Installation Guide - Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for all

Installation Guide - Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for all
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Installation Guide
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for all architectures
Rüdiger Landmann
David Cantrell
Hans De Goede
Jon Masters
Installation Guide
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for all architectures
Edition 1.0
Author
Author
Author
Author
Editor
Rüdiger Landmann
David Cantrell
Hans De Goede
Jon Masters
Rüdiger Landmann
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Copyright © 2010 Red Hat, Inc. and others.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons
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at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this
document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert,
Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity
Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
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Phone: +1 919 754 3700
Phone: 888 733 4281
Fax: +1 919 754 3701
This manual explains how to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation program (anaconda)
and to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 systems, 64-bit POWER systems,
and IBM System z. It also covers advanced installation methods such as kickstart installations, PXE
installations, and installations over VNC. Finally, it describes common post-installation tasks and
explains how to troubleshoot installation problems.
Preface
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1. Document Conventions .................................................................................................. xv
1.1. Typographic Conventions .................................................................................... xv
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions ....................................................................................... xvi
1.3. Notes and Warnings .......................................................................................... xvii
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback ................................................................................ xvii
2.1. Do You Need Help? .......................................................................................... xvii
2.2. We Need Feedback! ......................................................................................... xviii
3. Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... xviii
Introduction
xix
1. What's New in this Edition? ........................................................................................... xix
2. Architecture-specific Information .................................................................................... xix
3. Installation in Virtualized Environments .......................................................................... xix
4. More to Come ............................................................................................................... xx
5. Where to Find Other Manuals ........................................................................................ xx
1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
1
2. Making Media
2.1. Making an installation DVD ...........................................................................................
2.2. Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation source .....................................................
2.3. Making Minimal Boot Media ..........................................................................................
2.3.1. UEFI-based systems ..........................................................................................
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I. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting
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3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install? .............................................................................................
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible? ............................................................................
3.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices ............................................................................
3.3.1. Hardware RAID ......................................................................................
3.3.2. Software RAID .......................................................................................
3.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks .........................................................................
3.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space? .....................................................................
3.5. Selecting an Installation Method ..........................................................................
3.6. Choose a boot method .......................................................................................
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4. Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation .....................................................................
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation ...................................................
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation ..............................................................
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation .................................................................
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5. System Specifications List
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6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation .....................................................
6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation ....................................................
6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file ...............................................
6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc .............................................................................
6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update ........................................................
6.3. Performing a driver update during installation .......................................................
6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk ...............................
6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update ..........................................
6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk .......................................
6.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update .......................................
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6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk ................ 30
7. Booting the Installer
7.1. Starting the Installation Program .........................................................................
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems ........
7.1.2. Additional Boot Options ............................................................................
7.2. The Boot Menu ..................................................................................................
7.3. Installing from a Different Source .......................................................................
7.4. Booting from the Network using PXE ..................................................................
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8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...............................................
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ...............................................................
8.2. Language Selection ............................................................................................
8.3. Installation Method .............................................................................................
8.3.1. Installing from DVD ..................................................................................
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive ......................................................................
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation .............................................................
8.3.4. Installing via NFS ....................................................................................
8.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP .......................................................................
8.4. Verifying Media ..................................................................................................
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9. Installing using anaconda
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9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ............................................... 53
9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ................................................ 53
9.2.1. Screenshots during installation ................................................................. 54
9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles .................................................................. 54
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ................................................................. 55
9.4. Keyboard Configuration ...................................................................................... 55
9.5. Storage Devices ................................................................................................. 56
9.5.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen .................................................... 57
9.6. Setting the Hostname ......................................................................................... 63
9.6.1. Edit Network Connections ........................................................................ 64
9.7. Time Zone Configuration ..................................................................................... 73
9.8. Set the Root Password ....................................................................................... 75
9.9. Assign Storage Devices ..................................................................................... 76
9.10. Initializing the Hard Disk ................................................................................... 78
9.11. Upgrading an Existing System .......................................................................... 79
9.11.1. The Upgrade Dialog .............................................................................. 79
9.11.2. Upgrading Using the Installer ................................................................. 80
9.11.3. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration ..................................................... 81
9.12. Disk Partitioning Setup ...................................................................................... 82
9.13. Encrypt Partitions ............................................................................................ 84
9.14. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ................................. 85
9.14.1. Create Storage ..................................................................................... 87
9.14.2. Adding Partitions .................................................................................... 88
9.14.3. Create Software RAID .......................................................................... 91
9.14.4. Create LVM Logical Volume .................................................................. 94
9.14.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ........................................................ 97
9.15. Write changes to disk ..................................................................................... 101
9.16. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration ........................................ 101
9.16.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration .................................................... 104
9.16.2. Rescue Mode ...................................................................................... 105
9.16.3. Alternative Boot Loaders ...................................................................... 106
9.17. Package Group Selection ................................................................................ 106
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9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories ...................................................
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection .....................................................
9.18. Installing Packages .........................................................................................
9.19. Installation Complete .......................................................................................
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10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..............................................
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card? ......................................
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? ..........................................
10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation ....................................................................
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation ..............................
10.3. Trouble During the Installation .........................................................................
10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message ................................................................................................
10.3.2. Saving traceback messages .................................................................
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables .................................................................
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space .......................................................................
10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems ..................................................................
10.3.6. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ............................................................
10.4. Problems After Installation ...............................................................................
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System? .......
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment ....................................................
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI) ...........................................
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users .....................
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In .........................................................
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized? ....................................................
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work ..................................................................
10.4.8. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ................
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II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting
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11. Planning for Installation on the POWER Architecture
11.1. Upgrade or Install? .........................................................................................
11.2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p .............................................................
11.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices ........................................................................
11.3.1. Hardware RAID ...................................................................................
11.3.2. Software RAID ....................................................................................
11.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks ......................................................................
11.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space? ..................................................................
11.5. Choose a boot method ....................................................................................
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12. Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation .................................................................
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation ................................................
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation ..........................................................
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation .............................................................
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13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation .................................................
13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation ................................................
13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file ............................................
13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc .........................................................................
13.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update .....................................................
13.3. Performing a driver update during installation ...................................................
13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk ............................
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13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update ......................................
13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk ....................................
13.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update ...................................
13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk ............
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14. Booting the Installer
14.1. The Boot Menu ..............................................................................................
14.2. Installing from a Different Source ....................................................................
14.3. Booting from the Network using PXE ..............................................................
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15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...........................................
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ............................................................
15.2. Language Selection ........................................................................................
15.3. Installation Method ..........................................................................................
15.3.1. Beginning Installation ..........................................................................
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive ..................................................................
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation ..........................................................
15.3.4. Installing via NFS .................................................................................
15.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP ...................................................................
15.4. Verifying Media ...............................................................................................
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16. Installing using anaconda
16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...........................................
16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ............................................
16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles ................................................................
16.4. Using the HMC vterm .....................................................................................
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..............................................................
16.6. Storage Devices .............................................................................................
16.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen .................................................
16.7. Keyboard Configuration ...................................................................................
16.8. Setting the Hostname .....................................................................................
16.8.1. Edit Network Connections .....................................................................
16.9. Time Zone Configuration .................................................................................
16.10. Set the Root Password .................................................................................
16.11. Assign Storage Devices ...............................................................................
16.12. Initializing the Hard Disk ................................................................................
16.13. Upgrading an Existing System ......................................................................
16.13.1. The Upgrade Dialog ..........................................................................
16.13.2. Upgrading Using the Installer .............................................................
16.14. Disk Partitioning Setup ..................................................................................
16.15. Encrypt Partitions ........................................................................................
16.16. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout .............................
16.16.1. Create Storage .................................................................................
16.16.2. Adding Partitions ................................................................................
16.16.3. Create Software RAID .......................................................................
16.16.4. Create LVM Logical Volume ...............................................................
16.16.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ....................................................
16.17. Write changes to disk ....................................................................................
16.18. Package Group Selection ..............................................................................
16.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories .................................................
16.18.2. Customizing the Software Selection ...................................................
16.19. Installing Packages .......................................................................................
16.20. Installation Complete .....................................................................................
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17. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System
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17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..............................................
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? ..........................................
17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation ....................................................................
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation ..............................
17.3. Trouble During the Installation .........................................................................
17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message ................................................................................................
17.3.2. Saving traceback messages .................................................................
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables .................................................................
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users ................
17.3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ............................................................
17.4. Problems After Installation ...............................................................................
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG ..............................................................
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment ....................................................
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI) ...........................................
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users .....................
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In .........................................................
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work ..................................................................
17.4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ................
III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting
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18. Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation ................................................................................................
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure ...............................................
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer .....................................................................
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1 ..............................................................................
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2 ..............................................................................
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3 ..............................................................................
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC ........................................................
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding ...........................................................
18.3.2. Installation using X11 ...........................................................................
18.3.3. Installation using VNC ..........................................................................
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener ...........................................................
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart ...............................................
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19. Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation .................................................................
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation ................................................
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation ..........................................................
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation .............................................................
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard
Drive ...............................................................................................................
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20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
20.1. Installing under z/VM ......................................................................................
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader ........................................................................
20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD .......................................................................
20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk ............................................
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive ...............................................
20.2. Installing in an LPAR ......................................................................................
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server ...........................................................................
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive ..........................................................
20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD .......................................................................
20.2.4. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk ............................................
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20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive ............................................... 242
21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
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21.1. A Note on Terminals ....................................................................................... 246
22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation ..............................................................
22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...........................................
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ............................................................
22.3. Language Selection ........................................................................................
22.4. Installation Method ..........................................................................................
22.4.1. Installing from DVD ..............................................................................
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive ..................................................................
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation ..........................................................
22.4.4. Installing via NFS .................................................................................
22.4.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP ...................................................................
22.5. Verifying Media ...............................................................................................
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program .................................................
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23. Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda
23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation Program Output ........................
23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...........................................
23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ............................................
23.4. Configure the Install Terminal ..........................................................................
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..............................................................
23.6. Storage Devices .............................................................................................
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen .................................................
23.7. Setting the Hostname .....................................................................................
23.7.1. Edit Network Connections .....................................................................
23.8. Time Zone Configuration .................................................................................
23.9. Set the Root Password ...................................................................................
23.10. Assign Storage Devices ...............................................................................
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk ................................................................................
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System ......................................................................
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer .............................................................
23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup ..................................................................................
23.14. Encrypt Partitions ........................................................................................
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout .............................
23.15.1. Create Storage .................................................................................
23.15.2. Adding Partitions ................................................................................
23.15.3. Create Software RAID .......................................................................
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume ...............................................................
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ....................................................
23.16. Write changes to disk ....................................................................................
23.17. Package Group Selection ..............................................................................
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories .................................................
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection ...................................................
23.18. Installing Packages .......................................................................................
23.19. Installation Complete .....................................................................................
23.19.1. IPL under z/VM ..................................................................................
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR .................................................................................
23.19.3. Continuing after Reboot (re-IPL) ..........................................................
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24. Troubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
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24.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux .............................................. 305
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? .......................................... 305
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24.2. Trouble During the Installation .........................................................................
24.2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message ................................................................................................
24.2.2. Saving traceback messages .................................................................
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems ..................................................................
24.2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ............................................................
24.3. Problems After Installation ...............................................................................
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP ..............................................
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In .........................................................
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work ..................................................................
24.3.4. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ................
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25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
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25.1. Adding DASDs ............................................................................................... 313
25.1.1. Dynamically setting DASDs online ......................................................... 313
25.1.2. Preparing a new DASD with low-level formatting .................................... 314
25.1.3. Persistently setting DASDs online ......................................................... 315
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs) ...................................................... 318
25.2.1. Dynamically activating an FCP LUN ...................................................... 318
25.2.2. Persistently activating FCP LUNs .......................................................... 319
25.3. Adding a Network Device ................................................................................ 321
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device ........................................................................... 322
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device ......................................................................... 327
25.3.3. Mapping subchannels and network device names .................................. 329
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System..... 330
26. Parameter and Configuration Files
26.1. Required parameters ......................................................................................
26.2. The z/VM configuration file ..............................................................................
26.3. Installation network parameters .......................................................................
26.4. VNC and X11 parameters ...............................................................................
26.5. Loader parameters ..........................................................................................
26.6. Parameters for kickstart installations ................................................................
26.7. Miscellaneous parameters ...............................................................................
26.8. Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file .............................................
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27. IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications ..............................................................................
27.2. IBM Redbooks for System z ............................................................................
27.3. Online resources ............................................................................................
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IV. Advanced installation options
28. Boot Options
28.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu ........................................
28.1.1. Specifying the Language ......................................................................
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface ......................................................................
28.1.3. Updating anaconda ..............................................................................
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method .........................................................
28.1.5. Manually Configuring the Network Settings ............................................
28.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System ..........................................
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC .......................................................
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener .............................
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet .....................................................
28.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation .........................................
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28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server ......................................................................
28.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart ..........................................................
28.5. Enhancing Hardware Support ..........................................................................
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection ..............................................
28.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes .................................................................
28.6.1. Verifying boot media .............................................................................
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode .......................................
28.6.3. Upgrading your computer .....................................................................
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29. Installing Without Media
29.1. Retrieving Boot Files .......................................................................................
29.2. Editing the GRUB Configuration ......................................................................
29.3. Booting to Installation ......................................................................................
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30. Setting Up an Installation Server
30.1. Setting up the Network Server .........................................................................
30.2. PXE Boot Configuration ..................................................................................
30.3. Configuring the DHCP Server ..........................................................................
30.4. Starting the tftp Server .................................................................................
30.5. Adding a Custom Boot Message .....................................................................
30.6. Performing the PXE Installation .......................................................................
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31. Installing Through VNC
31.1. VNC Viewer ...................................................................................................
31.2. VNC Modes in Anaconda ................................................................................
31.2.1. Direct Mode .........................................................................................
31.2.2. Connect Mode .....................................................................................
31.3. Installation Using VNC ....................................................................................
31.3.1. Installation Example .............................................................................
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations .......................................................................
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations ........................................................................
31.4. References .....................................................................................................
357
357
357
358
358
358
359
359
360
360
32. Kickstart Installations
32.1. What are Kickstart Installations? ......................................................................
32.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation? ...................................................
32.3. Creating the Kickstart File ...............................................................................
32.4. Kickstart Options ............................................................................................
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example .............................................................
32.5. Package Selection ..........................................................................................
32.6. Pre-installation Script ......................................................................................
32.6.1. Example ..............................................................................................
32.7. Post-installation Script .....................................................................................
32.7.1. Examples ............................................................................................
32.8. Making the Kickstart File Available ...................................................................
32.8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media ...............................................................
32.8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network .................................
32.9. Making the Installation Tree Available ..............................................................
32.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation .......................................................................
361
361
361
361
362
382
383
384
384
385
386
386
387
387
388
388
33. Kickstart Configurator
33.1. Basic Configuration .........................................................................................
33.2. Installation Method ..........................................................................................
33.3. Boot Loader Options .......................................................................................
33.4. Partition Information ........................................................................................
33.4.1. Creating Partitions ................................................................................
395
395
396
397
398
399
33.5. Network Configuration .....................................................................................
33.6. Authentication .................................................................................................
33.7. Firewall Configuration .....................................................................................
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration ..........................................................................
33.8. Display Configuration ......................................................................................
33.9. Package Selection ..........................................................................................
33.10. Pre-Installation Script ....................................................................................
33.11. Post-Installation Script ...................................................................................
33.11.1. Chroot Environment ............................................................................
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter ..............................................................................
33.12. Saving the File .............................................................................................
V. After installation
403
404
404
405
405
406
407
408
409
409
409
411
34. Firstboot
34.1. License Agreement .........................................................................................
34.2. Set Up Software Updates ................................................................................
34.2.1. Choose Server .....................................................................................
34.2.2. Red Hat Login .....................................................................................
34.2.3. Create Profile ......................................................................................
34.2.4. Review Subscription .............................................................................
34.2.5. Finish Updates Setup ...........................................................................
34.3. Create User ....................................................................................................
34.3.1. Authentication Configuration .................................................................
34.4. Date and Time ...............................................................................................
34.5. Kdump ...........................................................................................................
413
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
422
423
424
35. Your Next Steps
35.1. Updating Your System ....................................................................................
35.1.1. Driver update rpm packages .................................................................
35.2. Finishing an Upgrade ......................................................................................
35.3. Switching to a Graphical Login ........................................................................
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line .........
427
427
427
429
430
431
36. Basic System Recovery
36.1. Rescue Mode .................................................................................................
36.1.1. Common Problems ..............................................................................
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode ....................................................................
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode ..............................................................
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode ..............................................................
36.2. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems .................................................................
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue
Mode ..............................................................................................................
435
435
435
435
438
438
439
439
37. Upgrading Your Current System
441
37.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install .................................................. 441
37.2. Upgrading Your System .................................................................................. 442
38. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
38.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on the computer ..............
38.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating
system ....................................................................................................................
38.2.1. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft
Windows operating system ..............................................................................
38.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux
distribution ......................................................................................................
445
445
446
447
451
xi
Installation Guide
38.3. Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or legacy versions of
Microsoft Windows .................................................................................................. 454
39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM System z
457
39.1. Running a Different Operating System on your z/VM Guest or LPAR .................. 457
VI. Technical appendixes
A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
A.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts ................................................................................
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It ........................................
A.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many ..................................................
A.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions ..............
A.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux ............................................
A.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme .......................................................................
A.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems ..........................................
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points ............................................................
A.1.8. How Many Partitions? ............................................................................
459
461
461
461
462
465
465
469
470
470
471
B. ISCSI disks
473
B.1. iSCSI disks in anaconda .................................................................................. 473
B.2. iSCSI disks during start up ............................................................................... 473
C. Disk Encryption
C.1. What is block device encryption? .....................................................................
C.2. Encrypting block devices using dm-crypt/LUKS .................................................
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS ................................................................................
C.2.2. How will I access the encrypted devices after installation? (System
Startup) .........................................................................................................
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase ..............................................................
C.3. Creating Encrypted Block Devices in Anaconda ................................................
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted? ...................................
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases ..............................................................................
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases ..............................................
C.4. Creating Encrypted Block Devices on the Installed System After Installation ........
C.4.1. Create the block devices ......................................................................
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the device with random data ...............................................
C.4.3. Format the device as a dm-crypt/LUKS encrypted device ........................
C.4.4. Create a mapping to allow access to the device's decrypted contents .......
C.4.5. Create filesystems on the mapped device, or continue to build complex
storage structures using the mapped device ....................................................
C.4.6. Add the mapping information to /etc/crypttab ...................................
C.4.7. Add an entry to /etc/fstab ................................................................
C.5. Common Post-Installation Tasks ......................................................................
C.5.1. Set a randomly generated key as an additional way to access an
encrypted block device ....................................................................................
C.5.2. Add a new passphrase to an existing device ..........................................
C.5.3. Remove a passphrase or key from a device ...........................................
xii
475
475
475
475
476
476
476
476
477
477
477
477
477
478
478
479
479
479
480
480
480
480
D. Understanding LVM
481
E. The GRUB Boot Loader
E.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture ..............................................................
E.2. GRUB ..............................................................................................................
E.2.1. GRUB and the x86 Boot Process ...........................................................
E.2.2. Features of GRUB .................................................................................
483
483
483
483
484
E.3. Installing GRUB ...............................................................................................
E.4. GRUB Terminology ...........................................................................................
E.4.1. Device Names .......................................................................................
E.4.2. File Names and Blocklists ......................................................................
E.4.3. The Root File System and GRUB ...........................................................
E.5. GRUB Interfaces ..............................................................................................
E.5.1. Interfaces Load Order ............................................................................
E.6. GRUB Commands ............................................................................................
E.7. GRUB Menu Configuration File .........................................................................
E.7.1. Configuration File Structure ....................................................................
E.7.2. Configuration File Directives ...................................................................
E.8. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time .....................................................................
E.9. Additional Resources ........................................................................................
E.9.1. Installed Documentation .........................................................................
E.9.2. Useful Websites ....................................................................................
E.9.3. Related Books .......................................................................................
485
485
485
486
487
487
488
488
490
490
491
492
493
493
493
493
F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
F.1. The Boot Process .............................................................................................
F.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process .................................................................
F.2.1. The BIOS ..............................................................................................
F.2.2. The Boot Loader ....................................................................................
F.2.3. The Kernel ............................................................................................
F.2.4. The /sbin/init Program .....................................................................
F.2.5. Job definitions ........................................................................................
F.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time ........................................................
F.4. SysV Init Runlevels ...........................................................................................
F.4.1. Runlevels ..............................................................................................
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities ....................................................................................
F.5. Shutting Down ..................................................................................................
495
495
495
495
496
497
497
500
501
501
501
502
502
G. Alternatives to busybox commands
505
H. Other Technical Documentation
515
I. Revision History
517
Index
519
xiii
xiv
Preface
1. Document Conventions
This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to
specific pieces of information.
1
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The
Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not,
alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later includes
the Liberation Fonts set by default.
1.1. Typographic Conventions
Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These
conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight
keycaps and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current
working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the
shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a keycap, all presented in mono-spaced bold
and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key
combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to the first virtual terminal. Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to
return to your X-Windows session.
The first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. The second highlights two key
combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously).
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values
mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for
directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text;
labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose System → Preferences → Mouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse
Preferences. In the Buttons tab, click the Left-handed mouse check box and click
1
https://fedorahosted.org/liberation-fonts/
xv
Preface
Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse
suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose Applications → Accessories
→ Character Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose Search → Find… from the
Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click
Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Doubleclick this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the
Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose Edit → Paste from the
gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific
menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and
all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or
variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on
circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh [email protected] at
a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that
machine is john, type ssh [email protected]
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file
system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o
remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package
command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and
release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text
displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and
important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books
books_tests
Desktop
Desktop1
documentation
downloads
drafts
images
mss
notes
photos
scripts
stuff
svgs
svn
Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
package org.jboss.book.jca.ex1;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
xvi
Notes and Warnings
public class ExClient
{
public static void main(String args[])
throws Exception
{
InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
Object
ref
= iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
EchoHome
home
= (EchoHome) ref;
Echo
echo
= home.create();
System.out.println("Created Echo");
System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));
}
}
1.3. Notes and Warnings
Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.
Note
Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should
have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.
Important
Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to
the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box
labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.
Warning
Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
2.1. Do You Need Help?
If you experience difficulty with a procedure described in this documentation, visit the Red Hat
Customer Portal at http://access.redhat.com. Through the customer portal, you can:
• search or browse through a knowledgebase of technical support articles about Red Hat products.
• submit a support case to Red Hat Global Support Services (GSS).
• access other product documentation.
Red Hat also hosts a large number of electronic mailing lists for discussion of Red Hat software and
technology. You can find a list of publicly available mailing lists at https://www.redhat.com/mailman/
listinfo. Click on the name of any mailing list to subscribe to that list or to access the list archives. xvii
Preface
2.2. We Need Feedback!
If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual
better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/
against the product Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual's identifier: doc-Installation_Guide
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when
describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the
surrounding text so we can find it easily.
3. Acknowledgements
Certain portions of this text first appeared in the Fedora Installation Guide, copyright © 2009 Red Hat,
Inc. and others, published by the Fedora Project at http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/.
xviii
Introduction
Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.
HTML and PDF versions of the guides are available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to the documentation
being finalized. You can find the Release Notes on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD,
online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the /usr/share/doc/redhat-releasenotes-6<variant>/ directory after installation, where <variant> is Server, Client, or
Desktop.
1. What's New in this Edition?
Be sure to review the Appendix I, Revision History for features and bug fixes for this manual.
2. Architecture-specific Information
This manual is divided into different sections:
Part I, “ x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting”, Part II, “IBM POWER Architecture
- Installation and Booting”, and Part III, “IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting” are
architecture specific, and give instructions on installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 with specific
reference to 32- and 64-bit Intel and AMD systems, IBM POWER-based systems, and IBM System z
architecture systems, respectively.
Part IV, “Advanced installation options” covers more advanced methods of installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, including: boot options, installing without mediam, installing through VNC, and using
kickstart to automate the installation process.
Part V, “After installation” deals with a number of common tasks, covers finalizing the installation and,
as well as some installation-related tasks that you might perform at some time in the future. These
include using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disk to rescue a damaged system, upgrading to a
new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer.
Part VI, “Technical appendixes” does not contain procedures, but provides technical background that
you might find helpful to understand the options that Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you at various
points in the installation process.
3. Installation in Virtualized Environments
Virtualization is a broad computing term for running software, usually operating systems, concurrently
and isolated from other programs on one system. Virtualization uses a hypervisor, a software layer
that controls hardware and provides guest operating systems with access to underlying hardware. The
hypervisor allows multiple operating systems to run on the same physical system by giving the guest
operating system virtualized hardware.
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 as a fully virtualized guest on a 64-bit x86 host system or in
a logical partition (LPAR) on a POWER or IBM System z system.
xix
Introduction
For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment
on a 64-bit x86 host system, refer to "Part II. Installation" in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Virtualization Guide, available from http://docs.redhat.com/. For more information about installing
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment under PowerVM on IBM System p, refer
to PowerVM Virtualization on IBM System p: Introduction and Configuration, available from http://
publib-b.boulder.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html. For more information about installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment under z/VM on System z, refer to Part III, “IBM
System z Architecture - Installation and Booting” in this guide.
4. More to Come
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide is part of Red Hat's ongoing commitment to provide
useful and timely support and information to Red Hat Enterprise Linux users.
5. Where to Find Other Manuals
Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals are available online at https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/
manuals/.
In addition to this manual, which covers installation, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide
contains further information on system administration and security.
HTML and PDF versions of the guides are available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to the documentation
being finalized. You can find the Release Notes on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD,
online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the /usr/share/doc/redhat-releasenotes-6<variant>/ directory after installation, where <variant> is Server, Client, or
Desktop.
xx
Chapter 1.
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
If you have a Red Hat subscription, you can download ISO image files of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 installation DVD from the Software & Download Center that is part of the Red Hat customer portal.
If you do not already have a subscription, either purchase one or obtain a free evaluation subscription
from the Software & Download Center at https://access.redhat.com/downloads.
If you have a subscription or evaluation subscription, follow these steps to obtain the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 ISO image files:
1.
Visit the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login and enter your Login and Password.
2.
Click Downloads to visit the Software & Download Center.
3.
Click the Download your software link to obtain a list of all currently supported Red Hat
Enterprise Linux products.
4.
Select a version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and click on the link to that version. Note that you
only need to select the most current version of the product; each release is a complete, functional
version of the operating system and does not require previous releases. Ensure that you select a
server release if you plan to deploy Red Hat Enterprise Linux to a server, or a desktop release
if you plan to deploy to a client machine.
1
Chapter 1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5.
Each version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is available as an ISO image file for a single DVD,
around 3 GB – 4 GB in size.
Figure 1.1. Selecting ISO Image Files
This same page contains links to ISO image files for the source code for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. You do not need to download the source code to install the operating system.
The page also contains links to ISO image files to make minimal boot media. These image
files are always named boot.iso and are around 150 MB in size. You cannot install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from these files, but you can use these files to create bootable CDs, DVDs, or
USB devices with which you can boot a system when you plan to complete the installation from
an installation source available on a hard disk or over a network connection. Refer to Section 2.3,
“Making Minimal Boot Media” for information on how to use the boot.iso file.
Note that the link to every image file is accompanied by a checksum. You can use this value to
verify that a Red Hat Enterprise Linux image file is geniune and uncorrupted.
After you download an ISO image file of the installation DVD from the Red Hat Network, you can:
• burn it to a physical DVD (refer to Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD”).
• transfer it to a USB device (refer to Section 2.2, “Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation
source”).
2
• use it to prepare minimal boot media (refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media”).
• place it on a server to prepare for installations over a network (refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing for
a Network Installation” for x86 architectures, Section 12.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation” for
POWER or Section 19.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation” for IBM System z).
• place it on a hard drive to prepare for installation to use the hard drive as an installation source
(refer to Section 4.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for x86 architectures, Section 12.2,
“Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for POWER or Section 19.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive
Installation” for IBM System z).
• place it on a pre-boot execution environment (PXE) server to prepare for installations using PXE
boot (refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server).
3
4
Chapter 2.
Making Media
Use the methods described in this section to create the following types of installation and boot media:
• an installation DVD
• a USB flash drive to use as an installation source
• a minimal boot CD or DVD that can boot the installer
• a USB flash drive to boot the installer
The following table indicates the types of boot and installation media available for different
architectures and notes the image file that you need to produce the media.
Table 2.1. Boot and installation media
Architecture
Installation DVD
Installation USB
flash drive
Boot CD or boot
DVD
Boot USB flash
drive
BIOS-based 32bit x86
x86 DVD ISO
image file
x86 DVD ISO
image file
boot.iso
boot.iso
UEFI-based 32-bit
x86
Not available
BIOS-based
AMD64 and
Intel 64
x86_64 DVD
ISO image file
(to install 64-bit
operating system)
or x86 DVD ISO
image file (to
install 32-bit
operating system)
x86_64 DVD
ISO image file
(to install 64-bit
operating system)
or x86 DVD ISO
image file (to
install 32-bit
operating system)
boot.iso
boot.iso
UEFI-based
AMD64 and
Intel 64
x86_64 DVD ISO
image file
Not available
Not available
efiboot.img
(from x86_64
DVD ISO image
file)
POWER (64-bit
only)
ppc DVD ISO
image file
Not available
boot.iso
Not available
System z
s390 DVD ISO
image file
Not available
Not available
Not available
2.1. Making an installation DVD
You can make an installation DVD using the CD or DVD burning software on your computer.
The exact series of steps that produces a DVD from an ISO image file varies greatly from computer to
computer, depending on the operating system and disc burning software installed. Use this procedure
as a general guide. You might be able to omit certain steps on your computer, or might have to
perform some of the steps in a different order from the order described here.
Make sure that your disc burning software is capable of burning discs from image files. Although this is
true of most disc burning software, exceptions exist.
In particular, note that the disc burning feature built into Windows XP and Windows Vista cannot burn
DVDs; and that earlier Windows operating systems did not have any disc burning capability installed
5
Chapter 2. Making Media
by default at all. Therefore, if your computer has a Windows operating system prior to Windows 7
installed on it, you need a separate piece of software for this task. Examples of popular disc burning
software for Windows that you might already have on your computer include Nero Burning ROM and
Roxio Creator.
Most widely used disc burning software for Linux, such as Brasero and K3b has the built-in ability to
burn discs from ISO image files.
1.
Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD as described in
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
2.
Insert a blank, writeable DVD into your computer's DVD burner. On some computers, a window
opens and displays various options when you insert the disc. If you see a window like this, look for
an option to launch your chosen disc burning program. If you do not see an option like this, close
the window and launch the program manually.
3.
Launch your disc burning program. On some computers, you can do this by right-clicking (or
control-clicking) on the image file and selecting a menu option with a label like Copy image to
DVD, or Copy CD or DVD image. Other computers might provide you with a menu option to
launch your chosen disc burning program, either directly or with an option like Open With. If
none of these options are available on your computer, launch the program from an icon on your
desktop, in a menu of applications such as the Start menu on Windows operating systems.
4.
In your disc burning program, select the option to burn a disc from an image file. For example, in
Brasero, this option is called Burn image.
Note that you can skip this step when using certain disc burning software.
5.
Browse to the ISO image file that you downloaded previously and select it for burning.
6.
Click the button that starts the burning process.
On some computers, the option to burn a disc from an ISO file is integrated into a context menu in
the file browser. For example, when you right-click an ISO file on a computer with a Linux or UNIX
operating system that runs the GNOME desktop, the Nautilus file browser presents you with the
option to Write to disk.
2.2. Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation source
Unusual USB Media
In a few cases with oddly formatted or partitioned USB media, image writing may fail.
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on 32-bit x86 systems and BIOS-based AMD64 and Intel 64
systems using a USB flash drive, provided that your hardware supports booting from this type of
device. Note that you cannot install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on POWER systems or UEFI-based
AMD64 and Intel 64 systems from a USB flash drive, although you can use a USB flash drive to
boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer on UEFI-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems — refer to
Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media”.
This procedure describes the steps to take on a system that runs Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but the
commands are broadly similar for any Linux or UNIX operating system.
6
Making Minimal Boot Media
Warning — These instructions could destroy data
When you perform this procedure any data on the USB flash drive is destroyed with no warning.
Make sure that you specify the correct USB flash drive, and make sure that this flash drive does
not contain any data that you want to keep.
1.
Plug in your USB flash drive.
2.
Find the device name for your USB flash drive. If the flash drive has a volume name, look up the
name in /dev/disk/by-label, or use findfs:
su -c 'findfs LABEL="MyLabel"'
If the media does not have a volume name, or you do not know it, run dmesg after you connect
the USB flash drive. The device name, similar to /dev/sdc, appears in several lines towards the
end of the output.
3.
Use the dd command to transfer the ISO image to the USB device:
dd if=path/image_name.iso of=device
where path/image_name.iso is the ISO image file of the installation DVD that you downloaded
from the Red Hat Customer Portal and device is the USB flash drive. For example:
dd if=~/Download/RHEL6-Server-i386-DVD.iso of=/dev/sdc
2.3. Making Minimal Boot Media
A piece of minimal boot media is a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive that contains the software to boot
the system and launch the installation program, but which does not contain the software that must be
transferred to the system to create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Use minimal boot media:
• to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux over a network
• to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a hard drive
• to use a kickstart file during installation (refer to Section 32.8.1, “Creating Kickstart Boot Media”
• to commence a network or hard-drive installation or to use an anaconda update or a kickstart file
with a DVD installation.
You can use minimal boot media to start the installation process on 32-bit x86 systems, AMD64 or
Intel 64 systems, and POWER systems. The process by which you create minimal boot media for
systems of these various types is identical except in the case of AMD64 and Intel 64 systems with
UEFI firmware interfaces — refer to Section 2.3.1, “UEFI-based systems”.
To make minimal boot media for 32-bit x86 systems, BIOS-based AMD64 or Intel 64 systems, and
POWER systems:
7
Chapter 2. Making Media
1.
Download the ISO image file named boot.iso that is available at the same location as the
images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD — refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
2.
Burn boot.iso to a blank CD or DVD using the same procedure detailed in Section 2.1, “Making
an installation DVD” for the installation disc, or transfer the boot.iso file to a USB device with
the dd command as detailed in Section 2.2, “Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation
source”. As the boot.iso file is only around 200 MB in size, you do not need an especially large
USB flash drive.
2.3.1. UEFI-based systems
Red Hat does not provide an image to produce minimal boot CDs or DVDs for UEFI-based systems.
Use a USB flash drive (as described in this section) to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installer,
or use the installation DVD with the linux askmethod option to boot the installer from DVD
and continue installation from a different installation source — refer to Section 3.5, “Selecting an
Installation Method”.
Use the efidisk.img file in the images/ directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation
DVD to produce a bootable USB flash drive for UEFI-based systems.
1.
Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD as described in
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
2.
Become root:
su -
3.
Create a mount point for the ISO image file:
mkdir /mnt/dvdiso
4.
Mount the image file:
mount DVD.iso /mnt/dvdiso -o loop
Where DVD.iso is the name of the ISO image file, for example RHEL6-Server-x86_64DVD.iso.
5.
Transfer efidisk.img from the ISO image file to your USB flash drive:
dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/device_name
For example:
dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/sdc
6.
Unmount the ISO image file:
umount /mnt/dvdiso
8
Part I. x86, AMD64, and Intel
64 — Installation and Booting
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for Intel and AMD 32-bit and 64-bit systems discusses
the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. For
advanced installation options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced installation options”.
Chapter 3.
Planning for Installation on the x86
Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install?
For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to
Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System.
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you built
yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 should be compatible with most hardware in systems that were
factory built within the last two years. However, hardware specifications change almost daily, so it is
difficult to guarantee that your hardware is 100% compatible.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
3.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices
Important — Systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation onto Intel BIOS RAID
sets. These sets are detected automatically, and devices with Intel ISW metadata are recognized
as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that the device node names of any such devices under mdraid
are different from their device node names under dmraid. Therefore, special precautions are
necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files which refer to
devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating
these files, you must therefore edit them to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead.
You can find the UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.
3.3.1. Hardware RAID
RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single
device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached
controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one
drive within Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to operate
several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.
3.3.2. Software RAID
You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays,
where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. These
11
Chapter 3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
functions are explained in detail in Section 9.14, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout ”.
3.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks
Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to
avoid any confusion.
Post-installation Usage
You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such
devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.
3.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If
you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a different version of
Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems, at least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated
to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, you must
1
• have enough unpartitioned disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
• have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning
sizes discussed in Section 9.14.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create free disk
space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions.
3.5. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are available:
DVD
If you have a DVD drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD you can use this method. Refer to
Section 8.3.1, “Installing from DVD”, for DVD installation instructions.
If you booted the installation from a piece of media other than the installation DVD, you
can specify the DVD as the installation source with the linux askmethod or linux
repo=cdrom:device:/device boot option, or by selecting Local CD/DVD on the Installation
Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
12
Choose a boot method
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you
can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod or linux
repo=hd:device:/path boot option), or by selecting Hard drive on the Installation Method
menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.2, “Installing from a Hard
Drive”, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod or
linux repo=nfs:server :options:/path boot option, or the NFS directory option on the
Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.4,
“Installing via NFS” for network installation instructions. Note that NFS installations may also be
performed in GUI mode.
URL
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server or FTP server, use
this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod, linux
repo=ftp://user:[email protected]/path, or linux repo=http://host/path boot
option, or the URL option on the Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation
Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP or HTTP”, for FTP and HTTP installation
instructions.
If you booted the distribution DVD and did not use the alternate installation source option askmethod,
the next stage loads automatically from the DVD. Proceed to Section 8.2, “Language Selection”.
DVD Activity
If you boot from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD, the installation program loads its
next stage from that disc. This happens regardless of which installation method you choose,
unless you eject the disc before you proceed. The installation program still downloads package
data from the source you choose.
3.6. Choose a boot method
You can use several methods to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, you have
a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that supports booting from
it. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an installation DVD.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your DVD/CD-ROM drive. For more
information about changing your BIOS, refer to Section 7.1.1, “Booting the Installation Program on
x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems”.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD or USB flash drive. After
you boot the system with a piece of minimal boot media, you complete the installation from a different
installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a network. Refer to Section 2.3, “Making
Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on making boot CDs and USB flash drives.
Finally, you can boot the installer overthe network from a preboot execution environment (PXE)
server. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server. Again, after you boot the system, you
13
Chapter 3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on
a network.
14
Chapter 4.
Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your system's CD or DVD
drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might
cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash
drive.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation
(via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing
an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate,
network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
Note
The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, or HTTP is mapped to
local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6 on
the network server can be accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the
installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be
made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be specified as /publicly/available/
directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called
/var/isos. /publicly/available/directory might be /var/www/html/rhel6, for an
HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the
content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
15
Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging
server, continue with either Section 4.1.1, “Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation” or Section 4.1.2,
“Preparing for an NFS installation”.
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared
over FTP or HTTP.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify client access. Test to see
whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the same
subnet to which you will be installing.
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to
make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the product.img file available on
the network server via NFS.
1.
Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso /publicly/available/directory/
2.
Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system,
run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
3.
Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following
commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
umount /mnt/point
4.
Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img
file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”).
5.
Ensure that the /publicly/available/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry
in /etc/exports on the network server.
To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
16
Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
/publicly/available/directory client.ip.address (ro)
To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly/available/directory * (ro)
6.
On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /
sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
7.
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note — Not all file systems supported
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems. You cannot use a
hard drives formatted for any other file system as an installation source for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating system, use the Disk
Management tool. To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Linux operating system,
use the fdisk tool.
Cannot Install from LVM Partitions
You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or network
connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
• an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the
content of a DVD.
17
Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation
• an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
• optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when
you boot the installation program (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash
drive.
To prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
1.
Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you
can create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
2.
Transfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
The ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer on which
you will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that is attached to that computer by
USB.
3.
Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system,
run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
4.
Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following
commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
umount /mnt/point
5.
18
Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img
file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”).
Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
19
20
Chapter 5.
System Specifications List
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
The installation program automatically detects and installs your computer's hardware. Although you
should make sure that your hardware meets the minimum requirements to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (refer to Section 3.2, “Is Your Hardware Compatible?”) you do not usually need to supply the
installation program with any specific details about your system.
However, when performing certain types of installation, some specific details might be useful or even
essential.
• If you plan to use a customized partition layout, record:
• The model numbers, sizes, types, and interfaces of the hard drives attached to the system. For
example, Seagate ST3320613AS 320 GB on SATA0, Western Digital WD7500AAKS 750 GB on
SATA1. This will allow you to identify specific hard drives during the partitioning process.
• If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux as an additional operating system on an existing
system, record:
• The mount points of the existing partitions on the system. For example, /boot on sda1, / on
sda2, and /home on sdb1. This will allow you to identify specific partitions during the partitioning
process.
• If you plan to install from an image on a local hard drive:
• The hard drive and directory that holds the image.
• If you plan to install from a network location, or install on an iSCSI target:
• The make and model numbers of the network adapters on your system. For example, Netgear
GA311. This will allow you to identify adapters when manually configuring the network.
• IP, DHCP, and BOOTP addresses
• Netmask
• Gateway IP address
• One or more name server IP addresses (DNS)
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network
administrator for assistance.
• If you plan to install from a network location:
• The location of the image on an FTP server, HTTP (web) server, or NFS server – see
Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP or HTTP” and Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS” for examples.
• If you plan to install on an iSCSI target:
• The location of the iSCSI target. Depending on your network, you might also need a CHAP
username and password, and perhaps a reverse CHAP username and password – see
Section 9.5.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
• If your computer is part of a domain:
21
Chapter 5. System Specifications List
• You should verify that the domain name will be supplied by the DHCP server. If not, you will need
to input the domain name manually during installation.
22
Chapter 6.
Updating drivers during installation on
Intel and AMD systems
In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your
system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for
this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new
device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm
packages. Typically, the driver disc is available for download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a
DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card
are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of
hardware afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver update rpm packages” for details of adding this
support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support
a particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a
storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You
can use a driver disc to add this support during installation in one of three ways:
1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
a. on a local hard drive
b. a USB flash drive
2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
a. a CD
b. a DVD
Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD”
for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
3. create an initial ramdisk update from the image file and store it on a PXE server. This is an
advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any
other method.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update
during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described
in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver
update during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it. Although installing an
unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was
not intended can complicate support.
6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers
during installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already loaded.
Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program loaded
and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you need the new drivers for the installation
process, consider performing an initial RAM disk driver update — refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing
an initial RAM disk update”.
23
Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a
device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For example, consider
a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available.
The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not
be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the
installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk
driver update.
6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party
such as the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some
methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation
program, others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk, and one requires you
to prepare an initial RAM disk update:
Methods that use the image file itself
• local hard drive
• USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
• CD
• DVD
Methods that use an initial RAM disk update
• PXE
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 6.2.1, “Preparing to use a driver
update image file”, Section 6.2.2, “Preparing a driver disc” or Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM
disk update”. Note that you can use a USB storage device either to provide an image file, or as a
driver update disk.
6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
6.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
To make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash drive, simply
copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if you find it helpful to do so, but you
must not change the filename extension, which must remain .iso. In the following example, the file is
named dd.iso:
24
Preparing a driver disc
Figure 6.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. This differs from
driver discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. The ISO image file contains all
of the files that would normally be on a driver disc.
Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 6.3.3, “Use a boot
option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to use the driver update disk during installation.
If you change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV, the installation program will automatically
examine it for driver updates and load any that it detects. This behavior is controlled by the
dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled by default. Refer to Section 6.3.1, “Let the installer
automatically find a driver update disk”.
6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.
6.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD
These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a
different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the
CD or DVD. The steps will be generally similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this
is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry
labeled burn from image or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the
resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
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Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
1.
Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied to you by
Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Figure 6.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
2.
Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
Figure 6.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
3.
26
Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt you
to insert one.
Preparing an initial RAM disk update
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by
inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file
named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Figure 6.4. Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disk correctly and should try
again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from image if you use a Linux desktop other
than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.
Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 6.3.3, “Use a boot
option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to use the driver update disk during installation.
6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
Advanced procedure
This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver
update with any other method.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the installation
process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily behaves as if it were
a disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. To perform a driver update during
installation, your computer must be able to boot from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server,
and you must have a PXE server available on your network. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an
Installation Server for instructions on using PXE during installation.
To make the driver update available on your PXE server:
27
Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
1.
Place the driver update image file on your PXE server. Usually, you would do this by downloading
it to the PXE server from a location on the Internet specified by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
2.
Copy the driver update image file into the /tmp/initrd_update directory.
3.
Rename the driver update image file to dd.img.
4.
At the command line, change into the /tmp/initrd_update directory, type the following
command, and press Enter:
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
5.
Copy the file /tmp/initrd_update.img into the directory the holds the target that you want
to use for installation. This directory is placed under the /tftpboot/pxelinux/ directory. For
example, /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/ might hold the PXE target for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 Client.
6.
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file to include an entry that includes
the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following format:
label target-dd
kernel target/vmlinuz
append initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 6.3.4, “Select a PXE target that includes a driver update” to learn how to use an initial
RAM disk update during installation.
Example 6.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update image file
In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded from the
Internet to a directory on your PXE server. The target that you want to PXE boot from is located in /
tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following commands:
$
$
$
$
cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
cd /tmp/initrd_update
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/dd.img
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file and include the following entry:
label r6c-dd
kernel r6c/vmlinuz
append initrd=r6c/initrd.img,r6c/dd.img
6.3. Performing a driver update during installation
You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
• let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
• let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
28
Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
• use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
• select a PXE target that includes a driver update.
6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation process. The
installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates that it detects and will
not prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 6.2.1.1, “Preparing to use an image file on local
storage” to prepare a storage device for the installer to find.
6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
1.
Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the installer cannot
load drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the installation process (for example, if it
cannot detect any network or storage controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
Figure 6.5. The no driver found dialog
2.
Select Use a driver disk and refer to Section 6.4, “Specifying the location of a driver update
image file or driver update disk”.
6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
Choose this method only for completely new drivers
This method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update existing drivers.
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Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
1.
Type linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press Enter. The
installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
Figure 6.6. The driver disk prompt
2.
Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and select Yes. The
installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is only one possible location that
could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no
other storage devices) it will automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to
specify the location of the update. Refer to to Section 6.4, “Specifying the location of a driver
update image file or driver update disk” .
6.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
1.
Select network boot in your computer's BIOS or boot menu. The procedure to specify this
option varies widely among different computers. Consult your hardware documentation or the
hardware vendor for specifics relevant to your computer.
2.
In the preexecution boot environment (PXE), choose the boot target that you prepared on
your PXE server. For example, if you labeled this environment r6c-dd in the /tftpboot/
pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file on your PXE server, type r6c-dd at the prompt and
press Enter.
Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up an
Installation Server for instructions on using PXE to perform an update during installation. Note that this
is an advanced procedure — do not attempt it unless other methods of performing a driver update fail.
6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or
driver update disk
If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it prompts you
to select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the device on which the driver
update is stored, try the various options in order until you find the correct one.
30
Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
Figure 6.7. Selecting a driver disk source
If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt you to make
another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the driver
update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could contain more than one
partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition or not), the installer might prompt
you to select the partition that holds the driver update.
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Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
Figure 6.8. Selecting a driver disk partition
The installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Figure 6.9. Selecting an ISO image
Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on a USB
storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
32
Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with a driver
update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary storage area
(located in system RAM and not on disk). The installer might ask whether you would like to use
additional driver updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional updates in turn. When you have no
further driver updates to load, select No. If you stored the driver update on removeable media, you can
now safely eject or disconnect the disk or device. The installer no longer requires the driver update,
and you can re-use the media for other purposes.
33
34
Chapter 7.
Booting the Installer
Important — UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.
Important — UEFI for AMD64 and Intel 64
Note that the boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly from each other. Therefore,
the installed system must boot using the same firmware that was used during installation. You
cannot install the operating system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on
a system that uses UEFI.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports version 2.2 of the UEFI specification. Hardware that
supports version 2.3 of the UEFI specification or later should boot and operate with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6, but the additional functionality defined by these later specifications will not be
available. The UEFI specifications are available from http://www.uefi.org/specs/agreement/
To start the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or from minimal boot media,
follow this procedure:
1.
Disconnect any external FireWire or USB disks that you do not need for installation. Refer to
Section 3.3.3, “ FireWire and USB Disks ” for more information.
2.
Power on your computer system.
3.
Insert the media in your computer.
4.
Power off your computer with the boot media still inside.
5.
Power on your computer system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On most
computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the computer.
Typically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device, although the specific
wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer to computer. Consult the
documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek support from the hardware manufacturer or
vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need to configure
your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions provided
on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key to press to
enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C]
or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your boot order and that C or
A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at the DVD
drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard
drive or diskette drive.
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Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that
came with your system.
Note — Aborting the Installation
To abort the installation, either press Ctrl +Alt+Del or power off your computer with the power
switch. You may abort the installation process without consequence at any time prior to selecting
Write changes to disk on the Write partitioning to disk screen. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
makes no permanent changes to your computer until that point. Please be aware that stopping
the installation after partitioning has begun can leave your computer unusable.
7.1. Starting the Installation Program
Important — UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.
Important — UEFI for AMD64 and Intel 64
Note that the boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly from each other. Therefore,
the installed system must boot using the same firmware that was used during installation. You
cannot install the operating system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on
a system that uses UEFI.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports version 2.2 of the UEFI specification. Hardware that
supports version 2.3 of the UEFI specification or later should boot and operate with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6, but the additional functionality defined by these later specifications will not be
available. The UEFI specifications are available from http://www.uefi.org/specs/agreement/
To start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you have already
read through Chapter 3, Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture, and followed the instructions,
you should be ready to start the installation process. When you have verified that you are ready to
begin, boot the installation program using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or any boot media that
you have created.
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver update during the installation. A driver
update adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation program.
Refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems for more
information.
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64
Systems
You
36 can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending upon what your
system can support):
Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
• Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD — Your machine supports a bootable DVD drive and you have the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
• Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to perform
network or hard drive installation.
• USB flash drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
• PXE boot via network — Your machine supports booting from the network. This is an advanced
installation path. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for additional information on
this method.
To create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB flash drive for booting or installation, refer to
Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media”.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On most
computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the computer.
Typically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device, although the specific
wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer to computer. Consult the
documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek support from the hardware manufacturer or
vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need to configure
your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions provided
on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key to press to
enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C]
or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your boot order and that C or
A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at the DVD
drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard
drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that
came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains
information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens
associated with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the line at
the bottom of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
• Once the boot: prompt appears, the installation program automatically begins if you take no action
within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen function keys.
• If you press a help screen function key, there is a slight delay while the help screen is read from the
boot media.
Normally, you only need to press Enter to boot. Be sure to watch the boot messages to review if the
Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, continue to the next section.
If it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the installation and use one of the
boot options provided in Chapter 28, Boot Options.
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Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
7.1.2. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest to boot using a DVD and perform a graphical installation, sometimes there are
installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This section discusses
additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, use the instructions as
provided in the boot loader option samples below.
Note
Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in this section.
• To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
• To specify an installation source, use the linux repo= option. For example:
linux repo=cdrom:device
linux repo=ftp://username:[email protected]
linux repo=http://URL
linux repo=hd:device
linux repo=nfs:options:server:/path
linux repo=nfsiso:options:server:/path
In these examples, cdrom refers to a CD or DVD drive, ftp refers to a location accessible by FTP,
http refers to a location accessible by HTTP, hd refers to an ISO image file accessible on a hard
drive partition, nfs refers to an expanded tree of installation files accessible by NFS, and nfsiso
refers to an ISO image file accessible by NFS.
• ISO images have an SHA256 checksum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an
ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux mediacheck
The installation program prompts you to insert a DVD or select an ISO image to test, and select
OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed on any Red
38
The Boot Menu
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD. It is strongly recommended to perform this operation on any Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD that was created from downloaded ISO images. This command works with
the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
• If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console=<device>
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console=<device>
In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or ttyS1). For
example, linux text console=ttyS0.
Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports UTF-8. Under
UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit '95 works well. Non-UTF-8 capable
terminals works as long as only English is used during the installation process. An enhanced
serial display can be used by passing the utf8 command as a boot-time option to the installation
program. For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
7.1.2.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to apply updates for the anaconda installation
program from a USB storage device enter:
linux updates
For text mode installations, use:
linux text updates
This command results in a prompt for the path to the device that contains updates for anaconda. It is
not needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the updates image
contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
After entering any options, press Enter to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The
boot options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to
Section 9.16, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration” for more information).
For more information on kernel options refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
7.2. The Boot Menu
The boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within 60 seconds,
the default boot option runs. To choose the default, either wait for the timer to run out or hit Enter
39
Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
on the keyboard. To select a different option than the default, use the arrow keys on your keyboard,
and hit Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you want to customize the boot options for a
particular option, press the Tab key.
Figure 7.1. The boot screen
For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The boot menu options are:
Install or upgrade an existing system
This option is the default. Choose this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto your
computer system using the graphical installation program.
Install system with basic video driver
This option allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the installation
program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your screen appears distorted
or goes blank when using the the Install or upgrade an existing system option, restart your
computer and try this option instead.
