
selected: Eraser, Paintbrush, Marker, Airbrush, Neon, Rubber Stamp, Smudge, Blur,
Sharpen, Dodge, Burn, Sponge.
Brush icon
Use the Brush icon to adjust current brush settings or to open the Brush palette and select another
brush.
To modify brush settings:
You must select a Painting tool, such as the Paintbrush or Pencil tool, so the Brush icon is active in
the Properties bar. You can edit any brush shape. For brush shapes created from selections, you can
change only the spacing.
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1.
Click on the Brush icon in the Properties bar to open the Brush Options dialog box.
2.
Make any adjustments to the current brush’s settings (see "New brush options" on page
422). You can also add the brush to the Brushes palette by clicking the button located in the
upper right corner.
You do not have to add the brush to the Brushes palette to be able to use it; however, if
you plan on using a brush more than once, we recommend that you add it to the
palette.
3.
Begin painting with the modified brush.
To select brushes from the Brushes palette:
1.
Click on the arrow that is next to the Brush icon and the Brushes palette pops out.
You can drag the Brushes palette off the Properties bar. The Brushes palette has
commands for creating brushes, saving brushes to a file, loading brush files, and
deleting unused brushes.
2.
Click on a brush shape and begin painting.
While painting, use the context menu to change brushes and select painting options ( see "To access
the context menu:" on page 427).
Brushes palette menu
Use the Brushes palette menu to create new brushes, save brushes in files, modify existing brushes,
and delete brushes.
You can add custom brushes to the list of preset brushes in the palette. When you exit Canvas, it
stores the brush presets. The same set of brushes are available whether you work with new
documents, documents you created, or documents created by another Canvas user.
To create a new brush:
1.
Open the Brushes palette menu and choose New Brush.
2.
In the New Brush dialog box, adjust the settings for the brush (see "New brush options" on
page 422).
3.
Click OK after entering the settings you want. The new brush shape appears in the Brushes
palette.
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New brush options
Create brush shapes by specifying diameter, hardness, spacing, roundness, and angle. These same
options are available in the Brush Options dialog box.
Diameter
Enter the diameter in pixels of the new brush.
Hardness
Enter a percentage to tell Canvas how much of the brush shape is solid.
Spacing
This percentage sets the amount of brush overlap when you drag a
painting tool. Turn off Spacing to make the brush velocity-sensitive, so it
skips pixels when dragged fast.
Roundness
Enter 1 to 100. To create a circle, enter 100.
Angle
Enter a number to rotate the brush shape.
Brush tip
Drag to change Roundness.
Drag to change the Angle.
Preview
Preview of the brush shape.
To define a brush shape with a selection:
You can make a new brush shape from a selection in an image. This lets you create non-elliptical
brush shapes.
1.
Select all or part of an image (see "Selecting pixels in images" on page 483).
2.
Choose Define Brush in the menu. The selection becomes a brush in the Brushes palette.
Canvas uses the shape and lightness values of the selection to define the brush. Brush
shapes do not contain color.
To delete brushes from the palette:
You can permanently remove brush shapes from the Brushes palette. If you think you might want to
use the brush shape again, you should first store it in a brushes file so at a later time you can load it
back into the palette (see "To save brushes in a file:" on page 422).
1.
Select the brush you want to delete.
2.
Choose Delete Brush in the menu. You can also Alt-click a brush in the palette to delete it.
To save brushes in a file:
You can save brushes in a file. Saving brushes to disk lets you customize the Brushes palette for
particular projects or exchange brushes with other Canvas users. The file format that Canvas uses to
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save brushes on disk is also compatible with the file format used by the Photoshop image-editing
program for saving brushes.
1.
In the Brushes palette, add or remove brushes until you have the collection you want to save.
2.
Choose Save Brushes in the menu.
3.
In the directory dialog box, type a name for the brushes file, select a location, and click OK.
To load or append brushes from a file:
When you load brushes, you can replace the current set of brushes with the file or append the
brushes to the current palette.
1.
Choose one of the following commands in the menu:
To replace the current brushes with the file: Choose Load Brushes.
To add the brushes in the file to the current palette: Choose Append Brushes.
2.
In the directory dialog box, locate the brushes file you want to open and click OK.
Selecting colors for painting
Painting tools use the foreground or background color, or both. In the Toolbox, instead of a pen ink
icon for the foreground, a brush icon appears when you select a painting tool. The brush icon shows
the foreground color, and the bucket icon shows the background color.
You can use any solid color for painting, including multicolored inks, such as gradients, symbols,
textures, pattern, or hatch inks. Also, if you choose a spot color and edit pixels with a painting tool,
Canvas converts the spot color to the image color mode; i.e., RGB, CMYK, etc. (see "Image modes for
Canvas paint objects" on page 435).
You can arrange paint objects in a document with vector and text objects that use spot
colors, but only the vector and text objects will produce spot color separations.
To swap the foreground and background colors:
Press the “X” key while using a painting tool.
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To set the foreground color to black and background color to white:
Press the “C” key.
To select a color for painting:
1.
Click the foreground or background color icon in the Toolbox.
2.
In the Presets palette, on the Ink tab, click on an ink type and select a color.
You can also create new colors by using the various Inks managers located in the Attributes
palette (see "Creating color inks" on page 231).
Picking colors with the Color Dropper tool
Use the Color Dropper tool to pick up color from an image or object. The color you select becomes the
current background or foreground color that you can use for painting and drawing (see "Using the
Color Dropper" on page 254).
While in image edit mode, select the Color Dropper by pressing Alt; however, you won’t be able to
pick the background color.
To select the background color from a paint object:
1.
2.
Select the Color Dropper tool from the Toolbox.
Click a color in the paint object or image.
The background color changes in the Toolbox.
To select the foreground color from a paint object:
1.
Select the Color Dropper tool from the Toolbox.
2.
Right-click a color in the paint object or image.
The foreground color changes in the Toolbox.
Painting modes
Use various painting modes when you paint and edit images. Painting modes can create special
effects and let you control color mixing and the tonal range affected by painting.
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The Mode menu is in the Properties bar and Brushes palette when you use the following tools:
Marker, Paintbrush, Airbrush, Bucket, Blend, Blur, Sharpen, and Rubber Stamp. Painting modes that
are available for most painting tools are listed here.
To choose a painting mode:
1.
Select a painting tool.
2.
Open the Mode menu and select a mode.
Not all modes are available for all painting tools.
Mode
Function
Normal
The default painting mode applies color to all pixels uniformly. When the
painting opacity is 100%, the applied color replaces the original color. If
you paint in a Black & White or Indexed image, Normal mode is labeled
Threshold.
Dissolve
This mode applies color with a random diffused pattern within the brush
shape. The effect is similar to drawing with chalk. The diffused effect is
stronger when the painting opacity is less than 100%.
Multiply
Darkens all pixels by multiplying the value of the applied color and the
underlying color. Painting with darker colors intensifies the effect.
Painting with black results in black; painting with white does not affect
the original color. When you apply a color with multiple strokes in the
same area, the strokes become darker, similar to the effect of making
multiple strokes on paper with an ink marker.
Screen
The Screen mode is the opposite of Multiply mode. Screen mode lightens
all pixels by multiplying the inverse values of the applied color and the
underlying color. Painting with lighter colors intensifies the effect.
Painting with black does not affect the original image; painting with
white results in white.
Overlay
Applies color without destroying the underlying shadows and highlights.
Overlay mode blends the applied color with the underlying color; the
amount of blending depends on the lightness of the underlying color.
Soft Light
Lightens or darkens underlying colors depending on the lightness value
of the applied color. If the lightness of the applied color is less than 50%
gray, painting lightens the image. If the lightness of the applied color is
greater than 50% gray, painting darkens the image. Painting with white
or black has the most intense effect, but does not completely replace the
underlying color.
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Mode
Function
Hard Light
Paints in Multiply or Screen mode, depending on the applied color’s
lightness value. This mode is similar to Soft Light. However, painting
with black produces black; painting with white produces white.
Darken
Compares the underlying color and the applied color, and the result is
whichever color is darker. In other words, pixels in the image will be
painted if the paint color is darker, while pixels that are darker than the
paint color will remain unpainted.
Lighten
The Lighten mode is the opposite of Darken mode. Lighten compares the
underlying color and the applied color, and the result is whichever color
is lighter. In other words, pixels in the image will be painted if the paint
color is lighter; pixels that are lighter than the paint color will remain
unpainted.
Difference
Compares the brightness of the original and applied colors, subtracts
the brightness value of the darker pixel from the lighter one, and applies
that value to the original image.
Hue
Applies the hue of the paint color without changing the brightness and
saturation of the underlying image.
Saturation
Changes the saturation of the area painted to match the saturation of the
applied color, without changing the hue or luminance values. Applying
gray does not affect the original image.
Color
Changes the hue and saturation of the painted area to the hue and
saturation of the applied color, without affecting the shadow, highlights,
or midtones of the original image.
Luminosity
Changes the lightness of the underlying color to the lightness of the
applied color, without affecting the hue or saturation of the image.
Painting context menu
When working with a painting tool, use the context menu to gain quick access to common commands.
The commands that are available vary, depending on the selected painting tool and whether there is a
selection in the image.
The context menu contains some common commands that are available from the Menu bar.
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To access the context menu:
1.
Select a paint object.
2.
Right-click the selected paint object.
3.
Choose a command when the menu opens. Canvas applies the command and hides the menu.
Context menu options
The following commands are available in the painting context menu:
Command
Use
Next Brush
Selects the brush shape in the Brushes palette to the right of the current
brush.
Previous Brush
Selects the brush shape in the Brushes palette to the left of the current
brush.
First Brush
Selects the brush at the upper-left of the palette.
Last Brush
Selects the brush at the lower-right of the palette.
Standard Pointer
Displays the icon of the selected painting tool, which is the default
pointer (see "Pointer display" on page 427).
Precise Pointer
Changes the pointer to a crosshair. The intersection of the crosshair is
the center of the current brush (see "Pointer display" on page 427).
Brush Size Pointer
Changes the pointer to an outline of the current brush (see "Pointer
display" on page 427).
Show/Hide Fat Bits
Displays/hides pixels as individual tiles in a grid at high magnifications
(see "Fat Bits" on page 428).
Show/Hide
Transparency Preview
Displays or hides transparent sections of an image while in edit mode.
Pointer display
The default pointer for painting is a symbol of the selected painting tool. Change the pointer to a
crosshair or the current brush size. All painting tools use the pointer you select, not just the current
painting tool. To change the pointer, choose an option in the context menu.
Changing the pointer using the context menu is the same as changing the pointer in the
Painting manager located in the Configuration Center.
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Fat Bits
When you choose Show Fat Bits, the resolution and magnification affect the display. Fat Bits are
visible when the magnification-to-resolution ratio is about eight to one; e.g., if the image resolution is
72 ppi, fat bits appear at 600% magnification and higher. If the image resolution is 144 ppi, fat bits
appear at 1,200% magnification.
To show fat bits:
Press the Plus key or choose Show Fat Bits in the context menu to display pixels as individual tiles
in a grid.
To hide fat bits:
Press the Plus key or choose Hide Fat Bits in the context menu to display pixels without the grid of
individual tiles.
Adding visibility masks to images
In a paint object that has a visibility mask, you can erase or delete pixels to reveal a clear
background; e.g., you can erase at the edge of an image to create faded or torn edges. You can
delete or move selections to create transparent areas. If a paint object does not have a visibility mask,
areas where you drag the Eraser tool and selections you delete or move, become filled with the
current background color and are opaque, not transparent.
When you create paint objects with painting tools or the Render or Create commands, you can select
an option to include visibility masks.
White areas of the fish image
erased to a clear background
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To add a visibility mask:
1.
Select a paint object that does not have a visibility mask.
2.
Choose Image | Add Visibility Mask. This command is not available if a Duotone, Indexed, or
Multichannel image is selected.
Adding a visibility mask does not change the appearance of a paint object; e.g., white pixels do not
become transparent. When a paint object has a visibility mask, you can select Preserve Visibility in
the Channels palette. When this option is selected, Canvas protects clear areas from the effects of
painting and image editing.
To create a transparent background:
1.
Select the image object.
2.
Click the fill ink icon in the Toolbox.
3.
Select null ink. A visibility mask is applied to the object, and the white pixels become
transparent.
Paint object backgrounds
You can create a paint object in which the image “background” is transparent or opaque.
An opaque paint object contains opaque pixels. If the pixels are white and the paint object is on a
white background, you won’t notice that the image is opaque. Still, the rectangular paint object will
block objects behind it.
A transparent paint object can have a clear background that does not block other objects.
Painting in an opaque image is like painting on a wall. Painting in a transparent image is like painting
on a window.
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A rectangle and text are
blocked by an opaque paint
object in front
A transparent background
lets objects show through it
Rendering objects and images
Rendering converts objects into paint objects; e.g., you can use the Render command to create a
paint object from text, and then use the Airbrush tool to paint highlights on the image of the text.
You can create paint objects by rendering selected vector objects, text objects, and group objects.
You can render a paint object to create a new paint object that has different characteristics than the
original.
Rendering is also referred to as “rasterizing” because the process produces a raster image an image composed of pixels arranged in a grid. All paint objects in Canvas contain raster,
or pixel-based, images.
When you use the Render command, you can create a transparency mask or visibility mask for the
resulting paint object.
When you render a vector object, it’s a good idea to select a visibility mask if you want to isolate an
object against a clear background.
To render objects:
1.
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Select one or more objects and choose Image | Area | Render. If you select multiple objects,
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The Render Image dialog box lets you specify resolution and other settings for the resulting
paint object.
2.
Click OK to render the selection.
Canvas creates a paint object containing an image of the original objects. The paint object appears in
front. The Render command does not change the original selected objects.
To see the original objects:
Drag the paint object away.
Pasting into images
You can render objects by copying them to the Clipboard and then pasting them into paint objects in
edit mode. When an image is in edit mode and you paste into it, the Clipboard content is rendered
and appears as a selection in the image.
Anti-aliasing blurs edges while rendering to make the edges of text characters and vector
objects appear smoother in the resulting image.
If you select the “Anti-aliased Clipboard” option in the Configuration Center, Canvas anti-aliases
vector and text objects that you paste into paint objects (see "Setting preferences" on page 97).
Rendering exported files
If necessary, Canvas renders selected objects or an entire document when you use the Save As
command to export to a raster file format; e.g., if you select vector objects, and then save in GIF
format, Canvas renders the selected objects because GIF files store raster images.
When Canvas is saving a file, some options might not be available in the Render Image dialog box
because the file format doesn’t support them.
Render Image settings
Specify image mode, resolution, and other settings in the Render Image dialog box.
Dimensions
Displays the width and height of the paint object Canvas will create.
Choose the measurement for the Width and Height values in the
Dimension area; inches, centimeters (cm), points, or picas.
Mode
Choose the color mode for the resulting image: Black & White,
Grayscale, Indexed Color, RGB Color, CMYK Color, or LAB Color.
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Width and Height
Enter the pixel dimensions for the paint object. When you change a
value, Canvas adjusts the others to maintain the size and proportions of
the original objects.
Res
Choose pixels per inch or pixels per centimeter in the pop-up menu. The
value shown after “Size” is the amount of data in the image, based on the
mode, resolution, and dimensions.
Anti-Alias
Blurs edges while rendering to make the edges of text characters and
vector objects appear smoother in the resulting image. Choose Fine,
Medium, or Coarse in the pop-up menu.
Coarse uses 16 shades for anti-aliasing and is the fastest option.
Medium uses 64 shades for anti-aliasing. Fine uses 256 shades for antialiasing. Fine produces the softest edges and is the slowest option.
Mask
Select this option if you want the resulting paint object to have a visibility
mask or a channel mask. Then choose the type of mask.
Transparency creates a channel mask. The channel mask is based on the
silhouette of the rendered objects. In other words, if there are spaces
between the objects, the channel mask will create transparent spaces.
Visibility creates a visibility mask in the paint object. The result is a clear
background in areas not covered by objects.
If you do not select Mask, areas not filled by rendered objects within the
paint object’s bounding rectangle will be white and opaque. If you select
Mask and either Transparency or Visibility, areas that are not filled by
rendered objects will be transparent.
Rendering with the Camera tool
You can use the Camera tool to create a paint object from any area in a document. The Camera tool
renders the area you select. You can set the resolution, color mode, and other options for the
rendered image. Using the Camera tool is like taking a snapshot of the screen. You simply use the
Camera tool to select a rectangular area for rendering. You can include all types of objects and parts
of objects in the rendering, without selecting the objects first.
The Camera tool is useful whenever you need to convert objects to an image, such as for creating
Web graphics. The Camera tool functions like the Image | Area | Render command. The Camera tool
lets you control the exact area to be rendered, while the Render command renders a rectangular area
that includes all selected objects.
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To render with the Camera tool:
1.
Select the Camera tool.
2.
Drag to draw a rectangle around the area you want to render. View the dimensions and
coordinates of the rectangle in the Status bar. A bounding box with handles appears around
the area you selected.
3.
Adjust the box to select exactly the area you want to render by using the controls in the
Properties bar or manually changing the shape and size with the handles.
4.
Enter values in the fields to change the position and size of the bounding box. Select a
resolution or render at screen resolution. Drag the handles to manually reposition or resize
the bounding box.
5.
Click the Accept button or click inside the area.
6.
In the Render Image dialog box, select the options you want to use, and then click OK to
render the selected area. After you click OK in the Render Image dialog box, a paint object
containing the rendered image appear on top of the area you selected.
Using vector and text tools in paint objects
After placing a paint object in edit mode, use vector tools and the Text tool to add shapes and type to
an image.
When you draw or type text within a paint object in edit mode, Canvas rasterizes the objects
according to the image mode and resolution of the paint object, and makes a floating selection in the
image.
When you type within a paint object in edit mode, you can modify the font, size, and style of the type
before Canvas rasterizes it (see "To set type within images:" on page 434).
To set anti-aliasing for objects placed in images:
You can set a preference so Canvas softens the edges of objects you draw in an image or paste into
an image from the Clipboard (see "Setting preferences" on page 97).
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1.
Choose File | Configuration Center and select the Painting manager in the General settings.
2.
Set the preferences you want to apply to objects placed in images and click OK.
To soften selections pasted from the Clipboard: Select “Anti-Aliased Clipboard.”
To soften objects or type created in paint objects in edit mode: Select “AntiAliased Canvas Objects.”
To draw objects within images:
Use any of the drawing tools in a paint object in edit mode to “paint” shapes. When you finish
drawing the shape, Canvas rasterizes it, based on its shape and colors.
1.
Place the paint object in edit mode, if necessary, and select a drawing tool.
2.
Select ink and stroke settings (see "Inks: colors & patterns" on page 223 and "Strokes:
outline effects" on page 257).
3.
Draw in the paint object with the selected tool (see "Drawing basics" on page 286). The
object you draw becomes a floating selection and you can change its opacity, set the mode,
or apply filters (see "Changing the opacity of floating selections" on page 496 and "Image
filters & effects" on page 515).
4.
Press Esc twice when you finish editing the selection to make the selection part of the image.
5.
Press Esc once more to exit edit mode and select the image.
To set type within images:
Type text in a paint object in edit mode and then modify the attributes before Canvas converts the
type to a floating selection.
Use the Text menu, Type palette, or Properties bar to set typographic attributes.
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1.
Place the paint object in edit mode, if necessary, and select the Text tool.
2.
Click the I-beam pointer in the image and type the text, which appears in a white box.
3.
Press Esc to make the text a floating selection. You can change the opacity, set the mode,
and apply filters to the selection (see "Changing the opacity of floating selections" on page
496 and "Image filters & effects" on page 515).
4.
Press Esc twice to make the type selection part of the image.
5.
Press Esc again to exit edit mode and select the image.
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Image modes for Canvas paint objects
In Canvas, image modes define the color model and number of colors that can be used in images.
When you create a new paint object in Canvas, you select an image mode: Black & White, Grayscale,
RGB Color, CMYK Color, or LAB Color. When you select a paint object, Canvas displays the image mode
in the Properties bar.
The image mode also appears in the Status bar if Object Details has been selected to appear
in an information field.
How image modes affect image filters
Filters produce different results depending on the image mode. When you paint, the opacity setting
of a brush acts differently on images in different modes. For the most predictable results with filters
and paint tools, use RGB color mode.
Posterizing a LAB image introduces color to light areas.
Original
RGB image posterized 4 levels
LAB image posterized 4 levels
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How Canvas assigns image modes
When you import an image from another source either by opening, placing, or pasting an image file,
Canvas assigns an image mode based on the number of colors and the color model used in the image.
The following table shows the image modes that Canvas assigns when you import images in some
common image formats.
Imported format
Assigned image mode
TIFF
RGB Color, CMYK Color, or Grayscale
BMP
256-color image: Indexed
24-bit image: RGB Color
MacPaint
Black & White
Photoshop
Same as original image mode
Changing image modes
You might want to change modes so you can use certain features, or reduce memory requirements;
e.g., you might want to convert an Indexed image to RGB to apply image filters. You might want to
convert an RGB image to Grayscale mode to save memory when a document is printed without color.
You can access the Image Mode menu on the Properties bar or by choosing Image | Mode.
To change image modes:
1.
Select one or more paint objects.
2.
Select the image mode from the Image Mode menu in the Properties bar.
Some modes are available only if the object’s current mode is compatible; e.g., Black & White mode
and Duotone mode are available only when Grayscale paint objects are selected.
If the mode you choose does not support an image’s full color range, a message asks you to confirm
the change. Click OK to proceed.
If you choose Duotone mode or Indexed mode, select options in a dialog box and then click OK to
complete the conversion (see "Duotone image mode" on page 442 and "Indexed image mode" on
page 438).
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Black & White image mode
Black & White image mode is used for scanned line art and black-and-white (“bitmap”) images,
which contain only black and white pixels. Images in Black & White mode require the least amount of
memory and disk space.
To convert to Black & White mode:
Grayscale mode images and Multichannel mode images are the only images you can directly convert
to Black & White mode. If an image is not Grayscale, convert it to Grayscale mode first if you want to
convert it to Black & White mode.
1.
Select the paint objects and use the Image Mode menu on the Properties bar or choose Image
| Mode | Black & White. The Select Halftone Method dialog box lets you choose a conversion
option.
2.
Select one of the following:
Pattern Dither: Canvas “screens” the image, rendering its tones as patterns of tiny
dots, using a fixed pattern similar to a traditional halftone screen
Diffusion Dither: Canvas “screens” the image, rendering its tones as patterns of tiny
dots, using a process that creates a random pattern effect.
Threshold: Canvas converts the image to a high-contrast, black-and-white image. Pixels
of lightness values from 0 to 128 become black, and pixels of lightness values from 129
to 255 become white.
3.
Click OK.
When you paste a selection into a Black & White image, Canvas uses diffusion dither on the
selection.
Grayscale image mode
Grayscale mode is appropriate for images scanned from black & white photographs or when the
image will never be printed in color. In Grayscale mode, pixels use 256 brightness levels to represent
a range of shades from pure black to pure white. Grayscale uses 8 bits per pixel and requires less
memory than most color modes.
If you convert a color image to Grayscale mode, Canvas discards all color information.
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Indexed image mode
Indexed color mode uses a palette of 256 colors for images. Since this mode stores fewer colors, it
requires significantly less memory than RGB and CMYK color modes, both of which support millions
of colors. Smaller memory requirements make Indexed mode especially useful for images used on
Web pages.
An Indexed image includes a color table, or palette, of colors used in the image. When you convert an
existing image to Indexed mode, you can specify the number of colors from the image to include in
the color table.
Most image filters, effects, and opacity controls aren’t available to be applied to Indexed images,
except the Offset and De-Interlace filters, as well as some third-party plug-in filters.
To convert an existing image to Indexed mode:
1.
Select the paint objects and choose Indexed from the Image Mode menu.
2.
In the Indexed Color dialog box, choose an option in the Indexed Color dialog box for the
color table.
Depending on which method you select, the Colors area in the dialog box displays
information about how the color table is computed.
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Exact
Creates a color table from the colors in the image, if the image
contains 256 colors or less; otherwise, this option isn’t available.
The Colors area displays the number of colors in the selected
image.
Uniform/
System
Creates a color table based on the operating system’s palette of 256
colors (System), or a subset of these colors (Uniform). The Colors
area displays the number of colors in the operating system’s
palette; if you choose Uniform, a pop-up menu that lets you select
8, 27, 64, 125, 216, or 256 colors appears.
Adaptive
Creates a color table from the most frequently used colors in the
image. The Colors area displays a text box that lets you enter a
number of colors from 2 to 256
Custom
Lets you create a color table, load, and save color table files. The
Colors area displays “Custom colors”.
Previous
Applies the last color table used in the Indexed Color dialog box
during the current Canvas session. The Colors area displays the
number of colors in the last color table created by the Indexed Color
dialog box during the current Canvas session.
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3.
Choose a color-distribution option in the Dither area:
None
Changes colors to their closest equivalent in the selected color table
without dithering.
Pattern
Approximates colors not in the palette by arranging palette color in
geometric patterns (available for Uniform/System method only).
Diffusion
Approximates non-palette colors by randomly dithering available
colors; creates the most natural effect.
4.
Click OK after choosing the settings you want.
If you select the Custom option, the Color Table dialog box appears (see "To create a custom
color table for Indexed images:" on page 439).
To create a custom color table for Indexed images:
1.
Select “Custom” in the Indexed Color dialog box (see "Indexed image mode" on page 438).
If the image is already Indexed, choose Image | Mode | Color Table to open the Color
Table dialog box.
2.
Click OK.
3.
In the Color Table dialog box, edit the settings.
You can edit individual colors in the palette, create a blend of colors, and select from several preset
color palettes, including System and Grayscale palettes. In addition, palettes can be saved or loaded.
In the Color Table dialog box, a grid of 256 color swatches appears; each swatch represents one
color in the palette. By default, the Custom option appears in the Table menu, and the color swatches
show the last palette used in the dialog box.
The Table menu lets you choose among preset color tables:
Black Body
A range of sunset-like colors.
Grayscale
A ramp from pure black to pure white.
Macintosh System
The palette of colors supported by Macintosh.
Spectrum
A set of rainbow colors.
Web Browser
A set of 216 colors that can be displayed without dithering by nearly all
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Web browsers. This option is also referred to as a “browser safe”
palette.
Windows System
The palette of colors supported by Windows.
You can also create a custom color table (see "To customize individual colors:" on page 440 and "To
customize a color table by blending colors:" on page 441).
Saving and loading color tables
By using the Load and Save options in the Color Table dialog box, you can save color tables to your
hard disk or load a saved color table file into the Color Table dialog box.
To load a custom color table:
1.
Click Load in the Color Table dialog box.
2.
In the Load Settings dialog box, browse to the color table file you want to load, and then click
Open. Canvas replaces the current palette in the Color Table dialog box with the new palette,
and its name appears in the Table menu.
To save a custom color table:
1.
Click Save in the Color Table dialog box.
2.
In the Save Settings dialog box, enter a name for the table in the File name field. Before you
type the file name, Canvas adds the extension .ACT in the field. Keep this extension when
naming the file.
3.
Specify a location on your hard disk to save the color table, and then click Save. Canvas
saves the color table.
Save your custom color tables in a central location on the corporate network and
share them with co-workers.
To customize individual colors:
After choosing a color table, you can customize individual colors in it using a color picker dialog box.
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1.
Click a color swatch to open a color picker dialog box.
2.
In the color picker, select a color to replace the selected swatch in the palette, and then click
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To customize a color table by blending colors:
Canvas lets you create blends of selected swatches in the color table. When you do this, the first and
last swatches you select don’t affect the final blend in the color table. How the blend appears in the
color table is determined by the two colors you choose in the Color Picker in step 2 of this procedure.
1.
Drag across multiple color swatches to select them (the more you select, the more gradual
the blend will be). Selected color swatches appear highlighted with a black border, and then
the color picker dialog box opens.
2.
In the color picker, choose the first color, and then click OK. The color picker remains open;
choose the second color, and then click OK. Canvas fills the selected color swatches in the
Color Table dialog box with a ramp of the two colors.
RGB color image mode
RGB color mode is used most often when working with high-quality full-color images, such as those
from color scanners and digitized photographs stored on CD-ROM.
RGB color mode is the most reliable mode to use for images you want to modify with painting tools
and filters. However, the full range of RGB colors exceeds the range that commercial printing can
reproduce, so you should be aware of the limitations of the printing method that will be used. Also,
an RGB color image is device dependent, which means that the same RGB values can look different
when displayed on different monitors.
In RGB color mode, each pixel has a red, green, and blue component. Each component, referred to as
a color channel, has 256 intensity levels. The combination of the intensity value in each channel
creates each pixel’s color.
Remember that RGB is used for images on the Web and CMYK is used for print.
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CMYK Color image mode
CMYK color mode is based on the four color inks used in commercial printing (and by some desktop
printers): cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Some color scanners can produce CMYK images.
In a CMYK color image, each pixel has a cyan, magenta, yellow, and black component. Each of these
color channels has 256 intensity levels. The combination of the intensity value in each channel
creates each pixel’s color. Because monitors are RGB devices, they can’t display CMYK colors directly.
However, Canvas attempts to display CMYK images as they will appear when printed.
LAB color image mode
The Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) developed the LAB color mode as an international
color standard to overcome the device dependency of the RGB and CMYK modes. In a LAB color mode
image in Canvas, each pixel has one lightness and two color components. The Lightness (L) channel
has 256 levels of intensity. The two color channels, labeled A and B, provide a color range from red to
green and yellow to blue, respectively.
Some companies sell collections of images in LAB color mode. Editing LAB color mode images with
some filters or painting tools can have interesting and unpredictable effects.
Duotone image mode
In traditional graphics arts reproduction, a “duotone” is a grayscale image printed with black and an
additional color. Canvas lets you create duotone images, as well as “monotone,” “tritone,” and
“quadtone” images (printed with one, three, or four colors, respectively).
The term “Duotone” refers to the Duotone image mode, not just to images printed with two
inks. In Duotone mode, an image can be printed as a monotone, duotone, tritone, or
quadtone.
Printing images as duotones can add interest and increase the tonal range reproduced from
grayscale photographs, without the additional expense of printing full-color images. The duotone
effect can be subtle or striking, depending on the color used and the amount added to the image. In
any case, the additional colors are used to reproduce the gray values in the image, rather than to
reproduce specific colors.
To create a monotone, duotone, tritone, or quadtone in Canvas, you must convert a Grayscale image
to Duotone mode. Unlike other image modes, once an image is converted to Duotone mode, you
cannot work with individual image channels. Instead, you can adjust curves for each color “channel”
in the Duotone Options dialog box.
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To create a Duotone image:
1.
Select paint object and choose Grayscale from the Image Mode menu to convert to Grayscale
mode.
You can also select image modes by choosing Image | Mode.
2.
Click OK when Canvas prompts to discard color information. Then, choose Duotone from the
Image Mode menu.
3.
Choose Monotone, Duotone, Tritone, or Quadtone from the Type menu in the Duotone Options
dialog box. Depending on the Type setting, the Ink 1, Ink 2, Ink 3, and Ink 4 Curve boxes,
color menus, and text boxes become available.
If you plan to export a duotone image to another graphics or page layout program, be
sure the color names exactly match the color names in the other application.
Otherwise, you might produce more color separations than necessary.
4.
Choose ink colors by clicking the color palette icons and selecting colors in the palettes. You
must have already added the desired colors to the Presets palette for them to be available in
the pop-up palette.
For a monotone image, choose a single color in the Ink 1 area. For a traditional duotone,
leave “Process Black” as Ink 1, and choose a second color in the Ink 2 area. For tritones
and quadtones, choose additional colors for Ink 3 and Ink 4.
Canvas puts the name of the selected ink in the text box.
To use process colors: Type the appropriate name (“Process Cyan,” “Process Black,”
“Process Magenta,” or “Process Yellow,”) so colors appear on the correct plates. If you
leave the text box blank, Canvas prompts you to enter a name for the ink.
Specify ink colors in descending order of lightness value; i.e., darker color inks should
appear at the top, and lighter color inks should appear at the bottom of the dialog box.
Assign only solid spot colors or individual process colors for duotones. If you assign a
color ink made from CMYK components, Canvas treats it like a spot color and prints only
one plate for the color when you output color separations.
5.
If necessary, click the curve boxes to adjust curves for each ink color. In the Duotone Curves
dialog box, drag the curve to adjust it, or enter values in the text boxes to map input values
to the desired output values, and then click OK.
6.
Click OK to apply the Duotone Options dialog box settings.
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Duotone options
You can select and change the following ink settings for images in Duotone mode.
Type
Choose Monotone, Duotone, Tritone, or Quadtone.
Inks
Click the palette icons and select colors in the palettes for each ink. Type
process and spot color names in the text boxes.
Overprint Colors
Click to adjust the screen display of the Duotone inks. Because the
appearance of spot-color combinations can’t be predicted within Canvas,
you can do this if you have an accurate printed reference for the colors
you select. Overprint Colors settings do not affect color separations, but
will change the appearance of color composites printed on desktop color
printers. In the Overprint Colors dialog box, click the color squares to
open a color selector dialog box. Choose the color you want to represent
the ink combination on screen and then click OK.
To adjust duotone images:
After you convert an image to Duotone mode, reopen the Duotone Options dialog box to adjust the
color curves, change ink colors, as well as use the Load and Save options.
To change duotone options:
1.
Select the paint object you want to adjust and choose Image | Mode | Duotone Inks.
2.
Adjust the settings in the Duotone Options dialog box and click OK to implement the new
settings.
To load and save duotone information:
Use the Load and Save buttons in the Duotone Options dialog box to work with files of duotone
options information. Canvas uses a file format compatible with the duotone options files used by
the Photoshop image-editing program, so you can load files saved from Photoshop, and files saved
by Canvas can be loaded into Photoshop.
Click Save to save the duotone options settings. In the directory dialog box, type a file
name and click OK or Save.
Click Load to use settings from a saved duotone options file. In the directory dialog box,
select a duotone options file and click Open. Canvas will apply the ink and curve settings
saved in the file to the Duotone Options dialog box.
