Mac OS X Server

Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
Print Service Administration
For Version 10.4 or Later
K Apple Computer, Inc.
© 2005 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of
Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this
publication for the purpose of learning to use such
software. No part of this publication may be reproduced
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copies of this publication or for providing paid-for
support services.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate. Apple Computer,
Inc., is not responsible for printing or clerical errors.
Apple
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www.apple.com
The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.,
registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the
“keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for commercial
purposes without the prior written consent of Apple
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Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Mac,
Macintosh, QuickTime, Xgrid, and Xserve are trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other
countries. Finder is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Adobe and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and
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Other company and product names mentioned herein
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of third-party products is for informational purposes
only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a
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regard to the performance or use of these products.
019-0167/03-24-2005
1
Contents
Preface
7
7
7
8
9
10
11
About This Guide
What’s New in Version 10.4
What’s in This Guide
Using Onscreen Help
The Mac OS X Server Suite
Getting Documentation Updates
Getting Additional Information
Chapter 1
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
18
19
About Print Service
Overview of Network Printing
Without Print Service
With Print Service
Supported Printers
Supported Clients
Workload Distribution Using Printer Pools
Multiple Network Interface Support
Security Considerations
Chapter 2
21
21
21
22
22
24
25
26
27
28
29
29
29
30
30
Setting Up Print Service
Before You Begin
Setup Overview
Setting Up the Service
Adding a Print Queue
Choosing a Default LPR Queue
Setting the Print Log Archive Level and Interval
Advertising an LPR Queue Using Bonjour
Listing an LPR Queue in Open Directory
Creating a Printer Pool
Starting Print Service
Setting Print Quotas
How Quotas Work
Setting Quotas
Specifying User Print Quotas
3
31
31
4
Enforcing Print Quotas for a Queue
Resetting a User’s Print Quota
Chapter 3
33
33
34
34
34
34
36
36
36
36
37
37
37
37
Setting Up Printing for Clients
About PPD Files
Mac OS X Clients
Adding an IPP Print Queue in Mac OS X
Adding an AppleTalk Print Queue in Mac OS X
Adding an LPR Print Queue in Mac OS X
Troubleshooting
Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 Clients
Setting Up an AppleTalk Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
Setting Up an LPR Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
Troubleshooting
Windows Clients
Troubleshooting
UNIX Clients
Chapter 4
39
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
43
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
49
49
49
50
50
51
Managing Print Service
Managing the Service
Checking the Status of Print Service
Starting and Stopping Print Service
Enabling and Disabling Cover Sheets for Print Jobs
Managing Print Queues
Viewing Print Queue Status
Stopping a Print Queue
Restarting a Print Queue
Changing Print Queue Settings
Renaming a Print Queue
Changing the Default LPR Print Queue
Deleting a Print Queue
Managing Print Jobs
Monitoring a Print Job
Putting a Print Job on Hold
Restarting a Print Job
Deleting a Print Job
Managing Print Quotas
Suspending Quotas for a Print Queue
Managing Print Logs
Viewing Print Service and Queue Logs
Archiving Print Service Logs
Contents
Chapter 5
53
53
53
53
54
54
Glossary
55
Index
63
Solving Problems
Print Service Doesn’t Start
Clients Can’t Add Queue
Users Can’t Print
Jobs in a Server Queue Don’t Print
Print Queue Becomes Unavailable
Contents
5
6
Contents
Preface
About This Guide
Learn what’s new for Mac OS X Server Print Service
Administration.
Mac OS X Server version 10.4 allows you configure print service to access a printer on
the network or on its USB port, and share it as a queue or class (printer pool) to client
computers. This version of Print service offers a complete integration of CUPS
(Common UNIX Print System) offering more security, authentication, and error
feedback than in previous versions of the service. As a bonus administrators will benefit
by the complete adoption of CUPS and IPP for print sharing, allowing printer sharing
via IPP. Print service includes AppleTalk support and authenticated printing using IPP
and SMB/CIFS.
What’s New in Version 10.4
•
•
•
•
•
Complete CUPS integration with improved performance and reliability
Server managed cover sheet option
Queue sharing over IPP
Management of multiple printers through one queue
More visible CUPS log files
What’s in This Guide
Print service lets clients of the Mac OS X Server print documents in a flexible, managed
printing environment over a network. You can assign your client users specific printers
for their printing tasks and manage access to other printers through authentication or
user quotas. You can also manage printer use more effectively by balancing the load
across a pool of printers handling the same queue.
7
Mac OS X Server includes print service based on four common protocols:
• IPP—For printing from Macintosh, Windows, or UNIX computers. Requires CUPS.
• LPR—For printing from UNIX computers and from Macintosh computers running
Mac OS 8.1 or later.
• SMB/CIFS—For printing from Windows computers.
• AppleTalk—For printing from Macintosh computer.
You can use the following Mac OS X Server applications to set up and manage print
services:
• Server Admin. Use Server Admin to turn on and configure individual file services for
each protocol
• Workgroup Manager. Use Workgroup Manager to create share points and set access
privileges
You can also perform most setup and management tasks by typing commands at a
command prompt in Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of
the command-line administration guide.
Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its software,
images shown in this book may be different from what you see on your screen.
Using Onscreen Help
You can view instructions and other useful information from this and other documents
in the server suite by using onscreen help.
On a computer running Mac OS X Server, you can access onscreen help after opening
Workgroup Manager or Server Admin. From the Help menu, select one of the options:
• Workgroup Manager Help or Server Admin Help displays information about the
application.
• Mac OS X Server Help displays the main server help page, from which you can search
or browse for server information.
• Documentation takes you to www.apple.com/server/documentation, from which you
can download server documentation.
You can also access onscreen help from the Finder or other applications on a server or
on an administrator computer. (An administrator computer is a Mac OS X computer
with server administration software installed on it.) Use the Help menu to open Help
Viewer, and then choose Library > Mac OS X Server Help.
To see the latest server help topics, make sure the server or administrator computer is
connected to the Internet while you’re using Help Viewer. Help Viewer automatically
retrieves and caches the latest server help topics from the Internet. When not
connected to the Internet, Help Viewer displays cached help topics.
8
Preface About This Guide
The Mac OS X Server Suite
The Mac OS X Server documentation includes a suite of guides that explain the services
and provide instructions for configuring, managing, and troubleshooting the services.
All of the guides are available in PDF format from:
www.apple.com/server/documentation/
This guide...
tells you how to:
Mac OS X Server Getting Started
for Version 10.4 or Later
Install Mac OS X Server and set it up for the first time.
Mac OS X Server Upgrading and
Migrating to Version 10.4 or Later
Use data and service settings that are currently being used on
earlier versions of the server.
Mac OS X Server User
Management for Version 10.4 or
Later
Create and manage users, groups, and computer lists. Set up
managed preferences for Mac OS X clients.
Mac OS X Server File Services
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Share selected server volumes or folders among server clients
using these protocols: AFP, NFS, FTP, and SMB/CIFS.
Mac OS X Server Print Service
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Host shared printers and manage their associated queues and print
jobs.
Mac OS X Server System Image
and Software Update
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Use NetBoot and Network Install to create disk images from which
Macintosh computers can start up over the network. Set up a
software update server for updating client computers over the
network.
Mac OS X Server Mail Service
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Set up, configure, and administer mail services on the server.
Mac OS X Server Web
Technologies Administration for
Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage a web server, including WebDAV, WebMail, and
web modules.
Mac OS X Server Network Services Set up, configure, and administer DHCP, DNS, VPN, NTP, IP firewall,
Administration for Version 10.4 or and NAT services on the server.
Later
Mac OS X Server Open Directory
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Manage directory and authentication services.