Rescue installed system
Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that
prevents you from booting normally. Although Red Hat Enterprise Linux is an exceptionally stable
computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to occur that prevent booting. The
rescue environment contains utility programs that allow you fix a wide variety of these problems.
Boot from local drive
This option boots the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disc accidentally, use
this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the installer.
40
Installing from a Different Source
7.3. Installing from a Different Source
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network
using NFS, FTP, or HTTP methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods because
it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to
use with each:
Table 7.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method
Installation source
Installation DVD
DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive
USB flash drive, installation DVD, network, or
hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD
Network or hard disk
Refer to Section 3.5, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from locations
other than the media with which you booted the system.
7.4. Booting from the Network using PXE
To boot with
PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your computer that supports
PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation
Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and may be
labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting, the computer
can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other media.
To boot a computer from a PXE server:
1.
Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network socket should be
lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
2.
Switch on the computer.
3.
A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired option.
If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot first
from the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible
boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware documentation for more
information.
41
Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
Note — Multiple NICs and PXE installation
Some servers with multiple network interfaces might not assign eth0 to the first network interface
as the firmware interface knows it, which can cause the installer to try to use a different network
interface from the one that was used by PXE. To change this behavior, use the following in
pxelinux.cfg/* config files:
IPAPPEND 2
APPEND ksdevice=bootif
These configuration options above cause the installer to use the same network interface the
firmware interface and PXE use. You can also use the following option:
ksdevice=link
This option causes the installer to use the first network device it finds that is linked to a network
switch.
42
Chapter 8.
Configuring Language and Installation
Source
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation
source.
8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Important — Graphical installation recommended
We recommed that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical interface. If you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks a graphical display, consider
performing the installation over a VNC connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If
anaconda detects that you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC
connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to install in text mode
even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try booting with the
xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen
widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 8.1, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 8.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”,
illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Note
Not every language supported in graphical installation mode is also supported in text mode.
Specifically, languages written with a character set other than the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets
are not available in text mode. If you choose a language written with a character set that is not
supported in text mode, the installation program will present you with the English versions of the
screens.
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 8.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Figure 8.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
The widgets include:
• Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases,
you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears,
allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
• Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to
select or deselect a feature.
44
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
• Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation
program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that
line.
• Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than
can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within
the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information
available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
• Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
• Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program.
You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the
Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
• Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the
cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 8.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 8.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move
the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to cycle
forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a
summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press Space
or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and
press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to
select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing
the OK button.
Warning
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process
(doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
8.2. Language Selection
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer
to Figure 8.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the Tab key to
move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is
installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in
the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you
specify on this screen.
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For
more information, refer to Section 9.17.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Figure 8.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
8.3. Installation Method
If you booted the installation from minimal boot media or with the askmethod boot option, use
the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 8.4, “Installation
Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and
press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 8.4. Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from DVD
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot your system
from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from DVD media.
46
Installing from a Hard Drive
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive. It starts by
looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) DVD drive.
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media.
You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the Write changes to disk screen.
Refer to Section 9.15, “Write changes to disk” for more information.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you to
choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify
options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the option to perform
a media check on the DVD. This will take some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However,
if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check
before calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation
process (refer to Section 9.3, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you selected
Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and
directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option,
you already specified a partition.
Figure 8.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SATA,
SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for
example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains
the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Table 8.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type
Volume
Original path to files
Directory to use
VFAT
D:\
D:\Downloads\RHEL6
/Downloads/RHEL6
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6
/user1/RHEL6
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are
located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO
images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted
as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
Use a leading slash
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
The installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of functions.
For instance, if you boot the installer with the askmethod or repo= options, you can install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from a network server using FTP, HTTP, or NFS protocols. You can also instruct the
installation program to consult additional software repositories later in the process.
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks for
your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the
device via DHCP or manually.
By default, the installation program uses DHCP to automatically provide network settings. If you use
a cable or DSL modem, router, firewall, or other network hardware to communicate with the Internet,
DHCP is a suitable option. If your network has no DHCP server, clear the check box labeled Use
dynamic IP configuration (DHCP).
Enter the IP address you are using during installation and press Enter.
The installation program supports the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.
Figure 8.6. TCP/IP Configuration
48
Installing via NFS
When the installation process completes, it will transfer these settings to your system.
• If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS”.
• If you are installing via Web or FTP, proceed to Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP or HTTP”.
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you used
the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a
host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS
Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 4.1.2,
“Preparing for an NFS installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/.
This dialog also allows you to specify NFS mount options. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for a list of common NFS mount options, or consult the man pages for mount and
nfs for a comprehensive list of options.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the
directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later on in the
process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If everything was specified
properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
running.
Figure 8.7. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the directory
which contains the ISO image.
Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
Important — you must specify the protocol
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or
ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP or HTTP server (if you selected URL
in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the FTP or
HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or
repo=http boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP or HTTP site from which you are installing, and the name of
the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/i386/
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and
password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
If your FTP or HTTP server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of the
URL as follows:
{ftp|http}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:[email protected]/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/i386/
Figure 8.8. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
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Verifying Media
8.4. Verifying Media
The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while
producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause
the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the
media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a
new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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Chapter 9.
Installing using anaconda
This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Important — Graphical Interface on the Installed System
Installing in text mode does not prevent you from using a graphical interface on your system once
it is installed.
Apart from the graphical installer, anaconda also includes a text-based installer.
If one of the following situations occurs, the installation program uses text mode:
• The installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer
• You choose the text mode installation from the boot menu
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you
with a simpler, more streamlined insatallation process, certain options that are available in graphical
mode are not also available in text mode. These differences are noted in the description of the
installation process in this guide, and include:
• configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
• customizing the partition layout
• customizing the bootloader layout
• selecting packages during installation
• configuring the installed system with Firstboot
If you choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can still configure your system to
use a graphical interface after installation. Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for
instructions.
9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process;
use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and
collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can
also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen
selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
Note
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, and you do not wish to use the GUI
installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode
installation program, use the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 7.2, “The Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
menu and to Section 8.1, “The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a brief overview
of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. The
GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation
instructions and obtain all needed information.
9.2.1. Screenshots during installation
Anaconda allows you to take screenshots during the installation process. At any time during
installation, press Shift+Print Screen and anaconda will save a screenshot to /root/
anaconda-screenshots.
If you are performing a Kickstart installation, use the autostep --autoscreenshot option to
generate a screenshot of each step of the installation automatically. Refer to Section 32.3, “Creating
the Kickstart File” for details of configuring a Kickstart file.
9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation
process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter
commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages on five virtual
consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical
machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer
to Table 9.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used
to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical installations
unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Table 9.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl+alt+f1
graphical display
2
ctrl+alt+f2
shell prompt
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Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
console
keystrokes
contents
3
ctrl+alt+f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
ctrl+alt+f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl+alt+f5
other messages
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input.
Click on the Next button to continue.
9.4. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you
would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
Figure 9.1. Keyboard Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes support for more than one keyboard layout for many languages.
In particular, most European languages include a latin1 option, which uses dead keys to access
certain characters, such as those with diacritical marks. When you press a dead key, nothing will
appear on your screen until you press another key to "complete" the character. For example, to type
é on a latin1 keyboard layout, you would press (and release) the ' key, and then press the E key. By
contrast, you access this character on some other keyboards by pressing and holding down a key
(such as Alt-Gr) while you press the E key. Other keyboards might have a dedicated key for this
character.
Note
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the
Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
9.5. Storage Devices
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. This screen allows you
to select either basic or specialized storage devices.
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
Figure 9.2. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
• hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
• Storage area networks (SANs)
• Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
• Firmware RAID devices
• Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System
Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage attached
to the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 9.6, “Setting the
Hostname”.
9.5.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
Figure 9.3. Select storage devices — Basic devices
Figure 9.4. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
Figure 9.5. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and solidstate drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced Target and refer to
Section 9.5.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage
devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number
(LUN) at which they are accessed.
Figure 9.6. The Storage Devices Search Tab
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in
the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to
help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the
column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For
example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity,
Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing
or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 9.7. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make
a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column
headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation
process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here,
and can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed
system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process.
Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also
that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the
system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
Important — chain loading
Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from anaconda entirely. To
chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from a different boot loader, select all the
devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and
proceed to Section 9.10, “Initializing the Hard Disk”
9.5.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre channel over
ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
Figure 9.8. Advanced Storage Options
9.5.1.1.1. Enable Network Interfaces
Use this dialog to configure the network interfaces through which the system will connect to networked
storage devices.
Figure 9.9. Enable Network Interface
If your network does not have DHCP enabled, or if you need to override the DHCP settings, select the
network interface that you plan to use from the Interfaces menu. Clear the checkbox for Use dynamic
IP configuration (DHCP). You can now enter an IPv4 address and netmask for this system in the
form address / netmask, along with the gateway address and nameserver address for your network.
Click OK to accept these settings and continue.
9.5.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI Parameters
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add ISCSI
target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and provide
a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. If the ISCSI target uses CHAP (Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol) for authentication, enter the CHAP username and password.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
If your enviroment uses 2-way CHAP (also called "Mutual CHAP"), also enter the reverse CHAP
username and password. Click the 'Add target' button to attempt connection to the ISCSI target using
this information.
Figure 9.10. Configure ISCSI Parameters
Note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it incorrectly,
but to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the installation.
9.5.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
To configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
On the menu that appears in the next dialog box, select the network interface that is connected to your
FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
Figure 9.11. Configure FCoE Parameters
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Setting the Hostname
Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase
the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or disable the
installer's awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog.
9.6. Setting the Hostname
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname.
Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically
supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the DHCP service to assign the domain
name to this machine, specify the short host name only.
Valid Hostnames
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname
may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Figure 9.12. Setting the hostname
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention
to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service
provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.
Modem Configuration
The installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices after installation
with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet
Service Provider (ISP).
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
9.6.1. Edit Network Connections
Important — Manual configuration is often needed
When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation boots for the first time, it activates any network
interfaces that you configured during the installation process. However, the installer does not
prompt you to configure network interfaces on some common installation paths, for example,
when you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a local storage
device, be sure to configure at least one network interface manually if you require network access
when the system boots for the first time.
Note
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by NetworkManager
during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
To configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. The Network
Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile broadband,
VPN, and DSL connections for the system using the NetworkManager tool. A full description of
all configurations possible with NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. This section
only details the most typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation.
Configuration of other types of network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you
must configure are necessarily different.
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Edit Network Connections
Figure 9.13. Network Connections
To add a new connection or to modify or remove a connection configured earlier in the installation
process, click the tab that corresponds to the type of connection. To add a new connection of that type,
click Add. To modify an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog
box appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as described below.
To remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to activate your changes. Note that reconfiguring your network settings might require you to re-connect using the new settings.
9.6.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Start automatically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
Select Available to all users to make the connection available to all users.
9.6.1.2. The Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network
adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can pass through the
interface.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
Figure 9.14. The Wired tab
9.6.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select
Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of your
network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
• TLS for Transport Layer Security
• Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS, or EAP-TTLS
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Edit Network Connections
• Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy Enhanced
Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password to
make the password visible as you type it.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
Figure 9.15. The 802.1x Security tab
9.6.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from
a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the
following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
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Edit Network Connections
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is assigned
an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started, and the
interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network address
translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP
address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and
Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the
system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6
configuration succeeds.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
Figure 9.16. The IPv4 Settings tab
9.6.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
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Edit Network Connections
Figure 9.17. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes specified for it
here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the
local network.
9.6.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from
a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the
following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
IPv6 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic, addresses only
The IPv6 address, prefix, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP
address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and
Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the
system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4
configuration succeeds.
Figure 9.18. The IPv6 Settings tab
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Time Zone Configuration
9.6.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
Figure 9.19. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the
local network.
9.7. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map
to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of
the system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
• Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot).
A red X appears indicating your selection.
• You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
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Figure 9.20. Configuring the Time Zone
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses
UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UTC on the system
clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
Windows and the System Clock
Do not enable the System clock uses UTC option if your machine also runs Microsoft Windows.
Microsoft operating systems change the BIOS clock to match local time rather than UTC. This
may cause unexpected behavior under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Note
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time
and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date
Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command
timeconfig.
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Set the Root Password
9.8. Set the Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation.
The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance.
Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for
this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or
administration.
Figure 9.21. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general
use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require
superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the changes of a typo or an incorrect command
doing damage to your system.
Note
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then,
enter the root password and press Enter.
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1
The installation program prompts you to set a root password for your system. You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to
the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation
program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy
for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and
anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower
case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember
that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place.
However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password
Tool.
Type the system-config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a
powerful user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the
characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set
correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
9.9. Assign Storage Devices
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to
Section 9.5, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be
available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system
for data storage. If you selected only one storage device, anaconda does not present you with this
screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as
part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
1
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as root when
needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so
changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
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Assign Storage Devices
Figure 9.22. Assign storage devices
The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage
only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating
system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu
marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the
types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented
might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button
labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with
a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device.
Use this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device for the system.
Important — chain loading
If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
loader, include that storage device among the Install Target Devices. Storage devices that you
identify as Install Target Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices on this screen are not automatically
erased by the installation process unless you selected the Use All Space option on the
partioning screen (refer to Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.
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9.10. Initializing the Hard Disk
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to
initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your
system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all
partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a
valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to
all devices.
Figure 9.23. Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation
program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation program responds to
the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart
command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)
Detach Unneeded Disks
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and
detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.
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Upgrading an Existing System
9.11. Upgrading an Existing System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More
generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example,
Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove
any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not
change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package
upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you
to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that
you need to upgrade your computer.
9.11.1. The Upgrade Dialog
If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you
want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate
installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
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Figure 9.24. The Upgrade Dialog
Manually Installed Software
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may
behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this
software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.
9.11.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
Installations are Recommended
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home partition and
perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to
Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by
Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before
you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from
sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
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Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may
include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from services such as an
Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not
destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.
Storing Backups
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home directory. If your /home
directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your
backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an
Upgrade”.
9.11.3. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
Your completed Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation must be registered in the boot loader to boot
properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the operating system.
Refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader for more information about boot loaders.
Figure 9.25. The Upgrade Boot Loader Dialog
If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system can modify it
to load the new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. To update the existing Linux boot loader, select
Update boot loader configuration. This is the default behavior when you upgrade an existing Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
GRUB is the standard boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architectures.
If your machine uses another boot loader, such as BootMagic, System Commander, or the loader
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installed by Microsoft Windows, then the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system cannot update
it. In this case, select Skip boot loader updating. When the installation process completes, refer to
the documentation for your product for assistance.
Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want to replace
the existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be able to boot other operating
systems on the same machine until you have configured the new boot loader. Select Create new boot
loader configuration to remove the existing boot loader and install GRUB.
After you make your selection, click Next to continue. If you selected the Create new boot loader
configuration option, refer to Section 9.16, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration”. If
you chose to update or skip boot loader configuration, installation continues without further input from
you.
9.12. Disk Partitioning Setup
Warning — Back up your data
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Important — Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning
schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond
those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at
installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems
are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Important — Booting from RAIDs
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID
array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition
creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and
manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as
its
82 own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not
Disk Partitioning Setup
sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions
for more information.
Figure 9.26. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or
choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your
storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of
these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the
option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions created by
other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).
Warning
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is removed by the installation
program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard
drives where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to chain load the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. This does not
remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
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Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red Hat
Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.
Warning
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be able
to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy data,
operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a
partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find out how much
space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in
the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space available
on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 3.4, “Do You Have Enough
Disk Space?”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to
Section 9.14, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in
the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created
for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Important — chain loading
To configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a different boot loader,
you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose any of the automatic partitioning options,
you must now select the Review and modify partitioning layout option before you click Next or
you cannot specify the correct boot drive.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
9.13. Encrypt Partitions
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to
encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for
more information.
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Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
Figure 9.27. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this
passphrase every time that the system boots.
Warning — Do not lose this passphrase
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become
completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save
encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer
to Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
9.14. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either accept the
current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create and/or delete partitions at this time.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions and Section 9.14.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an
appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you
have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
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Figure 9.28. Partitioning on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical representation of the
hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive (such as /
dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit
an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used during
installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 9.9, “ Assign Storage
Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide
devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name of
the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file system
on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a physical
volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
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Create Storage
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of
in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
9.14.1. Create Storage
The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and software
RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage already
present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Figure 9.29. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as follows:
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Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
• Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in Appendix A, An Introduction
to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
Refer to Section 9.14.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
• RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device. To
form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
• RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you
choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). This option is
only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
• RAID Clone — create a mirror of a RAID partition on one storage device on another storage device.
This option is only available when at least one RAID partition is available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 9.14.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
• LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
• LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. This option is
only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
• LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is only available
when at least one volume group is available on the system.
9.14.2. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 9.30, “Creating
a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
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Adding Partitions
Figure 9.30. Creating a New Partition
• Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point
should not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
• File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 9.14.2.1, “File System Types”.
• Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not
checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide
where partitions should go.
• Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless
changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
• Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this
option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.
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• Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of
the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition.
Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more
information.
• Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed
without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this
option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
• OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
• Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
9.14.2.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The following
is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be
used.
Partition types
• standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can provide
a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
• swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a
swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
• software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more
information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
• ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of
improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more
efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster
file system checking, and more robust journalling. The ext4 file system is selected by default and is
highly recommended.
• ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash
2
as there is no need to fsck the file system.
• ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
• xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16
exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million
terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata
journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented
and resized while mounted and active.
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Create Software RAID
• vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
filenames on the FAT file system.
• Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more
files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to
make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they
occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of
the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer
it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation
process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.
Btrfs is still experimental
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment
with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data or
that are essential for the operation of important systems.
9.14.3. Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are
arranged to provided increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or
more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice
available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog that appears
when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description
of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to software RAID
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Figure 9.31. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions.
This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Figure 9.32. Create a RAID device
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Create Software RAID
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select
names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
• RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased
performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple devices
into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that the failure of
one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
• RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices.
Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least
two RAID partitions.
• RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the array
to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the array fails.
Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device creates a
bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
• RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5
RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple devices,
but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is
also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID partitions.
• RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity
data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
• RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are constructed
by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level 10 RAID
constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which one partition
mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0
RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID Clone
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or
more disks are attached to the system.
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Figure 9.33. Clone a RAID device
9.14.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM
configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different virtual console, and run the lvm
command. To return to the text-mode installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage
space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical
volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into
multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM
logical volumes function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This option is
the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. This is the
same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding
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Create LVM Logical Volume
Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must
be set to physical volume (LVM)
Figure 9.34. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to
add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
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Figure 9.35. Make LVM Volume Group
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then
select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on
any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient
space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB
LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not
allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5
GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes
appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example,
reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB
physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and
size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the logical
volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
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Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Figure 9.36. Make Logical Volume
9.14.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.14.5.1. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions
for x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems:
• A swap partition
• A /boot partition
• A / partition
• A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of
RAM in the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the
hundreds of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a
function of the memory workload running on that system. However, given that swap space is usually
designated at install time, and that it can be difficult to determine beforehand the memory workload
of a system, we recommend determining system swap using the following table.
Table 9.2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the System
Recommended Amount of Swap Space
4GB of RAM or less
a minimum of 2GB of swap space
4GB to 16GB of RAM
a minimum of 4GB of swap space
16GB to 64GB of RAM
a minimum of 8GB of swap space
64GB to 256GB of RAM
a minimum of 16GB of swap space
256GB to 512GB of RAM
a minimum of 32GB of swap space
Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage
devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces.
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• A /boot/ partition (250 MB)
The partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system
to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. For most
users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Important — Supported file systems
The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4
(recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs,
XFS, or VFAT.
Note
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured more than
two years ago), you may need to create a /boot/ partition if you want the / (root) partition to
use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
Note
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID
card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the
RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
• A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB)
This is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot)
are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets you
perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
Root and /root
The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The /root directory/root
(sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for
system administration.
Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions based on your
particular system needs. For example, consider creating a separate /home partition on systems that
store user data. Refer to Section 9.14.5.1.1, “Advice on Partitions” for more information.
If you create many partitions instead of one large / partition, upgrades become easier. Refer to the
description of the Edit option in Section 9.14, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout ” for more information.
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Recommended Partitioning Scheme
The following table summarizes minimum partition sizes for the partitions containing the listed
directories. You do not have to make a separate partition for each of these directories. For instance,
if the partition containing /foo must be at least 500 MB, and you do not make a separate /foo
partition, then the / (root) partition must be at least 500 MB.
Table 9.3. Minimum partition sizes
Directory
Minimum size
/
250 MB
/usr
250 MB, but avoid placing this on a separate
partition
/tmp
50 MB
/var
384 MB
/home
100 MB
/boot
250 MB
Leave Excess Capacity Unallocated
Only assign storage capacity to those partitions you require immediately. You may allocate
free space at any time, to meet needs as they occur. To learn about a more flexible method for
storage management, refer to Appendix D, Understanding LVM.
If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the default partition
layout.
9.14.5.1.1. Advice on Partitions
Optimal partition setup depends on the usage for the Linux system in question. The following tips may
help you decide how to allocate your disk space.
• If you expect that you or other users will store data on the system, create a separate partition for
the /home directory within a volume group. With a separate /home partition, you may upgrade or
reinstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux without erasing user data files.
• Consider encrypting any partitions that might contain sensitive data. Encryption prevents
unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they have access to the
physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least encrypt the /home partition.
• Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 10 MB on the /boot partition. Unless
you plan to install a great many kernels, the default partition size of 250 MB for /boot should
suffice.
Important — Supported file systems
The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4
(recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs,
XFS, or VFAT.
• The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server. It
also is used to store downloaded update packages on a temporary basis. Ensure that the partition
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containing the /var directory has enough space to download pending updates and hold your other
content.
Warning
The PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to
create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
• The /usr directory holds the majority of software content on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
For an installation of the default set of software, allocate at least 4 GB of space. If you are a
software developer or plan to use your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to learn software
development skills, you may want to at least double this allocation.
Do not place /usr on a separate partition
If /usr is on a separate partition from /, the boot process becomes much more complex, and
in some situations (like installations on iSCSI drives), might not work at all.
• Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This unallocated
space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data
from other partitions to reallocate storage.
• If you separate subdirectories into partitions, you can retain content in those subdirectories if you
decide to install a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your current system. For instance,
if you intend to run a MySQL database in /var/lib/mysql, make a separate partition for that
directory in case you need to reinstall later.
The following table is a possible partition setup for a system with a single, new 80 GB hard disk and
1 GB of RAM. Note that approximately 10 GB of the volume group is unallocated to allow for future
growth.
Example Usage
This setup is not optimal for all use cases.
Example 9.1. Example partition setup
Table 9.4. Example partition setup
Partition
Size and type
/boot
250 MB ext3 partition
swap
2 GB swap
LVM physical volume
Remaining space, as one LVM volume group
The physical volume is assigned to the default volume group and divided into the following logical
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volumes:
Write changes to disk
Table 9.5. Example partition setup: LVM physical volume
Partition
Size and type
/
13 GB ext4
/var
4 GB ext4
/home
50 GB ext4
9.15. Write changes to disk
The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes to
disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 9.37. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
Last chance to cancel safely
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your
computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your
hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on
your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. To cancel installation
completely, switch off your computer. To switch off most computers at this stage, press the power
button and hold it down for a few seconds.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the process
is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power outage)
you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.
9.16. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot loader is the
first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring
control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the operating
system.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, the installer configures the bootloader
automatically and you cannot customize bootloader settings during the installation process.
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GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader. GRUB
can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with chainloading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as Windows, by loading
another boot loader). Note that the version of GRUB in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 is an old and stable
3
version now known as "GRUB Legacy" since upstream development moved to GRUB 2. Red Hat
remains committed to maintaining the version of GRUB that we ship with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6,
just as we do with all packages that we ship.
The GRUB boot menu
The GRUB menu defaults to being hidden, except on dual-boot systems. To show the GRUB
menu during system boot, press and hold the Shift key before the kernel is loaded. (Any other
key works as well but the Shift key is the safest to use.)
Figure 9.38. Boot Loader Configuration
If there are no other operating systems on your computer, or you are completely removing any
other operating systems the installation program will install GRUB as your boot loader without any
intervention. In that case you may continue on to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”.
You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system may install its own
preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party boot loader.If your boot loader does not
recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Use GRUB as your
boot loader to boot Linux and most other operating systems. Follow the directions in this chapter to
install GRUB.
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http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-legacy.en.html
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Installing GRUB
If you install GRUB, it may overwrite your existing boot loader.
By default, the installation program installs GRUB in the master boot record or MBR, of the device for
the root file system. To decline installation of a new boot loader, unselect Install boot loader on /dev/
sda.
Warning
If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly,
and you must use another boot method (such as a commercial boot loader application). Use this
option only if you are sure you have another way of booting the system!
If you have other operating systems already installed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to
automatically detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure any additional
operating systems if GRUB does not detect them.
To add, remove, or change the detected operating system settings, use the options provided.
Add
Select Add to include an additional operating system in GRUB.
Select the disk partition which contains the bootable operating system from the drop-down list and
give the entry a label. GRUB displays this label in its boot menu.
Edit
To change an entry in the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Edit.
Delete
To remove an entry from the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Delete.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You cannot
move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in
order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type
e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have
selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to
your server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without a
boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can
compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be103
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entered before selecting any non-standard boot options. However, it is still possible for someone with
physical access to the machine to boot from a diskette, CD-ROM, DVD, or USB media if the BIOS
supports it. Security plans which include boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot
methods.
GRUB Passwords Not Required
You may not require a GRUB password if your system only has trusted operators, or is physically
secured with controlled console access. However, if an untrusted person can get physical access
to your computer's keyboard and monitor, that person can reboot the system and access GRUB.
A password is helpful in this case.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the
checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
GRUB stores the password in encrypted form, so it cannot be read or recovered. If you forget the
boot password, boot the system normally and then change the password entry in the /boot/grub/
grub.conf file. If you cannot boot, you may be able to use the "rescue" mode on the first Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation disc to reset the GRUB password.
If you do need to change the GRUB password, use the grub-md5-crypt utility. For information on
using this utility, use the command man grub-md5-crypt in a terminal window to read the manual
pages.
GRUB recognizes only the QWERTY keyboard layout
When selecting a GRUB password, be aware that GRUB recognizes only the QWERTY keyboard
layout, regardless of the keyboard actually attached to the system. If you use a keyboard with a
significantly different layout, it might be more effective to memorize a pattern of keystrokes rather
than the word that the pattern produces.
To configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options
to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking Next.
9.16.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the
boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
• The master boot record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless
the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR
is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer's BIOS, and is
the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in
the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot.
• The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using another boot
loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control first. You can then configure
that boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Rescue Mode
GRUB as a Secondary Boot Loader
If you install GRUB as a secondary boot loader, you must reconfigure your primary boot loader
whenever you install and boot from a new kernel. The kernel of an operating system such as
Microsoft Windows does not boot in the same fashion. Most users therefore use GRUB as the
primary boot loader on dual-boot systems.
Figure 9.39. Boot Loader Installation
Note
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of the RAID array.
Rather, the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition
was created.
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS
does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you have multiple
SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the SCSI device.
Note
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot
access more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room
for the /boot Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The
other Linux partitions can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
9.16.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from
boot media or some other boot method instead of the system's hard drive. There may be times when
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you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your
system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system's hard drive,
even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use
rescue mode, try the following method:
• Boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system from any installation medium, such as CD, DVD, USB, or
PXE, and type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt. Refer to Chapter 36, Basic System
Recovery for a more complete description of rescue mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
9.16.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
GRUB is the default bootloader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but is not the only choice. A variety of
open-source and proprietary alternatives to GRUB are available to load Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
including LILO, SYSLINUX, and Acronis Disk Director Suite.
Important
Red Hat does not support third-party boot loaders.
9.17. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux you are installing.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. The
installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. These packages are
sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready to
install updates and new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Package Group Selection
Figure 9.40. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that
is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a
graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button
that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and
multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal
installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes
performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 9.18, “Installing Packages”.
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To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 9.40, “Package Group
Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next
takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during
installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata
that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other
software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for
every piece of software you select for installation.
The basic options are:
• The ClusteredStorage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat global
file system (GFS).
• The HighAvailability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known as
failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
• The LoadBalance repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual
Server (LVS).
• The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the
complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various
pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Figure 9.41. Adding a software repository
To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and provide
the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify
repository.
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Customizing the Software Selection
Network Access Required
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears. Provide a
Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that
contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata
over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection
system.
Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have
entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way
to cancel only a single repository once entered.
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
Additional Language Support
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected
at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the
package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This
option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select
Next.
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Figure 9.42. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into
package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example,
X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the
right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the
bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of
the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory
packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed,
select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next
to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or deselect base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
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Customizing the Software Selection
Figure 9.43. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your selection,
and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have
finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the
main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove
Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the
main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove Software. The Red Hat Enterprise
Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than
using those on the installation discs.
9.17.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
• centralized logging through syslog
• email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
• network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
• remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
• resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
• network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
• printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
• remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services
do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing,
HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing,
logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You
may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
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9.18. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly
this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer
resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 9.44. Starting installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the selected
packages to your system.
Figure 9.45. Packages completed
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log once
you reboot your system.
After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux ejects
any loaded discs before the computer reboots.
9.19. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux loads and
starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that displays a progress bar.
Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose
to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level),
the FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration.
Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with
Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that
you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
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Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel
or AMD System
This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tmp directory. These
files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacdump.txt.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a permanent copy,
copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other
way round).
10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall
and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a text-based
screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB: ) and a flashing cursor may be all that
appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition outside
of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for
partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive that is outside
of the RAID array. This should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/ partition.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the
system properly.
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10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the
software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in
memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own
demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands,
even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata to see
if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your
hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error
is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports this. You could also try to swap your
memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the installation
program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive
ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of
the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following
command at the boot: or yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the
installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode. If
that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to use only a basic video driver during installation. You can do this either by
selecting Install system with basic video driver on the boot menu, or using the xdriver=vesa
boot option at the boot prompt. Alternatively, you can force the installer to use a specific screen
resolution with the resolution= boot option. This option may be most helpful for laptop users.
Another solution to try is the driver= option to specify the driver that should be loaded for your video
card. If this works, you should report it as a bug, because the installer failed to detect your video card
automatically. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for more information on boot options.
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Trouble During the Installation
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using
the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen
reading hardware.
10.3. Trouble During the Installation
10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver update is available that fixes your
problem. For more general information on driver updates, refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during
installation on Intel and AMD systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
10.3.2. Saving traceback messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash
reporting dialog box:
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Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
Figure 10.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
116
Saving traceback messages
Figure 10.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit installer
exits the installation process.
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Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Local disk
saves details of the error to the local hard drive, in a directory that you select with the file browser:
Figure 10.3. Save Crash Report to a Local disk
Bugzilla
submits details of the error to Red Hat's bug-tracking system, Bugzilla. You must supply an
existing Bugzilla username and password, and a description of the bug.
Figure 10.4. Save Crash Report to Bugzilla
Remote server
saves details of the error to a remote location using SCP. You must specify the username,
password, host, and destination file.
Figure 10.5. Save Crash Report to Remote Server
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Trouble with Partition Tables
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data
to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began) that could not be
recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to use the
remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want the /
(root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created
all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
Note
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
10.3.6. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also
known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the
selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the /tmp/directory. The
error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
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Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>
ToDo object: (itodo ToDo p1 (dp2 S'method'
p4 (dp5 S'progressWindow' p6
<failed>
p3
(iimage
CdromInstallMethod
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been
changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process, so
the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available updates for anaconda. Updates for
anaconda and instructions for using them can be found at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Updates
You can also find and download errata for anaconda through your Red Hat Subscription. Log in to
your account through the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login, click the Errata link at the
top of the window, enter anaconda in the field marked Filter by Synopsis, and click go.
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking system,
go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
10.4. Problems After Installation
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based
System?
If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot screen. To
do this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins with splashimage by inserting the #
character at the beginning of the line.
Press Enter to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
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Booting into a Graphical Environment
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line back into
the grub.conf file.
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once
you log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command
startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file, /etc/
inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot the
computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within
the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
# id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it during
your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media
or perform an upgrade.
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If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both,
during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a desktop
environment.
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a full file
system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df
and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to the
df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and
/tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that
partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was
unsuccessful before.
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit when the
GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the
boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r
now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su
- and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to
enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
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Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with the
cat /proc/meminfo command.
Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If they are
not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
# all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client (2.6.27.19-170.2.35.el5.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.27.19-170.2.35.fc10.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5ab207-002689545705 mem=1024M
initrd /initrd-2.6.27.19-170.2.35.fc10.i686.img
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in
the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to boot.
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using
the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
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10.4.8. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During
Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make
sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
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localhost.localdomain
localhost
Part II. IBM POWER Architecture
- Installation and Booting
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for IBM POWER systems discusses the installation of
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. For advanced installation
options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced installation options”.
Important — only 64-bit POWER architecture is supported
Previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux supported the 32-bit and 64-bit POWER
architectures (ppc and ppc64 respectively). Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only on the 64bit POWER architecture (ppc64).
Chapter 11.
Planning for Installation on the POWER
Architecture
11.1. Upgrade or Install?
For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to
Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System.
11.2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p
Important — Check the real-base boot parameter
Ensure that the real-base boot parameter is set to c00000, otherwise you might see errors such
as:
DEFAULT CATCH!, exception-handler=fff00300
The IBM eServer System p introduces many options for partitioning, virtual or native devices, and
consoles. Both versions of the system use the same kernel and have many of the same options
available, depending on the system configuration.
If you are using a non-partitioned system, you do not need any pre-installation setup. For systems
using the HVSI serial console, hook up your console to the T2 serial port.
If using a partitioned system the steps to create the partition and start the installation are largely the
same. You should create the partition at the HMC and assign some CPU and memory resources, as
well as SCSI and Ethernet resources, which can be either virtual or native. The HMC create partition
wizard steps you through the creation.
For more information on creating the partition, refer to IBM's Infocenter article on Configuring Linux
logical partitions available online at: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?
topic=/iphbi/iphbikickoff.htm
If you are using virtual SCSI resources, rather than native SCSI, you must configure a 'link' to the
virtual SCSI serving partition, and then configure the virtual SCSI serving partition itself. You create a
'link' between the virtual SCSI client and server slots using the HMC. You can configure a virtual SCSI
server on either AIX or i5/OS, depending on which model and options you have.
For more information on using virtual devices, including IBM Redbooks and other online resources
see: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?topic=/iphbi/iphbirelated.htm
Once you have your system configured, you need to Activate from the HMC or power it on. Depending
on what type of install you are doing, you may need to configure SMS to correctly boot the system into
the installation program.
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11.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices
Important — Systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation onto Intel BIOS RAID
sets. These sets are detected automatically, and devices with Intel ISW metadata are recognized
as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that the device node names of any such devices under mdraid
are different from their device node names under dmraid. Therefore, special precautions are
necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files which refer to
devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating
these files, you must therefore edit them to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead.
You can find the UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.
11.3.1. Hardware RAID
RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single
device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached
controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one
drive within Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to operate
several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.
11.3.2. Software RAID
You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays,
where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. These
functions are explained in detail in Section 16.16, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout ”.
11.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks
Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to
avoid any confusion.
Post-installation Usage
You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such
devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.
11.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If
you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system.
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Choose a boot method
Before you start the installation process, you must
1
• have enough unpartitioned disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
• have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning
sizes discussed in Section 16.16.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
11.5. Choose a boot method
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, you have
a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that supports booting from
it. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an installation DVD.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD. After you boot the system
with boot CD, you complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard
drive or a location on a network. Refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on
making boot CDs.
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Chapter 12.
Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
Important — eHEA does not work with huge pages
The eHEA module fails to initialize if 16 GB huge pages are assigned to a system or partition
and the kernel command line does not contain the huge page parameters. Therefore, when you
perform a network installation through an IBM eHEA ethernet adapter, you cannot assign huge
pages to the system or partition during the installation. Large pages should work.
Note
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your system's CD or DVD
drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might
cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash
drive.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation
(via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing
an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate,
network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process,
and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to
improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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Chapter 12. Preparing for Installation
Note
The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, or HTTP is mapped to
local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6 on
the network server can be accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the
installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be
made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be specified as /publicly/available/
directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called
/var/isos. /publicly/available/directory might be /var/www/html/rhel6, for an
HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the
content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation
staging server, continue with either Section 12.1.1, “Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation” or
Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared
over FTP or HTTP.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify client access. Test to see
whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the same
subnet to which you will be installing.
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to
make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the product.img file available on
the network server via NFS.
1.
Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso /publicly/available/directory/
2.
Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system,
run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
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Preparing for an NFS installation
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
3.
Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following
commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
umount /mnt/point
4.
Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img
file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 16.18, “Package Group Selection”).
5.
Ensure that the /publicly/available/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry
in /etc/exports on the network server.
To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly/available/directory client.ip.address (ro)
To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly/available/directory * (ro)
6.
On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /
sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
7.
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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Chapter 12. Preparing for Installation
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note — Not all file systems supported
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems. You cannot use a
hard drives formatted for any other file system as an installation source for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating system, use the Disk
Management tool. To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Linux operating system,
use the fdisk tool.
Cannot Install from LVM Partitions
You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or network
connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
• an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the
content of a DVD.
• an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
• optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when
you boot the installation program (refer to Section 15.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash
drive.
To prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
1.
Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you
can create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
2.
Transfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
The ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer on which
you will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that is attached to that computer by
USB.
3.
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Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system,
run:
Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
4.
Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following
commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
umount /mnt/point
5.
Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img
file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”).
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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Chapter 13.
Updating drivers during installation on
IBM POWER systems
In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your
system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for
this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new
device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm
packages. Typically, the driver disc is available for download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a
DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card
are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of
hardware afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver update rpm packages” for details of adding this
support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support
a particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a
storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You
can use a driver disc to add this support during installation in one of three ways:
1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
a. on a local hard drive
b. a USB flash drive
2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
a. a CD
b. a DVD
Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD”
for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
3. create an initial ramdisk update from the image file and store it on a PXE server. This is an
advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any
other method.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update
during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described
in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver
update during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it. Although installing an
unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was
not intended can complicate support.
13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers
during installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already loaded.
Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program loaded
and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you need the new drivers for the installation
process, consider performing an initial RAM disk driver update — refer to Section 13.2.3,
“Preparing an initial RAM disk update”.
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Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a
device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For example, consider
a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available.
The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not
be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the
installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk
driver update.
13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party
such as the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some
methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation
program, others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk, and one requires you
to prepare an initial RAM disk update:
Methods that use the image file itself
• local hard drive
• USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
• CD
• DVD
Methods that use an initial RAM disk update
• PXE
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 13.2.1, “Preparing to use a driver
update image file”, Section 13.2.2, “Preparing a driver disc” or Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an initial
RAM disk update”. Note that you can use a USB storage device either to provide an image file, or as a
driver update disk.
13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
13.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
To make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash drive, simply
copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if you find it helpful to do so, but you
must not change the filename extension, which must remain .iso. In the following example, the file is
named dd.iso:
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Preparing a driver disc
Figure 13.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. This differs from
driver discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. The ISO image file contains all
of the files that would normally be on a driver disc.
Refer to Section 13.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 13.3.3, “Use
a boot option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to use the driver update disk during
installation.
If you change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV, the installation program will automatically
examine it for driver updates and load any that it detects. This behavior is controlled by the
dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled by default. Refer to Section 13.3.1, “Let the installer
automatically find a driver update disk”.
13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.
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13.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD
These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a
different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the
CD or DVD. The steps will be generally similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this
is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry
labeled burn from image or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the
resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
1.
Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied to you by
Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Figure 13.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
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Preparing a driver disc
2.
Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
Figure 13.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
3.
Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt you
to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by
inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file
named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
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Chapter 13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
Figure 13.4. Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disk correctly and should try
again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from image if you use a Linux desktop other
than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.
Refer to Section 13.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 13.3.3, “Use
a boot option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to use the driver update disk during
installation.
13.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
Advanced procedure
This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver
update with any other method.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the installation
process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily behaves as if it were
a disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. To perform a driver update during
installation, your computer must be able to boot from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server,
and you must have a PXE server available on your network. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an
Installation Server for instructions on using PXE during installation.
To make the driver update available on your PXE server:
1.
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Place the driver update image file on your PXE server. Usually, you would do this by downloading
it to the PXE server from a location on the Internet specified by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
Performing a driver update during installation
2.
Copy the driver update image file into the /tmp/initrd_update directory.
3.
Rename the driver update image file to dd.img.
4.
At the command line, change into the /tmp/initrd_update directory, type the following
command, and press Enter:
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
5.
Copy the file /tmp/initrd_update.img into the directory the holds the target that you want
to use for installation. This directory is placed under the /tftpboot/pxelinux/ directory. For
example, /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/ might hold the PXE target for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 Client.
6.
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file to include an entry that includes
the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following format:
label target-dd
kernel target/vmlinuz
append initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 13.3.4, “Select a PXE target that includes a driver update” to learn how to use an
initial RAM disk update during installation.
Example 13.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update image file
In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded from the
Internet to a directory on your PXE server. The target that you want to PXE boot from is located in /
tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following commands:
$
$
$
$
cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
cd /tmp/initrd_update
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/dd.img
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file and include the following entry:
label r6c-dd
kernel r6c/vmlinuz
append initrd=r6c/initrd.img,r6c/dd.img
13.3. Performing a driver update during installation
You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
• let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
• let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
• use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
• select a PXE target that includes a driver update.
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13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation process. The
installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates that it detects and will not
prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 13.2.1.1, “Preparing to use an image file on local
storage” to prepare a storage device for the installer to find.
13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
1.
Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the installer cannot
load drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the installation process (for example, if it
cannot detect any network or storage controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
Figure 13.5. The no driver found dialog
Select Use a driver disk and refer to Section 13.4, “Specifying the location of a driver update
image file or driver update disk”.
2.
13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
Choose this method only for completely new drivers
This method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update existing drivers.
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Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
1.
Type linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press Enter. The
installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
Figure 13.6. The driver disk prompt
2.
Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and select Yes. The
installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is only one possible location that
could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no
other storage devices) it will automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to
specify the location of the update. Refer to to Section 13.4, “Specifying the location of a driver
update image file or driver update disk” .
13.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
1.
Select network boot in your computer's BIOS or boot menu. The procedure to specify this
option varies widely among different computers. Consult your hardware documentation or the
hardware vendor for specifics relevant to your computer.
2.
In the preexecution boot environment (PXE), choose the boot target that you prepared on
your PXE server. For example, if you labeled this environment r6c-dd in the /tftpboot/
pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file on your PXE server, type r6c-dd at the prompt and
press Enter.
Refer to Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up an
Installation Server for instructions on using PXE to perform an update during installation. Note that this
is an advanced procedure — do not attempt it unless other methods of performing a driver update fail.
13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or
driver update disk
If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it prompts you
to select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the device on which the driver
update is stored, try the various options in order until you find the correct one.
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Chapter 13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
Figure 13.7. Selecting a driver disk source
If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt you to make
another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the driver
update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could contain more than one
partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition or not), the installer might prompt
you to select the partition that holds the driver update.
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Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
Figure 13.8. Selecting a driver disk partition
The installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Figure 13.9. Selecting an ISO image
Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on a USB
storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
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Chapter 13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with a driver
update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary storage area
(located in system RAM and not on disk). The installer might ask whether you would like to use
additional driver updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional updates in turn. When you have no
further driver updates to load, select No. If you stored the driver update on removeable media, you can
now safely eject or disconnect the disk or device. The installer no longer requires the driver update,
and you can re-use the media for other purposes.
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Chapter 14.
Booting the Installer
Important — ramdisk.image.gz sometimes fails to load
On some machines yaboot may not boot, returning the error message:
Cannot load ramdisk.image.gz: Claim failed for initrd memory at 02000000 rc=ffffffff
To work around this issue, change real-base to c00000. You can obtain the value of realbase from the OpenFirmware prompt with the printenv command and set the value with the
setenv command.
To boot an IBM System p system from a DVD, you must specify the install boot device in the System
Management Services (SMS) menu.
To enter the System Management Services GUI, press the 1 key during the boot process when you
hear the chime sound. This brings up a graphical interface similar to the one described in this section.
On a text console, press 1 when the self test is displaying the banner along with the tested
components:
Figure 14.1. SMS console
Once in the SMS menu, select the option for Select Boot Options. In that menu, specify Select
Install or Boot a Device. There, select CD/DVD, and then the bus type (in most cases SCSI). If you
are uncertain, you can select to view all devices. This scans all available buses for boot devices,
including network adapters and hard drives.
Finally, select the device containing the installation DVD. YABOOT is loaded from this device and you
are presented with a boot: prompt. Press Enter or wait for the timeout to expire for the installation to
begin.
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Chapter 14. Booting the Installer
If you are booting via the network, use the images/netboot/ppc64.img file on the DVD.
14.1. The Boot Menu
The boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within 60 seconds,
the default boot option runs. To choose the default, either wait for the timer to run out or hit Enter
on the keyboard. To select a different option than the default, use the arrow keys on your keyboard,
and hit Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you want to customize the boot options for a
particular option, press the Tab key.
Figure 14.2. The boot screen
For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The boot menu options are:
Install or upgrade an existing system
This option is the default. Choose this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto your
computer system using the graphical installation program.
Install system with basic video driver
This option allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the installation
program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your screen appears distorted
or goes blank when using the the Install or upgrade an existing system option, restart your
computer and try this option instead.
Rescue installed system
Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that
prevents you from booting normally. Although Red Hat Enterprise Linux is an exceptionally stable
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Installing from a Different Source
computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to occur that prevent booting. The
rescue environment contains utility programs that allow you fix a wide variety of these problems.
Boot from local drive
This option boots the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disc accidentally, use
this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the installer.
14.2. Installing from a Different Source
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network
using NFS, FTP, or HTTP methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods because
it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to
use with each:
Table 14.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method
Installation source
Installation DVD
DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive
USB flash drive, installation DVD, network, or
hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD
Network or hard disk
Refer to Section 3.5, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from locations
other than the media with which you booted the system.
14.3. Booting from the Network using PXE
To boot with
PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your computer that supports
PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation
Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and may be
labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting, the computer
can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other media.
To boot a computer from a PXE server:
1.
Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network socket should be
lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
2.
Switch on the computer.
3.
A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired option.
If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot first
from the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible
boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware documentation for more
information.
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Chapter 14. Booting the Installer
Note — Multiple NICs and PXE installation
Some servers with multiple network interfaces might not assign eth0 to the first network interface
as the firmware interface knows it, which can cause the installer to try to use a different network
interface from the one that was used by PXE. To change this behavior, use the following in
pxelinux.cfg/* config files:
IPAPPEND 2
APPEND ksdevice=bootif
These configuration options above cause the installer to use the same network interface the
firmware interface and PXE use. You can also use the following option:
ksdevice=link
This option causes the installer to use the first network device it finds that is linked to a network
switch.
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Chapter 15.
Configuring Language and Installation
Source
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation
source.
15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Important — Graphical installation recommended
We recommed that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical interface. If you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks a graphical display, consider
performing the installation over a VNC connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If
anaconda detects that you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC
connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to install in text mode
even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try booting with the
xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the onscreen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 15.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 15.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a
Language”, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Figure 15.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Chapter 15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 15.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
The widgets include:
• Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases,
you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears,
allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
• Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to
select or deselect a feature.
• Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation
program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that
line.
• Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than
can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within
the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information
available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
• Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
• Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program.
You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the
Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
• Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 15.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 15.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
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Using the Keyboard to Navigate
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move
the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to cycle
forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a
summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press Space
or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and
press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to
select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing
the OK button.
Warning
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process
(doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
15.2. Language Selection
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer
to Figure 15.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the Tab key to
move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is
installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in
the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you
specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For
more information, refer to Section 16.18.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Figure 15.3. Language Selection
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Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
15.3. Installation Method
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 15.4, “Installation
Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and
press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 15.4. Installation Method
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.1.1. Installing from DVD
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot your system
from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from DVD media.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive. It starts by
looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) DVD drive.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you to
choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify
options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the option to perform
a media check on the DVD. This will take some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However,
if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check
before calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation
process (refer to Section 16.5, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you selected
Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and
directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option,
you already specified a partition.
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Performing a Network Installation
Figure 15.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SATA,
SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for
example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains
the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
Table 15.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type
Volume
Original path to files
Directory to use
VFAT
D:\
D:\Downloads\RHEL6
/Downloads/RHEL6
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6
/user1/RHEL6
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are
located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO
images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted
as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
Use a leading slash
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks for
your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the
device via DHCP or manually.
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Figure 15.6. TCP/IP Configuration
• If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 15.3.4, “Installing via NFS”.
• If you are installing via Web or FTP, proceed to Section 15.3.5, “Installing via FTP or HTTP”.
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you used
the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a
host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS
Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 12.1.2,
“Preparing for an NFS installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/ which
contains the variant/ directory.
This dialog also allows you to specify NFS mount options. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for a list of common NFS mount options, or consult the man pages for mount and
nfs for a comprehensive list of options.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the
directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later on in the
process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If everything was specified
properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
running.
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Installing via FTP or HTTP
Figure 15.7. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the directory
which contains the ISO image.
Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.
15.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
Important — you must specify the protocol
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or
ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP or HTTP server (if you selected URL
in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the FTP or
HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or
repo=http boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP or HTTP site from which you are installing, and the name of
the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/ppc64/
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and
password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
If your FTP or HTTP server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of the
URL as follows:
{ftp|http}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:[email protected]/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/ppc64/
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Figure 15.8. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.
15.4. Verifying Media
The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while
producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause
the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the
media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a
new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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Installing using anaconda
This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you
with a simpler, more streamlined insatallation process, certain options that are available in graphical
mode are not also available in text mode. These differences are noted in the description of the
installation process in this guide, and include:
• configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
• customizing the partition layout
• customizing the bootloader layout
• selecting packages during installation
• configuring the installed system with Firstboot
16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process;
use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and
collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can
also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen
selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
If you would like to use a graphical installation with a system that does not have that capability, such
as a partitioned system, you can use VNC or display forwarding. Both the VNC and display forwarding
options require an active network during the installation and the use of boot time arguments. For more
information on available boot time options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
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Note
If you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also
available. To start the text mode installation program, use the following command at the yaboot:
prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 14.1, “The Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
menu and to Section 15.1, “The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a brief
overview of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. The
GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation
instructions and obtain all needed information.
16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
This information only applies to users of non-partitioned System p systems using a video card as their
console. Users of partitioned System p systems should skip to Section 16.4, “Using the HMC vterm”.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation
process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter
commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages on five virtual
consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical
machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer
to Table 16.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes
used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical installations
unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Table 16.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl+alt+f1
installation dialog
2
ctrl+alt+f2
shell prompt
3
ctrl+alt+f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
ctrl+alt+f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl+alt+f5
other messages
6
ctrl+alt+f6
x graphical display
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16.4. Using the HMC vterm
The HMC vterm is the console for any partitioned IBM System p. This is opened by right clicking on
the partition on the HMC, and then selecting Open Terminal Window. Only a single vterm can be
connected to the console at one time and there is no console access for partitioned system besides
the vterm. This often is referred to as a 'virtual console', but is different from the virtual consoles in
Section 16.3, “A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles” .
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the
Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
Click on the Next button to continue.
16.6. Storage Devices
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. This screen allows you
to select either basic or specialized storage devices.
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Figure 16.1. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
• hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
• Storage area networks (SANs)
• Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
• Firmware RAID devices
• Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System
Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage attached
to the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 16.8, “Setting the
Hostname”.
16.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
Figure 16.2. Select storage devices — Basic devices
Figure 16.3. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
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Figure 16.4. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and solidstate drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced Target and refer to
Section 16.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage
devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number
(LUN) at which they are accessed.
Figure 16.5. The Storage Devices Search Tab
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in
the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to
help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the
column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For
example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity,
Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing
or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 16.6. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make
a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column
headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation
process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here,
and can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed
system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process.
Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also
that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the
system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
Important — chain loading
Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from anaconda entirely. To
chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from a different boot loader, select all the
devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and
proceed to Section 16.12, “Initializing the Hard Disk”
16.6.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre channel over
ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
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Figure 16.7. Advanced Storage Options
16.6.1.1.1. Enable Network Interfaces
Use this dialog to configure the network interfaces through which the system will connect to networked
storage devices.
Figure 16.8. Enable Network Interface
If your network does not have DHCP enabled, or if you need to override the DHCP settings, select the
network interface that you plan to use from the Interfaces menu. Clear the checkbox for Use dynamic
IP configuration (DHCP). You can now enter an IPv4 address and netmask for this system in the
form address / netmask, along with the gateway address and nameserver address for your network.
Click OK to accept these settings and continue.
16.6.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI Parameters
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add ISCSI
target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and provide
a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. If the ISCSI target uses CHAP (Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol) for authentication, enter the CHAP username and password.