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Multichannel image mode
Multichannel image mode lets you work with multiple channels of grayscale information for a
grayscale image. In multichannel mode, each channel contains lightness values as in other image
modes, but the values do not relate to color components.
When you convert an image to Multichannel mode, the image data does not change; e.g., if you
convert an RGB Color mode image to Multichannel mode, the Red, Green, and Blue channels retain the
same pixel information, but the channels no longer represent color pixels. The channels in
Multichannel mode are labeled numerically (#1, #2, and so on) in the Channels palette.
The Multichannel mode is not available if you select a paint object containing an image in Black &
White image mode.
Removing red eye
Canvas includes an image editing tool that you can use to correct red eye in digital images.
What is red eye?
Red eye is a photographic phenomenon caused by light reflecting off the interior surface of the eye,
which produces a red glare within the eye.
Select the Red Eye Reduction tool and the tool options appear on the Properties bar.
Red eye reduction options
Method
Select a either the Automatic or Manual Selection method.
Intensity
Drag the slider or enter a percentage to set the intensity.
Mode
Select one of the following:
Darken: Compares the underlying color and the applied eye color,
and the result is whichever color is darker.
Hue: Applies the hue of the eye color without changing the
brightness and saturation.
Color: Changes the hue and saturation of the painted area to the
hue and saturation of the applied color, without affecting the
shadow, highlights, or midtones of the original image.
Feather Radius
Enter a value to blend the edge of the adjusted eye.
Eye Color
Select an eye color from this menu.
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To use the Red Eye Reduction tool with Automatic Selection method:
1.
With the Automatic Selection method, you can correct the red eye effect in two ways:
Click the cursor within the red area of the eye.
Click-drag the cursor to form a rectangle over the eye area.
2.
Place the image into paint edit mode.
3.
Magnify the eye area that needs to be retouched, if necessary.
4.
Select the Red Eye Reduction tool.
5.
Select the Automatic Selection radio button in the Properties bar.
6.
Choose an intensity, feather radius, mode, and eye color.
7.
Correct the red eye effect by clicking the red area or drawing a rectangle over the red eye.
To use the Red Eye Reduction tool with Manual Selection method:
1.
Place the image into paint edit mode.
2.
Magnify the eye area that needs to be retouched, if necessary.
3.
Select the Red Eye Reduction tool.
4.
Select the Manual Selection radio button in the Properties bar.
5.
Choose an intensity, feather radius, mode, and eye color.
6.
Correct the red eye effect by clicking and dragging to form an oval over the red eye.
Scanning, sizing & tracing images
This section focuses on acquiring and sizing images. You will learn how to scan images into Canvas
documents, change the image size and resolution, and auto-trace images to create vector objects
from them. This section also describes some basics techniques to improve scanned images and
photographs.
Using scanners to acquire images
You can scan images directly into Canvas documents using most types of desktop scanners. Canvas
supports scanners that are compatible with the TWAIN standard.
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Using TWAIN-compatible scanners
Scanner manufacturers created the TWAIN interface to standardize interaction between scanners
and computer software. Scanners that comply with the TWAIN standard provide a “source manager”
file, which translates scanner information into data that Canvas can use. You must install the TWAIN
scanner software on your system before you can select the scanner and scan images in Canvas.
If you aren’t sure whether a scanner is TWAIN-compatible, consult the scanner documentation or
contact the manufacturer.
To select a TWAIN scanner:
1.
Choose Image | TWAIN Import | Select Scanner. In the Select Source dialog box, a scrolling
list contains the names of all TWAIN scanners for which Canvas can locate a data source.
2.
Select the scanner you want to use and click OK. The Select Source dialog box closes and the
scanner you selected becomes the active scanner.
To acquire images using a TWAIN scanner:
1.
When you scan an image, it appears in the active Canvas document. Open an existing
document or choose File | New to create a new document.
2.
Choose Image | TWAIN Import | Acquire Image.
3.
In the dialog box, select the options you want to use.
Click Prescan to view a preview of the image. You can verify that the image is aligned and
completely visible and reposition it if necessary.
Depending on the available options, you can adjust scaling and brightness of the image.
4.
Click Scan to begin scanning. When the scanner finishes, the scanned image appears in the
active Canvas document.
Choosing a scanning resolution
Digital images are composed of square pixels, and pixel size is a major factor affecting image quality.
The resolution of an image is expressed as the number of pixels per (linear) inch (ppi), or pixels per
centimeter. Smaller pixels result in higher image resolution, which generally indicates better image
quality. With scanned images, the resolution is also a measure of how much information has been
captured from the original artwork.
At relatively low resolution, such as 75 ppi, lines, edges, and character shapes in an image can
appear jagged (see "About digital images and resolution" on page 448).
Use the following questions to help you decide an appropriate resolution when you scan images.
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Are you scanning line art or text?: Line art, such as pen and ink drawings, and highcontrast images with sharp edges or type, should be scanned at the highest resolution
possible. Text scans that will be processed with character-recognition software should also
be scanned at high resolution for accurate translation.
What halftone screen frequency will be used for printing?: For continuous-tone
images (photographs), a common rule of thumb is to scan at a resolution of 1.5 or at most 2
times the screen frequency. For example, for offset printing on newsprint at a screen
frequency of 85 lines per inch (lpi), an image should be scanned at 128 to 170 ppi. For
images printed at 133 lpi, scanning resolution should be 200 to 266 ppi.
Because resizing tends to blur an image, you can use the Unsharp Mask filter to
sharpen it. For more information, see "Sharpen filters" on page 479.
Talk with service bureaus and commercial printers about the screen frequency used for your
projects. With this information, you can let Canvas calculate the optimal resolution for an image
(see "Resampling and sharpening images" on page 458).
Will the final image be smaller or larger than the original?: If you need to enlarge
the image, you should scan it at a higher resolution to retain the most information when you
resize it. If you will reduce the size of the image, you can scan it at a lower resolution.
About digital images and resolution
Digital images, also known as raster and paint images, are composed of tiny square pixels.
The number of pixels that fit in a linear inch or centimeter is the image resolution. The resolution
indicates how much information is in the image, independent of the resolution used to display the
image on screen or to print it.
Low-resolution images have larger pixels and look more jagged than high-resolution images.
However, while high-resolution images look smoother, they also require more memory and disk
space.
Changing image size
You can use several methods to resize or scale paint objects and the images they contain.
Keep in mind that altering the size or resolution of a paint object can degrade the quality of an image.
Canvas uses interpolation to estimate pixel values when necessary, but this can result in loss of
sharpness or detail when large scaling factors are applied.
The best way to avoid image degradation is to avoid changing image size or resolution.
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You can also remove effects via the Undos palette or by using the keyboard command:
Ctrl+Z.
If an image is too big for a particular layout, consider cropping the image, rather than
resizing or scaling it to fit.
If a photographic image requires higher resolution, try re-scanning the original at a higher
resolution, rather than increasing the resolution in Canvas.
If you resize, skew, or rotate a paint object, you can restore the original shape and resolution by
choosing Effects | Remove Effects.
Stretching images with the mouse
You can change the size of a paint object by clicking on it with the Selection tool and dragging a
selection handle. Stretching an image non-proportionately also stretches the pixels, which can cause
unwanted distortion to the image.
Scaling images using the Scale command
Change the size of a paint object by selecting it and choosing Object | Scale. The Scale command lets
you maintain the object’s proportions or distort an image by scaling it in one direction. Using the
Scale command does not add or remove pixels from an image. For information on using Scale, see
"Scaling objects" on page 195.
Using the Crop command to change image size
Use the Crop command to adjust the overall size of an image.
When you enlarge an image, Canvas adds white pixels.
When you reduce an image, Canvas crops out pixels and discards the image data.
To crop an image:
1.
Select a paint object (not in edit mode) and choose Image | Area | Crop. A dialog box displays
the current size, width, and height.
2.
Under New Size, enter the size you want the image to be. Use percent, pixel, inch,
centimeter, point, or pica values.
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3.
Click a square in the Placement grid to set the position of the resulting image; e.g., to crop
the image from the right side and bottom, click the upper-left square in the Placement grid.
To expand the image on all sides, click the center square.
4.
Click OK to resize the image. If you are reducing the image area, Canvas warns you it will
delete pixels; click OK to proceed.
Using the Crop & Scale menu
Canvas features a Crop & Scale menu that you can easily access via the Properties bar when an image
object is selected.
When you choose a cropping size from the Crop & Scale menu and apply it to a selected image, a
cropping rectangle appears on the image, just as if you were using the Crop tool. Click inside this
rectangle and Canvas crops your image.
Cropping options
Canvas can crop an image in three ways: Soft Crop, Hard Crop, as well as Crop and Scale. The
cropping options also appear in the Properties bar after clicking the Crop tool on an image.
Hard Crop: Extra pixels are permanently removed.
Soft Crop: Extra pixels are temporarily hidden. When the image is in edit mode, you can see
the hidden pixels.
Crop & Scale: When applied, a hard crop is performed and the resulting image is scaled
proportionally.
Apply a cropping size from the Crop & Scale menu to a selected image and various cropping options
appear in the Properties bar.
Crop & Scale options
Width/Height
Width and height of cropping rectangle in pixels.
Final Size
Width and height of cropping rectangle in current ruler units.
Hard & soft crop
options
Select either radio button to perform a permanent or temporary crop.
The cropped image is not scaled with these options.
Crop & Scale
Select this radio button to permanently crop and scale an image. After
cropping, the image is scaled proportionally. With the Crop & Scale
option, you can also define the DPI of the image by entering a value in
the New DPI field.
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To apply a crop command:
1.
Select the image object. The image should not be in paint edit mode.
The center of the cropping rectangle is indicated by a square icon.
2.
In the Properties bar, click the Crop & Scale drop-down list and select a preset crop size or
Custom. You cannot manually resize the cropping rectangle when using a preset crop size.
You have to select another crop size from the menu. Select Custom to be able to resize the
cropping rectangle.
3.
Move the cropping rectangle, if necessary. Place the cursor on the border of the cropping
rectangle and a hand appears.
4.
Place the cursor within the cropping rectangle and click to complete the crop.
Using the Trim or Trim to Path command
The Trim command lets you remove same-color pixels that are near the edge of the image area. This
feature is useful for removing unwanted white space or other borders that are not part of the main
image, e.g., you scan a photo that doesn’t fill the entire scanner area, and there is a white border
around the photo. The Trim command identifies the edges of the image, determines which pixels
around the border match, and deletes the unwanted border.
Canvas alerts you if the image can’t be trimmed because a border can’t be found.
To trim an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to trim.
2.
Then choose Image | Area | Trim to remove the border.
The Trim to Path command lets you trim an image with a vector or text object. Unlike a clipping path,
which “hides” anything outside the path, the Trim to Path command deletes any part of the image
that is outside the path. The result is a single image object, rather than an image and vector object
as is the case with clipping paths (see "Using clipping paths" on page 374).
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To trim an image to path:
1.
Position a text or vector object (trimming object) in front of the image to be trimmed.
The trimming object cannot be larger than the image. If a part of the path doesn’t
touch the image, an error occurs.
2.
If necessary, select the text or vector object and choose Object | Arrange | Bring to Front to
put it in front of the image object.
3.
Select both the trimming object and image.
4.
Choose Image | Trim to Path.
You can even use special objects, such as Concentric Circles, Spirals, Multigons, and Cubes
to trim an image.
We want to create a uniquely
In this example, a heartshaped image from this original shaped Bézier curve is used as
photo.
a trimming object. Place the
trimming object in front of the
image. Select both objects and
choose Image | Trim to Path.
The result is a single heartshaped image.
Using the Crop tool to change image size
Use the Crop tool to select a rectangular part of an image and hide the rest, which is called a “soft
crop.” When you edit a soft-cropped image, the cropped area reappears while the image is in edit
mode. When you finish editing, Canvas re-crops the image.
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You can also use the Crop tool to “hard-crop” an image, which adds or removes pixels, as an
alternative to using the Area | Crop command.
To perform a soft crop:
1.
2.
Select the Crop tool from the Toolbox.
Right-click and select Soft Crop Image.
To perform a hard crop:
1.
Select the Crop tool from the Toolbox.
2.
Right-click and select Hard Crop Image.
Crop Icons
Soft crop pointer indicates cropping will be temporary.
Hard crop pointer indicates cropping will be permanent.
A gavel appears in crop mode when the pointer is in the image. Click to complete the crop.
A hand appears in crop mode when you point to a side of the cropping rectangle. Drag to
move the rectangle.
This symbol appears if the pointer is outside the image in crop mode.
To crop without deleting pixels:
1.
Select the Crop tool and point to the image you want to crop.
2.
Click the image with the crop pointer. Canvas displays a rectangle with hollow handles. This
cropping rectangle defines the outside edges of the image after cropping.
3.
Position the cropping rectangle to frame the part of the image that you want to keep.
Drag a corner handle to resize the cropping rectangle.
Drag a side to move the cropping rectangle. The pointer changes to a hand when you
point to a side.
4.
Press Esc to crop the image, or click in the image. Canvas hides the part of the image outside
the cropping rectangle.
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To restore a cropped image:
You can select a paint object and choose Effects | Remove Effects to remove a soft crop. Or, use the
following procedure:
1.
Click the image with the Crop tool. Canvas displays the full image area and the cropping
rectangle.
2.
Drag the corner handles outward so the entire image is inside the cropping rectangle, and
then press Esc, or click in the image.
Cropping an image
Adjust the cropping rectangle with the Crop tool by dragging a handle. Enclose the area you want to
keep, and then press Esc to hide the cropped part of the image.
To remove pixels when cropping an image:
In hard-crop mode, the Crop tool discards pixels that are outside the cropping rectangle.
Quickly crop or expand a paint object using the Selection tool. Select the paint object (don’t
put it in edit mode), then Ctrl-drag a handle to crop or add pixels to the image. When you
drag, the cropping rectangle and handles appear. When you release the mouse, Canvas
applies a hard crop.
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1.
Select the Crop tool and Ctrl-click the image you want to crop. Canvas displays a cropping
rectangle around the boundary of the image.
2.
Position the cropping rectangle so it frames the part of the image you want to keep.
Drag a handle to resize the cropping rectangle.
To move the cropping rectangle, point to any side, and the pointer changes to a hand.
Drag the cropping rectangle to reposition it.
3.
Press Esc or click in the image to complete the crop.
To add pixels with the Crop tool:
1.
Select the Crop tool and point to the image you want to crop.
If the paint object you crop is an Indexed mode object, the color of the added pixels is
the last color in the color table associated with the image, which often is black.
2.
Alt-click the image you want to enlarge. Canvas displays a cropping rectangle with hollow
square handles at the corners.
3.
Drag the handles of the cropping rectangle to enlarge it.
4.
Press Esc or click in the image to complete the crop.
Adding a white border
When you press a modifier key and click with the Crop tool, you can expand a paint object. This adds
a white border to an RGB Color or CMYK Color image.
To quickly crop an image with the Selection tool:
1.
When a paint object is selected (not in edit mode), point to a handle, and then press Ctrl and
drag the handle. When you drag, a cropping rectangle appears.
2.
Drag inward to crop (cut away) part of the object. Drag outward to add pixels and expand
the object. Release the mouse to complete the operation.
To constrain the cropping rectangle as you drag:
Do one or more of the following:
To constrain the height and width of the cropping rectangle proportionally: Release the
Ctrl key, and then press Shift while dragging.
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To constrain the height and width of the cropping rectangle symmetrically from the
center: Release the Ctrl key and then press it again while dragging.
To constrain the height and width of the cropping rectangle both proportionally and
symmetrically: Release the Ctrl key and then press Ctrl+Shift while dragging.
Changing resolution
Change the resolution of paint objects in two ways:
If you do not want to change an object’s size, resample the image. Resampling merges or
divides pixels.
If you want to preserve all the data in an image, change the object’s resolution and allow its
size to change.
Decreasing resolution (“down sampling”) decreases file size by discarding data, which can result in
lost detail; however, it’s common to reduce resolution in some situations.
For Web pages and other applications where images are displayed on a monitor, 72 ppi is
the standard resolution.
Rarely, an image is resampled to increase resolution. This should be avoided because additional
pixels are created by estimating their color values, which does not improve an image.
The Resolution dialog box has compact and expanded states. In its compact state, you can easily
change the resolution of multiple paint objects without needing to specify additional options (see
"Image resolution settings" on page 456).
Image resolution settings
Specify the resolution, width, and height for a selected paint object when the Image Resolution dialog
box is expanded. Expand the dialog box when a single paint object is selected; if multiple objects are
selected, they must match in size and resolution.
Depending on the options you select, certain settings in the dialog box can’t be changed. A bracket
and chain icon indicate settings that are linked and fixed.
Preserve Data: Prevents resampling, or interpolation, when resolution or size changes.
Selecting Preserve Data also selects Preserve Proportions, so width and height change only in
proportion to each other.
Preserve Data means image resolution and size are relative; changing the resolution will change
the object size, and changing the size will change the image resolution.
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If you select Pixels in the Width and Height menus, you cannot change these values, because
the number of pixels cannot change when Preserve Data is selected.
Width and Height: Specify a size for the paint object by entering values in these text
boxes. Select measurement units in the adjacent menus.
The width and height boxes show the size a paint object will become if you change the
resolution when Preserve Data is selected.
Preserve Proportions: This option links the Width and Height values so that changing one
value changes the other and maintains the original proportions of the paint object. Selecting
Preserve Data also selects this option. If you want to stretch a paint object in only one
direction, deselect Preserve Proportions.
When more than one paint object is selected (unless the objects are the same size and
resolution), the button that displays additional options in the Resolution dialog box is not
available.
To change resolution by resampling:
This procedure reduces resolution of paint objects for use on a Web page or in a presentation.
1.
Select one or more paint objects. These objects can vary in size and resolution.
2.
Choose Image | Area | Resolution. The Image Resolution dialog box appears in its compact
state.
3.
Select pixels per inch or pixels per centimeter and enter the resolution value in the text box.
4.
Click OK. Canvas changes the resolution of the selected objects, which remain the same size.
To change resolution without resampling:
Use this procedure to change the resolution of paint objects without resampling. This changes the
size of objects while preserving the image data.
If you reduce resolution, paint objects become larger because the individual pixels are larger. If you
increase resolution, paint objects become smaller because the individual pixels are smaller.
1.
Select one or more paint objects and choose Image | Area | Resolution.
2.
In the Image Resolution dialog box, select Preserve Data.
3.
Enter the desired resolution in the text box and click OK. Canvas changes the resolution of
the selected paint objects.
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To calculate resolution:
If only one object is selected, you can calculate an appropriate resolution based on a halftone screen
frequency.
1.
Click Auto in the Image Resolution dialog box.
2.
Enter the screen frequency and choose Draft, Good, or Best. Canvas calculates the resolution
by multiplying the screen frequency by 1 (draft), 1.5 (good), or 2 (best).
3.
Click OK to enter the calculated resolution in the Image Resolution dialog box.
Resampling and sharpening images
Resizing and resampling causes images to appear softer. However, you can apply the Unsharp Mask
filter to bring soft images back into focus. For more information, see "To apply the Unsharp Mask
filter:" on page 480.
To specify how Canvas approximates new pixels:
When increasing image resolution, Canvas uses one of two methods to calculate color values for the
pixels it adds to an image. To change the method, use the Interpolation control in the Configuration
Center.
1.
Choose File | Configuration Center. Select the Painting manager in the General settings.
2.
Select an option under Interpolation and click OK. For more information, see "Setting
preferences" on page 97 .
Auto-tracing images
You can use the Auto Trace command to create vector objects from an image. The Auto Trace
command traces an entire image or any channel of an image and is available when a paint object is
selected. Auto-tracing is much faster than tracing an image by hand with the Polygon or Curve tool,
although you might need to edit the resulting vector paths. When Canvas performs an auto-trace, the
original image is not changed. When the tracing is complete, you can move the vector objects away
from the image.
Canvas auto-traces high-resolution images better than low-resolution images. Auto-tracing
an image with a resolution lower than 300 ppi can produce jagged paths.
Canvas traces an image with curves or straight path segments. Auto-tracing usually produces
several paths that follow various sections of the image. After tracing, group and edit the resulting
paths.
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Selection handles (highlighted)
surround the objects produced
by auto-tracing the sailboat
image
Original scan at 600 ppi
resolution
Paths created with the Auto Trace
command
To auto-trace an image:
1.
Select a paint object to trace and choose Image | Auto Trace.
2.
In the Auto Trace dialog box, choose either all channels or a specific color channel to trace
from the Channel menu. The options also depend on the type of image.
3.
Select other settings to use for tracing.
4.
Then click OK to trace the selected paint object.
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Auto Trace settings
Input
The Input section contains information about the image being traced.
Channels: Depending on the image type, you can select All Channels or
a specific color Channel from the menu. If the image contains only one
color channel, like grayscale or black & white, the Channel option and
menu is disabled.
Blur: Use the slider to apply a blur radius to the input image. Blurring
removes noise.
Threshold: This slider is only enabled when the input image is
grayscale or color and the output result is black & white. The threshold,
in this case, modifies the intermediate black & white image used to
create the vector (traced) objects.
Resolution: This slider adjusts the resolution of the input image. The
input image can be traced at its original resolution or at an adjusted one.
The Intermediate Preview indicates the image used for tracing after
applying the blur or threshold changes, if applicable.
Output
Output section
Mode: Select either Black & White, Grayscale, or Color for the output
tracing.
Trace: Select either Fill, Stroke, or Fill+Stroke. The Fill option creates
filled outlines. The Stroke option is only available when the mode is set to
Black & White. Stroke means that centerlines with an approximate width
are created rather than outlines. With the Fill+Stroke option, a mixture
of filled vector objects and strokes is made. Strokes are created
depending on the values for Max Stroke Width and Min Stroke Length.
Ignore area less than: This option works as a despeckle filter. If
isolated pixels or groups of pixels exist in the input image, they will be
ignored, instead of creating vector objects from them.
Gray Levels: This slider is only enabled when the output is gray or
color. When the output is gray, the level value defines the number of
gray levels in the intermediate preview and in resulting vector object.
When the output is color, the slider controls how well the details in the
image are distinguished. A high value provides better distinction.
Optimize curves: This option reduces the number of points in the
curve, without drastically affecting the shape. Optimize is disabled if
Make polygons is enabled.
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Make polygons: Select this option to create polygons rather than Bézier
curves.
The Output preview displays a portion of the resulting vector objects.
Image adjustment & correction
You can adjust images in Canvas using built-in filters and third-party plug-ins. For example, you can
use the Levels filter to adjust image highlights and shadows, and sharpen scanned photos with the
Unsharp Mask filter.
This section describes the commands you can use to adjust image color and brightness. It also
describes commands for sharpening, softening, and refining images.
Applying image-editing commands
You can apply most image-editing commands to a single paint object if it’s selected or in edit
mode.You can also apply most commands to multiple selected paint objects. You can set image
modes, apply filters, and adjust settings for multiple paint objects at the same time.
In most cases, a command affects an active selection, or an entire image if nothing is selected in edit
mode.
When you apply an image-editing command to more than one selected paint object, you
can’t use the Preview option if the dialog box has it. Preview is available when a single image
is in edit mode.
You can apply a command by choosing Image | Adjust or by using the Adjust menu located in the
Properties bar.
The following summarizes how image-editing commands can be applied.
Mode commands let you set the image mode for one or more selected paint objects.
You can convert multiple objects to image proxies.
Crop command and the Proxy Info command can’t be applied to multiple objects.
Resolution command sets the resolution for one or more selected objects.
Trim command trims one or more selected paint objects.
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You can apply filters to one or more selected paint objects. If a single paint object is in edit
mode, a filter applies to the entire image or an active selection.
Image Measurement command can be applied to paint objects that are selected or in edit
mode.
Many commands in the Adjust menu can be used to uniformly adjust one or more selected
paint objects, or a paint object in edit mode.
Working with image-adjustment dialog boxes
Some dialog boxes for image-editing commands include histograms and preview options to help you
achieve the effect you want.
Using the Preview option
Most dialog boxes for image-adjustment commands include a Preview check box. Select the Preview
option to see how settings affect the image. Preview is available only when a single paint object is in
edit mode.
Understanding histograms
A histogram plots the relative number of pixels in each brightness level in an image.
In the above, shorter bars on the left indicate that the image doesn’t contain large areas of very dark
pixels. Higher bars toward the right of the graph show that the image contains large areas of medium
and very bright pixels.
To view an image’s histogram at any time:
With an image selected or in edit mode, choose Image | Histogram.
Consolidating colors
The Threshold and Posterize commands let you consolidate color values in an image or selection.
Besides producing interesting effects with these commands, you can use them in alpha channels to
help isolate areas within an image.
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If you select an area within an image, Canvas applies the adjustment only to that area. Otherwise,
Canvas adjusts the selected paint objects.
Setting a brightness threshold
Use the Threshold command to convert any image to black and white. The Threshold command
compares each pixel’s brightness value to a threshold value that you set. It changes brighter pixels
to white and darker pixels to black. The threshold setting is based on a scale of brightness values
from 0 (black) to 255 (white). You can’t use the Threshold command on images in Black & White or
Indexed mode.
For example, if you set a threshold value of 128, pixels that are brighter than medium gray become
white, while pixels darker than medium gray become black.
To map an image to black and white:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Threshold.
3.
Enter the threshold value by dragging the slider or typing a number in the text box. If you
want Canvas to convert half the pixels to black and half to white, click Auto.
4.
Click OK after entering the setting you want.
To isolate selections, apply the Threshold command in conjunction with the High Pass filter to an
image in an alpha channel (see "Isolating areas using the High Pass filter" on page 538).
Creating high contrast posterized images
You can condense the brightness variations in an image with the Posterize command. If you apply the
Posterize command to a photograph, it creates a high-contrast image by compressing hundreds of
brightness levels into only a few. You set the number of brightness levels you want to retain, and
Canvas reduces each color channel to that number of values.
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Original RGB image
Posterize 8 levels
Posterize 4 levels
Posterize 2 levels
The Posterize command’s effect depends on the mode of the image you posterize; e.g., if you apply
the Posterize command with a setting of 2 levels to a grayscale-mode image, the image becomes
black and white. If you apply the same setting to an RGB-mode image (even if it contains only grays),
the command converts each pixel’s red, green, and blue value to either zero or full color, reducing
the image to eight colors — red, green, blue, red-green, red-blue, blue-green, black, and white.
You can’t use the Posterize command on images in Black & White or Indexed mode.
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To posterize an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to posterize all the images. You can select an area in one
image in edit mode to posterize the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the
entire image is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Posterize.
3.
Enter a level from 2 to 255. Higher numbers produce subtle effects. Lower numbers produce
high-contrast images.
4.
Click OK after you enter the Levels setting.
Changing color and contrast
You can use the Invert, Desaturate, and Brightness/Contrast commands to create special effects and
correct lightness levels in images. These commands apply changes equally to all color values.
If you select an area of an image, Canvas applies the command to that area only. Otherwise, Canvas
applies the command to the entire image in a paint object.
Inverting colors in images
You can use the Invert command to reverse the colors in an image, as in a photographic negative.
The command converts each pixel’s color to its opposite hue in the color spectrum. It does this by
inverting the brightness value of each pixel in each color channel.
For example, if a pixel is pure red, its brightness levels are 255, 0, 0 in RGB mode. When inverted,
this pixel’s brightness values become 0, 255, 255, changing it to pure blue-green, its opposite in
hue.
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Original RGB
Inverted RGB
Green channel selected
Inverted Green channe
The Invert command can be particularly useful in channel editing, as colored pixels can denote either
masked or selected areas.
To invert an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to invert all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to invert the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image in
edit mode is affected.
You can’t use the Invert command on images in Indexed mode.
2.
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Desaturating image colors
You can use the Desaturate command to remove color from images completely, while retaining the
relative brightness levels of shadows, midtones, and highlights. The command converts an entire
image to shades of gray without changing the image mode.
To desaturate an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to desaturate all the images. You can select an area in one
image in edit mode to desaturate the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the
entire image in edit mode is affected. This command works with paint objects in RGB Color
mode, CMYK Color mode, and LAB Color mode.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Desaturate or select Desaturate from the Adjust menu in the
Properties bar.
Adjusting brightness and contrast
You can adjust the brightness and contrast of an entire image or specific channels with the
Brightness/Contrast command. Brightness refers to the lightness of an image. Contrast is the
difference in brightness between two pixels.
Because the Brightness/Contrast command adjusts all pixels equally, you should avoid using it to
lighten an image that appears too dark, because the image can lose shadow detail.
To preserve shadows or highlights when adjusting the brightness of an image:
Use the Levels or Curves commands (see "Levels" on page 468 and "Adjusting brightness curves"
on page 470).
To use the Brightness/Contrast command:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
in edit mode is affected. This command doesn’t work with paint objects in Black & White
mode or Indexed mode.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Brightness/Contrast or select Brightness/Contrast from the Adjust
menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Enter a Brightness value from -100 to 100. Higher values can wash out midtones and
shadows. Lower values can dull highlights.
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4.
Enter a Contrast value from -100 to 100. Increasing contrast moves the color values of pixels
to the extremes of the brightness spectrum. Decreasing contrast moves color values toward
medium gray.
5.
After entering the settings you want, click OK.
Color balance
The Color Balance command lets you adjust color in shadows, midtones, and highlights. You can use
it with paint objects in CMYK Color or RGB Color modes.
To use the Color Balance command:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
in edit mode is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Color Balance.
3.
Click Shadows, Midtones, or Highlights to select the tonal range you want to adjust. You can
set the color levels independently for each tonal range.
4.
Drag a slider toward a color label to increase the amount of that color. The letters indicate
the primary color values: Cyan, Red, Magenta, Green, Yellow, and Blue.
When you increase the amount of a color, you also reduce its inverse, which is the color
labeled at the other end of the slider.
5.
Click Preview to preview the color adjustments. Preview is only available if a single paint
object is in edit mode.
6.
Click OK to apply the settings.
Levels
You can adjust the brightness of shadows, highlights, or midtones by using the Levels command.
Brightness values range from 0 (black) to 255 (white). For colored pixels, brightness is the
brightness value in each color channel.
The Levels command works with all image modes except Black & White and Indexed.
To adjust levels:
1.
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2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Levels.
3.
Select a channel or combination of channels in the pop-up menu. The Levels command will
affect only the specified channels.
4.
Do one or more of the following:
Lighten highlights: Enter a positive number less than 255 in the right Input Levels
box, or drag the white slider under the histogram. Canvas assigns the maximum output
level to all pixels on the right of the slider.
Lighten shadows: Enter a positive number in the left Output Levels box, or drag the
black slider under Output Levels to increase the minimum output level. This value
becomes the darkest value allowed in the image.
Darken highlights: Enter a positive number less than 255 in the right Output Levels
box, or drag the white slider under Output Levels to set the maximum output value. This
is the brightest value allowed in the image. You can darken highlights in one color
channel to bring brighter colors back into the printable color range.
Darken shadows: Enter a number greater than zero in the left Input Levels box, or drag
the black slider under the histogram. Canvas assigns the minimum output level to all
pixels on the left of the slider.
Adjust midtones: Enter a value in the center Input Levels box or drag the gray slider
under the histogram. To lighten midtones, enter a value from 1.01 to 9.99 or drag the
slider to the left. All pixels on the right of the slider will be brighter than medium gray. To
darken midtones, enter a value from 0.1 to 1.00 or drag the slider to the right. All pixels
on the left of the slider will be darker than medium gray.
5.
Click OK.
Saving and loading Levels settings
You can save Levels settings on disk to use again. For example, after correcting a scanned photo, you
can save the settings and use them to correct other images scanned from the same source.
To save Levels settings:
1.
In the Levels dialog box, click Save.
2.
In the dialog box, type a name for the settings file, select a location, and click Save.
To load previously-saved Levels:
1.
In the Levels dialog box, click Load.
2.
In the dialog box, locate the settings file you want to open, and click Open.
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Levels dialog box
Use the Levels dialog box to control different aspects of brightness levels.
Channel
Choose an individual color channel or the composite channel.
Input Levels
Type values in the Input Levels boxes or drag the slider under the
histogram to set the minimum input level, midtone ratio, and maximum
input levels.
Output Levels
Type values in the Output Levels boxes or drag the sliders to set the
minimum and maximum output levels.
Histogram
The histogram graphs brightness levels for the selected channel.
Auto
Click Auto for Canvas to map the darkest values in the selection to black
and the lightest value to white.
Eyedroppers
Click the Set White Point eyedropper tool. Click in the image to pick the
values you want to assign to the lightest area in the image. Click the Set
Black Point eyedropper tool. Click in the image to pick the values you
want to assign to the darkest area in the image.
Adjusting brightness curves
You can adjust the tonal range of an image with the Curves command. Unlike the Levels command,
which can set the minimum, maximum, and median values, Curves adjusts the entire range of
values. It lets you map input values to output values according to a line (“curve”) on a graph. Curves
provides the most control over the tonal range of an image.
This command is not available when a paint object in Black & White mode or Indexed mode is
selected.
In the Curves dialog box, brightness values range from 0 (black) to 255 (white), or 0 percent (white)
to 100 percent (black). To switch between these scales, click the grayscale bar under the graph.
A typical setting is a gentle S-curve (or inverted S-curve, depending on the scale you use), which
adds contrast to an image without appearing too harsh.
Curves dialog box
The graph shows how Canvas maps input brightness values to output values. Select Preview to see
the effect on the image.
Channel
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Grayscale ramp
The grayscale ramp shows the lightness scale, either 0-255 (dark to
light) or 0-100 percent (light to dark). Click the ramp to reverse the
scale and the curve.
Input and Output
Type brightness values in the Input and Output boxes. Or, drag the
pointer (circled) to specify brightness values.
Icon
Click this icon and drag a point on the curve to reshape the curve. Click
the curve to add up to 19 control points. Drag points off the curve to
delete them.
To draw a disconnected segment, click this icon and drag in the graph.
Pencil
With the pencil selected, click to smooth the curve.
To adjust brightness curves:
1.
Select one paint object to adjust. The paint object can be in edit mode. You can select an
area in the image. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Curves.