Mac OS X Server QuickTime
Streaming Server Administration
for Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage QuickTime streaming services.
Mac OS X Server Windows
Services Administration for
Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage services including PDC, BDC, file, and print for
Windows computer users.
Preface About This Guide
9
This guide...
tells you how to:
Mac OS X Server Migrating from
Windows NT to Version 10.4 or
Later
Move accounts, shared folders, and services from Windows NT
servers to Mac OS X Server.
Mac OS X Server Java Application
Server Administration For Version
10.4 or Later
Configure and administer a JBoss application server on Mac OS X
Server.
Mac OS X Server Command-Line
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Use commands and configuration files to perform server
administration tasks in a UNIX command shell.
Mac OS X Server Collaboration
Services Administration for
Version 10.4 or Later
Set up and manage weblog, chat, and other services that facilitate
interactions among users.
Mac OS X Server High Availability
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Manage IP failover, link aggregation, load balancing, and other
hardware and software configurations to ensure high availability of
Mac OS X Server services.
Mac OS X Server Xgrid
Administration for Version 10.4 or
Later
Manage computational Xserve clusters using the Xgrid application.
Mac OS X Server and Storage
Glossary
Interpret terms used for server and storage products.
Getting Documentation Updates
Periodically, Apple posts new onscreen help topics, revised guides, and additional
solution papers. The new help topics include updates to the latest guides.
• To view new onscreen help topics, make sure your server or administrator computer
is connected to the Internet and click the Late-Breaking News link on the main Mac
OS X Server help page.
• To download the latest guides and solution papers in PDF format, go to the Mac OS
X Server documentation webpage: www.apple.com/server/documentation.
10
Preface About This Guide
Getting Additional Information
For more information, consult these resources:
Read Me documents—important updates and special information. Look for them on the
server discs.
Mac OS X Server website—gateway to extensive product and technology information.
www.apple.com/macosx/server/
AppleCare Service & Support—access to hundreds of articles from Apple’s support
organization.
www.apple.com/support/
Apple customer training—instructor-led and self-paced courses for honing your server
administration skills.
train.apple.com/
Apple discussion groups—a way to share questions, knowledge, and advice with other
administrators.
discussions.info.apple.com/
Apple mailing list directory—subscribe to mailing lists so you can communicate with
other administrators using email.
discussions.info.apple.com/
Preface About This Guide
11
12
Preface About This Guide
1
About Print Service
1
Mac OS X Server print service helps you set up a
managed printing environment on your network.
With a print server, you can share printers by setting up print queues accessible by any
number of users over a network connection. When a user prints to a shared queue, the
print job waits on the server until the printer is available or until established scheduling
criteria are met.
Greater administrative features are available by using a Mac OS X Print server. For
example, you can:
• Set page quotas for individual users on specific print queues
• Hold a job for printing at a later time
• Limit the number of pages individual users can print on specific printers
• Keep logs summarizing printer use
You can use the following applications to set up and administer print service:
• Server Admin to configure print service, set up shared queues, manage print jobs, and
monitor the status of print jobs
• Workgroup Manager to set print quotas for users
The Mac OS X Server print service is built on top of the standard Mac OS X client
printing architecture, which is, in turn, built on the Common UNIX Printing System
(CUPS).
Overview of Network Printing
It’s possible to benefit from some of the advantages of shared network printing
without using a server. However, a quick comparison of network printing with and
without a server-based print service shows what a print service can do to make things
easier for your users and for you as an administrator.
13
Without Print Service
Providing shared printers to your users, even without using a server, is relatively
easy: connect the printers to your network and let individual users choose the printer
that best suits their needs.
When a user prints a document, the resulting print job waits in a queue on the user’s
computer until the printer is ready to accept the job (in common printing terminology,
you say the job is “spooled to a queue”).
Wait
Paper jam!
Client must deal
with printer error
Wait
Jobs wait in
queues on clients
Although this way of providing access to printers is easy to set up, it has the following
disadvantages:
• Users need to be sure their jobs have finished printing before they can turn off their
computers or, in the case of mobile clients, disconnect their computers from the
network.
• Error messages from the printer (for example, “out of paper” or “paper jam”) go
directly to the user currently printing.
• It is difficult for you, as administrator, to keep track of or control how many pages are
printed by individual users.
14
Chapter 1 About Print Service
With Print Service
To take advantage of print service, you set up queues for available printers on a server.
Users choose from these queues instead of choosing printers directly.
When a user prints a document, the resulting print job moves quickly from the queue
on the user’s computer to the queue on the server.
Service
logs
Paper jam!
Job
logs
Ready
Print job status
Hold
Ready
Quotas
Jobs wait in
queues on server
This way of providing printer access has advantages over simple network printing:
• Print jobs transfer quickly from client computers to the server’s queue, so users can
turn off or disconnect their computers soon after printing.
• Printer error conditions are reported on the server rather than on individual client
computers.
• You can easily limit and track the number of pages individual users print on specific
printers.
• You can control when and in what order individual jobs print.
Chapter 1 About Print Service
15
Supported Printers
Print service in Mac OS X Server supports:
• PostScript-compatible printers connected to your network that use the IPP, Line
Printer Remote (LPR), AppleTalk, or SMB/CIFS
• PostScript printers connected directly to the server via the Universal Serial Bus (USB)
• Inkjet (raster) printers connected directly to the server via USB
Mac OS X Server
IPP
Ethernet
AppleTalk
PostScript printer
Inkjet
printer
USB
LPR PostScript
printer
PostScript
printer
Mac OS X Server provides printer sharing through the use of print queues. Clients using
LPR, AppleTalk and SMB/CIFS use only PostScript to transfer the job to the print queues
on the server. IPP clients, however, format the job data according to the OEM print
driver for the destination printer, either PostScript or binary.
When Mac OS X Server receives the print job, it either sends the PostScript print job to
the queue of a networked (or directly connected) PostScript printer, or converts the
PostScript print job into PDF (using the ps2pdf converter) for output to an inkjet (raster)
printer directly connected to the server via USB.
16
Chapter 1 About Print Service
Supported Clients
Any computer using the IPP, LPR, AppleTalk, or SMB/CIFS protocol can print to queues
shared through the Mac OS X print service.
Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X
user
IPP
AppleTalk
SMB/CIFS
UNIX user
Mac OS X user
(printers selected
using Print Center
or Printer Setup
Utility)
Mac OS 8 and
Mac OS 9 users
(printers selected
using Desktop
Printer Utility)
UNIX user
Windows NT
and Windows
2000 users
Windows 95,
98, and
ME users
LPR
Mac OS X user
(printers selected
using Print Center or
Printer Setup Utility)
Mac OS 9 user
(printers selected
using Desktop
Printer Utility)
UNIX user
Windows NT
and Windows
2000 users
Macintosh computers can communicate with printers using IPP, AppleTalk or LPR.
Windows computers use IPP, LPR, and SMB/CIFS. UNIX computers use IPP or LPR. For
more information on printing from a specific kind of client computer, see Chapter 3,
“Setting Up Printing for Clients,” on page 33.
Chapter 1 About Print Service
17
Workload Distribution Using Printer Pools
Each print service queue you set up is assigned to a single printer. The Common UNIX
Printing System (CUPS) supports a special queue called a printer class or printer pool,
which is essentially a queue with more than one printer assigned to it.
A printer pool offers a number of advantages over single-printer queues in highvolume or high-availability printing environments:
• Print jobs are assigned to the next available printer in the pool, so you can have as
many jobs printing simultaneously as you have printers assigned to the pool.
• If a printer assigned to the pool becomes unavailable for any reason, the other
printers in the pool continue to print waiting jobs.