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
If your enviroment uses 2-way CHAP (also called "Mutual CHAP"), also enter the reverse CHAP
username and password. Click the 'Add target' button to attempt connection to the ISCSI target using
this information.
Figure 16.9. Configure ISCSI Parameters
Note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it incorrectly,
but to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the installation.
16.6.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
To configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
On the menu that appears in the next dialog box, select the network interface that is connected to your
FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
Figure 16.10. Configure FCoE Parameters
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Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase
the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or disable the
installer's awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog.
16.7. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you
would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to Figure 16.11, “Keyboard
Configuration”).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Figure 16.11. Keyboard Configuration
Note
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the
Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
16.8. Setting the Hostname
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname.
Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically
supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the DHCP service to assign the domain
name to this machine, specify the short host name only.
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Setting the Hostname
Valid Hostnames
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname
may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Figure 16.12. Setting the hostname
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention
to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service
provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.
Modem Configuration
The installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices after installation
with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet
Service Provider (ISP).
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16.8.1. Edit Network Connections
Important — Manual configuration is often needed
When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation boots for the first time, it activates any network
interfaces that you configured during the installation process. However, the installer does not
prompt you to configure network interfaces on some common installation paths, for example,
when you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a local storage
device, be sure to configure at least one network interface manually if you require network access
when the system boots for the first time.
Note
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by NetworkManager
during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
To configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. The Network
Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile broadband,
VPN, and DSL connections for the system using the NetworkManager tool. A full description of
all configurations possible with NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. This section
only details the most typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation.
Configuration of other types of network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you
must configure are necessarily different.
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Edit Network Connections
Figure 16.13. Network Connections
To add a new connection or to modify or remove a connection configured earlier in the installation
process, click the tab that corresponds to the type of connection. To add a new connection of that type,
click Add. To modify an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog
box appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as described below.
To remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to activate your changes. Note that reconfiguring your network settings might require you to re-connect using the new settings.
16.8.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Start automatically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
Select Available to all users to make the connection available to all users.
16.8.1.2. The Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network
adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can pass through the
interface.
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Figure 16.14. The Wired tab
16.8.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select
Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of your
network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
• TLS for Transport Layer Security
• Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS, or EAP-TTLS
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Edit Network Connections
• Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy Enhanced
Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password to
make the password visible as you type it.
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Figure 16.15. The 802.1x Security tab
16.8.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from
a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the
following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
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Edit Network Connections
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is assigned
an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started, and the
interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network address
translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP
address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and
Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the
system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6
configuration succeeds.
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Figure 16.16. The IPv4 Settings tab
16.8.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
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Edit Network Connections
Figure 16.17. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes specified for it
here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the
local network.
16.8.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from
a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the
following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
IPv6 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic, addresses only
The IPv6 address, prefix, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
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If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP
address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and
Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the
system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4
configuration succeeds.
Figure 16.18. The IPv6 Settings tab
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Time Zone Configuration
16.8.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
Figure 16.19. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the
local network.
16.9. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map
to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
• Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot).
A red X appears indicating your selection.
• You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
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Figure 16.20. Configuring the Time Zone
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses
UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UTC on the system
clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
Note
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time
and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date
Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command
timeconfig.
16.10. Set the Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation.
The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance.
Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
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Set the Root Password
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for
this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or
administration.
Figure 16.21. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general
use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require
superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the changes of a typo or an incorrect command
doing damage to your system.
Note
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then,
enter the root password and press Enter.
1
The installation program prompts you to set a root password for your system. You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to
the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation
program asks you to enter them again.
1
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as root when
needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so
changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
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You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy
for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and
anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower
case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember
that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place.
However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password
Tool.
Type the system-config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a
powerful user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the
characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set
correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
16.11. Assign Storage Devices
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to
Section 16.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be
available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system
for data storage. If you selected only one storage device, anaconda does not present you with this
screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as
part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
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Assign Storage Devices
Figure 16.22. Assign storage devices
The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage
only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating
system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu
marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the
types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented
might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button
labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with
a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device.
Use this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device for the system.
Important — chain loading
If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
loader, include that storage device among the Install Target Devices. Storage devices that you
identify as Install Target Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices on this screen are not automatically
erased by the installation process unless you selected the Use All Space option on the
partioning screen (refer to Section 16.14, “Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.
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16.12. Initializing the Hard Disk
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to
initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your
system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all
partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a
valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to
all devices.
Figure 16.23. Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation
program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation program responds to
the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart
command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)
Detach Unneeded Disks
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and
detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.
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Upgrading an Existing System
16.13. Upgrading an Existing System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More
generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example,
Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove
any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not
change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package
upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you
to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that
you need to upgrade your computer.
16.13.1. The Upgrade Dialog
If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you
want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate
installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
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Figure 16.24. The Upgrade Dialog
Manually Installed Software
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may
behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this
software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.
16.13.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
Installations are Recommended
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home partition and
perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to
Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by
Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before
you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from
sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
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Disk Partitioning Setup
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may
include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from services such as an
Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not
destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.
Storing Backups
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home directory. If your /home
directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your
backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an
Upgrade”.
16.14. Disk Partitioning Setup
Warning — Back up your data
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Important — Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning
schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond
those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at
installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems
are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Important — Booting from RAIDs
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID
array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition
creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and
manually edit your /boot/ partition.
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Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as
its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not
sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions
for more information.
Figure 16.25. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or
choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your
storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of
these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the
option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions created by
other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).
Warning
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is removed by the installation
program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard
drives where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to chain load the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot loader.
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Encrypt Partitions
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. This does not
remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red Hat
Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.
Warning
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be able
to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy data,
operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a
partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find out how much
space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in
the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space available
on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 11.4, “Do You Have Enough
Disk Space?”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to
Section 16.16, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in
the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created
for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Important — chain loading
To configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a different boot loader,
you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose any of the automatic partitioning options,
you must now select the Review and modify partitioning layout option before you click Next or
you cannot specify the correct boot drive.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
16.15. Encrypt Partitions
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to
encrypt the partitions on the system.
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Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for
more information.
Figure 16.26. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this
passphrase every time that the system boots.
Warning — Do not lose this passphrase
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become
completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save
encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer
to Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
16.16. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 16.17, “Write changes to disk”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either accept the
current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions and Section 16.16.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need
an appropriately-sized root (/) partition, a /boot/ partition, PReP boot partition, and usually a swap
partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
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Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
Figure 16.27. Partitioning on IBM System p
The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical representation of the
hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive (such as /
dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit
an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used during
installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 16.11, “ Assign Storage
Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide
devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name of
the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file system
on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a physical
volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
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Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of
in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
16.16.1. Create Storage
The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and software
RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage already
present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Figure 16.28. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as follows:
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Adding Partitions
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
• Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in Appendix A, An Introduction
to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
Refer to Section 23.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
• RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device. To
form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
• RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you
choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). This option is
only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
• RAID Clone — create a mirror of a RAID partition on one storage device on another storage device.
This option is only available when at least one RAID partition is available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 16.16.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
• LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
• LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. This option is
only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
• LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is only available
when at least one volume group is available on the system.
16.16.2. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 16.29, “Creating
a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
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Figure 16.29. Creating a New Partition
• Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point
should not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
• File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 16.16.2.1, “File System Types”.
• Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not
checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide
where partitions should go.
• Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless
changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
• Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this
option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.
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• Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of
the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition.
Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more
information.
• Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed
without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this
option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
• OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
• Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
16.16.2.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The following
is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be
used.
Partition types
• standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can provide
a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
• swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a
swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
• software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more
information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
• ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of
improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more
efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster
file system checking, and more robust journalling. The ext4 file system is selected by default and is
highly recommended.
• ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash
2
as there is no need to fsck the file system.
• ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
• xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16
exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million
terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata
journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented
and resized while mounted and active.
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• vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
filenames on the FAT file system.
• Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more
files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to
make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they
occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of
the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer
it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation
process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.
Btrfs is still experimental
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment
with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data or
that are essential for the operation of important systems.
16.16.3. Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are
arranged to provided increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or
more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice
available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog that appears
when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.16.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description
of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to software RAID
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Create Software RAID
Figure 16.30. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions.
This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Figure 16.31. Create a RAID device
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Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select
names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
• RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased
performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple devices
into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that the failure of
one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
• RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices.
Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least
two RAID partitions.
• RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the array
to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the array fails.
Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device creates a
bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
• RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5
RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple devices,
but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is
also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID partitions.
• RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity
data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
• RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are constructed
by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level 10 RAID
constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which one partition
mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0
RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID Clone
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or
more disks are attached to the system.
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Figure 16.32. Clone a RAID device
16.16.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM
configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different virtual console, and run the lvm
command. To return to the text-mode installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage
space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical
volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into
multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM
logical volumes function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This option is
the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. This is the
same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.16.2, “Adding
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Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must
be set to physical volume (LVM)
Figure 16.33. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to
add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
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Create LVM Logical Volume
Figure 16.34. Make LVM Volume Group
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then
select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on
any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient
space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB
LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not
allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5
GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes
appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example,
reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB
physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and
size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the logical
volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
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Figure 16.35. Make Logical Volume
16.16.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions:
• A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of
RAM in the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the
hundreds of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a
function of the memory workload running on that system. However, given that swap space is usually
designated at install time, and that it can be difficult to determine beforehand the memory workload
of a system, we recommend determining system swap using the following table.
Table 16.2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the System
Recommended Amount of Swap Space
4GB of RAM or less
a minimum of 2GB of swap space
4GB to 16GB of RAM
a minimum of 4GB of swap space
16GB to 64GB of RAM
a minimum of 8GB of swap space
64GB to 256GB of RAM
a minimum of 16GB of swap space
256GB to 512GB of RAM
a minimum of 32GB of swap space
Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage
devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces.
• A PReP boot partition on the first partition of the hard drive — the PReP boot partition contains
the YABOOT boot loader (which allows other POWER systems to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux).
Unless you plan to boot from a network source, you must have a PReP boot partition to boot Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
For IBM System p users: The PReP boot partition should be between 4-8 MB, not to exceed 10 MB.
• A /boot/ partition (250 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system
kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during
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Write changes to disk
the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC firmware, creating a small partition to hold
these is a good idea. For most users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Warning
If you have a RAID card, be aware that Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support setting
up hardware RAID on an IPR card. If you already have the RAID array setup, Open Firmware
does not support booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition
must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
• A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB)
This is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot)
are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets you
perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
Root and /root
The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The /root directory/root
(sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for
system administration.
Warning
The PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to
create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
16.17. Write changes to disk
The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes to
disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 16.36. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
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Last chance to cancel safely
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your
computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your
hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on
your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. To cancel installation
completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the process
is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power outage)
you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.
16.18. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux you are installing.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. The
installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. These packages are
sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready to
install updates and new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Package Group Selection
Figure 16.37. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that
is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a
graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button
that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and
multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal
installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes
performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 16.19, “Installing Packages”.
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To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 16.37, “Package Group
Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next
takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
16.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during
installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata
that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other
software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for
every piece of software you select for installation.
The basic options are:
• The ClusteredStorage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat global
file system (GFS).
• The HighAvailability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known as
failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
• The LoadBalance repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual
Server (LVS).
• The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the
complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various
pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Figure 16.38. Adding a software repository
To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and provide
the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify
repository.
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Customizing the Software Selection
Network Access Required
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears. Provide a
Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that
contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata
over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection
system.
Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have
entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way
to cancel only a single repository once entered.
16.18.2. Customizing the Software Selection
Additional Language Support
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected
at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the
package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Note — 64-bit applications
Users who want support for developing or running 64-bit applications are encouraged to select
the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to
install architecure specific support for their systems.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This
option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select
Next.
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Figure 16.39. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into
package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example,
X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the
right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the
bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of
the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory
packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed,
select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next
to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or deselect base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
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Customizing the Software Selection
Figure 16.40. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your selection,
and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have
finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the
main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove
Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the
main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove Software. The Red Hat Enterprise
Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than
using those on the installation discs.
16.18.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
• centralized logging through syslog
• email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
• network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
• remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
• resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
• network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
• printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
• remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services
do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing,
HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing,
logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You
may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
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16.19. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly
this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer
resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 16.41. Starting installation
During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following progress
bar:
Figure 16.42. Packages completed
16.20. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux loads and
starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that displays a progress bar.
Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose
to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level),
the FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration.
Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with
Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that
you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
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Chapter 17.
Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM
POWER System
This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tmp directory. These
files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacdump.txt.
You may also find the IBM Online Alert Section for System p useful. It is located at:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/lopdiags/info/LinuxAlerts.html
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a permanent copy,
copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other
way round).
17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the
software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in
memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own
demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands,
even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata to see
if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your
hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error
is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports this. You could also try to swap your
memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the installation
program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive
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ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of
the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following
command at the boot: or yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the
installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode. If
that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
for more information.
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using
the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen
reading hardware.
17.3. Trouble During the Installation
17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes
your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Chapter 13, Updating drivers
during installation on IBM POWER systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
17.3.2. Saving traceback messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash
reporting dialog box:
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Saving traceback messages
Figure 17.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
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Figure 17.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit installer
exits the installation process.
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Saving traceback messages
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Local disk
saves details of the error to the local hard drive, in a directory that you select with the file browser:
Figure 17.3. Save Crash Report to a Local disk
Bugzilla
submits details of the error to Red Hat's bug-tracking system, Bugzilla. You must supply an
existing Bugzilla username and password, and a description of the bug.
Figure 17.4. Save Crash Report to Bugzilla
Remote server
saves details of the error to a remote location using SCP. You must specify the username,
password, host, and destination file.
Figure 17.5. Save Crash Report to Remote Server
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IBM System p systems
This information does not apply to users of headless IBM System p systems.
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 16.14, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System
Users
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created
all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
• A PReP Boot partition.
• A /boot/ partition.
Note
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
17.3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also
known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the
selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the /tmp/directory. The
error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
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Problems After Installation
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>
ToDo object: (itodo ToDo p1 (dp2 S'method'
p4 (dp5 S'progressWindow' p6
<failed>
p3
(iimage
CdromInstallMethod
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been
changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process, so
the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available updates for anaconda. Updates for
anaconda and instructions for using them can be found at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Updates
You can also find and download errata for anaconda through your Red Hat Subscription. Log in to
your account through the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login, click the Errata link at the
top of the window, enter anaconda in the field marked Filter by Synopsis, and click go.
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking system,
go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
17.4. Problems After Installation
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
If you are experiencing difficulties when trying to IPL from *NWSSTG, you may not have created a
PReP Boot partition set as active.
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once
you log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command
startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
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To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file, /etc/
inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot the
computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within
the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
# id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it during
your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media
or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both,
during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a desktop
environment.
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a full file
system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
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Problems When You Try to Log In
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df
and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to the
df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and
/tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that
partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was
unsuccessful before.
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r
now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su
- and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to
enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using
the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
17.4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During
Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make
sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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Part III. IBM System z Architecture
- Installation and Booting
This part discusses installation and booting (or initial program load, IPL) of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
on IBM System z.
Chapter 18.
Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 runs on System z9 or later IBM mainframe systems.
The installation process assumes that you are familiar with the IBM System z and can set up logical
partitions (LPARs) and z/VM guest virtual machines. For additional information on System z, refer to
http://www.ibm.com/systems/z.
Before you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must decide on the following:
• Decide whether you want to run the operating system on an LPAR or as a z/VM guest operating
system.
• Decide if you need swap space and if so how much. Although it is possible (and recommended) to
assign enough memory to z/VM guest virtual machine and let z/VM do the necessary swapping,
there are cases where the amount of required RAM is hard to predict. Such instances should be
examined on a case-by-case basis. Refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
• Decide on a network configuration. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for IBM System z supports the
following network devices:
• Real and virtual Open Systems Adapter (OSA)
• Real and virtual HiperSockets
• LAN channel station (LCS) for real OSA
You require the following hardware:
1
• Disk space. Calculate how much disk space you need and allocate sufficient disk space on DASDs
2
or SCSI disks. You require at least 2 GB for a server installation, and 5 GB if you want to install all
packages. You also require disk space for any application data. After the installation, more DASD or
SCSI disk partitions may be added or deleted as necessary.
The disk space used by the newly installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system (the Linux instance)
must be separate from the disk space used by other operating systems you may have installed on
your system.
For more information about disks and partition configuration, refer to Section 23.15.5,
“Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
• RAM. Acquire 1 GB (recommended) for the Linux instance. With some tuning, an instance might run
with as little as 512 MB RAM.
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on System z interactively or in unattended mode. Installation
on System z differs from installation on other architectures in that it is typically performed over a
network and not from a local DVD. The installation can be summarized as follows:
1.
Booting (IPL) the installer
Connect with the mainframe, then perform an initial program load (IPL), or boot, from the medium
containing the installation program.
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Chapter 18. Planning for Installation on System z
2.
Installation Phase 1
Set up an initial network device. This network device is then used to connect to the installation
system via SSH or VNC. This gets you a full-screen mode terminal or graphical display to
continue installation as on other architectures.
3.
Installation Phase 2
Specify which language to use, and how and where the installation program and the software
packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation medium can be found.
4.
Installation Phase 3
Use anaconda (the main part of the Red Hat installation program) to perform the rest of the
installation.
Figure 18.1. The Installation Process
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
After establishing a connection with the mainframe, you need to perform an initial program load (IPL),
or boot, from the medium containing the installation program. This document describes the most
common methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on System z. In general, you can use any
method to boot the Linux installation system, which consists of a kernel (kernel.img) and initial
ramdisk (initrd.img) with at least the parameters in generic.prm. The Linux installation system is
also called the installer in this book.
The control point from where you can start the IPL process depends on the environment where
your Linux is to run. If your Linux is to run as a z/VM guest operating system, the control point is the
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Installation Phase 1
control program (CP) of the hosting z/VM. If your Linux is to run in LPAR mode, the control point is
the mainframe's Support Element (SE) or an attached IBM System z Hardware Management Console
(HMC).
You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run as a guest operating system under z/VM:
• z/VM reader — refer to Section 20.1.1, “Using the z/VM Reader” for details.
You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run in LPAR mode:
• SE or HMC through a remote FTP server — refer to Section 20.2.1, “Using an FTP Server” for
details.
• SE or HMC DVD — refer to Section 20.2.2, “Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive” for details
You can use the following boot media for both z/VM and LPAR:
• DASD — refer to Section 20.1.2, “Using a prepared DASD” for z/VM or Section 20.2.3, “Using a
prepared DASD” for LPAR
• SCSI device that is attached through an FCP channel — refer to Section 20.1.3, “Using a prepared
FCP-attached SCSI Disk” for z/VM or Section 20.2.4, “Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk”
for LPAR
• FCP-attached SCSI DVD — refer to Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for
z/VM or Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR
If you use DASD and FCP-attached SCSI devices (except SCSI DVDs) as boot media, you must have
a configured zipl boot loader. For more information, see the Chapter on zipl in Linux on System z
Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device. This network device is needed to
complete the installation.
The interface you will use in installation phase 1 is the linuxrc interface, which is line-mode and textbased. (Refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device.)
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
In installation phase 2, you need to specify what language to use and where phase 3 of the installation
program and the software packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation
medium can be found. On System z, the installation sources are usually transferred from the DVD to a
network server. Phase 3 of the installation program and the repository can be accessed in one of the
following ways:
• Over the network using one of the FTP, HTTP, or NFS protocols. A separate network server (FTP,
HTTP, or NFS), which holds all the required installation sources, must be set up in advance.
For details on how to set up a network server, refer to Section 19.1, “Preparing for a Network
Installation”.
• Hard disk (DASD or a SCSI device attached through an FCP channel). You need to set up a disk
that holds the required installation sources in advance. For details, Refer to Section 19.2, “Preparing
for a Hard Drive Installation”.
• Through an FCP-attached SCSI DVD. This is handled automatically if booted from FCP-attached
SCSI DVD.
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The interface you will use in installation phase 2 is the loader, which provides a full-screen text-based
interface with a blue background by default. For unattended installations in cmdline mode, the loader
offers line-mode, text-based output. (Refer to Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language
and Installation Source.)
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
In installation phase 3 you will use anaconda in graphical, text-based, or cmdline mode:
• Graphical mode
This can be used through a VNC client (recommended) or through an X11 server. You can use your
mouse and keyboard to navigate through the screens, click buttons, and enter text in fields.
• Text-based mode
This interface does not offer all interface elements of the GUI and does not support all settings. Use
this for interactive installations if you cannot use a VNC client or X11 server.
• cmdline mode
This is intended for automated installations on System z. (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for
kickstart installations”)
If you have a slow network connection or prefer a text-based installation, do not use X11 forwarding
when logging in over the network and do not set the display= variable in the parameter file (refer
to Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 parameters” for details). In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 the text-based
installation has been reduced to minimize user interaction. Features like installation on FCP-attached
SCSI devices, changing partition layout, or package selection are only available with the graphical
user interface installation. Use the graphical installation whenever possible. (Refer to Chapter 23,
Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.)
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC
To run anaconda with the graphical user interface, use a workstation that has either an X Window
System (X11) server or VNC client installed.
You can use X11 forwarding with an SSH client or X11 directly. If the installer on your workstation fails
because the X11 server does not support required X11 extensions you might have to upgrade the X11
server or use VNC.
To use VNC, disable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the Linux installation
system on the mainframe or specify the vnc parameter in your parameter file. Using VNC is
recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. Refer to Section 28.2, “Enabling
Remote Access to the Installation System”.
Table 18.1, “Parameters and SSH login types” shows how the parameters and SSH login type controls
which anaconda user interface is used.
Table 18.1. Parameters and SSH login types
Parameter
SSH login
User interface
none
SSH without X11 forwarding
VNC or text
vnc
SSH with or without X11
forwarding
VNC
none
SSH with X11 forwarding
X11
display=IP/
hostname:display
SSH without X11 forwarding
X11
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Installation using X11 forwarding
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
You can connect a workstation to the Linux installation system on the mainframe and display the
graphical installation program using SSH with X11 forwarding.
You require an SSH client that allows X11 forwarding. To open the connection, first start the X server
on the workstation. Then connect to the Linux installation system. You can enable X11 forwarding in
your SSH client when you connect.
For example, with OpenSSH enter the following in a terminal window on your workstation:
ssh -X [email protected]
Replace linuxvm.example.com with the hostname or IP address of the system you are installing.
The -X option (the capital letter X) enables X11 forwarding.
18.3.2. Installation using X11
The direct connection from the X11 client to an X11 server on your local workstation requires an
IP connection from your System z to your workstation. If the network and firewalls prevent such
connections, use X11 forwarding or VNC instead.
The graphical installation program requires the DNS and hostname to be set correctly, and
the Linux installation system must be allowed to open applications on your display. You can
ensure this by setting the parameter display=workstationname:0.0 in the parameter file,
where workstationname is the hostname of the client workstation connecting to the Linux image.
Alternatively, you can set the display environment variable and run loader manually after having
logged in with SSH as user root. By default you log in as user install. This starts the loader
automatically and does not allow overriding the display environment variable.
To permit X11 clients to open applications on the X11 server on your workstation, use the xauth
command. To manage X11 authorization cookies with xauth, you must log in to the Linux installation
system using SSH as user root. For details on xauth and how to manage authorization cookies, refer
to the xauth manpage.
In contrast to setting up X11 authorizations with xauth, you can use xhost to permit the Linux
installation system to connect to the X11 server:
xhost +linuxvm
Replace linuxvm with the hostname or IP address of the Linux installation system. This allows
linuxvm to make connections to the X11 server.
If the graphical installation does not begin automatically, verify the display= variable settings in
the parameter file. If performing an installation under z/VM, rerun the installation to load the new
parameter file on the reader.
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
Using VNC is recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. To use VNC, disable
X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the temporary Linux installation system.
The loader will then provide a choice between text-mode and VNC; choose VNC here. Alternatively,
provide the vnc variable and optionally the vncpassword variable in your parameter file (refer to
Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 parameters” for details).
A message on the workstation SSH terminal prompts you to start the VNC client viewer and provides
details about the VNC display specifications. Enter the specifications from the SSH terminal into the
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VNC client viewer and connect to the temporary Linux installation system to begin the installation.
Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
To connect from your temporary Linux installation system to a VNC client running on your workstation
in listening mode, use the vncconnect option in your parameter file, in addition to the options vnc
and optionally vncpassword. The network and firewalls must allow an IP connection from your
temporary Linux installation to your workstation.
To have the temporary Linux installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start
the client in listening mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen option to run
vncviewer as a listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A
Kickstart file specifies settings for an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a
Kickstart file and carry out the installation process without any further input from a user.
On System z, this also requires a parameter file (optionally an additional configuration file under
z/VM). This parameter file must contain the required network options described in Section 26.3,
“Installation network parameters” and specify a kickstart file using the ks= option. The kickstart
file typically resides on the network. The parameter file often also contains the options cmdline
and RUNKS=1 to execute the loader without having to log in over the network with SSH (Refer to
Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart installations”).
For further information and details on how to set up a kickstart file, refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the
Kickstart File”.
18.3.5.1. Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that contains
the settings for the installed system. This file is always saved as /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You
may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to specify settings for
other systems.
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Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your hosting partition's drive
if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause
unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation
(via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing
an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate,
network-accessible server. The separate server can be a virtual machine, LPAR, or any other system
(such as a Linux on POWER or x86 system). It must provide the complete contents of the installation
DVD-ROM.
Note
The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, or HTTP is mapped to
local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6 on
the network server can be accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the
installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be
made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be specified as /publicly/available/
directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called
/var/isos. /publicly/available/directory might be /var/www/html/rhel6, for an
HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the
content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation
staging server, continue with either Section 19.1.1, “Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation” or
Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared
over FTP or HTTP.
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Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify client access. Test to see
whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the same
subnet to which you will be installing.
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to
make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the product.img file available on
the network server via NFS.
1.
Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso /publicly/available/directory/
2.
Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system,
run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
3.
Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following
commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
umount /mnt/point
4.
Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img
file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17, “Package Group Selection”).
5.
Ensure that the /publicly/available/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry
in /etc/exports on the network server.
To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly/available/directory client.ip.address (ro)
To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly/available/directory * (ro)
6.
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On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /
sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
7.
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperlyburned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on hardware systems without a DVD drive and if
you do not want to access installation phase 3 and the package repository over a network.
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository
on a Hard Drive
Note
Hard drive installations using DASD or FCP-attached SCSI storage only work from native ext2,
ext3, or ext4 partitions. If you have a file system based on devices other than native ext2, ext3, or
ext4 (particularly a file system based on RAID or LVM partitions) you will not be able to use it as a
source to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations use an ISO image of the installation DVD (a file that contains an exact copy
of the content of the DVD), and an install.img file extracted from the ISO image. With these files
present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when you boot the
installation program.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
• an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the
content of a DVD.
• an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
• optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when
you boot the installation program (refer to Section 22.4, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer.
To prepare a DASD or FCP-attached device as an installation source, follow these steps:
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Chapter 19. Preparing for Installation
1.
Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you
can create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
2.
Transfer the ISO images to the DASD or SCSI device.
The ISO files must be located on a hard drive that is activated in installation phase 1 (refer to
Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device) or in installation phase 2 (refer
to Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source). This is
automatically possible with DASDs.
For an FCP LUN, you must either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue shell
provided by the installation phase 1 menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the ISOs as
described in Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically activating an FCP LUN”.
3.
Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system,
run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
4.
Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following
commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
umount /mnt/point
5.
Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img
file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17, “Package Group Selection”).
6.
Make the DASD or SCSI LUN accessible to the new z/VM guest virtual machine or LPAR, and
then proceed with installation. (Refer to Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer) or alternatively
with Section 19.2.1.1, “Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive”.
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Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
Note — Verifying ISO images
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can test the integrity of the installation
medium. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We
recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before
reporting any installation-related bugs. To use this test, add the mediacheck parameter to your
parameter file (refer to Section 26.7, “Miscellaneous parameters”).
19.2.1.1. Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive
If you would like to boot (IPL) the installer from a hard drive, in addition to accessing installation phase
3 and the package repository, you can optionally install the zipl boot loader on the same (or a different)
disk. Be aware that zipl only supports one boot record per disk. If you have multiple partitions on a
disk, they all “share” the disk's one boot record.
In the following, assume the hard drive is prepared as described in Section 19.2.1, “Accessing
Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive”, mounted under /mnt, and you do
not need to preserve an existing boot record.
To prepare a hard drive to boot the installer, install the zipl boot loader on the hard drive by entering
the following command:
zipl -V -t /mnt/ -i /mnt/images/kernel.img -r /mnt/images/initrd.img -p /mnt/images/
generic.prm
For more details on zipl.conf, refer to the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers,
Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Warning — Accessing a previously-installed operating system
If you have an operating system installed on the disk, and you still plan to access it later on, refer
the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 for how to add a new entry in the zipl boot loader (that is, in zipl.conf).
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Booting (IPL) the Installer
The steps to perform the initial boot (IPL) of the installer depend on the environment (either z/VM or
LPAR) in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux will run. For more information on booting, see the Booting
Linux chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6.
20.1. Installing under z/VM
When installing under z/VM, you can boot from:
• the z/VM virtual reader
• a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI device prepared with the zipl boot loader
• an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Log on to the z/VM guest virtual machine chosen for the Linux installation. You can use x3270 or
c3270 (from the x3270-text package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux) to log in to z/VM from other Linux
systems. Alternatively, use the 3270 terminal emulator on the IBM System z Hardware Management
Console (HMC). If you are working from a machine with a Windows operating system, Jolly Giant
(http://www.jollygiant.com/) offers an SSL-enabled 3270 emulator. A free native Windows port of
c3270 called wc3270 also exists.
Note — If your 3270 connection is interrupted
If your 3270 connection is interrupted and you cannot log in again because the previous session
is still active, you can replace the old session with a new one by entering the following command
on the z/VM logon screen:
logon user here
Replace user with the name of the z/VM guest virtual machine. Depending on whether an
external security manager, for example RACF, is used, the logon command might vary.
If you are not already running CMS (single user operating system shipped with z/VM) in your guest,
boot it now by entering the command:
#cp ipl cms
Be sure not to use CMS disks such as your A disk (often device number 0191) as installation targets.
To find out which disks are in use by CMS use the following query:
query disk
You can use the following CP (z/VM Control Program, which is the z/VM hypervisor) query commands
to find out about the device configuration of your z/VM guest virtual machine:
• Query the available main memory, which is called storage in System z terminology. Your guest
should have at least 512 megabytes of main memory.
cp query virtual storage
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Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
• Query available network devices of type:
osa
OSA (CHPID type OSD, real or virtual (VSWITCH or GuestLAN type QDIO), both in QDIO
mode)
hsi
HiperSockets (CHPID type IQD, real or virtual (GuestLAN type Hipers))
lcs
LCS (CHPID type OSE)
For example, to query all of the network device types mentioned above:
cp query virtual osa
• Query available DASDs. Only those that are flagged RW for read-write mode can be used as
installation targets:
cp query virtual dasd
• Query available FCP channels:
cp query virtual fcp
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
Perform the following steps to boot from the z/VM reader:
1.
If necessary, add the device containing the z/VM TCP/IP tools to your CMS disk list. For example:
cp link tcpmaint 592 592
acc 592 fm
Replace fm with any FILEMODE letter.
2.
Execute the command:
ftp host
Where host is the hostname or IP address of the FTP server that hosts the boot images
(kernel.img and initrd.img).
3.
Log in and execute the following commands. Use the (repl option if you are overwriting existing
kernel.img, initrd.img, generic.prm, or redhat.exec files:
cd /location/of/install-tree/images/
ascii
get generic.prm (repl
get redhat.exec (repl
locsite fix 80
binary
get kernel.img (repl
get initrd.img (repl
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Using a prepared DASD
quit
4.
Optionally check whether the files were transferred correctly by using the CMS command
filelist to show the received files and their format. It is important that kernel.img and
initrd.img have a fixed record length format denoted by F in the Format column and a record
length of 80 in the Lrecl column. For example:
VMUSER FILELIST A0 V 169 Trunc=169 Size=6 Line=1 Col=1 Alt=0
Cmd Filename Filetype Fm Format Lrecl Records Blocks Date Time
REDHAT EXEC B1 V 22 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:40
GENERIC PRM B1 V 44 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:32
INITRD IMG B1 F 80 118545 2316 4/15/10 9:30:25
KERNEL IMG B1 F 80 74541 912 4/15/10 9:30:17
Press PF3 to quit filelist and return to the CMS prompt.
5.
Finally execute the REXX script redhat.exec to boot (IPL) the installer:
redhat
20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD
Boot from the prepared DASD and select the zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp ipl DASD device number loadparm boot_entry_number
Replace DASD device number with the device number of the boot device, and
boot_entry_number with the zipl configuration menu for this device. For example:
cp ipl eb1c loadparm 0
20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
Perform the following steps to boot from a prepared FCP-attached SCSI disk:
1.
Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the prepared SCSI disk in the FCP storage
area network. Select the prepared zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun LUN bootprog boot_entry_number
Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the storage system and LUN with the LUN of the disk. The 16digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight digits each. For example:
cp set loaddev portname 50050763 050b073d lun 40204011 00000000 bootprog 0
2.
Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
query loaddev
3.
IPL the FCP device connected with the storage system containing the disk with the command:
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cp ipl FCP_device
For example:
cp ipl fc00
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
This requires a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected to an
FCP adapter in your System z. The FCP adapter must be configured and available under z/VM.
1.
Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
2.
Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the DVD drive in the FCP storage area network
and specify 1 for the boot entry on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD. Use a
command of the following form:
cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun FCP_LUN bootprog 1
Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge and FCP_LUN with the LUN of the DVD
drive. The 16-digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight characters each. For
example:
cp set loaddev portname 20010060 eb1c0103 lun 00010000 00000000 bootprog 1
3.
Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
cp query loaddev
4.
IPL on the FCP device connected with the FCP-to-SCSI bridge.
cp ipl FCP_device
For example:
cp ipl fc00
20.2. Installing in an LPAR
When installing in a logical partition (LPAR), you can boot from:
• an FTP server
• the DVD drive of the HMC or SE
• a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI drive prepared with the zipl boot loader
• an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Perform these common steps first:
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Using an FTP Server
1.
Log in on the IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC) or the Support Element (SE)
as a user with sufficient privileges to install a new operating system to an LPAR. The SYSPROG
user is recommended.
2.
Select Images, then select the LPAR to which you wish to install. Use the arrows in the frame on
the right side to navigate to the CPC Recovery menu.
3.
Double-click Operating System Messages to show the text console on which Linux boot
messages will appear and potentially user input will be required. Refer to the chapter on booting
Linux in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 and the Hardware Management Console Operations Guide, order number [SC28-6857],
for details.
Continue with the procedure for your installation source.
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server
1.
Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
2.
In the dialog box that follows, select FTP Source, and enter the following information: Host
Computer: Hostname or IP address of the FTP server you wish to install from (for example,
ftp.redhat.com) User ID: Your user name on the FTP server (or anonymous) Password: Your
password (use your email address if you are logging in as anonymous) Account (optional): Leave
this field empty File location (optional): Directory on the FTP server holding Red Hat Enterprise
Linux for System z (for example, /rhel/s390x/)
3.
Click Continue.
4.
In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins and click Continue.
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
1.
Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
2.
In the dialog box that follows, select Local CD-ROM / DVD then click Continue.
3.
In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins then click Continue.
20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD
1.
Double-click Load.
2.
In the dialog box that follows, select Normal as the Load type.
3.
As Load address fill in the device number of the DASD.
4.
As Load parameter fill in the number corresponding the the zipl boot menu entry that you
prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
5.
Click the OK button.
20.2.4. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
1.
Double-click Load.
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Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
2.
In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
3.
As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the SCSI disk.
4.
As World wide port name fill in the WWPN of the storage system containing the disk as a 16digit hexadecimal number.
5.
As Logical unit number fill in the LUN of the disk as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
6.
As Boot program selector fill in the number corresponding the the zipl boot menu entry that you
prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
7.
Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system specific load
parameters empty.
8.
Click the OK button.
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
This requires to have a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected
to an FCP adapter in your System z machine. The FCP adapter has to be configured and available in
your LPAR.
1.
Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
2.
Double-click Load.
3.
In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
4.
As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the FCP-to-SCSI
bridge.
5.
As World wide port name fill in the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge as a 16-digit hexadecimal
number.
6.
As Logical unit number fill in the LUN of the DVD drive as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
7.
As Boot program selector fill in the number 1 to select the boot entry on the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux for System z DVD.
8.
Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system specific load
parameters empty.
9.
Click the OK button.
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Chapter 21.
Installation Phase 1: Configuring a
Network Device
After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device using the linuxrc program. This network
device is needed to complete the installation. If you are installing interactively (with the default
parameter file generic.prm), you will be asked questions about your network. It is a good idea to
have your data ready in the form of a datasheet or similar. If you want to automate this step, supply the
information for each option in your parameter file or CMS configuration file.
As an example, let us look at how to configure an OSA network adapter under z/VM. When linuxrc
starts, you see the following message:
Starting the zSeries initrd to configure networking. Version is 1.2
Starting udev...
Network devices are sensed and listed. The list of devices depends on the cio_ignore kernel
parameter used. If no devices are found because of cio_ignore, as in the example below, you can
clear the list of ignored devices. Note that this might take some time and result in a long list when
there are many devices, such as on an LPAR.
Scanning for available network devices...
Autodetection found 0 devices.
Note: There is a device blacklist active! (Clearing might take long)
c) clear blacklist, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
c
Clearing device blacklist...
Scanning for available network devices...
Autodetection found 14 devices.
NUM CARD CU CHPID TYPE DRIVER IF DEVICES
1 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 00 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502
2 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 01 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505
3 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 02 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1010,0.0.1011,0.0.1012
4 HiperSockets 1731/05 03 IQD qeth hsi 0.0.1013,0.0.1014,0.0.1015
5 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 04 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1017,0.0.1018,0.0.1019
6 CTC adapter 3088/08 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1000,0.0.1001
7 escon channel 3088/1f 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1002,0.0.1003
8 ficon channel 3088/1e 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1004,0.0.1005
9 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 76 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
10 LCS OSA 3088/60 8a OSE lcs eth 0.0.1240,0.0.1241
11 HiperSockets 1731/05 fb IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8024,0.0.8025,0.0.8026
12 HiperSockets 1731/05 fc IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8124,0.0.8125,0.0.8126
13 HiperSockets 1731/05 fd IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8224,0.0.8225,0.0.8226
14 HiperSockets 1731/05 fe IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8324,0.0.8325,0.0.8326
<num>) use config, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
Enter the number of the configuration you want to use, for example 9. Selecting from the table
provides the installer with information for the type of network device and the device addresses for its
subchannels. Alternatively, you can enter m and proceed to enter the network type (qeth), the read,
write, data channels, and the OSA port. Accept defaults by pressing Enter; under z/VM you might
need to press Enter twice.
m
* NOTE: To enter default or empty values press enter twice. *
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Chapter 21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
Network type (qeth, lcs, ctc, ? for help). Default is qeth:
qeth
Read,write,data channel (e.g. 0.0.0300,0.0.0301,0.0.0302 or ? for help).
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
Portname (1..8 characters, or ? for help). Default is no portname:
Relative port number for OSA (0, 1, or ? for help). Default is 0:
Layer mode (0 for layer3, 1 for layer2, or ? for help). Default is 1:
Activating network device...
Detected: OSA card in OSD mode, Gigabit Ethernet
Unique MAC address (e.g. 02:00:00:00:00:00, ? for help). Default is 02:00:00:AB:C9:81:
Then questions pertaining to your Linux instance are displayed:
Hostname of your new Linux guest (FQDN e.g. s390.redhat.com or ? for help):
host.subdomain.domain
IPv4 address / IPv6 addr. (e.g. 10.0.0.2 / 2001:0DB8:: or ? for help)
10.0.0.42
IPv4 netmask or CIDR prefix (e.g. 255.255.255.0 or 1..32 or ? for help). Default is
255.0.0.0:
24
IPv4 address of your default gateway or ? for help:
10.0.0.1
Trying to reach gateway 10.0.0.1...
IPv4 addresses of DNS servers (separated by colons ':' or ? for help):
10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
Trying to reach DNS servers...
DNS search domains (separated by colons ':' or ? for help):
subdomain.domain:domain
DASD range (e.g. 200-203,205 or ? for help). Default is autoprobing:
eb1c
Activated DASDs:
0.0.eb1c(ECKD) dasda : active, blocksize: 4096, 1803060 blocks, 7043 MB
Important — you must define a DASD
The installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation, enter none.
This satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter, while resulting in a SCSI-only
environment.
When you define the DASD as none, you receive an error message such as:
Incorrect format for lower bound of DASD range none: none
It is safe to disregard this error message; installation proceeds as normal.
244
If you make a mistake, the dialog either notices the error and asks you to re-enter the parameter, or
you can go back later to restart the dialog:
Incorrect ... (<OPTION-NAME>):
0) redo this parameter, 1) continue, 2) restart dialog, 3) halt, 4) shell
When you restart the dialog, it remembers what you entered before:
Network type
0) default is previous "qeth", 1) new value, ?) help
At the end of the configuration, you see the message Initial configuration completed:
Initial configuration completed.
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s) shell
You can now check your network configuration by entering n:
n
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:AB:C9:81
inet addr:10.0.0.42 Bcast:10.0.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:64 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:3334 (3.2 KiB) TX bytes:336 (336.0 b)
lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
127.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 lo
10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s) shell
If you want to change something, enter r to restart the dialog. To show the parameters as specified
in a parameter or configuration file or interactively enter p. You can then copy the output from your
terminal and paste it into an editor to save it to disk on your local workstation. You can use the copy as
a template for a parameter or configuration file for future installations:
p
NETTYPE=qeth
IPADDR=10.0.0.42
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=10.0.0.1
HOSTNAME=host.subdomain.domain
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
LAYER2=1
MACADDR=02:00:00:AB:C9:81
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Chapter 21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
DNS=10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
SEARCHDNS=subdomain.domain:domain
DASD=eb1c
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s) shell
Again, to change something, restart the dialog with r. Finally, if all is in order, enter c to continue:
c
Starting sshd to allow login over the network.
Connect now to 10.0.0.42 and log in as user install to start the installation.
E.g. using: ssh -x [email protected]
You may log in as the root user to start an interactive shell.
The preliminary network setup is now complete and the installer starts an SSH daemon. You can log
into your Linux instance over SSH. If you are using RUNKS=1 with kickstart and cmdline mode, linuxrc
automatically starts the loader.
21.1. A Note on Terminals
During the installation, the installation program displays messages on a line-mode terminal. This is the
HMC Operating System Messages applet if you install under LPAR, or a 3270 terminal if you install
under z/VM.
Linuxrc provides a rescue shell on the line-mode terminal. Press the Enter key (twice under z/VM) to
start the shell. You cannot use full-screen applications such as the vi editor on the line-mode terminal.
Switch to line-mode based editors such as ed, ex, or sed to edit text files if necessary.
Be aware that long-running commands might not be interruptible with the escape sequence Ctrl+C.
Call commands with options that make them return in time voluntarily. The shell on the 3270 terminal
is available throughout the whole installation process until the point where the system needs to reboot.
Once the shell has been provided, you may exit with an error level of zero to get a new shell instance
replacing the old one, or you may exit with an error level different from zero to force a shutdown of the
installation system.
Connect to the installed system using user root to get a root shell without automatically starting the
installer. For problem determination, you might connect with many ssh sessions.
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Chapter 22.
Installation Phase 2: Configuring
Language and Installation Source
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation
source.
By default, if you are installing interactively (with the default parameter file generic.prm) the loader
program to select language and installation source starts in text mode. In your new ssh session, the
following message is displayed:
Welcome to the anaconda install environment 1.2 for zSeries
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation
If the cmdline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Section 26.6, “Parameters
for kickstart installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the Kickstart File”,
the loader starts up with line-mode oriented text output. In this mode, all necessary information must
be provided in the kickstart file. The installer does not allow user interaction and stops if there is
unspecified installation information.
22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the onscreen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 22.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a
Language”, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Figure 22.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Chapter 22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 22.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 22.1, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in URL Setup” and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”:
• Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases,
you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears,
allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
• Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to
select or deselect a feature.
• Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation
program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that
line.
• Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than
can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within
the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information
available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
• Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
• Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program.
You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the
Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
• Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 22.1, “Installation Program
248
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 22.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move
the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to cycle
forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a
summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press Space
or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and
press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to
select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing
the OK button.
Warning
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process
(doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
22.3. Language Selection
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer
to Figure 22.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the Tab key to
move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice. You can automate this choice
in the parameter file with the parameter lang= (refer to Section 26.5, “Loader parameters”) or with the
kickstart command lang (refer to Section 28.4, “Automating the Installation with Kickstart”).
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is
installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in
the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you
specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For
more information, refer to Section 23.17.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
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Chapter 22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 22.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
22.4. Installation Method
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 22.4, “Installation
Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and
press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 22.4. Installation Method
22.4.1. Installing from DVD
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD in your DVD drive and boot your
system from the DVD as described in Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for z/
VM or Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD-ROM drive. It
starts by looking for a SCSI DVD-ROM drive.
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Installing from a Hard Drive
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media.
You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the Write changes to disk screen.
Refer to Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk” for more information.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer presents you with the option to perform a
media check on the DVD. This takes some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if
you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before
calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process
(refer to Section 23.5, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you selected
Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and
directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option,
you already specified a partition.
Figure 22.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. DASD names begin with
/dev/dasd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example /dev/dasda or /dev/sda. Each
partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/dasda1 or /dev/sda1.
For an FCP LUN, you would have to either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue shell
provided by the linuxrc menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the ISOs as described in
Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically activating an FCP LUN”.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains
the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
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Chapter 22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
Table 22.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
File system
Mount point
Original path to files
Directory to use
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6
/user1/RHEL6
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are
located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO
images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted
as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
Use a leading slash
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
The installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of functions. On
System z, installation phases 2 and 3 take over the network configuration values specified previously
either interactively or by means of a parameter or configuration file in installation phase 1. You can
also instruct the installation program to consult additional software repositories later in the process.
• If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 22.4.4, “Installing via NFS”.
• If you are installing via Web or FTP, proceed to Section 22.4.5, “Installing via FTP or HTTP”.
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you used
the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a
host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS
Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 19.1.2,
“Preparing for an NFS installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/.
This dialog also allows you to specify NFS mount options. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for a list of common NFS mount options, or consult the man pages for mount and
nfs for a comprehensive list of options.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the
directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later on in the
process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If everything was specified
properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
running.
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Installing via FTP or HTTP
Figure 22.6. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the directory
which contains the ISO image.
Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.
22.4.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
Important — you must specify the protocol
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or
ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP or HTTP server (if you selected URL
in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the FTP or
HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or
repo=http boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP or HTTP site from which you are installing, and the name of
the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/s390x/
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and
password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
If your FTP or HTTP server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of the
URL as follows:
{ftp|http}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:[email protected]/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/s390x/
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Chapter 22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 22.7. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.
22.5. Verifying Media
The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while
producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause
the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the
media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a
new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program
The loader then retrieves phase 3 of the installation program from the network into its RAM disk. This
may take some time.
Figure 22.8. Retrieving phase 3 of the installation program
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Chapter 23.
Installation Phase 3: Installing using
anaconda
This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation
Program Output
If the cmdline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Refer to Section 26.6,
“Parameters for kickstart installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart
Installations), anaconda starts with line-mode oriented text output. In this mode, all necessary
information must be provided in the kickstart file. The installer will not allow user interaction and stops
if there is unspecified installation information.
23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you
with a simpler, more streamlined insatallation process, certain options that are available in graphical
mode are not also available in text mode. These differences are noted in the description of the
installation process in this guide, and include:
• Interactively activating FCP LUNs
• configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
• customizing the partition layout
• customizing the bootloader layout
• selecting packages during installation
• configuring the installed system with Firstboot
23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process;
use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and
collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can
also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen
selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
23.4. Configure the Install Terminal
If you logged in with ssh and X11 forwarding, anaconda starts immediately with its graphical user
interface.
If you did not set the display= variable and do not use X11 forwarding, anaconda gives you the
choice of starting VNC or text mode.
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Figure 23.1. Choosing VNC or text mode
If you choose VNC, you will be asked for a password or you can choose to use VNC without a
password. If you use a password, make a note of the password for future reference. The VNC server
then starts.
Figure 23.2. The VNC server starts
Now open a connection to the IP address of your z/VM guest virtual machine using a VNC client.
Authenticate to the VNC server with the previously entered password.
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the
Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
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Storage Devices
Click on the Next button to continue.
23.6. Storage Devices
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. For System z, select
Specialized Storage Devices
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Figure 23.3. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
This option does not apply to System z.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
• Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
• Multipath devices such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUN with multiple paths
• Storage area networks (SANs) such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUNs with a single path
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System
Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and solidstate drives. On System z, this contains activated DASDs.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller. This does not apply to System z.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN) such as FCP LUNs attached over
one single path.
Figure 23.4. Select storage devices — Basic Devices
Figure 23.5. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
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Figure 23.6. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage
devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number
(LUN) at which they are accessed.
Figure 23.7. The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in
the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to
help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the
column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For
example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity,
Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing
or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 23.8. Selecting Columns
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make
a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column
headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation
process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here,
and can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed
system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process.
Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also
that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the
system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and
proceed to Section 23.7, “Setting the Hostname”
23.6.1.1. DASD low-level formatting
Any DASDs used must be low-level formatted. The installer detects this and lists the DASDs that need
formatting.
If any of the DASDs specified interactively in linuxrc or in a parameter or configuration file are not yet
low-level formatted, the following confirmation dialog appears:
Figure 23.9. Unformatted DASD Devices Found
To automatically allow low-level formatting of unformatted online DASDs specify the kickstart
command zerombr. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more details.
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23.6.1.2. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCP LUNs. Refer to
Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 23.10. Advanced Storage Options
23.6.1.2.1. Configure iSCSI Parameters
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add ISCSI
target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and provide
a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. If the ISCSI target uses CHAP (Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol) for authentication, enter the CHAP username and password.
If your enviroment uses 2-way CHAP (also called "Mutual CHAP"), also enter the reverse CHAP
username and password. Click the 'Add target' button to attempt connection to the ISCSI target using
this information.
Figure 23.11. Configure ISCSI Parameters
Note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it incorrectly,
but to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the installation.
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The Storage Devices Selection Screen
23.6.1.2.2. FCP Devices
FCP devices enable IBM System z to use SCSI devices rather than, or in addition to, DASD devices.
FCP devices provide a switched fabric topology that enables System z systems to use SCSI LUNs as
disk devices in addition to traditional DASD devices.
IBM System z requires that any FCP device be entered manually (either in the installation program
interactively, or specified as unique parameter entries in the parameter or CMS configuration file) for
the installation program to activate FCP LUNs. The values entered here are unique to each site in
which they are set up.
Notes
• Interactive creation of an FCP device is only possible in graphical mode. It is not possible to
interactively configure an FCP device in a text-only install.
• Each value entered should be verified as correct, as any mistakes made may cause the system not
to operate properly. Use only lower-case letters in hex values.
• For more information on these values, refer to the hardware documentation check with the system
administrator who set up the network for this system.
To configure a Fiber Channel Protocol SCSI device, select Add ZFCP LUN and click Add Drive. In
the Add FCP device dialog, fill in the details for the 16-bit device number, 64-bit World Wide Port
Number (WWPN) and 64-bit FCP LUN. Click the Add button to connect to the FCP device using this
information.
Figure 23.12. Add FCP Device
The newly added device should then be present and usable in the storage device selection screen on
the Multipath Devices tab, if you have activated more than one path to the same LUN, or on Other
SAN Devices, if you have activated only one path to the LUN.
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Important — you must define a DASD
The installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation, enter none as
the parameter interactively during phase 1 of an interactive installation, or add DASD=none
in the parameter or CMS configuration file. This satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD
parameter, while resulting in a SCSI-only environment.
When you define the DASD as none, you receive an error message such as:
Incorrect format for lower bound of DASD range none: none
It is safe to disregard this error message; installation proceeds as normal.
23.7. Setting the Hostname
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname.
Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically
supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the DHCP service to assign the domain
name to this machine, specify the short host name only.
Valid Hostnames
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname
may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Change the default setting localhost.localdomain to a unique hostname for each of your Linux
instances.
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Edit Network Connections
Figure 23.13. Setting the hostname
23.7.1. Edit Network Connections
Note
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by NetworkManager
during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Usually, the network connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 does not need to be modified
during the rest of the installation. You cannot add a new connection on System z because the network
subchannels need to be grouped and set online beforehand, and this is currently only done in
installation phase 1. To change the existing network connection, click the button Configure Network.
The Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure network connections for the
system, not all of which are relevant to System z.
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Figure 23.14. Network Connections
All network connections on System z are listed in the Wired tab. By default this contains the
connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 and is either eth0 (OSA, LCS), or hsi0
(HiperSockets). Note that on System z you cannot add a new connection here. To modify an existing
connection, select a row in the list and click the Edit button. A dialog box appears with a set of tabs
appropriate to wired connections, as described below.
The most important tabs on System z are Wired and IPv4 Settings.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to activate your changes. Note that reconfiguring your network settings might require you to re-connect using the new settings.