To redraw the curve completely, or to create sharp changes in brightness for a tonal
range, click the pencil and draw a new curve or segment.
3.
In the Channel pop-up menu, select the composite channel or an individual channel to
adjust. To adjust multiple channels, select the channels in the Channels palette first.
4.
To change the shape of the existing curve, make sure the curve button at the bottom-left is
selected.
Click points that you want to keep the same.
Drag points on the curve that you want to change. Or, enter values in the Input and
Output boxes. For example, to keep midtones the same, click the center of the curve, then
drag other areas of the curve. To adjust midtones without affecting highlights and
shadows, click the quarter and three-quarter points of the curve, and drag the middle.
5.
If you draw disjointed segments with the pencil, you can click Smooth to create one
continuous curve.
6.
Click OK to apply the current settings to the image.
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Saving and loading Curves dialog box settings
You can save Curves dialog box settings to use again; e.g., after correcting the brightness curve for
a particular Photo CD image, you can save these settings and later apply them to other images from
the same source.
To save Curves settings:
In the Curves dialog box, click Save. In the directory dialog box, type a name for the settings file,
select a location, and click Save.
To load Curves settings:
In the Curves dialog box, click Load. In the directory dialog box, locate the settings file and click
Open.
Hue/Saturation
You can modify the tint and purity of specific colors with the Hue/Saturation command. In terms of
image editing, saturation refers to the amount of gray in colors.
The Hue/Saturation dialog box varies slightly depending on the color mode. For RGB Color and CMYK
Color images, you can modify red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, or magenta color ranges. For LAB mode
images, you can modify blue, magenta, yellow, or green color ranges.
The Hue/Saturation command is available when you work with CMYK, RGB, or LAB Color mode
images. Before choosing the Hue/Saturation command, make the composite channel active. For more
information, see "Activating channels" on page 508.
Hue/Saturation dialog box
Color
Choose the color to adjust. Click Master to affect all colors.
Hue, Saturation,
Lightness
Enter numbers in the text boxes or drag the sliders to adjust hue,
saturation, and lightness.
Color Wheel
The color wheel illustrates changes made in the settings.
Colorize
Select the Colorize check box to add the same hue to the entire image.
To adjust the hue of a color range:
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1.
Select a paint object to adjust. You can select an area in the image to adjust the selected area
only.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Hue/Saturation.
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3.
On the left of the dialog box, click the color range to adjust, or click Master to affect all colors
equally.
4.
To change the selected color, enter the amount of the color shift, from -180 to 180°, in the
Hue text box. Negative values indicate a counter-clockwise shift around the color wheel;
positive values indicate a clockwise shift; e.g., with the Master option selected, setting Hue
to 60 changes red to magenta, magenta to blue, blue to cyan, and so on.
5.
Click OK to apply the current settings to the image.
To adjust the saturation of a color range:
1.
Select a paint object to adjust. You can select an area in the image to adjust the selected area
only.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Hue/Saturation.
3.
Click the option button of the color you want to adjust, or click the Master option button to
affect all colors equally.
4.
Enter a value from -100 to 100 in the Saturation text box or drag the slider. Positive values
decrease the amount of gray in the selected colors. Negative values increase the amount of
gray.
5.
Click OK to apply the current settings to the image.
To adjust the brightness of a color range:
1.
Select a paint object to adjust. You can select an area in the image to adjust the selected area
only.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Hue/Saturation.
3.
Choose a specific color range or choose Master to affect all colors equally.
4.
Enter a value from -100 to 100 in the Lightness text box or drag the slider. Positive values
increase the amount of white in the color range. Negative values decrease the amount of
white.
5.
Click OK to apply the current settings to the image.
For more control of brightness adjustments, use the Levels or Curves command (see "Levels" on
page 468 and "Adjusting brightness curves" on page 470).
To colorize an image:
Use the Colorize option in the Hue/Saturation dialog box to tint an image. This applies the same hue
and saturation to all pixels that are not 100% black or white. The Colorize option does not affect the
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lightness levels of pixels.
1.
Select a paint object. You can select an area in the image to adjust only the selection.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Hue/Saturation.
3.
Select the Colorize option.
4.
Enter a value from -180° to 180° in the Hue text box. Positive values shift counter-clockwise
around the color wheel, negative values shift clockwise around the color wheel. For example,
Hue 120 creates a green-toned image.
5.
Enter a value in the Saturation text box or drag the slider.
6.
After entering the settings you want, click OK.
Color Equalization
You can graphically adjust the saturation of different color ranges with the Color Equalization
command. You can add or remove gray from various color ranges in images in RGB Color mode, CMYK
Color mode, and LAB Color mode.
To use the Color Equalization command:
1.
Select a paint object to adjust. You can select an area in the image to adjust only the selected
area.
2.
Choose Image | Adjust | Color Equalization.
3.
Drag the handles in the window to change the saturation of color ranges. To increase
saturation, drag upward. To decrease saturation, drag downward.
4.
Click Saturate to increase the saturation of all colors. To decrease the saturation of all colors,
click Desaturate. Click Normalize to return all colors to their original saturation.
5.
Click OK to apply the settings.
Blur filters
Blur filters soften images by decreasing contrast between neighboring pixels. These commands work
with all image modes except Indexed and Black & White.
Apply the Blur filters by choosing Image | Filter | Blur or by using the Filters menu in the Properties
bar.
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To use Blur and Blur More:
Blur slightly modifies an image. Blur More is about four times stronger than Blur. Both commands
work with all image modes except Black & White and Indexed.
1.
Select one or more paint objects to blur. You can select an area in one image to blur the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Blur | Blur or Blur More.
Gaussian and Average blur
Create a softening effect by using the Gaussian Blur or Average blur filters. Their effects are similar,
but the Gaussian Blur filter creates a more diffused effect than the Average blur filter.
The Gaussian Blur filter changes the color value of each pixel by applying a weighted average based
on the color values of pixels within a specified distance. Color values at the edge of the specified
distance influence the final color value less than closer pixels.
The Average filter determines the new color value for each pixel by equally averaging all color values
within the specified radius.
To apply Gaussian Blur or Average blur:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to blur. You can select an area in one image to blur the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Blur | Gaussian Blur or Average.
3.
Specify a radius value from 0.1 to 250.0 in the Gaussian Blur dialog box, or 1 to 16 in the
Average dialog box. Smaller radius values produce more subtle effects than larger ones.
4.
Click OK.
Depending on the size of the radius, applying a Gaussian or Average blur can take longer than other
Blur filters.
Blur
Blur More
Average
Gaussian
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Motion Blur
The Motion Blur filter can create the effect of linear movement. You can specify the direction and
magnitude of the effect. This command works with all image modes except Black & White, Indexed,
and Duotone.
To apply motion blur:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to blur. You can select an area in one image to blur the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Blur | Motion Blur. Adjust the settings in the Motion Blur dialog box,
and then click OK to apply the filter and close the dialog box.
Original
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Motion Blur: Direction = -7, Distance = 162, Phase
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Motion Blur dialog box
Direction
Establishes the angle of the blur and the object “movement.” Enter a
value from -90 to 90 degrees. You can drag the slider or drag the solid
dot inside the circle to set the Direction value. A value of 0 degrees
creates a horizontal blur; 90 degrees creates a vertical blur.
Distance
The magnitude of the blur. Enter a number from 1 to 999, or drag the
slider to set the Distance. A lower number creates less blurring.
Phase
Establishes the apparent direction of movement by creating a blurred
trail that follows the object. Enter a number from -100 to 100 or drag
the slider to set the Phase. Negative numbers create apparent movement
up and to the right. Positive numbers create apparent movement down
and to the left.
Preview
Displays the effect of the current settings.
Radial Blur
The Radial Blur filter can create the effect of circular movement in an image. This command works
with all image modes except Black & White, Indexed, and Duotone.
To apply radial blur:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to blur. You can select an area in one image to blur the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Blur | Radial Blur. Adjust the settings in the dialog box, and then click
OK to apply the filter.
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Radial Blur dialog box
Spin
Controls the magnitude of the apparent rotation in the image. Type a
number from 1 to 100 or drag the slider to set the value. Or, drag the
solid area inside the circle. Drag clockwise to simulate slower rotation;
drag counterclockwise to simulate faster rotation and produce more
blurring.
Quality
Higher quality creates a smoother image but takes more time. The
quality differences become more pronounced when the image is
enlarged or printed on standard size paper.
Select Draft for the fastest redraw. Select Good for average redraw
speed and quality. Select Best when image quality is most important.
Centering options
These options let you set the rotation origin. Center In Image sets the
origin at the center of the image. Center in Selection sets the origin at
the center of a selection. “Offset from Center in Pixels” lets you type
values to offset the origin from the center of the image or selection. Type
vertical and horizontal offset amounts in pixels in the text boxes.
Negative horizontal offsets move the center to the left. Negative vertical
offsets move the center up. Positive horizontal offsets move the center to
the right. Positive vertical offsets move the center down.
Preview
Displays the effect of the current settings.
Zoom Blur
The Zoom Blur filter can create the effect of movement in an image, as if the scene were moving
rapidly toward or away from the observer. The filter blurs along an axis perpendicular to the image.
You can specify the depth, direction, and smoothness of the blur effect. This command works with all
image modes except Black & White, Indexed, and Duotone.
To apply zoom blur:
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1.
Select one or more paint objects to blur. You can select an area in one image to blur the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Blur | Zoom Blur. Adjust the settings in the dialog box, and then click
OK to apply the filter.
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Zoom Blur dialog box
Span
Sets the depth, (length) of the zoom effect. Type a number from 1 to
100 or drag the slider to set the value. A larger number simulates a
greater zoom depth and a more blurred effect.
Zoom In/Out
Establishes the direction of the blur effect toward or away from the
viewer. Type a number from -100 to 100 or drag the slider to set the
value. Negative numbers make the image appear to move closer; positive
numbers make the image appear to move away.
Smoothness
Controls the quality of the transition of the blur effect. Type a number
from 1 to 10 or drag the slider to set the value. A smaller number creates
a smoother blur with fine color blending.
Centering options
These options let you set the zoom origin. Center In Image sets the
origin at the center of the image. Center in Selection sets the origin at
the center of a selection. “Offset from Center in Pixels” lets you type
values to offset the origin from the center of the image or selection. Type
vertical and horizontal offset amounts in pixels in the text boxes.
Negative horizontal offsets move the center to the left. Negative vertical
offsets move the center up. Positive horizontal offsets move the center to
the right. Positive vertical offsets move the center down.
Preview
Displays the effect of the current settings.
Sharpen filters
Sharpen filters increase the contrast between adjacent pixels, which can make an image appear more
distinct. These commands work with all image modes except Black & White, Indexed, and Duotone.
Although the Sharpen and Blur filters have opposite effects, they do not negate each other.
To reverse the effects of a Sharpen filter, choose Edit | Undo.
Sharpen filter: Modifies an image slightly. The effect of the Sharpen More filter is about
four times greater.
Sharpen Edges filter: Affects only high-contrast areas.
Unsharp Mask filter: Provides additional control over the sharpening effect.
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To sharpen an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to sharpen. You can select an area in one image to sharpen
the selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Sharpen, and then choose a filter.
Original
Sharpen More
applied 5 times
Sharpen Edges
applied 8 times
Unsharp Mask
Amount = 113
Radius = 4.5
Threshold = 0
To apply the Unsharp Mask filter:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to sharpen. Select an area in an image to sharpen the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Sharpen | Unsharp Mask.
3.
Enter 1 to 500% for Amount. Enter less than 100 percent to sharpen the image slightly.
4.
Enter 0.1 to 250 pixels for Radius. This is the size of the area used to determine new color
values for the original pixels. Smaller values focus the sharpening effect on high-contrast
edges.
5.
Enter 0 to 255 levels for Threshold. Enter 0 to filter all pixels. Enter a larger value to filter
only high-contrast edges.
6.
Click OK to apply the filter.
Adding and removing noise
In images, “noise” refers to randomly- colored pixels. Noise can be good or bad; e.g., you can apply
noise to computer-generated graphics to make them appear more photographic. You can also use a
filter that removes noise to minimize the appearance of tiny scratches or other artifacts present in the
source material or introduced during digitizing. Noise commands work with all image modes except
Black & White and Indexed.
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To add noise to selections:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust. Select an area in one image to adjust the selected
area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Noise | Add Noise.
3.
Enter 1 to 999 for Amount to specify how far the color of the noise can vary from the original
color.
4.
Choose the Uniform or Gaussian distribution option:
Uniform: To apply colors randomly picked within the Amount specified. Canvas evenly
distributes the color of the noise across a range of colors. This option gives the smoothest
effect.
Gaussian: If you want the noise to favor lighter and darker colors within the specified
range. This option creates a more pronounced effect than Uniform.
5.
Select Monochromatic if you want to add noise of different brightness levels of the original
color.
6.
Click OK to apply the noise settings.
Removing noise from selections
You can remove noise from an image or selection using the Median, Despeckle, or Dust & Scratches
filters. The Median filter removes noise by averaging the color of pixels. The Despeckle and Dust &
Scratches filters remove noise by selectively blurring regions of the selection.
To use the Median filter:
On a pixel-by-pixel basis, the Median filter applies the median color value of all pixels within the
specified radius. Although the filter ignores extreme values in its computations, higher radius values
can still wash out an image.
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust. You can select an area in one image to adjust the
selected area only.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Noise | Median.
3.
Type a value from 1 to 16 in the Radius text box, or drag the slider. Smaller radius values
produce subtler effects.
4.
Click OK.
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To use the Despeckle filter:
The Despeckle filter can remove defects such as dust and other speckling in images. The filter blends
pixels with the lightness values of neighboring pixels. It’s a good idea to select areas that need
correction before applying the filter.
1.
Select an area in an image to adjust. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image is
affected.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Noise | Despeckle.
3.
Drag the slider or type a number in the text box to set the Threshold value. Higher values
produce greater blending of pixels.
To reduce dust and scratch marks:
The Dust and Scratches filter can remove dust specks by replacing a pixel’s value with a median
value. The filter does not change a pixel’s value unless the absolute value of the difference of its gray
value and the median gray value of its neighborhood is greater than the Threshold. Larger numbers
of pixels are replaced by the median value when the Threshold is low.The practical effect of this is
that larger pixels regions (larger “specks”) are reduced or removed with a lower Threshold.
Therefore, you can use the Threshold to control the size of the artifacts you want to remove.
1.
Select an area to adjust in an image. If you don’t make a selection, the entire object is
affected.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Noise | Dust & Scratches.
3.
Enter a value from 1 to 16 in the Radius text box. Smaller radius values produce a subtler
effect than larger ones.
4.
Type a value from 0 to 255 in the Threshold text box. After entering the settings you want,
click OK.
Smoothing video images
Because video images contain two interlaced pictures, you can sometimes see a slight banding effect
in images acquired from video-recording devices. You can correct this by using the De-Interlace
filter and then applying the Unsharp Mask filter. De-Interlace works with all image modes except
Black & White.
To smooth video images:
1.
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Select one or more paint objects to adjust. You can select an area in one image to deinterlace the selected area only.
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2.
Choose Image | Filter | Video | De-Interlace.
3.
Click Odd fields or Even fields to select bands to eliminate.
4.
Choose a replacement method for the eliminated pixels:
Duplication: To fill the area by inserting a copy of an adjacent band.
Interpolation: To fill the area by inserting intermediate color values based on the color
values of neighboring pixels. This option creates a smoother, more accurate fill than
Duplication.
5.
After entering the settings you want, click OK.
Selections & channels
Canvas gives you several ways to select pixels in an image. When you select groups of pixels by area
or color, you can use painting tools, filters, and special effects to modify the selected pixels without
affecting the parts of the image that are not selected.
This section describes how to make selections in images, save selections in alpha channels, work
with color and alpha channels, and create channel masks, which can make parts of images
transparent.
Selecting pixels in images
When a paint object is in edit mode, any filters, commands, and painting tools that you apply can
affect the entire image. When you have selected pixels in the image, the effect of a tool, filter, or
other adjustment is confined to the selected pixels.
You can select areas in an image using painting tools or menu commands. For example, you can make
rectangular selections by dragging the Marquee tool in an image, and you can use the Color Range
command to select groups of pixels based on color similarity.
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A dashed border outlines the
selected area in a photograph
Selection borders
The selected pixels in an image are referred to collectively as a selection. When you make a selection,
Canvas surrounds the selected pixels with a moving dashed border. You can hide and display the
border without affecting the selection.
To hide the border:
Choose Image | Select | Hide Edges.
To display the selection border:
Choose Image | Select | Show Edges.
Deselecting an image selection
When you use a selection tool in normal mode, making a new selection replaces any existing selection
in an image.
To deselect pixels without making a new selection:
Choose Image | Select | None. You can also press Esc to deselect a selection. If a selection is
floating, pressing Esc once defloats the selection; pressing Esc again deselects all pixels.
Selecting all pixels in an image
You can apply painting tools and filters to an entire image without first making a selection. But you
can also select all the pixels in an image when you want to work with them as a selection.
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To select all pixels, with a paint object in edit mode:
Choose Image | Select | All. A selection border appears around the entire image.
Using pixel selection tools
Use the Marquee, Oval Marquee, Row Selection, Column Selection, and Lasso tools to select areas in
images.
Marquee
Row Selection
Oval Marquee
Column Selection
The Marquee tool selects rectangular areas. The Oval Marquee tool selects oval areas. The Column
Selection tool selects a single vertical column of pixels. The Row Selection tool selects a single
horizontal row of pixels. The Lasso tools selects odd-shaped areas.
The Marquee, Oval Marquee, Row Selection, and Column Selection tools are located in a tool palette
within the Painting tool palette. The Lasso tools are separate icons in the Painting tool palette.
These selection tools let you select any part of an image, from one pixel to all the pixels in the image.
By using modifier keys with these tools, you can add to and subtract from selections, and select the
overlapping area of two selections.
By subtracting a circle from a larger circle, for example, you can make a ring-shaped selection with
an unselected area inside. See "Modifying selections" on page 497.
To select rectangular or oval areas:
1.
Place the paint object into edit mode.
2.
Select the Marquee tool or the Oval Marquee tool.
3.
Drag diagonally in the image; a selection rectangle or oval expands as you drag away from
the starting point. When you release the mouse button, a dashed border outlines the
selected area.
To make a square selection:
If no selection exists, press Shift and drag the Marquee tool in an image. If a selection exists in
the image, pressing Shift adds to the selection.
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To make a circular selection:
If no selection exists, press Shift and drag the Oval Marquee tool in an image. If a selection exists
in the image, pressing Shift adds to the selection.
To expand a selection marquee from the center:
If no selection exists, press Ctrl and drag the Marquee or Oval Marquee tool. You can press
Ctrl+Shift to constrain the selection marquee and expand it from the center.
To select single rows or columns:
1.
Select the Row Selection tool or the Column Selection tool. If the paint object isn’t in edit
mode, click it.
2.
Click a single pixel to select all pixels in the same row or column in the image. A dashed
border outlines the selected row or column. Or, press and hold the mouse button to see a
selection outline, and move the pointer to position the selection outline. Release the mouse
button to set the selection, and a dashed border outlines the selected row or column.
When working in high-resolution images, you can zoom to 400% magnification or higher to see the
pixels you want to select.
To select areas with the Lasso tools:
Lasso tools
1.
Place the paint object into edit mode.
2.
Select either Lasso tool.
3.
Drag in the image to outline a selection. Canvas connects the starting and ending points with
a straight line. A dashed border outlines the selected areas.
Lasso options
To set options before using the Lasso tools, use the settings in the Properties bar.
Feather Radius
To soften the edge of selections made with the Lasso tool, enter the
feather range in pixels in the Feather Radius box.
Anti-Aliased
To slightly soften the edge of selection made with the Lasso tool,
select the Anti-Aliased check box.
Omit Color
To keep pixels that match the current background color from being
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selected by the Lasso tool, select the Omit Color check box and then
choose Background Color. Select Click Point to omit the color where
you first click with the Lasso tool.
Modifying selections
After you make a selection using any selection technique, you can use modifier keys to alter the
selection with the Marquee, Oval Marquee, Row Selection, Column Selection, and Lasso tools.
To add to a selection:
Press Shift when you use a selection tool. A “+” symbol indicates that the tool will add the new
selection to the existing selection.
To subtract from a selection:
Press Ctrl when you use a selection tool. A “-” symbol indicates that the tool will subtract the new
selection from the existing selection.
To select part of a selection:
Press Shift+Ctrl when you use a selection tool. An “x” symbol indicates that the area you select in
the existing selection will remain selected. If none of the new selection is part of the existing
selection, Canvas deselects all pixels.
You can also use Shift or Ctrl to constrain a selection when you add, subtract, or intersect a selection.
To do this, press the keys to add, subtract, or intersect and begin dragging. While still pressing the
mouse button, release the keys and then press the constraint keys and continue dragging.
Selecting areas based on color
You can use the Wand tool and the Color Range command to select pixels in an image according to
color.
To select a contiguous area of similarly colored pixels:
Use the Wand tool.
To select all pixels of a particular color:
Use the Color Range command.
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To use the Wand tool:
1.
Select the Wand tool.
Point to the object you want to edit. If the paint object is not in edit mode, the pointer
becomes a hand. Click the object to put the image in edit mode. The pointer becomes a
wand.
2.
Click the color area you want to select.
To add to a selection: Shift-click the Wand in the image. The pointer displays a ‘+’ to
show that it adds to the current selection.
To subtract from a selection: Ctrl-click the Wand in the image. The pointer displays a
wand with a ‘-’ to show that it subtracts from the current selection.
To inverse a selection: Choose Image | Select | Inverse or Edit | Invert Selection.
To adjust the tolerance of the Wand tool:
You can broaden or narrow the range of colors the Wand tool selects by adjusting its tolerance;
e.g., a tolerance of zero selects pixels that exactly match the color of the pixel you click.
To configure the Wand tool:
Use the settings in the Properties bar. In the Tolerance field, enter a tolerance value from zero to
255. The Select throughout image option lets you select the chosen color in the entire image. To
smooth the edges of the selection, turn on the Anti-Aliased option.
Selecting a color range
You can use the Color Range command to select all areas of similar color in an image. The command
creates a grayscale selection mask similar to an alpha channel.
You can use the Load and Save buttons in the dialog box to work with color range selection files. The
file format that Canvas uses for these files is compatible with Photoshop Color Range files. On
Windows, these files use the extension AXT.
To select a color range interactively:
488
1.
With a paint object in edit mode, choose Image | Select | Color Range.
2.
In the Color Range dialog box, choose Sampled Colors in the Select menu.
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3.
Adjust the Fuzziness setting. To select pixels of exactly the same color, set the Fuzziness to
zero. Increase the Fuzziness to widen the range of colors to be selected.
4.
Click a color in the preview image in the dialog box. Canvas selects a range of similarly
colored pixels, depending on the Fuzziness setting.
To add colors to the selection, click the ‘+’ dropper icon, then click a color in the image in
the dialog box.
To subtract colors from the selection, click the ‘-’ dropper icon, then click in the image in
the dialog box.
5.
To view the selected pixels, click the Selection option. Gray areas indicate pixels that the
Color Range command selects at a reduced opacity. Filters and painting tools affect these
areas to a lesser degree than areas that are 100 percent selected. Click OK to apply the
selection to the image.
Color Range options
Use this dialog box to select image areas based on color.
Select
In the menu, choose the color (red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow),
or tonal range (shadows, midtones, highlights) you want to select.
To select a color interactively by clicking in the preview window, choose
Sampled Colors.
Fuzziness
When using the Sampled Colors option, enter a low value to select a
narrow color range; enter a higher value to select a wider range.
Selection
Choose Selection to preview the selection, with white representing
selected pixels, in the preview window.
Image
Choose Image to see the actual image so you can sample colors with the
dropper.
Dropper
With Sampled Colors chosen, click the dropper in the preview window to
select colors. Use the ‘+’ dropper to add to the selection; use the ‘-’
dropper to subtract from it.
Selection Preview
Choose an option to preview the selection in the image itself (or choose
None for no preview). Grayscale shows the selection as it would appear
in a channel, with white for selected pixels and black showing nonselected areas.
The Matte and Mask options show the original colors in selected areas. In
non-selected areas, Black Matte shows black, White matte shows white,
and Mask shows transparent red.
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Selecting unselected areas
Use the Inverse command to simultaneously select all pixels not in the current selection while
deselecting the current selection.
To select areas not included in the current selection:
Choose Image | Select | Inverse.
A moving dashed edge surrounds
the background, a selected area
When the selection is inversed,
the cup and its contents are
selected
Expanding selections with Grow and Similar
The Grow and Similar commands let you expand selections to include similar colors in an image.
These commands compare the colors outside a selection to the colors in the selection. Colors that are
in a specified range of similar colors are added to the selection.
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The range of colors selected by Grow and Similar is based on the Tolerance setting in the
Wand dialog box (see "To adjust the tolerance of the Wand tool:" on page 488).
The Grow command selects similar colors that are adjacent to the current selection. The Similar
command selects similar colors throughout the image.
The Grow and Similar commands are available for all image modes except Black & White.
To use the Grow command:
1.
Ensure the image is in image edit mode.
To select similar colors throughout an image, you can also use the Select throughout
image check box in the Wand dialog box (see "To adjust the tolerance of the Wand
tool:" on page 488).
2.
Select the Wand tool and click it on the area that you want to select ("To use the Wand tool:"
on page 488).
3.
Choose Image | Select | Grow and similar colors that are adjacent to the current selection will
be selected.
To use the Similar command:
1.
Ensure the image is in image edit mode.
2.
Select the Wand tool and click it on the area that you want to select (see "To use the Wand
tool:" on page 488).
3.
Choose Image | Select | Similar and similar colors throughout the image will be selected.
Original image
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Image after tapping Magic Wand
on the indicated area and
choosing Image | Select | Grow
Image after choosing Image |
Select | Similar
You can repeat the Grow and Similar commands to continue expanding a selection. As more colors
are added to the selection, more colors are in the range of colors similar to the selection. Therefore,
even though the Tolerance doesn’t change, repeating Grow or Similar can expand a selection
incrementally.
Grow and Similar can help you isolate elements in an image, such as dark objects against a light
background. Select part of one dark object with the Marquee tool. Choose Grow to expand the
selection to the entire object. Choose Similar to expand the selection to all similar colors in the image.
Converting paths to selections
You can use vector objects and text to make selections in images. The Path to Selection command
makes a selection in an image from the shape of a vector, text, or group object.
With this command, you can outline irregular areas in images with drawing tools to make selections.
You can make selections shaped like starbursts and other complex shapes that are easy to create
with drawing tools. You can make selections from text characters without first converting the text to
paths.
The area selected by a vector or text object depends on whether the object has a visible fill ink and
stroke.
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A filled object will select the area covered by the fill. If the object also has a visible stroke,
the selection will include the area covered by the stroke.
An unfilled object will select the area covered by just the stroke of the object.
An object without a visible fill or stroke will not select anything.
The type of fill ink or pen ink applied to an object is not significant for the selection it will make.
However, the shape of the stroke is significant. A visible pen, dash, parallel, or neon stroke will affect
the shape of the resulting selection. Also, the end caps, line joins, and arrows applied to a stroke will
affect the selection.
To convert a path to a selection:
1.
Draw or position a vector or text object on a paint object where you want to make a selection.
If you want to preserve the vector or text object, make a copy of it; the object will be
deleted when it is converted to a selection.
2.
Select both the vector object and the paint object.
3.
Choose Image | Path to Selection.
4.
The vector or text object is replaced by a selection. The paint object is in edit mode and the
selection is outlined by a dashed border.
Converting objects to paths
Most objects drawn with vector tools are paths that can be used to create selections in images.
However, some objects must be converted to paths first.
If an object does not create a selection when you choose Path to Selection, you might need to convert
the object to a path by selecting the object and choosing Path | Convert to Paths.
Working with image selections
After you make a selection, you can clear it, soften its edges, make it floating, move it, and change its
opacity.
Clearing and copying a selection
You can replace the pixels in a selection with the current background color by pressing the Delete
key, or by choosing Edit | Cut. (The Cut command also transfers the selection to the Clipboard.)
Canvas replaces the selected pixels with the color currently displayed in the background color icon.
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Keep in mind that “deleting” a selection doesn’t leave a hole or transparent area in the paint object,
unless the paint object has a visibility mask, as described later in this section.
If you want Canvas to recall a selection, be sure to save it before leaving edit mode. See
"Saving and loading selections in channels" on page 501.
To place a copy of a selection on the Clipboard without clearing the area in the original image, choose
Edit | Copy. When a selection has been placed on the Clipboard, you can paste it into another paint
object in edit mode, where it will become a floating selection, or paste it into the document to create a
new paint object.
Feathering the edges of a selection
You can feather (soften) the edges of a selection so that it blends more naturally into the original
image. Use the Feather command to soften the hard edge of a selection and spread the selection over
a larger area.
To feather the edges of a selection:
1.
With a paint object in edit mode, make a selection and choose Image | Select | Feather.
2.
In the Feather dialog box, enter the number of pixels to feather the selection in the Radius
text box. The larger the Radius value, the more Canvas softens the selection edge.
3.
Click OK to feather the selection.
Pasting into selections
The Paste Into command pastes the Clipboard contents into a selection in an image. This includes a
selection in an image channel or a channel mask attached to an object.
The Paste Into command pastes anything that you copy to the Clipboard, including a vector, text, or
paint object, an image selection, or a segment of a vector object.
You can use Paste Into to composite images and create effects that would otherwise be difficult to
produce. For example, to simulate a picture on a television screen in a photograph, you can select the
screen area and paste an image into the selection. You can move the pasted image within the
selection to adjust the area that you see.
You can paste transparent objects into opaque images, or opaque objects into transparent images.
The background of the image determines the opacity of the pasted selection.
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To paste into a selection:
1.
Place an object or selection on the Clipboard by choosing Edit | Copy or Edit | Cut.
2.
Make a selection in an image (or a channel mask), and choose Edit | Paste Into. The Clipboard
contents appear in the selection.
3.
You can drag the pasted item or press the arrow keys on the keyboard to move it, to display
the areas you want to see. When you finish adjusting the selection, deselect it to merge it
into the image.
Object with a
symbol fill ink
Feathered selection
Object pasted into
selection
Floating and moving selections
You can move and manipulate a selection without affecting the original image by making it a floating
selection.
To float a selection and fill behind it with the background color, hold down Alt and choose
Image | Select | Float.
When a selection is floating, it sits on an invisible plane above the original image. When you type text
in an image, or paste an object from the Clipboard, Canvas makes the text or pasted item a floating
selection.
Moving a selection that is part of the original image creates a floating selection, but also leaves
behind an area filled with the background color.
To float a copy of a selection:
Make a selection in an image and choose Image | Select | Float.
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Deselecting and defloating selections
Deselecting a floating selection makes it part of the original image.
To deselect a floating selection:
Press Esc twice or choose Image | Select | None.
Dragging a selection
floats it and leaves an
area filled with the
current background color.
To make the floating selection part of the image but still retain the selection:
Press Esc or choose Image | Select | Defloat.
Moving selections
To move a selection, you can press the keyboard arrow keys or drag the selection with the Marquee,
Lasso, or Wand tools. If a selection is not floating, it becomes floating when you move it.
Remote Move tool
To keep the pointer from interfering with your view of a small selection, select the Remote Move tool
in the Painting tool palette and drag it anywhere in the drawing area. Canvas moves the selection in
the direction you move the pointer.
Changing the opacity of floating selections
You can change the opacity of a floating selection and make the pixels behind it partially visible. You
can also change the mode to produce different effects.
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You cannot make selections partially transparent in Indexed or Black & White image modes.
To change the opacity of floating selections:
1.
With a paint object in edit mode, select part of the image.
2.
Click on the Background color icon in the Toolbox.
3.
Select a color to use behind the floating selection. This color will start to appear when you
make the selection transparent.
To use the Floating Opacity slider in the Channels palette to lighten a floating
selection: Fill behind the selection with white or a light color.
4.
Hold down the Ctrl key and choose Image | Select | Float. Canvas floats the selection and fills
behind it with the background color.
5.
Choose Image | Show Channels to open the Channels palette. Set the Floating Opacity value
to less than 100 percent to make the selection become transparent and reveal the
background color behind the selection.
6.
To change the mode, choose a new mode from the Mode menu.
Modifying selections
You can use the Expand, Contract, Smooth, and Border commands to modify selections in images.
These commands make it easy to fine-tune a selection by expanding or contracting the selection
border by a specified number of pixels, or by adding or subtracting pixels based on color.
Expanding a selection
You can expand a selection by adding a specified number of pixels to the selection border.
To modify an active selection:
Choose Image | Select | Modify | Expand. Type a value in the Radius text box and click OK. Canvas
adds the specified area to the selection.
Contracting a selection
You can shrink a selection by subtracting a specified number of pixels from the selection border.
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To modify an active selection:
Choose Image | Select | Modify | Contract. Type a value in the text box and then click OK. Canvas
subtracts the specified area from the selection and the dashed border contracts.
Smoothing a selection
The Smooth command is useful after you have made a color-based selection that has left stray pixels
inside or outside of the selected area. The Smooth command includes or eliminates the stray pixels to
even out the selection. The value you type in the text box determines which pixels will be included or
excluded in the selection at the border.
To modify an active selection:
Choose Image | Select | Modify | Smooth. Type a value in the text box and then click OK. Canvas
adds or subtracts pixels to the perimeter of the selection based on the radius number of pixels
you specified.
Bordering a selection
After you define a selection, you can select the area at the border of the selection by specifying an
offset in pixels from the selection edge.
To modify an active selection:
Choose Image | Select | Modify | Border. Type a value in the text box and click OK. Two dashed
borders indicate the selected border.
Once you make a selection, you can use the Grow command or the Similar command to expand the
selection to include similar colors.
Creating objects from selections
You can make new paint objects from image selections with the New Image from Selection command.
This command converts a selection in an image into a new paint object in the same position on the
image you are editing. This can be useful for “layering” image compositions.
The result of New Image from Selection is similar to moving a selection to a transparent “layer,” a
procedure used in some image editing programs. In Canvas you can use separate transparent paint
objects to create “layered” image compositions.