You can set up a printer pool using Settings > Create Pool in the Printer Service in
Mac OS X Server 10.4. After creating the pool, you can add and manage the resulting
pool queue in print service as you would any other queue.
Things to consider when creating a printer pool
The purpose of a printer pool is not to compete with each printer’s queue but to
replace it. A good practice is not to share a printer individually when it’s also shared in
a pool.
It is also good strategy to group printers of like make and model together to ensure the
each printer in the pool has the same printing capabilities. For instance it would defeat
the purpose of a printer pool if all but one printer were capable of printing color.
Important: The capabilities of the printers in a printer pool are typically defined by the
first printer added to the pool list. Jobs given to lesser capable printers in the pool may
be rejected by the assigned printer and fail.
You can also create a printer pool using commands in Terminal. For more information,
see the chapter on print service in the command-line administration guide.
Multiple Network Interface Support
In Mac OS X Server, print service automatically operates across all interfaces for which
TCP/IP-based printing protocols are configured. These include CUPS/IPP, LPR, and SMB/
CIFS.
Similarly, print service automatically operates across all interfaces for which AppleTalk is
enabled. Refer to the file services administration guide for more information on
AppleTalk set up and limitations.
18
Chapter 1 About Print Service
Security Considerations
AppleTalk and LPR printer queues do not support authentication. Print service relies on
the client to provide user information. Although standard Macintosh and Windows
clients provide accurate information, a clever user could potentially modify the client to
submit false information and thereby avoid print quotas.
Windows service does support authentication, requiring users to log in before using
SMB/CIFS printers.
Basic and Digest (MD5) authentication is built into CUPS software on which print
service relies and supports a print job submission method called Internet Printing
Protocol (IPP).
Chapter 1 About Print Service
19
20
Chapter 1 About Print Service
2
Setting Up Print Service
2
This chapter shows how to set up print queues and
change print service settings using Server Admin.
Before You Begin
Before you set up print service, note which protocols your clients use for printing. Print
service supports AppleTalk, LPR, and SMB/CIFS protocols.
Setup Overview
Here is an overview of the steps for setting up print service:
Step 1: Create queues for your printers
Create queues for your printers on the server using Server Admin. Users see these
queues as printers. See “Adding a Print Queue” on page 22.
Step 2: (Optional) Adjust general service settings
Use Server Admin to specify the default LPR queue and set print service log options.
See “Choosing a Default LPR Queue” on page 24 and “Setting the Print Log Archive
Level and Interval” on page 25.
Step 3: Start print service
Use Server Admin to start print service on the server and make the queues available to
clients. See “Starting Print Service” on page 29.
Step 4: (Optional) Set print quotas
If you want to limit the number of pages users can print, set print quotas for user
accounts and enforce quotas on print queues. See “Setting Print Quotas” on page 29.
Step 5: Set up client computers
Add, or show your users how to add, your server’s queues to the printing setups on
their computers. See Chapter 3, “Setting Up Printing for Clients,” on page 33.
21
Setting Up the Service
Adding a Print Queue
You can share any printer that has a queue set up for it on the server. You create
queues for shared printers on the server using Server Admin.
Add button
To create a shared print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings.
3 Click Queues.
4 Click the Add (+) button (below the list).
If you don’t see the Queues button, you might already be looking at queue settings.
Click the Back button (the left-pointing arrow in the upper right).
5 Choose the protocol used by the printer from the pop-up menu.
a For an AppleTalk printer, select the printer in the list and click OK.
b For an LPR printer, type the printer IP address or DNS name and click OK.
If you don’t want to use the printer’s default queue, first deselect “Use default queue
on server” and type a queue name.
c For an Open Directory printer, select the printer in the list and click OK.
22
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
6 In the Queues pane, double-click the queue you have just added.
7 In the General pane, type the queue name you want clients to see in the Sharing Name
field.
Make sure the name is compatible with any naming restrictions imposed by your
clients. For example, some LPR clients do not support names that contain spaces, and
some Windows clients restrict names to 12 characters.
Queue names shared via LPR or SMB/CIFS should not contain characters other than
A–Z, a–z, 0–9, and _ (underscore).
AppleTalk queue names cannot be longer than 32 bytes (which may be fewer than 32
typed characters). Note that the queue name is encoded according to the language
used on the server and may not be readable on client computers using another
language.
Note: Changing the Sharing Name also changes the queue name that appears in
Printer Setup Utility on the server.
8 Select the protocols used for printing by your client computers.
If you select “SMB”, make sure you start Windows services.
9 Select “Enforce quotas for this queue” if you want to enforce the print quotas you
establish for users in Workgroup Manager.
10 Select a cover sheet you would like the printer to create by selecting a title from the
pop-up menu. If you don’t want the server to create a cover sheet for each job printed,
select “none”.
11 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper left).
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
23
Choosing a Default LPR Queue
You can use print service General settings in Server Admin to specify a default LPR
queue for the server.
Setting a default LPR queue makes it easier for clients to print without knowing the
names of the queues on the server.
To set the default LPR queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click General.
3 Choose the default queue from the pop-up menu.
4 Click Save.
If the queue you want to use is not in the list, it might not currently be shared using
LPR.
A user can add this default LPR queue to his or her computer’s printer list without
knowing the queue’s name by choosing “Use default queue on server” when adding
the printer.
From the Command Line
You can also set the default LPR queue using the serveradmin command in Terminal.
For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
24
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
Setting the Print Log Archive Level and Interval
Print service keeps a general service log and individual logs for each shared queue.
When a log is archived, new events are recorded in a new, empty log file.
You can use the Logging settings for print service in Server Admin to specify the level
of logging and how often the logs are archived.
To set the log archive intervals:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Logging.
3 Select “Archive server log.”
4 To set the level of event reporting in the logs, make a selection from the Log Level popup menu.
5 Select a maximum log size you want the archive to grow to before it is archived by the
server. Use the Max log size pop-up menu to select the size of the archive file. If you
don’t want to archive the server logs, deselect the checkbox next to “Archive server log”.
6 Click Save.
Both current and archived logs are in /Library/Logs/PrintService/.
From the Command Line
You can also set the archival interval using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For
more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration
guide.
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
25
Advertising an LPR Queue Using Bonjour
You can make it easier for your users to find shared LPR queues by advertising them
using Bonjour.
Back button
To advertise a queue using Bonjour:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Double-click the queue you want to advertise.
4 Under LPR in the Protocol section, select “Share using Bonjour.”
5 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper left).
26
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
Listing an LPR Queue in Open Directory
You can make it easier for your users to find shared LPR queues by listing them in Open
Directory. If you include the PostScript Printer Description (PPD) printer model name in
the directory, users don’t need to worry about which printer model to choose.
To list a queue in Open Directory:
1 If you haven’t already, create the queue.
2 Open Workgroup Manager.
3 If you don’t see the Inspector buttons, choose Workgroup Manager > Preferences and
select “Show All Records tab and inspector.”
4 If necessary, switch to the correct directory domain.
5 Click the All Records button (it looks like a bull’s-eye, next to the Users, Groups, and
Computers buttons).
6 Choose Printers from the pop-up menu below the All Records button and click
New Record.
7 Double-click “untitled_1” next to RecordName attribute, type the name you want your
users to see when they’re browsing for the printer, and press Return.
8 Click New Attribute and choose PrinterLPRHost from the Attribute Name pop-up menu.
9 Click in the Text field, type the IP address or DNS name of the server that hosts the
queue, and click OK.
10 If the queue you are listing is not the default LPR queue on the server, click New
Attribute, choose PrinterLPRQueue from the pop-up menu, type the queue name in
the Text field, and click OK.