23.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Start automatically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
Select Available to all users to make the connection available to all users.
23.7.1.2. The Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network
adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can pass through the
interface.
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Figure 23.15. The Wired tab
23.7.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select
Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of your
network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
• TLS for Transport Layer Security
• Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS, or EAP-TTLS
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• Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy Enhanced
Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password to
make the password visible as you type it.
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Edit Network Connections
Figure 23.16. The 802.1x Security tab
23.7.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
The address, netmask, gateway, DNS servers and DNS search suffix for an IPv4 connection were
configured during installation phase 1 or reflect the following parameters in the parameter file or
configuration file: IPADDR, NETMASK, GATEWAY, DNS, SEARCHDNS (Refer to Section 26.3, “Installation
network parameters”).
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Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from
a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the
following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is assigned
an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started, and the
interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network address
translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP
address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and
Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the
system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6
configuration succeeds.
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Figure 23.17. The IPv4 Settings tab
23.7.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 23.18. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes specified for it
here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the
local network.
23.7.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from
a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the
following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
IPv6 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic, addresses only
The IPv6 address, prefix, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
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Edit Network Connections
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP
address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and
Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the
system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4
configuration succeeds.
Figure 23.19. The IPv6 Settings tab
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23.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
Figure 23.20. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the
local network.
23.8. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map
to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of
the system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
• Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot).
A red X appears indicating your selection.
• You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
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Set the Root Password
Figure 23.21. Configuring the Time Zone
Select System clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time
and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar
operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
Note
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time
and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date
Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command
timeconfig.
23.9. Set the Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation.
The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance.
Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
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Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for
this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or
administration.
Figure 23.22. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general
use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require
superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the changes of a typo or an incorrect command
doing damage to your system.
Note
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then,
enter the root password and press Enter.
1
The installation program prompts you to set a root password for your system. You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to
the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation
program asks you to enter them again.
1
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as root when
needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so
changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
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Assign Storage Devices
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy
for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and
anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower
case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember
that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place.
However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password
Tool.
Type the system-config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a
powerful user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the
characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set
correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
23.10. Assign Storage Devices
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to
Section 23.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be
available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system
for data storage.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as
part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
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Figure 23.23. Assign storage devices
The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage
only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating
system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu
marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the
types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented
might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button
labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with
a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device.
On platforms other than System z, this radio button is used to specify the device to which you want to
install the boot loader. On System z this choice does not have any effect. The zipl boot loader will be
installed on the disk that contains the /boot directory, which is determined later on during partitioning.
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to
initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your
system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all
partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a
valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to
all devices.
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Initializing the Hard Disk
Figure 23.24. Warning screen – initializing DASD
Figure 23.25. Warning screen – initializing FCP LUN
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Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation
program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation program responds to
the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart
command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)
Detach Unneeded Disks
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and
detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More
generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example,
Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove
any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not
change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package
upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you
to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that
you need to upgrade your computer.
Manually Installed Software
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may
behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this
software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.
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23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
Installations are Recommended
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home partition and
perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to
Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by
Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before
you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from
sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may
include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from services such as an
Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not
destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.
Storing Backups
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home directory. If your /home
directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your
backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an
Upgrade”.
23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
Warning — Back up your data
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
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Important — Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning
schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond
those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at
installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems
are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Partitioning allows you to divide your storage devices into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as a separate Linux device. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating
systems, or wish to enforce a logical or functional distinction between your storage partitions (such as
a /home partition that persistently contains user information).
Figure 23.26. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or
choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your
storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of
these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the
option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your storage drives (this includes partitions created by
other operating systems such as z/VM or z/OS).
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Encrypt Partitions
Warning
If you select this option, all data on the selected DASD and SCSI storage devices is removed
by the installation program.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux
installation). This does not remove other partitions you may have on your storage devices (such as
z/VM or z/OS partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red Hat
Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.
Warning
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be able
to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy data,
operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a
partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find out how much
space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in
the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space available
on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 18.1, “Pre-Installation”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to
Section 23.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in
the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created
for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
23.14. Encrypt Partitions
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to
encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for
more information.
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Figure 23.27. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this
passphrase every time that the system boots.
Warning — Do not lose this passphrase
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become
completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save
encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer
to Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk”.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions and Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need
an appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM
you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
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Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
Figure 23.28. Partitioning on System z
The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical representation of the
DASD, FCP LUN, or logical volume selected in the lower pane.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/dasda), the Geom (which shows the
hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads, and
sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected by the installation
program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit
an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all DASDs, FCP LUNs, and logical volumess to be used during
installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 23.10, “ Assign Storage
Devices ”. Note that if you specified a CMSDASD in your parameter file, DASD names begin at
dasdb; dasda was assigned to the CMSDASD and this name is no longer available at this point in the
installation process.
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide
devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name of
the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
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Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file system
on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a physical
volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of
in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
Finally, note which device is associated with /boot. The kernel files and bootloader sector will be
associated with this device. The first DASD or SCSI LUN will be used, and the device number will be
used when re-IPLing the post-installed system.
Note — device names and types are illustrative only
The screenshots in the following subsections of this manual sometimes show hard disk types
and device names that do not appear as such on System z. These screenshots are only intended
to illustrate the installation interface itself and apply equally to DASDs and FCP-attached SCSI
disks.
23.15.1. Create Storage
The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and software
RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage already
present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
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Create Storage
Figure 23.29. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
• Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in Appendix A, An Introduction
to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently, and you do not need to set it up.
Refer to Section 23.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
• RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device. To
form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
• RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you
choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). This option is
only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
• RAID Clone — create a mirror of a RAID partition on one storage device on another storage device.
This option is only available when at least one RAID partition is available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 23.15.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
• LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
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• LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. This option is
only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
• LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is only available
when at least one volume group is available on the system.
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 23.30, “Creating
a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Figure 23.30. Creating a New Partition
• Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point
should not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
• File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 9.14.2.1, “File System Types”.
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Adding Partitions
• Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not
checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide
where partitions should go.
• Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless
changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
• Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this
option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.
• Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of
the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition.
Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more
information.
• Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed
without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this
option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
• OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
• Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
23.15.2.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The following
is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be
used.
Partition types
• standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can provide
a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
• swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a
swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
• software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more
information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
• ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of
improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more
efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster
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file system checking, and more robust journalling. The ext4 file system is selected by default and is
highly recommended.
• ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash
2
as there is no need to fsck the file system.
• ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
• xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16
exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million
terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata
journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented
and resized while mounted and active.
Important — XFS not supported on System z
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support XFS on System z.
• vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
filenames on the FAT file system.
• Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more
files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to
make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they
occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of
the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer
it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation
process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.
Btrfs is still experimental
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment
with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data or
that are essential for the operation of important systems.
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
Note — Software RAIDs are unneccessary on System z
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently. There is no need to set up a
software RAID.
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Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are
arranged to provided increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or
more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice
available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog that appears
when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description
of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to software RAID
Figure 23.31. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions.
This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
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Figure 23.32. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select
names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
• RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased
performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple devices
into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that the failure of
one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
• RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices.
Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least
two RAID partitions.
• RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the array
to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the array fails.
Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device creates a
bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
• RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5
RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple devices,
but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is
also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID partitions.
• RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity
data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
• RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are constructed
by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level 10 RAID
constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which one partition
mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0
RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
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Create LVM Logical Volume
RAID Clone
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or
more disks are attached to the system.
Figure 23.33. Clone a RAID device
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM
configuration from scratch, establish another SSH connection to the installation image with the
root user and run the lvm command.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage
space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical
volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into
multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM
logical volumes function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
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LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This option is
the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. This is the
same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding
Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must
be set to physical volume (LVM)
Figure 23.34. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to
add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
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Create LVM Logical Volume
Figure 23.35. Make LVM Volume Group
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then
select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on
any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient
space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB
LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not
allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5
GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes
appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example,
reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB
physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and
size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the logical
volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
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Figure 23.36. Make Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Configuring efficient swap space for Linux on System z is a complex task. It very much depends on
the specific environment and should be tuned to the actual system load.
Refer to the following resources for more information and to guide your decision:
• 'Chapter 7. Linux Swapping' in the IBM Redbook Linux on IBM System z: Performance
Measurement and Tuning [IBM Form Number SG24-6926-01], [ISBN 0738485586], available from
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg246926.html
• Linux on System z performance in the IBM Systems Information Center at
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/systems/index.jsp?topic=/liaag/
lcon_Linux_on_System_z_performance.htm
• Linux Performance when running under VM, available from http://www.vm.ibm.com/perf/tips/
linuxper.html
23.16. Write changes to disk
The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes to
disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 23.37. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
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Package Group Selection
Last chance to cancel safely
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your
computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your
hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on
your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. To cancel installation
completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the process
is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power outage)
you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.
23.17. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux you are installing.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. The
installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. These packages are
sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready to
install updates and new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Figure 23.38. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that
is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a
graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button
that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and
multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal
installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes
performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 23.18, “Installing Packages”.
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Installing from Additional Repositories
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 23.38, “Package Group
Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next
takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during
installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata
that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other
software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for
every piece of software you select for installation.
The basic options are:
• The ClusteredStorage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat global
file system (GFS).
• The HighAvailability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known as
failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
• The LoadBalance repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual
Server (LVS).
• The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the
complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various
pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Figure 23.39. Adding a software repository
To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and provide
the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify
repository.
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Network Access Required
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears. Provide a
Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that
contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata
over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection
system.
Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have
entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way
to cancel only a single repository once entered.
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
Additional Language Support
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected
at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the
package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Note — 31-bit applications
Users of IBM System z who want support for developing or running legacy 31-bit applications are
encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility Arch Development
Support packages to install architecture specific support for their systems.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This
option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select
Next.
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Figure 23.40. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into
package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example,
X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the
right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the
bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of
the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory
packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed,
select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next
to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or deselect base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
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Figure 23.41. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your selection,
and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have
finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the
main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove
Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the
main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove Software. The Red Hat Enterprise
Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than
using those on the installation discs.
23.17.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
• centralized logging through syslog
• email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
• network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
• remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
• resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
• network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
• printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
• remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services
do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing,
HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing,
logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You
may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
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Installing Packages
23.18. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly
this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer
resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 23.42. Starting installation
During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following progress
bar:
Figure 23.43. Packages completed
23.19. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot.
The installation program automatically reboots into the installed system.
Should the installation program not reboot, the installation program shows information from which
device to do an IPL (boot). Accept the shutdown option and after shutdown, IPL from the DASD or
SCSI LUN where the /boot partition for Red Hat Enterprise Linux has been installed.
23.19.1. IPL under z/VM
To IPL from a DASD, for example using the DASD device 200 on the 3270 console, issue the
command:
#cp i 200
In DASD only environments where automatic partitioning (clearing data from all partitions) was used,
the first activated DASD is where the /boot partition is typically located.
Using /boot on an FCP LUN, you must provide the WWPN and LUN for the FCP-attached device
from which to IPL.
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To IPL from an FCP-attached device:
1.
Provide FCP routing information to an FCP-attached device, for example, where
0x50050763050B073D is the WWPN, and 0x4020400100000000 is the FCP LUN:
#cp set loaddev portname50050763 050B073D lun 40204001 00000000
2.
IPL the FCP adapter, for example FC00:
#cp ipl FC00
Note
To disconnect from the 3270 terminal without stopping the Linux running in your virtual machine,
use #cp disconnect instead of #cp logoff. When your virtual machine is re-connected
using the usual logon procedure, it might be placed in CP console function mode (CP READ). If
so, to resume execution on your virtual machine, enter the BEGIN command.
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
For LPAR-based installations, on the HMC, issue a load command to the LPAR, specifying the
particular DASD, or the FCP adapter, WWPN, and FCP LUN where the /boot partition is located.
23.19.3. Continuing after Reboot (re-IPL)
Following the automatic reboot or the manual IPL of the installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux operating
system, you can log on to the system via ssh. Note that the only place from which you can log in as
root is from the 3270 terminal or from other terminal devices listed in /etc/securetty.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in a graphical environment, you can use
FirstBoot to guide you through Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set
your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more.
FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
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Chapter 24.
Troubleshooting Installation on IBM
System z
This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tmp directory. These
files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacdump.txt.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a permanent copy,
copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other
way round).
24.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the
software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the online
errata to see if newer versions are available.
24.2. Trouble During the Installation
24.2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, then there may be an issue with your DASD devices. If you encounter this error, add the
DASD=<disks> parameter to your parameter file or CMS configuration file (where disks is the DASD
range reserved for installation) and start the install again.
Additionally, make sure you format the DASDs using the dasdfmt command within a Linux root shell,
instead of formatting the DASDs using CMS. Anaconda automatically detects any DASD devices that
are not yet formatted and asks you whether to format the devices.
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24.2.2. Saving traceback messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash
reporting dialog box:
Figure 24.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
306
Saving traceback messages
Figure 24.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit installer
exits the installation process.
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If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Local disk
saves details of the error to the local hard drive, in a directory that you select with the file browser:
Figure 24.3. Save Crash Report to a Local disk
Bugzilla
submits details of the error to Red Hat's bug-tracking system, Bugzilla. You must supply an
existing Bugzilla username and password, and a description of the bug.
Figure 24.4. Save Crash Report to Bugzilla
Remote server
saves details of the error to a remote location using SCP. You must specify the username,
password, host, and destination file.
Figure 24.5. Save Crash Report to Remote Server
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Other Partitioning Problems
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created
all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
Note
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
24.2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also
known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the
selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the /tmp/directory. The
error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>
ToDo object: (itodo ToDo p1 (dp2 S'method' p3 (iimage CdromInstallMethod
p4 (dp5 S'progressWindow' p6
<failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been
changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process, so
the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available updates for anaconda. Updates for
anaconda and instructions for using them can be found at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Updates
You can also find and download errata for anaconda through your Red Hat Subscription. Log in to
your account through the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login, click the Errata link at the
top of the window, enter anaconda in the field marked Filter by Synopsis, and click go.
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda
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You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking system,
go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
24.3. Problems After Installation
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
If you have installed the X Window System and would like to log in to your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system using a graphical login manager, enable the X Display Manager Control Protocol (XDMCP).
This protocol allows users to remotely log in to a desktop environment from any X Window System
compatible client (such as a network-connected workstation or X11 terminal). To enable remote login
using XDMCP, edit the following line in the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file on the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system with a text editor such as vi or nano:
Add the line Enable=true, save the file, and exit the text editor. Switch to runlevel 5 to start the X11
server:
/sbin/init 5
From the client machine, start a remote X11 session using X. For example:
X :1 -query s390vm.example.com
The command connects to the remote X11 server via XDMCP (replace s390vm.example.com with
the hostname of the remote X11 server) and displays the remote graphical login screen on display :1
of the X11 server system (usually accessible by using the Ctrl-Alt-F8 key combination).
You can also access remote desktop sessions using a nested X11 server, which opens the remote
desktop as a window in your current X11 session. Xnest allows users to open a remote desktop
nested within their local X11 session. For example, run Xnest using the following command, replacing
s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X11 server:
Xnest :1 -query s390vm.example.com
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system into single user mode by appending
the boot option single to the zipl boot menu or by any other means to append kernel command line
options at IPL.
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Your Printer Does Not Work
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r
now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su
- and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to
enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using
the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
24.3.4. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During
Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make
sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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Configuring an Installed Linux on
System z Instance
For more information about Linux on System z, see the publications listed in Chapter 27, IBM
System z References. Some of the most common tasks are described here.
25.1. Adding DASDs
The following is an example of how to set a DASD online, format it, and make the change persistent.
Note
Make sure the device is attached or linked to the Linux system if running under z/VM.
CP ATTACH EB1C TO *
To link a mini disk to which you have access, issue, for example:
CP LINK RHEL6X 4B2E 4B2E MR
DASD 4B2E LINKED R/W
See the z/VM: CP Commands and Utilities Reference, SC24-6175 for details about the
commands.
25.1.1. Dynamically setting DASDs online
To set a DASD online, follow these steps:
1.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the DASD from the list of ignored devices and make it
visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the DASD. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 4b2e
2.
Set the device online. Use a command of the following form:
# chccwdev -e device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the DASD. For example:
# chccwdev -e 4b2e
As an alternative, you can set the device online using sysfs attributes:
1.
Use the cd command to change to the /sys/ directory that represents that volume:
# cd /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/dasd-eckd/0.0.4b2e/
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# ls -l
total 0
-r--r--r--rw-r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--
2.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
availability
cmb_enable
cutype
detach_state
devtype
discipline
online
readonly
use_diag
Check to see if the device is already online:
# cat online
0
3.
If it is not online, run the following command to bring it online:
# echo 1 > online
# cat online
1
3.
Verify which block devnode it is being accessed as:
# ls -l
total 0
-r--r--r-lrwxrwxrwx
-rw-r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
0
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
0
4096
4096
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
17:04
17:07
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
availability
block -> ../../../../block/dasdb
cmb_enable
cutype
detach_state
devtype
discipline
online
readonly
use_diag
As shown in this example, device 4B2E is being accessed as /dev/dasdb.
These instructions set a DASD online for the current session, but this is not persistent across reboots.
For instructions on how to set a DASD online persistently, refer to Section 25.1.3, “Persistently setting
DASDs online”. When you work with DASDs, use the persistent device symbolic links under /dev/
disk/by-path/.
You can find more information in the DASD Chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features,
and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
25.1.2. Preparing a new DASD with low-level formatting
Once the disk is online, change back to the /root directory and low-level format the device. This is
only required once for a DASD during its entire lifetime:
# cd
# dasdfmt -b 4096 -d cdl -p /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e
Drive Geometry: 10017 Cylinders * 15 Heads = 150255 Tracks
I am going to format the device /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e in the following way:
Device number of device : 0x4b2e
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Persistently setting DASDs online
Labelling device
Disk label
Disk identifier
Extent start (trk no)
Extent end (trk no)
Compatible Disk Layout
Blocksize
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
yes
VOL1
0X4B2E
0
150254
yes
4096
--->> ATTENTION! <<--All data of that device will be lost.
Type "yes" to continue, no will leave the disk untouched: yes
cyl
97 of 3338 |#----------------------------------------------|
2%
When the progress bar reaches the end and the format is complete, dasdfmt prints the following
output:
Rereading the partition table...
Exiting...
Now, use fdasd to partition the DASD. You can create up to three partitions on a DASD. In our
example here, we create one partition spanning the whole disk:
# fdasd -a /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e
auto-creating one partition for the whole disk...
writing volume label...
writing VTOC...
checking !
wrote NATIVE!
rereading partition table...
For more information, see the chapter on DASD in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
After a (low-level formatted) DASD is online, it can be used like any other disk under Linux. For
instance, you can create file systems, LVM physical volumes, or swap space on its partitions, for
example /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e-part1. Never use the full DASD device (dev/
dasdb) for anything but the commands dasdfmt and fdasd. If you want to use the entire DASD,
create one partition spanning the entire drive as in the fdasd example above.
To add additional disks later without breaking existing disk entries in, for example, /etc/fstab, use
the persistent device symbolic links under /dev/disk/by-path/.
25.1.3. Persistently setting DASDs online
The above instructions described how to activate DASDs dynamically in a running system. However,
such changes are not persistent and do not survive a reboot. Making changes to the DASD
configuration persistent in your Linux system depends on whether the DASDs belong to the root file
system. Those DASDs required for the root file system need to be activated very early during the boot
process by the initramfs to be able to mount the root file system.
Cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need to free
devices from the ignore list manually.
25.1.3.1. DASDs that are part of the root file system
The only file you have to modify to add DASDs that are part of the root file system is /etc/
zipl.conf. Then run the zipl boot loader tool. There is no need to recreate the initramfs.
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There are two boot parameters to activate DASDs early in the boot process:
• rd_DASD=
• rd_DASD_MOD= — only provided for compatibility with old system configurations. Refer to the
dasd= parameter description in the DASD device driver chapter in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for details.
The rd_DASD option takes a comma-separated list as input. The list contains a device bus ID and
optional additional parameters consisting of key-value-pairs that correspond to DASD sysfs attributes.
Below is an example zipl.conf for a system that uses physical volumes on partitions of two DASDs
for an LVM volume group vg_devel1 that contains a logical volume lv_root for the root file system.
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0 rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root
rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us
cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Suppose that you would like to add another physical volume on a partition of a third DASD with device
bus ID 0.0.202b. To do this, simply add rd_DASD=0.0.202b to the parameters line of your boot
kernel in zipl.conf:
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0 rd_DASD=0.0.202b
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Run zipl to apply the changes of /etc/zipl.conf for the next IPL:
# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................:
Partition.......................:
Device name.....................:
DASD device number..............:
Type............................:
Disk layout.....................:
Geometry - heads................:
Geometry - sectors..............:
Geometry - cylinders............:
Geometry - start................:
File system block size..........:
Physical block size.............:
Device size in physical blocks..:
Building bootmap in '/boot/'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
316
5e:00
5e:01
dasda
0201
disk partition
ECKD/compatible disk layout
15
12
3308
24
4096
4096
595416
Persistently setting DASDs online
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
kernel parmline...: 'root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0 rd_DASD=0.0.202b
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009'
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
component address:
kernel image....: 0x00010000-0x00a70fff
parmline........: 0x00001000-0x00001fff
initial ramdisk.: 0x02000000-0x022d2fff
internal loader.: 0x0000a000-0x0000afff
Preparing boot device: dasda (0201).
Preparing boot menu
Interactive prompt......: enabled
Menu timeout............: 15 seconds
Default configuration...: 'linux'
Syncing disks...
Done.
25.1.3.2. DASDs that are not part of the root file system
DASDs that are not part of the root file system, that is, data disks, are persistently configured in the file
/etc/dasd.conf. It contains one DASD per line. Each line begins with the device bus ID of a DASD.
Optionally, each line can continue with options separated by space or tab characters. Options consist
of key-value-pairs, where the key and value are separated by an equals sign.
The key corresponds to any valid sysfs attribute a DASD may have. The value will be written to the
key's sysfs attribute. Entries in /etc/dasd.conf are activated and configured by udev when a
DASD is added to the system. At boot time, all DASDs visible to the system get added and trigger
udev.
Example content of /etc/dasd.conf:
0.0.0207
0.0.0200 use_diag=1 readonly=1
Modifications of /etc/dasd.conf only become effective after a reboot of the system or after the
dynamic addition of a new DASD by changing the system's I/O configuration (that is, the DASD is
attached under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a new entry in /etc/dasd.conf
for a DASD which was previously not active, by executing the following commands:
1.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the DASD from the list of ignored devices and make it
visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
For example:
# cio_ignore -r 021a
2.
Trigger the activation by writing to the uevent attribute of the device:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/device-bus-ID/uevent
For example:
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.021a/uevent
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs)
The following is an example of how to add an FCP LUN.
Note
If running under z/VM, make sure the FCP adapter is attached to the z/VM guest virtual machine.
For multipathing in production environments there would be at least two FCP devices on two
different physical adapters (CHPIDs). For example:
CP ATTACH FC00 TO *
CP ATTACH FCD0 TO *
25.2.1. Dynamically activating an FCP LUN
Follow these steps to activate a LUN:
1.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the FCP adapter from the list of ignored devices and
make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the FCP adapter. For example:
2.
To bring the FCP adapter device online, use the following command:
# chccwdev -e fc00
3.
Verify that the required WWPN was found by the automatic port scanning of the zfcp device
driver:
# ls -l /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630040710b
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x50050763050b073d
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630e060521
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630e860521
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 availability
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 card_version
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 cmb_enable
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 cutype
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 devtype
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root
0 Apr 28 18:17 driver -> ../../../../bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 failed
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 hardware_version
drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root
0 Apr 28 18:17 host0
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 in_recovery
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 lic_version
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 modalias
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 online
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 peer_d_id
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 peer_wwnn
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 peer_wwpn
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Persistently activating FCP LUNs
--w-------.
--w-------.
drwxr-xr-x.
-r--r--r--.
lrwxrwxrwx.
-rw-r--r--.
4.
1
1
2
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
4096
0
4096
0
4096
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
28
28
28
28
28
28
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:19
18:17
18:17
port_remove
port_rescan
power
status
subsystem ->
uevent
../../../../bus/ccw
Activate the FCP LUN by adding it to the port (WWPN) through which you would like to access
the LUN:
# echo 0x4020400100000000 > /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/0x50050763050b073d/
unit_add
5.
Find out the assigned SCSI device name:
# lszfcp -DV
/sys/devices/css0/0.0.0015/0.0.fc00/0x50050763050b073d/0x4020400100000000
/sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/host0/rport-0:0-21/target0:0:21/0:0:21:1089355792
For more information, refer to the chapter on SCSI-over-Fibre Channel in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
25.2.2. Persistently activating FCP LUNs
The above instructions described how to activate FCP LUNs dynamically in a running system.
However, such changes are not persistent and do not survive a reboot. How you make the changes
to the FCP configuration persistent in your Linux system depends on whether the FCP LUNs belong
to the root file system. Those required for the root file system need to be activated very early during
the boot process by the initramfs to be able to mount the root file system. Cio_ignore is handled
transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need to free devices from the ignore
list manually.
25.2.2.1. FCP LUNs that are part of the root file system
The only file you have to modify for adding FCP LUNs that are part of the root file system is /etc/
zipl.conf followed by a run of the zipl boot loader tool. There is no more need to recreate the
initramfs.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides a parameter to activate FCP LUNs early in the boot process:
rd_ZFCP=. The value is a comma-separated list containing the device bus ID, the WWPN as 16 digit
hexadecimal number prefixed with 0x, and the FCP LUN prefixed with 0x and padded with zeroes to
the right to have 16 hexadecimal digits.
The following example zipl.conf is for a system that uses physical volumes on partitions of two
FCP LUNs for an LVM volume group vg_devel1 that contains a logical volume lv_root for the root
file system. For simplicity, the example shows a configuration without multipathing.
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
To add another physical volume on a partition of a third FCP LUN with device bus ID
0.0.fc00, WWPN 0x5105074308c212e9 and FCP LUN 0x401040a300000000, simply add
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000 to the parameters line of
your boot kernel in zipl.conf, for example:
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Run zipl to apply the changes of /etc/zipl.conf for the next IPL:
# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................: 08:00
Partition.......................: 08:01
Device name.....................: sda
Device driver name..............: sd
Type............................: disk partition
Disk layout.....................: SCSI disk layout
Geometry - start................: 2048
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 512
Device size in physical blocks..: 10074112
Building bootmap in '/boot/'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
kernel parmline...: 'root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000 rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root
rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us
cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009'
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
component address:
kernel image....: 0x00010000-0x007a21ff
parmline........: 0x00001000-0x000011ff
initial ramdisk.: 0x02000000-0x028f63ff
internal loader.: 0x0000a000-0x0000a3ff
Preparing boot device: sda.
Detected SCSI PCBIOS disk layout.
Writing SCSI master boot record.
Syncing disks...
Done.
25.2.2.2. FCP LUNs that are not part of the root file system
FCP LUNs that are not part of the root file system, such as data disks, are persistently configured
in the file /etc/zfcp.conf. It contains one FCP LUN per line. Each line contains the device bus
320
Adding a Network Device
ID of the FCP adapter, the WWPN as 16 digit hexadecimal number prefixed with 0x, and the FCP
LUN prefixed with 0x and padded with zeroes to the right to have 16 hexadecimal digits, separated
by a space or tab. Entries in /etc/zfcp.conf are activated and configured by udev when an FCP
adapter is added to the system. At boot time, all FCP adapters visible to the system are added and
trigger udev.
Example content of /etc/zfcp.conf:
0.0.fc00
0.0.fc00
0.0.fc00
0.0.fcd0
0.0.fcd0
0.0.fcd0
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x401040a000000000
0x401040a100000000
0x401040a300000000
0x401040a000000000
0x401040a100000000
0x401040a300000000
Modifications of /etc/zfcp.conf only become effective after a reboot of the system or after the
dynamic addition of a new FCP channels by changing the system's I/O configuration (for example,
a channel is attached under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a new entry in /
etc/zfcp.conf for an FCP adapter which was previously not active, by executing the following
commands:
1.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the FCP adapter from the list of ignored devices and
make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the FCP adapter. For example:
# cio_ignore -r fcfc
2.
To trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/device-bus-ID/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.fcfc/uevent
25.3. Adding a Network Device
Network device driver modules are loaded automatically by udev.
You can add a network interface on IBM System z dynamically or persistently.
• Dynamically
1.
Load the device driver
2.
Remove the network devices from the list of ignored devices.
3.
Create the group device.
4.
Configure the device.
5.
Set the device online.
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
• Persistently
1.
Create a configuration script.
2.
Activate the interface.
The following sections provide basic information for each task of each IBM System z network device
driver. Section 25.3.1, “Adding a qeth Device” describes how to add a qeth device to an existing
instance of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Section 25.3.2, “Adding an LCS Device” describes how to
add an lcs device to an existing instance of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Section 25.3.3, “Mapping
subchannels and network device names” describes how persistent network device names work.
Section 25.3.4, “Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System” describes how
to configure a network device to use with a root file system that is only accessible through the network.
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
The qeth network device driver supports System z OSA-Express features in QDIO mode,
HiperSockets, z/VM guest LAN, and z/VM VSWITCH.
Based on the type of interface being added, the qeth device driver assigns one of the base interface
names:
• hsin for HiperSockets devices
• ethn for Ethernet features
The value n is an integer that uniquely identifies the device. n is 0 for the first device of that type, 1 for
the second, and so on.
25.3.1.1. Dynamically adding a qeth device
To add a qeth device dynamically, follow these steps:
1.
Determine whether the qeth device driver modules are loaded. The following example shows
loaded qeth modules:
# lsmod | grep qeth
qeth_l3
qeth_l2
ipv6
qeth
qdio
ccwgroup
127056 9
73008 3
492872 155ip6t_REJECT,nf_conntrack_ipv6,qeth_l3
115808 2 qeth_l3,qeth_l2
68240 1 qeth
12112 2 qeth
If the output of the lsmod command shows that the qeth modules are not loaded, run the
modprobe command to load them:
# modprobe qeth
2.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of ignored devices
and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id with the
three device bus IDs representing a network device. For example, if the read_device_bus_id
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Adding a qeth Device
is 0.0.f500, the write_device_bus_id is 0.0.f501, and the data_device_bus_id is
0.0.f502:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502
3.
Use the znetconf command to sense and list candidate configurations for network devices:
# znetconf -u
Scanning for network devices...
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv.
-----------------------------------------------------------0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 1731/01 OSA (QDIO)
00 qeth
0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505 1731/01 OSA (QDIO)
01 qeth
0.0.0400,0.0.0401,0.0.0402 1731/05 HiperSockets
02 qeth
4.
Select the configuration you want to work with and use znetconf to apply the configuration and to
bring the configured group device online as network device.
# znetconf -a f500
Scanning for network devices...
Successfully configured device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
5.
Optionally, you can also pass arguments that are configured on the group device before it is set
online:
# znetconf -a f500 -o portname=myname
Scanning for network devices...
Successfully configured device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
Now you can continue to configure the network eth1 interface.
Alternatively, you can use sysfs attributes to set the device online as follows:
1.
Create a qeth group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/
drivers/qeth/group
For example:
# echo 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
2.
Next, verify that the qeth group device was created properly by looking for the read channel:
# ls /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500
You may optionally set additional parameters and features, depending on the way you are setting
up your system and the features you require, such as:
• portno
• layer2
• portname
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
For information on additional parameters, refer to the chapter on the qeth device driver in Linux on
System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
3.
Bring the device online by writing 1 to the online sysfs attribute:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/online
4.
Then verify the state of the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/online
1
A return value of 1 indicates that the device is online, while a return value 0 indicates that the
device is offline.
5.
Find the interface name that was assigned to the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/if_name
eth1
Now you can continue to configure the network eth1 interface.
The following command from the s390utils package shows the most important settings of your
qeth device:
# lsqeth eth1
Device name
: eth1
--------------------------------------------card_type
: OSD_1000
cdev0
: 0.0.f500
cdev1
: 0.0.f501
cdev2
: 0.0.f502
chpid
: 76
online
: 1
portname
: OSAPORT
portno
: 0
state
: UP (LAN ONLINE)
priority_queueing
: always queue 0
buffer_count
: 16
layer2
: 1
isolation
: none
25.3.1.2. Dynamically removing a qeth device
To remove a qeth device, use the znetconf tool. For example:
1.
Use the znetconf command to show you all configured network devices:
znetconf -c
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv. Name
State
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0.8036,0.0.8037,0.0.8038 1731/05 HiperSockets
FB qeth hsi1
online
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 1731/01 OSD_1000
76 qeth eth0
online
0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 1731/01 GuestLAN QDIO
00 qeth eth1
online
324
Adding a qeth Device
2.
Select the network device to be removed and trigger znetconf to set the device offline and
ungroup the ccw group device.
# znetconf -r f500
Remove network device 0.0.f500 (0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502)?
Warning: this may affect network connectivity!
Do you want to continue (y/n)?y
Successfully removed device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
3.
Verify the success of the removal:
znetconf -c
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv. Name
State
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0.8036,0.0.8037,0.0.8038 1731/05 HiperSockets
FB qeth hsi1
online
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 1731/01 OSD_1000
76 qeth eth0
online
25.3.1.3. Persistently adding a qeth device
To make your new qeth device persistent you need to create the configuration file for your new
interface. The network interface configuration files are placed in /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/.
The network configuration files use the naming convention ifcfg-device, where device is the
value found in the if_name file in the qeth group device that was created earlier. In this example it is
eth1. Cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need
to free devices from the ignore list manually.
If a configuration file for another device of the same type already exists, the simplest solution is to
copy it to the new name.
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth1
If you do not have a similar device defined you must create one. Use this example of ifcfg-eth0 as
a template:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1,0.0.09a2
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
OPTIONS='layer2=1 portno=0'
MACADDR=02:00:00:23:65:1a
TYPE=Ethernet
Edit the new ifcfg-eth1 file as follows:
1.
Modify the DEVICE statement to reflect the contents of the if_name file from your ccwgroup.
2.
Modify the IPADDR statement to reflect the IP address of your new interface.
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
3.
Modify the NETMASK statement as needed.
4.
If the new interface is to be activated at boot time, then make sure ONBOOT is set to yes.
5.
Make sure the SUBCHANNELS statement matches the hardware addresses for your qeth device.
6.
Modify the PORTNAME statement or leave it out if it is not necessary in your environment.
7.
You may add any valid sysfs atttribute and its value to the OPTIONS parameter. The Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installer currently uses this to configure the layer mode (layer2) and the relative
port number (portno) of qeth devices.
The qeth device driver default for OSA devices is now layer 2 mode. To continue using old ifcfg
definitions that rely on the previous default of layer 3 mode, add layer2=0 to the OPTIONS
parameter.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth1
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.70.87
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
OPTIONS='layer2=1 portno=0'
MACADDR=02:00:00:b3:84:ef
TYPE=Ethernet
Changes to an ifcfg file only become effective after rebooting the system or after the dynamic
addition of new network device channels by changing the system's I/O configuration (for example,
attaching under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a ifcfg file for network channels
which were previously not active yet, by executing the following commands:
1.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of ignored devices and
make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id with the
three device bus IDs representing a network device. For example, if the read_device_bus_id
is 0.0.0600, the write_device_bus_id is 0.0.0601, and the data_device_bus_id is
0.0.0602:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
2.
To trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/read-channel/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.0600/uevent
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Adding an LCS Device
3.
Check the status of the network device:
# lsqeth
4.
Now start the new interface:
# ifup eth1
5.
Check the status of the interface:
# ifconfig eth1
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:00:00:01
inet addr:192.168.70.87 Bcast:192.168.70.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::ff:fe00:1/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:23 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:644 (644.0 b) TX bytes:264 (264.0 b)
6.
Check the routing for the new interface:
# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
192.168.70.0
*
10.1.20.0
*
default
10.1.20.1
7.
Genmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
Flags
U
U
UG
Metric
0
0
0
Ref
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
Iface
eth1
eth0
eth0
Verify your changes by using the ping command to ping the gateway or another host on the
subnet of the new device:
# ping -c 1 192.168.70.8
PING 192.168.70.8 (192.168.70.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.70.8: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=8.07 ms
8.
If the default route information has changed, you must also update /etc/sysconfig/network
accordingly.
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
The LAN channel station (LCS) device driver supports 1000Base-T Ethernet on the OSA-Express2
and OSA-Express 3 features.
Based on the type of interface being added, the LCS driver assigns one base interface name:
• ethn for OSA-Express Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet
n is 0 for the first device of that type, 1 for the second, and so on.
25.3.2.1. Dynamically adding an LCS device
1.
Load the device driver:
# modprobe lcs
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
2.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of ignored devices
and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id and write_device_bus_id with the two device bus IDs
representing a network device. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
3.
Create the group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/group
4.
Configure the device. OSA cards can provide up to 16 ports for a single CHPID. By default, the
LCS group device uses port 0. To use a different port, issue a command similar to the following:
# echo portno > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/device_bus_id/portno
Replace portno with the port number you want to use. For more information about configuration
of the LCS driver, refer to the chapter on LCS in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
5.
Set the device online:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_id/online
6.
To find out what network device name has been assigned, enter the command:
# ls -l /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_ID/net/
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 2010-04-22 16:54 eth1
25.3.2.2. Persistently adding an LCS device
Cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need to free
devices from the ignore list manually.
To add an LCS device persistently, follow these steps:
1.
Create a configuration script as file in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ with a name like
ifcfg-ethn where n is an integer starting with 0. The file should look similar to the following:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM LCS
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=lcs
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
PORTNAME=0
OPTIONS=''
TYPE=Ethernet
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Mapping subchannels and network device names
2.
Modify the value of PORTNAME to reflect the LCS port number (portno) you would like to use.
You can add any valid lcs sysfs atttribute and its value to the optional OPTIONS parameter. Refer
to Section 25.3.1.3, “Persistently adding a qeth device” for the syntax.
3.
Set the DEVICE parameter as follows:
DEVICE=ethn
4.
Issue an ifup command to activate the device:
# ifup ethn
Changes to an ifcfg file only become effective after rebooting the system. You can trigger the
activation of a ifcfg file for network channels by executing the following commands:
1.
Use the cio_ignore command to remove the LCS device adapter from the list of ignored
devices and make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id and write_device_bus_id with the device bus IDs of the
LCS device. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
2.
To trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/read-channel/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.09a0/uevent
25.3.3. Mapping subchannels and network device names
The DEVICE= option in the ifcfg file does not determine the mapping of subchannels to network
device names. Instead, the udev rules file /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules
determines which network device channel gets which network device name.
When configuring a new network device on System z, the system automatically adds a new rule to that
file and assigns the next unused device name. You can then edit the values assigned to the NAME=
variable for each device.
Example content of /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules:
# This file was automatically generated by the /lib/udev/write_net_rules
# program run by the persistent-net-generator.rules rules file.
#
# You can modify it,as long as you keep each rule on a single line.
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.f5f0
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.f5f0", ATTR{type}=="1",
KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth0"
# S/390 ctcm device at 0.0.1000
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SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="ctc*", NAME="ctc0"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8024
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi0"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8124
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi1"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1017
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth3"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8324
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi3"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8224
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi2"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1010
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth2"
# S/390 lcs device at 0.0.1240
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth1"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1013
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add",
KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi4"
DRIVERS=="ctcm", KERNELS=="0.0.1000", ATTR{type}=="256",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8024", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8124", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1017", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8324", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8224", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1010", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="lcs", KERNELS=="0.0.1240", ATTR{type}=="1",
DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1013", ATTR{type}=="1",
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root
File System
To add a network device that is required to access the root file system, you only have to change
the boot options. The boot options can be in a parameter file (refer to Chapter 26, Parameter and
Configuration Files) or part of a zipl.conf on a DASD or FCP-attached SCSI LUN prepared with the
zipl boot loader. There is no need to recreate the initramfs.
Dracut (the mkinitrd successor that provides the functionality in the initramfs that in turn replaces
initrd) provides a boot parameter to activate network devices on System z early in the boot process:
rd_ZNET=.
As input, this parameter takes a comma-separated list of the NETTYPE (qeth, lcs, ctc), two (lcs, ctc)
or three (qeth) device bus IDs, and optional additional parameters consisting of key-value pairs
corresponding to network device sysfs attributes. This parameter configures and activates the
System z network hardware. The configuration of IP addresses and other network specifics works the
same as for other platforms. Refer to the dracut documentation for more details.
Cio_ignore for the network channels is handled transparently on boot.
Example boot options for a root file system accessed over the network through NFS:
root=10.16.105.196:/nfs/nfs_root cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009
rd_ZNET=qeth,0.0.0a00,0.0.0a01,0.0.0a02,layer2=1,portno=0,portname=OSAPORT
ip=10.16.105.197:10.16.105.196:10.16.111.254:255.255.248.0:nfs�server.subdomain.domain:eth0:none
rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16
KEYTABLE=us
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Chapter 26.
Parameter and Configuration Files
The IBM System z architecture can use a customized parameter file to pass boot parameters to the
kernel and the installer. This section describes the contents of this parameter file.
You need only read this section if you intend to change the shipped parameter file. You need to
change the parameter file if you want to:
• automate the user input for linuxrc or the loader (refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1:
Configuring a Network Device and Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and
Installation Source).
• install unattended with kickstart.
• choose non-default installation settings that are not accessible through the installer's interactive user
interface, such as rescue mode.
The parameter file can be used to set up networking non-interactively before the installation program
(loader and anaconda) starts.
The kernel parameter file is limited to 895 characters plus an end-of-line character. The parameter file
can be variable or fixed record format. Fixed record format increases the file size by padding each line
up to the record length. Should you encounter problems with the installer not recognizing all specified
parameters in LPAR environments, you can try to put all parameters in one single line or start and end
each line with a space character.
For more details on kernel parameters and different possibilities of specifying them, see the chapter on
booting Linux and the chapter on kernel parameters in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features,
and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
The parameter file contains kernel parameters, such as root=/dev/ram0 or ro, and parameters for
the installation process, such as vncpassword=test or vnc.
26.1. Required parameters
The following parameters are required and must be included in the parameter file. They are also
provided in the file generic.prm in directory images/ of the installation DVD:
root=file_system
where file_system represents the device on which the root file system can be found. For
installation purposes, it must be set to /dev/ram0, which is the ramdisk containing the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program.
ro
mounts the root file system, which is a ramdisk, read-only.
ip=off
disables automatic network configuration.
ramdisk_size=size
modifies the memory size reserved for the ramdisk to ensure that the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program fits within it. For example: ramdisk_size=40000.
The file generic.prm also contains the additional parameter cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009. This
setting speeds up boot and device detection on systems with many devices. The installer transparently
handles the activation of ignored devices.
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
Important — adapt the cio_ignore parameter to your system
To avoid installation problems arising from cio_ignore support not being implemented
throughout the entire stack, adapt the cio_ignore= parameter value to your system or remove
the parameter entirely from your parameter file used for booting (IPL) the installer.
When installing from an FCP-attached DVD drive, and you encounter a problem with ignored
devices, select the menu option clear blacklist in linuxrc (refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase
1: Configuring a Network Device) to remove the list of ignored devices.
26.2. The z/VM configuration file
This applies only if installing under z/VM. Under z/VM, you can use a configuration file on a CMSformatted disk. The purpose of the CMS configuration file is to save space in the parameter file by
moving the parameters that configure the initial network setup, the DASD, and the FCP specification
out of the parameter file (refer to Section 26.3, “Installation network parameters”).
Each line of the CMS configuration file contains a single variable and its associated value, in the
following shell-style syntax: variable=value .
You must also add the CMSDASD and CMSCONFFILE parameters to the parameter file. These
parameters point the installation program to the configuration file:
CMSDASD=cmsdasd_address
Where cmsdasd_address is the device number of a CMS-formatted disk that contains the
configuration file. This is usually the CMS user's A disk.
For example: CMSDASD=191
CMSCONFFILE=configuration_file
Where configuration_file is the name of the configuration file. This value must be specified
in lower case. It is specified in a Linux file name format: CMS_file_name.CMS_file_type.
The CMS file REDHAT CONF is specified as redhat.conf. The CMS file name and the file type
can each be from one to eight characters that follow the CMS conventions.
For example: CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
26.3. Installation network parameters
The following parameters can be used to set up the preliminary network automatically and can be
defined in either the parameter file or the CMS configuration file. The parameters in this section are
the only parameters that can also be used in a CMS configuration file. All other parameters in other
sections must be specified in the parameter file.
NETTYPE=type
Where type must be one of the following: qeth, lcs, or ctc. The default is qeth.
Choose lcs for:
• OSA-2 Ethernet/Token Ring
• OSA-Express Fast Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
• OSA-Express High Speed Token Ring in non-QDIO mode
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Installation network parameters
• Gigabit Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
Choose qeth for:
• OSA-Express Fast Ethernet
• Gigabit Ethernet (including 1000Base-T)
• High Speed Token Ring
• HiperSockets
• ATM (running Ethernet LAN emulation)
SUBCHANNELS=device_bus_IDs
Where bus_IDs is a comma-separated list of two or three device bus IDs.
Provides required device bus IDs for the various network interfaces:
qeth: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id"
lcs or ctc: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id"
For example (a sample qeth SUBCHANNEL statement):
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
PORTNAME=osa_portname , PORTNAME=lcs_portnumber
This variable supports OSA devices operating in qdio mode or in non-qdio mode.
When using qdio mode (NETTYPE=qeth), osa_portname is the portname specified on the OSA
device when operating in qeth mode.
When using non-qdio mode (NETTYPE=lcs), lcs_portnumber is used to pass the relative port
number as a decimal integer in the range of 0 through 15.
PORTNO=portnumber
You can add either PORTNO=0 (to use port 0) or PORTNO=1 (to use port 1 of OSA features with two
ports per CHPID) to the CMS configuration file to avoid being prompted for the mode.
LAYER2=value
Where value can be 0 or 1.
Use LAYER2=0 to operate an OSA or HiperSockets device in layer 3 mode (NETTYPE=qeth). Use
LAYER2=1 for layer 2 mode. For virtual network devices under z/VM this setting must match the
definition of the GuestLAN or VSWITCH to which the device is coupled.
To use network services that operate on layer 2 (the Data Link Layer or its MAC sublayer) such as
DHCP, layer 2 mode is a good choice.
The qeth device driver default for OSA devices is now layer 2 mode. To continue using the
previous default of layer 3 mode, set LAYER2=0 explicitly.
VSWITCH=value
Where value can be 0 or 1.
Specify VSWITCH=1 when connecting to a z/VM VSWITCH or GuestLAN, or VSWITCH=0 (or
nothing at all) when using directly attached real OSA or directly attached real HiperSockets.
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
MACADDR=MAC_address
When you specify LAYER2=1 and VSWITCH=0, optionally use this parameter to specify the MAC
address. Linux needs six colon-separated octets and lower case hex digits. Note that this is
different from the z/VM notation, so be careful if you copy and paste information from z/VM.
If you specify LAYER2=1 and VSWITCH=1, you must not specify the MACADDR, because z/VM
assigns a unique MAC address to virtual network devices in layer 2 mode.
CTCPROT=value
Where value can be 0, 1, or 3.
Specifies the CTC protocol for NETTYPE=ctc. The default is 0.
HOSTNAME=string
Where string is the hostname of the newly-installed Linux instance.
IPADDR=IP
Where IP is the IP address of the new Linux instance.
NETMASK=netmask
Where netmask is the netmask.
The netmask supports the syntax of a prefix integer (from 1 to 32) as specified in IPv4 classless
interdomain routing (CIDR). For example, you can specify 24 instead of 255.255.255.0, or 20
instead of 255.255.240.0.
GATEWAY=gw
Where gw is the gateway IP address for this network device.
MTU=mtu
Where mtu is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for this network device.
DNS=server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN
Where server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN is a list of DNS servers,
separated by colons. For example:
DNS=10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
SEARCHDNS=domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN
Where domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN is a list of the search domains,
separated by colons. For example:
SEARCHDNS=subdomain.domain:domain
You only need to specify SEARCHDNS= if you specify the DNS= parameter.
DASD=
Defines the DASD or range of DASDs to configure for the installation. For a detailed description
of the syntax, refer to the dasd_mod device driver module option described in the chapter on the
DASD device driver in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.
Linuxrc supports a comma-separated list of device bus IDs or of ranges of device bus IDs
with the optional attributes ro, diag, erplog, and failfast. Optionally, you can abbreviate
device bus IDs to device numbers with leading zeros stripped. Any optional attributes should be
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Installation network parameters
separated by colons and enclosed in parentheses. Optional attributes follow a device bus ID or a
range of device bus IDs.
The only supported global option is autodetect. This does not support the specification of nonexistent DASDs to reserve kernel device names for later addition of DASDs. Use persistent DASD
device names (for example /dev/disk/by-path/...) to enable transparent addition of disks
later. Other global options such as probeonly, nopav, or nofcx are not supported by linuxrc.
Only specify those DASDs that you really need to install your system. All unformatted
DASDs specified here must be formatted after a confirmation later on in the installer (refer to
Section 23.6.1.1, “DASD low-level formatting”). Add any data DASDs that are not needed for the
root file system or the /boot partition after installation as described in Section 25.1.3.2, “DASDs
that are not part of the root file system”.
For FCP-only environments, specify DASD=none. Should linuxrc show an error message and
ask to correct the parameter, select continue. It is safe to disregard this error message. When
installing with kickstart and RUNKS=1, linuxrc will simply continue without asking to correct the
parameter.
For example:
DASD=eb1c,0.0.a000-0.0.a003,eb10-eb14(diag),0.0.ab1c(ro:diag)
FCP_n="device_bus_ID WWPN FCP_LUN"
Where:
• n is typically an integer value (for example FCP_1 or FCP_2) but could be any string with
alphabetic or numeric characters or underscores.
• device_bus_ID specifies the device bus ID of the FCP device representing the host bus
adapter (HBA) (for example 0.0.fc00 for device fc00).
• WWPN is the world wide port name used for routing (often in conjunction with multipathing) and is
as a 16-digit hex value (for example 0x50050763050b073d).
• FCP_LUN refers to the storage logical unit identifier and is specified as a 16-digit hexadecimal
value padded with zeroes to the right (for example 0x4020400100000000).
These variables can be used on systems with FCP devices to activate FCP LUNs such as SCSI
disks. Additional FCP LUNs can be activated during the installation interactively or by means of a
kickstart file. There is no interactive question for FCP in linuxrc. An example value may look similar
to the following:
FCP_1="0.0.fc00 0x50050763050b073d 0x4020400100000000"
Important — values are site-specific
Each of the values used in the FCP parameters (for example FCP_1 or FCP_2) are sitespecific and are normally supplied by the FCP storage administrator.
The installation program prompts you for any required parameters not specified in the parameter or
configuration file except for FCP_n.
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
26.4. VNC and X11 parameters
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration
file. With these parameters you control what interface will be used for anaconda.
To use an X11 user interface without X11 forwarding, specify the following X11 parameter:
display=IP/hostname:display
Sets the hostname or IP address and the X11 display where the installer should connect to and
display its graphical user interface.
To use a VNC server instead of an X11 user interface, specify the following VNC parameters:
vnc
Specify vnc to use the VNC graphical user interface later in the installation process.
vncpassword=
This parameter sets the password used to connect to the VNC server. The password parameter
is optional. If not used, the VNC server does not use a password and anybody can connect to the
VNC server.
vncconnect=IP/hostname[:port]
When used in addition to vnc and vncpassword=, this optional parameter specifies the
hostname or IP address (and optionally, a TCP port) where a VNC client is running in listening
mode. The installer connects to and displays its graphical user interface on this VNC client.
26.5. Loader parameters
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration
file.
To automate the loader screens, specify the following parameters:
lang=language
Sets the language of the installer user interface, for example, en for English or de for German.
This automates the response to Choose a Language (refer to Section 22.3, “Language
Selection”).
repo=installation_source
Sets the installation source to access stage 2 as well as the repository with the packages to be
installed. This automates the response to Installation Method (refer to Section 22.4, “Installation
Method”).
26.6. Parameters for kickstart installations
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration
file.
ks=URL
References a kickstart file, which usually resides on the network for Linux installations on System
z. Replace URL with the full path including the file name of the kickstart file. This parameter
activates automatic installation with kickstart. Refer to Section 28.4, “Automating the Installation
with Kickstart” and Section 32.10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for more details.]
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Miscellaneous parameters
RUNKS=value
Where value is defined as 1 if you want to run the loader automatically on the Linux console
without having to log in over the network with SSH. To use RUNKS=1, the console must
either support full-screen or the cmdline option below should be used. The latter applies
for the 3270 terminal under z/VM or the operating system messages console for LPAR. We
recommend RUNKS=1 for fully automatic installations with kickstart. When RUNKS=1 is set, linuxrc
automatically continues in case of parameter errors and does not interrupt unattended installations
by prompting for user interaction.
Leave out the parameter or specify RUNKS=0 otherwise.
cmdline
When cmdline is specified, output on line-mode terminals (such as 3270 under z/VM or
operating system messages for LPAR) becomes readable, as the installer disables escape
terminal sequences that are only applicable to UNIX-like consoles. This requires installation with a
kickstart file that answers all questions, since the installer does not support interactive user input in
cmdline mode.
Ensure that your kickstart file contains all required parameters before you use either the RUNKS or
cmdline options. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for details.