This operation doesn’t affect the Clipboard contents.
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To create a paint object from a selection:
With a selection in an image, choose New Image from Selection in the context menu. To display
the context menu, right-click within the selection.
New images from selections and floating selections
When you choose New Image from Selection, Canvas removes the selection from the image or
deselects the selection in the image. The selection appears as a new paint object in the same
location.
Whether a selection is removed from an image depends on whether the selection is floating. The
opacity of the resulting object also differs for floating and non-floating selections.
If a selection is not floating, Canvas deselects it but otherwise doesn’t change the original image
when you create an object from the selection. The selected pixels keep their original opacity in the
new object.
If a selection is floating, Canvas removes the selection. The effect is the same as deleting a selection:
the background color replaces the selected pixels, or, if the object has a visibility mask, a clear
background replaces the selected pixels. In the new object, the pixels are opaque, regardless of their
original opacity.
Clear backgrounds in new paint objects
A paint object created from a selection always has a clear, rather than opaque background, and a
visibility mask.
Paint objects are rectangular. If a selection is not rectangular, Canvas places the selection on a clear
background. This is why creating a paint object from a selection is like transferring the selection to a
clear overlay on the original image.
If you select Preserve Visibility in the Channels palette, a visibility mask preserves the transparency
of all pixels in the image. You can paint or use filters without affecting clear areas.
If Preserve Visibility is not selected, you can erase to a clear background and affect all pixels by
painting and editing.
Converting selections to paths
Canvas can trace a selection in an image to create a path (vector object) from the selection border.
The Selection to Path command traces the active image selection border using the settings you
specify. This is useful if you want to convert a selection border to a vector object that can be used as
a clipping path, for example.
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The accuracy of a path made from a selection depends on the settings you specify and the complexity
of the selection border. A very complex selection border can result in a path with hundreds of anchor
points, which can cause problems in printing and other operations.
Paths created from selections have no fill ink, black pen ink, and the current stroke setting.
To convert a selection to a path:
1.
Make a selection in an image.
2.
Choose Image | Selection to Path.
3.
Choose the settings you want and click OK (see "Selection to Path options" on page 500). The
selection in the image is deselected and a new vector object (or group of vector objects)
appears in front of the paint object.
Selection to Path options
Mask Set Threshold
If a selection edge is feathered, this value defines the edge of the
selection for tracing based on selection mask opacity. Enter a value from
1 (nearly transparent) to 255 (opaque). These values correspond to the
lightness of pixels for a selection saved as a mask in a channel.
Pixels in the selection mask that are more opaque (lighter) than the
threshold value are treated as opaque and part of the selection. Pixels
that are less opaque (darker) than the threshold value are treated as
transparent and outside the selection. At a threshold of 1, the entire
feathered edge will be part of the selection. At 255, only the completely
opaque part of the selection will be included.
If a selection is not feathered, this value has no effect.
Curves/Polygons
Choose Curves to create paths with smooth anchor points and curve
segments as appropriate. Choose Polygons to create paths with straight
segments only. The Curves option can result in smoother paths with
fewer anchor points when the selection border has curves.
Loose /Tight
Drag the slider to set the tolerance for tracing irregularities in the
selection border. Loose follows the selection border less precisely (more
smoothly) and creates fewer anchor points. Tight follows the selection
border more precisely (less smoothly) and creates more anchor points.
Round /Sharp
Drag the slider to set the tolerance for tracing corners in the selection
border. Round creates rounder corners, Sharp creates sharper corners.
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Saving and loading selections in channels
When you have made a selection in an image, you can create an alpha channel from the selection. An
alpha channel preserves the shape and opacity of a selection, so you can use it to make the same
selection in the image again.
You can think of an alpha channel as a mask that selects some areas and protects other areas from
painting and image editing. Because alpha channels make precise selections of varying intensities,
alpha channels let you control which areas in an image will be affected by painting tools and filters,
and the intensity of the effects.
When you view an alpha channel, you see a grayscale image. When the channel is made from a
selection, it contains white areas representing fully selected pixels, black areas representing
unselected pixels, and gray areas representing pixels that are partially selected, with the gray
lightness values corresponding to the selection opacity.
This section describes how to save a selection in a channel, and how to load a channel to make a
selection in an image, using dialog boxes. You can also use shortcuts in the Channels palette, as
described under "Channels palette options" on page 504.
To save a selection in a channel:
1.
With an active selection in an image, choose Image | Select | Save.
2.
In the Operation area of the Save Selection dialog box, select New Channel and click OK.
You can also click the Selection button in the Channels palette to save the current selection in a new
channel.
To load a selection from a channel:
1.
With a paint object in edit mode, choose Image | Select | Load.
2.
In the Load Selection dialog box, choose a channel name in the Channel pop-up menu. To
invert the selection, click Invert.
3.
Choose an option in the Operation area and click OK.
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Option
Result
New Selection
Removes any current selections and creates a new selection
Add to Selection
Preserves the current selection and selects additional pixels based on
the channel
Subtract from
Selection
Removes pixels from the current selection based on the channel
Intersect with
Selection
Creates a new selection composed of pixels that appear in both the
current selection and the channel you are loading
Preserving channels in exported images
Canvas image channels are compatible with the alpha channels used in other image-editing
programs, including Adobe Photoshop. However, you must use the correct procedure to preserve
alpha channels when you export an image into Photoshop format.
If you want to export an image into Photoshop format and preserve the image’s alpha channels, be
sure to choose Image | Export, rather than the Save As command.
If you use the Save As command and choose Photoshop format, the resulting file will not contain the
alpha channels associated with the image.
To export an image with alpha channels:
1.
Select the paint object in the Canvas document.
2.
Choose Image | Export | Photoshop.
3.
In the dialog box, specify a location to save the file, type a file name, and click Save to export
the selected image as a Photoshop file.
Understanding image channels
Canvas uses up to 24 channels to store the digital information that makes up the image in a paint
object.
There are three types of channels: color or image channels, alpha channels, and channel masks. All
images have at least one channel. An image can also contain one or more alpha channels and a single
channel mask, if you create them.
The Channels palette displays the channels of an image. Whenever an image is in edit mode, you can
use the Channels palette to select and edit channels.
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To display the Channels palette:
Choose Image | Show Channels.
Vector objects and text objects do not have color or image channels. However, you can create a
channel mask for any object. If an object has a channel mask, you can place the channel mask in edit
mode, and use the Channels palette to work with the channel mask and create alpha channels. Alpha
channels are stored with an object as long as the object has a channel mask.
Color channels
Images in RGB Color, CMYK Color, and LAB Color mode have separate color channels. A color channel
stores one component of the image; e.g., in CMYK Color mode, the Magenta channel stores the
magenta parts of the image. This channel contains the image that would appear on the magenta plate
if you output color separations.
A paint object’s image mode determines the number of color channels. RGB Color images have Red,
Green, and Blue color channels. CMYK Color images have Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black channels.
LAB Color images have Lightness, A, and B channels.
In the Channels palette, a composite channel appears above the color channels. The composite
channel represents the complete image — the composite of the image’s color channels. The
composite channel is labeled RGB, CMYK, or LAB, depending on the image mode.
Other image modes do not have separate color channels. Images in Black & White, Duotone, Indexed,
and Grayscale mode have a single image channel.
Alpha channels
Alpha channels are channels you can use to store and edit selections in any image. Because alpha
channels are used for image selections, they are also referred to as “selection masks.”
After you make a selection in an image, you can save the selection in an alpha channel. Later, you can
load the channel to make the same selection.
An alpha channel is a grayscale channel that is the same size and resolution as the paint object in
which it is stored. Pixels in alpha channels can range in lightness from 0 (black) to 255 (white). The
lightness levels of pixels in an alpha channel correspond to a range of selection levels.
Black pixels in an alpha channel correspond to masked, or non-selected, pixels in an image. White
pixels correspond to selected pixels. Gray pixels correspond to various levels of selection, with
lighter grays corresponding to greater selection than darker grays.
If you want black pixels to correspond to selected, rather than masked pixels, click Selected
Area in the New Channel or Channel Options dialog box.
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Using the Channels palette
The Channels palette displays the channels contained in a paint object when the paint object is in
edit mode. The palette also displays the channels contained in any object that has a channel mask
when you edit the mask.
You can use the palette to create, duplicate, and delete channels; to change channel options; and to
make selections by loading channels.
To open the Channels palette:
Choose Image | Show Channels.
Composite channel: Select the first channel in the palette to make all color channels
visible and active. Paint objects in CMYK Color, RGB Color, and LAB Color modes have
composite channels. The channel is labeled “CMYK” for a CMYK Color image, “RGB” for an
RGB Color image, and “LAB” for a LAB Color image.
Paint objects in Indexed, Grayscale, Black & White, and Duotone modes have single
channels. A vector object that has a channel mask has an “object channel.”
Color channels: Color channels appear below the composite channel in the Channels
palette. Color channels store the color data in an image. The image mode determines the
number of color channels. CMYK Color images have Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black
color channels. RGB Color images have Red, Green, and Blue color channels. LAB Color
images have “A” and “B” color channels and a Lightness channel. Multichannel images
have numbered channels that contain grayscale pixels only.
Alpha channels: Alpha channels contain grayscale pixels which can represent a
selection. You can use alpha channels to create channel masks. Any paint object can
have alpha channels. However, paint objects in Black & White mode must have a channel
mask before they can contain alpha channels.
Channel mask
A special channel you can add to any object, a channel mask contains grayscale pixels that represent
transparency. Drag a color or alpha channel to the channel mask slot to create a channel mask. You
can drag a channel mask into the channel list to create a new alpha channel.
Viewing previews in the Channels palette
To view previews in the Channels palette, choose Palette Options in the palette’s pop-up menu. Click
the size of the preview you want to display, or click None. Click OK to close the dialog box.
Channels palette options
Use the Channels palette to work with channels when a paint object is in edit mode.
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Active channels are shaded. Editing affects the active channels only. To make a channel active, click
the channel name.
Composite channel
Select this channel to make all color channels visible and active.
Color channels
Color channels appear below composite channels.
Alpha channels
Alpha channels contain grayscale pixels which represent a selection.
Channel mask
A special channel you can add to any object, a channel mask contains
grayscale pixels that represent transparency.
Floating Opacity
If a selection is floating, drag the slider to change the opacity of the
selection.
Mode
If a selection is floating, select a mode from the menu. The default mode
is Normal.
Preserve Visibility
Select this option to preserve the transparency of clear and partially
transparent pixels when you edit an image.
Eye icon
An eye indicates that a channel is visible. If a channel is not visible, click
or drag in the column to make it visible.
New icon
Click to make a new alpha channel with default settings. Drag an alpha
channel here to duplicate it.
Save icon
Click to save the current selection in an alpha channel. Drag a channel
here to make a selection in the image from the channel.
Trash icon
Drag channels to the trash to delete them. You cannot delete color
channels.
Channel palette pop-up menu
The following commands appear in the Channel palette’s menu.
Palette Options: Lets you select the channel preview size.
New Channel: Creates a new alpha channel and lets you select channel options.
Duplicate Channel: Creates a new alpha channel from a single active color or alpha
channel. This command isn’t available if a composite channel or more than one channel is
active.
Delete Channel: Deletes the active alpha channel. You can’t delete color channels or a
composite channel.
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Channel Options: Lets you specify options for the active channel. You can change the
name, mask tint color, and opacity of an alpha channel. You also can double-click a channel
to set options for it.
Working with alpha channels
To add to the current selection:
Shift-drag a channel to the button.
To subtract from the current selection:
Ctrl-drag a channel to the button.
To select the intersection of a channel and the current selection:
Press Ctrl+Shift and drag a channel to the button.
Original image
Alpha channel;
white indicates
selected area
Alpha channel
loaded as
selection
(in color)
Applied blend
affects selected
area only
Creating and deleting channels
You can create and delete channels in the Channels palette. Open the Channels palette by choosing
Image | Show Channels.
To create an alpha channel:
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1.
With a paint object in edit mode, choose New Channel in the Channels palette menu (see
"Channel palette pop-up menu" on page 505).
2.
In the New Channel dialog box, select options for the new channel and click OK (see "To
specify channel options:" on page 507).
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Deleting alpha channels
Although Canvas can store up to 24 channels in an image, you might want to delete unnecessary
ones to save memory and disk space. You can delete alpha channels and channel masks, but you
cannot delete color channels.
To delete an alpha channel:
With an object in image edit mode, drag the alpha channel you want to delete to the trash can icon
at the bottom of the Channels palette.
Customizing alpha channels
You can change an alpha channel’s name, color indication, and mask tint opacity in the Channel
Options dialog box. By default, Canvas numbers alpha channels, sets the mask tint opacity to 50%,
and assigns a mask color.
Canvas provides the mask color and opacity settings in the Channel Options dialog box as
visual aids only. These settings do not affect the original image or channel.
To specify channel options:
1.
With a paint object in edit mode, choose Image | Show Channels to open the Channels
palette.
2.
Click an alpha channel and select Channel Options in the pop-up menu, or double-click the
channel you want to edit to open the Channel Options dialog box.
3.
Enter a new name in the Name field to rename the channel.
Color Indicates: These options control whether white or black pixels in the channel will
select pixels in the image when you load the channel. If you want white pixels in the
channel to indicate selected pixels, choose Masked Area. If you choose Selected Area, the
normal operation of the channel will be inverted, so that black pixels in the channel will
select pixels when the channel is loaded. If you use this option, keep in mind that the
channel will make selections that are the inverse of normal channel selections.
To change the mask tint color for the channel: Select a color from the Color pop-up
menu. Canvas displays the tint when an alpha channel and at least one other channel are
visible.
To change the opacity of the tint color: Enter a value from 1 to 100% in the Opacity
text box.
4.
Click OK after entering the settings you want.
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Activating channels
To edit a channel:
Click the channel name in the Channels palette to make it active. Canvas uses shading to indicate
that a channel is active.
You can make more than one channel active by Shift-clicking the names of the channels
in the palette.
To make a channel visible but not active, click the left column to make an eye icon
appear.
You can make more than one channel visible by dragging in the left column in the
Channels palette.
Painting tools and filters affect active channels only.
To make all color channels in an image both visible and active:
Click the composite channel in the Channels palette. The composite channel always appears first
at the top of the Channels palette.
Editing an alpha channel
You can apply painting tools, filters, and effects to the image in an alpha channel. By editing the
image, you can adjust what the channel will select when you load it as a selection.
Canvas displays a shaded mask representing an alpha
channel when the alpha channel and the composite
channel are visible
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1.
With an image in edit mode, choose Image | Show Channels.
2.
Create a new channel to use as a selection mask by doing one of the following:
If you have a selection in the image that you want to customize by editing in a channel,
use the Save command to create a channel from the selection (see "To save a selection in
a channel:" on page 501).
To start with a “blank” alpha channel, use the New Channel command. Be sure to choose
the Masked Area option under Color Indicates in the New Channel dialog box.
3.
In the Channels palette, click the new channel to activate it. The channel appears shaded in
the palette and the image changes to show only the channel. Now click in the left column of
the first (composite) channel. The original image appears with a transparent colored “mask”
on the image. The color mask indicates the areas that will be masked — not selected — by the
channel.
4.
Use painting tools or filters to edit the image in the channel. The changes you make affect the
active channel only.
5.
Load the channel by choosing Image | Select | Load to make a selection with the channel.
6.
Choose the channel name in the pop-up menu and then click OK.
Channel masks
Channel masks apply transparency effects to objects, including paint objects, vector objects, text
objects, and group objects. A channel mask creates transparency in proportion to the luminance of
its image.
A channel mask is a grayscale image channel. Black pixels in a channel mask produce 100%
transparency in corresponding areas of the masked object. White pixels in a channel mask produce
0% transparency in the masked object. Gray pixels in a channel mask produce partial transparency
in the masked object. Darker grays produce greater transparency than lighter grays.
Channel masks are powerful because they let you use painting and image-editing techniques to
create transparency effects, and because a channel mask can be applied to any type of object. An
object’s channel mask is the same size as its bounding box. You can detach or delete an object’s
channel mask to eliminate the transparency effect.
Creating channel masks
Use the mouse, New Channel Mask command, Sprite tool, Transparency palette, or Channels palette
to make channel masks.
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To create a channel mask:
Do one of the following:
Ctrl+double-click the object to be masked.
Select the object to be masked and choose Object | Transparency | New Channel Mask.
Click on the object with the Sprite tool.
Select the object to be masked. In the Transparency palette, choose Channel in the Mask
menu.
Canvas creates the channel mask and puts the new mask in edit mode.
If the object is a paint object, Canvas creates a channel mask with the same resolution as
the paint object.
If the object is a vector, text, or group object, the New Mask dialog box opens. Type the
resolution you want for the channel mask and click OK. Canvas creates the channel mask
with the specified resolution.
To use the Channels palette:
You can create a channel mask for a paint object from an existing alpha channel or color channel.
With a paint object in edit mode, drag an alpha channel into the channel mask slot in the Channels
palette. If the slot already contains a channel mask, the channel you drag there replaces the
existing channel mask.
Editing channel masks
You can edit an object’s channel mask to change the transparency effects it produces. Generally, you
can do anything that you can when editing a color channel, alpha channel, or grayscale image: use
painting tools, filters, and image-adjustment commands, make selections, and paste selections into a
channel mask.
To edit a channel mask:
Do any of the following to place a channel mask in edit mode:
Ctrl+double-click the masked object.
Select the masked object and choose Object | SpriteLayers | Edit Channel Mask.
Select the masked object and click Edit in the Transparency palette.
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An eye symbol in the Channels palette appears to the left of a channel that is visible. The eye symbol
disappears if a channel is hidden.
When you edit a channel mask, the top channel in the palette represents the object itself. For a
typical paint object this channel is labeled with the image mode, such as RGB or CMYK. For other
objects, the first channel is labeled “Object” (see "Transparency masks" on page 671).
The channel mask of an object in edit mode is shown in the Channel Mask slot, which is below the
channel list.
To view the channel mask only:
Click the eye symbol next to the object or composite channel at the top of the channel list. This
hides the object channel so only the channel mask is visible.
To hide the channel mask:
Click the eye symbol next to the channel mask. This hides the effect of the channel mask on the
object.
At least one channel, either the composite/object channel or the channel mask, must be visible. If
only one is visible, you can’t hide it by clicking its eye symbol.
To display a hidden channel:
Click to the left of the channel to restore the eye symbol.
When you edit paint objects you can edit pixels in the images by selecting channels in the
Channels palette. However, when you edit other objects, you can’t select the “object”
channel. You can show or hide the object channel, but you can edit pixels only in the
channel mask.
When you finish editing a channel mask, press Esc to leave edit mode.
Detaching and deleting channel masks
If an object has a channel mask, the channel mask controls the transparency of the object. You might
want to detach or delete the channel mask to eliminate the transparency effects from the object.
When you delete a channel mask, it no longer exists in the document. When you detach a channel
mask, it appears in the document as a separate grayscale paint object.
To detach a channel mask:
Select the masked object. Choose Object | SpriteLayers | Detach Mask.
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When you detach a channel mask, Canvas removes the channel mask from the object and places it in
the document as a separate grayscale paint object. If the channel mask was detached from a vector
object, the resulting paint object will contain any alpha channels that were contained in the vector
object.
To delete a channel mask:
1.
Select the masked object.
2.
In the Transparency palette, choose None in the Mask pop-up menu.
Deleting the channel mask of a vector, text, or group object also deletes any alpha channels
that were contained in the object. Also, if you ungroup a group object that has a channel
mask, Canvas deletes the channel mask.
You can delete a paint object’s channel mask when the paint object is in edit mode by dragging the
channel mask to the trash can icon at the bottom of the Channels palette.
Transparency effects with channel masks
Channel masks let you add transparency to images without altering them permanently. A channel
mask creates transparency without changing any pixels in an image. You can remove a channel mask
to eliminate the transparency effect at any time.
To make an image transparent:
To make parts of an image transparent—to eliminate the background in a photograph, for example—
you can create a channel mask from a selection. This procedure explains how to transfer a selection
into a channel mask to make selected areas transparent.
1.
Choose Image | Show Channels to open the Channels palette. Double-click the paint object to
put it into edit mode. You can use various techniques to select the areas you want to be
transparent:
You can click the Wand tool to select similar colors throughout the image. If a photograph
has a colored background, for example, click the background to select it. You can also use
the Color Range command to make a selection.
To soften the edges of the selection, you can use the Image | Select | Feather command.
2.
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Click the Selection button in the Channels palette to save the selection in a new alpha
channel. In the alpha channel, white pixels correspond to the selection. (A partial selection
produces gray pixels in the channel). Black pixels in the channel correspond to unselected
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areas of the image. To create transparent areas from the selection, you need to invert the
channel.
3.
Press Esc to deselect the selection in the image. Then, click the alpha channel in the
Channels palette to make it active.
4.
Choose Image | Adjust | Invert. This reverses the white and black areas in the channel.
5.
Drag the alpha channel into the Channel Mask slot in the Channels palette. Black areas in the
channel mask produce transparent areas in the image. White areas in the channel mask
produce opaque areas in the image.
6.
Press Esc to exit image edit mode. The selection you made is now transparent. If you place
the paint object on a background in your document, the background will be visible through
the transparent areas of the image.
To create a transparency fade:
Create a transparent fade effect using a channel mask. This procedure explains how to create a blend
in an alpha channel, and then create a channel mask to make an image fade to transparency.
1.
Choose Image | Show Channels to open the Channels palette. Double-click a paint object to
put it in edit mode.
2.
Click the New Channel button in the Channels palette. A new alpha channel appears in the
palette. Click the channel to make it active.
3.
Select the Blend tool. With the foreground color set to white and the background color set to
black, drag vertically from top to bottom in the channel. This creates a blend from white to
black.
You can change the distance that you drag the Blend tool in the channel to adjust the
length and position of the fade to transparency.
You might need to use the Blend settings in the Properties bar to select the Linear option
for the Blend tool before you create the blend in the alpha channel. You can also set other
options for the Blend tool to fine-tune blends.
4.
Drag the alpha channel into the channel mask slot in the Channels palette. White pixels at the
top of the channel produce opaque areas. Black pixels produce completely transparent areas.
Gray pixels in the channel mask correspond with partially transparent areas in the image.
To create a channel mask by rendering:
Canvas can create a channel mask when you render a vector, group, paint, or text object.
To create the mask, choose the Mask and Transparency options in the Render dialog box. Canvas
will create a channel mask that makes blank areas around and inside the objects transparent.
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When you make a new paint object by pasting a non-rectangular selection copied from an image,
Canvas makes a channel mask to hide white pixels surrounding the selection.
Original
Channel mask from
alpha channel
Vignette
Preserving transparency in images
Select the Preserve Visibility check box in the Channels palette to preserve transparency when you
paint or apply filters to an image. The Preserve Visibility check box is available when you edit a paint
object that has a visibility mask. A paint object has a visibility mask if it was created with a
transparent background, or if you applied a visibility mask with the Add Visibility Mask command.
If a paint object has an opaque background, the Preserve Visibility check box is disabled.
To preserve transparency while editing an image:
When a paint object is in edit mode, select Preserve Visibility in the Channels palette. When
selected, you can paint and edit the image without affecting clear areas or reducing the
transparency of partially transparent pixels.
The Preserve Visibility option affects all aspects of image editing. When Preserve Visibility is selected,
pasted selections do not affect clear areas. Also, a pasted selection will match the transparency of the
existing pixels when you defloat the selection.
If an image is completely clear (contains no colored pixels), you cannot alter the image when
Preserve Visibility is selected.
You must deselect Preserve Visibility to paint in clear areas of an image. Then, if you want to edit the
painted areas, select Preserve Visibility again.
For example, you can deselect Preserve Visibility and paint airbrush strokes in a clear image. Then,
select Preserve Visibility and you can paint over the airbrush strokes to change their color, without
losing the soft edge or “spilling” color into clear areas.
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When Preserve Visibility is selected and you use the Eraser tool, pixels you “erase” are painted with
the current background color; they are not erased to clear. Also, when you use any painting tool to
apply color, you cannot make pixels more or less transparent. This is why you cannot apply any color
in clear areas when Preserve Visibility is selected.
When you select Preserve Visibility, you can paint and apply filters to modify pixels that are less than
100% transparent. You can change the hue, saturation, and intensity of pixels but can’t change their
transparency.
To paint or apply filters to an entire image:
Deselect Preserve Visibility. This turns off the visibility mask and lets painting tools and filters
affect the entire image.
Image filters & effects
Canvas provides commands that you can use to transform images for a variety of effects. These
commands can be used to alter entire images or only selected areas, as well as image channels.
The commands in the Image | Filter menu are often called “filters” because they “filter” images or
selections pixel-by-pixel. This section explains how to use these filters as well as other commands in
the Image menu.
The Filters menu is also located in the Properties bar for quick access to image effects.
Applying effect filters
You can use the Render, Stylize, and Offset filters to transform images. The Render filters apply
forms or textures to an image. The Stylize filters apply a conceptual effect to an image. Stylize filters
include Emboss, Trace Contour, and Solarize. The Offset filter shifts the pixels within an image.
Rendering clouds
You can apply texture to areas in an image, such as skies or walls, by applying the Clouds filter. The
Clouds filter renders soft swirls of color using the foreground and background colors.
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Image with translucent
clouds
The Clouds filter completely replaces the original image or selection.
To apply the Clouds filter to an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
in edit mode is affected. This filter doesn’t work with paint objects in Black & White mode,
and Indexed mode.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Render | Clouds or use the Filter menu located in the Properties bar.
To applying the Clouds filter to selections:
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1.
With a paint object in edit mode, choose Image | Show Channels to open the Channels
palette.
2.
Select a color channel that shows the most contrast.
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3.
Drag the selected channel to the new channel button to create a copy of the channel. The
channel copy is in black & white.
4.
Select the channel copy in the Channels palette and double-click to open the Channel Options
dialog box.
5.
Enter a name for the channel copy in the dialog box.
6.
With the painting tools, apply white to the areas where clouds are to appear. Apply black to
the area where clouds won’t appear.
7.
Select the composite channel to make it active.
8.
Choose Image | Select | Load. Select the channel copy that you edited. The white area
appears as a selection.
9.
Select your background and foreground colors in the Inks palette. The colors you select
determine the cloud color.
10.
Choose Image | Filter | Render | Clouds to affect the selected area.
Original image
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Color channel
selected
Painted channel
copy
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Composite channel
with
channel loaded
Final image
Rendering a color wheel
Fill a selection with a radial blend of colors by choosing Image | Filter | Render | Wheel. The rendered
effect looks like the color wheel preview in the Hue/Saturation dialog box. The Wheel filter works with
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paint objects in RGB Color and CMYK Color.
Unless you make a selection in the image, the Wheel filter replaces the entire image. If you want to
apply a translucent wheel effect, follow the steps for the procedure "To applying the Clouds filter to
selections:" on page 516, but in the seventh step, choose the Wheel command.
Embossing an image
Make an image appear raised with the Emboss filter. This filter converts low-contrast areas to gray
and accentuates high-contrast areas with color (or black and white if the image is Grayscale mode)
according to the placement of a theoretical light source. The Emboss filter doesn’t work with paint
objects in Black & White mode, and Indexed mode.
Original (converted to grayscale)
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Embossed Angle = 15 Height = 3, Amount
= 110
To apply the Emboss filter:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to emboss. To apply the emboss filter to a limited area in one
image, select the area.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Stylize | Emboss or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Enter an Angle from 0 to 360. An angle of 0 is straight right with higher numbers going
counter-clockwise.
4.
Enter a height from 1 to 32 pixels to set the height of the effect.
5.
Enter a number from 1 to 500 in the Amount text box. To retain more color along highcontrast borders, increase this value.
Solarizing images
Create surrealistic effects in an image by applying the Solarize filter. The Solarize filter mimics a
photographic darkroom procedure that exposes film to light during development.
Solarize CMYK Color, RGB Color and Grayscale mode images. If you make a selection, Canvas filters
only selected pixels.
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To solarize an image:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to solarize. To apply the Solarize filter to a limited area in
one image, select the area.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Stylize | Solarize or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
Original
Solarized
Outlining areas based on color value
With the Trace Contour filter, you can outline image areas that border a particular color. This filter
makes color outlines if you are working with a color image, and black outlines if you are working with
a Grayscale mode image. This command doesn’t work with paint objects in Black & White mode, and
Indexed mode.
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To use the Trace Contour filter:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
in edit mode is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Stylize | Trace Contour or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Enter a Level value from 0 to 255. The Trace Contour filter uses this color brightness value to
determine the areas to trace.
4.
Select Upper or Lower in the Edge area. To outline areas with higher brightness levels than
the one specified, choose Upper. Choose Lower to outline areas with lower brightness levels.
5.
To see the effect of the settings, turn on Preview. When the settings are correct, click OK.
Original
Level =169
Edge = Lower
Level =169
Edge = Upper
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Offsetting selections
You can shift an image area with the Offset filter. Canvas fills the vacated area with color, duplicated
pixels, or parts of the offset area.
Original
Set to Background
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Repeat Edge Pixels
Wrap Around
To offset image areas:
1.
With an image in edit mode, select an image area.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Offset or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Enter horizontal and vertical offset amounts in pixels. Positive values result in offsets to the
right and down; use negative numbers (preceded by a minus sign) to offset up and left.
4.
Choose an option under Undefined Areas.
Set to Background: Fills area with the background color
Repeat Edge Pixels: Duplicates edge pixels until they fill the area vacated by the offset
Wrap Around: Moves pixels cut off by the offset into the vacated area
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5.
Turn on Preview to see the effect of the settings.
6.
Click OK when the settings are correct.
Ripple effects
With the Ripple filter, create the impression of ripples in an image, like the ripples made by dropping
a stone into smooth water. By varying the controls in the Ripple dialog box, produce a range of effects
in an image, from slight rippling to extreme distortion.
To apply the Ripple filter:
1.
Select a paint object. To limit the effect to a particular area, select the area where you want to
apply the filter. If you don’t make a selection, the filter affects the entire image.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Ripple or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Adjust the settings in the Ripple dialog box, and then click OK to apply the settings and close
the dialog box.
Ripple settings
Adjust the following settings in the Ripple dialog box.
Spin
The Spin value controls the effect of swirling the image around its center
point. Type a number from -100 to 100 or drag the slider to set the
amount and direction of spin. Positive numbers generate a clockwise
spin; negative numbers generate a counter-clockwise spin. Larger
values (positive or negative) increase the amount of swirling. If Spin is
zero, the filter creates no ripples in the image and none of the other
controls produces an effect.
Frequency
The Frequency value affects the number of “waves” created in the
image. Enter a number from 0 to 50. A high number creates more small
waves; a low number creates fewer large waves.
Clustering
The Clustering option can create interesting interference patterns in
combination with some Frequency values. In general, Frequency values
of 15 to 50 and Spin values of 25 and higher are most effective. Enter a
Clustering value of 0 to 30. The higher the Clustering value, the more
interference ripples appear between the main waves.
Wave Decay
The Wave Decay value softens the effect of the Frequency setting by
dampening or stretching the waves away from the center of the image.
The closer a wave is to the center of the image, the less it is stretched.
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Wave Decay creates the impression of blending the waves farthest from
the center of the disturbance, especially when Include Corners is
selected.
Enter a Wave Decay value of 0 to 100. The higher the value, the more the
waves appear stretched toward the edge of the image.
High Frequency
The High Frequency option causes an approximate doubling of the effect
of the Frequency setting.
Bullseye Mode
Selecting Bullseye Mode leaves rings of unchanged original image area
between the wave distortions. This creates a pattern of concentric rings
like those surrounding a bullseye. This mode can provide a means of
integrating a recognizable version of the image with its distortion.
Include Corners
This option spreads the filter’s effects to the corners of an image or
selection. If Include Corners is not selected, the effects are confined to a
circular area at the center of the image or selection.
Preview
Select Preview to see the effects of the current settings before applying
the filter to the image.
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Ripple examples
Original
Ripple filter applied in area
selected with the Wand tool
Original
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Spin = 20
Frequency = 10
Clustering = 0
Wave Decay = 10
Same settings (above) with
Bullseye Mode
Twirl effects
The Twirl filter twists an image around its center to create interesting spiral distortions.
To apply the Twirl filter:
1.
Select a paint object. To limit the effect to a particular area, select the area where you want to
apply the filter. If you don’t make a selection, the filter affects the entire image.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Twirl. Adjust the Angle settings in the Twirl dialog box. The
Angle value specifies the direction and extent of the effect. Type a number in the box or drag
the slider to set the Angle value. Higher numbers (positive or negative) create more twists
around the center. A positive number twirls clockwise. A negative number twirls counterclockwise. Select No Anti-Alias to turn off smoothing of edges in the image.
3.
Select Preview to see the effects of the current settings before applying the filter to the
image.
4.
Click OK to apply the settings and close the dialog box.
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Original
Twirl Angle 90
Twirl Angle 180
Spherical distortion
The Spherize filter can distort an image to simulate a reflection on a curved surface.
To apply the Spherize filter:
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1.
Select a paint object. Make a selection to limit the effect to an area. If you don’t make a
selection, the filter affects the entire image.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Spherize or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Adjust the settings in the dialog box and click OK to apply the filter.
Chapter 5: Painting And Image Editing
Original paint object
Spherize: Amount = 5
Vignette option selected
Spherize options
Amount
The extent of the distortion. Type a number from 1 to 10 or drag the
slider. A higher number simulates a stronger curve.
Projection Mode
The shape of the distortion. Select Spherical/Ellipsoid to simulate
reflection on a spherical surface like a globe. Select Cylindrical to
simulate reflection on a cylinder, such as a can. Select Horizontal to
make cylindrical distortion horizontal. Select Vertical to make cylindrical
distortion vertical. Select Hyperboloid to simulate reflection on a concave
hyperboloid surface.
Vignette
Isolates the shape of a spherical distortion from the rest of the image. If
the image has a visibility mask, the areas of the image that fall outside of
the distorted area will be transparent. If the image does not have a
visibility mask, the areas are filled with the current background color.
Use this option when Spherical/Ellipsoid is selected.
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No Anti-Alias
Turns off smoothing of edges in the image. Deselect this option for a
smoother effect.