11 To specify the printer model (optional), click New Attribute, choose Printer Type from
the pop-up menu, type the model name, and click OK.
Important: Make sure the model name you type exactly matches the value of the
*ModelName attribute in the PPD file. To confirm the value of this attribute, try either of
the following:
12 Open Printer Setup Utility, click Add, choose IP Printing from the pop-up menu, choose
the manufacturer from the Printer Model pop-up menu, and find the name in the
resulting list.
13 Make a copy of the PPD file, use the gunzip command in Terminal to decompress it,
then open it in TextEdit or another text editor and search for “*ModelName.” You can
find the PPD files in /Library/Printer/PPDs/Contents/Resources/en.lproj.
14 Click Save.
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
27
Creating a Printer Pool
You can use Server Admin to create a printer pool.
To create a printer pool:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Create two or more print queues.
For more information on creating a print queue see “Adding a Print Queue” on page 22.
Important: Pooled printers should be of like make and model to ensure that the printer
will provide consistent output to the user. Users may lose some printer functionality
when more fully featured printers are pooled with printers having fewer features.
4 Select two or more printers from the queues list. The Create Pool button will highlight.
5 Click the Create Pool button.
6 Enter a name to identify the print pool. This becomes the sharing name by which users
will identify the print pool.
7 Click OK.
8 Select the protocols used for printing by your client computers.
If you select “SMB”, make sure you start Windows services.
9 Select “Enforce quotas for this queue” if you want to enforce the print quotas you
establish for users in Workgroup Manager.
10 Select a cover sheet you would like the printer to create by selecting a title from the
pop-up menu. If you don’t want the server to create a coversheet for each job printed,
select “none”.
11 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper left).
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Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
Starting Print Service
You can use Server Admin to start print service.
After you start the service, it will restart automatically any time the server is restarted.
To start print service:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Start Service.
From the Command Line
You can also start print service by using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For
more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration
guide.
Setting Print Quotas
You can establish print quotas to control the number of pages each of your users prints
on your various printers.
How Quotas Work
A print quota is the total number of pages that can be printed during a specified time
period. When a user has printed the specified number of pages, he or she cannot print
again until the quota period ends and the quota is automatically renewed (or until you
explicitly renew the quota, which you can do at any time).
For each user, you set either a single quota that covers all the printers they use or
individual quotas for each printer.
In the case of a single quota, every page printed counts against a user’s quota,
regardless of the printer used.
In the case of per-queue quotas, you can vary the quota from printer to printer, or
choose not to enforce quotas on some printers while restricting the use of others.
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
29
Setting Quotas
There are two parts to establishing print quotas:
• Specifying the quota and time period for each user using Workgroup Manager
• Setting print service to enforce quotas for individual queues using Server Admin
Specifying User Print Quotas
You can use Workgroup Manager to specify print quotas for individual users.
To set a user’s quota:
1 Open Workgroup Manager, click Accounts, and select the user.
2 Click Print Quota.
3 To set one quota for all queues, select All Queues, then type the number of pages and
the number of days after which the quota is reset.
To set a quota for a particular queue, select Per Queue, choose the queue from the
pop-up menu, and type the quota and quota period.
If the queue is not in the list, click Add and change “untitled” to the queue name. Then
choose the queue from the pop-up menu, type the IP address or DNS name of the
server hosting the queue, and type the user’s page quota and quota period.
4 Click Save.
The quotas are not enforced until you turn on quota enforcement for specific queues in
print service using Server Admin. See “Enforcing Print Quotas for a Queue” on page 31.
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Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
Enforcing Print Quotas for a Queue
To enforce print quotas defined for users in Workgroup Manager, you turn on quota
enforcement for print queues in print service using Server Admin. Users are not subject
to print quotas you set for them in Workgroup Manager until you also turn on quota
enforcement for specific print queues in print service.
Important: When you enforce a print quota on a queue, users won’t be able to print to
the queue unless they have a valid, unexpired quota defined for them in Workgroup
Manager.
To enforce quotas for a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings.
3 On the Queues pane, select a queue and click the Edit button (below the list).
4 Select “Enforce quotas for this queue.”
5 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper left).
From the Command Line
You can also set quota enforcement for a queue using the serveradmin command in
Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Resetting a User’s Print Quota
You can restart a user’s quota period or change the user’s page quota at any time using
Workgroup Manager.
To reset quotas for a print queue:
1 Open Workgroup Manager and select the user in the user list.
2 Click the Print tab and select All Queues or Per Queue.
3 To restart the quota period, click Reset Print Quota.
To see when the current period started, look just above the button.
To change the number of pages allowed during the current quota period, type a new
value in the “Limit to” field.
Note: If you extend or shorten the duration of a user’s print quota, the Print service
restarts the quota’s period.
4 Click Save.
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
31
Note: When you send a print job to a queue, CUPS checks the quota balance before it
sends a page to the printer. If there are no more pages left in the quota, CUPS cancels
the rest of the print job. Therefore, the print service may accept a job, but prints only
part of it because the user used up the quota. For example, if Joe prints a 10-page
document, but has only 5 pages left in his quota, the print service accepts the job, but
prints only the first 5 pages and cancels the remainder of the job. When the quota
period renews or you assign additional pages to Joe, he can reprint the entire job or
just the last 5 pages.
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Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
3
Setting Up Printing for Clients
3
This chapter shows how to set up client computers to use
the printers offered by your print service.
The Mac OS X Server print service supports four basic classes of clients:
• Mac OS X clients
• Mac OS 9 and Mac OS 8 clients
• Windows clients
• UNIX clients
About PPD Files
A PostScript Printer Description (PPD) file contains specialized information about a
particular printer model. Your users need the PPD file to take advantage of a printer’s
special features and capabilities. Without the right PPD, they won’t be able to do things
such as choose from multiple paper trays, use special paper sizes, or print on both sides
of the page.
Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server come with PPD files already installed for most popular
printers. (To see what’s available, open Printer Setup Utility, click Add, choose IP
Printing from the pop-up menu, and choose a vendor from the Printer Model pop-up
menu.) If you can’t find a PPD for the printer you want to use, contact the manufacturer
for a PPD installer for that particular model. As a last resort, try using the Generic PPD,
which should allow basic printing on most printers.
The proper PPD file must be chosen on the client computer when the print queue is
added.
33
Mac OS X Clients
To use queues offered by a server, Mac OS X users need to add the queues to their
printer lists using Printer Setup Utility just as they would add any other printer.
Mac OS X supports AppleTalk and LPR printers.
Adding an IPP Print Queue in Mac OS X
Print service queues that you share via IPP automatically appear in the client’s Default
Browser list in Printer Setup Utility. Shared IPP queues also automatically appear in the
print dialog of all Mac OS X applications.
There are two important advantages to using IPP queues over AppleTalk, SMB/CIFS, or
LPR PostScript queues:
• Once the job has been spooled to the server print queue, you can monitor the
progress of the job, and even delete the job from the server using Printer Setup
Utility.
• When printing to an IPP queue for a non-PostScript printer, you can use the printer’s
native driver (if installed on your Mac OS X computer) to take advantage of all the
printer's features. This option is not available to clients printing to non-PostScript
printers shared via AppleTalk, LPR, or SMB/CIFS.
Adding an AppleTalk Print Queue in Mac OS X
You can use the Print Setup Utility to add print queues to a computer’s printer list. This
application is usually located in /Applications/Utilities.
To add an AppleTalk print queue:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility on the client computer and click Add.
2 Click Default Browser.
3 Select a print queue from the list.
4 Choose the printer type from the Print Using pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic PostScript Printer works for most printing needs.