26.7. Miscellaneous parameters
The following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration
file.
askmethod
Do not use an automatically detected DVD as installation source but ask for the installation
method to manually specify the installation source. This parameter is useful if you booted from
an FCP-attached DVD but want to continue with another installation source, for example on the
network or on a local hard disk.
mediacheck
Turns on testing of an ISO-based installation source; for example, when booted from an FCPattached DVD or using repo= with an ISO on local hard disk or mounted with NFS.
nompath
Disables support for multi-pathing devices.
proxy=[protocol://][username[:password]@]host[:port]
Specify a proxy to use with installation over HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP.
rescue
Boot into a rescue system running from a ramdisk that can be used to fix and restore an installed
system.
stage2=URL
Specifies a path to an install.img file instead of to an installation source. Otherwise, follows
the same syntax as repo=. If stage2 is specified, it takes precedence over all other methods of
finding the install.img. Otherwise, anaconda attempts to find the install.img first on any
existing DVD, and then from the location given by repo= or method=.
If only stage2= is given without repo= or method=, anaconda uses whatever repos the installed
system would have enabled by default for installation.
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
syslog=IP/hostname[:port]
Makes the installer send log messages to a remote syslog server.
The boot parameters described here are the most useful for installations and trouble shooting on
System z, but only a subset of those that influence the installer. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for
a more complete list of installer boot parameters.
26.8. Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
To change the parameter file, begin by extending the shipped generic.prm file.
Example of generic.prm file:
root=/dev/ram0 ro ip=off ramdisk_size=40000 cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009
CMSDASD=191 CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
vnc
Example of redhat.conf file configuring a QETH network device (pointed to by CMSCONFFILE in
generic.prm):
NETTYPE="qeth"
SUBCHANNELS="0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602"
PORTNAME="FOOBAR"
PORTNO="0"
LAYER2="1"
MACADDR="02:00:be:3a:01:f3"
HOSTNAME="foobar.systemz.example.com"
IPADDR="192.168.17.115"
NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
GATEWAY="192.168.17.254"
DNS="192.168.17.1"
SEARCHDNS="systemz.example.com:example.com"
DASD="200-203"
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Chapter 27.
IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications
Current versions of the Linux on System z publications can be found at http://www.ibm.com/
developerworks/linux/linux390/documentation_red_hat.html. They include:
IBM . 2010. Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6. SC34-2597.
IBM . 2010. Linux on System z Using the Dump Tools on Red Hat Enterprise Linux . SC34-2607.
IBM . 2009. Linux on System z How to use FC-attached SCSI devices with Linux on System z.
SC33-8413.
IBM . 2010. How to use Execute-in-Place Technology with Linux on z/VM. SC34-2594.
IBM . 2009. Linux on System z How to Set up a Terminal Server Environment on z/VM. SC34-2596.
IBM . 2009. Linux on System z libica Programmer’s Reference Version 2. SC34-2602.
IBM . 2008. Linux on System z How to Improve Performance with PAV. SC33-8414.
IBM . 2008. z/VM Getting Started with Linux on System z. SC24-6194.
27.2. IBM Redbooks for System z
Current versions of the Redbooks can be found at http://www.ibm.com/redbooks. They include:
Introductory publications
IBM Redbooks . 2007. Introduction to the New Mainframe: z/VM Basics. SG24-7316.
IBM Redbooks . 2008. z/VM and Linux on IBM System z The Virtualization Cookbook for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5.2. SG24-7492.
IBM Redbooks . 2009. Practical Migration to Linux on System z. SG24-7727.
Performance and high availability
IBM Redbooks . 2008. Linux on IBM System z: Performance Measurement and Tuning. SG24-6926.
IBM Redbooks . 2009. Achieving High Availability on Linux for System z with Linux-HA Release 2.
SG24-7711.
Security
IBM Redbooks . 2010. Security for Linux on System z. SG24-7728.
IBM Redbooks . 2006. Using Cryptographic Adapters for Web Servers with Linux on IBM System z9
and zSeries. REDP-4131.
Networking
IBM Redbooks . 2009. IBM System z Connectivity Handbook. SG24-5444.
IBM Redbooks . 2009. OSA Express Implementation Guide. SG24-5948.
IBM Redbooks . 2007. HiperSockets Implementation Guide. SG24-6816.
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Chapter 27. IBM System z References
IBM Redbooks . 2007. Fibre Channel Protocol for Linux and z/VM on IBM System z. SG24-7266.
27.3. Online resources
For z/VM publications, refer to http://www.ibm.com/vm/library/ .
For System z I/O connectivity information, refer to http://www.ibm.com/systems/z/connectivity/ .
For System z cryptographic coprocessor information, refer to http://www.ibm.com/security/
cryptocards/ .
Brad Hinson and Mike MacIsaac. Sharing and maintaining RHEL 5.3 Linux under z/VM. http://
www.linuxvm.org/Present/misc/ro-root-RH5.pdf.
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Part IV. Advanced installation options
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide covers more advanced or uncommon
methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including:
• boot options.
• installing without media.
• installing through VNC.
• using kickstart to automate the installation process.
Chapter 28.
Boot Options
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system includes a range of functions and options for
administrators. To use boot options, enter linux option at the boot: prompt.
If you specify more than one option, separate each of the options by a single space. For example:
linux option1 option2 option3
Anaconda Boot Options
The anaconda installer has many boot options, most are listed on the wiki http://fedoraproject.org/
wiki/Anaconda/Options.
Kernel Boot Options
The http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/KernelCommonProblems page lists many common kernel
boot options. The full list of kernel options is in the file /usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-version/
Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt, which is installed with the kernel-doc package.
Rescue Mode
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and rescue discs may either boot with rescue mode,
or load the installation system. For more information on rescue discs and rescue mode, refer to
Section 28.6.2, “Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode”.
28.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu
You can use the boot menu to specify a number of settings for the installation system, including:
• language
• display resolution
• interface type
• Installation method
• network settings
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
To set the language for both the installation process and the final system, specify the ISO code for that
language with the lang option. Use the keymap option to configure the correct keyboard layout.
For example, the ISO codes el_GR and gr identify the Greek language and the Greek keyboard
layout:
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Chapter 28. Boot Options
linux lang=el_GR keymap=gr
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
To use a specific display resolution, enter resolution=setting as a boot option. For example, to
set the display resolution to 1024×768, enter:
linux resolution=1024x768
To run the installation process in
text mode, enter:
linux text
To enable support for a
serial console, enter serial as an additional option.
Use display=ip:0 to allow remote display forwarding. In this command, ip should be replaced with
the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are running the
original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access to the remote display
terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not specifically authorized for remote
access.
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux with a newer version of the anaconda installation program
than the one supplied on your installation media.
The boot option
linux updates
presents you with a prompt that asks you for a disk image containing anaconda updates. You do not
need to specify this option if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the
updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
To load the anaconda updates from a network location instead, use:
linux updates=
followed by the URL for the location where the updates are stored.
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method
Use the askmethod option to display additional menus that enable you to specify the installation
method and network settings. You may also configure the installation method and network settings at
the boot: prompt itself.
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To specify the installation method from the boot: prompt, use the repo option. Refer to Table 28.1,
“Installation methods” for the supported installation methods.
Table 28.1. Installation methods
Installation method
Option format
DVD drive
repo=cdrom:device
Hard Drive
repo=hd:device/path
HTTP Server
repo=http://host/path
FTP Server
repo=ftp://username:[email protected]/path
NFS Server
repo=nfs:server:/path
ISO images on an NFS
Server
repo=nfsiso:server:/path
28.1.5. Manually Configuring the Network Settings
By default, the installation system uses DHCP to automatically obtain the correct network settings. To
manually configure the network settings yourself, either enter them in the Configure TCP/IP screen,
or at the boot: prompt. You may specify the ip address, netmask, gateway, and dns server
settings for the installation system at the prompt. If you specify the network configuration at the boot:
prompt, these settings are used for the installation process, and the Configure TCP/IP screen does
not appear.
This example configures the network settings for an installation system that uses the IP address
192.168.1.10:
linux ip=192.168.1.10 netmask=255.255.255.0 gateway=192.168.1.1 dns=192.168.1.2,192.168.1.3
28.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
You may access either graphical or text interfaces for the installation system from any other system.
Access to a text mode display requires telnet, which is installed by default on Red Hat Enterprise
Linux systems. To remotely access the graphical display of an installation system, use client software
that supports the VNC (Virtual Network Computing) display protocol.
Installing a VNC Client on Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes the VNC client vncviewer. To obtain vncviewer, install the
tigervnc package.
The installation system supports two methods of establishing a VNC connection. You may start
the installation, and manually login to the graphical display with a VNC client on another system.
Alternatively, you may configure the installation system to automatically connect to a VNC client on the
network that is running in listening mode.
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
To enable remote graphical access to the installation system, enter two options at the prompt:
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linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty
The vnc option enables the VNC service. The vncpassword option sets a password for remote
access. The example shown above sets the password as qwerty.
VNC Passwords
The VNC password must be at least six characters long.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the installation system with the
screens that follow. You may then access the graphical interface through a VNC client. The installation
system displays the correct connection setting for the VNC client:
Starting VNC...
The VNC server is now running.
Please connect to computer.mydomain.com:1 to begin the install...
Starting graphical installation...
Press <enter> for a shell
You may then login to the installation system with a VNC client. To run the vncviewer client on Red
Hat Enterprise Linux, choose Applications → Accessories → VNC Viewer, or type the command
vncviewer in a terminal window. Enter the server and display number in the VNC Server dialog. For
the example above, the VNC Server is computer.mydomain.com:1.
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
To have the installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start the client in
listening mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen option to run vncviewer as a
listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
Firewall Reconfiguration Required
By default, vncviewer uses TCP port 5500 when in listening mode. To permit connections to this
port from other systems, choose System → Administration → Firewall. Select Other ports,
and Add. Enter 5500 in the Port(s) field, and specify tcp as the Protocol.
Once the listening client is active, start the installation system and set the VNC options at the boot:
prompt. In addition to vnc and vncpassword options, use the vncconnect option to specify the
name or IP address of the system that has the listening client. To specify the TCP port for the listener,
add a colon and the port number to the name of the system.
For example, to connect to a VNC client on the system desktop.mydomain.com on the port 5500,
enter the following at the boot: prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty vncconnect=desktop.mydomain.com:5500
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28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet
To enable remote access to a text mode installation, use the
telnet option at the boot: prompt:
linux text telnet
You may then connect to the installation system with the telnet utility. The telnet command
requires the name or IP address of the installation system:
telnet computer.mydomain.com
Telnet Access Requires No Password
To ensure the security of the installation process, only use the telnet option to install systems
on networks with restricted access.
28.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
By default, the installation process sends log messages to the console as they are generated. You
may specify that these messages go to a remote system that runs a
syslog service.
To configure remote logging, add the syslog option. Specify the IP address of the logging system,
and the UDP port number of the log service on that system. By default, syslog services that accept
remote messages listen on UDP port 514.
For example, to connect to a syslog service on the system 192.168.1.20, enter the following at the
boot: prompt:
linux syslog=192.168.1.20:514
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses rsyslog to provide a syslog service. The default configuration of
rsyslog rejects messages from remote systems.
Only Enable Remote Syslog Access on Secured Networks
The rsyslog configuration detailed below does not make use of any of the security measures
available in rsyslog Crackers may slow or crash systems that permit access to the logging
service, by sending large quantities of false log messages. In addition, hostile users may
intercept or falsify messages sent to the logging service over the network.
To configure a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to accept log messages from other systems on the
network, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf. You must use root privileges to edit the file /etc/
rsyslog.conf. Uncomment the following lines by removing the hash preceding them:
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$ModLoad imudp.so
$UDPServerRun 514
Restart the rsyslog service to apply the change:
su -c '/sbin/service rsyslog restart'
Enter the root password when prompted.
Firewall Reconfiguration Required
By default, the syslog service listens on UDP port 514. To permit connections to this port from
other systems, choose System → Administration → Firewall. Select Other ports, and Add.
Enter 514 in the Port(s) field, and specify udp as the Protocol.
28.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A
Kickstart file specifies settings for an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a
Kickstart file and carry out the installation process without any further input from a user.
Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that
contains the settings for the installed system. This file is always saved as /root/anacondaks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to
specify settings for other systems.
Important — Kickstart installations and Firstboot
Firstboot does not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a desktop and
the X Window System were included in the installation and graphical login was enabled. Either
specify a user with the user option in the Kickstart file before installing additional systems from it
(refer to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for details) or log into the installed system with a virtual
console as root and add users with the adduser command.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes a graphical application to create and modify Kickstart files by
selecting the options that you require. Use the package system-config-kickstart to install this
utility. To load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Kickstart editor, choose Applications → System Tools →
Kickstart.
Kickstart files list installation settings in plain text, with one option per line. This format lets you modify
your Kickstart files with any text editor, and write scripts or applications that generate custom Kickstart
files for your systems.
To automate the installation process with a Kickstart file, use the ks option to specify the name and
location
of the file:
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Enhancing Hardware Support
linux ks=location/kickstart-file.cfg
You may use Kickstart files that are held on either removable storage, a hard drive, or a network
server. Refer to Table 28.2, “Kickstart sources” for the supported Kickstart sources.
Table 28.2. Kickstart sources
Kickstart source
Option format
DVD drive
ks=cdrom:/directory/ks.cfg
Hard Drive
ks=hd:/device/directory/ks.cfg
Other Device
ks=file:/device/directory/ks.cfg
HTTP Server
ks=http://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
FTP Server
ks=ftp://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
NFS Server
ks=nfs:server.mydomain.com:/directory/ks.cfg
To obtain a Kickstart file from a script or application on a Web server, specify the URL of the
application with the ks= option. If you add the option kssendmac, the request also sends HTTP
headers to the Web application. Your application can use these headers to identify the computer. This
line sends a request with headers to the application http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi:
linux ks=http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi kssendmac
28.5. Enhancing Hardware Support
By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to automatically detect and configure support for all
of the components of your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports the majority of hardware in
common use with the software drivers that are included with the operating system. To support other
devices you may supply additional drivers during the installation process, or at a later time.
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
For some models of device automatic hardware configuration may fail, or cause instability. In these
cases, you may need to disable automatic configuration for that type of device, and take additional
steps to manually configure the device after the installation process is complete.
Check the Release Notes
Refer to the Release Notes for information on known issues with specific devices.
To override the automatic hardware detection, use one or more of the following options:
Table 28.3. Hardware Options
Compatibility
Option
Disable all hardware detection
noprobe
Disable graphics, keyboard, and mouse detection
headless
Disable passing keyboard and mouse information to stage
2 of the installation program
nopass
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Compatibility
Option
Use basic VESA driver for video
xdriver=vesa
Disable shell access on virtual console 2 during installation
noshell
Disable advanced configuration and power interface (ACPI) acpi=off
Disable machine check exception (MCE) CPU selfdiagnosis.
nomce
Disable non-uniform menory access on the AMD64
architecture
numa-off
Force kernel to detect a specific amount of memory, where
xxx is a value in megabytes
mem=xxxm
Enable DMA only for IDE and SATA drives
libata.dma=1
Disable BIOS-assisted RAID
nodmraid
Disable Firewire device detection
nofirewire
Disable parallel port detection
noparport
Disable PC Card (PCMCIA) device detection
nopcmcia
Disable USB storage device detection
nousbstorage
Disable all USB device detection
nousb
Disable all probing of network hardware
nonet
Additional Screen
The isa option causes the system to display an additional text screen at the beginning of the
installation process. Use this screen to configure the ISA devices on your computer.
Important
Other kernel boot options have no particular meaning for anaconda and do not affect the
installation process. However, if you use these options to boot the installation system, anaconda
will preserve them in the bootloader configuration.
28.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes
28.6.1. Verifying boot media
You can test the integrity of an ISO-based installation source before using it to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. These sources include DVD, and ISO images stored on a hard drive or NFS server.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to avoid problems that
are often encountered during installation.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you two ways to test installation ISOs:
• select OK at the prompt to test the media before installation when booting from the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD
• boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the option mediacheck option.
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Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
You may boot a command-line Linux system from either a
rescue disc or an installation disc, without installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the computer. This
enables you to use the utilities and functions of a running Linux system to modify or repair systems
that are already installed on your computer.
The rescue disc starts the rescue mode system by default. To load the rescue system with the
installation disc, choose Rescue installed system from the boot menu.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the screens
that follow. The final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your computer.
By default, rescue mode attaches an existing operating system to the rescue system under the
directory /mnt/sysimage/.
28.6.3. Upgrading your computer
A previous boot option, upgrade, has been superceded by a stage in the installation process where
the installation program prompts you to upgrade or reinstall earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux that it detects on your system.
However, the installation program may not correctly detect a previous version of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux if the contents of the /etc/redhat-release file have changed. The boot option upgradeany
relaxes the test that the installation program performs and allows you to upgrade a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation that the installation program has not correctly identified.
351
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Installing Without Media
Linux Required
This procedure assumes you are already using Red Hat Enterprise Linux or another relatively
modern Linux distribution, and the GRUB boot loader. It also assumes you are a somewhat
experienced Linux user.
This section discusses how to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system without making any
additional physical media. Instead, you can use your existing GRUB boot loader to start the installation
program.
29.1. Retrieving Boot Files
To perform an installation without media or a PXE server, your system must have two files stored
locally, a kernel and an initial RAM disk.
Copy the vmlinuz and initrd.img files from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD (or DVD image) to
the /boot/ directory, renaming them to vmlinuz-install and initrd.img-installYou must
have root privileges to write files into the /boot/ directory.
29.2. Editing the GRUB Configuration
The GRUB boot loader uses the configuration file /boot/grub/grub.conf. To configure GRUB to
boot from the new files, add a boot stanza to /boot/grub/grub.confthat refers to them.
A minimal boot stanza looks like the following listing:
title Installation
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-install
initrd /initrd.img-install
You may wish to add options to the end of the kernel line of the boot stanza. These options set
preliminary options in Anaconda which the user normally sets interactively. For a list of available
installer boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The following options are generally useful for medialess installations:
• ip=
• repo=
• lang=
• keymap=
• ksdevice= (if installation requires an interface other than eth0)
• vnc and vncpassword= for a remote installation
When you are finished, change the default option in /boot/grub/grub.conf to point to the new
first stanza you added:
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default 0
29.3. Booting to Installation
Reboot the system. GRUB boots the installation kernel and RAM disk, including any options you set.
You may now refer to the appropriate chapter in this guide for the next step. If you chose to install
remotely using VNC, refer to Section 28.2, “Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System” for
assistance in connecting to the remote system.
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Chapter 30.
Setting Up an Installation Server
The following steps must be performed to prepare for a PXE installation:
1. Configure the network (NFS, FTP, HTTP) server to export the installation tree.
2. Configure the files on the tftp server necessary for PXE booting.
3. Configure which hosts are allowed to boot from the PXE configuration.
4. Start the tftp service.
5. Configure DHCP.
6. Boot the client, and start the installation.
30.1. Setting up the Network Server
First, configure an NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to export the entire installation tree for the version and
variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be installed. Refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing for a Network
Installation” for detailed instructions.
30.2. PXE Boot Configuration
The next step is to copy the files necessary to start the installation to the tftp server so they can
be found when the client requests them. The tftp server is usually the same server as the network
server exporting the installation tree.
30.3. Configuring the DHCP Server
If a DHCP server does not already exist on the network, configure one. Refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for details. Make sure the configuration file contains the following
so that PXE booting is enabled for systems which support it:
allow booting; allow bootp; class "pxeclients" {
match if substring(option vendor-classidentifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
next-server <server-ip>; filename "linux-install/
pxelinux.0"; }
where the next-server <server-ip> should be replaced with the IP address of the tftp server.
30.4. Starting the tftp Server
On the DHCP server, verify that the tftp-server package is installed with the command rpm -q
tftp-server.
tftp is an xinetd-based service; start it with the following commands:
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 xinetd on
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 tftp on
These commands configure the tftp and xinetd services to immediately turn on and also configure
them to start at boot time in runlevels 3, 4, and 5.
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30.5. Adding a Custom Boot Message
Optionally, modify /tftpboot/linux-install/msgs/boot.msg to use a custom boot message.
30.6. Performing the PXE Installation
For instructions on how to configure the network interface card with PXE support to boot from the
network, consult the documentation for the NIC. It varies slightly per card.
After the system boots the installation program, refer to the Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
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Installing Through VNC
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer (anaconda) offers you two interactive modes of operation.
The original mode is a text-based interface. The newer mode uses GTK+ and runs in the X Window
environment. This chapter explains how you can use the graphical installation mode in environments
where the system lacks a proper display and input devices typically associated with a workstation.
This scenario is typical of systems in datacenters, which are often installed in a rack environment and
do not have a display, keyboard, or mouse. Additionally, a lot of these systems even lack the ability
to connect a graphical display. Given that enterprise hardware rarely needs that ability at the physical
system, this hardware configuration is acceptable.
Even in these environments, however, the graphical installer remains the recommended method of
installation. The text mode environment lacks a lot of capabilities found in the graphical mode. Many
users still feel that the text mode interface provides them with additional power or configuration ability
not found in the graphical version. The opposite is true. Much less development effort is put in to the
text-mode environment and specific things (for example, LVM configuration, partition layout, package
selection, and bootloader configuration) are deliberately left out of the text mode environment. The
reasons for this are:
• Less screen real estate for creating user interfaces similar to those found in the graphical mode.
• Difficult internationalization support.
• Desire to maintain a single interactive installation code path.
Anaconda therefore includes a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) mode that allows the graphical
mode of the installer to run locally, but display on a system connected to the network. Installing in VNC
mode provides you with the full range of installation options, even in situations where the system lacks
a display or input devices.
31.1. VNC Viewer
Performing a VNC installation requires a VNC viewer running on your workstation or other terminal
computer. Locations where you might want a VNC viewer installed:
• Your workstation
• Laptop on a datacenter crash cart
VNC is open source software licensed under the GNU General Public License.
VNC clients are available in the repositories of most Linux distributions. Use your package manager to
search for a client for your chosen distribution. For example, on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, install the
tigervnc package:
# yum install tigervnc
Once you have verified you have a VNC viewer available, it's time to start the installation.
31.2. VNC Modes in Anaconda
Anaconda offers two modes for VNC installation. The mode you select will depend on the network
configuration in your environment.
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31.2.1. Direct Mode
Direct mode VNC in anaconda is when the client initiates a connection to the VNC server running in
anaconda. Anaconda will tell you when to initiate this connection in the VNC viewer. Direct mode can
be activated by either of the following commands:
• Specify vnc as a boot argument.
• Specify the vnc command in the kickstart file used for installation.
When you activate VNC mode, anaconda will complete the first stage of the installer and then start
VNC to run the graphical installer. The installer will display a message on the console in the following
format:
Running anaconda VERSION, the PRODUCT system installer - please wait...
Anaconda will also tell you the IP address and display number to use in your VNC viewer. At this point,
you need to start the VNC viewer and connect to the target system to continue the installation. The
VNC viewer will present anaconda to you in graphical mode.
There are some disadvantages to direct mode, including:
• Requires visual access to the system console to see the IP address and port to connect the VNC
viewer to.
• Requires interactive access to the system console to complete the first stage of the installer.
If either of these disadvantages would prevent you from using direct mode VNC in anaconda, then
connect mode is probably more suited to your environment.
31.2.2. Connect Mode
Certain firewall configurations or instances where the target system is configured to obtain a dynamic
IP address may cause trouble with the direct VNC mode in anaconda. In addition, if you lack a console
on the target system to see the message that tells you the IP address to connect to, then you will not
be able to continue the installation.
The VNC connect mode changes how VNC is started. Rather than anaconda starting up and waiting
for you to connect, the VNC connect mode allows anaconda to automatically connect to your view. You
won't need to know the IP address of the target system in this case.
To activate the VNC connect mode, pass the vncconnect boot parameter:
boot: linux vncconnect=HOST
Replace HOST with your VNC viewer's IP address or DNS host name. Before starting the installation
process on the target system, start up your VNC viewer and have it wait for an incoming connection.
Start the installation and when your VNC viewer displays the graphical installer, you are ready to go.
31.3. Installation Using VNC
Now that you have installed a VNC viewer application and selected a VNC mode for use in anaconda,
you are ready to begin the installation.
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Installation Example
31.3.1. Installation Example
The easiest way to perform an installation using VNC is to connect another computer directly to the
network port on the target system. The laptop on a datacenter crash cart usually fills this role. If you
are performing your installation this way, make sure you follow these steps:
1. Connect the laptop or other workstation to the target system using a crossover cable. If you are
using regular patch cables, make sure you connect the two systems using a small hub or switch.
Most recent Ethernet interfaces will automatically detect if they need to be crossover or not, so it
may be possible to connect the two systems directly using a regular patch cable.
2. Configure the VNC viewer system to use a RFC 1918 address with no gateway. This private
network connection will only be used for the purpose of installation. Configure the VNC viewer
system to be 192.168.100.1/24. If that address is in use, just pick something else in the RFC 1918
address space that is available to you.
3. Start the installation on the target system.
a. Booting the installation DVD.
If booting the installation DVD, make sure vnc is passed as a boot parameter. To add the vnc
parameter, you will need a console attached to the target system that allows you to interact
with the boot process. Enter the following at the prompt:
boot: linux vnc
b. Boot over the network.
If the target system is configured with a static IP address, add the vnc command to the
kickstart file. If the target system is using DHCP, add vncconnect=HOST to the boot
arguments for the target system. HOST is the IP address or DNS host name of the VNC
viewer system. Enter the following at the prompt:
boot: linux vncconnect=HOST
4. When prompted for the network configuration on the target system, assign it an available
RFC 1918 address in the same network you used for the VNC viewer system. For example,
192.168.100.2/24.
Note
This IP address is only used during installation. You will have an opportunity to configure the
final network settings, if any, later in the installer.
5. Once the installer indicates it is starting anaconda, you will be instructed to connect to the
system using the VNC viewer. Connect to the viewer and follow the graphical installation mode
instructions found in the product documentation.
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
If your target system will be booting over the network, VNC is still available. Just add the vnc
command to the kickstart file for the system. You will be able to connect to the target system using
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your VNC viewer and monitor the installation progress. The address to use is the one the system is
configured with via the kickstart file.
If you are using DHCP for the target system, the reverse vncconnect method may work better for
you. Rather than adding the vnc boot parameter to the kickstart file, add the vncconnect=HOST
parameter to the list of boot arguments for the target system. For HOST, put the IP address or DNS
host name of the VNC viewer system. See the next section for more details on using the vncconnect
mode.
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
If you are performing the installation where the VNC viewer system is a workstation on a different
subnet from the target system, you may run in to network routing problems. VNC works fine so long
as your viewer system has a route to the target system and ports 5900 and 5901 are open. If your
environment has a firewall, make sure ports 5900 and 5901 are open between your workstation and
the target system.
In addition to passing the vnc boot parameter, you may also want to pass the vncpassword
parameter in these scenarios. While the password is sent in plain text over the network, it does
provide an extra step before a viewer can connect to a system. Once the viewer connects to the target
system over VNC, no other connections are permitted. These limitations are usually sufficient for
installation purposes.
Important
Be sure to use a temporary password for the vncpassword option. It should not be a password
you use on any systems, especially a real root password.
If you continue to have trouble, consider using the vncconnect parameter. In this mode of
operation, you start the viewer on your system first telling it to listen for an incoming connection. Pass
vncconnect=HOST at the boot prompt and the installer will attempt to connect to the specified HOST
(either a hostname or IP address).
31.4. References
• VNC description at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vnc
• TigerVNC: http://tigervnc.sourceforge.net/
• RFC 1918 - Address Allocation for Private Networks: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt
• Anaconda boot options: http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Options
• Kickstart documentation: http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Kickstart
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Chapter 32.
Kickstart Installations
32.1. What are Kickstart Installations?
Many system administrators would prefer to use an automated installation method to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux on their machines. To answer this need, Red Hat created the kickstart installation
method. Using kickstart, a system administrator can create a single file containing the answers to all
the questions that would normally be asked during a typical installation.
Kickstart files can be kept on a single server system and read by individual computers during the
installation. This installation method can support the use of a single kickstart file to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux on multiple machines, making it ideal for network and system administrators.
Kickstart provides a way for users to automate a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
All kickstart scriptlets and the log files of their execution are stored in the /tmp directory to assist with
debugging installation failures.
Note — /tmp/netinfo no longer used
Anaconda now configures network interfaces with NetworkManager. Consequently, kickstart
users that referenced the network settings located in /tmp/netinfo in previous versions of
Red hat Enterprise Linux must now source the ifcfg files in /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts.
32.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Kickstart installations can be performed using a local DVD, a local hard drive, or via NFS, FTP, or
HTTP.
To use kickstart, you must:
1. Create a kickstart file.
2. Create a boot media with the kickstart file or make the kickstart file available on the network.
3. Make the installation tree available.
4. Start the kickstart installation.
This chapter explains these steps in detail.
32.3. Creating the Kickstart File
The kickstart file is a simple text file, containing a list of items, each identified by a keyword. You can
create it by using the Kickstart Configurator application, or writing it from scratch. The Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program also creates a sample kickstart file based on the options that you
selected during installation. It is written to the file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You should be able to
edit it with any text editor or word processor that can save files as ASCII text.
First, be aware of the following issues when you are creating your kickstart file:
• Sections must be specified in order. Items within the sections do not have to be in a specific order
unless otherwise specified. The section order is:
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• Command section — Refer to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for a list of kickstart options. You
must include the required options.
• The %packages section — Refer to Section 32.5, “Package Selection” for details.
• The %pre and %post sections — These two sections can be in any order and are not required.
Refer to Section 32.6, “Pre-installation Script” and Section 32.7, “Post-installation Script” for
details.
• Items that are not required can be omitted.
• Omitting any required item results in the installation program prompting the user for an answer to
the related item, just as the user would be prompted during a typical installation. Once the answer is
given, the installation continues unattended (unless it finds another missing item).
• Lines starting with a pound (also known as hash) sign (#) are treated as comments and are ignored.
• For kickstart upgrades, the following items are required:
• Language
• Installation method
• Device specification (if device is needed to perform the installation)
• Keyboard setup
• The upgrade keyword
• Boot loader configuration
If any other items are specified for an upgrade, those items are ignored (note that this includes
package selection).
32.4. Kickstart Options
The following options can be placed in a kickstart file. If you prefer to use a graphical interface for
creating your kickstart file, use the Kickstart Configurator application. Refer to Chapter 33, Kickstart
Configurator for details.
Note
If the option is followed by an equals mark (=), a value must be specified after it. In the example
commands, options in brackets ([]) are optional arguments for the command.
autopart (optional)
Automatically create partitions — 1 GB or more root (/) partition, a swap partition, and an
appropriate boot partition for the architecture. One or more of the default partition sizes can be
redefined with the part directive.
• --encrypted — Should all devices with support be encrypted by default? This is equivalent to
checking the Encrypt checkbox on the initial partitioning screen.
• --passphrase= — Provide a default system-wide passphrase for all encrypted devices.
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• --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted volumes as files in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a separate file for each
encrypted volume. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
• --backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted volume.
Store these passphrases in separate files in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate
specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
ignoredisk (optional)
Causes the installer to ignore the specified disks. This is useful if you use autopartition and want to
be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk, attempting to deploy on
a SAN-cluster the kickstart would fail, as the installer detects passive paths to the SAN that return
no partition table.
The ignoredisk option is also useful if you have multiple paths to your disks.
The syntax is:
ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
where driveN is one of sda, sdb,..., hda,... etc.
• --only-use — specifies a list of disks for the installer to use. All other disks are ignored. For
example, to use disk sda during installation and ignore all other disks:
ignoredisk --only-use=sda
autostep (optional)
Similar to interactive except it goes to the next screen for you. It is used mostly for debugging.
• --autoscreenshot — Take a screenshot at every step during installation and copy the
images over to /root/anaconda-screenshots after installation is complete. This is most
useful for documentation.
auth or authconfig (required)
Sets up the authentication options for the system. It is similar to the authconfig command,
which can be run after the install. By default, passwords are normally encrypted and are not
shadowed.
• --enablemd5 — Use md5 encryption for user passwords.
• --enablenis — Turns on NIS support. By default, --enablenis uses whatever domain it
finds on the network. A domain should almost always be set by hand with the --nisdomain=
option.
• --nisdomain= — NIS domain name to use for NIS services.
• --nisserver= — Server to use for NIS services (broadcasts by default).
• --useshadow or --enableshadow — Use shadow passwords.
• --enableldap — Turns on LDAP support in /etc/nsswitch.conf, allowing your system to
retrieve information about users (UIDs, home directories, shells, etc.) from an LDAP directory.
To use this option, you must install the nss_ldap package. You must also specify a server and
a base DN (distinguished name) with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
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• --enableldapauth — Use LDAP as an authentication method. This enables the pam_ldap
module for authentication and changing passwords, using an LDAP directory. To use this option,
you must have the nss_ldap package installed. You must also specify a server and a base DN
with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
• --ldapserver= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use
this option to specify the name of the LDAP server to use. This option is set in the /etc/
ldap.conf file.
• --ldapbasedn= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this
option to specify the DN in your LDAP directory tree under which user information is stored. This
option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
• --enableldaptls — Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups. This option allows LDAP to
send encrypted usernames and passwords to an LDAP server before authentication.
• --enablekrb5 — Use Kerberos 5 for authenticating users. Kerberos itself does not know
about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable Kerberos, you must make users' accounts
known to this workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/
useradd command. If you use this option, you must have the pam_krb5 package installed.
• --krb5realm= — The Kerberos 5 realm to which your workstation belongs.
• --krb5kdc= — The KDC (or KDCs) that serve requests for the realm. If you have multiple
KDCs in your realm, separate their names with commas (,).
• --krb5adminserver= — The KDC in your realm that is also running kadmind. This server
handles password changing and other administrative requests. This server must be run on the
master KDC if you have more than one KDC.
• --enablehesiod — Enable Hesiod support for looking up user home directories, UIDs, and
shells. More information on setting up and using Hesiod on your network is in /usr/share/
doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod, which is included in the glibc package. Hesiod is an
extension of DNS that uses DNS records to store information about users, groups, and various
other items.
• --hesiodlhs — The Hesiod LHS ("left-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. This
option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when looking up
information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.
• --hesiodrhs — The Hesiod RHS ("right-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. This
option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when looking up
information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.
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Note
To look up user information for "jim", the Hesiod library looks up jim.passwd<LHS><RHS>,
which should resolve to a TXT record that looks like what his passwd entry would look like
(jim:*:501:501:Jungle Jim:/home/jim:/bin/bash). For groups, the situation is
identical, except jim.group<LHS><RHS> would be used.
Looking up users and groups by number is handled by making "501.uid" a CNAME for
"jim.passwd", and "501.gid" a CNAME for "jim.group". Note that the library does not place a
period . in front of the LHS and RHS values when performing a search. Therefore the LHS
and RHS values need to have a period placed in front of them in order if they require this.
• --enablesmbauth — Enables authentication of users against an SMB server (typically a
Samba or Windows server). SMB authentication support does not know about home directories,
UIDs, or shells. If you enable SMB, you must make users' accounts known to the workstation by
enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd command to make their
accounts known to the workstation. To use this option, you must have the pam_smb package
installed.
• --smbservers= — The name of the server(s) to use for SMB authentication. To specify more
than one server, separate the names with commas (,).
• --smbworkgroup= — The name of the workgroup for the SMB servers.
• --enablecache — Enables the nscd service. The nscd service caches information about
users, groups, and various other types of information. Caching is especially helpful if you
choose to distribute information about users and groups over your network using NIS, LDAP, or
hesiod.
bootloader (required)
Specifies how the boot loader should be installed. This option is required for both installations and
upgrades.
Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. These steps are automated in
text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide
choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
• --append= — Specifies kernel parameters. To specify multiple parameters, separate them with
spaces. For example:
bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
• --driveorder — Specify which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:
bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
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• --location= — Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the following: mbr
(the default), partition (installs the boot loader on the first sector of the partition containing
the kernel), or none (do not install the boot loader).
• --password= — If using GRUB, sets the GRUB boot loader password to the one specified
with this option. This should be used to restrict access to the GRUB shell, where arbitrary kernel
options can be passed.
• --md5pass= — If using GRUB, similar to --password= except the password should already
be encrypted.
• --upgrade — Upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, preserving the old entries. This
option is only available for upgrades.
clearpart (optional)
Removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no partitions
are removed.
Note
If the clearpart command is used, then the --onpart command cannot be used on a
logical partition.
• --all — Erases all partitions from the system.
• --drives= — Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the following clears
all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE controller:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
• --initlabel — Initializes the disk label to the default for your architecture (for example
msdos for x86). It is useful so that the installation program does not ask if it should initialize the
disk label if installing to a brand new hard drive.
• --linux — Erases all Linux partitions.
• --none (default) — Do not remove any partitions.
cmdline (optional)
Perform the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any prompts for
interaction halts the install. This mode is useful on IBM System z systems with the 3270 terminal
under z/VM and operating system messages applet on LPAR. The recommended use is in
conjunction with RUNKS=1 and ks=. Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart installations”.
device (optional)
On most PCI systems, the installation program autoprobes for Ethernet and SCSI cards properly.
On older systems and some PCI systems, however, kickstart needs a hint to find the proper
devices. The device command, which tells the installation program to install extra modules, is in
this format:
device <moduleName> --opts=<options>
• <moduleName> — Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be installed.
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• --opts= — Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. Any options that can be
specified in /etc/fstab for an NFS mount are allowed. The options are listed in the nfs(5)
man page. Multiple options are separated with a comma.
driverdisk (optional)
Driver diskettes can be used during kickstart installations. You must copy the driver diskettes's
contents to the root directory of a partition on the system's hard drive. Then you must use the
driverdisk command to tell the installation program where to look for the driver disk.
driverdisk <partition> --source=<url> --biospart=<biospart> [--type=<fstype>]
Alternatively, a network location can be specified for the driver diskette:
driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
• <partition> — Partition containing the driver disk.
• <url> — URL for the driver disk. NFS locations can be given in the form nfs:host:/path/
to/img.
• <biospart> — BIOS partition containing the driver disk (for example, 82p2).
• --type= — File system type (for example, vfat or ext2).
firewall (optional)
This option corresponds to the Firewall Configuration screen in the installation program:
firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] <device> [--port=]
• --enabled or --enable — Reject incoming connections that are not in response to outbound
requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running on this machine
is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
• --disabled or --disable — Do not configure any iptables rules.
• --trust= — Listing a device here, such as eth0, allows all traffic coming from that device to
go through the firewall. To list more than one device, use --trust eth0 --trust eth1. Do
NOT use a comma-separated format such as --trust eth0, eth1.
• <incoming> — Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified services
through the firewall.
• --ssh
• --telnet
• --smtp
• --http
• --ftp
• --port= — You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the port:protocol
format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall, specify imap:tcp. Numeric
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ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through,
specify 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them by commas.
firstboot (optional)
Determine whether the Firstboot starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled, the firstboot
package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by default.
• --enable or --enabled — The Setup Agent is started the first time the system boots.
• --disable or --disabled — The Setup Agent is not started the first time the system boots.
• --reconfig — Enable the Setup Agent to start at boot time in reconfiguration mode. This
mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time zone, and
networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
graphical (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in graphical mode. This is the default.
halt (optional)
Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. This is similar to a manual
installation, where anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before
rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, this option is used
as the default.
The halt option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -h command.
For other completion methods, refer to the poweroff, reboot, and shutdown kickstart options.
install (optional)
Tells the system to install a fresh system rather than upgrade an existing system. This is the
default mode. For installation, you must specify the type of installation from cdrom, harddrive,
nfs, or url (for FTP or HTTP installations). The install command and the installation method
command must be on separate lines.
• cdrom — Install from the first optical drive on the system.
• harddrive — Install from a Red Hat installation tree on a local drive, which must be either vfat
or ext2.
• --biospart=
BIOS partition to install from (such as 82).
• --partition=
Partition to install from (such as sdb2).
• --dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
For example:
harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
• nfs — Install from the NFS server specified.
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• --server=
Server from which to install (hostname or IP).
• --dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
• --opts=
Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. (optional)
For example:
nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
• url — Install from an installation tree on a remote server via FTP or HTTP.
For example:
url --url http://<server>/<dir>
or:
url --url ftp://<username>:<password>@<server>/<dir>
interactive (optional)
Uses the information provided in the kickstart file during the installation, but allow for inspection
and modification of the values given. You are presented with each screen of the installation
program with the values from the kickstart file. Either accept the values by clicking Next or change
the values and click Next to continue. Refer to the autostep command.
iscsi (optional)
iscsi --ipaddr= [options].
Specifies additional iSCSI storage to be attached during installation. If you use the iscsi
parameter, you must also assign a name to the iSCSI node, using the iscsiname parameter. The
iscsiname parameter must appear before the iscsi parameter in the kickstart file.
We recommend that wherever possible you configure iSCSI storage in the system BIOS or
firmware (iBFT for Intel systems) rather than use the iscsi parameter. Anaconda automatically
detects and uses disks configured in BIOS or firmware and no special configuration is necessary
in the kickstart file.
If you must use the iscsi parameter, ensure that networking is activated at the beginning of the
installation, and that the iscsi parameter appears in the kickstart file before you refer to iSCSI
disks with parameters such as clearpart or ignoredisk.
• --port= (mandatory) — the port number (typically, --port=3260)
• --user= — the username required to authenticate with the target
• --password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified for the target
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• --reverse-user= — the username required to authenticate with the initiator from a target that
uses reverse CHAP authentication
• --reverse-password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified for the
initiator
iscsiname (optional)
Assigns a name to an iSCSI node specified by the iscsi parameter. If you use the iscsi
parameter in your kickstart file, this parameter is mandatory, and you must specify iscsiname in
the kickstart file before you specify iscsi.
key (optional)
Specify an installation key, which is needed to aid in package selection and identify your system
for support purposes. This command is specific to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
• --skip — Skip entering a key. Usually if the key command is not given, anaconda will pause at
this step to prompt for a key. This option allows automated installation to continue if you do not
have a key or do not want to provide one.
keyboard (required)
Sets system keyboard type. Here is the list of available keyboards on i386 and Alpha machines:
be-latin1, bg, br-abnt2, cf, cz-lat2, cz-us-qwertz, de, de-latin1,
de-latin1-nodeadkeys, dk, dk-latin1, dvorak, es, et, fi, fi-latin1,
fr, fr-latin0, fr-latin1, fr-pc, fr_CH, fr_CH-latin1, gr, hu, hu101,
is-latin1, it, it-ibm, it2, jp106, la-latin1, mk-utf, no, no-latin1,
pl, pt-latin1, ro_win, ru, ru-cp1251, ru-ms, ru1, ru2, ru_win,
se-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-qwerty, slovene, speakup, speakup-lt,
sv-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-querty, slovene, trq, ua, uk, us, us-acentos
The file /usr/lib/python2.2/site-packages/rhpl/keyboard_models.py also contains
this list and is part of the rhpl package.
lang (required)
Sets the language to use during installation and the default language to use on the installed
system. For example, to set the language to English, the kickstart file should contain the following
line:
lang en_US
The file /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list provides a list of the valid
language codes in the first column of each line and is part of the system-config-language
package.
Certain languages (mainly Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indic languages) are not supported
during text mode installation. If one of these languages is specified using the lang command,
installation will continue in English though the running system will have the specified langauge by
default.
langsupport (deprecated)
The langsupport keyword is deprecated and its use will cause an error message to be printed to
the screen and installation to halt. Instead of using the langsupport keyword, you should now list
the support package groups for all languages you want supported in the %packages section of
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your kickstart file. For instance, adding support for French means you should add the following to
%packages:
@french-support
logvol (optional)
Create a logical volume for Logical Volume Management (LVM) with the syntax:
logvol <mntpoint> --vgname=<name> --size=<size> --name=<name> <options>
The options are as follows:
• --noformat — Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
• --useexisting — Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
• --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are xfs, ext2,
ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
• --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
• --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the
logical volume. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
• --grow= — Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the
maximum size setting.
• --maxsize= — The maximum size in megabytes when the logical volume is set to grow.
Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
• --recommended= — Determine the size of the logical volume automatically.
• --percent= — Specify the size of the logical volume as a percentage of available space in the
volume group.
• --encrypted — Specifies that this logical volume should be encrypted.
• --passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this logical volume.
Without the above --encrypted option, this option does nothing. If no passphrase is specified,
the default system-wide one is used, or the installer will stop and prompt if there is no default.
• --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted volumes as files in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a separate file for each
encrypted volume. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
• --backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted volume.
Store these passphrases in separate files in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate
specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For
example:
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part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
logging (optional)
This command controls the error logging of anaconda during installation. It has no effect on the
installed system.
• --host= — Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be running a
syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
• --port= — If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, it may be
specified with this option.
• --level= — One of debug, info, warning, error, or critical.
Specify the minimum level of messages that appear on tty3. All messages will still be sent to the
log file regardless of this level, however.
mediacheck (optional)
If given, this will force anaconda to run mediacheck on the installation media. This command
requires that installs be attended, so it is disabled by default.
monitor (optional)
If the monitor command is not given, anaconda will use X to automatically detect your monitor
settings. Please try this before manually configuring your monitor.
• --hsync= — Specifies the horizontal sync frequency of the monitor.
• --monitor= — Use specified monitor; monitor name should be from the list of monitors in /
usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB from the hwdata package. The list of monitors can also be found
on the X Configuration screen of the Kickstart Configurator. This is ignored if --hsync or --vsync
is provided. If no monitor information is provided, the installation program tries to probe for it
automatically.
• --noprobe= — Do not try to probe the monitor.
• --vsync= — Specifies the vertical sync frequency of the monitor.
mouse (deprecated)
The mouse keyword is deprecated.
network (optional)
Configures network information for the system. If the kickstart installation does not require
networking (in other words, it is not installed over NFS, HTTP, or FTP), networking is not
configured for the system. If the installation does require networking and network information is not
provided in the kickstart file, the installation program assumes that the installation should be done
over eth0 via a dynamic IP address (BOOTP/DHCP), and configures the final, installed system to
determine its IP address dynamically. The network option configures networking information for
kickstart installations via a network as well as for the installed system.
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• --bootproto= — One of dhcp, bootp, or static.
It defaults to dhcp. bootp and dhcp are treated the same.
The DHCP method uses a DHCP server system to obtain its networking configuration. As you
might guess, the BOOTP method is similar, requiring a BOOTP server to supply the networking
configuration. To direct a system to use DHCP:
network --bootproto=dhcp
To direct a machine to use BOOTP to obtain its networking configuration, use the following line
in the kickstart file:
network --bootproto=bootp
The static method requires that you enter all the required networking information in the kickstart
file. As the name implies, this information is static and is used during and after the installation.
The line for static networking is more complex, as you must include all network configuration
information on one line. You must specify the IP address, netmask, gateway, and nameserver.
Note that although the presentation of this example on this page has broken the line, in a real
kickstart file, you must include all this information on a single line with no break.
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
If you use the static method, be aware of the following two restrictions:
• All static networking configuration information must be specified on one line; you cannot wrap
lines using a backslash, for example.
• You can also configure multiple nameservers here. To do so, specify them as a commadelimited list in the command line.
Note that although the presentation of this example on this page has broken the line, in a real
kickstart file, you must include all this information on a single line with no break.
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver 192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
• --device= — Used to select a specific Ethernet device for installation. Note that using -device= is not effective unless the kickstart file is a local file (such as ks=hd), since the
installation program configures the network to find the kickstart file. For example:
network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
• --ip= — IP address for the machine to be installed.
• --gateway= — Default gateway as an IP address.
• --nameserver= — Primary nameserver, as an IP address.
• --nodns — Do not configure any DNS server.
• --netmask= — Netmask for the installed system.
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• --hostname= — Hostname for the installed system.
• --ethtool= — Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device which will be
passed to the ethtool program.
• --essid= — The network ID for wireless networks.
• --wepkey= — The encryption key for wireless networks.
• --onboot= — Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
• --dhcpclass= — The DHCP class.
• --mtu= — The MTU of the device.
• --noipv4 — Disable IPv4 on this device.
• --noipv6 — Disable IPv6 on this device.
multipath (optional)
multipath --name= --device= --rule=
part or partition (required for installs, ignored for upgrades)
Creates a partition on the system.
If more than one Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation exists on the system on different partitions,
the installation program prompts the user and asks which installation to upgrade.
Warning
All partitions created are formatted as part of the installation process unless --noformat
and --onpart are used.
Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. These steps are automated in
text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide
choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
For a detailed example of part in action, refer to Section 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
• <mntpoint> — The <mntpoint> is where the partition is mounted and must be of one of the
following forms:
• /<path>
For example, /, /usr, /home
• swap
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The partition is used as swap space.
To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the --recommended option:
swap --recommended
The recommended maximum swap size for machines with less than 2GB of RAM is twice the
amount of RAM. For machines with 2GB or more, this recommendation changes to 2GB plus
the amount of RAM.
• raid.<id>
The partition is used for software RAID (refer to raid).
• pv.<id>
The partition is used for LVM (refer to logvol).
• --size= — The minimum partition size in megabytes. Specify an integer value here such as
500. Do not append the number with MB.
• --grow — Tells the partition to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size
setting.
Note
If you use --grow= without setting --maxsize= on a swap partition, Anaconda will limit
the maximum size of the swap partition. For systems that have less than 2GB of physical
memory, the imposed limit is twice the amount of physical memory. For systems with more
than 2GB, the imposed limit is the size of physical memory plus 2GB.
• --maxsize= — The maximum partition size in megabytes when the partition is set to grow.
Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
• --noformat — Tells the installation program not to format the partition, for use with the -onpart command.
• --onpart= or --usepart= — Put the partition on the already existing device. For example:
partition /home --onpart=hda1
puts /home on /dev/hda1, which must already exist.
• --ondisk= or --ondrive= — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk. For
example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on the system.
• --asprimary — Forces automatic allocation of the partition as a primary partition, or the
partitioning fails.
• --type= (replaced by fstype) — This option is no longer available. Use fstype.
• --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3,
ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
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• --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the
partition. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
• --recommended — Determine the size of the partition automatically.
• --onbiosdisk — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as discovered by the
BIOS.
• --fsoptions — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
• --encrypted — Specifies that this partition should be encrypted.
• --passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this partition. Without the
above --encrypted option, this option does nothing. If no passphrase is specified, the default
system-wide one is used, or the installer will stop and prompt if there is no default.
• --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted partitions as files in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a separate file for each
encrypted partition. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
• --backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted
partition. Store these passphrases in separate files in / (root), encrypted using the X.509
certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is
specified.
Note
If partitioning fails for any reason, diagnostic messages appear on virtual console 3.
poweroff (optional)
Shut down and power off the system after the installation has successfully completed. Normally
during a manual installation, anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key
before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the halt
option is used as default.
The poweroff option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -p command.
Note
The poweroff option is highly dependent on the system hardware in use. Specifically,
certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM (advanced power management), and
ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface) must be able to interact with the system
kernel. Contact your manufacturer for more information on you system's APM/ACPI abilities.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, reboot, and shutdown kickstart options.
raid (optional)
Assembles a software RAID device. This command is of the form:
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raid <mntpoint> --level=<level> --device=<mddevice> <partitions*>
• <mntpoint> — Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is /, the RAID level
must be 1 unless a boot partition (/boot) is present. If a boot partition is present, the /boot
partition must be level 1 and the root (/) partition can be any of the available types. The
<partitions*> (which denotes that multiple partitions can be listed) lists the RAID identifiers
to add to the RAID array.
• --level= — RAID level to use (0, 1, or 5).
• --device= — Name of the RAID device to use (such as md0 or md1). RAID devices range
from md0 to md15, and each may only be used once.
• --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the
RAID device. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
• --spares= — Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array. Spare drives
are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
• --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3,
ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
• --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be
enclosed in quotes.
• --noformat — Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
• --useexisting — Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
• --encrypted — Specifies that this RAID device should be encrypted.
• --passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this RAID device.
Without the above --encrypted option, this option does nothing. If no passphrase is specified,
the default system-wide one is used, or the installer will stop and prompt if there is no default.
• --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store the data encryption key for this
device in a file in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL specified with
URL_of_X.509_certificate. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
• --backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to this device. Store
the passphrase in a file in / (root), encrypted using the X.509 certificate specified with -escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
The following example shows how to create a RAID level 1 partition for /, and a RAID level 5 for
/usr, assuming there are three SCSI disks on the system. It also creates three swap partitions,
one on each drive.
part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda
part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb
part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
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part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda
part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb
part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03
raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
For a detailed example of raid in action, refer to Section 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
reboot (optional)
Reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally, kickstart displays
a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.
The reboot option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -r command.
Specify reboot to automate installation fully when installing in cmdline mode on System z.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and shutdown kickstart options.
The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in
the kickstart file.
Note
Use of the reboot option may result in an endless installation loop, depending on the
installation media and method.
repo (optional)
Configures additional yum repositories that may be used as sources for package installation.
Multiple repo lines may be specified.
repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
• --name= — The repo id. This option is required.
• --baseurl= — The URL for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config
files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --mirrorlist, not both.
• --mirrorlist= — The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. The variables that
may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this
option or --baseurl, not both.
rootpw (required)
Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
• --iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted.
selinux (optional)
Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in anaconda.
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selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
• --enforcing — Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.