Preview
Displays the current effect before you apply the filter.
Artistic Effects
The artistic filters, Crystallize, Lens Flare, Oil Painting, and Stained Glass, can be applied to images,
text, and vector objects.
For images, access the filters by choosing Image | Filter | Artistic or use the Filter menu in the
Properties bar. For text and vector objects, choose Object | SpriteEffects | Add Effect | Artistic (see
"Using SpriteEffects" on page 650).
Crystallize
This filter applies a crystal- like appearance to a selected image.
Before Crystallize filter
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After Crystallize filter is applied
Crystallize dialog box
Crystal Size
The size and saturation of the crystals can be adjusted numerically or by
moving the appropriate slider bar.
Crystal Saturation
The color of the background will influence the appearance of your image.
Use White
Background
By default, the background is set to black. You have the option to set the
background to white. You may do this by checking the “Use White
Background.”
Anti-alias Crystals
Select the Anti-alias Crystals option for Web graphics.
Lens Flare
This filter mimics the appearance of a well-known photographic effect. It is caused by reflections of
light that may occur inside the camera lens. A flare can often naturally appear as a source of light in a
photographic scene or on a highly reflective object.
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Before Lens Flare
After Lens Flare
Lens Flare dialog box
Light Source Position
The flare may be adjusted by using your mouse to move the flare
highlight in the preview window.
X and Y
The flare may also be moved by entering numerical values in the X or Y
coordinates box.
Zoom
Adjust the slider or numerical values to adjust the zoom.
Light Intensity
Adjust the slider or numerical values to adjust the light intensity.
Oil Painting
Use the Oil Painting filter to give an object the appearance of hand-painted artwork.
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Before Oil Painting
After Oil Painting filter
Oil Painting dialog box
Brush Size
Adjust the size of the brush effect by moving the slider bar.
You also have the option to enter a numerical value in the brush size
field.
Preview
If you wish to preview the effects of the filter, then select the Preview
check box.
Stained Glass
This filter applies a stained- glass appearance to an object.
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Before Stained Glass
After Stained Glass filter
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Stained Glass
Tile Size
Adjust the effect of the filter by moving the Tile Size slider or by
changing the numerical value in the field.
Tile Shape
Select either square or hexagon tile shapes.
Anti-Alias
If your work is for the Web, select the Anti-alias Tiles option.
Border Thickness
Adjust the size and the thickness of the space that separates each piece
of “stained glass”.
Bevel
Use the Bevel filter to give any 2D image a 3D appearance. If you are creating Web buttons and want
to give the buttons a raised appearance, apply the Bevel filter.
When working with images, you can access the Bevel filter dialog by choosing Image | Filter | Stylize
| Bevel. For vector or text objects, choose Object | SpriteEffects | Add Effect | Stylize | Bevel (see
"Using SpriteEffects" on page 650).
For images, ensure you apply a visibility mask to the area of the image to which you’ll apply
the effect (see "Adding visibility masks to images" on page 428). If the image has a
transparency mask, select the area to be beveled with either the Wand tool or Marquee tools.
Before Bevel effect
After Bevel effect
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Bevel dialog box
Direction
Direction of the light source can be entered by a numeric value, slider
bar, or preview handle.
Elevation
Elevation of light source can be entered by a numeric value or slider bar.
Brightness
Brightness of light source can be entered by a numeric value or slider
bar.
Bevel Width
Bevel width can be entered by a numeric value or slider bar.
Edge Smoothness
Edge Smoothness can be entered by a numeric value or slider bar.
Corner Smoothness
Corner Smoothness can be entered by a numeric value or slider bar.
Using the High Pass, Maximum, and Minimum filters
This section describes how you can create selections in alpha channels and resize bright areas in
color channels. Isolate areas in an image using the High Pass filter and Threshold command. You can
use the Maximum and Minimum filters to spread color areas you might need to trap for commercial
printing.
Isolating areas using the High Pass filter
The High Pass filter isolates high contrast edges in an image by removing low contrast detail. The
filter makes pixels located in low contrast areas gray. In color images, the High Pass filter outlines
high contrast edges in color. Otherwise, it outlines these edges in dark gray. This command doesn’t
work with paint objects in Black & White mode, and Indexed mode.
To apply the High Pass filter:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. Select an area in one image in edit
mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image in edit
mode is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | High Pass or use the Filter menu in the Properties bar.
3.
Enter a radius from 0.1 to 250.0 pixels.
To retain more of the original image surrounding high contrast edges:
Enter a high number. If you enter a low number, the filter makes more of the image gray.
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To isolate images with the High Pass filter:
1.
With an image in edit mode, choose Image | Select | All. Then choose Edit | Copy.
2.
Choose Image | Show Channels.
3.
Create a new alpha channel by clicking the button in the lower-left corner of the Channels
palette.
4.
Select the new alpha channel and choose Edit | Paste.
5.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | High Pass and enter a radius value. Click OK.
6.
Choose Image | Adjust | Threshold. Adjust the threshold until you outline the areas you
want. Click OK.
7.
Paint areas white to include them in the selection. Fill the rest of the image with black.
8.
Click the composite channel. Choose Image | Select | Load to load the alpha channel and
select an area.
9.
In the example, the final image was finished by choosing Image | Select | Load with Inverse
selected.
10.
Then, choose Image | Filter | Blur | Gaussian Blur to apply a Gaussian blur of 3.0 pixels.
Original Image
High Pass filter
Threshold filter
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Editing with Paint tools
Finished alpha channel
Isolated subject
Maximizing and minimizing bright areas in an image
Increase or decrease light areas in an image with the Maximum and Minimum filters. The Maximum
filter adds light to shadows. The Minimum filter shrinks light areas.
To apply a choke or spread to an image manually, use the Maximum or Minimum filters in a
color channel.
When you apply these filters, Canvas compares each pixel to its neighbors within the radius you
specify, then replaces it with the lightest or darkest pixel in the group. This command doesn’t work
with paint objects in Black & White mode, and Indexed mode.
To use the Minimum and Maximum filters:
1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
in edit mode is affected.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Maximum and enter a radius from 1 to 16 pixels to maximize
the light areas in an image.
3.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Minimum and enter a radius from 1 to 16 pixels to minimize
the light areas in an image.
4.
Select Preview to check the settings and then click OK.
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Filling selections with color
The Fill command lets you quickly and uniformly fill a selection with the foreground or background
color, black, white, or gray. In addition, select an opacity level and transfer mode for application of
the color.
To fill a selection with a color:
1.
With an area of an image selected, choose Image | Filter | Other | Fill or use the Filter menu
in the Properties bar.
2.
In the Fill dialog box, choose a fill option from the Use pop-up menu. To make the color
appear transparent, set the Opacity level to less than 100%. To use a mode effect, choose an
option in the Mode pop-up menu.
3.
Click OK to fill the selection.
Creating custom image filters
You can create your own special-effect and image-correcting filters using the Custom command. You
can also save custom filters and use them in future Canvas documents.
Filters work with an image one pixel at a time. Using a mathematical formula and the color values of
pixels within a specified radius, filters assign each pixel a new color value. In a custom filter, you
supply the numbers the filter uses to calculate the new color values.
The same filter can produce different effects in other images. To get the most out of custom filters,
spend time experimenting.
Original
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Blurred image
Custom filter
Embossed image
Custom filter
To use Custom filters:
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1.
Select one or more paint objects to adjust all the images. You can select an area in one image
in edit mode to adjust the selected area only. If you don’t make a selection, the entire image
in edit mode is affected. This command doesn’t work with paint objects in Black & White
mode, and Indexed mode.
2.
Choose Image | Filter | Other | Custom.
3.
In the Custom dialog box, type values from -999 to 999 in the boxes in the grid. Canvas
ignores blank boxes.
4.
Enter a Scale value from 1 to 9,999. To retain the general appearance of the original image,
the scale should equal the sum of the entries in the configuration grid. For example:
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Grid entries
Sum
Scale
2 2 1 -1 -1 3
2+2+1-1-1+3=6
6
-1574-328
-15+7+4-3+2+8=3
3
5.
Enter an Offset value from -9,999 to 9,999. Positive values increase the brightness of the
final outcome while negative values decrease the brightness.
6.
Turn on the Preview option to check the filter effect. When the settings are correct, click OK.
To save a custom filter:
In the Custom dialog box, enter the filter settings and click Save. Enter a name and location for the
filter and click Save.
To load a custom filter:
In the Custom dialog box, click Load. In the directory dialog box, select the filter file and click
Open.
Rotating images
Canvas gives you the ability of applying a soft rotate or hard rotate to your images. A soft rotate is
sufficient if you do not need to export the images to another format; however, if you plan on
exporting your images and need them to remain rotated, then you should apply a hard rotate. A hard
rotate not only rotates the image but also adds white pixels to the bounding box. Soft rotate does not
add pixels.
Anti-aliasing for rotated bitmaps
Sometimes bitmap images can lose their clarity when they are rotated. The anti-aliasing for rotated
bitmaps feature addresses this issue. If you’re rotating a bitmap and select Hard rotate for image in
the Rotate dialog box, the Anti-alias image check box becomes available. The anti-aliasing option
results in a smoother, better quality image.
To hard rotate an image with the Rotate dialog box:
1.
Choose Effects | Rotate Right or Rotate Left | Other.
2.
Make sure you select Hard rotate for image to enable Anti-alias image.
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Original bitmap before
rotation.
Original bitmap after
rotation with Anti-aliasing
off.
Bitmaps will not attain a
pixelated appearance after
rotation if Anti-aliasing is
on.
To quickly rotate images at multiples of 90°:
1.
Select the image.
2.
Click on the Rotate button in the Properties bar.
3.
Select a hard rotate option in the menu and enter a value of 90° (or a multiple) in the field
and press Enter.
Distorting images
Canvas features an image effect that you can use to warp an image so it fits the bounding box of a
vector object.
Shape effect
To use this effect, you must first select an image and vector object.
To apply the Shape effect:
Select an image and a vector object and choose Image | Image Warp | Shape.
The Shape command is not available if more than one image or vector object is selected.
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Control points
Click to add control points to both the source and target. Every source
point must have a corresponding target point. At least 3 points must be
defined to enable the Create button.
Control points are saved in relative position to object, so if you drag or
scale an object, the points will be scaled correspondingly. Save the
document after change the control points configuration. When exiting
the session, current point configuration is automatically saved.
Segment points
Click to add segments to both the source and target. Every source
segment must have a corresponding target segment.
Curve points
Click to add curve segments to both the source and target. Every source
curve must have a corresponding target curve.
End curve points
Click to complete the curve.
Select all points
Click to select all control points.
Delete
Delete has two functions: delete current curve, if you are creating a
curve, or delete selection, if any.
Save
Click this button to save the control points within the source and target.
Reload
Click this button to reload the saved points.
Pixel resampling
Select a resampling method.
Nearest neighbor. Will remove some pixel information from your target
image; however, if used, this setting will be the fastest.
Bilinear. Will use a bilinear interpolation algorithm during
downsampling.
Biquadratic. Estimates the color at a pixel in the destination image by
an average of 9 pixels surrounding the closest corresponding pixel in
the source image.
Bicubic. Estimates the colour at a pixel in the destination image by an
average of 16 pixels surrounding the closest corresponding pixel in the
source image.
Polygonal. Every source pixel is mapped to a polygon in the target.
Auto. Canvas selects the most appropriate method for resampling.
Show Names
Select this check box if you want to see labels. Use the Size menu to
adjust the size of control points.
Shape
Select either Circle or Square for the control point shape.
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Opacity
Adjust the transparency of the created object.
Source & Target
colors
Select a color from the palettes to distinguish the source and target. By
default, the source is red and the target is green.
Create
Click this button to perform the effect.
Delete
Click this button to delete the created object.
Exit
Click this button to leave the warp effect before or after clicking Create.
The image is the Source and the
vector object is the Target.
Each Source control point has a
matching Target control point.
If the vector object contains a fill
ink, the fill will be removed after the
effect is applied.
Envelope effect
The Envelope command lets you distort image objects, as if an image was drawn on a rubber sheet
and then stretched.
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When an image object is in envelope edit mode, its bounding box acts like the rubber sheet. Canvas
includes several envelope styles that offer various handles you can use to manipulate an object’s
bounding box.
To learn about the envelope styles and their respective uses, see "Enveloping objects" on page 384.
Original image
Enveloped image
Combining image channels
The Calculate Image command lets you combine channels to create selection masks for effects like
embossing text in an image. By adding, subtracting, and multiplying channels, you can also enhance
shadows and highlights. The Calculate Image command combines corresponding pixels from two
channels by the method you choose. You can place the result in a new or existing channel.
As shown in "Examples of Calculate blending options" on page 550, you can also copy an
image and paste it into a new alpha channel of Source 1. Then use the Calculate Image
command to combine Source 1 and the new alpha channel (Source 2).
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To combine channels:
1.
With an image in edit mode, choose Image | Calculate.
2.
Choose the first channel in the Source 1 menu. If you want to invert the channel, select
Invert. For more information, see "Inverting colors in images" on page 465.
3.
In the Source 2 menu, choose the channel you want to combine with the Source 1 channel. If
you want to invert the channel, select Invert.
4.
In the Blending area, choose an option in the Use menu. See "Descriptions of Calculate
blending options" on page 548.
5.
Enter an opacity from 0 to 100 percent for Source 1. Other options are available for some
Blending methods.
6.
If you want to mask Source 1, select Mask in the Blending area and choose a channel in the
menu. To invert the mask, select Invert in the Blending area.
7.
Choose the name of a destination channel or choose New in the Result menu. If you select an
existing channel, Canvas replaces the channel with the results of the Calculate Image
operation.
8.
Click OK to calculate the channel using the current settings.
Descriptions of Calculate blending options
You can select various blending methods in the Calculate Image dialog box.
Normal
Places Source 1 over Source 2 at the specified opacity. 100 percent
opacity replaces Source 2 with Source 1.
Multiply
Creates a darker channel than the source channels. Black areas in either
source create black areas in the resulting channel. White areas do not
affect the result.
Screen
Creates a lighter channel than the source channels. White areas in either
source create white areas in the resulting channel. Black areas do not
affect the result.
Overlay
Places Source 1 over Source 2 without destroying the shadows or
highlights of Source 2.
Soft Light
Lightens or darkens pixels in Source 2 depending on the brightness
value of the corresponding pixels in Source 1. Pixels in Source 1 that are
lighter than 50% black lighten Source 2. Pixels in Source 1 that are
darker than 50% black darken Source 2.
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Hard Light
Lightens or darkens pixels in Source 2 depending on the brightness
value of the corresponding pixels in Source 1. Hard Light works similarly
to Soft Light. However, black in Source 1 produces black in the resulting
channel and white produces white.
Darken
Replaces pixels in Source 2 with the corresponding pixels in Source 1, if
the pixels in Source 1 are darker.
Lighten
Replaces pixels in Source 2 with the corresponding pixels in Source 1, if
the pixels in Source 1 are lighter.
Add
Creates a lighter channel than the source channels. Add is similar to
Screen but usually produces a higher-contrast image.
If you select the Add option, you can enter a Scale value from 1 to 2 with
a precision of three decimal places. To calculate the average brightness
value of two channels, choose Add and enter a Scale of 2.
You can brighten or darken the resulting channel by specifying an Offset
value. To lighten the overall image, enter an offset from 1 to 255. To
darken the image, enter an offset from -1 to - 255.
Subtract
Creates a darker channel than the source channels. Subtract is similar to
Multiply. However, corresponding pixels of the same color produce black
in the resulting channel.
If you select the Subtract option, you can enter a Scale value from 1 to 2
with a precision of three decimal places.
You can brighten or darken the resulting channel by specifying an Offset
value. To lighten the overall image, enter an offset from 1 to 255. To
darken the image, enter an offset from -1 to - 255.
Difference
Compares the color value of each pixel in Source 1 with the
corresponding pixel in Source 2, subtracts the darker value from the
lighter, and then uses this difference in the resulting channel.
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Examples of Calculate blending options
Source 1
Source 2
Multiply
Screen
Overlay
Soft Light
Hard Light
Darken
Lighten
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Add
Subtract
Difference
Image proxies
Proxies are low-resolution images you can use in Canvas documents. A proxy is a placeholder that is
linked to an original image. The original high-resolution image is stored in a Canvas Image File on
disk.
Using proxies
Proxies can significantly reduce the time required to redraw the screen while you work. Also, a
Canvas document that contains proxies requires much less disk storage space than one containing
high-resolution images (although the space required to store the document and the linked image files
is approximately the same as for the document containing high-resolution images).
Proxies are most useful for conserving time and memory when you use large, highresolution color images in documents.
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A high-resolution image stored in
a Canvas Image File on disk.
A low-resolution proxy replaces
the image in a Canvas document.
The proxy is linked to the Canvas
Image File.
Replacing an image with a proxy
The procedure described in this section lets you replace an image contained in a Canvas document
with a low-resolution proxy. When you do this, Canvas exports the original image to a Canvas Image
File, and links the Canvas Image File to the proxy.
If you later double-click the proxy for editing, Canvas loads the original image from the Canvas Image
File. You can edit the original image as you would any other Canvas paint object. When you leave
image-editing mode, Canvas stores the changes in the Canvas Image File and then displays the proxy
again.
To create a proxy linked to an image file:
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1.
In the Canvas document, select the image object you want to replace with a proxy.
2.
Choose Image | Proxy | Make Proxy.
Chapter 5: Painting And Image Editing
3.
In the dialog box, select a file type and location to save the file.
4.
Type a name for the image file that Canvas will create.
5.
Click Save.
6.
In the Make Proxy dialog box, type a value in the “Make...Times Smaller” box. The larger this
number, the lower the proxy resolution and the less memory required by the proxy in the
document. The value must be from 1 to 1,000.
7.
Click OK. Canvas replaces the image with a proxy and creates a file containing the original
image on disk. The proxy is linked to the image file on disk.
If you click Cancel, Canvas closes the dialog box without replacing the original image, placing the
proxy, or storing the image file on disk.
Make Proxy dialog box
You use the Make Proxy dialog box to create proxies linked to Canvas Image Files.
Original
Width and height of the image.
Size of the Canvas Image File you are about to create.
Resolution of the image.
Proxy
Memory required by the proxy. The memory required changes if you
enter values in the “Make...times smaller” text box.
Type the proxy reduction factor in this text box. The larger this value,
the lower the proxy resolution and the less memory required by the
proxy.
Location of the file on disk.
Click File to change the location that Canvas will store the Canvas
Image File.
Click OK to replace the image with the proxy and create the Canvas Image file.
Final output with proxies and linked image files
To produce final high-resolution output from a document, you may need to copy the Canvas
document from your disk to another storage media, such as a Zip disk. When you copy a document
that contains image proxies, you need to copy the linked high resolution image file also, to be able to
print the high resolution images.
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Make sure when you copy the documents to another disk, that you maintain the original folder
structure. It is a good idea to open the Canvas document that you copied, and check that the links
have not been broken (see "To verify proxy links:" on page 556 for more information).
You can also replace a proxy with its linked image to eliminate the need to copy the image file. To
learn how to do this, see "To replace a proxy with its linked image:" on page 556.
To create a proxy by acquiring a file:
You can use the Import command to create a proxy that is linked to a TIFF, JPEG, or CVI file.
You can edit acquired proxies the same as other proxy images. However, some changes you might
make, such as adding image channels, are not supported by JPEG or TIFF files.
1.
To acquire an image from a file, choose Image | Import and choose a file format in the Import
dialog box.
2.
In the Import dialog box, select the Acquire As Proxy option. Select the image files to import
and click Import.
3.
In the Proxy Info dialog box, type the proxy resolution in the “Make…Times Smaller” box. The
larger the number, the lower the resolution of the proxy image in the document.
4.
Click OK. Canvas places the proxy images in the document.
Editing proxies
When you place a proxy object in image-edit mode, Canvas loads and displays the linked image file in
place of the proxy. If the original image has changed, you see the changes.
Changes you make in image-edit mode are saved in the linked image file on disk when you exit imageedit mode. Canvas then displays an updated proxy.
Editing an image linked to a proxy is the same as editing any image in Canvas; you can use painting
tools and commands to alter pixels in the original image.
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Paint object in image-edit mode
Object editing
Changes you make to a proxy when you do not edit the pixels in the image are object-level edits. You
can skew and scale proxies like other objects. Skewing, scaling, and other object-level editing do not
affect the image file to which the proxy is linked.
Displaying proxy information
When you select a proxy object, the information area of the Status bar displays the data for the image
file to which the proxy is linked in italic type.
To display information on the proxy object:
Choose Image | Proxy | Proxy Info. The Proxy Info dialog box displays the dimensions and
resolution of the proxy object and the location of the linked original image on disk.
Removing proxies
To remove a proxy object without replacing it with an original image:
Select the proxy object and press the Delete key, or use the Cut or Clear commands in the Edit
menu.
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To replace a proxy with its linked image:
1.
Select the proxy you want to replace.
2.
Choose Image | Proxy | Unlink Proxy. Canvas asks if you are sure you want to remove the link
between the image file and the proxy.
3.
Click OK to replace the proxy and remove the link to the image file.
Maintaining proxies
If someone changes the name or location of an image file that is linked to one or more proxies, Canvas
alerts you that the file could not be found when you try to edit, unlink, or update any of the proxies.
You can check proxies in a document at any time to verify that the links are valid. If Canvas detects
unlinked proxies, you can re-link them to existing image files.
You should always verify the proxy links in a document before final output. If you produce
final high-resolution output from a document with unlinked or broken proxy objects, the
associated images will not print correctly.
To verify proxy links:
Choose Image | Proxy | Check Proxies.
If Canvas finds an unlinked proxy, it displays selection handles around the proxy and centers it in the
document window. Canvas displays a message telling you that the proxy has a problem because the
image file could not be found.
When it finds an unlinked proxy, Canvas displays the proxy’s name, if you have assigned a
name to the proxy object. You can do this by typing a name in the Name field on the Data tab
in the Object Specs palette (Object | Object Specs).
When Canvas tells you that a proxy has a problem, you should follow the procedure "To re-link a
proxy:" on page 557. If a proxy does not have a valid link to an image file, Canvas prints the lowresolution proxy when you print the document.
If all proxies in the document have valid links to image files, Canvas displays the message: “No
problems found.” Canvas also displays this message if the document contains no proxies.
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To re-link a proxy:
If you are using the Check Proxies command and Canvas finds an unlinked proxy, you can link the
proxy to an image file.
1.
After Canvas identifies an unlinked proxy, click Fix in the message box.
2.
In the Proxy Info dialog box, do one of the following:
Click OK to skip the proxy and continues checking other proxies.
Click Cancel to end the check.
3.
Click File in the Proxy Info dialog box.
4.
In the dialog box, select an image file to link to the proxy, and then click Open. Canvas
returns to the Proxy Info dialog box, which shows the path to the linked image file.
5.
Click OK. Canvas closes the Proxy Info dialog box and continues to check for unlinked
proxies.
6.
If Canvas finds another unlinked proxy in the current document, Canvas again selects the
unlinked proxy and displays a message that the proxy has a problem. Repeat the procedure
from Step 1 above to re-link unlinked proxies that Canvas selects.
When Canvas doesn’t find any unlinked proxies, it ends the Check Proxies procedure and returns to
the document.
To change the file linked to a proxy:
Use the following procedure to link a proxy to a different image file.
1.
Select the proxy object.
2.
Choose Image | Proxy | Proxy Info.
3.
In the Proxy Info dialog box, click File.
4.
In the dialog box, select the image file you want linked to the proxy and click Open.
5.
In the Proxy Info dialog box, review the new path and the name of the linked image file, then
click OK.
Updating proxies
Use the Update Proxies command to update all proxies in a document so they match the image data in
their linked image file.
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To update all proxies in the active document:
Choose Image | Proxy | Update Proxies.
To update a specific proxy:
Select the proxy object you want to update and choose Image | Proxy | Update Proxy.
Exporting Canvas Image Files
You can export any image from a Canvas document to create a Canvas Image File on disk. You can
then create proxies linked to the Canvas Image File.
This procedure creates a Canvas Image File, but does not link the image file to the document, or
replace the image with a proxy in the document.
To export an image to a Canvas Image File:
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1.
Select the paint object in the document and choose Image | Export | Canvas Image File.
2.
In the dialog box, select a location and type a name for the image file, and then click Save.
Canvas creates a Canvas Image File.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
Canvas 12 User Guide
Text entry & layout
Typing text in a document
Canvas has a full range of text and typography features that let you integrate text with illustrations
and images. You can enter, format, edit, and arrange text in Canvas. You can also import text files
and use Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) to place text in documents. To help you edit and proof
text, Canvas provides spell-checking and text-searching tools.
Depending on the circumstance, use either the Text tool or Vertical Text tool to type text into a
document.
The Vertical Text tool is designed for Japanese and other languages with vertical text. For information
on the Vertical Text tool and other features for working with two-byte languages, see "Tools and
options for two-byte and vertical text" on page 564. Remember that the Vertical Text tool does not
appear unless the Enable two-byte script check box is selected on the Type page of the Text manager
in the Configuration Center (see "Setting preferences" on page 97).
Text objects
All text in a Canvas document is contained in objects called text objects. Text objects can contain a
single character or line of text, or thousands of words, sentences, and paragraphs.
Dimension objects contain dimension text (see "Using the Dimensioning tools" on page
358).
Text tools
The Text tool palette contains the tools you use to create text objects and edit text.
Text: Use the Text tool to create text objects and edit text.
Text Object: Use the Text Object tool to draw fixed text objects for page layouts.
Text Link: Use the Text Link tool to link text objects to create text flows.
Text Unlink: Use the Text Unlink tool to break text object links.
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Link Info: Use the Link Info tool to check text flows in a document. The tool displays arrows
showing the flow of text among linked text objects.
Text Path: Use the Path Text tool to type text along a vector path.
Text Form Field: Use the Text Form Field tool to create form text boxes.
Text Section: Use the Text Section tool to create sections and columns in the text.
Text Format Brush: Use the Text Format Brush tool to copy a text format and apply it to
other text.
Vertical Text: Use the Vertical Text tool to create text objects and edit text when you are
using a double-byte language.
Vertical Text Object: Use the Vertical Text Object tool to draw fixed text objects for page
layouts when you are using a double-byte language.
Using the Text tool
Use the Text tool to create new text objects, type text into a document, and edit text.
When you create text objects with the Text tool, you can choose whether or not to set the column
width before typing.
If you set the column width before typing, text wraps to the next line when it reaches the
right boundary of the text object.
If you don’t set the column width before typing, the right margin expands indefinitely to
accommodate the amount of text you type. This is called a “caption” text object.
Whether you should set the column width before or after typing depends on the amount of text you
want to type. For short labels and callouts, you might find it easier to simply type and let Canvas
adjust the right margin. However, for paragraphs or newsletter columns, it is probably easier to set
the column width before typing.
You can change the size of the text object by selecting it and dragging a selection handle.
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To type text with the Text tool:
1.
2.
Select the Text tool from the Toolbox.
Do one of the following to set the location and type the text:
To enter one line of text: Click in the document. An insertion point appears where you
click. Begin typing and the right margin extends to fit the line of text that you type.
To define a text column: Drag diagonally to create a rectangular text object. The
object’s width matters, but not its length. Canvas contracts or expands the length to
accommodate the text you type. An insertion point appears at the top of the object. Begin
typing, and when you reach the right margin, Canvas wraps the text to the next line.
3.
Press Esc to exit text-editing mode when you finish typing. The text object remains selected.
4.
Press Esc to deselect the text object or select another object. You can also click outside the
object.
Attributes of new text
When you type text, Canvas applies the current attributes and the current type format settings to the
characters you type. For more information about changing ink and stroke attributes, see "Text inks
and strokes" on page 631).
Type formatting: Canvas applies the current settings for the font, style, type size,
justification (alignment), leading, and kerning to the characters you type. These settings are
selected from the Text menu, the Properties bar, or with the controls in the Type palette (see
"Applying text formats" on page 580).
Fill inks: Canvas applies the current fill ink, if it’s a solid color fill ink, to the text characters.
If the current fill ink is a gradient, hatch, symbol, or texture, Canvas applies 100%
black to the text characters.
Pen inks: The pen ink for text you type is always 100% black, and is not visible until you
apply a pen stroke to the text.
Strokes: Canvas applies no stroke to text characters you type. This means that no outline
appears on the characters, and the pen ink applied to the text is not visible because the pen
ink appears only when an object or text has a visible stroke.
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Using the Text Format Brush
Use the Text Format Brush to copy text attributes, such as font, font style, fill ink, pen ink, as well as
pen stroke, so that you can apply them to other text. This tool does not copy frame ink, frame stroke,
or background ink. To apply these items to text, see "To apply a background ink:" on page 633, "To
apply a frame stroke:" on page 633, and "To apply a frame ink:" on page 633.
To copy and apply text attributes:
1.
Select the Text Format Brush tool.
The cursor changes to an eyedropper.
2.
Click on a text object to copy the text attributes.
3.
Then, click on the text object to which you want to apply the text attributes.
If you want to apply the text attributes to a single character or group of characters, drag across the
character or characters until they are all selected. When you release the mouse, the text attributes
will be applied.
Creating text layouts
Use the Text Object tool to place text objects, or columns, in page layouts. Text objects created with
this tool keep their width and length, unlike text objects made with the Text tool, which shrink and
expand in length to fit the amount of text you type. The Text Object tool is especially useful for
designing templates and master pages, because you can set up text columns and add type later.
If you enter text into a text object created with the Text Object tool, and there is more text than will fit
in the column, an overflow indicator appears at the bottom of the text object (see "Flowing overset
text into new text columns" on page 572).
To hide the bounding boxes of text objects, choose Layout | Display | Hide Text Boxes. To
show them again, choose Layout | Display | Show Text Boxes.
The Text Object tool doesn’t select text or place a text object in edit mode. For these
operations, use the Text tool (see "Using the Text tool" on page 561).
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To create an empty text object:
1.
Select the Text Object tool.
When you move into the document window, the pointer is an I-beam with an arrow.
2.
Drag to set the width and length of a rectangular text object.
3.
Canvas deselects the Text Object tool and either selects the Selection tool or Text tool.
4.
Double-click in the text object to select the Text tool. The new text object is in edit mode with
an insertion point at the top of the column.
You can begin typing in the new text object immediately. Press Esc to exit text editing mode and
select the text object. Press Esc to deselect the text object.
Positioning text objects
Arrange text objects the same way you arrange other types of objects. Drag text objects with the
mouse, resize them by dragging a selection handle, “nudge” text objects with keyboard arrow keys,
and set coordinates and dimensions in the Properties bar.
Tools and options for two-byte and vertical text
A special preference, Enable two-byte script, appears in the Type manager of the Configuration
Center if your system is capable of using two-byte languages (see "Preferences for two-byte text
entry" on page 123). Depending on the amount of text in your documents, activating the two-byte
text preference might slow down text editing.
You must quit and restart Canvas to activate or deactivate the two-byte text preference.
For Windows ME, 2000, and XP, the operating system supports almost any language setting,
including Japanese.
When you activate the two-byte text preference, Canvas selects the metric measurement system by
default. Select another system for measurement units by choosing Layout | Rulers (see "Setting up
rulers" on page 74). The “two-byte” preference also can make available several tools and options that
let you create vertical text objects (with or without two-byte fonts), and use an entry window for
typing two-byte characters. These tools and options are described in this section.
Available two-byte text tools and options
When the two-byte preference is active, the following items appear:
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The Vertical Text tool appears in the Toolbox.
The Vertical Text Object tool appears in the Toolbox.
“Vertical” options appear in the Column Guides dialog box and the Type palette.
The Inline tab appears in the Configuration Center.
Using Vertical Text tool
The Vertical Text tool types text in vertical columns that flow from top to bottom and right to left.
Create vertical columns of text in languages that use vertical text, or when you work on a publication
in which text runs across a page.
To create empty text objects, such as for a document template, to contain vertical text, use the
Vertical Text Object tool (see "Using Vertical Text Object tool" on page 566).
If the Vertical Text tool isn’t available because the two-byte text preference isn’t selected,
you can get the same effect by rotating text 90° by choosing Effects | Rotate.
To type vertical text directly:
1.
Select the Vertical Text tool.
The pointer changes to a horizontal I-beam.
2.
Click in the document to place the text insertion point, and then begin typing. Since the text
will flow from top to bottom, Canvas expands the bottom of the column to fit the longest line
you type.
3.
Press Esc to exit text edit mode.
To define a column for vertical text:
1.
Select the Vertical Text tool. The pointer changes to a horizontal I-beam, indicating that text
will flow from top to bottom.
2.
Drag the I-beam to set the size of the column, and then begin typing. As you type, text
characters run from top to bottom. When the text reaches the bottom edge of the column, it
wraps back to the top and onto the next line to the left.
3.
Press Esc to exit text edit mode.
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Using Vertical Text Object tool
The Vertical Text Object tool lets you create empty text blocks for vertical text. Text objects created
with the Vertical Text Object tool maintain their width and length.
To create text objects for vertical text:
1.
Select the Vertical Text Object tool.
The pointer changes to a horizontal I-beam indicating that text will flow from top to bottom.
2.
Drag to define the width and length of the text object. Then drag in other locations to create
more text objects, or begin typing in the new text object.
3.
Press Esc to exit text edit mode.
Options for vertical text and columns
A check box labeled Vertical appears in two places: the Column Guides dialog box and Type palette.
The Vertical options described in this section are not related to the “Vertical” command that
changes the alignment of text bound to a path.
In the Column Guides dialog box, create column guides for vertical text in Publication documents. In
the Type palette, specify horizontal or vertical orientation for text objects.
To use vertical text column guides:
1.
Choose Layout | Column Guides.
2.
In the Column guides dialog box, select the Vertical check box. The column guide buttons at
the top of the dialog box change to vertical orientation.
3.
Use the preset column buttons or the other options to specify guides for the number of
columns that you want to use.
To use preset column guides: Click one of the buttons. The first three buttons are for
1, 2, and 3 text columns respectively. The last two buttons are for 2 columns with a wide
and narrow column.