5 Click Add.
Adding an LPR Print Queue in Mac OS X
You can use the Printer Setup Utility to add an LPR print queue to a computer’s printer
list. Printer Setup Utility is usually located in /Applications/Utilities.
The way you add an LPR printer depends on whether the printer is:
• Shared by IP address or DNS name only
• Advertised via Bonjour
• Listed in Open Directory
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Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing for Clients
To add an LPR print queue by IP address or DNS name:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility and click Add.
2 Choose Internet Printing Protocol – IPP from the Protocol pop-up menu.
3 Enter the server’s DNS name or IP address (not the printer’s name or address) in the
Address field.
To use the server’s default queue, leave the Queue field blank.
If you have not set up a default LPR queue on the server, or if you want to use a
different queue, type a queue name in the Queue field.
4 Choose the printer type from the Print Using pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic PostScript Printer works for most printing needs.
5 Click Add.
If you set up your server to advertise LPR print queues using Bonjour or Open
Directory, a client can browse for an LPR queue instead of having to know the address
of the server and the name of the queue when adding a printer.
To add an LPR print queue that is advertised via Bonjour:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility and click Add.
2 Click Default Browser.
3 Select the print queue from the list.
4 Choose the printer type from the Print Using pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic PostScript Printer works for basic printing needs.
5 Click Add.
For help advertising a printer using Bonjour, see “Advertising an LPR Queue Using
Bonjour” on page 26.
To add an LPR print queue that is listed in Open Directory:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility and click Add.
2 Click Default Browser.
3 Select the print queue from the list.
4 Choose the printer type from the Print Using pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic PostScript Printer works for basic printing needs.
5 Click Add.
For help listing a printer in Open Directory, see “Listing an LPR Queue in Open
Directory” on page 27.
Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing for Clients
35
Troubleshooting
If a Mac OS X client is having trouble printing, see Chapter 5, “Solving Problems,” on
page 53.
Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 Clients
To use shared queues on a server, Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 users need to add the
queues just as they would add any other printer, using the Chooser for AppleTalk
printers or the Desktop Printer Utility for LPR printers.
The Desktop Printer Utility is usually located in the Apple Extras/LaserWriter Software or
in /Applications/Utilities.
Setting Up an AppleTalk Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
On a computer running Mac OS 8 or Mac OS 9, you use the Chooser to set up an
AppleTalk queue.
To add an AppleTalk print queue:
1 Open the Chooser.
2 Select the LaserWriter 8 icon or the icon for your printer’s model.
The LaserWriter 8 icon works well in most cases. Use a printer-specific icon, if available,
to take advantage of special features that might be offered by that printer.
3 Select the queue from the list on the right and click Create.
4 When the dialog appears, select the PPD for the printer.
5 Close the Chooser.
Setting Up an LPR Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
Use the Desktop Printer Utility to set up LPR printers on a computer running Mac OS 8
or Mac OS 9.
To add an LPR print queue:
1 Open the Desktop Printer Utility, select Printer (LPR), and click OK.
2 In the PostScript Printer Description (PPD) File section, click Change and select the PPD
file for the printer. Choose Generic if you do not know the printer type.
3 In the LPR Printer Selection section, click Change and enter the server’s IP address or
domain name in the Printer Address field.
4 Enter the name of the print queue on the server that is configured for sharing via LPR.
Leave the field blank if you want to print to the default LPR queue.
5 Click Verify to confirm that print service is accepting jobs via LPR.
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Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing for Clients
6 Click OK, then Create.
7 Type a name and choose a location for the desktop printer icon, and click Save.
The default name is the printer’s IP address, and the default location is Desktop.
Troubleshooting
If a Mac OS 8 or 9 client is having trouble printing, see Chapter 5, “Solving Problems,”
on page 53.
Windows Clients
To enable printing by Windows users who submit jobs using SMB/CIFS make sure
Windows services are running and that one or more print queues are available for SMB/
CIFS use.
All Windows computers—including Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium
Edition (ME), and Windows XP—support SMB/CIFS for using printers on the network.
Windows 2000 and Windows NT also support LPR.
Note: Third-party LPR drivers are available for Windows computers that do not have
built-in LPR support.
Troubleshooting
If a Windows client is having trouble printing, see Chapter 5, “Solving Problems,” on
page 53.
UNIX Clients
UNIX computers support LPR for connecting to networked printers without the
installation of additional software.
Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing for Clients
37
38
Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing for Clients
4
Managing Print Service
4
This chapter shows how to perform routine management
tasks for print service after you have it up and running.
Typical, day-to-day management tasks include:
• Checking the status of print service
• Starting and stopping print service
• Viewing queues
• Stopping and restarting a queue
• Changing print queue settings
• Renaming a queue
• Changing the default LPR queue
• Deleting a queue
• Viewing print jobs
• Holding and releasing jobs
• Deleting jobs
• Suspending print quotas
• Viewing and managing service logs
Managing the Service
Checking the Status of Print Service
You can use Server Admin to monitor the Mac OS X server print service.
To check the status of print service:
1 In Server Admin, locate the name of the server you want to monitor in the Computers
& Services list and select Print in the list of services under the server name.
2 Click Overview to see if print service is running, the time it started if it is running, and
the number of queues and waiting print jobs.
3 Click Logs, then choose a log from the Show pop-up menu to view its contents.
4 Click Queues to see the status of print queues.
5 Click Jobs to see a list of print jobs waiting in each queue.
39
From the Command Line
You can also check to see if print service is running using the serveradmin command
in Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Starting and Stopping Print Service
You can use Server Admin to start or stop print service.
To start or stop print service:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Start Service or Stop Service.
From the Command Line
You can also start and stop print service using the serveradmin command in Terminal.
For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Enabling and Disabling Cover Sheets for Print Jobs
You can use Server Admin to enable or disable cover sheets for print jobs.
To enable or disable cover sheets for print jobs:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 View the print queues list. Click the Settings button and then the Queues button.
3 Select the queue you want to edit. Click the edit button (the pencil icon).
4 In the General pane, select None in the Cover Sheet pop-up menu to disable cover
sheets.
5 To enable cover sheets, select an appropriately titled cover sheet in the Cover Sheet
pop-up menu.
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Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
Managing Print Queues
This section tells you how to perform day-to-day management of print queues.
Viewing Print Queue Status
You can use Server Admin to see the current status of print queues. The Queues pane
shows all the server’s print queues, listing the queue name and kind of printer, how the
printer is shared, the status of printing from the queue, and how many jobs are waiting.
To view queue status:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Queues to see a list of print queues on the server.
From the Command Line
You can also list the queues using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
41
Stopping a Print Queue
To prevent waiting jobs from printing, you can use Server Admin to stop the queue
that contains them.
New jobs continue to be added to the queue but do not print until you restart the
queue. A job that is already printing is reprinted from the beginning when you restart
the queue.
Stop button
To stop a queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Queues to see a list of print queues on the server.
3 Select the queue you want to stop and click the Stop button (lower right).
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Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
Restarting a Print Queue
You can use Server Admin to restart a stopped queue and resume printing for all
waiting jobs.
Start button
To restart a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Queues to see a list of print queues on the server.
3 Select a stopped queue (look in the Status column) and click the Start button (lower
right).
Individual jobs that are on hold will remain on hold. If a printing job was interrupted
when you stopped the queue, that job will print again from the beginning.
Changing Print Queue Settings
You can use Server Admin to view and change a print queue’s configuration.
Note: When you change a queue’s configuration, the queue may become unavailable
to users, and they may need to set up their computers to use the queue again.
To change a print queue’s settings:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click the Queues tab.