Note
If the selinux option is not present in the kickstart file, SELinux is enabled and set to -enforcing by default.
• --permissive — Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not actually
enforce the policy.
• --disabled — Disables SELinux completely on the system.
For more information regarding SELinux for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
services (optional)
Modifies the default set of services that will run under the default runlevel. The services listed in
the disabled list will be disabled before the services listed in the enabled list are enabled.
• --disabled — Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
• --enabled — Enable the services given in the comma separated list.
Do not include spaces in the list of services
If you include spaces in the comma-separated list, kickstart will enable or disable only the
services up to the first space. For example:
services --disabled auditd, cups,smartd, nfslock
will disable only the auditd service. To disable all four services, this entry should include no
spaces between services:
services --disabled auditd,cups,smartd,nfslock
shutdown (optional)
Shut down the system after the installation has successfully completed. During a kickstart
installation, if no completion method is specified, the halt option is used as default.
The shutdown option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown command.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and reboot kickstart options.
skipx (optional)
If present, X is not configured on the installed system.
sshpw (optional)
The installer can start ssh to provide interactivity and inspection, just like it can with telnet. This
command controls the accounts created in the installation environment that may be remotely
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logged into. Each instance of this command creates a user. These users will not be created on the
final system — they only exist for use while the installer is running.
sshpw --username=<name> <password> [--iscrypted|--plaintext] [--lock]
• --username — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
• --iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted.
--plaintext has the opposite effect — the password argument is assumed to not be
encrypted.
• --lock — If this is present, the new user account is locked by default. That is, the user will not
be able to login from the console.
text (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in graphical
mode by default.
Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. These steps are automated in
text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide
choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
timezone (required)
Sets the system time zone to <timezone> which may be any of the time zones listed by
timeconfig.
timezone [--utc] <timezone>
• --utc — If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC (Greenwich Mean)
time.
upgrade (optional)
Tells the system to upgrade an existing system rather than install a fresh system. You must specify
one of cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP and HTTP) as the location of the installation
tree. Refer to install for details.
user (optional)
Creates a new user on the system.
user --name=<username> [--groups=<list>] [--homedir=<homedir>] [--password=<password>]
[--iscrypted] [--shell=<shell>] [--uid=<uid>]
• --name= — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
• --groups= — In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group names the user
should belong to. The groups must exist before the user account is created.
• --homedir= — The home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to /
home/<username>.
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• --password= — The new user's password. If not provided, the account will be locked by
default.
• --iscrypted= — Is the password provided by --password already encrypted or not?
• --shell= — The user's login shell. If not provided, this defaults to the system default.
• --uid= — The user's UID. If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system UID.
vnc (optional)
Allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely via VNC. This method is usually preferred
over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text installs. With no options,
this command will start a VNC server on the machine with no password and will print out the
command that needs to be run to connect a remote machine.
vnc [--host=<hostname>] [--port=<port>] [--password=<password>]
• --host= — Instead of starting a VNC server on the install machine, connect to the VNC viewer
process listening on the given hostname.
• --port= — Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If not provided,
anaconda will use the VNC default.
• --password= — Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC session. This
is optional, but recommended.
volgroup (optional)
Use to create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group with the syntax:
volgroup <name> <partition> <options>
The options are as follows:
• --noformat — Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
• --useexisting — Use an existing volume group and reformat it.
• --pesize= — Set the size of the physical extents.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For
example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
For a detailed example of volgroup in action, refer to Section 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
xconfig (optional)
Configures the X Window System. If this option is not given, the user must configure X manually
during the installation, if X was installed; this option should not be used if X is not installed on the
final system.
• --driver — Specify the X driver to use for the video hardware.
• --videoram= — Specifies the amount of video RAM the video card has.
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• --defaultdesktop= — Specify either GNOME or KDE to set the default desktop (assumes
that GNOME Desktop Environment and/or KDE Desktop Environment has been installed
through %packages).
• --startxonboot — Use a graphical login on the installed system.
• --depth= — Specify the default color depth for the X Window System on the installed system.
Valid values are 8, 16, 24, and 32. Be sure to specify a color depth that is compatible with the
video card and monitor.
zerombr (optional)
If zerombr is specified any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. This destroys all
of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables.
Specific to System z: If zerombr is specified, any DASD visible to the installer which is not
already low-level formatted gets automatically low-level formatted with dasdfmt. The command
also prevents user choice during interactive installations. If zerombr is not specified and there
is at least one unformatted DASD visible to the installer, a non-interactive kickstart installation
will exit unsuccessfully. If zerombr is not specified and there is at least one unformatted DASD
visible to the installer, an interactive installation exits if the user does not agree to format all visible
and unformatted DASDs. To circumvent this, only activate those DASDs that you will use during
installation. You can always add more DASDs after installation is complete.
Note that this command was previously specified as zerombr yes. This form is now deprecated;
you should now simply specify zerombr in your kickstart file instead.
zfcp (optional)
Define a Fiber channel device (IBM System z).
zfcp [--devnum=<devnum>] [--wwpn=<wwpn>] [--fcplun=<fcplun>]
%include (optional)
Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the
kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command in the
kickstart file.
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
The following is a single, integrated example showing the clearpart, raid, part, volgroup, and
logvol kickstart options in action:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdc --initlabel
# Raid 1 IDE config
part raid.11
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.12
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.13
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.14
--size 8000
part raid.15
--size 1 --grow
part raid.21
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.22
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.23
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.24
--size 8000
part raid.25
--size 1 --grow
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
# You can add --spares=x
raid /
--fstype ext3 --device md0 --level=RAID1
raid /safe
--fstype ext3 --device md1 --level=RAID1
raid swap
--fstype swap --device md2 --level=RAID1
raid /usr
--fstype ext3 --device md3 --level=RAID1
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raid.11
raid.12
raid.13
raid.14
raid.21
raid.22
raid.23
raid.24
Package Selection
raid pv.01
--fstype ext3 --device md4 --level=RAID1 raid.15 raid.25
# LVM configuration so that we can resize /var and /usr/local later
volgroup sysvg pv.01
logvol /var
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=var
logvol /var/freespace
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=freespacetouse
logvol /usr/local
--vgname=sysvg --size=1 --grow --name=usrlocal
This advanced example implements LVM over RAID, as well as the ability to resize various directories
for future growth.
32.5. Package Selection
Warning — @Everything is not supported
You can use a kickstart file to install every available package by specifying @Everything or
simply * in the %packages section. Red Hat does not support this type of installation.
Moreover, using a kickstart file in this way will introduce package and file conflicts onto the
installed system. Packages known to cause such problems are assigned to the @Conflicts
(variant) group, where variant is Server or Client. If you specify @Everything in a
kickstart file, be sure to exclude @Conflicts (variant) or the installation will fail:
@Everything (Server)
[email protected]
Note that Red Hat does not support the use of @Everything in a kickstart file, even if you
exclude @Conflicts (variant).
Use the %packages command to begin a kickstart file section that lists the packages you would like to
install (this is for installations only, as package selection during upgrades is not supported).
Packages can be specified by group or by individual package name, including with globs using the
asterisk. The installation program defines several groups that contain related packages. Refer to the
variant/repodata/comps-*.xml file on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD for a list of groups.
Each group has an id, user visibility value, name, description, and package list. In the package list, the
packages marked as mandatory are always installed if the group is selected, the packages marked
default are selected by default if the group is selected, and the packages marked optional must be
specifically selected even if the group is selected to be installed.
In most cases, it is only necessary to list the desired groups and not individual packages. Note that the
Core and Base groups are always selected by default, so it is not necessary to specify them in the
%packages section.
Here is an example %packages selection:
%packages
@ X Window System
@ GNOME Desktop Environment
@ Graphical Internet
@ Sound and Video
dhcp
As you can see, groups are specified, one to a line, starting with an @ symbol, a space, and then the
full group name as given in the comps.xml file. Groups can also be specified using the id for the
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group, such as gnome-desktop. Specify individual packages with no additional characters (the dhcp
line in the example above is an individual package).
You can also specify which packages not to install from the default package list:
-autofs
The following options are available for the %packages option:
--nobase
Do not install the @Base group. Use this option to perform a minimal installation, for example, for
a single-purpose server or desktop appliance.
--resolvedeps
The --resolvedeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are resolved automatically every
time now.
--ignoredeps
The --ignoredeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are resolved automatically every
time now.
--ignoremissing
Ignore the missing packages and groups instead of halting the installation to ask if the installation
should be aborted or continued. For example:
%packages --ignoremissing
32.6. Pre-installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the ks.cfg has been parsed. This
section must be at the end of the kickstart file (after the commands) and must start with the %pre
command. You can access the network in the %pre section; however, name service has not been
configured at this point, so only IP addresses work.
Note
Note that the pre-install script is not run in the change root environment.
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace /usr/bin/python
with the scripting language of your choice.
32.6.1. Example
Here is an example %pre section:
%pre
#!/bin/sh
hds=""
mymedia=""
for file in /proc/ide/h* do
mymedia=`cat $file/media`
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Post-installation Script
if [ $mymedia == "disk" ] ; then
hds="$hds `basename $file`"
fi
done
set $hds
numhd=`echo $#`
drive1=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f1`
drive2=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f2`
#Write out partition scheme based on whether there are 1 or 2 hard drives
if [ $numhd == "2" ] ; then
#2 drives
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 2 drives" > /tmp/part-include
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75 --ondisk hda" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hda" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part swap --recommended --ondisk $drive1" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hdb" >> /tmp/part-include
else
#1 drive
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 1 drive" > /tmp/part-include
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75" >> /tmp/part-includ
echo "part swap --recommended" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 2048" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 2048 --grow" >> /tmp/part-include
fi
This script determines the number of hard drives in the system and writes a text file with a different
partitioning scheme depending on whether it has one or two drives. Instead of having a set of
partitioning commands in the kickstart file, include the line:
%include /tmp/part-include
The partitioning commands selected in the script are used.
Note
The pre-installation script section of kickstart cannot manage multiple install trees or source
media. This information must be included for each created ks.cfg file, as the pre-installation script
occurs during the second stage of the installation process.
32.7. Post-installation Script
You have the option of adding commands to run on the system once the installation is complete. This
section must be at the end of the kickstart file and must start with the %post command. This section is
useful for functions such as installing additional software and configuring an additional nameserver.
Note
If you configured the network with static IP information, including a nameserver, you can access
the network and resolve IP addresses in the %post section. If you configured the network for
DHCP, the /etc/resolv.conf file has not been completed when the installation executes the
%post section. You can access the network, but you can not resolve IP addresses. Thus, if you
are using DHCP, you must specify IP addresses in the %post section.
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Note
The post-install script is run in a chroot environment; therefore, performing tasks such as copying
scripts or RPMs from the installation media do not work.
--nochroot
Allows you to specify commands that you would like to run outside of the chroot environment.
The following example copies the file /etc/resolv.conf to the file system that was just
installed.
%post --nochroot
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sysimage/etc/resolv.conf
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace /usr/bin/python
with the scripting language of your choice.
--log /path/to/logfile
Logs the output of the post-install script. Note that the path of the log file must take into account
whether or not you use the --nochroot option. For example, without --nochroot:
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
with --nochroot:
%post --nochroot --log=/mnt/sysimage/root/ks-post.log
32.7.1. Examples
Register the system to a Red Hat Network Satellite and log the output:
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
wget -O- http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/bootstrap_script | /bin/bash
/usr/sbin/rhnreg_ks --activationkey=<activationkey>
Run a script named runme from an NFS share:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount -o nolock 10.10.0.2:/usr/new-machines /mnt/temp
openvt -s -w -- /mnt/temp/runme
umount /mnt/temp
Note
NFS file locking is not supported while in kickstart mode, therefore -o nolock is required when
mounting an NFS mount.
32.8. Making the Kickstart File Available
A kickstart file must be placed in one of the following locations:
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Creating Kickstart Boot Media
• On a boot diskette
• On a boot CD-ROM
• On a network
Normally a kickstart file is copied to the boot diskette, or made available on the network. The networkbased approach is most commonly used, as most kickstart installations tend to be performed on
networked computers.
Let us take a more in-depth look at where the kickstart file may be placed.
32.8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
Diskette-based booting is no longer supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Installations must use CDROM or flash memory products for booting. However, the kickstart file may still reside on a diskette's
top-level directory, and must be named ks.cfg.
To perform a CD-ROM-based kickstart installation, the kickstart file must be named ks.cfg and must
be located in the boot CD-ROM's top-level directory. Since a CD-ROM is read-only, the file must be
added to the directory used to create the image that is written to the CD-ROM. Refer to Section 2.3,
“Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on creating boot media; however, before making the
file.iso image file, copy the ks.cfg kickstart file to the isolinux/ directory.
To perform a pen-based flash memory kickstart installation, the kickstart file must be named ks.cfg
and must be located in the flash memory's top-level directory. Create the boot image first, and then
copy the ks.cfg file.
Refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on creating live USB media using
the boot.iso image file that you can download from the Software & Download Center of the Red Hat
customer portal.
Note
Creation of USB flashdrives for booting is possible, but is heavily dependent on system hardware
BIOS settings. Refer to your hardware manufacturer to see if your system supports booting to
alternate devices.
32.8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
Network installations using kickstart are quite common, because system administrators can easily
automate the installation on many networked computers quickly and painlessly. In general, the
approach most commonly used is for the administrator to have both a BOOTP/DHCP server and
an NFS server on the local network. The BOOTP/DHCP server is used to give the client system its
networking information, while the actual files used during the installation are served by the NFS server.
Often, these two servers run on the same physical machine, but they are not required to.
To perform a network-based kickstart installation, you must have a BOOTP/DHCP server on your
network, and it must include configuration information for the machine on which you are attempting
to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The BOOTP/DHCP server provides the client with its networking
information as well as the location of the kickstart file.
If a kickstart file is specified by the BOOTP/DHCP server, the client system attempts an NFS mount of
the file's path, and copies the specified file to the client, using it as the kickstart file. The exact settings
required vary depending on the BOOTP/DHCP server you use.
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Here is an example of a line from the dhcpd.conf file for the DHCP server:
filename "/usr/new-machine/kickstart/"; next-server blarg.redhat.com;
Note that you should replace the value after filename with the name of the kickstart file (or the
directory in which the kickstart file resides) and the value after next-server with the NFS server
name.
If the file name returned by the BOOTP/DHCP server ends with a slash ("/"), then it is interpreted as a
path only. In this case, the client system mounts that path using NFS, and searches for a particular file.
The file name the client searches for is:
<ip-addr>-kickstart
The <ip-addr> section of the file name should be replaced with the client's IP address in dotted
decimal notation. For example, the file name for a computer with an IP address of 10.10.0.1 would be
10.10.0.1-kickstart.
Note that if you do not specify a server name, then the client system attempts to use the server that
answered the BOOTP/DHCP request as its NFS server. If you do not specify a path or file name, the
client system tries to mount /kickstart from the BOOTP/DHCP server and tries to find the kickstart
file using the same <ip-addr>-kickstart file name as described above.
32.9. Making the Installation Tree Available
The kickstart installation must access an installation tree. An installation tree is a copy of the binary
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD with the same directory structure.
If you are performing a DVD-based installation, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD
into the computer before starting the kickstart installation.
If you are performing a hard drive installation, make sure the ISO images of the binary Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD are on a hard drive in the computer.
If you are performing a network-based (NFS, FTP, or HTTP) installation, you must make the
installation tree or ISO image available over the network. Refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing for a
Network Installation” for details.
32.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
Important — Kickstart installations and Firstboot
Firstboot does not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a desktop and
the X Window System were included in the installation and graphical login was enabled. Either
specify a user with the user option in the Kickstart file before installing additional systems from it
(refer to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for details) or log into the installed system with a virtual
console as root and add users with the adduser command.
To begin a kickstart installation, you must boot the system from boot media you have made or the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, and enter a special boot command at the boot prompt. The installation
program looks for a kickstart file if the ks command line argument is passed to the kernel.
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DVD and local storage
The linux ks= command also works if the ks.cfg file is located on a vfat or ext2 file system on
local storage and you boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD.
With Driver Disk
If you need to use a driver disk with kickstart, specify the dd option as well. For example, to boot
off a boot diskette and use a driver disk, enter the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux ks=hd:partition:/path/ks.cfg dd
Boot CD-ROM
If the kickstart file is on a boot CD-ROM as described in Section 32.8.1, “Creating Kickstart Boot
Media”, insert the CD-ROM into the system, boot the system, and enter the following command at
the boot: prompt (where ks.cfg is the name of the kickstart file):
linux ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg
Other options to start a kickstart installation are as follows:
askmethod
Do not automatically use the DVD as the install source if we detect a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
DVD in your DVD drive.
autostep
Make kickstart non-interactive.
debug
Start up pdb immediately.
dd
Use a driver disk.
dhcpclass=<class>
Sends a custom DHCP vendor class identifier. ISC's dhcpcd can inspect this value using "option
vendor-class-identifier".
dns=<dns>
Comma separated list of nameservers to use for a network installation.
driverdisk
Same as 'dd'.
expert
Turns on special features:
• allows partitioning of removable media
• prompts for a driver disk
gateway=<gw>
Gateway to use for a network installation.
graphical
Force graphical install. Required to have ftp/http use GUI.
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isa
Prompt user for ISA devices configuration.
ip=<ip>
IP to use for a network installation, use 'dhcp' for DHCP.
keymap=<keymap>
Keyboard layout to use. Valid values are those which can be used for the 'keyboard' kickstart
command.
ks=nfs:<server>:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the NFS server <server>, as file <path>.
The installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For example, if your NFS
server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the NFS share /mydir/ks.cfg, the
correct boot command would be ks=nfs:server.example.com:/mydir/ks.cfg.
ks=http://<server>/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the HTTP server <server>, as file <path>.
The installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For example, if your HTTP
server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the HTTP directory /mydir/ks.cfg, the
correct boot command would be ks=http://server.example.com/mydir/ks.cfg.
ks=hd:<device>:/<file>
The installation program mounts the file system on <device> (which must be vfat or ext2),
and looks for the kickstart configuration file as <file> in that file system (for example,
ks=hd:sda3:/mydir/ks.cfg).
ks=bd:<biosdev>:/<path>
The installation program mounts the file system on the specified partition on the specified BIOS
device <biosdev>, and looks for the kickstart configuration file specified in <path> (for example,
ks=bd:80p3:/mydir/ks.cfg). Note this does not work for BIOS RAID sets.
ks=file:/<file>
The installation program tries to read the file <file> from the file system; no mounts are done.
This is normally used if the kickstart file is already on the initrd image.
ks=cdrom:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on CD-ROM, as file <path>.
ks
If ks is used alone, the installation program configures the Ethernet card to use DHCP. The
kickstart file is read from the "bootServer" from the DHCP response as if it is an NFS server
sharing the kickstart file. By default, the bootServer is the same as the DHCP server. The name of
the kickstart file is one of the following:
• If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with a /, the boot file provided by DHCP is looked
for on the NFS server.
• If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with something other than a /, the boot file
provided by DHCP is looked for in the /kickstart directory on the NFS server.
• If DHCP did not specify a boot file, then the installation program tries to read the file /
kickstart/1.2.3.4-kickstart, where 1.2.3.4 is the numeric IP address of the machine
being installed.
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ksdevice=<device>
The installation program uses this network device to connect to the network. For example,
consider a system connected to an NFS server through the eth1 device. To perform a kickstart
installation on this system using a kickstart file from the NFS server, you would use the command
ks=nfs:<server>:/<path> ksdevice=eth1 at the boot: prompt.
kssendmac
Adds HTTP headers to ks=http:// request that can be helpful for provisioning systems. Includes
MAC address of all nics in CGI environment variables of the form: "X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0:
eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab".
lang=<lang>
Language to use for the installation. This should be a language which is valid to be used with the
'lang' kickstart command.
loglevel=<level>
Set the minimum level required for messages to be logged. Values for <level> are debug, info,
warning, error, and critical. The default value is info.
mediacheck
Activates loader code to give user option of testing integrity of install source (if an ISO-based
method).
netmask=<nm>
Netmask to use for a network installation.
nofallback
If GUI fails exit.
nofb
Do not load the VGA16 framebuffer required for doing text-mode installation in some languages.
nofirewire
Do not load support for firewire devices.
noipv6
Disable IPv6 networking during installation.
This option is not available during PXE installations
During installations from a PXE server, IPv6 networking might become active before
anaconda processes the Kickstart file. If so, this option will have no effect during installation.
nomount
Don't automatically mount any installed Linux partitions in rescue mode.
nonet
Do not auto-probe network devices.
noparport
Do not attempt to load support for parallel ports.
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nopass
Don't pass keyboard/mouse info to stage 2 installer, good for testing keyboard and mouse config
screens in stage2 installer during network installs.
nopcmcia
Ignore PCMCIA controller in system.
noprobe
Do not attempt to detect hw, prompts user instead.
noshell
Do not put a shell on tty2 during install.
nousb
Do not load USB support (helps if install hangs early sometimes).
nousbstorage
Do not load usbstorage module in loader. May help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
repo=cdrom
Do a DVD based installation.
repo=ftp://<path>
Use <path> for an FTP installation.
repo=hd:<dev>:<path>
Use <path> on <dev> for a hard drive installation.
repo=http://<path>
Use <path> for an HTTP installation.
repo=nfs:<path>
Use <path> for an NFS installation.
rescue
Run rescue environment.
resolution=<mode>
Run installer in mode specified, '1024x768' for example.
serial
Turns on serial console support.
skipddc
Skips DDC probe of monitor, may help if it's hanging system.
syslog=<host>[:<port>]
Once installation is up and running, send log messages to the syslog process on <host>, and
optionally, on port <port>. Requires the remote syslog process to accept connections (the -r
option).
text
Force text mode install.
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Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. These steps are automated in
text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not provide
choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
updates
Prompt for storage device containing updates (bug fixes).
updates=ftp://<path>
Image containing updates over FTP.
updates=http://<path>
Image containing updates over HTTP.
upgradeany
Don't require an /etc/redhat-release that matches the expected syntax to upgrade.
vnc
Enable vnc-based installation. You will need to connect to the machine using a vnc client
application.
vncconnect=<host>[:<port>]
Once installation is up and running, connect to the vnc client named <host>, and optionally use
port <port>.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
vncpassword=<password>
Enable a password for the vnc connection. This will prevent someone from inadvertently
connecting to the vnc-based installation.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
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Kickstart Configurator
Kickstart Configurator allows you to create or modify a kickstart file using a graphical user interface,
so that you do not have to remember the correct syntax of the file.
To use Kickstart Configurator, you must be running the X Window System and Kickstart
Configurator must be installed on your system. To start Kickstart Configurator, select Applications
(the main menu on the panel) => System Tools => Kickstart, or type the command /usr/sbin/
system-config-kickstart. If Kickstart Configurator does not appear on the menu or you
cannot start it from the command line, run su - yum install system-config-kickstart to
make sure that the package is installed, or search for the package in your graphical package manager.
As you are creating a kickstart file, you can select File => Preview at any time to review your current
selections.
To start with an existing kickstart file, select File => Open and select the existing file.
33.1. Basic Configuration
Figure 33.1. Basic Configuration
Choose the language to use during the installation and as the default language to be used after
installation from the Default Language menu.
Select the system keyboard type from the Keyboard menu.
From the Time Zone menu, choose the time zone to use for the system. To configure the system to
use UTC, select Use UTC clock.
Enter the desired root password for the system in the Root Password text entry box. Type the same
password in the Confirm Password text box. The second field is to make sure you do not mistype
the password and then realize you do not know what it is after you have completed the installation.
To save the password as an encrypted password in the file, select Encrypt root password. If
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the encryption option is selected, when the file is saved, the plain text password that you typed is
encrypted and written to the kickstart file. Do not type an already encrypted password and select to
encrypt it. Because a kickstart file is a plain text file that can be easily read, it is recommended that an
encrypted password be used.
Click Specify installation key to provide the key for this installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Choosing Target Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution is used
during installation.
Choosing Target Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution is used
during installation.
Choosing Reboot system after installation reboots your system automatically after the installation is
finished.
Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default. To override this default and use text
mode instead, select the Perform installation in text mode option.
You can perform a kickstart installation in interactive mode. This means that the installation program
uses all the options pre-configured in the kickstart file, but it allows you to preview the options in each
screen before continuing to the next screen. To continue to the next screen, click the Next button after
you have approved the settings or change them before continuing the installation. To select this type of
installation, select the Perform installation in interactive mode option.
33.2. Installation Method
Figure 33.2. Installation Method
The Installation Method screen allows you to choose whether to perform a new installation or an
upgrade. If you choose upgrade, the Partition Information and Package Selection options are
disabled. They are not supported for kickstart upgrades.
Choose the type of kickstart installation or upgrade from the following options:
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Boot Loader Options
• DVD — Choose this option to install or upgrade from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD.
• NFS — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an NFS shared directory. In the text field for the
the NFS server, enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the NFS directory, enter the
name of the NFS directory that contains the variant directory of the installation tree. For example,
if the NFS server contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /mirrors/
redhat/i386/ for the NFS directory.
• FTP — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an FTP server. In the FTP server text field,
enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the FTP directory, enter the name of the FTP
directory that contains the variant directory. For example, if the FTP server contains the directory
/mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for the FTP
directory. If the FTP server requires a username and password, specify them as well.
• HTTP — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an HTTP server. In the text field for the
HTTP server, enter the fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the HTTP directory, enter the
name of the HTTP directory that contains the variant directory. For example, if the HTTP server
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386/
Server/ for the HTTP directory.
• Hard Drive — Choose this option to install or upgrade from a hard drive. Hard drive installations
require the use of ISO images. Be sure to verify that the ISO images are intact before you start
the installation. To verify them, use an md5sum program as well as the linux mediacheck boot
option as discussed in Section 28.6.1, “Verifying boot media”. Enter the hard drive partition that
contains the ISO images (for example, /dev/hda1) in the Hard Drive Partition text box. Enter the
directory that contains the ISO images in the Hard Drive Directory text box.
33.3. Boot Loader Options
Figure 33.3. Boot Loader Options
Please note that this screen will be disabled if you have specified a target architecture other than x86 /
x86_64.
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GRUB is the default boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86 / x86_64 architectures. If you
do not want to install a boot loader, select Do not install a boot loader. If you choose not to install a
boot loader, make sure you create a boot diskette or have another way to boot your system, such as a
third-party boot loader.
You must choose where to install the boot loader (the Master Boot Record or the first sector of the /
boot partition). Install the boot loader on the MBR if you plan to use it as your boot loader.
To pass any special parameters to the kernel to be used when the system boots, enter them in the
Kernel parameters text field. For example, if you have an IDE CD-ROM Writer, you can tell the
kernel to use the SCSI emulation driver that must be loaded before using cdrecord by configuring
hdd=ide-scsi as a kernel parameter (where hdd is the CD-ROM device).
You can password protect the GRUB boot loader by configuring a GRUB password. Select Use GRUB
password, and enter a password in the Password field. Type the same password in the Confirm
Password text field. To save the password as an encrypted password in the file, select Encrypt
GRUB password. If the encryption option is selected, when the file is saved, the plain text password
that you typed is encrypted and written to the kickstart file. If the password you typed was already
encrypted, unselect the encryption option.
If Upgrade an existing installation is selected on the Installation Method page, select Upgrade
existing boot loader to upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, while preserving the old
entries.
33.4. Partition Information
Figure 33.4. Partition Information
Select whether or not to clear the Master Boot Record (MBR). Choose to remove all existing partitions,
remove all existing Linux partitions, or preserve existing partitions.
To initialize the disk label to the default for the architecture of the system (for example, msdos for x86),
select Initialize the disk label if you are installing on a brand new hard drive.
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Creating Partitions
Note
Although anaconda and kickstart support Logical Volume Management (LVM), at present
there is no mechanism for configuring this using the Kickstart Configurator.
33.4.1. Creating Partitions
To create a partition, click the Add button. The Partition Options window shown in Figure 33.5,
“Creating Partitions” appears. Choose the mount point, file system type, and partition size for the new
partition. Optionally, you can also choose from the following:
• In the Additional Size Options section, choose to make the partition a fixed size, up to a chosen
size, or fill the remaining space on the hard drive. If you selected swap as the file system type, you
can select to have the installation program create the swap partition with the recommended size
instead of specifying a size.
• Force the partition to be created as a primary partition.
• Create the partition on a specific hard drive. For example, to make the partition on the first IDE hard
disk (/dev/hda), specify hda as the drive. Do not include /dev in the drive name.
• Use an existing partition. For example, to make the partition on the first partition on the first IDE hard
disk (/dev/hda1), specify hda1 as the partition. Do not include /dev in the partition name.
• Format the partition as the chosen file system type.
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Figure 33.5. Creating Partitions
To edit an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Edit button. The same
Partition Options window appears as when you chose to add a partition as shown in Figure 33.5,
“Creating Partitions”, except it reflects the values for the selected partition. Modify the partition options
and click OK.
To delete an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Delete button.
33.4.1.1. Creating Software RAID Partitions
To create a software RAID partition, use the following steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a software RAID partition.
3. Configure the partitions as previously described, except select Software RAID as the file system
type. Also, you must specify a hard drive on which to make the partition or specify an existing
partition to use.
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Creating Partitions
Figure 33.6. Creating a Software RAID Partition
Repeat these steps to create as many partitions as needed for your RAID setup. All of your partitions
do not have to be RAID partitions.
After creating all the partitions needed to form a RAID device, follow these steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a RAID device.
3. Select a mount point, file system type, RAID device name, RAID level, RAID members, number of
spares for the software RAID device, and whether to format the RAID device.
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Figure 33.7. Creating a Software RAID Device
4. Click OK to add the device to the list.
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Network Configuration
33.5. Network Configuration
Figure 33.8. Network Configuration
If the system to be installed via kickstart does not have an Ethernet card, do not configure one on the
Network Configuration page.
Networking is only required if you choose a networking-based installation method (NFS, FTP, or
HTTP). Networking can always be configured after installation with the Network Administration Tool
(system-config-network). Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for details.
For each Ethernet card on the system, click Add Network Device and select the network device
and network type for the device. Select eth0 to configure the first Ethernet card, eth1 for the second
Ethernet card, and so on.
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33.6. Authentication
Figure 33.9. Authentication
In the Authentication section, select whether to use shadow passwords and MD5 encryption for user
passwords. These options are highly recommended and chosen by default.
The Authentication Configuration options allow you to configure the following methods of
authentication:
• NIS
• LDAP
• Kerberos 5
• Hesiod
• SMB
• Name Switch Cache
These methods are not enabled by default. To enable one or more of these methods, click the
appropriate tab, click the checkbox next to Enable, and enter the appropriate information for the
authentication method. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information
about the options.
33.7. Firewall Configuration
The Firewall Configuration window is similar to the screen in the installation program and the
Security Level Configuration Tool.
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SELinux Configuration
Figure 33.10. Firewall Configuration
If Disable firewall is selected, the system allows complete access to any active services and ports.
No connections to the system are refused or denied.
Selecting Enable firewall configures the system to reject incoming connections that are not in
response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running
on this machine is required, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
Only devices configured in the Network Configuration section are listed as available Trusted
devices. Connections from any devices selected in the list are accepted by the system. For example,
if eth1 only receives connections from internal system, you might want to allow connections from it.
If a service is selected in the Trusted services list, connections for the service are accepted and
processed by the system.
In the Other ports text field, list any additional ports that should be opened for remote access. Use the
following format: port:protocol. For example, to allow IMAP access through the firewall, specify
imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through
the firewall, enter 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them with commas.
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
Kickstart can set SELinux to enforcing, permissive or disabled mode. Finer grained
configuration is not possible at this time.
33.8. Display Configuration
If you are installing the X Window System, you can configure it during the kickstart installation by
checking the Configure the X Window System option on the Display Configuration window as
shown in Figure 33.11, “X Configuration”. If this option is not chosen, the X configuration options are
disabled and the skipx option is written to the kickstart file.
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Figure 33.11. X Configuration
Also select whether to start the Setup Agent the first time the system is rebooted. It is disabled
by default, but the setting can be changed to enabled or enabled in reconfiguration mode.
Reconfiguration mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time
zone, and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
33.9. Package Selection
Figure 33.12. Package Selection
The Package Selection window allows you to choose which package groups to install.
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Pre-Installation Script
Package resolution is carried out automatically.
Currently, Kickstart Configurator does not allow you to select individual packages. To install
individual packages, modify the %packages section of the kickstart file after you save it. Refer to
Section 32.5, “Package Selection” for details.
33.10. Pre-Installation Script
Figure 33.13. Pre-Installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the kickstart file has been parsed and
before the installation begins. If you have configured the network in the kickstart file, the network is
enabled before this section is processed. To include a pre-installation script, type it in the text area.
Important — anaconda no longer uses busybox
The version of anaconda in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux included a version of
busybox that provided shell commands in the pre-installation and post-installation environments.
The version of anaconda in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 no longer includes busybox, and uses
GNU bash commands instead.
Refer to Appendix G, Alternatives to busybox commands for more information.
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter option
and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.6 can be
specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using %pre --interpreter /usr/bin/
python2.6 in your kickstart file.
Only the most commonly used commands are available in the pre-installation environment:
arping, awk, basename, bash, bunzip2, bzcat, cat, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot,
chvt, clear, cp, cpio, cut, date, dd, df, dirname, dmesg, du, e2fsck, e2label, echo,
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egrep, eject, env, expr, false, fdisk, fgrep, find, fsck, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, ftp,
grep, gunzip, gzip, hdparm, head, hostname, hwclock, ifconfig, insmod, ip, ipcalc,
kill, killall, less, ln, load_policy, login, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, md5sum, mkdir,
mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, mt, mv,
nslookup, openvt, pidof, ping, ps, pwd, readlink, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, sed, sh,
sha1sum, sleep, sort, swapoff, swapon, sync, tail, tar, tee, telnet, top, touch, true,
tune2fs, umount, uniq, vconfig, vi, wc, wget, xargs, zcat.
Important
Do not include the %pre command. It is added for you.
Note
The pre-installation script is run after the source media is mounted and stage 2 of the bootloader
has been loaded. For this reason it is not possible to change the source media in the preinstallation script.
33.11. Post-Installation Script
Figure 33.14. Post-Installation Script
You can also add commands to execute on the system after the installation is completed. If the
network is properly configured in the kickstart file, the network is enabled, and the script can include
commands to access resources on the network. To include a post-installation script, type it in the text
area.
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Chroot Environment
Important — anaconda no longer uses busybox
The version of anaconda in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux included a version of
busybox that provided shell commands in the pre-installation and post-installation environments.
The version of anaconda in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 no longer includes busybox, and uses
GNU bash commands instead.
Refer to Appendix G, Alternatives to busybox commands for more information.
Important
Do not include the %post command. It is added for you.
For example, to change the message of the day for the newly installed system, add the following
command to the %post section:
echo "Hackers will be punished" > /etc/motd
Note
More examples can be found in Section 32.7.1, “Examples”.
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
To run the post-installation script outside of the chroot environment, click the checkbox next to this
option on the top of the Post-Installation window. This is equivalent to using the --nochroot option
in the %post section.
To make changes to the newly installed file system, within the post-installation section, but outside of
the chroot environment, you must prepend the directory name with /mnt/sysimage/.
For example, if you select Run outside of the chroot environment, the previous example must be
changed to the following:
echo "Hackers will be punished" > /mnt/sysimage/etc/motd
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter option
and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.2 can be
specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using %post --interpreter /usr/bin/
python2.2 in your kickstart file.
33.12. Saving the File
To review the contents of the kickstart file after you have finished choosing your kickstart options,
select File => Preview from the pull-down menu.
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
Figure 33.15. Preview
To save the kickstart file, click the Save to File button in the preview window. To save the file without
previewing it, select File => Save File or press Ctrl+S . A dialog box appears. Select where to save
the file.
After saving the file, refer to Section 32.10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for information on how to
start the kickstart installation.
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Part V. After installation
This part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide covers finalizing the installation, as well as
some installation-related tasks that you might perform at some time in the future. These include:
• using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disk to rescue a damaged system.
• upgrading to a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
• removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer.
Chapter 34.
Firstboot
Important — Firstboot not available after text-mode installation
Firstboot is only available on systems after a graphical installation or after a kickstart installation
where a desktop and the X window system were installed and graphical login was enabled. If you
performed a text-mode installation or a kickstart installation that did not include a desktop and the
X window system, the Firstboot configuration tool does not appear.
Firstboot launches the first time that you start a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. Use Firstboot
to configure the system for use before you log in.
Figure 34.1. Firstboot welcome screen
Select Forward to start Firstboot.
34.1. License Agreement
This screen displays the overall licensing terms for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34.2. Firstboot license screen
If you agree to the terms of the licence, select Yes, I agree to the License Agreement and click
Forward.
34.2. Set Up Software Updates
Use the Set Up Software Updates screen to register your system with the Red Hat Network (RHN)
and configure the system to receive updates from RHN itself, or from a Satellite server. To register
your system, select Yes, I'd like to register now and click Forward.
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Choose Server
Figure 34.3. Set Up Software Updates
If you choose not to register your system now, run rhn_register from a terminal on the installed
system.
34.2.1. Choose Server
Use the Choose Server screen to choose whether to receive updates directly from RHN or from a
Red Hat Network Satellite or Red Hat Network Proxy. Click Advanced Network Configuration to
configure a proxy server if necessary.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34.4. Choose Server
34.2.2. Red Hat Login
Provide your login and password for the Red Hat Network in the Red Hat Login screen. If you have
lost your login or password, visit http://www.redhat.com/wapps/sso/rhn/lostPassword.html or, if you
use a Red Hat Satellite, consult the organization administrator for your Red Hat Satellite.
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Create Profile
Figure 34.5. Red Hat Login
34.2.3. Create Profile
Give this system a name in the Create Profile so that you can readily identify when you use the
management features of the Red Hat Network. This stage of the registration process also submits
a profile of the system hardware and a list of the packages installed on the system to the Red Hat
Network. Click the View Hardware Profile or View Package Profile buttons to see the information
that will be sent. Deselect the hardware profile or package profile check boxes if you do not want to
send these profiles to the Red Hat Network.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34.6. Create Profile
34.2.4. Review Subscription
The Review Subscription screen contains information about the software channels from which this
system will receive updates and about Red Hat Network service levels. Review this information, then
click Forward.
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Finish Updates Setup
Figure 34.7. Review Subscription
34.2.5. Finish Updates Setup
The Finish Updates Setup screen confirms that you have configured updates for this system. Click
Forward to create a user account as described in Section 34.3, “Create User”.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34.8. Finish Updates Setup
34.3. Create User
Create a user account for yourself with this screen. Always use this account to log in to your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux system, rather than using the root account.
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Create User
Figure 34.9. Firstboot create user screen
Enter a user name and your full name, and then enter your chosen password. Type your password
once more in the Confirm Password box to ensure that it is correct.
To configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use network services for authentication of user information,
click Use Network Login. Refer to Section 34.3.1, “Authentication Configuration” for further details.
Important — Create at least one user account
If you do not create at least one user account in this step, you will not be able to log in to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux graphical environment. If you skipped this step during installation, refer to
Section 10.4.2, “Booting into a Graphical Environment”.
Note — Creating Extra User Accounts
To add additional user accounts to your system after the installation is complete, choose System
→ Administration → Users & Groups.
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34.3.1. Authentication Configuration
If you clicked Use Network Login on the Create User screen, you must now specify how users are
to be authenticated on the system. Use the drop-down menu to select from the following types of user
database:
• Local accounts only (for use when the user database on the network is not accessible)
• LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
• NIS (Network Information Service)
• Winbind (for use with Microsoft Active Directory)
Figure 34.10. Firstboot Authentication Configuration screen
When you select the type of user database appropriate for your network, you must provide additional
details relevant to that database type. For example, if you select LDAP, you must specify the base
distinguished name for LDAP searches, and the address of the LDAP server. You must also select an
Authentication Method relevant to the type of user database that you chose, for example, a Kerberos
password, LDAP password, or NIS password.
The Advanced Options tab lets you enable other authentication mechanisms, including fingerprint
readers, smart cards, and local access control in /etc/security/access.conf.
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Date and Time
Figure 34.11. Firstboot authentication Advanced Options screen
34.4. Date and Time
Use this screen to adjust the date and time of the system clock. To change these settings after
installation, click System → Administration → Date & Time.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34.12. Firstboot date and time screen
Click the Synchronize date and time over the network checkbox to configure your system to
use Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers to maintain the accuracy of the clock. NTP provides time
synchronization service to computers on the same network. Many public NTP servers are available on
the Internet.
34.5. Kdump
Use this screen to select whether or not to use the Kdump kernel crash dumping mechanism on this
system. Note that if you select this option, you will need to reserve memory for Kdump and that this
memory will not be available for any other purpose.
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Kdump
Figure 34.13. Kdump screen
If you do not want to use Kdump on this system, click Next. If you want to use Kdump, select the
Enable kdump option, then select an amount of memory to reserve for Kdump and click Next.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34.14. Kdump enabled
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Chapter 35.
Your Next Steps
35.1. Updating Your System
Red Hat releases updated software packages for Red Hat Enterprise Linux throughout the support
period of each version. Updated packages add new features, improve reliability, resolve bugs, or
remove security vulnerabilities. To ensure the security of your system, update regularly, and as soon
as possible after Red Hat issues a security announcement.
35.1.1. Driver update rpm packages
Occasionally, when a new piece of hardware is not yet supported in the kernel that you have installed,
Red Hat or a hardware vendor might make a driver update available. Although you can install driver
updates during the installation process (refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during installation on Intel
and AMD systems for Intel and AMD systems and Chapter 13, Updating drivers during installation on
IBM POWER systems for IBM POWER systems) we recommend that you do this only for devices that
are essential to carry out the installation. In all other cases, complete the installation first, and then add
support for the device with a driver update rpm package as described in this section.
Do not install a driver update rpm unless you are certain that your system requires it. Installing a driver
update on a system for which it was not intended can cause system difficulties.
To see a list of driver updates already installed on your system, click System → Administration →
Add/Remove Software on your desktop, and enter the root password if prompted for it. Click the
Search tab, enter the word kmod- (notice the final -) and click Search.
Figure 35.1. Listing installed Driver Update RPM packages
Alternatively, you can use the command line, as follows:
$ rpm -qa | egrep ^kmod-
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Chapter 35. Your Next Steps
Note the - on the end of kmod. This will list all installed packages that begin with kmod-, which should
include all driver updates that are currently installed on your system. Additional drivers provided by
third-party update software are not listed in this output. Contact the third-party vendor for details.
To install a new driver update rpm package:
1.
Download the driver update rpm package from the location specified by Red Hat or your hardware
vendor. The package file name will begin with kmod (short for kernel module) and have a form
similar to this example:
kmod-ipw3945-1.2.04.17.el6.i686.rpm
In the example, the driver update rpm package supplies an Intel IPW3945 WiFi driver update
with version number 1.2.0-4.17 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, on i686 systems. A version of this
driver package for systems running a Xen kernel will be similar, but include xen in the package
name:
kmod-ipw3945-xen-1.2.04.17.el6.i686.rpm
Driver update rpm packages are signed packages, and like all other software packages, they
are automatically validated at install time. To perform this step manually, type the following at a
command line:
$ rpm --checksig -v filename.rpm
where filename.rpm is the driver update rpm package file name. This verifies the package
against using the standard Red Hat GPG package signing key that is already installed on any Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6 system. If you need this key for verification purposes on another system,
you can can obtain it from: https://www.redhat.com/security/team/key/
2.
Locate and double-click the file that you downloaded. The system might prompt you for the root
password, after which it will present the following Installing Packages box:
Figure 35.2. The installing packages box
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Finishing an Upgrade
Click Apply to complete the package installation.
Alternatively, you can install a driver update manually on the command line:
$ rpm -ivh kmod-ipw3945-1.2.04.17.el6.i686
3.
Whether you used a graphical install, or a command line install, reboot your system to ensure
your system is using the new driver.
If Red Hat ships a kernel errata update before the next release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, your
system will continue to use the driver updates that you have installed. There is no need to re-install
driver updates following an errata update. Generally, when Red Hat releases a new version of Red
Hat Enterprise Linux, all driver updates for the previous version are incorporated in the new version.
However, if it was not possible to include a particular driver, you will need to perform another driver
update when you install the new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In this case, Red Hat or your
hardware party vendor will inform you of the location of the update.
35.2. Finishing an Upgrade
System Updates Recommended
Once you have rebooted your system after performing an upgrade, you should also perform a
manual system update. Consult Section 35.1, “Updating Your System” for more information.
If you chose to upgrade your system from a previous release rather than perform a fresh installation,
you may want to examine the differences in the package set. Section 9.11.2, “ Upgrading Using the
Installer ”, Section 16.13.2, “ Upgrading Using the Installer ”, or Section 23.12.1, “ Upgrading Using
the Installer ” (depending on your system architecture) advised you to create a package listing for your
original system. You can now use that listing to determine how to bring your new system close to the
original system state.
Most software repository configurations are stored in packages that end with the term release.
Check the old package list for the repositories that were installed:
awk '{print $1}' ~/old-pkglist.txt | grep 'release$'
If necessary, retrieve and install these packages from their original sources on the Internet. Follow the
instructions at the originating site to install the repository configuration packages for use by yum and
other software management tools on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Then run the following commands to make a list of other missing software packages:
awk '{print $1}' ~/old-pkglist.txt | sort | uniq > ~/old-pkgnames.txt
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME}\n' | sort | uniq > ~/new-pkgnames.txt
diff -u ~/old-pkgnames.txt ~/new-pkgnames.txt | grep '^-' | sed 's/^-//' > /tmp/pkgs-toinstall.txt
Now use the file /tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt with the yum command to restore most or all of your
old software:
su -c 'yum install `cat /tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt`'
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Missing Software
Due to changes in package complements between Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases, it is
possible this method may not restore all the software on your system. You can use the routines
above to again compare the software on your system, and remedy any problems you find.
35.3. Switching to a Graphical Login
Important — Access to Software Repositories Might Be Required
To switch to a graphical environment, you might need to install extra software from a repository.
You can access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories with your Red Hat Network subscription
through the Internet or use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a repository. Refer to
Section 35.3.1, “Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line”.
Important — This section does not apply to System z
To use a graphical user interface on System z, use vncserver instead.
If you installed using a text login and wish to switch to a graphical login, follow this procedure.
1.
If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su -
Provide the administrator password when prompted.
2.
If you have not already done so, install the X Window System and a graphical desktop
environment. For example, to install the GNOME desktop environment, use this command:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" "GNOME Desktop Environment"
To install the KDE desktop environment, use:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" KDE
To install the XFCE desktop environment, use:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" XFCE
This step may take some time as your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system downloads and installs
additional software. You may be asked to provide the installation media depending on your
original installation source.
3.
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Run the following command to edit the /etc/inittab file:
vi /etc/inittab
Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
4.
Press the I key to enter insert mode.
5.
Find the line that includes the text initdefault. Change the numeral 3 to 5.
6.
Type :wq and press the Enter key to save the file and exit the vi text editor.
Reboot the system using the reboot command. Your system will restart and present a graphical
login.
If you encounter any problems with the graphical login, refer to Chapter 10, Troubleshooting
Installation on an Intel or AMD System.
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the
Command Line
The usual way to install new software on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is through a software
repository. You can access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories through the Internet with your Red
Hat Network subscription, or use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a repository. The
software that you access through online repositories is more up-to-date than what is available on
an installationDVD. Furthermore, configuring a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to access online
repositories is generally easier than configuring the system to use an installation DVD as a repository,
as long as you have an existing, wired network connection available.
35.3.1.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories Through the Internet
If you supplied your Red Hat Network subscription number during the installation process, your system
is already configured to access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories through the Internet. Therefore,
all you must do is ensure that the system can access the Internet. If you have an existing, wired
network connection available, this process is straightforward:
1.
If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su -
2.
Ensure that the system is plugged into your network. Note that your network might be as small as
two devices — a computer and an external modem/router.
3.
Run system-config-network. The network configuration tool starts and displays the Select
Action screen.
4.
Select Device configuration and press Enter. The network configuration tool displays the
Select A Device screen with a list of network interfaces present on your system. The first
interface is named eth0 by default.
5.
Select a network interface to configure and press Enter. The network configuration tool takes
you to the Network Configuration screen.
6.
You can manually configure a static IP, gateway, and DNS servers on this screen or leave these
fields blank to accept the default values. When you have chosen a configuration, select OK, and
press Enter. The network configuration tool takes you back to the Select A Device screen.
7.
Select Save and press Enter. The network configuration tool takes you back to the Select
Action screen.
8.
Select Save&Quit and press Enter. The network configuration tool saves your settings and
exits.
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Chapter 35. Your Next Steps
9.
Run ifup interface, where interface is the network interface that you configured with the
network configuration tool. For example, run ifup eth0 to start eth0.
Configuration of dial-up or wireless Internet connections is more complicated and beyond the scope of
this guide.
35.3.1.2. Using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation DVD as a Software
Repository
To use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a software repository, either in the form of a
physical disc, or in the form of an ISO image file.
1.
If you are using a physical DVD, insert the disc into your computer.
2.
If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su -
3.
Create a mount point for the repository:
mkdir -p /path/to/repo
where /path/to/repo is a location for the repository, for example, /mnt/repo
4.
Mount the DVD on the mount point that you just created. If you are using a physical disc, you
need to know the device name of your DVD drive. You can find the names of any CD or DVD
drives on your system with the command cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info. The first CD or
DVD drive on the system is typically named sr0. When you know the device name, mount the
DVD:
mount -r -t iso9660 /dev/device_name /path/to/repo
For example: mount -r -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /mnt/repo
If you are using an ISO image file of a disc, mount the image file like this:
mount -r -t iso9660 -o loop /path/to/image/file.iso /path/to/repo
For example: mount -r -o loop /home/root/Downloads/RHEL6-Server-i386DVD.iso /mnt/repo
Note that you can only mount an image file if the storage device that holds the image file is itself
mounted. For example, if the image file is stored on a hard drive that it not mounted automatically
when the system boots, you must mount the hard drive before you mount an image file stored on
that hard drive. Consider a hard drive named /dev/sdb that is not automatically mounted at boot
time and which has an image file stored in a directory named Downloads on its first partition:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/temp
mkdir /mnt/repo
mount -r -t iso9660 -o loop mount -r -o loop /mnt/temp/Downloads/RHEL6-Server-i386DVD.iso /mnt/repo
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Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
If you are not sure whether a storage device is mounted, run the mount command to obtain a list
of current mounts. If you are not sure of the device name or partition number of a storage device,
run fdisk -l and try to identify it in the output.
5.
Create a new repo file in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. The name of the file is not
important, as long as it ends in .repo. For example, dvd.repo is an obvious choice.
1.
Choose a name for the repo file and open it as a new file with the vi text editor. For example:
vi /etc/yum.repos.d/dvd.repo
2.
Press the I key to enter insert mode.
3.
Supply the details of the repository. For example:
[dvd]
baseurl=file:///mnt/repo/Server
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
The name of the repository is specified in square brackets — in this example, [dvd]. The
name is not important, but you should choose something that is meaningful and recognizable.
The line that specifies the baseurl should contain the path to the mount point that you
created previously, suffixed with /Server for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux server installation
DVD, or with /Client for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux client installation DVD.
4.
Press the Esc key to exit insert mode.
5.
Type :wq and press the Enter key to save the file and exit the vi text editor.
6.
After installing or upgrading software from the DVD, delete the repo file that you created.
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Chapter 36.
Basic System Recovery
When things go wrong, there are ways to fix problems. However, these methods require that you
understand the system well. This chapter describes how to boot into rescue mode, single-user mode,
and emergency mode, where you can use your own knowledge to repair the system.
36.1. Rescue Mode
36.1.1. Common Problems
You might need to boot into one of these recovery modes for any of the following reasons:
• You are unable to boot normally into Red Hat Enterprise Linux (runlevel 3 or 5).
• You are having hardware or software problems, and you want to get a few important files off of your
system's hard drive.
• You forgot the root password.
36.1.1.1. Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This problem is often caused by the installation of another operating system after you have installed
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Some other operating systems assume that you have no other operating
system(s) on your computer. They overwrite the Master Boot Record (MBR) that originally contained
the GRUB boot loader. If the boot loader is overwritten in this manner, you cannot boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux unless you can get into rescue mode and reconfigure the boot loader.
Another common problem occurs when using a partitioning tool to resize a partition or create a new
partition from free space after installation, and it changes the order of your partitions. If the partition
number of your / partition changes, the boot loader might not be able to find it to mount the partition.
To fix this problem, boot in rescue mode and modify the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
For instructions on how to reinstall the GRUB boot loader from a rescue environment, refer to
Section 36.1.2.1, “Reinstalling the Boot Loader”.
36.1.1.2. Hardware/Software Problems
This category includes a wide variety of different situations. Two examples include failing hard drives
and specifying an invalid root device or kernel in the boot loader configuration file. If either of these
occur, you might not be able to reboot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux. However, if you boot into one of
the system recovery modes, you might be able to resolve the problem or at least get copies of your
most important files.
36.1.1.3. Root Password
What can you do if you forget your root password? To reset it to a different password, boot into rescue
mode or single-user mode, and use the passwd command to reset the root password.
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from
CD-ROM, or some other boot method, instead of the system's hard drive.