To set up guides for any number of columns from 1 to 12: Use the “Number of
columns” text box.
4.
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Click OK to create guides for the specified number of columns.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
To use the Vertical option for text objects:
Use the Vertical option in the Type palette to set up the Text tool for vertical text and to orient text
objects to contain vertical text.
When you set the Text tool to create vertical text, lines of text that you type are vertical, with
text flowing from top to bottom and lines running from right to left. This is the same as the
orientation of text within an existing text object when you apply the Vertical option.
1.
Open the Type palette by double-clicking the Text tool or choosing Text | Type.
2.
Do one of the following to set up the Text tool, or to change the orientation of existing text
objects:
To change the default operation of the Text tool: Make sure that no objects are
selected in the document.
To change existing text objects: Select the text objects.
3.
Select the Vertical check box in the Type palette and then click Apply to apply the current
settings. Canvas applies the vertical option to the selected text objects or to the Text tool.
To change text orientation to horizontal in an object:
1.
Open the Type palette.
2.
Select a text object containing vertical text.
3.
Deselect the Vertical check box and then click Apply.
To use vertical text in publication layouts:
1.
Choose Layout | Column Guides and choose the number of columns you want to use.
2.
Use the Vertical Text Object tool to click between column guides to create a text column sized
to fit the column guides.
The column extends from the point you click to the left margin of the page. If the column guides are
outside the printable area, the column text remains inside the printable area (see "Using Vertical Text
Object tool" on page 566).
Creating column layouts
A section is a rectangular area that arranges text in columns. A section is made of column guides,
which are non-printing lines that define the text columns and gutters (spaces between columns).
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Sections make it easy to arrange and modify text in columns. You can place one or more sections on a
page. After you place text in a section, you can change the number or the size of the columns in the
section and Canvas will adjust the text to fit.
To create text columns in a document, you could manually arrange separate text objects; however,
the Section tool and column guides automate text layout. This section describes how to work with the
Section tool and Column Guides to create text layouts.
A 3-column section
Creating columns
Create column layouts with the Section tool or Column Guides command (Layout | Column Guides).
Use the Section tool to place multiple sections at specified locations on one or more pages. Use the
Column Guides command to define sections or change settings for existing sections.
Whether you create or modify sections with the Section tool or Column Guides command, the Column
Guides dialog box is the control center for configuring sections.
When you create a section, the section’s column guides appear on a guide layer in the document. By
default, guide layers are non-printing and have a bright blue override color. Use the Document
Layout palette to change the override color or make a guide layer printable (see "Guide layers" on
page 95).
When you add text to a section, Canvas creates a text object in each column in the section. The text
objects are placed on the current layer.
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Column Guides dialog box
Section Name
Canvas applies a default name when you create a section. Type a new
name in the text box to change a section’s name.
Section options menu
Delete sections, fit sections to a page, or fit sections to the top half or
bottom half of a page. Choose an option from the menu.
Apply
Depending on the layout, choose from This Page, All Pages, All Left
Pages, Left Page, Right Page, or All Right Pages (see "Apply To menu
options" on page 571).
Preset column guides
Select 1, 2, or 3 columns of equal width, or 2 columns with a wider
column on the left or right.
Number of columns
Specify the number of columns; it overrides the preset column guides.
Type the number of columns. The maximum number depends on the
width of a section.
Equal widths
This option makes the column widths equal to the value in the Column
box, and makes the gutter widths equal to the value in the Gutter box.
Deselect this option to set the width of a specific column.
Fixed widths
This option prevents changes to the width of the columns.
Fixed gutters
This option prevents changes to the width of the column gutters.
If both Fixed Gutters and Fixed Widths are selected, you can’t drag the
column guides in a section to adjust the widths of columns or gutters.
Vertical
This option appears if “Enable two-byte script” is selected in the
Configuration Center. It creates vertical columns for text in a section.
Text Flow
To change the direction of the text flow, click the button that indicates
left to right (the arrow points right) or right to left (the arrow points
left).
Size
If Equal Widths is not selected, set widths for columns and gutters.
Column #: Select the column by number. The widths of the selected
column and gutter appear below. Columns are numbered from left to
right.
Column: Enter the width of the column specified in the Column # menu.
If you select a preset column option, the Column value can’t be changed
unless Equal Widths is deselected first.
Gutter: Enter the width of the gutter.
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To create sections with the Column Guides command:
1.
Go to the page where you want to place a new section and choose Layout | Column Guides.
2.
In the Column Guides dialog box, select a preset column arrangement or define custom
columns. In the Apply To menu, choose where to place the new section. See "Column Guides
dialog box" on page 569.
3.
Click OK to create a new section with the current settings.
If the document contains no sections, Canvas creates one or more new sections, according to the
Apply To setting.
To create a section with the Section tool:
1.
Select the Section tool.
The cursor changes to a crosshair.
2.
Drag the crosshair in the document.
3.
In the Column Guides dialog box, select options for the section. Select preset column guides
or specify a custom setup (see "Column Guides dialog box" on page 569).
4.
Click OK to create a new section with the current settings.
Modifying sections with the Section tool
Use the Section tool to move, resize, and modify sections.
To move a section:
Drag it with the Section tool. When you move a section, text objects contained in the section move
with the section.
Unlike vector, paint, and text objects, you can’t use the Selection tool to modify a section.
To resize a section:
Do one or more of the following:
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To change the width of a section: Drag one of its sides.
To change the height of a section: Drag the top or bottom border of the section. To
change both dimensions at once, drag a corner of the section.
To adjust the width of columns in a section: Use the Section tool to drag column
guides. The Fixed Widths and Fixed Gutters options in the Column Guides dialog box
limit how sections can be resized. If both options are selected, you can’t drag the sides,
columns, or gutters to resize a section; you can drag the top or bottom to make it longer
or shorter.
Modifying sections
To change the settings of a section, double-click the section with the Section tool to open the Column
Guides dialog box. Change the settings in the dialog box and click OK to apply the settings to the
section.
To delete a section:
Double-click the section with the Section tool to open the Column Guides dialog box. Open the
Section Options menu and select Delete Section. Click Yes in the confirmation message box.
Applying section settings throughout a document
The Apply To setting controls how Canvas applies the column guides settings. When you click OK,
Canvas modifies matching sections and creates new sections as necessary, depending on the setting
selected in the Apply To menu.
Apply To menu options
This Page: Applies the settings to the current page only. In a Publication with facing pages,
it applies the settings to both (left and right) current pages.
All Pages: Applies the settings to all pages in the document.
All Left Pages: Applies the settings to all left-hand pages in a Publication with facing
pages.
Left Page: Applies the settings to the current left-hand page in a Publication with facing
pages.
Right Page: Applies the settings to the current right-hand page in a Publication with facing
pages.
All Right Pages: Applies the settings to all right-hand pages in a Publication with facing
pages.
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Displaying column guides
You can display or hide all the section column guides in a document.
To show column guides:
Choose Layout | Display | Show Guides when column guides are not displayed.
To hide column guides:
Choose Layout | Display | Hide Guides when column guides are displayed.
Typing text in a section
Use the Text tool to type text in a column in a section.
To type text in a section:
1.
Select the Text tool and click at the top of the first column in the section. An insertion point
appears in the column at the height where you clicked. Canvas creates linked text objects in
the section when you click in the section with the Text tool.
2.
Begin typing. Text will wrap to the next line when it reaches the column edge. If you continue
typing to the end of the column, text will flow to the next column in the section.
If a section has multiple columns, you can skip one or more columns by clicking in the section where
you want the text flow to begin.
Flowing overset text into new text columns
You can flow text when all the text won’t fit in a text object. An indicator tells you when an object has
overset text. If you select a text object and drag a handle to reduce its size so all the text does not fit,
the overset indicator appears. You can flow text between as many columns as you want.
To flow text into the next column:
1.
Click the flow symbol to change the pointer to a text flow pointer.
2.
Click or drag the pointer to create a new column for the overset text.
To flow text into a column with the same margins as the original column:
Click the text flow pointer where you want the upper-left corner of the new column to appear.
To flow text into a column with different margins than the original column:
Drag the text flow pointer to specify the column width.
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Resizing a text column can
result in overset text
If you click the flow symbol,
the text flow pointer appears
Clicking with the flow pointer
creates a new column the
same size as the original, and
flows the overset text into it.
A plus sign replaces the
overset sign on the first
column, indicating that text
flows to another column.
Flowing text from column to column
Create text flows so that text runs from one text object to another. You can flow text to a new text
object when the text won’t all fit in an existing text object; the term “overset text” is used to refer to
the text that doesn’t fit in a text object or column.
You can also link empty text objects to create a preset text flow when you create templates for page
layouts.
Flowing overset text to a new object
If you reduce the size of a text object, or change the text formatting, and all the text no longer fits in
the text object, you can create another text object to hold the overset text. Doing this creates a link
between the first and second text object, as shown in “Flowing overset text into new text columns,”
above.
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Defining text flow bars & flow symbols
A text flow bar is a solid line with a flow symbol. Text flow bars appear at the bottom of text objects
when they contain overset text or are part of text flows. The flow symbol indicates the flow condition.
An arrow indicates that a text object contains overset text.
A plus sign indicates that text flows to another text object.
The last object in a text flow does not display a flow bar unless text is overset.
Text object has
overset text
Text flows to another
text object
To display text flow bars:
Choose Layout | Display | Show Text Flow Bars. To hide text flow bars, choose Layout | Display |
Hide Text Flow Bars.
Linking text objects
After you create text objects with the Text tool or Text Object tool, use the Text Link tool to link the
objects and create a text flow. When text you type or insert fills one object, it flows to the next linked
text object. The linked text object can be on another page (in a Publication document) or another
slide (in a Presentation document). You can link columns in a chain to create articles in a multi-page
document such as a newsletter. The Text Link tool is especially useful for creating templates for
publications.
Text objects created with the Text tool expand as needed when text is added. However, if
you use the Text Link tool to link objects created with the Text tool, the objects no longer
expand or contract to hold the text. Instead, they remain a fixed length, the same as objects
created with the Text Object tool.
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To link text objects:
You can use this procedure to link an object containing text or an empty text object to other text
objects.
If text boxes aren’t visible, choose Display | Show Text Boxes in the Layout menu; this
makes it easier to find and link empty text objects.
1.
2.
With the Text or Text Object tool, create at least two text objects.
Select the Text Link tool.
The pointer displays the number “1”.
3.
Click the first text object, the object you want to flow from. The text link pointer changes to
the number “2”.
4.
Click the next text object, the object you want to flow to. If you click anything but a text
object, Canvas cancels the linking operation.
5.
To link another text object to the chain, repeat the linking procedure; i.e., click the object
text will flow from, and then click the object the text will flow to.
6.
Press Esc when you finish.
Unlinking text objects
Use the Text Unlink tool to break the links between text objects that have been linked into a text flow.
To unlink one text object from the next object in the flow:
1.
2.
Select the Text Unlink tool.
Click the first text object.
Checking text flows
The Link Info tool lets you check text flows in a document. Use the tool to display arrows showing the
flow of text among linked text objects.
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To check a text flow:
1.
2.
Select the Link Info tool.
Point to a text object. Press and hold down the mouse to display flow arrows.
If the text object is part of a linked text flow, arrows show the flow sequence. Flow arrows are
displayed until you release the mouse button. If the text object is not linked, no flow arrows appear.
A flow arrow starts at the lower-right corner of the first object in a flow, and points to the upper-left
corner of the next object in the flow, and so on throughout the flow.
Text Form Field tool
The Text Form Field tool is ideal for numerous types of forms and documents. This feature is
designed to assist you when you need to perform repetitive text entry tasks.
To navigate inside a form, first create the Text Form boxes and then place them in the appropriate
locations. After placement, you can quickly move the cursor to each Text Form box by using the Tab
key. All text that is entered into the Text Form box may be formatted in the same manner as it is in the
regular Text box.
The Tab order of the Text Form boxes may be arranged and edited using the features of the
Document Layout palette (see "Using the Document Layout palette" on page 85).
To use the Text Form Field tool:
1.
2.
Create your form.
Select the Text Form Field tool.
3.
Click and drag in the document location to create Form Text boxes.
4.
You may now jump to each form text object by pressing the Tab key. You may Tab in reverse
order by pressing Shift-Tab.
To better track Form Text boxes, we suggest that you apply a name to each box (see "Data
tab settings" on page 198 for more information on naming objects in Canvas).
To convert a regular text box to a form text box:
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1.
Select the regular text box and then right-click to open the context menu.
2.
Select Convert to Form Text.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
To convert Form Text objects to Normal text:
Right-click the Form Text box, and select Convert to Normal Text.
Formatting text
You can control all aspects of text formatting in Canvas. This section explains how to specify font,
font styles, type size, character position and scaling, kerning, letter and word spacing, paragraph
alignment and spacing, and hyphenation. This section also explains how to select text for formatting
and how to apply format settings.
You can also save format settings as named character and paragraph styles so you can use them
again (see "Working with type styles" on page 605).
Selecting text and objects
The following section is a review of some basic selection techniques used to format text.
To select and deselect text objects:
Select text objects the same way you select other objects in Canvas.
To select a single object: Use a Selection tool to click the text object or drag a
selection rectangle around the object.
To select multiple objects: Shift-click text objects with a Selection tool. You can also
drag a selection rectangle around all the objects you want to select.
To deselect one object: Press Shift and click the object. Other objects remain
selected.
To deselect all objects: Press Esc or click an area of the screen where there are no
objects.
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To select all text objects:
1.
Select the Text tool from the Toolbox.
2.
Choose Edit | Select All.
Illustration: This procedure selects all text objects on the current layer.
Publication: This procedure selects all text objects on the current page or current twopage spread.
Animation: This procedure selects all text objects on the current layer of the current
frame.
Presentation: This procedure selects all text objects on the current layer of the current
slide.
To select text within a text object:
Before you can select specific characters, words, lines, or paragraphs, the text object must be in edit
mode.
1.
To place an object in edit mode, use one of these methods:
With a Selection tool, double-click the text object. The pointer becomes an I-beam and an
insertion point appears in the text.
Select the Text tool. The pointer becomes an I-beam. Click the I-beam within the text. An
insertion point appears.
For bound text only, click the Path Text tool. The Path Text tool is in the Text tools palette
(see "Tool palettes" on page 23 ).
2.
Use one of the following methods to highlight the text you want to select.
To
Do this
Select a continuous
block of text
Drag the I-beam over text.
Select all text between
the insertion point and
another location
Press the Shift key and click where you want the selection to end.
Deselect text between
the insertion point and
another location within
the selection
Press the Shift key and click within the highlighted text.
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Chapter 6: Text And Typography
To
Do this
Select a word
Double-click the word with the I-beam pointer.
Select a line of text
Triple-click the line with the I-beam pointer.
Select all text in the text
object
Choose Edit | Select All.
Deselect all highlighted
text
Click anywhere in the text object or layout. Clicking outside the
selected text object creates another text object at that location.
Choosing another tool in the Toolbox ends text edit mode.
Working with linked text objects
When you link text objects so text flows from one column to another, you can select all of the text in
the flow. This lets you apply formatting changes and text styles to all the text at once, even if the
columns are on separate pages or slides.
For information on linking text objects, see "Flowing text from column to column" on page 573.
To select all text in a flow:
1.
Select the Text tool and click one of the linked text objects to place the text object in edit
mode and set the insertion point in the text. You can also double-click a text object with the
Selection tool to enter edit mode.
2.
Choose Edit | Select All. Canvas highlights all the text in the linked text objects.
3.
Click outside any text object or press Esc to deselect the text.
When text is highlighted, anything you type replaces the highlighted text. If you select a
long text flow across several columns, and then type a single letter or press the Spacebar,
all the highlighted text is erased. If this happens, choose Edit | Undo or Window | Palettes |
Undos.
To apply type formatting to a text flow:
Once you select the text in a flow, you can apply formatting changes using the Properties bar,
Type palette, or Text menu commands. Of course, changes that you make to selected text on other
pages or slides will not be shown until you switch to the other pages or slides.
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Applying text formats
Canvas provides three ways to format text: the Properties bar, Text menu, and Type palette. The
Type palette is also used when you create and save paragraph and character styles (see "Working
with type styles" on page 605). The Type palette can be used to apply the paragraph and character
styles.
You must apply or save the new settings before clicking the pointer anywhere outside the
Type palette. If you don’t, the settings will be lost.
When you use menu commands or the Properties bar to apply formatting, the settings you choose
affect the document immediately. However, with the Type palette, the settings take effect when you
click Apply. You do not have to click Apply before switching to another tab within the Type palette;
Canvas remembers all changes and applies them simultaneously with one click.
To apply character formatting to existing text:
Select the characters you want to change. Choose the formatting you want to apply.
To apply paragraph formatting to existing text:
Select text in the paragraph you want to change, or place the insertion point anywhere in the
paragraph. Choose the formatting you want to apply.
To establish formatting for new text objects:
When you create a new text object, Canvas applies a preset format to text you type. You can define
the preset format for new text objects. To establish or modify the preset, follow these steps:
1.
Be sure you have not selected any text or text objects, and no text objects are in edit mode.
To deselect all objects, press Esc twice.
2.
Use one of the methods to choose formatting options. If you use the Type palette, be sure to
click the Apply button after making changes.
Canvas uses the specified settings to format new text objects that you create.
To change formatting before typing new text:
Set the format for text you are about to type without changing the preset format for new text objects.
1.
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Place the text object in edit mode (see "To select text within a text object:" on page 578). The
pointer should appear as an I-beam and an insertion point (a flashing vertical line) should
appear in the text.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
2.
Place the insertion point by clicking the I-beam where you want the new formatting to begin.
3.
Use one of the methods to choose formatting options. If you use the Type palette, be sure to
click the Apply button after making changes.
4.
Begin typing. The text appears with the chosen formatting. If you begin typing in the middle
of a paragraph, only the new text has the new settings.
Formatting text with the Properties bar
When using various tools to create or select text objects, the text formatting options appear in the
Properties bar. Format your text using the Properties bar options in addition to the Type palette (Text
| Type) and Text menu commands.
Text formatting options
Font
Select one from the menu. The font applies to selected text objects,
highlighted text, or the next text you type.
Size
Select a size or enter one and press Enter. The size applies to selected
text objects, highlighted text, or the next text you type.
Horizontal alignment
Select left, center, right, or justify.
Text attributes
Use the pop-up palettes to apply a text fill ink, text pen ink, background
ink, and text frame ink. For the text stroke and frame stroke, you can
also assign a pen width.
Leading
Select an option or enter a value and press Enter.
Scaling
Specify percentages (horizontal & vertical) by which you want to scale
the current type size.
Space
Insert spacing before or after a paragraph by entering values in the
fields.
Vertical alignment
Select top, bottom, center, or justify.
Text styles
Click buttons to assign standard text styles.
Tab
Select left, right, center, decimal, or comma from the menu and then
click in the ruler to set the tab (see "Positioning tabs" on page 587).
Kerning
Select an option from the menu or enter a value and press Enter.
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Specifying fonts
Select a font using any of the methods (see "Formatting text with the Properties bar" on page 581 and
"Using the Type palette" on page 589).
In Windows, the Font menu may also be set to display in single or multi-column mode.
To select a font from the Text menu:
1.
Choose Text | Font. A checkmark appears next to the current font.
2.
Choose a font from one of the sub-menus.
The Fonts palette
Use this palette to quickly view and apply fonts, font styles, as well as type size.
To open the palette:
Choose Window | Palettes | View Fonts. Use the scroll bar to view the available fonts.
To select a font: Click the font name in the list.
To apply appearance font styles: Click the style buttons.
To change type size: Enter a size in the field or select one from the menu.
To apply font styles using the Type palette:
1.
Choose Window | Palettes | Type.
2.
Click the Character tab to bring it to the front.
3.
Click the Style buttons to change appearance styles.
Clicking the Plain button turns off all active appearance styles. Clicking an active
appearance style button turns the style off.
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4.
Choose Upper, Lower, Normal, Title, or Small Caps in the Case menu.
5.
Choose Normal, Superscript, or Subscript in the Baseline menu. If you are applying
superscript or subscript, specify the distance from the baseline (in points) in the text box.
Normal baseline always has an elevation of zero points.
6.
Click Apply to implement the font style settings.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
Tips for font installation and use
On Windows systems, Canvas uses fonts installed in the Fonts folder. You can access the Fonts folder
via the Control Panel. Use the Install New Font command in the File menu to add fonts to your system.
You can also drag and drop font files or font file shortcuts to the Fonts folder. To specify that you
want to see only TrueType fonts in your programs, you can use the Options command in the Views
menu.
Canvas can use fonts that are properly installed as described above. If fonts that you use in another
application are not available in Canvas, that application probably stores its fonts in a different location
and has its own font management capabilities.
Guidelines for choosing fonts
There are three types of fonts widely available: PostScript, TrueType, and OpenType. You can’t
distinguish the three types in the Canvas menus; however, you should be aware of the different
types of fonts you have, because each font is best suited for particular purposes.
PostScript Type 1 fonts are the standard for image setting. PostScript produces high-quality
printed text. For onscreen display, however, PostScript needs screen fonts. If the screen
font for a particular point size is not installed, the text appears jagged onscreen. To
compensate for this, you can use Adobe Type Manager (ATM) software. If a screen font is
unavailable, ATM uses the PostScript printer font for both screen display and printing. In
addition, ATM lets you print PostScript fonts to non-PostScript printers.
TrueType fonts are suitable for most desktop publishing purposes when you are printing inhouse. TrueType fonts produce good quality printed text, and the onscreen appearance
closely resembles the printed output, even when the screen font is unavailable.
OpenType fonts are the solution to font sharing across platforms. Canvas offers basic
support for OpenType fonts, including vertical glyph substitutions in East-Asian fonts.
When typing in Canvas, all entered letters are not stored as Unicode characters, although they are
exported as such in some of the export formats; e.g., HTML or SVG. However, the current
script/code-page of the font is used (obtained from the system). Thus, the user can type in his
regional alphabet if the user has the right font that supports it; e.g., Arial-CE for a Central European
languages or MSMincho for Japanese.
Specifying type size
Choose from standard type sizes using either the Properties bar, Text menu, Type palette, or Fonts
palette. To reduce or increase a font size in 1-point increments, choose Text | Size. You can also
increase/decrease text size in 1-point increments by using the keyboard commands Ctrl+Shift+<
(Reduce) or Ctrl+Shift+> (Increase).
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To set type size using menu commands:
1.
Choose Text | Size. A checkmark appears next to the current type size.
2.
Choose one of the sizes in the submenu. The size setting applies immediately.
Applying font styles
Font styles are different character types, such as bold, italic, or superscript, as well as capitalization
modes.
Styles can be chosen and applied with either the Properties bar, Text menu, or Type palette.
Font styles can be categorized into three groups: appearance, capitalization, and baseline position.
You can apply multiple appearance styles to the same text; however, you are restricted to one each of
capitalization and baseline styles.
Appearance styles
Appearance styles include plain, bold, italic, underline, outline, shadow, small caps, and
strikethrough. Except for the Plain option, use as many of these appearances as you like on the same
text. Depending on the typeface, using certain styles might not have the desired effect, and can even
make text appear ugly when printed; e.g., applying bold to a heavy weight typeface can make
characters look too thick. Similarly, applying italic to an already italicized font might exaggerate the
slant of the characters.
Applying the Plain setting removes other font styles that have been applied to revert text to
its standard appearance.
Capitalization styles
Capitalization styles format text as uppercase, lowercase, or title (first letter of each word
capitalized) styles. Apply one of these capitalization styles to the same text: Normal, Upper, Lower,
and Title.
Baseline position
The baseline of text is the imaginary horizontal line on which characters sit. To position characters
above (superscript) or below (subscript) the normal baseline, shift the baseline position.
Canvas does not change the type size of superscript and subscript text. Unless you reduce the type
size of shifted text, the line size increases by the amount of the baseline shift. As a result, the line
spacing might change, depending on the leading setting. If you don’t want the line spacing to
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change, reduce the type size of shifted text by the same amount (or more) of the baseline shift, or
you can specify leading in points (see "Setting line and paragraph spacing" on page 590).
If you use the Style submenu to change baseline position, you can choose either Superscript or
Subscript to shift text the baseline by roughly 27 to 33 percent of point size of the line; e.g.,
superscript text in a line of 12-point text appears 4.0 points above the normal baseline.
If you use the Character tab of the Type palette to change the baseline position, you can specify the
exact distance (in points) of the text above or below the normal baseline.
To apply font styles using menu commands:
1.
Choose Text | Style to open the Style submenu. Checkmarks appear next to the active styles.
2.
Choose the font style you want to apply. Choosing an active style turns off the style. Canvas
implements the setting immediately.
Specifying spacing between characters
Kerning affects the amount of space to the right of one or more characters. Kerning options can be
chosen and applied with either the Properties bar, Text menu, or Type palette (see "Formatting text
with the Properties bar" on page 581 and "Using the Type palette" on page 589).
Tighten kerning to place characters closer together, and loosen kerning to space characters farther
apart. Apply kerning settings before typing, or change the kerning for one character, a selection of
text, or an entire text object.
Headlines often need manual kerning for visual balance.
Default kerning
Manual kerning
Canvas can also adjust letter and word spacing for paragraphs following minimum, maximum, and
desired guidelines that you set (see "Adjusting letter and word spacing" on page 599).
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Canvas does not apply kerning to text characters based on kerning pairs defined in a
particular font. Kern individual characters by placing the insertion point and choosing Text |
Kerning or using the Kerning controls in the Properties bar or on the Character tab of the
Type palette.
In the Kerning submenu, you can choose a standard kerning amount: Very Tight, Tight, Normal,
Loose, and Very Loose.
Kern characters in half-point increments using the Tighten and Loosen commands. Also, set a fine
kerning amount using the Configure Fine Kern command (see "To set the fine kerning amount:" on
page 586). Then, use the Tighten Fine and Loosen Fine commands to kern characters by that
specified amount.
To select kerning amount:
Choose Text | Kerning and select one of the following options:
Option
Result
Tight
8% less space than normal between characters
Very Tight
14% less space than normal between characters
Normal
Default spacing
Loose
8% more space than normal between characters
Very Loose
14% more space than normal between characters
Tighten
Reduce kerning by 0.5 points. You cannot tighten kerning to less than
the width of one character
Loosen
Increase kerning by 0.5 points
Tighten Fine
Reduce kerning by amount specified in the Kerning Specifications dialog
box
Loosen Fine
Increase kerning by amount specified in the Kerning Specifications
dialog box
To set the fine kerning amount:
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1.
Choose Text | Kerning | Configure Fine Kern.
2.
In the Kerning Specifications dialog box, specify the amount of kerning (in points) for the
Tighten Fine and Loosen Fine commands to apply.
3.
Click OK.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
Positioning tabs
You can add tabs as well as adjust margins and indents in the document ruler while a text object is
selected or you are in text edit mode. To indicate a selected a text object or text edit mode, the ruler
turns light blue. Margin icons and preset tabs appear as well.
The document ruler shows tab positions for one selected object. You cannot set tabs for
multiple selected text objects.
A new text object has tab stops at half-inch intervals beginning at the left border of the text object.
You can move the insertion point to each of these tab positions by pressing the Tab key. In addition,
you can edit a default tab by double-clicking it on the ruler.
When a text object is selected and the rulers are displayed, you can see the margins and tabs. The
area within the margins turns a light blue.
Tabs can be moved within the ruler. Place the cursor on the tab. The cursor changes to , which
indicates that you can move the tab in either direction.
To set tabs:
Setting a tab moves the default tab stops to the right.
To reposition a set tab:
Drag the tab marker to a new position.
You have two ways to set a tab position:
Select a tab definition from the Tab menu in the Properties bar and click in the ruler. A new
tab applies to selected text objects, the current paragraph, or all highlighted paragraphs.
Select a tab definition from the Tab menu in the Properties bar and click in the ruler. A new
tab applies to selected text objects, the current paragraph, or all highlighted paragraphs.
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Tab menu
Left: The left edge of the text is flush with the tab position.
Center: Text is centered around the tab position.
Right: The right edge of text is flush with the tab position.
Decimal: The first decimal (or period) in a string of text aligns directly under the tab
position; e.g., if you align “123.45.678” to a decimal tab, the decimal between the “3” and
“4” will fall under the tab position.
Comma: The first comma in a string of text aligns directly under the tab position.
To edit a defined tab:
1.
Double-click on the defined tab in the ruler.
2.
In the Tab dialog box, define the tab using the Type, Position, and Leader controls.
3.
Click OK.
Position: Specify the distance between the tab and the left border of the text object.
Type: Change the alignment setting of a tab by choosing one of these options.
Leader Character: Use a character to fill tabbed space. To adjust the spacing of the
leader character, use kerning options. To specify a leader character, type a character in
the text box.
Setting indents
Set the right and left indents of a selected text object by dragging the Right and Left Indent markers
in the ruler.
To indent the first line of a paragraph : Drag the First Indent marker to the desired
position in the ruler.
To set the distance between the left border of a text object and the left margin of
a paragraph: Drag the Left Indent marker.
To set the distance between the right border of a text object and the right edge of
a paragraph: Drag the Right Indent marker.
To delete a defined tab:
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1.
Double-click on the defined tab in the ruler.
2.
In the Tab dialog box, click the Delete button.
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3.
Then click OK.
You can also select the tab in the ruler and drag it off the ruler either up, down, left, or right.
Using the Type palette
To open the Type palette:
1.
Choose Text | Type.
2.
Adjust the settings for Character, Hyphens, Indents, Paragraph, Spacing, and Styles.
3.
Click Apply
When you adjust settings in the Type palette, the new settings don’t take effect until you
click Apply. Be sure that you don’t click outside the palette before applying the settings, or
they will be lost.
For information about creating and applying type styles, see "Working with type styles" on page 605.
Horizontal and vertical text scaling
Canvas provides independent control of horizontal and vertical scaling of text. Using this feature, you
can stretch characters to create extended and condensed letterforms.
To scale an entire text object:
Select the text object, press Alt and drag a selection handle. Depending on the direction of the
drag, Canvas scales text horizontally or vertically.
To scale characters using the Type palette:
1.
Specify the vertical and horizontal scale of characters by entering percentages in the Scale
boxes. Canvas applies these percentages to the point size displayed in the Size box.
To scale proportionately, enter the same percentage in both boxes.
2.
Click Apply.
Canvas doesn’t limit the percentage you can scale characters; however, extremely high and low
settings can distort some fonts and make them unreadable. In addition, scaling requires significant
amounts of memory for text display, which might cause performance problems for some systems.
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Applying paragraph formatting
In Canvas, you can control paragraph attributes, such as justification and leading. Paragraph
attributes affect entire paragraphs, even if you select a single character, or place the insertion point
anywhere in the paragraph. If you select text in multiple paragraphs, all the paragraphs will be
affected.
Paragraph-level formatting includes leading and paragraph spacing, indents, tabs, alignment
(justification), automatic letter and word spacing, hyphenation, and widow and orphan controls.
Setting line and paragraph spacing
Using the Text menu, Properties bar, or Type palette, adjust the spacing, or leading, between lines of
text. You can also insert extra space before and after paragraphs using the Type palette.
Canvas provides two methods of specifying leading: ratio (or percentage) and point size.
Ratio and percentage leading: Based on the normal leading of the largest type size in the
preceding line. The normal leading is usually designed to be slightly larger than the point
size of the type; e.g., a single line of 12-point text usually occupies about 15 points of
vertical space when you specify 100% or Single Space leading. Therefore, double spaced, or
200%, leading for 12-point text increases the line spacing to about 30 points.
Leading specified in points: Independent of the type size and normal leading of the
typeface. The space from baseline to baseline is exactly the number of points specified,
regardless of the size of the type. Using point size leading lets you maintain consistent line
spacing, and fit text to specific space requirements; e.g., you have 10 lines of text, and
exactly 120 points of vertical space to place the text. To make the text fit, set the leading to
12 points.
Choose Text | Leading to set Single, 1 1/2, or Double Space leading. You can also choose the Tighten
or Loosen commands to fine-tune the current leading in 0.5-point increments. You can tighten and
loosen the leading repeatedly, but the line spacing cannot be less than zero.
The text settings in the Properties bar provides the same options as the Leading submenu.
The Paragraph tab of the Type palette lets you adjust the leading by a specified percentage or point
size. You can also add space between paragraphs by specifying additional spacing in points on the
Paragraph tab of the Type palette.
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A page of text with
“after paragraph” spacing
A page of text that does not have
paragraph spacing, but uses both
“before” and “after paragraph” spacing
for block quotes
To set leading using menu commands:
1.
Choose Text | Leading. A checkmark appears next to the current leading setting.
2.
Choose a standard leading in the submenu, or choose Tighten or Loosen. Canvas applies the
setting immediately.
To set leading in the Type palette:
Click the Paragraph tab of the Type palette. After configuring the settings, click Apply to
implement them.
Line spacing
Percentage: Set the leading using a percentage of the line size. enter
an amount in the At box. A leading of 100% is the same as the Normal
setting in the Text | Leading submenu. Double space is 200%, and 1.5
space is 150%.
Points: Se the leading in points. Enter an amount in the At box.
Although each font’s standard leading might be different, normal
leading is generally between 110% and 125% of the largest type size on
the line; therefore, for 10-point type, normal leading is approximately 12
points.
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Before paragraph
To insert space before the first line of a paragraph, specify the number
of points in the Before paragraph box. This option does not apply to the
first paragraph in a column.
After paragraph
To insert space after the last line of a paragraph, specify the number of
points in the After paragraph box. Canvas inserts space after every
paragraph, including the last paragraph in a column.
Force a line break without creating a new paragraph by pressing Shift-Return. See "To
control line breaks:" on page 592.
To control line breaks:
“Soft” returns are forced line breaks which do not create new paragraphs.
1.
Place the insertion point where you want the soft return.
2.
Press Shift+Enter. Text to the right of the soft return moves to the next line.
To view soft return symbols: Choose Layout | Display | Show Text Invisibles.
To hide soft return symbols: Choose Layout | Display | Hide Text Invisibles.