3 Select the print queue you want to change and click the Edit button (below the list).
4 Make changes, click Save, and then click the Back button (in the upper left).
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
43
From the Command Line
You can also change queue settings using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For
more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration
guide.
Renaming a Print Queue
When you add a printer in Printer Setup Utility, the default name of the new queue is
the name of the associated printer. You can change this name to help your users
choose the right printer or to comply with naming conventions imposed by the
protocols your clients use.
Note: If you change the name of a print queue that has already been shared, users will
need to set up their computers again to use the queue with its new name. New jobs
that users send to the queue with the old name will not be printed.
To rename a queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Select the print queue you want to change and click the Edit button (below the list).
4 Type a new name in the Sharing Name field.
5 Click Save, and then click the Back button (in the upper left).
Changing the sharing name for the queue does not change its underlying Printer Setup
Utility queue name.
From the Command Line
You can also rename a queue using the serveradmin command in Terminal. See the
print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
Changing the Default LPR Print Queue
Specifying a default LPR queue simplifies setup for client computers. Users can choose
to print to the default queue rather than having to enter the name of a specific queue.
To select a default print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings.
3 In the General pane, choose the queue from the “Default Queue for LPR” pop-up menu.
If the queue you want to use is not listed, click Queues, double-click the queue in the
list, and make sure LPR protocol is enabled.
From the Command Line
You can also change the default LPR queue using the serveradmin command in
Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
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Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
Deleting a Print Queue
When you delete a print queue, jobs in the queue are also deleted.
Note: If a job is printing, it is canceled immediately. To avoid interrupting waiting print
jobs while preventing new jobs from arriving, you can disable the sharing protocols in
the queue settings and wait until all jobs have finished printing before deleting the
queue.
Delete button
To delete a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Select the queue and click the Delete button (at the bottom of the list).
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
45
Managing Print Jobs
This section tells you how to perform day-to-day management of print jobs.
Monitoring a Print Job
You can monitor individual print jobs using Server Admin.
To view a print job:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Choose a queue from the “Jobs on Queue” pop-up menu.
Jobs are listed in priority order, and include the name of the user who submitted each
job, the name of the job, its size, the number of sheets to be printed, the current status
of the job, and the number of pages in the job (you might need to scroll to see the
page column).
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Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
Putting a Print Job on Hold
When you put a print job on hold, it is not printed until you take it off hold. If the job
has already started to print, printing stops and the job remains in the queue. When you
resume the job, printing restarts from the beginning of the job.
Hold button
To put a print job on hold:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Select the queue from the pop-up list.
4 Select a job and click the Hold button (below the list).
Shift-click or Command-click to select multiple jobs.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
47
Restarting a Print Job
When a print job has been placed on hold, it is not printed until you resume the job.
When you resume the job, printing restarts from the beginning.
Note: If you put the entire print queue on hold, you also need to restart the queue to
print the job.
Start button
To restart a print job:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Select the queue from the pop-up menu.
4 Select the job and click the Start button (below the list).
Shift-click or Command-click to select multiple jobs.
The job is printed after all other jobs in the queue that have the same priority.
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Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
Deleting a Print Job
You can use Server Admin to delete a print job and prevent it from printing.
Delete button
To delete a print job:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Select the queue from the pop-up list.
4 Select the job and click the Delete button (below the list).
Any pages already sent to the printer will continue to print even after you delete the
job.
Managing Print Quotas
This section tells you how to perform day-to-day management of print quotas.
Suspending Quotas for a Print Queue
You can use Server Admin to enforce and suspend print quotas for specific queues.
Suspending quotas for a print queue allows all users unlimited printing to the queue.
To suspend quotas for a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Select the print queue you want to change and click Edit.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
49
4 Deselect “Enforce quotas for this queue.”
5 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper left).
From the Command Line
You can also disable quotas using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
Managing Print Logs
This section tells you how to view and archive print service and queue logs.
Viewing Print Service and Queue Logs
Print service keeps two kinds of logs: a print service log and individual print queue
logs. The print service log records events such as when print service is started and
stopped and when a print queue is put on hold. Print queue logs record information
such as which user submitted a job and the size of the jobs.
You can view the print service logs using Server Admin.
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Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
To view print service logs:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Logs, then choose a log from the Show pop-up menu.
The Print Service Admin log (PrintService_admin.log) records print service
administrative actions performed using Server Admin or the serveradmin commandline tool. This log is located in /Library/Logs/PrintService. A separate set of log files is
maintained by the underlying Common UNIX Print Service (CUPS) used by print service.
The log files are error_log, access_log, and page_log. These logs contain information
about printed jobs and are located in /var/log/cups.
Job logs are named after their queues (for example, PrintService.myqueue.job.log).
Archived logs have the archive date appended (for example,
PrintService.myqueue.job.log.20021231).
From the Command Line
You can also view the logs by using the cat or tail command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
Archiving Print Service Logs
You can use Server Admin to specify how large the print service logs should grow
before they are archived and new logs started.
To specify the maximum log size of archive print logs and archive job logs:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Logging.
3 Select a level of log reporting in the Log Level pop-up menu.
Choosing only to log errors will produce a less verbose log of events in the log file than
choosing to log events at the debug level.
4 Select Archive server log.
This will activate the “Max log size” pop-up menu.
5 Select the maximum log size, in megabytes, from the “Max log size” pop-up menu.
Print service archives logs following the CUPS model. When a print service log file
reaches the maximum size, the print service moves the file to <log_name>.0, where
<log_name> is the name of the log file, and starts a new log file with the previous
name (<log_name>). If an archive already exists, the print service overwrites it.
Note: If you want to increase log history, set the maximum log size to a higher value.
From the Command Line
You can also set the archive interval using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For
more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration
guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
51
52
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
5
Solving Problems
5
This chapter shows how to troubleshoot print service
problems.
Try these suggestions to solve or avoid printing problems you or your users encounter
while using print service.
Print Service Doesn’t Start
• Verify that the server’s software serial number is entered correctly and has not
expired. To check the number, open Server Admin, select the server in the Computers
& Services list, and click Overview. To enter an updated serial number, click Settings.
• Check the print service log for problem indications. Open Server Admin, select Print
in the Computers & Services list, and click Logs.
Clients Can’t Add Queue
• Make sure that print service is running. Open Server Admin and select Print in the
Computers & Services list. If the service is not running, click Start Service.
• Verify that the queue is shared correctly. SMB/CIFS is for Windows users only. LPR is a
standard protocol that users on (some) Windows computers, as well as on Macintosh,
UNIX, and other computers, can use for printing.
Users Can’t Print
• Make sure that print service is running. Open Server Admin and select Print in the
Computers & Services list. If the service is not running, click Start Service.
• Make sure the queue has been added. On Mac OS 8 or Mac OS 9 computers, use the
Chooser (for AppleTalk print queues) or Desktop Printer Utility (for LPR print queues)
to make sure the printer setup is correct. On Mac OS X, use Printer Setup Utility to
add print queues to the printer list.
• Verify that Mac OS clients have TCP/IP set up correctly.
53
• If Windows NT 4.x clients can’t print to the server, make sure that the queue name is
not the TCP/IP address of the printer or server. Use the DNS host name instead of the
printer or server address or, if there is no DNS name, enter a queue name containing
only letters and numbers.
Jobs in a Server Queue Don’t Print
• Make sure that neither the queue nor the jobs in it are on hold. Open Server Admin,
select Print in the Computers & Services list, and click Queues and Jobs.
• Make sure that the printer is connected to the server or to the network to which the
server is connected.
• Make sure the printer is turned on and that there are no problems with the printer
itself (out of paper, paper jams, and so on).