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As the name implies, rescue mode is provided to rescue you from something. During normal
operation, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system uses files located on your system's hard drive to do
everything — run programs, store your files, and more.
However, there may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running
completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access
the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from that hard drive.
1
To boot into rescue mode, you must be able to boot the system using one of the following methods :
• By booting the system from a boot CD-ROM or DVD.
• By booting the system from other installation boot media, such as USB flash devices.
• By booting the system from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
Once you have booted using one of the described methods, add the keyword rescue as a kernel
parameter. For example, for an x86 system, type the following command at the installation boot
prompt:
linux rescue
You are prompted to answer a few basic questions, including which language to use. It also prompts
you to select where a valid rescue image is located. Select from Local CD-ROM, Hard Drive, NFS
image, FTP, or HTTP. The location selected must contain a valid installation tree, and the installation
tree must be for the same version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
disk from which you booted. If you used a boot CD-ROM or other media to start rescue mode, the
installation tree must be from the same tree from which the media was created. For more information
about how to setup an installation tree on a hard drive, NFS server, FTP server, or HTTP server, refer
to the earlier section of this guide.
If you select a rescue image that does not require a network connection, you are asked whether or not
you want to establish a network connection. A network connection is useful if you need to backup files
to a different computer or install some RPM packages from a shared network location, for example.
The following message is displayed:
The rescue environment will now attempt to find your Linux installation and mount it
under the directory /mnt/sysimage. You can then make any changes required to your
system. If you want to proceed with this step choose 'Continue'. You can also choose
to mount your file systems read-only instead of read-write by choosing 'Read-only'. If
for some reason this process fails you can choose 'Skip' and this step will be skipped
and you will go directly to a command shell.
If you select Continue, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/.
If it fails to mount a partition, it notifies you. If you select Read-Only, it attempts to mount your file
system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/, but in read-only mode. If you select Skip, your file
system is not mounted. Choose Skip if you think your file system is corrupted.
Once you have your system in rescue mode, a prompt appears on VC (virtual console) 1 and VC 2
(use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 key combination to access VC 1 and Ctrl-Alt-F2 to access VC 2):
1
Refer to the earlier sections of this guide for more details.
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Booting into Rescue Mode
sh-3.00b#
If you selected Continue to mount your partitions automatically and they were mounted successfully,
you are in single-user mode.
Even if your file system is mounted, the default root partition while in rescue mode is a temporary root
partition, not the root partition of the file system used during normal user mode (runlevel 3 or 5). If
you selected to mount your file system and it mounted successfully, you can change the root partition
of the rescue mode environment to the root partition of your file system by executing the following
command:
chroot /mnt/sysimage
This is useful if you need to run commands such as rpm that require your root partition to be mounted
as /. To exit the chroot environment, type exit to return to the prompt.
If you selected Skip, you can still try to mount a partition or LVM2 logical volume manually inside
rescue mode by creating a directory such as /foo, and typing the following command:
mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 /foo
In the above command, /foo is a directory that you have created and /dev/mapper/VolGroup00LogVol02 is the LVM2 logical volume you want to mount. If the partition is of type ext2 or ext3
replace ext4 with ext2 or ext3 respectively.
If you do not know the names of all physical partitions, use the following command to list them:
fdisk -l
If you do not know the names of all LVM2 physical volumes, volume groups, or logical volumes, use
the following commands to list them:
pvdisplay
vgdisplay
lvdisplay
From the prompt, you can run many useful commands, such as:
• ssh, scp, and ping if the network is started
• dump and restore for users with tape drives
• parted and fdisk for managing partitions
• rpm for installing or upgrading software
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• joe for editing configuration files
Note
If you try to start other popular editors such as emacs, pico, or vi, the joe editor is started.
36.1.2.1. Reinstalling the Boot Loader
In many cases, the GRUB boot loader can mistakenly be deleted, corrupted, or replaced by other
operating systems.
The following steps detail the process on how GRUB is reinstalled on the master boot record:
• Boot the system from an installation boot medium.
• Type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt to enter the rescue environment.
• Type chroot /mnt/sysimage to mount the root partition.
• Type /sbin/grub-install bootpart to reinstall the GRUB boot loader, where bootpart is
the boot partition (typically, /dev/sda).
• Review the /boot/grub/grub.conf file, as additional entries may be needed for GRUB to
control additional operating systems.
• Reboot the system.
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
One of the advantages of single-user mode is that you do not need a boot CD-ROM; however, it does
not give you the option to mount the file systems as read-only or not mount them at all.
If your system boots, but does not allow you to log in when it has completed booting, try single-user
mode.
In single-user mode, your computer boots to runlevel 1. Your local file systems are mounted, but
your network is not activated. You have a usable system maintenance shell. Unlike rescue mode,
single-user mode automatically tries to mount your file system. Do not use single-user mode if your
file system cannot be mounted successfully. You cannot use single-user mode if the runlevel 1
configuration on your system is corrupted.
On an x86 system using GRUB, use the following steps to boot into single-user mode:
1. At the GRUB splash screen at boot time, press any key to enter the GRUB interactive menu.
2. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the version of the kernel that you wish to boot and type a to
append the line.
3. Go to the end of the line and type single as a separate word (press the Spacebar and then
type single). Press Enter to exit edit mode.
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
In emergency mode, you are booted into the most minimal environment possible. The root file system
is mounted read-only and almost nothing is set up. The main advantage of emergency mode over
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Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
single-user mode is that the init files are not loaded. If init is corrupted or not working, you can still
mount file systems to recover data that could be lost during a re-installation.
To boot into emergency mode, use the same method as described for single-user mode in
Section 36.1.3, “Booting into Single-User Mode” with one exception, replace the keyword single with
the keyword emergency.
36.2. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
You can use the installation disks in rescue mode, in case your system does not boot. Rescue mode
gives you access to the disk partitions on your system so you can make any changes necessary to
rescue your installation.
After the Language Selection screen (Section 15.2, “Language Selection”), the installation program
attempts to mount the disk partitions on your system. It then presents you with a shell prompt where
you can make the changes you need. These changes may include storing the kernel and command
line into the IPL source, as described in the Installation Complete section (Section 16.20, “Installation
Complete”).
When your changes are complete, you can exit the shell using exit 0. This causes a reboot from the
C side. To reboot from the A or B side or from *NWSSTG, you should vary off the system instead of
exiting the shell.
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from
Rescue Mode
If your system uses Native DASD disks, you may need access to the SCSI utilities from rescue mode.
These utilities are located on the driver disc CD. The driver disc CD cannot be mounted from rescue
mode unless special steps are taken. These steps are described below.
If you have a second CD-ROM drive assigned to your Linux system, you can mount the driver disc CD
in the second drive.
If you have only one CD-ROM drive, you must set up an NFS boot, using the following steps:
1. Boot from the CD-ROM with the linux rescue askmethod command. This allows you to
manually select NFS as the source of your rescue media instead of defaulting to the CD-ROM
drive.
2. Copy the first installation disc onto a file system of another Linux system.
3. Make this copy of the installation disc available through NFS or FTP.
4. Vary off or power down the system you need to rescue. Set its IPL parameters as instructed for
booting the Installation discs in rescue mode, except that the IPL source should point to the copy
of boot.img on your IFS (from step 1, above).
5. Make sure the installation disc is not in your DVD drive.
6. IPL the Linux system.
7. Follow the prompts as decribed in Section 36.2, “Rescue Mode on POWER Systems”. An
additonal prompt for the installation source appears. Select NFS or FTP (as appropriate) and
complete the following network configuration screen.
8. When the Linux system has booted into rescue mode, the CD-ROM drive is available for use and
you can mount the driver media to access the SCSI utilities.
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Chapter 37.
Upgrading Your Current System
This chapter explains the various methods available for upgrading your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
37.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More
generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example,
Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
While upgrading from Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 4 Update 4 is technically possible, you are
more likely to have a consistent experience by backing up your data and then installing this release of
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
To upgrade from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 you should bring your system up to date using RHN
before performing the upgrade.
This recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
For more information about re-installing your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, refer to the
Whitepapers available online at http://www.redhat.com/rhel/resource_center/.
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 4, you can perform a traditional, installation
program-based upgrade.
However, before you chose to upgrade your system, there are a few things you should keep in mind:
• Individual package configuration files may or may not work after performing an upgrade due to
changes in various configuration file formats or layouts.
• If you have one of Red Hat's layered products (such as the Cluster Suite) installed, it may need to
be manually upgraded after the Red Hat Enterprise Linux upgrade has been completed.
• Third party or ISV applications may not work correctly following the upgrade.
Upgrading your system installs updated versions of the packages which are currently installed on your
system.
The upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an .rpmsave
extension (for example, sendmail.cf.rpmsave). The upgrade process also creates a log of its
actions in /root/upgrade.log.
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Warning
As software evolves, configuration file formats can change. It is very important to carefully
compare your original configuration files to the new files before integrating your changes.
Note
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your hard drives. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all of your data.
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If
you choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve dependency
problems. Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies, but it may need to
install additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt you to add an
additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that equals twice your RAM, it
asks you if you would like to add a new swap file. If your system does not have a lot of RAM (less than
256 MB), it is recommended that you add this swap file.
37.2. Upgrading Your System
The Upgrade Examine screen appears if you have instructed the installation program to perform an
upgrade.
Note
If the contents of your /etc/redhat-release file have been changed from the default, your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.
You can relax some of the checks against this file by booting with the following boot command:
linux upgradeany
Use the linux upgradeany command if your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was not
given as an option to upgrade.
To perform an upgrade, select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation. Click Next when you
are ready to begin your upgrade.
To re-install your system, select Perform a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and refer to
http://www.redhat.com/docs/wp/ as well as Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda, Chapter 16, Installing
using anaconda, or Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda for further instructions.
To perform a new installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system, select Perform a new Red
Hat
442 Enterprise Linux installation and refer to Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda, Chapter 16,
Upgrading Your System
Installing using anaconda, or Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda for further
instructions.
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Chapter 38.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from x86-based systems
These instructions may destroy data!
If you have data from Red Hat Enterprise Linux that you want to keep, back it up before you
proceed. Write your data to CD, DVD, external hard disk, or other storage device.
As a precaution, also back up data from any other operating systems that are installed on the
same computer. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
If you back up data from Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be used later in another operating system,
make sure that the storage medium or device is readable by that other operating system. For
example, without extra third-party software, Microsoft Windows cannot read an external hard
drive that you have formatted with Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use the ext2, ext3, or ext4 file
system.
To uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your x86-based system, you must remove the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader information from your master boot record (MBR) and remove any
partitions that contain the operating system. The method for removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from
your computer varies, depending on whether Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system
installed on the computer, or whether the computer is configured to dual-boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux and another operating system.
These instructions cannot cover every possible computer configuration. If your computer is configured
to boot three or more operating systems, or has a highly-customized partition scheme, use the
following sections as a general guide to partition removal with the various tools described. In these
situations, you will also need to learn to configure your chosen bootloader. See Appendix E, The
GRUB Boot Loader for a general introduction to the subject, but detailed instructions are beyond the
scope of this document.
Legacy versions of Microsoft operating systems
Fdisk, the disk partitioning tool provided with MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows, is unable to
remove the file systems used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux. MS-DOS and versions of Windows
prior to Windows XP (except for Windows 2000) have no other means of removing or modifying
partitions. Refer to Section 38.3, “Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or legacy
versions of Microsoft Windows” for alternative removal methods for use with MS-DOS and these
versions of Windows.
38.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system
on the computer
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, use the installation media
for the replacement operating system to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Examples of installation
media include the Windows XP installation CD, Windows Vista installation DVD, or the installation CD,
CDs, or DVD of another Linux distribution.
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Note that some manufacturers of factory-built computers pre-installed with Microsoft Windows do not
supply the Windows installation CD or DVD with the computer. The manufacturer may instead have
supplied their own "system restore disk", or have included software with the computer that allowed
you to create your own "system restore disk" when you first started the computer. In some cases, the
system restore software is stored on a separate partition on the system's hard drive. If you cannot
identify the installation media for an operating system that was pre-installed on your computer, consult
the documentation supplied with the machine, or contact the manufacturer.
When you have located the installation media for your chosen operating system:
1. Back up any data that you want to keep.
2. Shut down the computer.
3. Boot your computer with the installation disk for the replacement operating system.
4. Follow the prompts presented during the installation process. Windows, OS X, and most Linux
installation disks allow you to manually partition your hard drive during the installation process,
or will offer you the option to remove all partitions and start with a fresh partition scheme. At this
point, remove any existing partitions that the installation software detects or allow the installer
to remove the partitions automatically. "System restore" media for computers pre-installed with
Microsoft Windows might create a default partition layout automatically without input from you.
Warning
If your computer has system restore software stored on a partition on a hard drive, take care
when removing partitions while installing an operating system from other media. Under these
circumstances, you could destroy the partition holding the system restore software.
38.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux
and another operating system
If your computer is configured to dual-boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating system,
removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux without removing the partitions containing the other operating
system and its data is more complicated. Specific instructions for a number of operating systems are
set out below. To keep neither Red Hat Enterprise Linux nor the other operating system, follow the
steps described for a computer with only Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed: Section 38.1, “Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on the computer”
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Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows operating system
38.2.1. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a
Microsoft Windows operating system
38.2.1.1. Windows 2000, Windows Server 2000, Windows XP, and
Windows Server 2003
Warning
Once you commence this process, your computer may be left in an unbootable state until you
complete the entire set of instructions. Carefully read the steps below before beginning the
removal process. Consider opening these instructions on another computer or printing them so
that you have access to them at all times during the process.
This procedure relies on the Windows Recovery Console that loads from the Windows
installation disk, so you will not be able to complete the procedure without access to this disk.
If you start this procedure and do not complete it, you could leave your computer in a condition
where you cannot boot it. The "system restore disk" supplied with some factory-built computers
that are sold with Windows pre-installed on them might not include the Windows Recovery
Console.
During the process outlined in these instructions, the Windows Recovery Console will prompt
you for the Administrator password for your Windows system. Do not follow these instructions
unless you know the Administrator password for your system or are certain that an Administrator
password has never been created, even by the computer manufacturer.
1. Remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
a. Boot your computer into your Microsoft Windows environment.
b. Click Start>Run..., type diskmgmt.msc and press Enter. The Disk Management tool
opens.
The tool displays a graphical representation of your disk, with bars representing each partition.
The first partition is usually labeled NTFS and corresponds to your C: drive. At least two Red
Hat Enterprise Linux partitions will be visible. Windows will not display a file system type for
these partitions, but may allocate drive letters to some of them.
c.
Right-click on one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then click Delete Partition and
click Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this process for the other Red Hat Enterprise Linux
partitions on your system. As you delete partitions, Windows labels the space on the hard
drive previously occupied by those partitions as unallocated.
2. Enable Windows to use the space on your hard drive vacated by Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(optional)
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Note
This step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer. However,
if you skip this step, you will leave part of your hard drive's storage capacity unusable by
Windows. Depending on your configuration, this might be a a significant portion of the
storage capacity of the drive.
Decide whether to extend an existing Windows partition to use the extra space, or create a new
Windows partition in that space. If you create new a Windows partition, Windows will allocate a
new drive letter to it and will interact with it as if it is a separate hard drive.
Extending an existing Windows partition
Note
The diskpart tool used in this step is installed as part of the Windows XP and Windows 2003
operating systems. If you are performing this step on a computer running Windows 2000 or
Windows Server 2000, you can download a version of diskpart for your operating system
from the Microsoft website.
a. Click Start>Run..., type diskpart and press Enter. A command window appears.
b. Type list volume and press Enter. Diskpart displays a list of the partitions on your
system with a volume number, its drive letter, volume label, filesystem type, and size. Identify
the Windows partition that you would like to use to occupy the space vacated on your hard
drive by Red Hat Enterprise Linux and take note of its volume number (for example, your
Windows C: drive might be "Volume 0").
c.
Type select volume N (where N is the volume number for the Windows partition that
you want to extend) and press Enter. Now type extend and press Enter. Diskpart now
extends your chosen partition to fill the remaining space on your hard drive. It will notify you
when the operation is complete.
Adding a new Windows partition
a. In the the Disk Management window, right-click on disk space that Windows labels as
unallocated and select New Partition from the menu. The New Partition Wizard starts.
b. Follow the prompts presented by the New Partition Wizard. If you accept the default options,
the tool will create a new partition that fills all available space on the hard drive, assigns it the
next available drive letter, and formats it with the NTFS file system.
3. Restore the Windows bootloader
a. Insert the Windows installation disk and restart your computer. As your computer starts, the
following message will appear on the screen for a few seconds:
Press any key to boot from CD
Press any key while the message is still showing and the Windows installation software will
load.
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Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows operating system
b. When the Welcome to Setup screen appears, you can start the Windows Recovery
Console. The procedure is slightly different on different versions of Windows:
• On Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2000, press the R key, then the C key.
• On Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, press the R key.
c.
The Windows Recovery Console scans your hard drives for Windows installations, and
assigns a number to each one. It displays a list of Windows installations and prompts you
to select one. Type the number corresponding to the Windows installation that you want to
restore.
d. The Windows Recovery Console prompts you for the Administrator password for your
Windows installation. Type the Administrator password and press the Enter key. If there is no
administrator password for this system, press only the Enter key.
e. At the prompt, type the command fixmbr and press the Enter. The fixmbr tool now restores
the Master Boot Record for the system.
f.
When the prompt reappears, type exit and press the Enter key.
g. Your computer will restart and boot your Windows operating system.
38.2.1.2. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008
Warning
Once you commence this process, your computer may be left in an unbootable state until you
complete the entire set of instructions. Carefully read the steps below before beginning the
removal process. Consider opening these instructions on another computer or printing them so
that you have access to them at all times during the process.
This procedure relies on the Windows Recovery Environment that loads from the Windows
installation disk and you will not be able to complete the procedure without access to this disk.
If you start this procedure and do not complete it, you could leave your computer in a condition
where you cannot boot it. The "system restore disk" supplied with some factory-built computers
that are sold with Windows pre-installed on them might not include the Windows Recovery
Environment.
1. Remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
a. Boot your computer into your Microsoft Windows environment.
b. Click Start then type diskmgmt.msc into the Start Search box and press Enter. The Disk
Management tool opens.
The tool displays a graphical representation of your disk, with bars representing each partition.
The first partition is usually labeled NTFS and corresponds to your C: drive. At least two Red
Hat Enterprise Linux partitions will be visible. Windows will not display a file system type for
these partitions, but may allocate drive letters to some of them.
c.
Right-click on one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then click Delete Partition and
click Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this process for the other Red Hat Enterprise Linux
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Chapter 38. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
partitions on your system. As you delete partitions, Windows labels the space on the hard
drive previously occupied by those partitions as unallocated.
2. Enable Windows to use the space on your hard drive vacated by Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(optional)
Note
This step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer. However,
if you skip this step, you will leave part of your hard drive's storage capacity unusable by
Windows. Depending on your configuration, this might be a a significant portion of the
storage capacity of the drive.
Decide whether to extend an existing Windows partition to use the extra space, or create a new
Windows partition in that space. If you create new a Windows partition, Windows will allocate a
new drive letter to it and will interact with it as if it is a separate hard drive.
Extending an existing Windows partition
a. In the Disk Management window, right-click on the Windows partition that you want to extend
and select Extend Volume from the menu. The Extend Volume Wizard opens.
b. Follow the prompts presented by the Extend Volume Wizard. If you accept the defaults that it
offers you, the tool will extend the selected volume to fill all available space on the hard drive.
Adding a new Windows partition
a. In the Disk Management window, right-click on disk space that Windows labels as
unallocated and select New Simple Volume from the menu. The New Simple Volume
Wizard starts.
b. Follow the prompts presented by the New Simple Volume Wizard. If you accept the default
options, the tool will create a new partition that fills all available space on the hard drive,
assigns it the next available drive letter, and formats it with the NTFS file system.
3. Restore the Windows bootloader
a. Insert the Windows installation disk and restart your computer. As your computer starts, the
following message will appear on the screen for a few seconds:
Press any key to boot from CD or DVD
Press any key while the message is still showing and the Windows installation software will
load.
b. In the Install Windows dialog, select a language, time and currency format, and keyboard
type. Click Next
c.
Click Repair your computer.
d. The Windows Recovery Environment (WRE) shows you the Windows installations that it
can detect on your system. Select the installation that you want to restore, then click Next.
e. Click Command prompt. A command window will open.
f.
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Type bootrec /fixmbr and press Enter.
Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux distribution
g. When the prompt reappears, close the command window, then click Restart.
h. Your computer will restart and boot your Windows operating system.
38.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a
different Linux distribution
Note
Because of the differences between the many different Linux distributions, these instructions
are a general guide only. Specific details will vary according to your chosen distribution and the
configuration of your particular computer. This example uses GParted as a partition editor and
gedit as a text editor, but many other tools are available to perform these tasks. To follow these
instructions exactly as written, install GParted and gedit.
1. Remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
a. Boot the Linux version that you want to keep on your computer.
b. Open GParted, either from a desktop menu or by typing gparted at the command line and
pressing Enter.
c.
GParted displays the partitions that it detects on your computer, both as a graph and as a
table.
Right-click the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then select Delete.
2. Remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from your bootloader
Example only
These instructions assume that your system uses the GRUB bootloader. If you use a different
bootloader (such as LILO) consult the documentation for that software to identify and remove
Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from its list of boot targets and to ensure that your default
operating system is correctly specified.
a. At the command line, type su - and press Enter. When the system prompts you for the root
password, type the password and press Enter.
b. Type gedit /boot/grub/grub.conf and press Enter. This opens the grub.conf file in
the gedit text editor.
c.
A typical Red Hat Enterprise Linux entry in the grub.conf file consists of four lines:
Example 38.1. Example Red Hat Enterprise Linux entry in grub.conf
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.27.19-170.2.35.el5.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.27.19-170.2.35.el5.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5ab207-002689545705 rhgb quiet
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initrd /initrd-2.6.27.19-170.2.35.el5.i686.img
Depending on the configuration of your system, there may be multiple Red Hat Enterprise
Linux entries in grub.conf, each corresponding to a different version of the Linux kernel.
Delete each of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from the file.
d. Grub.conf contains a line that specifies the default operating system to boot, in the format
default=N where N is a number equal to or greater than 0. If N is set to 0, GRUB will boot
the first operating system in the list. If N is set to 1, it will boot the second operating system,
and so forth.
Identify the entry for the operating system that you want GRUB to boot by default and note its
place in the order within the list.
Make sure that the default= line contains the number one below the number of your chosen
default operating system in the list.
Save the updated grub.conf file and close gedit
3. Make space available to your operating system
Note
This step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer. However,
if you skip this step, you will leave part of your hard drive's storage capacity unusable by your
other Linux operating system. Depending on your configuration, this might be a a significant
portion of the storage capacity of the drive.
Note
To carry out this step, you require live media for a Linux distribution, for example, the Fedora
Live CD or the Knoppix DVD.
The method to make the space freed by removing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
available to your other Linux operating system differs, depending on whether your chosen
operating system is installed on disk partitions configured to use Logical Volume Management
(LVM) or not.
• If you do not use LVM
a. Boot your computer from Linux live media, and install gparted if it is not already present.
b. Open GParted, either from a desktop menu or by typing gparted at the command line and
pressing Enter.
c.
GParted displays the partitions on your system both as a graph and as a table. Click on the
partition that you want to extend to use the space freed by removing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, and click the Resize/Move button.
d. A new dialog opens, allowing you to specify a new size for the partition by entering it as
numbers, or by dragging the sides of the graphical representation of the partition so that it
fills the available space. Click the Resize/Move button in this dialog to confirm your choice.
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Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux distribution
e. Back in the main GParted window, click Apply. Take note of the name of the partition that
you just resized, for example, /dev/sda3.
f.
When GParted finishes resizing the partition, type e2fsck partition at a command line
and press Enter, where partition is the partition that you just resized. For example, if
you just resized /dev/sda3, you would type e2fsck /dev/sda3.
Linux now checks the file system of the newly-resized partition.
g. When the file system check finishes, type resize2fs partition at a command line and
press Enter, where partition is the partition that you just resized. For example, if you
just resized /dev/sda3, you would type resize2fs /dev/sda3.
Linux now resizes your file system to fill the newly-resized partition.
h. Restart your computer. The extra space is now available to your Linux installation.
• If you use LVM
a. Boot your computer from Linux live media and install gparted and lvm2 if they are not
already present.
b. Create a new partition in the free space on the disk
i. Open GParted, either from a desktop menu or by typing gparted at the command line
and pressing Enter.
ii.
GParted displays the partitions on your system both as a graph and as a table. The
space freed by removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux is labeled unallocated. Right-click
on the unallocated space and select New. Accept the defaults and GParted will create
a new partition that fills the space available on the drive.
iii. Click Apply. GParted writes the changes to your hard drive. Take note of the name of
the partition that you just created, and the name of the device that holds the partition.
For example, you may have created /dev/sda3 on device /dev/sda.
c.
Change the partition type identifier
i. Fdisk is a partitioning tool capable of preparing partitions for LVM. At a command line,
type fdisk device and press Enter, where device is the name of the device on
which you just created a partition. For example, fdisk /dev/sda.
ii.
At the prompt Command (m for help):, press T and Enter to use fdisk to change
a partition type.
iii. At the prompt Partition number (1-4):, type the number of the partition that you
just created. For example, if you just created partition /dev/sda3, type the number 3
and press Enter. This identifies the partition whose type fdisk will change.
iv. At the prompt Hex code (type L to list codes):, type the code 8e and press
Enter. This is the code for a Linux LVM partition.
v.
At the prompt Command (m for help):, press W and Enter. Fdisk writes the new
type code to the partition and exits.
d. Expand the volume group
i. At the command prompt, type lvm and press Enter to start the lvm2 tool.
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ii.
At the lvm> prompt, type pvcreate partition and press Enter, where
partition is the partition that you recently created. For example, pvcreate /dev/
sda3. This creates /dev/sda3 as a physical volume in LVM.
iii. At the lvm> prompt, type vgextend VolumeGroup partition and press Enter,
where VolumeGroup is the LVM volume group on which Linux is installed and
partition is the partition that you recently created. For example, if Linux is installed
on /dev/VolumeGroup00, you would type vgextend /dev/VolumeGroup00 /
dev/sda3 to extend that volume group to include the physical volume at /dev/sda3.
iv. At the lvm> prompt, type lvextend -l +100%FREE LogVol and press Enter,
where LogVol is the logical volume that contains your Linux filesystem. For example,
to extend LogVol00 to fill the newly-available space in its volume group, VolGroup00,
type lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00.
v.
At the lvm> prompt, type exit and press Enter to exit lvm2
e. Type e2fsck LogVol at the command line and press Enter, where LogVol is the logical
volume that you just resized. For example, if you just resized /dev/VolumeGroup00/
LogVol00, you would type e2fsck /dev/VolumeGroup00/LogVol00.
Linux now checks the file system of the newly-resized logical volume.
f.
When the file system check finishes, type resize2fs LogVol at a command line and
press Enter, where LogVol is the partition that you just resized. For example, if you
just resized /dev/VolumeGroup00/LogVol00, you would type resize2fs /dev/
VolumeGroup00/LogVol00.
Linux now resizes your file system to fill the newly-resized logical volume.
g. Restart your computer. The extra space is now available to your Linux installation.
38.3. Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or
legacy versions of Microsoft Windows
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the undocumented
flag /mbr. This ONLY rewrites the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition. The command should look
like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the default DOS
(Windows) fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem. The best way
to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands partitions other than DOS.
To begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD and boot your system. When the boot prompt
appears, type: linux rescue. This starts the rescue mode program.
You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you would
during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise Linux install
to rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
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After selecting Skip, you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions you would
like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. This command lists all hard drives on your system that
are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in megabytes.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other
partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda is the device
on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number of the
partition to remove:
print
The print command also displays the partition's type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, ext4 and so
on). Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove the partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with minor number 3:
rm 3
Important
The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the command before
committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from the partition
table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make, type
quit to quit parted.
After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your system,
instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically. If it does not, you
can reboot your computer using Control+Alt+Delete .
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Chapter 39.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from IBM System z
If you want to delete the existing operating system data, first, if any Linux disks contain sensitive data,
ensure that you destroy the data according to your security policy. To proceed you can consider these
options:
• Overwrite the disks with a new installation.
• Start a new installation and use the partitioning dialog (refer to Section 23.13, “Disk Partitioning
Setup”) to format the partitions where Linux was installed. After the Write changes to disk dialog
described in Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk”, exit the installer.
• Make the DASD or SCSI disk where Linux was installed visible from another system, then delete the
data. However, this might require special privileges. Ask your system administrator for advice. You
can use Linux commands such as dasdfmt (DASD only), parted, mke2fs or dd. For more details
about the commands, refer to the respective man pages.
39.1. Running a Different Operating System on your z/VM
Guest or LPAR
If you want to boot from a DASD or SCSI disk different from where the currently installed system
resides under a z/VM guest virtual machine or an LPAR, shut down the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installed and use the desired disk, where another Linux instance is installed, to boot from. This leaves
the contents of the installed system unchanged.
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458
Part VI. Technical appendixes
The appendixes in this section do not contain instructions that tell you how to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Instead, they provide technical background that you might find helpful to understand
the options that Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you at various points in the installation process.
Appendix A. An Introduction to Disk
Partitions
Note
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the general
concepts mentioned here may apply.
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the general
concepts mentioned here may apply.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to Section A.1.4, “Making
Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux”, for more information on the process of freeing up disk space to
prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This section also discusses the partition naming
scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk space with other operating systems, and related topics.
A.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the underlying
hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore, this appendix uses
a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening when a disk drive is
partitioned. Figure A.1, “An Unused Disk Drive”, shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
Figure A.1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is adequate. Say
that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it will not work. There is
something we need to do first.
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the drive.
Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive, creating order out
of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
Figure A.2. Disk Drive with a File System
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Appendix A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
As Figure A.2, “Disk Drive with a File System”, implies, the order imposed by a file system involves
some trade-offs:
• A small percentage of the drive's available space is used to store file system-related data and can
be considered as overhead.
• A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux, these
1
segments are known as blocks.
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these trade-offs are usually
seen as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure A.3, “Disk Drive with a
Different File System”, shows, a disk drive may have one of many different file systems written on it.
As you might guess, different file systems tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that
supports one file system (or a handful of related file system types) may not support another. This last
statement is not a hard-and-fast rule, however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports a
wide variety of file systems (including many commonly used by other operating systems), making data
interchange between different file systems easy.
Figure A.3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to actually
store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been written to it.
Figure A.4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure A.4, “Disk Drive with Data Written to It”, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks are
now holding data. However, by just looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files
reside on this drive. There may only be one file or many, as all files use at least one block and some
files use multiple blocks. Another important point to note is that the used blocks do not have to form
a contiguous region; used and unused blocks may be interspersed. This is known as fragmentation.
Fragmentation can play a part when attempting to resize an existing partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their introduction. In
particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their capacity to store information.
And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in the way disk drives were used.
A.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted space
in one big chunk was such a great idea. This line of thinking was driven by several issues, some
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Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size, it seemed that the
additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the technical side, some file
systems were never designed to support anything above a certain capacity. Or the file systems could
support larger drives with a greater capacity, but the overhead imposed by the file system to track files
became excessive.
The solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be accessed as if it
was a separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate from the actual disk
drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition table is stored at the very start of the
disk, before any file system or user data. But for clarity, they are separate in our diagrams.
Figure A.5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure A.5, “Disk Drive with Partition Table” shows, the partition table is divided into four sections
or four primary partitions. A primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can contain only one
logical drive (or section). Each section can hold the information necessary to define a single partition,
meaning that the partition table can define no more than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
• The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
• Whether the partition is "active"
• The partition's type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points actually
define the partition's size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by some operating
systems' boot loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is marked "active" is
booted.
The partition's type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition's
anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning of the partition
type is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote a specific file system
type, to flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the
partition contains a bootable operating system, or some combination of the three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used. Refer to
Figure A.6, “Disk Drive With Single Partition”, for an example.
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Appendix A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure A.6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating the
method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used, and it points to the start of
the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several possible
partition types listed in Table A.1, “Partition Types”, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
Table A.1, “Partition Types”, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along
with their hexadecimal numeric values.
Table A.1. Partition Types
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
DOS 16-bit <=32M
04
Linux swap
82
Extended
05
Linux native
83
DOS 16-bit >=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
Novell
51
DOS access
e1
PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
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Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
A.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk drives
continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure four reasonably-sized
partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be some way of creating more partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table A.1, “Partition Types”, there is an
"Extended" partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is created.
In essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a partition table that
points to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed to the four primary partitions)
contained entirely within the extended partition itself. Figure A.7, “Disk Drive With Extended Partition”,
shows a disk drive with one primary partition and one extended partition containing two logical
partitions (along with some unpartitioned free space).
Figure A.7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there can only
be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical partitions that can exist.
However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux, you should avoid defining more
than 12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
A.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The following list presents some possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition your
hard disk:
• Unpartitioned free space is available
• An unused partition is available
• Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity and do not
reflect the exact partition layout that you encounter when actually installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
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Appendix A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
A.1.4.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving unallocated
space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure A.8, “Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space”,
shows what this might look like.
Figure A.8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure A.8, “Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space”, 1 represents an undefined partition with
unallocated space and 2 represents a defined partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference is that all the
space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this
scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new disk just for
Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to take up all available
space on a disk drive (refer to Section A.1.4.3, “Using Free Space from an Active Partition”).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
A.1.4.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have
dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you dedicated to it never seem
to be used anymore. Figure A.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”, illustrates such a situation.
Figure A.9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure A.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”, 1 represents an unused partition and 2
represents reallocating an unused partition for Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition. You first
must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s) in its place. You can delete
the unused partition and manually create new partitions during the installation process.
A.1.4.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main problem is
that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition that is already in use.
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Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard disk most likely has one massive
partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you might
imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means that making a
complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use verification (if available
in your backup software), and try to read data from your backup before you delete the partition.
Warning
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it needs to be
reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed operating systems
may not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating system. The best time
to notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy your original partition and its
operating system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall any software,
restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. Figure A.10, “Disk Drive
Being Destructively Repartitioned” shows this being done.
Figure A.10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, 1 represents before and 2
represents after.
Warning
As Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, shows, any data present in
the original partition is lost without proper backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition smaller
without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found this method to be
reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform this feat? There are several
disk management software products on the market. Do some research to find the one that is best
for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are a number of
steps involved:
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Appendix A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
• Compress and backup existing data
• Resize the existing partition
• Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
A.1.4.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure A.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, shows, the first step is to compress the data in
your existing partition. The reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the
available free space at the "end" of the partition.
Figure A.11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure A.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from being resized
to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data cannot be moved. If this is
the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)), you may be forced to destructively
repartition your disk.
A.1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure A.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, shows the actual resizing process. While the actual
result of the resizing operation varies depending on the software used, in most cases the newly freed
space is used to create an unformatted partition of the same type as the original partition.
Figure A.12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure A.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed space, so
that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would be best to delete the
new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
A.1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However,
unless your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the partition that was
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Partition Naming Scheme
created during the resizing process. Figure A.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration”, shows
this being done.
Figure A.13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
In Figure A.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration”, 1 represents before and 2 represents
after.
Note
The following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. This is a freely available program
that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar with disk
storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make two copies of all the
important data on your computer. These copies should be to removable media (such as tape, CDROM, or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable before proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left with two partitions:
the one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space. If your goal is to use
that space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the newly created partition, either by
using the partitioning utility under your current operating system or while setting up partitions during
installation.
A.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be confusing,
particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their partitions. In the
DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
• Each partition's type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
• If the partition's type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start with a "C" and
move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to be labeled.
• The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system contained on that
partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more information
than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is file-based, with file names
in the form of /dev/xxyN.
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
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Appendix A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
/dev/
This is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside on hard
disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions reside in /dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition resides,
usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first IDE hard
disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions are
numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is the third
primary or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the second logical
partition on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike DOS/Windows,
all partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Of course, this does not mean
that Red Hat Enterprise Linux can access data on every type of partition, but in many cases it is
possible to access data on a partition dedicated to another operating system.
Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting up the
partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
A.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by other
operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are certain
combinations of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are used and
accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple: Each partition gets a
"drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and directories on its corresponding
partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with disk storage
in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the storage necessary
to support a single set of files and directories. This is done by associating a partition with a directory
through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition makes its storage available starting at the
specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that all files and
directories under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file /usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/
Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file /etc/gdm/custom.conf would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would be mount
points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be mounted on /usr/
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How Many Partitions?
local/, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside on /dev/hda7 rather than /
dev/hda5.
A.1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give some
consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system. The
question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the Linux community and, without
any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are probably as many partition layouts as
there are people debating the issue.
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, you should
at least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 9.14.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
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Appendix B. ISCSI disks
Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) is a protocol that allows computers to communicate
with storage devices by SCSI requests and responses carried over TCP/IP. Because iSCSI is based
on the standard SCSI protocols, it uses some terminology from SCSI. The device on the SCSI bus to
which requests get sent (and which answers these requests) is known as the target and the device
issuing requests is known as the initiator. In other words, an iSCSI disk is a target and the iSCSI
software equivalent of a SCSI controller or SCSI Host Bus Adapter (HBA) is called an initiator. This
appendix only covers Linux as an iSCSI initiator: how Linux uses iSCSI disks, but not how Linux hosts
iSCSI disks.
Linux has a software iSCSI initiator in the kernel that takes the place and form of a SCSI HBA driver
and therefore allows Linux to use iSCSI disks. However, as iSCSI is a fully network-based protocol,
iSCSI initiator support needs more than just the ability to send SCSI packets over the network. Before
Linux can use an iSCSI target, Linux must find the target on the network and make a connection to it.
In some cases, Linux must send authentication information to gain access to the target. Linux must
also detect any failure of the network connection and must establish a new connection, including
logging in again if necessary.
The discovery, connection, and logging in is handled in userspace by the iscsiadm utility, and the
error handling is also handled in userspace by iscsid.
Both iscsiadm and iscsid are part of the iscsi-initiator-utils package under Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
B.1. iSCSI disks in anaconda
Anaconda can discover (and then log in to) iSCSI disks in two ways:
1. When anaconda starts, it checks if the BIOS or add-on boot ROMs of the system support iSCSI
Boot Firmware Table (iBFT), a BIOS extension for systems which can boot from iSCSI. If the BIOS
supports iBFT, anaconda will read the iSCSI target information for the configured boot disk from
the BIOS and log in to this target, making it available as an installation target.
2. If you select the Specialized Storage Devices option during installation, the storage device
selection screen presents you with an Add Advanced Target button. If you click this button, you
can add iSCSI target information like the discovery IP address. Anaconda probes the given IP
address and logs in to any targets that it finds. See Section 9.5.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”
for the details that you can specify for iSCSI targets.
While anaconda uses iscsiadm to find and log into iSCSI targets, iscsiadm automatically stores
any information about these targets in the iscsiadm iSCSI database. Anaconda then copies this
database to the installed system and marks any iSCSI targets not used for / so that the system will
automatically log in to them when it starts. If / is placed on an iSCSI target, initrd will log into this
target and anaconda does not include this target in start up scripts to avoid multiple attempts to log
into the same target.
If / is placed on an iSCSI target, anaconda sets NetworkManager to ignore any network interfaces
that were active during the installation process. These interfaces will also be configured by initrd when
the system starts. If NetworkManager were to reconfigure these interfaces, the system would lose its
connection to /.
B.2. iSCSI disks during start up
ISCSI-related events might occur at a number of points while the system starts:
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Appendix B. ISCSI disks
1. The init script in the initrd will log in to iSCSI targets used for / (if any). This is done using the
iscsistart utility (which can do this without requiring iscsid to run).
2. When the root filesystem has been mounted and the various service initscripts get run, the iscsid
initscript will get called. This script will then start iscsid if any iSCSI targets are used for /, or if
any targets in the iSCSI database are marked to be logged in to automatically.
3. After the classic network service script has been run (or would have been run if enabled) the iscsi
initscript will run. If the network is accessible, this will log in to any targets in the iSCSI database
which are marked to be logged in to automatically. If the network is not accessible, this script will
exit quietly.
4. When using NetworkManager to access the network (instead of the classic network service
script), NetworkManager will call the iscsi initscript. See: /etc/NetworkManager/
dispatcher.d/04-iscsi
Important
Because NetworkManager is installed in /usr, you cannot use it to configure network
access if /usr is on network-attached storage such as an iSCSI target.
If iscsid is not needed as the system starts, it will not start automatically. If you start iscsiadm,
iscsiadm will start iscsid in turn.
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Appendix C. Disk Encryption
C.1. What is block device encryption?
Block device encryption protects the data on a block device by encrypting it. To access the device's
decrypted contents, a user must provide a passphrase or key as authentication. This provides
additional security beyond existing OS security mechanisms in that it protects the device's contents
even if it has been physically removed from the system.
C.2. Encrypting block devices using dm-crypt/LUKS
Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is a specification for block device encryption. It establishes an on-disk
format for the data, as well as a passphrase/key management policy.
LUKS uses the kernel device mapper subsystem via the dm-crypt module. This arrangement
provides a low-level mapping that handles encryption and decryption of the device's data. User-level
operations, such as creating and accessing encrypted devices, are accomplished through the use of
the cryptsetup utility.
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
• What LUKS does:
• LUKS encrypts entire block devices
• LUKS is thereby well-suited for protecting the contents of mobile devices such as:
• Removable storage media
• Laptop disk drives
• The underlying contents of the encrypted block device are arbitrary.
• This makes it useful for encrypting swap devices.
• This can also be useful with certain databases that use specially formatted block devices for
data storage.
• LUKS uses the existing device mapper kernel subsystem.
• This is the same subsystem used by LVM, so it is well tested.
• LUKS provides passphrase strengthening.
• This protects against dictionary attacks.
• LUKS devices contain multiple key slots.
• This allows users to add backup keys/passphrases.
• What LUKS does not do:
• LUKS is not well-suited for applications requiring many (more than eight) users to have distinct
access keys to the same device.
• LUKS is not well-suited for applications requiring file-level encryption.
More detailed information about LUKS is available from the project website at http://code.google.com/
p/cryptsetup/.
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Appendix C. Disk Encryption
C.2.2. How will I access the encrypted devices after installation?
(System Startup)
During system startup you will be presented with a passphrase prompt. After the correct passphrase
has been provided the system will continue to boot normally. If you used different passphrases for
multiple encypted devices you may need to enter more than one passphrase during the startup.
Tip
Consider using the same passphrase for all encrypted block devices in a given system. This will
simplify system startup and you will have fewer passphrases to remember. Just make sure you
choose a good passphrase!
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
While dm-crypt/LUKS supports both keys and passphrases, the anaconda installer only supports the
use of passphrases for creating and accessing encrypted block devices during installation.
LUKS does provide passphrase strengthening but it is still a good idea to choose a good (meaning
"difficult to guess") passphrase. Note the use of the term "passphrase", as opposed to the term
"password". This is intentional. Providing a phrase containing multiple words to increase the security of
your data is important.
C.3. Creating Encrypted Block Devices in Anaconda
You can create encrypted devices during system installation. This allows you to easily configure a
system with encrypted partitions.
To enable block device encryption, check the "Encrypt System" checkbox when selecting automatic
partitioning or the "Encrypt" checkbox when creating an individual partition, software RAID array, or
logical volume. After you finish partitioning, you will be prompted for an encryption passphrase. This
passphrase will be required to access the encrypted devices. If you have pre-existing LUKS devices
and provided correct passphrases for them earlier in the install process the passphrase entry dialog
will also contain a checkbox. Checking this checkbox indicates that you would like the new passphrase
to be added to an available slot in each of the pre-existing encrypted block devices.
Tip
Checking the "Encrypt System" checkbox on the "Automatic Partitioning" screen and then
choosing "Create custom layout" does not cause any block devices to be encrypted automatically.
Tip
You can use kickstart to set a separate passphrase for each new encrypted block device.
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
Most types of block devices can be encrypted using LUKS. From anaconda you can encrypt partitions,
LVM
476 physical volumes, LVM logical volumes, and software RAID arrays.
Saving Passphrases
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
If you use a kickstart file during installation, you can automatically save the passphrases used during
installation to an encrypted file on the local file system. To use this feature, you must have an X.509
certificate available at a location that anaconda can access. To specify the URL of this certificate, add
the --escrowcert parameter to any of the autopart, logvol, part or raid commands. During
installation, the encryption keys for the specified devices are saved in files in / (root), encrypted with
the certificate.
Note that this feature is available only while performing a kickstart installation. Refer to Chapter 32,
Kickstart Installations for more detail.
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
If you use a kickstart file during installation, anaconda can add a randomly generated backup
passphrase to each block device on the system and save each passphrase to an encrypted file on the
local file system. Specify the URL of this certificate with the --escrowcert parameter as described in
Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases”, followed by the --backuppassphrase parameter for each of
the kickstart commands that relate to the devices for which you want to create backup passphrases.
Note that this feature is available only while performing a kickstart installation. Refer to Chapter 32,
Kickstart Installations for more detail.
C.4. Creating Encrypted Block Devices on the Installed
System After Installation
Encrypted block devices can be created and configured after installation.
C.4.1. Create the block devices
Create the block devices you want to encrypt by using parted, pvcreate, lvcreate and mdadm.
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the device with random data
Filling <device> (eg: /dev/sda3) with random data before encrypting it greatly increases the strength
of the encryption. The downside is that it can take a very long time.
Warning
The commands below will destroy any existing data on the device.
• The best way, which provides high quality random data but takes a long time (several minutes per
gigabyte on most systems):
dd if=/dev/urandom of=<device>
• Fastest way, which provides lower quality random data:
badblocks -c 10240 -s -w -t random -v <device>
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Appendix C. Disk Encryption
C.4.3. Format the device as a dm-crypt/LUKS encrypted device
Warning
The command below will destroy any existing data on the device.
cryptsetup luksFormat <device>
Tip
For more information, read the cryptsetup(8) man page.
After supplying the passphrase twice the device will be formatted for use. To verify, use the following
command:
cryptsetup isLuks <device> && echo Success
To see a summary of the encryption information for the device, use the following command:
cryptsetup luksDump <device>
C.4.4. Create a mapping to allow access to the device's decrypted
contents
To access the device's decrypted contents, a mapping must be established using the kernel devicemapper.
It is useful to choose a meaningful name for this mapping. LUKS provides a UUID (Universally Unique
Identifier) for each device. This, unlike the device name (eg: /dev/sda3), is guaranteed to remain
constant as long as the LUKS header remains intact. To find a LUKS device's UUID, run the following
command:
cryptsetup luksUUID <device>
An example of a reliable, informative and unique mapping name would be luks-<uuid>, where
<uuid> is replaced with the device's LUKS UUID (eg: luks-50ec957a-5b5a-47ee-85e6f8085bbc97a8). This naming convention might seem unwieldy but is it not necessary to type it often.
cryptsetup luksOpen <device> <name>
There should now be a device node, /dev/mapper/<name>, which represents the decrypted device.
This block device can be read from and written to like any other unencrypted block device.
To see some information about the mapped device, use the following command:
dmsetup info <name>
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Create filesystems on the mapped device, or continue to build complex storage structures using the mapped device
Tip
For more information, read the dmsetup(8) man page.
C.4.5. Create filesystems on the mapped device, or continue to
build complex storage structures using the mapped device
Use the mapped device node (/dev/mapper/<name>) as any other block device. To create an ext2
filesystem on the mapped device, use the following command:
mke2fs /dev/mapper/<name>
To mount this filesystem on /mnt/test, use the following command:
Important
The directory /mnt/test must exist before executing this command.
mount /dev/mapper/<name> /mnt/test
C.4.6. Add the mapping information to /etc/crypttab
In order for the system to set up a mapping for the device, an entry must be present in the /etc/
crypttab file. If the file doesn't exist, create it and change the owner and group to root (root:root)
and change the mode to 0744. Add a line to the file with the following format:
<name>
<device>
none
The <device> field should be given in the form "UUID=<luks_uuid>", where <luks_uuid> is the LUKS
uuid as given by the command cryptsetup luksUUID <device>. This ensures the correct device
will be identified and used even if the device node (eg: /dev/sda5) changes.
Tip
For details on the format of the /etc/crypttab file, read the crypttab(5) man page.
C.4.7. Add an entry to /etc/fstab
Add an entry to /etc/fstab. This is only necessary if you want to establish a persistent association
between the device and a mountpoint. Use the decrypted device, /dev/mapper/<name> in the /
etc/fstab file.
In many cases it is desirable to list devices in /etc/fstab by UUID or by a filesystem label. The
main purpose of this is to provide a constant identifier in the event that the device name (eg: /dev/
sda4) changes. LUKS device names in the form of /dev/mapper/luks-<luks_uuid> are based
only on the device's LUKS UUID, and are therefore guaranteed to remain constant. This fact makes
them suitable for use in /etc/fstab.
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Appendix C. Disk Encryption
Title
For details on the format of the /etc/fstab file, read the fstab(5) man page.
C.5. Common Post-Installation Tasks
The following sections are about common post-installation tasks.
C.5.1. Set a randomly generated key as an additional way to access
an encrypted block device
These sections are about generating keys and adding keys.
C.5.1.1. Generate a key
This will generate a 256-bit key in the file $HOME/keyfile.
dd if=/dev/urandom of=$HOME/keyfile bs=32 count=1
chmod 600 $HOME/keyfile
C.5.1.2. Add the key to an available keyslot on the encrypted device
cryptsetup luksAddKey <device> ~/keyfile
C.5.2. Add a new passphrase to an existing device
cryptsetup luksAddKey <device>
After being prompted for any one of the existing passprases for authentication, you will be prompted to
enter the new passphrase.
C.5.3. Remove a passphrase or key from a device
cryptsetup luksRemoveKey <device>
You will be prompted for the passphrase you wish to remove and then for any one of the remaining
passphrases for authentication.
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Appendix D. Understanding LVM
LVM (Logical Volume Management) partitions provide a number of advantages over standard
partitions. LVM partitions are formatted as
physical volumes. One or more physical volumes are combined to form a
volume group. Each volume group's total storage is then divided into one or more
logical volumes. The logical volumes function much like standard partitions. They have a file system
type, such as ext4, and a mount point.
The /boot Partition and LVM
On most architectures, the boot loader cannot read LVM volumes. You must make a standard,
non-LVM disk partition for your /boot partition.
However, on System z, the zipl boot loader supports /boot on LVM logical volumes with linear
mapping.
To understand LVM better, imagine the physical volume as a pile of blocks. A block is simply a storage
unit used to store data. Several piles of blocks can be combined to make a much larger pile, just as
physical volumes are combined to make a volume group. The resulting pile can be subdivided into
several smaller piles of arbitrary size, just as a volume group is allocated to several logical volumes.
An administrator may grow or shrink logical volumes without destroying data, unlike standard disk
partitions. If the physical volumes in a volume group are on separate drives or RAID arrays then
administrators may also spread a logical volume across the storage devices.
You may lose data if you shrink a logical volume to a smaller capacity than the data on the volume
requires. To ensure maximum flexibility, create logical volumes to meet your current needs, and leave
excess storage capacity unallocated. You may safely grow logical volumes to use unallocated space,
as your needs dictate.
LVM and the Default Partition Layout
By default, the installation process creates / and swap partitions within LVM volumes, with a
separate /boot partition.
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482
Appendix E. The GRUB Boot Loader
When a computer running Linux is turned on, the operating system is loaded into memory by a special
program called a boot loader. A boot loader usually exists on the system's primary hard drive (or other
media device) and has the sole responsibility of loading the Linux kernel with its required files or (in
some cases) other operating systems into memory.
E.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
Each architecture capable of running Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a different boot loader. The
following table lists the boot loaders available for each architecture:
Table E.1. Boot Loaders by Architecture
Architecture
Boot Loaders
AMD® AMD64
GRUB
IBM® eServer™ System i™
OS/400®
IBM® eServer™ System p™
YABOOT
IBM® System z®
z/IPL
IBM® System z®
z/IPL
x86
GRUB
This appendix discusses commands and configuration options for the GRUB boot loader included with
Red Hat Enterprise Linux for the x86 architecture.
Important — Supported file systems
The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4
(recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs,
XFS, or VFAT.
E.2. GRUB
The GNU GRand Unified Boot loader (GRUB) is a program which enables the selection of the installed
operating system or kernel to be loaded at system boot time. It also allows the user to pass arguments
to the kernel.
E.2.1. GRUB and the x86 Boot Process
This section discusses the specific role GRUB plays when booting an x86 system. For a look at the
overall boot process, refer to Section F.2, “A Detailed Look at the Boot Process”.
GRUB loads itself into memory in the following stages:
1
1. The Stage 1 or primary boot loader is read into memory by the BIOS from the MBR . The primary
boot loader exists on less than 512 bytes of disk space within the MBR and is capable of loading
either the Stage 1.5 or Stage 2 boot loader.
2. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is read into memory by the Stage 1 boot loader, if necessary. Some
hardware requires an intermediate step to get to the Stage 2 boot loader. This is sometimes true
when the /boot/ partition is above the 1024 cylinder head of the hard drive or when using LBA
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Appendix E. The GRUB Boot Loader
mode. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is found either on the /boot/ partition or on a small part of the
MBR and the /boot/ partition.