Setting indents
You can set the amount of space between the left and right borders of a text object and the edges of
each paragraph using the Indents tab of the Type palette or the Properties bar. For text wrapped
around an object, you can also use the Indents tab to set the distance between the edge of the object
and the text.
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Left 1 in.
Left 1 in., Right 1 in.
First line 1.5 in.,
Left 1 in.
First line 1 in.,
Left 1.5 in
The Properties bar shows indent positions for one selected object at a time; therefore, you
cannot use it to set indents for the preset format or for multiple selected objects.
To set indents on the Type palette:
1.
Click the Indent tab of the Type palette.
2.
Enter the indent settings.
3.
Click Apply to implement the indent settings.
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Type options
Left
To specify the distance between the left border of a text object and the
left indent of a paragraph, enter the distance in the Left box.
Right
To specify the distance between the right border of a text object and the
right indent of a paragraph, enter the distance in the Right box.
First Line
To specify a different indent for the first line of a paragraph, enter the
distance in the First Line box. Canvas measures the first line indent from
the left border of the bounding box.
Object Wraps
To specify the distance between an object and the edge of text wrapped
around or inside that object, enter the number of points in the Object
Wraps box.
Paragraph alignment
Canvas aligns text to the indents of a text object. Canvas has four alignment, or justification,
settings: flush right, flush left, full (flush with both right and left indents), or centered. You can set
alignment in either the Text | Justification submenu, Properties bar, or Paragraph tab of the Type
palette.
Left-justified
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Right-justified
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Full-justified
Center-justified
Full justification may create wide letter or word spacing, especially in narrow text columns.
Other justification settings (without hyphenation) might appear too ragged on one or both
sides.
You can set letter- and word-spacing parameters to improve the appearance of text (see
"Adjusting letter and word spacing" on page 599).
To set justification using menu commands:
1.
Choose Text | Justification. A checkmark appears next to the current justification setting.
2.
Choose an alignment option in the submenu. Canvas applies the justification setting
immediately.
To set justification using the text settings in Properties bar:
1.
Drag the Text tool in the layout area or select a text object to make the text settings appear in
the Properties bar.
2.
Click a justification button. Canvas applies the justification setting immediately.
To set justification using the Type palette:
1.
Open the Type palette and click the Paragraph tab to bring it to the front.
2.
Click a Justification button.
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3.
Click Apply to implement the justification setting.
Using vertical justification
Canvas can align text relative to the top and bottom borders of text objects. Canvas has four vertical
justification, or alignment, settings: Top, Bottom, Vertical Full, and Vertical Center. Vertical
justification applies to an entire text object. Top vertical justification is the default setting for new
text objects. Copying or duplicating text objects preserves their vertical justification settings;
however, if you copy a text selection and paste it into another object, the text follows the vertical
justification of the text object in which you paste it.
To change the vertical justification:
1.
Select one or more text objects.
2.
Choose Text | Justification.
3.
Choose a vertical justification setting. A checkmark appears next to the selected setting.
There must be space in the text object to use vertical justification, not including space
created by empty paragraphs. The text objects must be created with the Text Object tool,
not the Text tool.
Vertical justification settings
Top: Sets all lines of type starting from the top of a text object. This is the traditional vertical
alignment for text objects; e.g., if a text object contains three lines of type, they appear at
the top of the text object. Spacing between lines is controlled by the Line Spacing, Before
Paragraph, and After Paragraph settings of the text.
Vertical Center: Sets all lines of type so they are spaced evenly above and below the
vertical center of a text object. If a text object contains three lines of type, for example, the
lines appear at the center of the text object. Spacing between lines is controlled by the Line
Spacing, Before Paragraph, and After Paragraph settings of the text.
Bottom: Sets all lines of type at the bottom of the text object. If a text object contains three
lines of type, for example, the lines appear at the bottom of the text object. Spacing between
lines is controlled by the Line Spacing, Before Paragraph, and After Paragraph settings of the
text.
Vertical Full: Sets all lines of type so they are evenly spaced between the top and bottom
borders of the text object. If a text object contains three lines of type, for example, one line
appears at the top, one appears at the center, and one appears at the bottom of the text
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object. Because it distributes type from the top to the bottom of a text object, Vertical Full
justification can cause very wide spacing between lines if a large text object contains a little
text. You can drag a handle at the top or bottom of a text object to adjust its height and alter
the spacing between lines of text.
Top
Vertical Center
Bottom
Vertical Full
Paragraph rules
Paragraph rules are horizontal lines that Canvas draws above a paragraph, below a paragraph, or
both. You can select pen type, dash, color, length, and offset for paragraph rules.
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To apply paragraph rules:
1.
Place the insertion point or make a selection in the paragraph. You can highlight multiple
paragraphs to select them.
2.
Choose Text | Rules.
3.
In the Paragraph Rules dialog box, select Rule Above or Rule Below. You can select either or
both options. The options for Rule Above and Rule Below can be set independently.
4.
Select rule options, then click Apply to preview the rules.
5.
Click OK to apply the rules and close the dialog box.
The Paragraph Rules command is not available unless a text object is in edit mode.
Paragraph Rules options
Rule Above and Rule
Below
Draws rules above or below selected paragraphs. Both can be selected.
The size, placement, and attributes of rules are based on the settings in
the dialog box. If a paragraph has rules and you clear the check boxes,
Canvas removes the rules.
Length
Use the menu to choose an option for the length of paragraph rules.
Indents
Sets the rule length based on the values in the From Left and From Right
boxes. These values set the distances from the ends of the rules to the
right and left borders of the text object (independent of paragraph
indents).
Text
Makes the rule length equal to the first line (for rules above) or last line
(for rules below) of a paragraph. The From Left and From Right options
are not available when the Text option is selected.
Offset
Enter a value in points to space the rule away from the adjacent line of
text. The position for rules above is measured from the descenders of
the last line of the previous paragraph. For rules below, the position is
measured from the descenders of the last line of the current paragraph.
You can enter a minimum value of -10 points to move the rule closer to
the text. You can enter a maximum value of 72 points to move the rule
away from the text.
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Pen
Select a stroke for the rule from the Pen pop-up palette. You can select a
solid pen, neon, or parallel stroke.
Dash
To apply a dash to the rule, select a dash style from the Dash pop-up
palette.
Color
Select a color for the rule from the Color pop-up palette.
Adjusting letter and word spacing
Depending on the type of justification you choose, you might want to adjust letter and word spacing
to reduce raggedness or eliminate unusual spacing; e.g., left-justified paragraphs might appear too
ragged on the right edge, and full-justified paragraphs might have large spaces between characters
and words.
You can specify a minimum line width for a paragraph to reduce raggedness. In addition, Canvas has
letter- and word-spacing parameters to let you specify minimum, maximum, and desired spacing
guidelines.
To adjust letter and word spacing:
1.
Depending on how you want the letter and word spacing settings to apply, do one of the
following:
To change existing text: Select the paragraphs or text objects. To set spacing for only
one paragraph, place the insertion point anywhere in the paragraph.
To set the spacing before typing a new paragraph: Place the insertion point at the
beginning of the paragraph.
To apply the spacing settings to the preset format: Deselect all objects.
2.
Open the Type palette by choosing Text | Type.
3.
Click the Paragraph tab to bring it to the front, if necessary.
4.
Depending on the type of justification applied to the text, use the following options on the
Paragraph tab:
For right-, left-, and center-justified text: To set the “Minimum line widths,” enter a
percentage in the text box. The percentage tells Canvas to adjust letter and word spacing
so that each line is at least as wide as specified; e.g., if you create a two-inch wide, leftjustified paragraph and set the minimum line width to 75%, Canvas adjusts the spacing
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so that each line is at least 1.5 inches wide. Only the last line in a paragraph is unaffected
by the “Minimum line widths” setting.
For full-justified text: To tell Canvas when the last line of a paragraph is wide enough
to be justified (flush with both right and left margins), enter a percentage in the “Justify
Last Line Within” box; e.g., you create a two-inch wide, full-justified paragraph and tell
Canvas to justify the last line within 75%. If the last line is less than 1.5 inches wide,
Canvas does not justify the line. However, if the last line is wider than 1.5 inches, Canvas
justifies the line.
5.
To set letter and word spacing parameters, click the Spacing tab to bring it to the front, if
necessary. Set the minimum, desired, and maximum spacing in the Letter and Word areas.
Specify each setting as a percentage of the current spacing. The desired spacing must be
greater than the minimum and less than the maximum. The maximum spacing cannot be less
than the minimum.
Canvas will try to adjust spacing to the desired percentage, but might not be able to
depending on minimum line width and justification settings. In these cases, Canvas will then
try to adjust the spacing within the minimum and maximum percentages you specify.
However, if the minimum and maximum spacing parameters are still in conflict with
minimum line width or full justification settings, Canvas will ignore the spacing parameters.
If you applied kerning to characters within the selection, Canvas adjusts the
spacing as a percentage of the kerning.
To change the spacing of a paragraph by a set amount, you can set the minimum, desired,
and maximum percentages to the same value. This has a similar effect to kerning the entire
paragraph.
6.
Click Apply to implement the settings.
Automatic hyphenation
Canvas can insert a hyphen in the last word of a line to give text objects a more balanced, even
appearance. You can also control the hyphenation properties so that Canvas only hyphenates under
specific circumstances. Hyphenation settings apply to entire paragraphs. To hyphenate a specific
word, you can manually insert a hyphen.
To use automatic hyphenation:
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1.
Click the Hyphen tab to bring it to the front. Turn hyphenation on and configure the following
settings.
2.
Click Apply to implement the hyphenation settings.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
Hyphenation settings on the Type palette
After word beginning
Specify the minimum number of letters that must precede a hyphen.
Before word ending
Specify the minimum number of letters that must follow a hyphen.
Smallest word
Specify the minimum number of letters that a word must have to be
hyphenated.
Consecutive line limit
Specify the number of consecutive lines that can end in hyphens; e.g., if
four consecutive lines could end in hyphens but the limit is three,
Canvas does not hyphenate the last word of the fourth line.
Skip capitalized
words
Turn this option on to prevent proper names and other words beginning
with a capital letter from being hyphenated.
Specifying text flow options
You can set text flow options to avoid leaving just a few lines at the top or bottom of a column of
flowed text. The term widow describes the first line of a paragraph that appears at the bottom of a
column, and orphan refers to the last line of a paragraph that appears at the top of a column. Canvas
can prevent widows and orphans in a text flow by moving the page or column break higher and
sending lines to the next page or column. In addition, you can specify that all lines in a paragraph
stay together, or that certain pairs of paragraphs always remain together in the same column.
To modify a column break in a particular paragraph, keep all lines in a paragraph together, or keep
two paragraphs together, you should change the text flow settings for the specific paragraph only. In
most cases, you won’t want these settings to apply to every column break.
Although you can specify widow and orphan settings for individual paragraphs, you should
apply these settings to entire objects. This way, as you edit and move paragraphs, the
location of the column break can change without causing widows and orphans.
To prevent widows and orphans:
Open the Type palette and click the Spacing tab. Configure the widows and orphans settings.
Widow and orphan settings
Use the Paragraph area of the Spacing tab to configure widows and orphans protection properties. If
an “X” appears in a check box, that feature is active.
Click Apply to implement the text flow settings.
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Widow
Turn on to activate widow protection.
Specify the minimum number of lines that can appear in the last
paragraph of a column.
Orphan
Turn on to activate orphan protection.
Specify the minimum number of lines that can appear at the top of a
column in a linked flow.
Keep all lines
To prevent Canvas from inserting a column break in a paragraph, turn
on this option. This prevents widows and orphans, but might leave a lot
of blank space at the bottom of a column.
Keep with next
To prevent two paragraphs from being separated by a column break,
turn on this option. This option is useful for keeping a one-line
paragraph, such as a heading, together with its section.
Setting drop caps
Drop caps are large characters that extend below the normal baseline of the first line of an opening
paragraph. Canvas indents the text below the first line to make room for the drop caps. You can
format drop caps for any selected paragraphs.
To create a drop cap:
1.
Choose Text | Type.
2.
Click the Indents tab to bring it to the front.
3.
Depending on how you want the drop cap to apply, do one of the following:
To apply to
Do this
First paragraph in a Select the object or place the insertion point anywhere in the first
text object
paragraph.
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To apply to
Do this
All other paragraphs
Place the insertion point in a paragraph, or select a paragraph. You
can also select multiple consecutive paragraphs.
A new paragraph you
are about to type
Place the insertion point at the beginning of the paragraph.
The preset format
Deselect all objects. Canvas will apply drop caps to the first
paragraph of all new text objects you create with the Text tool.
4.
Configure the drop cap options described below.
5.
Click Apply.
Drop cap settings
Lines
Specify the number of lines you want the drop caps to occupy. This
determines the vertical height of the drop cap.
Characters
Specify the number of characters to enlarge for drop caps. Canvas
always applies this setting beginning with the first character in a
paragraph.
Inserting headers and footers
You can add header and footer text objects using commands in the Text | Insert menu. Headers and
footers are special text objects that can contain codes for the current date, current time, and page
number, in addition to text you type. Canvas updates the date, time, and page number codes each
time it redraws the screen.
In Publication documents, Canvas inserts headers at the top of the publication layout area (above the
page margins) and footers at the bottom of the publication layout area (below the page margins). In
other documents, Canvas places the header in the upper left corner of the page and the footer in the
lower left corner.
Both types of objects initially span the width of the page, but you can resize and move them just like
other text objects.
You can’t add headers and footers in edit mode, press Esc to end text editing.
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To insert header and footer text objects:
Choose Text | Insert | Header or Text | Insert | Footer. Canvas creates the text object, and places it in
edit mode.
Inserting dates, times, and page numbers
Insert date, time, and page number codes in header and footer text objects. Canvas will update the
values for these codes each time it redraws the screen, unless the Date Stamp and Time Stamp
commands are used. Canvas uses the date and time as set in the operating system.
Refer to your system documentation for information on setting the current date and time.
You can insert the current date and time in text objects (see "Text objects" on page 560); however,
Canvas does not update this text since it is “stamped” into the document as regular text. You can
change page number (symbol $P) and total page count (symbol $T) displayed by adding a simple
formula to them.
You can apply text formatting or Type Styles (see "Working with type styles" on page 605) to the
date, time, and page codes; e.g., change fonts, type sizes, and justification, as you would apply
formatting to normal text with the Text menu, Properties bar, or Type palette.
When entering the formula, remember the following:
The formula can contain only “+” and “-” as operators or numbers. Do not use spaces
between the characters.
The formula may be of any length, but it must be in a formula format.
To insert the date, time, or page number:
With a header or footer object in edit mode, choose Text | Insert (see "Date and time commands"
on page 604 and "Page numbering commands" on page 605).
Date and time commands
To insert
In this type of object
Do this
Updating date code
Header or footer
Choose Insert | Date, or type $d
Date stamp
Any text object
Choose Insert | Date Stamp
Updating time code
Header or footer
Choose Insert | Time, or type $e
Time stamp
Any text object
Choose Insert | Time Stamp
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Page numbering commands
To insert
In this type of object
Do this
Current page
number
Header or footer (page
count is static in normal
text objects)
Choose Text | Insert | Page #, or type $p
Total page
count
Header or footer (page
count is static in normal
text objects)
Choose Text | Insert | Total Page #, or type $t
Page # of total
pages
e.g., Page 2 of
8
Header or footer (page
count is static in normal
text objects)
Choose Text | Insert | Page # of Total Page #, or type
Page $P of $T
Page -# of total
pages
e.g., Page -2 of
4
Header or footer (page
count is static in normal
text objects)
Choose Text | Insert | Page #+4-8 of Total Page
#+4-8, or type Page $P+4-8 of $T+4-8
If you unintentionally place spaces between the page numbers and operators, the page
numbering will create errors; e.g., the formula Page $P+4 -8 of $T+4 -8 would appear as
Page 6 - 8 of 12 -8.
Working with type styles
Define text formatting settings and save them as character and paragraph type styles using the
Styles tab in the Type palette. Canvas stores type styles with documents. When you open a
document, Canvas loads the associated styles so you can apply them; however, Canvas also gives you
the option of saving defined styles in a file which can be shared with others (see "Saving and loading
type styles" on page 609).
Before you start defining type styles, see "Formatting text" on page 577 to learn about
fonts, font styles, etc.
Type styles make it easy to apply formats and maintain consistency throughout a document. Base
styles on each other to form a “family” of styles, so that styles inherit the character and paragraph
attributes of a parent style. Organizing styles in this manner makes global style changes a simple
matter of changing the parent style.
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To open the Type palette:
Choose Text | Type or double-click the Text tool.
Creating new type styles
You can create two kinds of styles, character and paragraph. Use a paragraph style for an entire
paragraph of text. Use a character style for a character, word, phrase, or part of a paragraph. After
establishing character and paragraph styles, apply them to your text.
Paragraph style attributes:
Leading
Indents
Justification
Drop caps
Hyphens
Letter and word spacing
Text flow settings
Character attributes and colors
Character style attributes:
Font
Type size
Font style
Capitalization style
Baseline position
Kerning
Colors
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To create a new style:
1.
Choose Text | Type.
2.
In the Type palette, choose the paragraph and character formatting you want to use for the
new style.
3.
Click the Styles tab to bring it to the front.
Example: Displays a sample of text with the current formatting settings applied.
Description: Lists the current character or paragraph attributes. The C and ¶ icons
toggle between descriptions of character and paragraph attributes.
4.
Click Create.
5.
In the Create Type Style dialog box, enter a name for the new style.
6.
Click the Character or Paragraph icon.
7.
Select any additional settings.
8.
Click Save.
To create a style based on already formatted text:
1.
Place the insertion point in the text that contains the formatting you want to use to create the
style.
2.
Choose Text | Type.
3.
Click the Styles tab.
4.
Click Create.
5.
In the Create Type Style dialog box, enter a name for the new style.
6.
Click the Character or Paragraph icon.
7.
Select any additional settings.
8.
Click Save.
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Create Type Style dialog box
Character or
Paragraph
Click a button to specify what kind of style you want to create.
Based on
If there are existing styles, choose a style name on which to base the
new style. To disable this feature, choose None (see "Using style
families" on page 608).
Include
Select the attributes to save as part of the style. You can include ink
settings (fill and stroke attributes that have been applied to existing
text) in character and paragraph styles. These inks don’t affect the
current inks for vector objects.
For paragraph styles, you can also include font attributes and tab
settings.
If a text selection has a frame or background ink, you can’t include these
attributes in a style. In addition, when text doesn’t have a stroke, you
can’t include strokes in a style.
Style name
Type a name for the style.
Using style families
When you base a style on an existing style, the new style “inherits” the attributes of the parent style.
When the parent style changes, Canvas also updates all related styles. In addition to inherited
attributes, the style possesses its own attributes, which you specify.
A style’s own attributes always take precedence over attributes inherited from the parent
style.
You create a style, Body2, based on a parent style, Body1. The fonts are the same, but the type sizes
are different. Body2 uses 10 point type, while Body1 uses 12 point. If you change the font for the
parent style, the font also changes for Body2. However, if the point size changes for the parent style,
Body2 does not change, because Body2’s own attributes take precedence. To make Body2 always use
the same point size as Body1, you must set the point sizes equal, base Body2 on Body1, and save the
style again.
In addition, if you later change Body2’s font, this style will no longer inherit fonts from the parent
style. Body2’s font will override Body1’s font setting.
Careful planning will save you from time-consuming corrections when basing styles on each other. In
some cases, changing a parent style’s attributes may cause unwanted changes throughout the style
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family; e.g., if you base ten styles on Body1, and later decide that you want Body1 (but not the whole
family of styles) to be double spaced, you must first change the leading for Body1, then remove the
leading setting from each of the other ten styles.
Saving and loading type styles
You can save type styles to files and then load them into other documents. This feature helps
maintain consistency between documents, and lets you share type styles with other Canvas users.
To save a type style to disk:
1.
Click the Type palette menu button on the Styles tab.
2.
Choose Save style.
3.
In the Save As dialog box, type a file name and specify a location to save the file.
4.
Click Save.
To load a type style:
1.
Click the Type palette menu button on the Styles tab.
2.
Choose Load style.
3.
In the Open dialog box, locate and select the styles file.
4.
Click Open.
Copying type styles between documents
Another way to transfer type styles from one document to another is to copy text that uses the style
and paste the text into a different document. Canvas transfers the style with the text. When you save
the document, Canvas also stores the transferred style.
A type style based on another style cannot inherit attributes across documents; e.g., Body2 is based
on a parent style, Body1, and you copy only Body2 to a new document. Body2 in the new document
no longer inherits attributes from Body1, which is still in the original document.
However, if you copy both Body1 and Body2 to a new document, the relationship is preserved, and
Body2 will inherit attributes from its parent style.
If you happen to paste a style that already exists in the other document, Canvas modifies the name of
the pasted style to avoid overriding type styles; e.g., a style named “Body 2” could become “Body 2 2” when pasted in the new document.
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Using type styles
Once you’ve created your document’s type styles, you can start applying them, modifying their
attributes, and deleting them from the document. All these processes are done with the Type palette.
Applying type styles
You can apply type styles with the Type palette. Applying type styles with the Type palette is similar
to applying individual character or paragraph formats; however, instead of configuring settings on
each of the tabs in the palette, simply choose style names from the menu on the Type palette.
The menu displays the current type style name. The C and ¶ icons indicate if the style is a character
or paragraph style, or both. If “+++” appears to the right of a style name, the style has been
modified but not saved. If you choose a style in the menu when “+++” appears next to the current
style, you will lose the modifications to the style. Therefore, if you want to use the settings again, you
must save the modified style with a new name before applying other styles.
To apply a style to selected text or text objects with Type palette:
1.
Select the text or text objects to which you want to apply a style.
2.
Choose a style in the menu on the Type palette.
3.
Click Apply.
If the text you selected already had a style applied, Canvas replaces the style with the style you
choose. In addition, if you apply a paragraph style with font attributes to highlighted text, the font
attributes affect the selection only, and the paragraph attributes affect the entire paragraph.
To use a type style as the current format setting:
1.
Deselect all text objects by pressing Esc, if necessary.
2.
Choose a style in the menu on the Type palette.
3.
Click Apply. Canvas formats new text objects with the specified style.
Tips on using type styles
By putting some forethought into the purpose and design of type styles, you ensure that you are
using this feature effectively. This planning will be especially useful when editing styles and
documents, allowing you to make a few modifications that update entire documents.
Design a template. If several people need to use the styles, save the styles in a template document.
This way, everyone uses a common source for the styles.
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Create a “normal” type style. This will make it easy to revert formatted text to a basic style. When you
apply the normal style, it will have the effect of removing or overriding other styles.
Name styles by their function; e.g., a heading style might consist of boldface type. Rather than name
this style “Bold,” name it “Heading,” or something that similarly describes its usage. This will make it
easier to remember when to use which style.
Always apply a style. If you use styles in documents, use them throughout. If you apply styles only
sometimes, you will encounter difficulties maintaining consistency and performing global style
changes.
Create style families when possible. You might want to use the Based On feature (see "Creating new
type styles" on page 606) to create style families for styles that share some attributes. This will make
global changes easier. See "Using style families" on page 608, for more information.
Modifying type styles
You can change the attributes of a type style and save the style with the same name. When you
change a style’s attributes, all styles in the family automatically inherit the new shared attributes.
To modify a type style:
1.
Choose the style you want to edit from the menu.
2.
Change the style’s attributes. Canvas displays “+++” after the style name to indicate that
changes were made to the style.
3.
Click the Styles tab and click Create.
The current style name is in the Based On menu and Style Name box. To replace the style, do
not change these settings.
The options in the Include area change for Character and Paragraph styles.
4.
In the Create Type Style dialog box, select the check boxes of the attributes that you want to
include.
5.
Click Save. Confirm that you want to replace the existing style with the new style. Click OK.
Deleting type styles
To minimize confusion when choosing styles to apply, delete type styles you no longer use. Text
using a deleted type style retains its formatting, but no longer has a named style.
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To delete a style:
1.
Click Delete on the Styles tab of the Type palette.
2.
In the Delete Type Style dialog box, choose the style to delete from the Name menu.
3.
Click OK.
Applying character formatting
Canvas gives you precise control over the appearance of each character. Set the font, type size, font
style, kerning, capitalization style, scale, and baseline position using menu commands, Properties
bar, or the Character tab of the Type palette.
Character attributes are applied by selecting the specific characters that you want to modify. Select
any portion of text—from one character to entire text objects (see "Selecting text and objects" on
page 577).
To set character attributes:
1.
Choose Text | Type.
2.
Click the Character tab.
The Character tab lets you control all character attributes. Some attributes, such as type
face, type size, font style, baseline, and kerning, are also available in the Text menu or
Properties bar.
Type Palette Character Tab
Font
Choose a typeface in the menu.
Size
Choose a type size in the menu or type a number in the text box.
Style
Click a button to select a font style.
Case
Choose a capitalization style in the menu.
Baseline
Specify subscript or superscript settings to one hundredth of a point
precision.
Kerning
Tighten and loosen kerning by hundredths of a point.
Scaling
Specify percentages by which you want to scale the current type size.
Set individual horizontal and vertical scaling percentages.
Locks
To prevent accidental or unwanted changes to the type face, type size,
or font style of specific text, you can set these locks. If you want to
change locked text, you must first unlock the text.
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Preventing changes to character attributes
On the Character tab in the Type palette, you can lock the current font, type size, and font style to
prevent accidental changes. This feature is especially useful when several people are using the same
Canvas document. In addition, you can also use this feature to selectively exempt sections of text
from global formatting changes. Once you lock a setting, no one can change it without first unlocking
it.
To lock character attributes:
1.
Click the Character tab on the Type palette.
2.
Change any font, size, or style attributes at this time.
3.
Click the Lock button to the right of the attribute.
4.
Click Apply. Canvas first applies the new font attributes, then locks the new attributes.
Text editing & proofing
You can insert, search, replace, move, delete, copy, and spell check text in Canvas documents. This
section describes how to navigate through text for editing, make text selections, and use spelling
tools and the Find feature for text search-and-replace.
Text edit mode
To edit text, you must put a text object in edit mode. In edit mode, you can revise, delete, insert, and
select specific text. Only one object is in text edit mode at a time.
Entering text edit mode
Put a text object in edit mode with the Text tool or Selection tool. When a text object is in edit mode,
the text object becomes opaque, the selection handles disappear, and a flashing insertion point
appears. Also, the Text tool becomes the active tool.
To enter edit mode using the Text tool:
Select the Text tool and click in a text object. An insertion point appears where you click, and you
can begin typing or editing.
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To enter edit mode using the Selection tool:
With the Selection tool, double-click a text object. If you double-click on a word, the word
becomes selected and is highlighted. The Text tool is selected, and you can begin typing or
editing.
To edit text bound to a path:
With the Path Text tool or the Text tool, click the text. An insertion point appears in the bound text,
and you can begin typing or editing.
To leave text edit mode:
Press Esc when you finish text editing. Canvas switches to the Selection tool from the Text tool.
The text object you were editing is selected.
Text selection and navigation
Move the insertion point and select characters, words, lines, and paragraphs using the mouse or
keyboard.
The mouse lets you quickly select text or text objects and move the insertion point. However, if you
work with a lot of text, you might find that the keyboard techniques let you move the insertion point
more precisely to edit more quickly.
Making text selections
Before you can cut, copy, move, delete, type over, or perform other operations on text characters,
you need to select the text within a text object. You can select text when a text object is in edit mode.
The phrases “selected text,” “text selection,” and “highlighted text” all refer to an active selection of
characters within a text object. Selected text appears highlighted; the highlight color depends on
your system’s color settings.
Keep in mind that a text selection is not the same as a selected text object. When you select a text
object, you can move, copy, delete, and perform other operations on the entire object. When you
make a text selection, the editing actions will affect only the highlighted characters within the object.
To deselect all highlighted text:
Click anywhere in the text object or layout. Clicking outside the selected text object creates
another text object at that location.
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Using the keyboard for text editing
While editing text, use the key combinations listed in the following table to move the insertion point
and select text.
Key combinations for text editing
Press this key
and these keys
to do this in edit mode
None
Up arrow, Down arrow,
Right arrow, Left arrow
Move insertion point 1 space right or left
Page Up, Page Down
Move insertion point 3 lines up at the left margin
(Page Up) or down at the right margin (Page Down)
Home, End
Move insertion point to the beginning (Home) or end
(End) of the text object
Right arrow, Left arrow
Move insertion point to the next word end (Right
arrow) or beginning (Left arrow)
Up arrow, Down arrow
Move insertion point to the left margin of the line, or
up 1 line at the left margin (Up arrow), or down 1 line
to the left margin (Down arrow)
Home, End
Move insertion point to beginning (Home) or end
(End) of line
Right arrow, Left arrow
Extend selection 1 space right or left
Up arrow, Down arrow
Extend selection 1 line up or down
Page Up, Page Down
Extend selection 3 lines up or down
Home, End
Extend selection to the beginning (Home) or end
(End) of the text object
Right arrow, Left arrow
Extend the selection 1 word right or left
Up arrow, Down arrow
Extend the selection to left margin (Up arrow) or right
margin (Down arrow). From the margin, extend the
selection to the other margin, or up or down 1 line
Page Up, Page Down
Extend selection 3 lines up or down
Ctrl
Shift
Shift + Ctrl
Using the mouse for text editing
Using the mouse and modifier keys, you can quickly place the insertion point, select specific words,
and select sections of text in edit mode. For information on putting a text object in edit mode, see
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"Text edit mode" on page 613.
Mouse actions for text editing
To do this in text
Do this with the pointer
Select a continuous block of text
Drag over the text you want to select
Select all text between the insertion
point and another location
Press the Shift key and click where you want the
selection to end. Windows users can use the right
mouse button like the Shift key (hold down the right
button and click with the left).
To deselect all highlighted text
Click anywhere in the text object. (Clicking outside the
text object creates a new text object at that location or
puts another text object into edit mode.)
Deselect text between the insertion
point and another location in the
selection
Press Shift and click in the highlighted text
Select a word
Double-click the word
Select a line of text
Triple-click the line
Copying, pasting, deleting, and moving text selections
You can cut and copy a text selection, and then paste the selected text in the same document, in
another Canvas document, or to and from a non-Canvas document using the Clipboard. Whether
pasted text retains its formatting depends on the operating system and the source of the text.
To help you in editing text, display symbols for spaces, paragraph breaks, and tabs. Choose
Layout | Display | Show Text Invisibles. To hide these symbols, choose Layout | Display |
Hide Text Invisibles.
Text pasted from another application can be embedded into a Canvas document, using Object Linking
and Embedding (OLE) to preserve its formatting. See "Embedded text objects and editions
containing text" on page 629.
If you copy and paste selected text (and not an entire text object) within Canvas, the text retains its
character attributes, but it adopts the paragraph formatting of the surrounding text.
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To copy and paste selected text:
When you copy selected text, you can create a new text object or insert the text into an existing text
object.
1.
Select the text you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit | Copy to copy the selection to the Clipboard.
3.
Depending how you want to paste the selection, do one of the following:
To paste text into an existing text object: Put the insertion point in the text where
you want to paste the insertion.
To paste text as a new text object: Be sure no objects are in text edit mode by
pressing Esc. You can set the width of the new text object by selecting the Text tool and
dragging. Otherwise, text will be pasted in one long line that might extend off the screen
(see "Creating text layouts" on page 563).
4.
Choose Edit | Paste to insert the text from the Clipboard.
To cut text:
1.
Select the text you want to cut.
2.
Choose Edit | Cut. The text is cut to the Clipboard and is ready to be pasted to another area.
To delete text:
1.
Select the text you want to delete.
2.
Choose Edit | Clear, or press the Delete key.
To replace selected text:
Begin typing, or use the Paste command, to replace a text selection with the text you type or paste
from the Clipboard. This saves the step of deleting the selected text.
To replace all text in a text object:
Select a text object and begin typing. The text adopts the formatting of the replaced text. If
multiple text objects are selected, the text you type replaces the text in the object that was
created first.
Changing text attributes
While a text object is selected, you can change the formatting of all the text it contains using the Text
menu, Type palette, or Properties bar.
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Finding and changing text
Use the Text tab in the Find palette to search for specific text or characters in selected text objects
and entire documents. You can replace or delete found text selections one at a time or all at once (see
"Text search options" on page 619).
The Text tab also lets you search for text with specific font, size, and style attributes, and change the
attributes of found text.
To find and change text:
1.
Choose Edit | Find to open the Find palette. Click the Text tab to select it. To search for text,
type the text in the Find box or select a special text character. Specify that you want to find
only whole words or text matching the capitalization (case) of the Find text.
2.
If you want to replace found text or characters, type the replacement text in the Change To
box or select a special text character. When the Change To box contains at least one
character (including a space), the Change All button is available.
3.
Click Find to locate the first occurrence of the specified item. If one or more text objects are
selected, Canvas searches the text contained in the first selected object. If no text objects
are selected, Canvas searches the entire document.
4.
If Canvas finds the specified item, it highlights the text or character in the document. Click
Find to search for the next occurrence of the specified text. If the Change To box contains
replacement text or a special character, the Change button is available. Click Change to
replace the highlighted item with the Change To text or special character.
5.
To continue searching, click Find. Repeat the previous step if Canvas finds another
occurrence of the search item. When Canvas completes the operation, it displays a message.
Click OK in the message box to continue.
You can click Change All to replace all occurrences of the Find text or special character with
the text in the Change To box, without first clicking Find.
Finding and changing text attributes
You can search for and change text attributes (whether or not you also search for specific text). The
text attributes you can seek and change are font, type size, and text style.
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To search for text attributes:
1.
Click the arrow at the bottom-left corner of the Find palette.
2.
In the Find Attributes section, select a font name from the font pop-up menu. Type a size (in
points) or select a size from the size pop-up menu. Click the style buttons to set the styles
you want.
3.
In the Change Attributes To section, specify replacement attributes in the same way that you
specify the Find attributes.
4.
Click Change or Change All to replace the attributes specified in the Find Attributes section
with the attributes specified in the Change Attributes To section. If you have also typed text
in the Find box, the replacement text attributes can be applied only to text that matches the
Find text.
Clicking the Clear button removes all settings in the Find Attributes and Change Attributes To areas.