• Review the print logs for additional information. Open Server Admin, select Print in
the Computers & Services list, and click Logs.
Print Queue Becomes Unavailable
• If you changed a print queue name that has already been shared, print jobs sent by
users to the old queue name will not be printed. Users need to set up their
computers again to use the queue with its new name.
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Chapter 5 Solving Problems
Glossary
Glossary
AFP Apple Filing Protocol. A client/server protocol used by Apple file service on
Macintosh-compatible computers to share files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP
and other protocols to communicate between computers on a network.
address A number or other identifier that uniquely identifies a computer on a network,
a block of data stored on a disk, or a location in a computer memory. See also IP
address, MAC address.
administrator A user with server or directory domain administration privileges.
Administrators are always members of the predefined “admin” group.
alias Another email address at your domain that redirects incoming email to an
existing user.
Apple Filing Protocol See AFP.
automount To make a share point appear automatically on a client computer. See also
mount.
bit A single piece of information, with a value of either 0 or 1.
Bonjour A protocol developed by Apple for automatic discovery of computers,
devices, and services on IP networks. This proposed Internet standard protocol is
sometimes referred to as “ZeroConf.” For more information, visit www.apple.com or
www.zeroconf.org. To see how this protocol is used in Mac OS X Server, see local
hostname.
CIFS Common Internet File System. See SMB/CIFS.
client A computer (or a user of the computer) that requests data or services from
another computer, or server.
command line The text you type at a shell prompt when using a command-line
interface.
55
command-line interface A way of interfacing with the computer (for example, to run
programs or modify file system permissions) by entering text commands at a shell
prompt.
Common Internet File System See SMB/CIFS.
daemon A program that runs in the background and provides important system
services, such as processing incoming email or handling requests from the network.
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used to dynamically distribute
IP addresses to client computers. Each time a client computer starts up, the protocol
looks for a DHCP server and then requests an IP address from the DHCP server it finds.
The DHCP server checks for an available IP address and sends it to the client computer
along with a lease period—the length of time the client computer may use the
address.
directory Also known as a folder. A hierarchically organized list of files and/or other
directories.
directory domain A specialized database that stores authoritative information about
users and network resources; the information is needed by system software and
applications. The database is optimized to handle many requests for information and to
find and retrieve information quickly. Also called a directory node or simply a directory.
DNS Domain Name System. A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain
names. A DNS server, also known as a name server, keeps a list of names and the IP
addresses associated with each name.
DNS domain A unique name of a computer used in the Domain Name System to
translate IP addresses and names. Also called a domain name.
DNS name A unique name of a computer used in the Domain Name System to
translate IP addresses and names. Also called a domain name.
domain Part of the domain name of a computer on the Internet. It does not include
the Top Level Domain designator (for example, .com, .net, .us, .uk). Domain name
“www.example.com” consists of the subdomain or host name “www,” the domain
“example,” and the top level domain “com.”
domain name See DNS name.
Domain Name System See DNS.
56
Glossary
drop box A shared folder with privileges that allow other users to write to, but not
read, the folder’s contents. Only the owner has full access. Drop boxes should be
created only using AFP. When a folder is shared using AFP, the ownership of an item
written to the folder is automatically transferred to the owner of the folder, thus giving
the owner of a drop box full access to and control over items put into it.
everyone Any user who can log in to a file server: a registered user or guest, an
anonymous FTP user, or a website visitor.
export In the Network File System (NFS), a way of sharing a directory with clients on a
network. TBD for RAID context.
file server A computer that serves files to clients. A file server may be a generalpurpose computer that’s capable of hosting additional applications or a computer
capable only of serving files.
file system A scheme for storing data on storage devices that allows applications to
read and write files without having to deal with lower-level details.
File Transfer Protocol See FTP.
FTP File Transfer Protocol. A protocol that allows computers to transfer files over a
network. FTP clients using any operating system that supports FTP can connect to a file
server and download files, depending on their access privileges. Most Internet browsers
and a number of freeware applications can be used to access an FTP server.
group A collection of users who have similar needs. Groups simplify the administration
of shared resources.
guest user A user who can log in to your server without a user name or password.
home directory A folder for a user’s personal use. Mac OS X also uses the home
directory, for example, to store system preferences and managed user settings for
Mac OS X users.
host Another name for a server.
host name A unique name for a server, historically referred to as the UNIX hostname.
The Mac OS X Server host name is used primarily for client access to NFS home
directories. A server determines its host name by using the first name available from
the following sources: the name specified in the /etc/hostconfig file
(HOSTNAME=some-host-name); the name provided by the DHCP or BootP server for
the primary IP address; the first name returned by a reverse DNS (address-to-name)
query for the primary IP address; the local hostname; the name “localhost.”
Glossary
57
Internet Generally speaking, a set of interconnected computer networks
communicating through a common protocol (TCP/IP). The Internet (note the
capitalization) is the most extensive publicly accessible system of interconnected
computer networks in the world.
Internet Protocol See IP.
IP Internet Protocol. Also known as IPv4. A method used with Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) to send data between computers over a local network or the Internet. IP
delivers packets of data, while TCP keeps track of data packets.
IP address A unique numeric address that identifies a computer on the Internet.
IP subnet A portion of an IP network, which may be a physically independent network
segment, that shares a network address with other portions of the network and is
identified by a subnet number.
Kerberos A secure network authentication system. Kerberos uses tickets, which are
issued for a specific user, service, and period of time. Once a user is authenticated, it’s
possible to access additional services without retyping a password (this is called single
sign-on) for services that have been configured to take Kerberos tickets. Mac OS X
Server uses Kerberos v5.
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A standard client-server protocol for
accessing a directory domain.
Line Printer Remote See LPR.
local hostname A name that designates a computer on a local subnet. It can be used
without a global DNS system to resolve names to IP addresses. It consists of lowercase
letters, numbers, or hyphens (except as the last characters), and ends with “.local” (e.g,
bills-computer.local). Although the name is derived by default from the computer
name, a user can specify this name in the Network pane of System Preferences. It can
be changed easily, and can be used anywhere a DNS name or fully qualified domain
name is used. It can only resolve on the same subnet as the computer using it.
LPR Line Printer Remote. A standard protocol for printing over TCP/IP.
Mac OS X The latest version of the Apple operating system. Mac OS X combines the
reliability of UNIX with the ease of use of Macintosh.
Mac OS X Server An industrial-strength server platform that supports Mac, Windows,
UNIX, and Linux clients out of the box and provides a suite of scalable workgroup and
network services plus advanced remote management tools.
58
Glossary
mount (verb) In general, to make a remote directory or volume available for access on
a local system. In Xsan, to cause an Xsan volume to appear on a client’s desktop, just
like a local disk.
Network File System See NFS.
network interface Your computer’s hardware connection to a network. This includes
(but isn’t limited to) Ethernet connections, AirPort cards, and FireWire connections.
NFS Network File System. A client/server protocol that uses Internet Protocol (IP) to
allow remote users to access files as though they were local. NFS exports shared
volumes to computers according to IP address, rather than user name and password.
nfsd daemon An NFS server process that runs continuously behind the scenes and
processes read and write requests from clients. The more daemons that are available,
the more concurrent clients can be served.
Open Directory The Apple directory services architecture, which can access
authoritative information about users and network resources from directory domains
that use LDAP, NetInfo, or Active Directory protocols; BSD configuration files; and
network services.
open source A term for the cooperative development of software by the Internet
community. The basic principle is to involve as many people as possible in writing and
debugging code by publishing the source code and encouraging the formation of a
large community of developers who will submit modifications and enhancements.
oplocks See opportunistic locking.
opportunistic locking Also known as oplocks. A feature of Windows services that
prevents users of shared files from changing the same file at the same time.