Text search options
The options on the Text tab in the Find palette let you specify criteria for text and character searching
and replacement.
Find
Type the text or select the special character that you want to find. Leave
this box blank to search for text attributes only.
Change To
If you want to replace found text or characters, enter replacement text or
character (1) here. If you want to delete found text or characters, leave
the Change To box empty.
Whole Word
Select Whole Word to specify that the Find text is an entire word; e.g., if
you type “time” and select Whole Word, Canvas will not find “times,”
“untimely,” or “timer.”
Match Case
Select Match Case to include the capitalization of the Find text in the
search criteria; e.g., if you type “Time” and select this option, Canvas
will not find “TIME” or “time.”
Change
If Canvas locates the specified text and attributes, it highlights the text
in the document. Click Change to replace the highlighted text with the
Change To text and to apply the replacement attributes specified in the
Change Attributes To section.
Change All
Click to replace all occurrences of the text and attributes you specified
with the replacement text and attributes. Canvas makes the changes
without highlighting found text.
Find button
Click to search for the next occurrence of text specified in the Find text
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box and attributes specified in the Find Attributes area.
Find Attributes
The text attributes that you specify here tell Canvas what to search for.
Click to display Attributes options.
To search for a particular font, select the font name from the pop-up
menu.
To search for a type size, enter the size or select the size from the popup menu.
To search for a type style, select a style button. You can select bold,
italic, underline, outline, strikethrough, and shadow styles.
Change Attributes To
The text attributes that you specify here can be applied to text that
matches the attributes specified in the Find Attributes area.
Select the font from the pop-up menu.
Enter the replacement size (in points) or select the size from the pop-up
menu.
Click style buttons to specify replacement styles. You can choose bold,
italic, underline, outline, strikethrough, and shadow.
Clear. Click to delete all the settings from the Find Attributes and Change
Attributes To areas.
Automatic text correction
Canvas can automatically fix typographical mistakes as you type. The Auto Correct manager lets you
select several automatic correction options. It also lets you specify common misspellings, typing
errors, and abbreviations that you want Canvas to replace as you type.
When any text replacement option is active, Canvas checks each word you type. It corrects or
replaces text as appropriate once you press the Spacebar.
Auto Correct options
Use the options in the Auto Correct manager to specify corrections you want Canvas to make as you
type (see "Setting preferences" on page 97).
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To set up automatic correction:
1.
Choose Text | Spell Checker | Auto Correct.
2.
In the Auto Correct manager, select the replacement options to use.
3.
Click OK to implement the current settings.
Setting up text replacement
Specify abbreviations, common misspellings, and other text that you want Canvas to replace as you
type.
Use this feature to expand abbreviations for common phrases and long names that you type
throughout a document: e.g., if you often type “Department of Agriculture,” you can specify that the
abbreviation “DA” be replaced by the full name.
To set up text replacement:
1.
Choose Text | Spell Checker | Auto Correct. In the Auto Correct manager, be sure Replace
Text as You Type is selected.
2.
In the Replace box, type text that you want to be replaced. In the With box, type the
replacement text. Click Add to place the text in the scrolling list.
3.
Repeat this procedure to specify more automatic replacements. Add as many items to the
scrolling list as you want. When you finish, click OK.
Auto Correct does not remove specified text from a document if you type nothing in the With
box. Also, Auto Correct won’t replace spaces with more or fewer spaces (such as replacing
two spaces with one space); however, you can use the Text tab in the Find palette to find
and replace spaces.
To remove replacement entries:
Select the entry in the scrolling list and click Delete.
Automatic spelling correction
When you use the Spelling menu ("To use the spelling pop-up menu:" on page 626) to correct a
misspelling, Canvas adds the item to the Auto Correction list. The misspelled word appears under
Replace and the correction appears under With. If you make the same spelling mistake again and
“Replace Text as You Type” is selected in the Auto Correct manager, Canvas corrects the error. If
“Replace Text as You Type” is not selected, Canvas won’t make these automatic corrections.
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Inserting special characters and graphics in text
Sometimes it is necessary to enter special typographic symbols into text. You can insert special
characters using the command Text | Insert and the Character Map.
To insert a symbol:
1.
While in text edit mode, place the text I-beam at the location in which you wish to insert the
symbol.
2.
Choose Text | Insert.
3.
Select a symbol from the submenu list and release the mouse. The selected symbol will
automatically be inserted.
After using the insert symbol
command.
Typographic quotes
You can set a preference so Canvas inserts typographic (“curly”) quotation marks in text you type.
For more information, see "Setting preferences" on page 97.
Placing graphics in text objects
Use the Insert Picture command to anchor graphics in a text object. This feature lets you use custom
bullets, special illustrations for drop caps, and small logos within text. An inserted picture behaves
like a text character.
Inserted pictures move with the surrounding text.
Indent and justification settings apply to inserted pictures.
An inserted picture’s baseline and kerning can be adjusted.
An inserted picture rotates and skews with the surrounding text.
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Text with an inserted
picture
Some text formatting features do not apply to inserted pictures.
If you scale the surrounding text, an inserted picture does not distort or scale with the text.
Spread and Overprint commands do not affect inserted pictures.
Strokes or inks applied to the text don’t affect inserted pictures.
Inserted pictures might not be imported from the Clipboard by other applications.
Inserting a picture into text
The Insert Picture command is available when any object is on the Clipboard and the insertion point
is in a text object.
When the insertion point is in a text object and you choose the Insert Picture command, Canvas
inserts the contents of the Clipboard as a raster image into the text.
Since Canvas converts the Clipboard contents to a raster image when you use Insert Picture, you
cannot edit objects that have been inserted into text; e.g., if you insert a multigon object into text,
you can’t use editing handles to reshape or scale it. If you insert text characters using the Insert
Picture command, the inserted text characters are not editable.
To use the Insert Picture command:
1.
Select the object or objects that you want to insert into text.
2.
Choose Edit | Cut or Edit | Copy to place the selection on the Clipboard. If you selected
multiple objects, they become a single composite graphic when inserted into text.
3.
Select the Text tool.
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4.
Click in the text where you want to insert the graphic. An insertion point appears where you
click.
5.
Choose Text | Insert Picture. The Clipboard contents appear at the insertion point.
How inserted pictures affect leading
When you use the Insert Picture command, the leading of the paragraph might change, depending
on the Line spacing method:
If the Line spacing is defined by Percentage, Canvas adjusts the Line spacing to fit the
picture based on the defined percentage, if necessary.
If the Line spacing is defined by Points, the spacing between lines stays the same,
regardless of the size of the picture.
Line spacing set to 100%
Line spacing set to 12
points
Using dynamic objects for inserted pictures
If you want to be able to edit an inserted picture, you can insert a dynamic object into text. A dynamic
object is an object linked to an editable original in the Symbol Library palette. If you change the
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original in the Symbol Library palette, the inserted picture dynamic object will change to match the
original.
For example, you can use the Insert Picture command to place simple placeholder dynamic objects
(such as small squares) where you want finished graphics to appear in text. When the final graphic
is available, replace the placeholder dynamic object in the Symbol Library palette with the finished
graphic. With this method, you do not have to change each instance of a graphic individually or alter
the publication’s layout.
Placeholder object
Text with placeholder dynamic
object inserted
Placeholder dynamic object
replaced by apple graphic
Final graphic
Checking the spelling of text
Canvas can check the spelling of all text in a document, including text bound to a path by the Path
Text tool or the Bind Text command. Canvas can check the spelling of specific words, selections and
entire documents. Canvas can also check the spelling of words as you type.
Canvas checks the spelling of text by looking up words in the Canvas Dictionary and the User
Dictionary. The Canvas dictionary contains 100,000 words. You can add words to the User Dictionary
to stop Canvas from marking unrecognized words that are spelled correctly.
The Canvas dictionary file can’t be modified.
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Showing and hiding unrecognized words
Canvas marks words that it can’t find in either the Canvas Dictionary or the User Dictionary with a red
wavy underline. Canvas can check spelling while you type or after you finish entering text.
When Show Spelling Errors is active, Canvas checks the spelling of a word after you type it and press
the Spacebar, tab, or deselect the text object. Canvas marks an unrecognized word with a red wavy
underline.
To mark unrecognized words:
Choose Layout | Display | Show Spelling Errors.
To not mark unrecognized words:
Choose Layout | Display | Hide Spelling Errors.
Using the spelling pop-up menu
While using the Text tool to edit text, you can choose suggested replacements for words marked as
unrecognized.
The spelling pop-up menu lets you choose replacement words. You can also use the menu to add
unrecognized words to the User Dictionary.
To use the spelling pop-up menu:
With a text object in edit mode, point to a word that Canvas has marked as unrecognized. Rightclick the word to open the spelling menu.
To replace an unrecognized word with a suggested word:
Choose the suggested word in the menu.
When you choose a replacement word in the Spelling menu, Canvas adds the unrecognized word
and the replacement word to the Auto Correct manager. The unrecognized word appears in the
Replace text box and the suggested word appears in the With text box (see "Checking the spelling
of text" on page 625).
Add Word: To add an unrecognized word to the User Dictionary, choose Add Word. After
you choose Add Word, Canvas adds the word to the User Dictionary and will recognize any
future use of the word.
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Ignore Word: To ignore the spelling of the unrecognized word, click Ignore Word. If you
choose Ignore Word, Canvas will ignore the word in any document until you quit Canvas.
Cancel: To close the spelling menu without making any changes, choose Cancel or click
outside the menu.
Spell checking a selection or document
Check the spelling of selected text, a selected text object, and an entire document using commands
in the Spell Checker menu.
To limit the spell checking to specific text or text object:
Select the text or text object.
To spell check an entire document:
You don’t have to select anything.
To begin spell checking:
1.
Choose Text | Spell Checker | Spell Check Selection (if you selected text or a text object), or
Text | Spell Checker | Spell Check Document.
If Canvas finds an unrecognized word, the Spelling Checker dialog box appears (see "Spelling
Checker" on page 627). Canvas displays a message when the spell check is complete.
2.
Click OK to close the message box.
Canvas deselects any selected objects (but not text) when you use the Spell Check Selection
or Spell Check Document commands.
Spelling Checker
The Spelling Checker dialog box appears during spell checking of a selection or document if Canvas
finds a word that isn’t in its dictionaries.
Word
Canvas displays unrecognized words in context. You cannot edit the text
in this box.
Text box
Type a new spelling in this text box or click the down-arrow to choose
from the list of suggested spellings.
The highlighted word in this box is the unrecognized word.
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Replace
Click this button to replace the unrecognized word with the contents of
the text box and continue to spell check the document.
Add
If Canvas doesn’t recognize a word that is actually spelled correctly, add
the word to the User Dictionary so that Canvas recognizes it in future
documents (see "Modifying the User Dictionary" on page 628). After
saving the word, Canvas continues to spell check.
Ignore
Allows an unrecognized word in the current document without adding
the word to the dictionary. Canvas ignores all instances of the word until
you close Canvas.
Skip
Allows the current instance of an unrecognized word, but Canvas alerts
you the next time this word occurs.
Cancel
Interrupts the spell check and closes the dialog box.
To continue a spell check:
If you cancel a spell check, choose Text | Spell Checker | Continue Spell Check to pick up where
you left off. Canvas remembers the words you chose to ignore.
Modifying the User Dictionary
In addition to more than 100,000 words in the Canvas Dictionary, you can store an unlimited number
of words in a personal user dictionary (see "Setting preferences" on page 97 ).
To add words to the User Dictionary:
1.
Choose Text | Spell Checker | Show Added Words.
2.
In the Added Words dialog box, type a new word to add.
3.
Click the Add button. Words you add to the user dictionary appear in a scrolling list.
4.
Click OK.
To delete words in the User Dictionary:
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1.
Choose Text | Spell Checker | Show Added Words.
2.
In the User Added Words dialog box, select a word and then click Delete.
3.
Click OK.
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
Importing text from other applications
You can import text created in other applications into Canvas. This capability is especially useful if
you are compiling documents from different applications into a Canvas layout; e.g., you might need
to assemble a publication with contributions from several writers who each use different word
processors.
Canvas supports several methods for importing text. You can open a text file, place a text file, paste
text from the Clipboard into a Canvas document, and use OLE.
The Import command is used to import raster images, not text.
Opening a text file with the Open command creates a new Canvas Publication document for the
imported file. Placing, pasting, and embedding text inserts the text into the current document. For
information on pasting text from the Clipboard, see "Copying, pasting, deleting, and moving text
selections" on page 616.
The formatting of imported text might differ from the formatting of the original text in its native
application. Although some software products might have similar capabilities, the methods used can
vary significantly. It might be necessary to reformat imported text using the typographic tools in
Canvas.
Embedded text objects and editions containing text
In Windows, use Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) to insert text in a Canvas document with the
Paste Special command.
However, Canvas treats embedded text objects and editions as objects, not text. You cannot apply
effects, such as wraps or binds, to text in these objects. In addition, Canvas cannot spell check,
hyphenate, or format this text. All formatting and effects must be performed in the original
application or publisher. For more details and procedures, see "Using Object Linking and
Embedding" on page 151.
Placing text in documents
Place text by typing or pasting text from the Clipboard. You can also place text by choosing File |
Place.
If you have difficulty opening or placing a text document because of the formatting, try
converting the file to plain text before importing the file. Also, try copying and pasting the
text you want to import. This removes formatting that Canvas doesn’t understand.
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To place text using the same margins as the original file, click the Place icon in the document. If the
file you are importing contains text only (no images or objects), you can also drag the Place pointer to
simultaneously import and set margins for the text. However, if the file you want to import has
images or objects, dragging the Place icon scales the text, images, and objects as a group.
To place text into sections:
To create sections in a document, see "Creating columns" on page 568. Use the Place command to
place text from a text file into a section.
1.
Select the Text tool and click at the top of the first column in the section. An insertion point
appears in the column at the height where you clicked.
2.
Choose File | Place. Select the text file you want to place and click Place. The text from the
text file appears in the section and flows from column to column.
If the final column in a section contains overset text, you can flow the text into another text object or
section, or resize the section to contain the overset text (see "Flowing overset text into new text
columns" on page 572).
To paste text into a section:
After you create a section, you can paste text from the Clipboard to create text columns (see
"Creating columns" on page 568).
1.
Use the Edit | Copy command to place text on the Clipboard.
2.
Select the Text tool and click at the top of the first column in the section. An insertion point
appears in the column at the height where you clicked.
3.
Choose Edit | Paste. The text on the Clipboard appears in the section and flows from column
to column.
If the final column in a section contains overset text, you can flow the text into another text object or
section, or resize the section to contain the overset text (see "Flowing overset text into new text
columns" on page 572).
Exporting text from Canvas documents
Copy text from Canvas and paste it into other applications using the Clipboard. In addition, you can
use the Canvas file filters to save selections and documents in other file formats (see "File & data
exchange" on page 129). Keep in mind that if you save a document containing text and use a format
that supports only raster images, Canvas rasterizes the text before saving the file, so you can’t edit it
in the saved file.
Also, several Canvas typographic capabilities aren’t available in other applications; e.g., character
inks and strokes, text typed on a path, and wrapped text are unlikely to convert reliably. In some
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cases, such as rotated text, the export filters might rasterize the characters, and you will not be able
to edit them as text.
Always save a copy in Canvas format of files you want to export, in case the file conversion
doesn’t give the results that you expected.
To export text to other file formats:
1.
Choose File | Save As.
2.
In the Save as type menu, choose a file format. Type a name for the file, and then click Save.
Canvas warns you that saving files in other formats might result in a loss of some
information whenever you save using a format other than Canvas.
Type effects
This section explains how to apply various effects to type. In Canvas, you can wrap text inside
objects, repel text from objects, bind text to the path of an object, and slant the margins of a text
object.
Text inks and strokes
You can apply fill inks, pen inks, strokes, frame inks, background inks, and frame strokes using the
Fill Ink, Pen Ink, and Stroke icons in the Toolbox. You can also use the Properties bar that has icons
and popout palettes that let you apply fill inks, frame inks, background inks, and frame strokes (see
"Formatting text with the Properties bar" on page 581).
Current attributes
By using the icons in the Toolbox, you can set the pen ink, fill ink and stroke current attributes for
text; however, you can’t set frame inks, background inks, and frame strokes to be current attributes;
i.e., you can’t set a frame ink, background ink, or frame stroke that will be applied when you create
new text objects (see "Attributes of new text" on page 562).
When you convert text to paths, Canvas keeps the pen ink, fill ink and stroke, but any
background inks, frame inks, or frame strokes are removed.
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Applying inks and strokes
You can apply the following attributes to one or more text objects, and to text selections.
Fill ink
An ink applied to the inside, as opposed to the outline, of the characters
in a text object or text selection. You can also apply a fill ink with the Fill
Ink icon in the Toolbox.
Background ink
An ink applied to the background of a text object or a text selection.
Outline ink
An ink applied to the stroke of text characters. You can also apply a pen
ink with the Pen Ink icon in the Toolbox.
Frame ink
An ink applied to the stroke on the bounding box of a text object, or a box
around a text selection.
Outline stroke
The outline of text characters. You can also apply a stroke with the
Stroke icon in the Toolbox.
Frame stroke
A stroke applied to the bounding box of the text object, or a box around a
text selection. The frame ink appears on the frame stroke.
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To apply a fill ink:
1.
Select a text object, text characters, or place the insertion point in existing text.
2.
Click on the Fill ink icon in the Properties bar and select an ink from the popup palette. Or,
select an ink from the Fill Ink palette in the Toolbox.
To apply a background ink:
1.
Select a text object or text characters.
2.
Click on the Background ink icon in the Properties bar and select an ink from the popup
palette.
If a text selection spans more than one line of text, the background ink appears separately on each
line of text.
To apply an outline ink:
1.
Select a text object, text characters, or place the insertion point in existing text.
2.
Click on the Outline ink icon in the Properties bar and select an ink from the popup palette.
To apply a frame ink:
1.
Select a text object or text characters.
2.
Click on the Frame ink icon in the Properties bar and select an ink from the popup palette.
If a text selection spans more than one line of text, the ink appears on boxes around the selected
characters on each line of text.
To apply an outline stroke:
1.
Select a text object or text characters.
2.
Click on the Outline stroke icon in the Properties bar and select a pen stroke from the popup
palette.
To apply a frame stroke:
1.
Select a text object or text characters.
2.
Click on the Frame stroke icon in the Properties bar and select a pen stroke from the popup
palette.
If a text selection spans more than one line of text, the stroke outlines the selection separately on
each line of text.
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Wrapping and repelling text
Make text flow around or inside objects by using the Text | Wrap commands.
Wrapping text inside an object
When you wrap text inside a vector object, Canvas adjusts the text object’s margins so that text fits
within the shape of the vector object. A text object can be wrapped inside only one object at a time.
Canvas has two methods of wrapping text inside an object. Select an existing text object and a vector
object and choose the Text | Wrap | Inside Shape. Also, select an existing vector object and simply
begin typing; the text will stay inside the shape of the vector object.
You can also wrap text within the bounding box of a paint object with both methods.
If you wrap text inside an open vector object, such as an arc, the text wraps between the bounding
box and the concave side of the arc. If you try to wrap text to a line or a narrow arc, the text will not
be visible. If this occurs, choose Text | Wrap | Remove Wrap or choose Edit | Undo to make the text
visible again.
Vector object with wrapped text
To wrap existing text inside an object:
1.
Select a vector object and a text object.
2.
Choose Text | Wrap | Inside Shape. Canvas places the text inside the object.
If there is more text than can fit inside the shape, Canvas inserts a column break in the text object
and displays an overset symbol. Resize the object to fit the text or flow the excess text to another
column (see "Flowing overset text into new text columns" on page 572).
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To type new text inside an object:
1.
Activate the Auto type into object preference (see "Setting preferences" on page 97 ).
2.
Select a vector object.
3.
Begin typing. Canvas adjusts margins so that text you type remains within the left and right
borders of the object.
If the object is too small to contain all the text you type, the text object extends below the object.
Resize the object to fit the text or resize the text object to fit the shape, and then flow any excess text
to another column.
Center-justified text wrapped inside an
oval
Removing wrap effects
Restore text margins to the standard rectangular shape by choosing Text | Wrap | Remove Wrap.
To remove effects, also use the Undos palette or keyboard command: Ctrl+Z.
To remove a wrap effect:
Select a wrapped text object. Choose Text | Wrap | Remove Wrap.
Repelling text from objects
To make text flow around an object, apply a repel setting to the object. You also can set the amount of
space between the object and text it repels.
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An object with a repel setting repels all text. Move the object and it will repel text wherever you place
it.
You can apply repel settings to objects before any text has been created or placed in a document. You
can also apply a repel setting to a text object to make it repel the text in other text objects.
An object can repel text that is contained in text objects. A repel setting does not repel text that has
been bound to a path with the Path Text tool or the Bind Text command.
Examples of repelled text
One object
repelling text
Two objects
repelling text
Two objects
repelling two
columns of text
To make objects repel text:
1.
Select one or more objects that you want to repel text.
2.
Choose Text | Wrap | Repel. Canvas applies the repel setting. The initial repel amount is zero
points.
To set repel space:
Use this procedure to set the amount of space between an object and text that it repels.
1.
Select the object that has a repel setting and choose Text | Wrap | Repel Options.
2.
Enter a value from -30 to 30 points in the four boxes. These values specify the amount of
space between the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the object and text that the object
repels.
When entering values, you can use the Tab key to move between value fields.
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3.
Click Apply to view the effect of the current settings. Click OK to apply the settings and close
the dialog box.
To remove a repel setting:
Select an object that you do not want to repel text. Choose Text | Wrap | Remove Wrap. Canvas
removes the repel setting from the selected object.
Binding text to vector objects
Bind the baseline of text to the path of most types of vector objects. Canvas adjusts the vertical
orientation of each character to match the path.
Depending on how you want to bind text, you can choose Effects | Bind Text or the Path Text tool. The
Bind Text command lets you bind existing text to an object, and the Path Text tool lets you type new
text directly on the path of a selected object.
Canvas lets you bind multiple text objects to one vector object, but a text object can bind to only one
vector object at a time. Also, you can bind only one text object to a vector object using the Path Text
tool. To bind additional text objects to the same vector object after using the Path Text tool, you must
create a separate text object and choose Effects | Bind Text.
Position and direction of bound text
Whether you use the Bind Text command or Path Text tool, the location where you click the pointer
determines the alignment position.
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This text is center-justified. The I-beam
pointer (which appears after choosing the
Bind Text command or the Path Text tool)
determines where text binds. In the
example, the pointer is clicked in the
upper-right quadrant of the oval. The inset
shows the bound text, centered around the
point where the pointer was clicked.
For open-ended objects, such as arcs,
bound text initially flows in the direction
the object was drawn. In this example, the
arrows indicate the direction the arcs were
drawn. Text objects bound to these arcs
follow the direction of the arcs.
To bind existing text using a menu command:
1.
Select a text object and vector object.
2.
Choose Effects | Bind Text. When the pointer is on the edge of the selected object, the
pointer becomes an I-beam.
3.
Click to place the selected text on the path. Text aligns to the point where you click; e.g., if
the text is center-justified, Canvas binds the text so that it is centered around the point you
click.
To type on a path using the Path Text tool:
1.
Select the Path Text tool.
When the pointer is on the edge of an object, the pointer becomes a crosshair.
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2.
Click where you want to start typing on the path. An insertion point appears.
3.
Begin typing. The text aligns to the location where you placed the insertion point and follows
the path of the object.
Working with bound text
Once you bind text, you can change its starting position, alignment, baseline position, and flow
direction. In addition, you can edit the shape and location of the vector object to which text is bound,
and Canvas will fit the text to the new path.
You can also edit bound text by selecting the Path Text tool and clicking the text object, or by doubleclicking a bound text object with a Selection tool. However, text editing might be difficult and slow
while the text is bound to an object; you might want to remove the text bind, make changes, and rebind the text.
Bound text and its binding object move together, just like grouped objects. However, unlike grouped
objects, you can select and change attributes (such as stroke and ink) individually for the text and
the object.
To position and align bound text:
Canvas has three Bind Position handles that you can drag to place text anywhere on, above, or below
an object. The handles appear when you select a bound text object.
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Bind Position handles
Handle
Description
Reverse Flow
handle
Click to switch the
vertical orientation of
type relative to the object
path and reverse the flow
direction.
Alignment
handle
Drag to specify the point
where you want type to
align. For example,
center-justified text will
center around the
location of this handle.
Canvas spreads fulljustified text along the
entire path or object
starting at the location of
the handle.
Baseline Shift
handle
Drag to change the
elevation of the baseline
relative to the vector
object.
Baseline Shift lets you
insert space between
bound type and the
object.
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Example
Text is centered around the alignment handle
Chapter 6: Text And Typography
Changing the appearance of bound text
Once you bind text to a path using the Path Text tool or Bind Text command, use the context menu to
change the orientation of the text characters relative to the path, and to make the path visible or
invisible. The bound text commands appear in the context menu when a bound text object is
selected.
To access the context menu:
Select an object with bound text and right-click (see "Using context-sensitive menus" on page
46).
Bound text commands
Command
Description
Show Path/Hide Path
Choose Show Path to make the path visible. Choose Hide Path to make the
path invisible.
Vertical Text
Choose Vertical Text to keep the baseline of the text characters
horizontal, rather than perpendicular to the path. This also keeps the
vertical axis of each character vertical, rather than angled to follow a
curved path. The Vertical Text command is available when the text is
bound with the Tangent Text option.
Tangent Text
Choose Tangent Text to keep the baseline of the text characters tangent
to the path, rather than horizontal. This angles the vertical axis of each
character away from vertical as needed to follow the path. By default,
Canvas uses the Tangent Text option when it first binds text to a path.
The Tangent Text command is available in the context menu when the
text is bound with the Vertical Text option.
To remove a text bind effect:
Select a bound text object and choose Effects | Remove Effects. Canvas straightens the text
baseline and separates it from the vector object.
Binding text to a circle
Create circular logos with text on top flowing clockwise and text on the bottom flowing
counterclockwise. Achieve this effect by binding two text objects to a circle and using the Bind
Position handles to arrange the text.
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To create a circular logo:
1.
Create a circular object using the Oval tool and then two text objects.
2.
Use the Path Text tool to create and bind the first text object. Then create the second text
object and bind it to the vector object by using the Bind Text command. One text object is
bound to the top of the circle, the other to the bottom of the circle. Text initially flows
clockwise.
3.
Clicking the Reverse Flow handle makes “FACTOR” flow counter-clockwise inside the circle.
4.
Dragging the Baseline Shift handle positions “FACTOR” outside the circle. Removing the
circle completes the design.
Using text as clipping paths
Make a pattern, gradient, or image appear to span an entire selection, rather than begin and end
within each character; e.g., instead of a gradient completing a blend pattern within each character of
a word, make a gradient begin a blend in the first character and finish the blend in the last character.
In Canvas, you create these kinds of “continuous” fills using background objects and foreground text
object clipping paths. The intersection of the background and foreground objects provides the
appearance of a continuous fill. This method lets you use elaborate background designs, including
paint objects, to fill characters. For more information, see "Using clipping paths" on page 374.
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To use text as a clipping path:
1.
Position the text object in front of the object to be clipped, and then select both objects.
2.
Choose Object | Clipping Path | Make.
Text object in front of image object
Clipping path appears filled with image
object
Applying vector effects to type
Apply the following vector effects to text objects: Envelope, Extrude, Rotate, Freeform rotate and
skew, Flip, Shadow, and Path editing.
Use effects to add dimension to text objects and create striking designs. This section describes
briefly how to apply each of these effects (see "Vector effects" on page 371).
Before applying vector effects to type
Depending on the number and kind of effects you apply to text, you might not be able to edit the text
afterwards; e.g., you can edit text after rotating and skewing, but if you also extrude the text, Canvas
converts the text to vector objects. In addition, depending on the speed of your system, editing
rotated and skewed text might be slow. Therefore, you might want to finish all text editing,
formatting, and layout before applying effects.
Freeform and rotate effects
In Canvas, you can place a text object in freeform mode and then drag any of the hollow selection
handles of the bounding box to rotate and skew text. Choose Effects | Rotate Right/Left | Other to
perform exact rotations.
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To freeform edit a text object:
Select a text object. Choose Effects | Freeform. Drag a circular selection handle to rotate the text
object, or a square handle to skew the text.
To rotate a text object an exact amount:
Choose Effects | Rotate | Other to open the Rotate dialog box. Specify the degree and center of
rotation. Click Apply to see the effect of the settings, or click OK to accept the settings.
This design consists of rotated (black) and skewed (color)
type. Each word was divided into two text objects, which were
arranged to create the effect.
Flipping text
You can flip text horizontally, vertically, or both. Choose Effects | Flip to create mirror-image copies
of text.
To flip text:
Select the text objects. Depending on the direction you want to flip text, choose Effects | Flip |
Horizontal, Vertical, or Both Axes. Canvas implements the setting immediately.
Original
Horizontal flip
Vertical flip
Both axes
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Shadow effects
In Canvas, when you apply a shadow to text, the shadow is a separate object that you can color, edit,
and apply effects to independently of the original text object. By applying the right combination of
effects, you can achieve oblique shadows and other lighting effects.
Since Canvas creates a separate object for the shadow, changes to the original text object do not
change the shadow. Finalize text before applying shadows to ensure that the text is the same for both
objects.
To create a shadow:
1.
Select the text objects to which you want to apply shadows.
2.
Choose Effects | Shadow to open the Shadow dialog box.
3.
Specify Object or Image. Image activates the Image Options area.
4.
Specify the offset amounts as well as a color for the shadow.
5.
In the Image Options area, specify Gaussian Blur, mode, resolution, and anti-alias.
6.
Canvas creates the shadows and arranges them behind the original text objects.
Text shadow effects
Combine Canvas effects to create different types of shadows.
An object shadow, slightly offset and shaded black.
A black image shadow, slightly offset with Gaussian Blur
The shadow object was skewed to create an oblique shadow.
This example consists of three objects: the original text object, a slightly offset shadow, and an
oblique shadow.
This example consists of three objects: the original text object, a slightly offset shadow object, and a
duplicated shadow object. The duplicate has been flipped, skewed, and filled with a gradient ink.
Envelope text effects
Use the Envelope effect to warp and distort type to create new character forms and stretch text like
rubber. When you apply this effect to a text object, you can drag selection handles to reshape text.
Depending on the type of envelope, text stretches in different ways. Using this effect, add
perspective to text or simulate stretching type around a 3-D object (see "Enveloping objects" on page
384 for more information about the Envelope effect).
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You cannot edit text after applying an envelope effect. however, you can apply an extrusion
to an enveloped object.
To edit the envelope of a text object:
1.
Select a text object and choose Effects | Envelope.
2.
Choose a type of envelope effect in the pop-up menu and click Apply.
3.
Drag the envelope handles to reshape the text.
Extruding text
Extrude text and add lighting effects to make text appear three-dimensional. As with vector objects,
you can rotate and scale extruded text to change the apparent depth, size, and orientation. For text,
you can only use the Parallel option in the Extrude palette.
You cannot edit text after applying an envelope effect.
Canvas removes stroke and fill attributes before extruding text because they can interfere with the
three-dimensional effect. Add color to extruded objects by choosing a fill ink from the Presets palette
and a color for the light source in the Extrude palette (see "Extruding objects" on page 387 for more
information about the Extrude effect).
Extruded text with lighting effects
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To extrude text:
1.
Select a text object and choose Effects | Extrude to open the Extrude palette.
2.
Choose Parallel in the menu.
3.
Configure the settings and click Apply.
4.
Use the extrusion handles to shape and rotate the text.
Converting text to paths
Canvas can create path outlines of characters so you can edit the shape of each character. Once you
convert text to paths, Canvas treats the paths as objects. You cannot edit the objects as text (change
font type, type size, or run spell check, etc.).
To convert text to paths:
1.
Select a text object and choose Path | Convert to Paths. If the text object contains multiple
characters, Canvas creates a grouped object.
2.
To ungroup the object and edit individual characters, choose Object | Ungroup. You can also
use the Direct Selection tool to select individual objects without ungrouping.
3.
Double-click an object to place it in path edit mode. To put several shapes in path edit mode
at the same time, select multiple objects and choose Path | Edit Path.
4.
Use path-editing techniques to change the object, and then press Esc to exit edit mode.
Typing text on paths
Use the Path Text tool to type text so it follows the path of a vector object, such as a circle, polygon,
or open curve. You can also use the tool to create text that flows along multiple paths.
To type text on a path:
1.
Select the Path Text tool.
In the document window, the pointer is an arrow. The arrow changes to an I-beam when you
point to a vector object path.
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2.
Click the path to set the insertion point. Begin typing and the text follows the vector path.
You can type multiple lines of text. To start a new line, press Enter at the end of the previous
line.
3.
When you finish typing, press Esc. The text object becomes selected.
Vector path
Flowing text
As you type text on a path, if you reach the end, you can flow text to another path. Click the overset
symbol at the end of the text object. Then, click the next vector path at the point where you want the
overset text to start flowing. Continue typing to enter additional text.
If you don’t want to flow overset bound text, resize the path so that all the bound text can flow along
it. If no text is overset, the overset symbol does not appear at the end of the text object.
To link text to another path with the Text Link tool:
1.
Select the Text Link tool, and the pointer displays the number “1”.
2.
Click the first text object, and the pointer changes to the number “2”.
3.
Click the object to which you want the text to flow.
4.
Press Esc when you finish.
Adjusting text on a path
See the section about adjusting bound text, starting with "Binding text to vector objects" on page
637, for information on changing the text baseline, flipping the text, and adjusting the spacing
between the text and the path.
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Canvas 12 User Guide
SpriteEffects
In Canvas, you could always modify objects with image-editing techniques — if you converted the
objects to images; however, you lost the ability to edit vector paths and text. Also, applying filters
and adjustments would change an image permanently. The Canvas SpriteEffects technology lets you
apply image filters and adjustments to vector objects, images, text, and grouped objects.
You can apply effects temporarily, adjust effects settings, change the order of effects, and hide or
remove effects individually. You don’t have to use Undo or save intermediate versions to preserve an
original illustration, since obje