Opportunistic locking locks the file or part of the file for exclusive use, but also caches
the user’s changes locally on the client computer for improved performance.
owner The owner of an item can change access permissions to the item. The owner
may also change the group entry to any group in which the owner is a member. By
default the owner has Read & Write permissions.
password An alphanumeric string used to authenticate the identity of a user or to
authorize access to files or services.
pathname The location of an item within a file system, represented as a series of
names separated by slashes (/).
permissions Settings that define the kind of access users have to shared items in a file
system. You can assign four types of permissions to a share point, folder, or file: read/
write, read-only, write-only, and none (no access). See also privileges.
Glossary
59
print queue An orderly waiting area where print jobs wait until a printer is available.
The print service in Mac OS X Server uses print queues on the server to facilitate
management.
port A sort of virtual mail slot. A server uses port numbers to determine which
application should receive data packets. Firewalls use port numbers to determine
whether data packets are allowed to traverse a local network. “Port” usually refers to
either a TCP or UDP port.
privileges The right to access restricted areas of a system or perform certain tasks
(such as management tasks) in the system.
process A program that has started executing and has a portion of memory allocated
to it.
protocol A set of rules that determines how data is sent back and forth between two
applications.
QTSS QuickTime Streaming Server. A technology that lets you deliver media over the
Internet in real time.
QuickTime A set of Macintosh system extensions or a Windows dynamic-link library
that supports the composition and playing of movies.
QuickTime Streaming Server See QTSS.
queue An orderly waiting area where items wait for some type of attention from the
system. See also print queue.
Samba Open source software that provides file, print, authentication, authorization,
name resolution, and network service browsing to Windows clients using the SMB/CIFS
protocol.
server A computer that provides services (such as file service, mail service, or web
service) to other computers or network devices.
Server Message Block/Common Internet File System See SMB/CIFS.
share point A folder, hard disk (or hard disk partition), or CD that’s accessible over the
network. A share point is the point of access at the top level of a group of shared items.
Share points can be shared using AFP, Windows SMB, NFS (an “export”), or FTP
protocols.
short name An abbreviated name for a user. The short name is used by Mac OS X for
home directories, authentication, and email addresses.
60
Glossary
single sign-on An authentication strategy that relieves users from entering a name
and password separately for every network service. Mac OS X Server uses Kerberos to
enable single sign-on.
SLP DA Service Location Protocol Directory Agent. A protocol that registers services
available on a network and gives users easy access to them. When a service is added to
the network, the service uses SLP to register itself on the network. SLP/DA uses a
centralized repository for registered network services.
SMB/CIFS Server Message Block/Common Internet File System. A protocol that allows
client computers to access files and network services. It can be used over TCP/IP, the
Internet, and other network protocols. Windows services use SMB/CIFS to provide
access to servers, printers, and other network resources.
TCP Transmission Control Protocol. A method used along with the Internet Protocol
(IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. IP
takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, and TCP takes care of keeping
track of the individual units of data (called packets) into which a message is divided for
efficient routing through the Internet.
ticket, Kerberos A temporary credential that proves a Kerberos client’s identity to a
service.
Transmission Control Protocol See TCP.
UDP User Datagram Protocol. A communications method that uses the Internet
Protocol (IP) to send a data unit (called a datagram) from one computer to another in a
network. Network applications that have very small data units to exchange may use
UDP rather than TCP.
UID User ID. A number that uniquely identifies a user within a file system. Mac OS X
computers use the UID to keep track of a user’s directory and file ownership.
URL Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a computer, file, or resource that can be
accessed on a local network or the Internet. The URL is made up of the name of the
protocol needed to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific
computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file location on the
computer.
USB Universal Serial Bus. A standard for communicating between a computer and
external peripherals using an inexpensive direct-connect cable.
User Datagram Protocol See UDP.
user ID See UID.
Glossary
61
user name The long name for a user, sometimes referred to as the user’s “real” name.
See also short name.
volume A mountable allocation of storage that behaves, from the client’s perspective,
like a local hard disk, hard disk partition, or network volume. In Xsan, a volume consists
of one or more storage pools. See also logical disk.
WebDAV Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning. A live authoring
environment that allows client users to check out webpages, make changes, and then
check the pages back in while a site is running.
WINS Windows Internet Naming Service. A name resolution service used by Windows
computers to match client names with IP addresses. A WINS server can be located on
the local network or externally on the Internet.
62
Glossary
Index
Index
A
F
AFP service
described 8
AppleTalk printer
adding a queue 22
AppleTalk printing
Mac OS 8 or 9 clients 36
Mac OS X clients 34
authentication 19
file services
overview 7
related applications 8
FTP service
described 8
B
Bonjour 26, 35
C
Chooser
setting up printing via AppleTalk 36
client computers, Mac OS 8 and 9
setting up printing 36
client computers, Mac OS X
setting up printing 34
client computers, UNIX
setting up printing 37
client computers, Windows
setting up printing 37
Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS). See CUPS
configuring a queue 43
CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System) 13
CUPS (Common Unix Printing System)
log files 51
printer classes 18
D
default LPR queue
adding a queue 22
changing 44
deleting a job 49
deleting a queue 45
Desktop Printer Utility
setting up LPR printing 36
documentation 9
I
Inspector
in Server Admin 27
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). See IPP
IPP (Internet Printing Protocol)
print service and security 19
L
log files
archiving 51
CUPS 51
managing 50
naming convention 51
setting archival interval 25
viewing 39, 50
LPR printing
client chooses default queue 24
Mac OS 8 or 9 clients 36
Mac OS X clients 34
setting default queue 44
UNIX clients 37
N
naming printers and queues. See queue names
NFS service
described 8
O
Open Directory
listing LPR queues 27
P
PostScript Printer Description (PPD) file. See PPD files
PPD files
examining content 27
63
overview 33
specified in Open Directory 27
viewing installed 33
printer classes 18
printer names. See queue names
Printer Setup Utility
setting up a printer class 18
print jobs
deleting 49
holding 47
monitoring 46
restarting 48
print queues. See queues
print service
adding queues 22
applications for managing 13
monitoring 39
overview 13
setting up Mac OS 8 and 9 clients 36
setting up Mac OS X clients 34
setup overview 21
starting 28, 29
stopping 40
supported clients 17
supported printers 16
troubleshooting 53
UNIX clients 37
Windows clients 37
Q
queue names
changing 44
considerations and restrictions 23
sharing name 23
queues
adding 22
default 44
deleting 45
listing in Open Directory 27
monitoring 41
overview 14–15
reconfiguring 43
renaming 44
restarting 43
stopping 42
quotas
enforcing 29
managing 49
overview 29
security of 19
setting up 29
64
Index
R
restarting a queue 43
S
Server Admin
adding queues 22
archiving log files 51
changing print queue quotas 49
deleting print jobs 49
deleting print queues 45
enforcing quotas for queues 29–31
holding print jobs 47
Inspector 27
monitoring print jobs 46
monitoring print queues 41
monitoring print service 39
reconfiguring print queues 43
renaming print queues 44
restarting print jobs 48
restarting print queues 43
specifying default LPR queue 44
stopping print queues 42
stopping print service 40
viewing print logs 50
server administration guides 9
sharing name 44
sheet count
checking a job’s 46
SMB printing
Windows clients 37
starting a queue 43
starting print service 28, 29
stopping a queue 42
stopping print service 40
T
troubleshooting 53
U
Universal Serial Bus (USB). See USB printers
USB (Universal Serial Bus) printers 16
V
viewing log files 50
W
Windows services
described 8
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