3. The Stage 2 or secondary boot loader is read into memory. The secondary boot loader displays
the GRUB menu and command environment. This interface allows the user to select which kernel
or operating system to boot, pass arguments to the kernel, or look at system parameters.
4. The secondary boot loader reads the operating system or kernel as well as the contents of /
boot/sysroot/ into memory. Once GRUB determines which operating system or kernel to start,
it loads it into memory and transfers control of the machine to that operating system.
The method used to boot Linux is called direct loading because the boot loader loads the operating
system directly. There is no intermediary between the boot loader and the kernel.
The boot process used by other operating systems may differ. For example, the Microsoft® Windows®
operating system, as well as other operating systems, are loaded using chain loading. Under this
method, the MBR points to the first sector of the partition holding the operating system, where it finds
the files necessary to actually boot that operating system.
GRUB supports both direct and chain loading boot methods, allowing it to boot almost any operating
system.
Warning
During installation, Microsoft's DOS and Windows installation programs completely overwrite the
MBR, destroying any existing boot loaders. If creating a dual-boot system, it is best to install the
Microsoft operating system first.
E.2.2. Features of GRUB
GRUB contains several features that make it preferable to other boot loaders available for the x86
architecture. Below is a partial list of some of the more important features:
• GRUB provides a true command-based, pre-OS environment on x86 machines. This feature
affords the user maximum flexibility in loading operating systems with specified options or gathering
information about the system. For years, many non-x86 architectures have employed pre-OS
environments that allow system booting from a command line.
• GRUB supports Logical Block Addressing (LBA) mode. LBA places the addressing conversion used
to find files in the hard drive's firmware, and is used on many IDE and all SCSI hard devices. Before
LBA, boot loaders could encounter the 1024-cylinder BIOS limitation, where the BIOS could not find
a file after the 1024 cylinder head of the disk. LBA support allows GRUB to boot operating systems
from partitions beyond the 1024-cylinder limit, so long as the system BIOS supports LBA mode.
Most modern BIOS revisions support LBA mode.
• GRUB can read ext2 partitions. This functionality allows GRUB to access its configuration file, /
boot/grub/grub.conf, every time the system boots, eliminating the need for the user to write
a new version of the first stage boot loader to the MBR when configuration changes are made.
The only time a user needs to reinstall GRUB on the MBR is if the physical location of the /boot/
partition is moved on the disk. For details on installing GRUB to the MBR, refer to Section E.3,
“Installing GRUB”.
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Installing GRUB
E.3. Installing GRUB
If GRUB was not installed during the installation process, it can be installed afterward. Once installed,
it automatically becomes the default boot loader.
Before installing GRUB, make sure to use the latest GRUB package available or use the GRUB
package from the installation DVD. For instructions on installing packages, refer to the chapter titled
Package Management with RPM in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
Once the GRUB package is installed, open a root shell prompt and run the command /sbin/grubinstall <location>, where <location> is the location that the GRUB Stage 1 boot loader
should be installed. For example, the following command installs GRUB to the MBR of the master IDE
device on the primary IDE bus:
/sbin/grub-install /dev/hda
The next time the system boots, the GRUB graphical boot loader menu appears before the kernel
loads into memory.
Important — GRUB and RAID
GRUB cannot construct a software RAID. Therefore, the /boot directory must reside on a single,
specific disk partition. The /boot directory cannot be striped across multiple disks, as in a level
0 RAID. To use a level 0 RAID on your system, place /boot on a separate partition outside the
RAID.
Similarly, because the /boot directory must reside on a single, specific disk partition, GRUB
cannot boot the system if the disk holding that partition fails or is removed from the system. This
is true even if the disk is mirrored in a level 1 RAID. The following Red Hat Knowledgebase
article describes how to make the system bootable from another disk in the mirrored set: http://
kbase.redhat.com/faq/docs/DOC-7095
Note that these issues apply only to RAID that is implemented in software, where the individual
disks that make up the array are still visible as individual disks on the system. These issues do
not apply to hardware RAID where multiple disks are represented as a single device.
E.4. GRUB Terminology
One of the most important things to understand before using GRUB is how the program refers to
devices, such as hard drives and partitions. This information is particularly important when configuring
GRUB to boot multiple operating systems.
E.4.1. Device Names
When referring to a specific device with GRUB, do so using the following format (note that the
parentheses and comma are very important syntactically):
(<type-of-device><bios-device-number>,<partition-number>)
The <type-of-device> specifies the type of device from which GRUB boots. The two most
common options are hd for a hard disk or fd for a 3.5 diskette. A lesser used device type is also
available called nd for a network disk. Instructions on configuring GRUB to boot over the network are
available online at http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
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Appendix E. The GRUB Boot Loader
The <bios-device-number> is the BIOS device number. The primary IDE hard drive is numbered
0 and a secondary IDE hard drive is numbered 1. This syntax is roughly equivalent to that used for
devices by the kernel. For example, the a in hda for the kernel is analogous to the 0 in hd0 for GRUB,
the b in hdb is analogous to the 1 in hd1, and so on.
The <partition-number> specifies the number of a partition on a device. Like the <biosdevice-number>, most types of partitions are numbered starting at 0. However, BSD partitions are
specified using letters, with a corresponding to 0, b corresponding to 1, and so on.
Note
The numbering system for devices under GRUB always begins with 0, not 1. Failing to make this
distinction is one of the most common mistakes made by new users.
To give an example, if a system has more than one hard drive, GRUB refers to the first hard drive
as (hd0) and the second as (hd1). Likewise, GRUB refers to the first partition on the first drive as
(hd0,0) and the third partition on the second hard drive as (hd1,2).
In general the following rules apply when naming devices and partitions under GRUB:
• It does not matter if system hard drives are IDE or SCSI, all hard drives begin with the letters hd.
The letters fd are used to specify 3.5 diskettes.
• To specify an entire device without respect to partitions, leave off the comma and the partition
number. This is important when telling GRUB to configure the MBR for a particular disk. For
example, (hd0) specifies the MBR on the first device and (hd3) specifies the MBR on the fourth
device.
• If a system has multiple drive devices, it is very important to know how the drive boot order is set
in the BIOS. This is a simple task if a system has only IDE or SCSI drives, but if there is a mix of
devices, it becomes critical that the type of drive with the boot partition be accessed first.
E.4.2. File Names and Blocklists
When typing commands to GRUB that reference a file, such as a menu list, it is necessary to specify
an absolute file path immediately after the device and partition numbers.
The following illustrates the structure of such a command:
(<device-type><device-number>,<partition-number>)</path/to/file>
In this example, replace <device-type> with hd, fd, or nd. Replace <device-number> with the
integer for the device. Replace </path/to/file> with an absolute path relative to the top-level of
the device.
It is also possible to specify files to GRUB that do not actually appear in the file system, such as a
chain loader that appears in the first few blocks of a partition. To load such files, provide a blocklist
that specifies block by block where the file is located in the partition. Since a file is often comprised
of several different sets of blocks, blocklists use a special syntax. Each block containing the file is
specified by an offset number of blocks, followed by the number of blocks from that offset point. Block
offsets are listed sequentially in a comma-delimited list.
The following is a sample blocklist:
486
The Root File System and GRUB
0+50,100+25,200+1
This sample blocklist specifies a file that starts at the first block on the partition and uses blocks 0
through 49, 100 through 124, and 200.
Knowing how to write blocklists is useful when using GRUB to load operating systems which require
chain loading. It is possible to leave off the offset number of blocks if starting at block 0. As an
example, the chain loading file in the first partition of the first hard drive would have the following
name:
(hd0,0)+1
The following shows the chainloader command with a similar blocklist designation at the GRUB
command line after setting the correct device and partition as root:
chainloader +1
E.4.3. The Root File System and GRUB
The use of the term root file system has a different meaning in regard to GRUB. It is important to
remember that GRUB's root file system has nothing to do with the Linux root file system.
The GRUB root file system is the top level of the specified device. For example, the image file
(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz is located within the /grub/ directory at the top-level (or root) of
the (hd0,0) partition (which is actually the /boot/ partition for the system).
Next, the kernel command is executed with the location of the kernel file as an option. Once the
Linux kernel boots, it sets up the root file system that Linux users are familiar with. The original GRUB
root file system and its mounts are forgotten; they only existed to boot the kernel file.
Refer to the root and kernel commands in Section E.6, “GRUB Commands” for more information.
E.5. GRUB Interfaces
GRUB features three interfaces which provide different levels of functionality. Each of these interfaces
allows users to boot the Linux kernel or another operating system.
The interfaces are as follows:
Note
The following GRUB interfaces can only be accessed by pressing any key within the three
seconds of the GRUB menu bypass screen.
Menu Interface
This is the default interface shown when GRUB is configured by the installation program. A menu
of operating systems or preconfigured kernels are displayed as a list, ordered by name. Use the
arrow keys to select an operating system or kernel version and press the Enter key to boot it. If
you do nothing on this screen, then after the time out period expires GRUB will load the default
option.
Press the e key to enter the entry editor interface or the c key to load a command line interface.
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Appendix E. The GRUB Boot Loader
Refer to Section E.7, “GRUB Menu Configuration File” for more information on configuring this
interface.
Menu Entry Editor Interface
To access the menu entry editor, press the e key from the boot loader menu. The GRUB
commands for that entry are displayed here, and users may alter these command lines before
booting the operating system by adding a command line (o inserts a new line after the current line
and O inserts a new line before it), editing one (e), or deleting one (d).
After all changes are made, the b key executes the commands and boots the operating system.
The Esc key discards any changes and reloads the standard menu interface. The c key loads the
command line interface.
Note
For information about changing runlevels using the GRUB menu entry editor, refer to
Section E.8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
Command Line Interface
The command line interface is the most basic GRUB interface, but it is also the one that grants
the most control. The command line makes it possible to type any relevant GRUB commands
followed by the Enter key to execute them. This interface features some advanced shell-like
features, including Tab key completion based on context, and Ctrl key combinations when typing
commands, such as Ctrl+a to move to the beginning of a line and Ctrl+e to move to the end of
a line. In addition, the arrow, Home, End, and Delete keys work as they do in the bash shell.
Refer to Section E.6, “GRUB Commands” for a list of common commands.
E.5.1. Interfaces Load Order
When GRUB loads its second stage boot loader, it first searches for its configuration file. Once found,
the menu interface bypass screen is displayed. If a key is pressed within three seconds, GRUB builds
a menu list and displays the menu interface. If no key is pressed, the default kernel entry in the GRUB
menu is used.
If the configuration file cannot be found, or if the configuration file is unreadable, GRUB loads the
command line interface, allowing the user to type commands to complete the boot process.
If the configuration file is not valid, GRUB prints out the error and asks for input. This helps the user
see precisely where the problem occurred. Pressing any key reloads the menu interface, where it is
then possible to edit the menu option and correct the problem based on the error reported by GRUB. If
the correction fails, GRUB reports an error and reloads the menu interface.
E.6. GRUB Commands
GRUB allows a number of useful commands in its command line interface. Some of the commands
accept options after their name; these options should be separated from the command and other
options on that line by space characters.
The following is a list of useful commands:
• boot — Boots the operating system or chain loader that was last loaded.
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GRUB Commands
• chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. If the file is
located on the first sector of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1, instead of the file
name.
The following is an example chainloader command:
chainloader +1
• displaymem — Displays the current use of memory, based on information from the BIOS. This is
useful to determine how much RAM a system has prior to booting it.
• initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use when
booting. An initrd is necessary when the kernel needs certain modules in order to boot properly,
such as when the root partition is formatted with the ext3 or ext4 file system.
The following is an example initrd command:
initrd /initrd-2.6.8-1.523.img
• install <stage-1> <install-disk> <stage-2> p config-file — Installs GRUB to the
system MBR.
• <stage-1> — Signifies a device, partition, and file where the first boot loader image can be
found, such as (hd0,0)/grub/stage1.
• <install-disk> — Specifies the disk where the stage 1 boot loader should be installed, such
as (hd0).
• <stage-2> — Passes the stage 2 boot loader location to the stage 1 boot loader, such as
(hd0,0)/grub/stage2.
• p <config-file> — This option tells the install command to look for the menu configuration
file specified by <config-file>, such as (hd0,0)/grub/grub.conf.
Warning
The install command overwrites any information already located on the MBR.
• kernel </path/to/kernel> <option-1> <option-N> ... — Specifies the kernel file to load
when booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an absolute path from the
partition specified by the root command. Replace <option-1> with options for the Linux kernel,
such as root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 to specify the device on which the root partition for
the system is located. Multiple options can be passed to the kernel in a space separated list.
The following is an example kernel command:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.8-1.523 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
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Appendix E. The GRUB Boot Loader
The option in the previous example specifies that the root file system for Linux is located on the
hda5 partition.
• root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root partition for
GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
The following is an example root command:
root (hd0,0)
• rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the partition.
Other commands are also available; type help --all for a full list of commands. For a description of
all GRUB commands, refer to the documentation available online at http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/
manual/.
E.7. GRUB Menu Configuration File
The configuration file (/boot/grub/grub.conf), which is used to create the list of operating
systems to boot in GRUB's menu interface, essentially allows the user to select a pre-set group of
commands to execute. The commands given in Section E.6, “GRUB Commands” can be used, as well
as some special commands that are only available in the configuration file.
E.7.1. Configuration File Structure
The GRUB menu interface configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.conf. The commands to set the
global preferences for the menu interface are placed at the top of the file, followed by stanzas for each
operating kernel or operating system listed in the menu.
The following is a very basic GRUB menu configuration file designed to boot either Red Hat Enterprise
Linux or Microsoft Windows Vista:
default=0
timeout=10
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-2.el5PAE)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-2.el5PAE ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-2.el5PAE.img
# section to load Windows
title Windows
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1
This file configures GRUB to build a menu with Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the default operating
system and sets it to autoboot after 10 seconds. Two sections are given, one for each operating
system entry, with commands specific to the system disk partition table.
490
Configuration File Directives
Note
Note that the default is specified as an integer. This refers to the first title line in the GRUB
configuration file. For the Windows section to be set as the default in the previous example,
change the default=0 to default=1.
Configuring a GRUB menu configuration file to boot multiple operating systems is beyond the scope of
this chapter. Consult Section E.9, “Additional Resources” for a list of additional resources.
E.7.2. Configuration File Directives
The following are directives commonly used in the GRUB menu configuration file:
• chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. Replace </
path/to/file> with the absolute path to the chain loader. If the file is located on the first sector of
the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1.
• color <normal-color> <selected-color> — Allows specific colors to be used in the menu,
where two colors are configured as the foreground and background. Use simple color names such
as red/black. For example:
color red/black green/blue
• default=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the default entry title number to be loaded if the
menu interface times out.
• fallback=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the entry title number to try if the first attempt
fails.
• hiddenmenu — Prevents the GRUB menu interface from being displayed, loading the default
entry when the timeout period expires. The user can see the standard GRUB menu by pressing
the Esc key.
• initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use when
booting. Replace </path/to/initrd> with the absolute path to the initial RAM disk.
• kernel </path/to/kernel> <option-1> <option-N> — Specifies the kernel file to load
when booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an absolute path from
the partition specified by the root directive. Multiple options can be passed to the kernel when it is
loaded.
These options include:
• rhgb (Red Hat graphical boot) — displays an animation during the boot process, rather than lines
of text.
• quiet — suppresses all but the most important messages in the part of the boot sequence
before the Red Hat graphical boot animation begins.
• password=<password> — Prevents a user who does not know the password from editing the
entries for this menu option.
Optionally, it is possible to specify an alternate menu configuration file after the
password=<password> directive. In this case, GRUB restarts the second stage boot loader and
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Appendix E. The GRUB Boot Loader
uses the specified alternate configuration file to build the menu. If an alternate menu configuration
file is left out of the command, a user who knows the password is allowed to edit the current
configuration file.
For more information about securing GRUB, refer to the chapter titled Workstation Security in the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• map — Swaps the numbers assigned to two hard drives. For example:
map (hd0) (hd3)
map (hd3) (hd0)
assigns the number 0 to the fourth hard drive, and the number 3 to the first hard drive. This option
is especially useful if you configure your system with an option to boot a Windows operating system,
becausehe Windows boot loader must find the Windows installation on the first hard drive.
For example, if your Windows installation is on the fourth hard drive, the following entry in
grub.conf will allow the Windows boot loader to load Windows correctly:
title Windows
map (hd0) (hd3)
map (hd3) (hd0)
rootnoverify (hd3,0)
chainloader +1
• root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root partition for
GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
• rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the partition.
• timeout=<integer> — Specifies the interval, in seconds, that GRUB waits before loading the
entry designated in the default command.
• splashimage=<path-to-image> — Specifies the location of the splash screen image to be
used when GRUB boots.
• title group-title — Specifies a title to be used with a particular group of commands used to
load a kernel or operating system.
To add human-readable comments to the menu configuration file, begin the line with the hash mark
character (#).
E.8. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
Under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time.
To change the runlevel of a single boot session, use the following instructions:
• When the GRUB menu bypass screen appears at boot time, press any key to enter the GRUB menu
(within the first three seconds).
• Press the a key to append to the kernel command.
• Add <space><runlevel> at the end of the boot options line to boot to the desired runlevel. For
example, the following entry would initiate a boot process into runlevel 3:
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Additional Resources
grub append> ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet 3
E.9. Additional Resources
This chapter is only intended as an introduction to GRUB. Consult the following resources to discover
more about how GRUB works.
E.9.1. Installed Documentation
• /usr/share/doc/grub-<version-number>/ — This directory contains good information about
using and configuring GRUB, where <version-number> corresponds to the version of the GRUB
package installed.
• info grub — The GRUB info page contains a tutorial, a user reference manual, a programmer
reference manual, and a FAQ document about GRUB and its usage.
E.9.2. Useful Websites
2
• http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ — The home page of the GNU GRUB project. This site contains
information concerning the state of GRUB development and an FAQ.
• http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/docs/DOC-6864 — Details booting operating systems other than Linux.
E.9.3. Related Books
• Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide; Red Hat, Inc. — The Workstation Security chapter
explains, in a concise manner, how to secure the GRUB boot loader.
You can find the current version of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide at http://
www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/. In the version of the book for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5, the relevant section is 43.1.2. BIOS and Boot Loader Security: http://www.redhat.com/docs/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/5/html/Deployment_Guide/ch-sec-network.html#s1-wstation-bootsec.
493
494
Appendix F. Boot Process, Init, and
Shutdown
An important and powerful aspect of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the open, user-configurable method it
uses for starting the operating system. Users are free to configure many aspects of the boot process,
including specifying the programs launched at boot-time. Similarly, system shutdown gracefully
terminates processes in an organized and configurable way, although customization of this process is
rarely required.
Understanding how the boot and shutdown processes work not only allows customization, but also
makes it easier to troubleshoot problems related to starting or shutting down the system.
F.1. The Boot Process
Below are the basic stages of the boot process for an x86 system:
1. The system BIOS checks the system and launches the first stage boot loader on the MBR of the
primary hard disk.
2. The first stage boot loader loads itself into memory and launches the second stage boot loader
from the /boot/ partition.
3. The second stage boot loader loads the kernel into memory, which in turn loads any necessary
modules and mounts the root partition read-only.
4. The kernel transfers control of the boot process to the /sbin/init program.
5. The /sbin/init program loads all services and user-space tools, and mounts all partitions listed
in /etc/fstab.
6. The user is presented with a login screen for the freshly booted Linux system.
Because configuration of the boot process is more common than the customization of the shutdown
process, the remainder of this chapter discusses in detail how the boot process works and how it can
be customized to suite specific needs.
F.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
The beginning of the boot process varies depending on the hardware platform being used. However,
once the kernel is found and loaded by the boot loader, the default boot process is identical across all
architectures. This chapter focuses primarily on the x86 architecture.
F.2.1. The BIOS
When an x86 computer is booted, the processor looks at the end of system memory for the Basic
Input/Output System or BIOS program and runs it. The BIOS controls not only the first step of the boot
process, but also provides the lowest level interface to peripheral devices. For this reason it is written
into read-only, permanent memory and is always available for use.
Other platforms use different programs to perform low-level tasks roughly equivalent to those of the
BIOS on an x86 system.
Once loaded, the BIOS tests the system, looks for and checks peripherals, and then locates a valid
device with which to boot the system. Usually, it checks any diskette drives and optical drives present
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Appendix F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
for bootable media, then, failing that, looks to the system's hard drives. In most cases, the order of the
drives searched while booting is controlled with a setting in the BIOS, and it looks on the master IDE
device on the primary IDE bus. The BIOS then loads into memory whatever program is residing in the
first sector of this device, called the Master Boot Record or MBR. The MBR is only 512 bytes in size
and contains machine code instructions for booting the machine, called a boot loader, along with the
partition table. Once the BIOS finds and loads the boot loader program into memory, it yields control of
the boot process to it.
F.2.2. The Boot Loader
This section looks at the default boot loader for the x86 platform, GRUB. Depending on the system's
architecture, the boot process may differ slightly. Refer to Section F.2.2.1, “Boot Loaders for Other
Architectures” for a brief overview of non-x86 boot loaders. For more information about configuring
and using GRUB, see Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader.
A boot loader for the x86 platform is broken into at least two stages. The first stage is a small machine
code binary on the MBR. Its sole job is to locate the second stage boot loader and load the first part of
it into memory.
1
GRUB has the advantage of being able to read ext2, ext3, and ext4 partitions and load its
configuration file — /boot/grub/grub.conf — at boot time. Refer to Section E.7, “GRUB Menu
Configuration File” for information on how to edit this file.
Important — Supported file systems
The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems.
It does not support other file systems such as VFAT, Btrfs or XFS. Furthermore, GRUB does not
support LVM.
Note
If upgrading the kernel using the Red Hat Update Agent, the boot loader configuration file is
updated automatically. More information on Red Hat Network can be found online at the following
URL: https://rhn.redhat.com/.
Once the second stage boot loader is in memory, it presents the user with a graphical screen showing
the different operating systems or kernels it has been configured to boot. On this screen a user can
use the arrow keys to choose which operating system or kernel they wish to boot and press Enter. If
no key is pressed, the boot loader loads the default selection after a configurable period of time has
passed.
Once the second stage boot loader has determined which kernel to boot, it locates the corresponding
kernel binary in the /boot/ directory. The kernel binary is named using the following format — /
boot/vmlinuz-<kernel-version> file (where <kernel-version> corresponds to the kernel
version specified in the boot loader's settings).
For instructions on using the boot loader to supply command line arguments to the kernel, refer to
Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader. For information on changing the runlevel at the boot loader
prompt, refer Section E.8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
1
GRUB reads ext3 and ext4 file systems as ext2, disregarding the journal file.
496
The Kernel
The boot loader then places one or more appropriate initramfs images into memory. Next, the kernel
decompresses these images from memory to /sysroot/, a RAM-based virtual file system, via cpio.
The initramfs is used by the kernel to load drivers and modules necessary to boot the system.
This is particularly important if SCSI hard drives are present or if the systems use the ext3 or ext4 file
system.
Once the kernel and the initramfs image(s) are loaded into memory, the boot loader hands control
of the boot process to the kernel.
For a more detailed overview of the GRUB boot loader, refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader.
F.2.2.1. Boot Loaders for Other Architectures
Once the kernel loads and hands off the boot process to the init command, the same sequence of
events occurs on every architecture. So the main difference between each architecture's boot process
is in the application used to find and load the kernel.
For example, the IBM eServer pSeries architecture uses yaboot, and the IBM System z systems use
the z/IPL boot loader.
Consult the sections of this guide specific to these platforms for information on configuring their boot
loaders.
F.2.3. The Kernel
When the kernel is loaded, it immediately initializes and configures the computer's memory and
configures the various hardware attached to the system, including all processors, I/O subsystems,
and storage devices. It then looks for the compressed initramfs image(s) in a predetermined
location in memory, decompresses it directly to /sysroot/, and loads all necessary drivers. Next, it
initializes virtual devices related to the file system, such as LVM or software RAID, before completing
the initramfs processes and freeing up all the memory the disk image once occupied.
The kernel then creates a root device, mounts the root partition read-only, and frees any unused
memory.
At this point, the kernel is loaded into memory and operational. However, since there are no user
applications that allow meaningful input to the system, not much can be done with the system.
To set up the user environment, the kernel executes the /sbin/init program.
F.2.4. The /sbin/init Program
The /sbin/init program (also called init) coordinates the rest of the boot process and configures
the environment for the user.
When the init command starts, it becomes the parent or grandparent of all of the processes that
start up automatically on the system. First, it runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script, which sets
the environment path, starts swap, checks the file systems, and executes all other steps required
for system initialization. For example, most systems use a clock, so rc.sysinit reads the /etc/
sysconfig/clock configuration file to initialize the hardware clock. Another example is if there are
special serial port processes which must be initialized, rc.sysinit executes the /etc/rc.serial
file.
The init command then processes the jobs in the /etc/event.d directory, which describe how
the system should be set up in each SysV init runlevel. Runlevels are a state, or mode, defined by the
services listed in the SysV /etc/rc.d/rc<x>.d/ directory, where <x> is the number of the runlevel.
For more information on SysV init runlevels, refer to Section F.4, “SysV Init Runlevels”.
497
Appendix F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
Next, the init command sets the source function library, /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions, for the
system, which configures how to start, kill, and determine the PID of a program.
The init program starts all of the background processes by looking in the appropriate rc directory
for the runlevel specified as the default in /etc/inittab. The rc directories are numbered to
correspond to the runlevel they represent. For instance, /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ is the directory for
runlevel 5.
When booting to runlevel 5, the init program looks in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory to
determine which processes to start and stop.
Below is an example listing of the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory:
K05innd -> ../init.d/innd
K05saslauthd -> ../init.d/saslauthd
K10dc_server -> ../init.d/dc_server
K10psacct -> ../init.d/psacct
K10radiusd -> ../init.d/radiusd
K12dc_client -> ../init.d/dc_client
K12FreeWnn -> ../init.d/FreeWnn
K12mailman -> ../init.d/mailman
K12mysqld -> ../init.d/mysqld
K15httpd -> ../init.d/httpd
K20netdump-server -> ../init.d/netdump-server
K20rstatd -> ../init.d/rstatd
K20rusersd -> ../init.d/rusersd
K20rwhod -> ../init.d/rwhod
K24irda -> ../init.d/irda
K25squid -> ../init.d/squid
K28amd -> ../init.d/amd
K30spamassassin -> ../init.d/spamassassin
K34dhcrelay -> ../init.d/dhcrelay
K34yppasswdd -> ../init.d/yppasswdd
K35dhcpd -> ../init.d/dhcpd
K35smb -> ../init.d/smb
K35vncserver -> ../init.d/vncserver
K36lisa -> ../init.d/lisa
K45arpwatch -> ../init.d/arpwatch
K45named -> ../init.d/named
K46radvd -> ../init.d/radvd
K50netdump -> ../init.d/netdump
K50snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
K50snmptrapd -> ../init.d/snmptrapd
K50tux -> ../init.d/tux
K50vsftpd -> ../init.d/vsftpd
K54dovecot -> ../init.d/dovecot
K61ldap -> ../init.d/ldap
K65kadmin -> ../init.d/kadmin
K65kprop -> ../init.d/kprop
K65krb524 -> ../init.d/krb524
K65krb5kdc -> ../init.d/krb5kdc
K70aep1000 -> ../init.d/aep1000
K70bcm5820 -> ../init.d/bcm5820
K74ypserv -> ../init.d/ypserv
K74ypxfrd -> ../init.d/ypxfrd
K85mdmpd -> ../init.d/mdmpd
K89netplugd -> ../init.d/netplugd
K99microcode_ctl -> ../init.d/microcode_ctl
S04readahead_early -> ../init.d/readahead_early
S05kudzu -> ../init.d/kudzu
S06cpuspeed -> ../init.d/cpuspeed
S08ip6tables -> ../init.d/ip6tables
S08iptables -> ../init.d/iptables
S09isdn -> ../init.d/isdn
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The /sbin/init Program
S10network -> ../init.d/network
S12syslog -> ../init.d/syslog
S13irqbalance -> ../init.d/irqbalance
S13portmap -> ../init.d/portmap
S15mdmonitor -> ../init.d/mdmonitor
S15zebra -> ../init.d/zebra
S16bgpd -> ../init.d/bgpd
S16ospf6d -> ../init.d/ospf6d
S16ospfd -> ../init.d/ospfd
S16ripd -> ../init.d/ripd
S16ripngd -> ../init.d/ripngd
S20random -> ../init.d/random
S24pcmcia -> ../init.d/pcmcia
S25netfs -> ../init.d/netfs
S26apmd -> ../init.d/apmd
S27ypbind -> ../init.d/ypbind
S28autofs -> ../init.d/autofs
S40smartd -> ../init.d/smartd
S44acpid -> ../init.d/acpid
S54hpoj -> ../init.d/hpoj
S55cups -> ../init.d/cups
S55sshd -> ../init.d/sshd
S56rawdevices -> ../init.d/rawdevices
S56xinetd -> ../init.d/xinetd
S58ntpd -> ../init.d/ntpd
S75postgresql -> ../init.d/postgresql
S80sendmail -> ../init.d/sendmail
S85gpm -> ../init.d/gpm
S87iiim -> ../init.d/iiim
S90canna -> ../init.d/canna
S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
S90xfs -> ../init.d/xfs
S95atd -> ../init.d/atd
S96readahead -> ../init.d/readahead
S97messagebus -> ../init.d/messagebus
S97rhnsd -> ../init.d/rhnsd
S99local -> ../rc.local
As illustrated in this listing, none of the scripts that actually start and stop the services are located in
the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory. Rather, all of the files in /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ are symbolic links
pointing to scripts located in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory. Symbolic links are used in each of
the rc directories so that the runlevels can be reconfigured by creating, modifying, and deleting the
symbolic links without affecting the actual scripts they reference.
The name of each symbolic link begins with either a K or an S. The K links are processes that are
killed on that runlevel, while those beginning with an S are started.
The init command first stops all of the K symbolic links in the directory by issuing the /etc/rc.d/
init.d/<command> stop command, where <command> is the process to be killed. It then starts all
of the S symbolic links by issuing /etc/rc.d/init.d/<command> start.
Note
After the system is finished booting, it is possible to log in as root and execute these same scripts
to start and stop services. For instance, the command /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd stop stops
the Apache HTTP Server.
Each of the symbolic links are numbered to dictate start order. The order in which the services are
started or stopped can be altered by changing this number. The lower the number, the earlier it is
started. Symbolic links with the same number are started alphabetically.
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Appendix F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
Note
One of the last things the init program executes is the /etc/rc.d/rc.local file. This file
is useful for system customization. Refer to Section F.3, “Running Additional Programs at Boot
Time” for more information about using the rc.local file.
After the init command has progressed through the appropriate rc directory for the runlevel,
Upstart forks an /sbin/mingetty process for each virtual console (login prompt) allocated to the
runlevel by the job definition in the /etc/event.d directory. Runlevels 2 through 5 have all six virtual
consoles, while runlevel 1 (single user mode) has one, and runlevels 0 and 6 have none. The /sbin/
2
mingetty process opens communication pathways to tty devices , sets their modes, prints the login
prompt, accepts the user's username and password, and initiates the login process.
In runlevel 5, Upstart runs a script called /etc/X11/prefdm. The prefdm script executes the
3
preferred X display manager — gdm, kdm, or xdm, depending on the contents of the /etc/
sysconfig/desktop file.
Once finished, the system operates on runlevel 5 and displays a login screen.
F.2.5. Job definitions
Previously, the sysvinit package provided the init daemon for the default configuration. When the
system started, this init daemon ran the /etc/inittab script to start system processes defined
for each runlevel. The default configuration now uses an event-driven init daemon provided by the
Upstart package. Whenever particular events occur, the init daemon processes jobs stored in the /
etc/event.d directory. The init daemon recognises the start of the system as such an event.
Each job typically specifies a program, and the events that trigger init to run or to stop the program.
Some jobs are constructed as tasks, which perform actions and then terminate until another event
triggers the job again. Other jobs are constructed as services, which init keeps running until another
event (or the user) stops it.
For example, the /etc/events.d/tty2 job is a service to maintain a virtual terminal on tty2 from
the time that the system starts until the system shuts down, or another event (such as a change in
runlevel) stops the job. The job is constructed so that init will restart the virtual terminal if it stops
unexpecedly during that time:
# tty2 - getty
#
# This service maintains a getty on tty2 from the point the system is
# started until it is shut down again.
start
start
start
start
on
on
on
on
stopped
stopped
stopped
started
rc2
rc3
rc4
prefdm
stop on runlevel 0
stop on runlevel 1
stop on runlevel 6
2
3
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information about tty devices.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information about display managers.
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Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
respawn
exec /sbin/mingetty tty2
F.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
The /etc/rc.d/rc.local script is executed by the init command at boot time or when changing
runlevels. Adding commands to the bottom of this script is an easy way to perform necessary tasks
like starting special services or initialize devices without writing complex initialization scripts in the /
etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory and creating symbolic links.
The /etc/rc.serial script is used if serial ports must be setup at boot time. This script runs
setserial commands to configure the system's serial ports. Refer to the setserial man page for
more information.
F.4. SysV Init Runlevels
The SysV init runlevel system provides a standard process for controlling which programs init
launches or halts when initializing a runlevel. SysV init was chosen because it is easier to use and
more flexible than the traditional BSD-style init process.
The configuration files for SysV init are located in the /etc/rc.d/ directory. Within this directory,
are the rc, rc.local, rc.sysinit, and, optionally, the rc.serial scripts as well as the following
directories:
init.d/ rc0.d/ rc1.d/ rc2.d/ rc3.d/ rc4.d/ rc5.d/ rc6.d/
The init.d/ directory contains the scripts used by the /sbin/init command when controlling
services. Each of the numbered directories represent the six runlevels configured by default under
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
F.4.1. Runlevels
The idea behind SysV init runlevels revolves around the idea that different systems can be used in
different ways. For example, a server runs more efficiently without the drag on system resources
created by the X Window System. Or there may be times when a system administrator may need
to operate the system at a lower runlevel to perform diagnostic tasks, like fixing disk corruption in
runlevel 1.
The characteristics of a given runlevel determine which services are halted and started by init.
For instance, runlevel 1 (single user mode) halts any network services, while runlevel 3 starts these
services. By assigning specific services to be halted or started on a given runlevel, init can quickly
change the mode of the machine without the user manually stopping and starting services.
The following runlevels are defined by default under Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
• 0 — Halt
• 1 — Single-user text mode
• 2 — Not used (user-definable)
• 3 — Full multi-user text mode
• 4 — Not used (user-definable)
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Appendix F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
• 5 — Full multi-user graphical mode (with an X-based login screen)
• 6 — Reboot
In general, users operate Red Hat Enterprise Linux at runlevel 3 or runlevel 5 — both full multi-user
modes. Users sometimes customize runlevels 2 and 4 to meet specific needs, since they are not used.
The default runlevel for the system is listed in /etc/inittab. To find out the default runlevel for a
system, look for the line similar to the following near the bottom of /etc/inittab:
id:5:initdefault:
The default runlevel listed in this example is five, as the number after the first colon indicates. To
change it, edit /etc/inittab as root.
Warning
Be very careful when editing /etc/inittab. Simple typos can cause the system to become
unbootable. If this happens, either use a boot diskette, enter single-user mode, or enter rescue
mode to boot the computer and repair the file.
For more information on single-user and rescue mode, refer to the chapter titled Basic System
Recovery in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
It is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time by modifying the arguments passed by the
boot loader to the kernel. For information on changing the runlevel at boot time, refer to Section E.8,
“Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities
One of the best ways to configure runlevels is to use an initscript utility. These tools are designed
to simplify the task of maintaining files in the SysV init directory hierarchy and relieves system
administrators from having to directly manipulate the numerous symbolic links in the subdirectories of
/etc/rc.d/.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides three such utilities:
• /sbin/chkconfig — The /sbin/chkconfig utility is a simple command line tool for maintaining
the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory hierarchy.
• /usr/sbin/ntsysv — The ncurses-based /sbin/ntsysv utility provides an interactive text-based
interface, which some find easier to use than chkconfig.
• Services Configuration Tool — The graphical Services Configuration Tool (system-configservices) program is a flexible utility for configuring runlevels.
Refer to the chapter titled Controlling Access to Services in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide for more information regarding these tools.
F.5. Shutting Down
To shut down Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the root user may issue the /sbin/shutdown command.
The shutdown man page has a complete list of options, but the two most common uses are:
502
Shutting Down
/sbin/shutdown -h now
and
/sbin/shutdown -r now
After shutting everything down, the -h option halts the machine, and the -r option reboots.
PAM console users can use the reboot and halt commands to shut down the system while in
runlevels 1 through 5. For more information about PAM console users, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Deployment Guide.
If the computer does not power itself down, be careful not to turn off the computer until a message
appears indicating that the system is halted.
Failure to wait for this message can mean that not all the hard drive partitions are unmounted, which
can lead to file system corruption.
503
504
Appendix G. Alternatives to busybox
commands
Unlike previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not include
a version of busybox to provide shell commands in the pre-installation and post-installation
environments. Table G.1, “Alternatives to busybox commands” contains a list of busybox commands,
equivalent ways to implement the same functionality in bash, and the availability of these alternatives
in the %pre and %post environments. The table also indicates the exact path to the command,
although you do not generally need to specify the path because the PATH environment variable is set
in the installation environment.
If a command is only available in %post, the command is running on the target system and its
availability therefore depends on whether the package that provides the command is installed. Every
command that appears in the "New command or alternative" column of Table G.1, “Alternatives to
busybox commands” is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, although not every command is
available on every installed system.
Where a command is listed as unavailable, you might be able to create equivalent functionality with
a Python script. The Python language is available to %pre and %post script authors, complete with a
set of Python modules ready for use. Therefore, if a particular command is not available to you in the
installation environment, we recommend that you use Python as the script language.
Table G.1. Alternatives to busybox commands
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
addgroup
no
yes
/usr/sbin/
groupadd
adduser
no
yes
/usr/sbin/useradd
adjtimex
no
no
none
ar
no
yes
/usr/bin/ar
arping
yes
yes
/sbin/arping or /
usr/sbin/arping
ash
yes
yes
/bin/bash
awk
yes
yes
/sbin/awk, /sbin/
gawk, or /usr/bin/
1
gawk
basename
yes
yes
/bin/bash , /usr/
bin/basename
bbconfig
no
no
none — this command
is a specific to
Busybox
bunzip2
yes
yes
/usr/bin/bunzip2,
/usr/bin/bzip2 -d
busybox
no
no
none
bzcat
yes
yes
/usr/bin/bzcat, /
usr/bin/bzip2 -dc
cal
no
yes
/usr/bin/cal
cat
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cat
2
505
Appendix G. Alternatives to busybox commands
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
catv
no
no
cat -vET or cat -A
chattr
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chattr
chgrp
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chgrp
chmod
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chmod
chown
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chown
chroot
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/chroot
chvt
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chvt
cksum
no
yes
/usr/bin/cksum
clear
yes
yes
/usr/bin/clear
cmp
no
yes
/usr/bin/cmp
comm
no
yes
/usr/bin/comm
cp
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cp
cpio
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cpio
crond
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
crontab
no
yes
/usr/bin/crontab
cut
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cut
date
yes
yes
/usr/bin/date
dc
no
yes
/usr/bin/dc
dd
yes
yes
/usr/bin/dd
deallocvt
no
yes
/usr/bin/
deallocvt
delgroup
no
yes
/usr/sbin/
groupdel
deluser
no
yes
/usr/sbin/userdel
devfsd
no
no
none — Red Hat
Enterprise Linux does
not use devfs
df
yes
yes
/usr/bin/df
diff
no
yes
/usr/bin/diff
dirname
yes
yes
/bin/bash , /usr/
bin/dirname
dmesg
yes
yes
/usr/bin/dmesg
dnsd
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
dos2unix
no
no
sed 's/.$//'
dpkg
no
no
none — no support for
Debian packages
dpkg-deb
no
no
none — no support for
Debian packages
506
3
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
du
yes
yes
/usr/bin/du
dumpkmap
no
no
none
dumpleases
no
no
none
e2fsck
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/e2fsck
e2label
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/e2label
echo
yes
yes
/usr/bin/echo
ed
no
no
/sbin/sed, /usr/
bin/sed
egrep
yes
yes
/sbin/egrep, /usr/
bin/egrep
eject
yes
yes
/usr/bin/eject
env
yes
yes
/usr/bin/env
ether-wake
no
no
none
expr
yes
yes
/usr/bin/expr
fakeidentd
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
false
yes
yes
/usr/bin/false
fbset
no
yes
/usr/sbin/fbset
fdflush
no
no
none
fdformat
no
yes
/usr/bin/fdformat
fdisk
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/fdisk
fgrep
yes
yes
/sbin/fgrep, /usr/
bin/fgrep
find
yes
yes
/usr/bin/find
findfs
no
no
none
fold
no
yes
/usr/bin/fold
free
no
yes
/usr/bin/free
freeramdisk
no
no
none
fsck
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/fsck
fsck.ext2
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/
fsck.ext2, /usr/
sbin/e2fsck
fsck.ext3
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/
fsck.ext3, /usr/
sbin/e2fsck
fsck.minix
no
no
none — no support for
the Minix file system
ftpget
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ftp or
Python ftplib module
ftpput
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ftp or
Python ftplib module
507
Appendix G. Alternatives to busybox commands
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
fuser
no
yes
/sbin/fuser
getopt
no
yes
/usr/bin/getopt
getty
no
no
none
grep
yes
yes
/sbin/grep, /usr/
bin/grep
gunzip
yes
yes
/usr/bin/gunzip, /
usr/bin/gzip -d
gzip
yes
yes
/usr/bin/gzip
hdparm
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/hdparm
head
yes
yes
/usr/bin/head
hexdump
no
yes
/usr/bin/hexdump
hostid
no
yes
/usr/bin/hostid
or Python
hostname
yes
yes
/sbin/hostname, /
usr/bin/hostname
httpd
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
hush
no
no
none
hwclock
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/hwclock
id
no
yes
/usr/bin/id or
Python
ifconfig
yes
yes
/sbin/ifconfig, /
usr/sbin/ifconfig
ifdown
no
no
ifconfig device
down
ifup
no
no
ifconfig device
up
inetd
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
insmod
yes
yes
/sbin/insmod, /
usr/sbin/insmod
install
no
yes
/usr/bin/install
or mkdir/cp/
chmod/chown/chgrp
ip
yes
yes
/sbin/ip, /usr/
sbin/ip
ipaddr
no
no
ifconfig or ip
ipcalc
yes
yes
/sbin/ipcalc, /
usr/bin/ipcalc
ipcrm
no
yes
/usr/bin/ipcrm
ipcs
no
yes
/usr/bin/ipcs
iplink
no
no
ip
508
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
iproute
no
no
ip
iptunnel
no
yes
/sbin/iptunnel
kill
yes
yes
/sbin/kill, /usr/
bin/kill
killall
yes
yes
/usr/bin/killall
lash
no
no
none
last
no
yes
/usr/bin/last
length
no
no
Python or bash
less
yes
yes
/usr/bin/less
linux32
no
no
none
linux64
no
no
none
ln
yes
yes
/sbin/ln, /usr/
bin/ln
load_policy
yes
yes
/sbin/load_policy,
/usr/sbin/
load_policy
loadfont
no
no
none
loadkmap
no
no
none
login
yes
yes
/usr/bin/login
logname
no
yes
/usr/bin/logname
losetup
yes
yes
/usr/bin/losetup
ls
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ls
lsattr
yes
yes
/usr/bin/lsattr
lsmod
yes
yes
/usr/bin/lsmod
lzmacat
no
yes
/usr/bin/lzmadec
makedevs
no
no
/usr/bin/mknod
md5sum
yes
yes
/usr/bin/md5sum
mdev
no
no
none
mesg
no
yes
/usr/bin/mesg
mkdir
yes
yes
/sbin/mkdir, /usr/
bin/mkdir
mke2fs
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/mke2fs
mkfifo
no
yes
/usr/bin/mkfifo
mkfs.ext2
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/
mkfs.ext2
mkfs.ext3
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/
mkfs.ext3
mkfs.minix
no
no
none — no support for
Minix filesystem
mknod
yes
yes
/usr/bin/mknod
509
Appendix G. Alternatives to busybox commands
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
mkswap
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/mkswap
mktemp
yes
yes
/usr/bin/mktemp
modprobe
yes
yes
/sbin/modprobe, /
usr/sbin/modprobe
more
yes
yes
/usr/bin/more
mount
yes
yes
/sbin/mount, /usr/
bin/mount
mountpoint
no
no
Look at the output of
the mount command
msh
no
no
none
mt
yes
yes
/usr/bin/mt
mv
yes
yes
/usr/bin/mv
nameif
no
no
none
nc
no
yes
/usr/bin/nc
netstat
no
yes
/bin/netstat
nice
no
yes
/bin/nice
nohup
no
yes
/usr/bin/nohup
nslookup
yes
yes
/usr/bin/nslookup
od
no
yes
/usr/bin/od
openvt
yes
yes
/usr/bin/openvt
passwd
no
yes
/usr/bin/passwd
patch
no
yes
/usr/bin/patch
pidof
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/pidof
ping
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ping
ping6
no
yes
/bin/ping6
pipe_progress
no
no
none
pivot_root
no
yes
/sbin/pivot_root
printenv
no
yes
/usr/bin/printenv
printf
no
yes
/usr/bin/printf
ps
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ps
pwd
yes
yes
/usr/bin/pwd
rdate
no
yes
/usr/bin/rdate
readlink
yes
yes
/sbin/readlink, /
usr/bin/readlink
readprofile
no
yes
/usr/sbin/
readprofile
realpath
no
no
Python
os.path.realpath()
renice
no
yes
/usr/bin/renice
510
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
reset
no
yes
/usr/bin/reset
rm
yes
yes
/sbin/rm, /usr/
bin/rm
rmdir
yes
yes
/sbin/rmdir, /usr/
bin/rmdir
rmmod
yes
yes
/sbin/rmmod, /usr/
bin/rmmod
route
yes
yes
/sbin/route, /usr/
sbin/route
rpm
yes
yes
/usr/bin/rpm
rpm2cpio
no
yes
/usr/bin/rpm2cpio
run-parts
no
no
none
runlevel
no
no
none
rx
no
no
none
sed
yes
yes
/sbin/sed, /usr/
bin/sed
seq
no
yes
/usr/bin/seq
setarch
no
yes
/usr/bin/setarch
setconsole
no
no
none
setkeycodes
no
yes
/usr/bin/
setkeycodes
setlogcons
no
no
none
setsid
no
yes
/usr/bin/setsid
sh
yes
yes
/sbin/sh, /usr/
bin/sh
sha1sum
yes
yes
/usr/bin/sha1sum
sleep
yes
yes
/sbin/sleep, /usr/
bin/sleep
sort
yes
yes
/usr/bin/sort
start-stop-daemon
no
no
none
stat
no
yes
/usr/bin/stat or
Python os.stat()
strings
no
yes
/usr/bin/strings
stty
no
yes
/bin/stty
su
no
yes
/bin/su
sulogin
no
yes
/sbin/sulogin
sum
no
yes
/usr/bin/sum
swapoff
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/swapoff
swapon
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/swapon
switch_root
no
yes
/sbin/switch_root
511
Appendix G. Alternatives to busybox commands
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
sync
yes
yes
/usr/bin/sync
sysctl
no
yes
/sbin/sysctl
tail
yes
yes
/usr/bin/tail
tar
yes
yes
/usr/bin/tar
tee
yes
yes
/usr/bin/tee
telnet
yes
yes
/usr/bin/telnet
telnetd
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
test
no
yes
/usr/bin/test or [
in bash
tftp
no
yes
/usr/bin/tftp
time
no
yes
/usr/bin/time or
Python
top
yes
yes
/usr/bin/top
touch
yes
yes
/sbin/touch, /usr/
bin/touch
tr
no
yes
/usr/bin/tr or
Python
traceroute
no
yes
/bin/traceroute
true
yes
yes
/usr/bin/true
tty
no
yes
/usr/bin/tty
tune2fs
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/tune2fs
udhcpc
no
no
/sbin/dhclient
udhcpd
no
no
none — no daemons
available to scriptlets
umount
yes
yes
/sbin/umount, /
usr/bin/umount
uname
no
yes
/bin/uname or
Python os.uname()
uncompress
no
no
none
uniq
yes
yes
/usr/bin/uniq
unix2dos
no
no
sed 's/$//'
unlzma
no
yes
/usr/bin/unlzma
unzip
no
yes
/usr/bin/unzip
uptime
no
yes
/usr/bin/uptime
or Python reading /
proc/uptime
usleep
no
yes
/bin/usleep or
Python
uudecode
no
yes
/usr/bin/uudecode
or Python
512
1
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or
alternative
uuencode
no
yes
/usr/bin/uuencode
or Python
vconfig
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/vconfig
vi
yes
yes
/usr/bin/vi
vlock
no
no
none
watch
no
yes
/usr/bin/watch
watchdog
no
no
none
wc
yes
yes
/usr/bin/wc
wget
yes
yes
/sbin/wget, /usr/
bin/wget
which
no
yes
/usr/bin/which
who
no
yes
/usr/bin/who
whoami
no
yes
/usr/bin/whoami
xargs
yes
yes
/usr/bin/xargs
yes
no
yes
/usr/bin/yes
zcat
yes
yes
/usr/bin/zcat
zcip
no
no
NetworkManager
should take care of this
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 ships with GNU awk rather than the busybox awk in the installation environment.
2
GNU bash can provide basename functionality using string manipulation. If var="/usr/bin/command", then echo
${var##*/} gives command.
3
GNU bash can provide dirname functionality using string manipulation. If var="/usr/bin/command", then echo ${var%/
*} gives /usr/bin.
513
514
Appendix H. Other Technical
Documentation
To learn more about
anaconda, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program, visit the project Web page: http://
www.fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda.
Both anaconda and Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems use a common set of software components.
For detailed information on key technologies, refer to the Web sites listed below:
Boot Loader
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the
GRUB boot loader. Refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ for more information.
Disk Partitioning
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses parted to partition disks. Refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/
parted/ for more information.
Storage Management
Logical Volume Management (LVM) provides administrators with a range of facilities to manage
storage. By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process formats drives as LVM
volumes. Refer to http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more information.
Audio Support
The Linux kernel used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux incorporates
PulseAudio audio server. For more information about PulseAudio, refer to the project
documentation: http://www.pulseaudio.org/wiki/Documentation.
Graphics System
Both the installation system and Red Hat Enterprise Linux use the
Xorg suite to provide graphical capabilities. Components of Xorg manage the display, keyboard
and mouse for the desktop environments that users interact with. Refer to http://www.x.org/ for
more information.
Remote Displays
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda include
VNC (Virtual Network Computing) software to enable remote access to graphical displays.
For more information about VNC, refer to the documentation on the RealVNC Web site: http://
www.realvnc.com/documentation.html.
Command-line Interface
By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the GNU bash shell to provide a command-line
interface. The GNU Core Utilities complete the command-line environment. Refer to http://
www.gnu.org/software/bash/bash.html for more information on bash. To learn more about the
GNU Core Utilities, refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/.
Remote System Access
Red Hat Enterprise Linux incorporates the
OpenSSH suite to provide remote access to the system. The SSH
service enables a number of functions, which include access to the command-line from other
systems, remote command execution, and network file transfers. During the installation process
anaconda may use the scp
515
Appendix H. Other Technical Documentation
feature of OpenSSH to transfer crash reports to remote systems. Refer to the OpenSSH Web site
for more information: http://www.openssh.com/.
Access Control
SELinux provides Mandatory Access Control (MAC) capabilities that supplement the standard
Linux security features. Refer to the SELinux Project Pages for more information: http://
docs.fedoraproject.org/selinux-guide.
Firewall
The Linux kernel used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux incorporates the netfilter framework to
provide
firewall features. The Netfilter project website provides documentation for both netfilter, and
the iptables administration facilities: http://netfilter.org/documentation/index.html.
Software Installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses
yum to manage the RPM packages that make up the system. Refer to http://
docs.fedoraproject.org/yum/ for more information.
Virtualization
Virtualization provides the capability to simultaneously run multiple operating systems on the
same computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux also includes tools to install and manage the secondary
systems on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux host. You may select virtualization support during the
installation process, or at any time thereafter. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization
Guide available from http://www.redhat.com/docs/ for more information.
516
Appendix I. Revision History
Note that revision numbers relate to the edition of this manual, not to version numbers of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
Revision 1.0-4 Wed Oct 27 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
[email protected]
remove inaccurate information about PXE installations — BZ#643669
Revision 1.0-2 Wed Oct 27 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
[email protected]
remove inaccurate information about PXE installations — BZ#643669
Revision 1.0-1 Thu Oct 7 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
[email protected]
remove "nostorage" option
Revision 1.0-0 Wed Aug 25 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
[email protected]
Version for GA release
517
518
Index
Symbols
/boot/ partition
recommended partitioning, 97, 204
/root/install.log
install log file location, 112
/var/ partition
recommended partitioning, 97, 204
A
aboot , 497
adding partitions, 88, 195, 288
file system type, 90, 197, 289
anacdump.txt, 113, 213, 305
Anaconda, 515
anaconda.log, 113, 213, 305
array (see RAID)
automatic partitioning, 82, 82, 189, 189, 281, 281
B
Basic Input/Output System (see BIOS)
BIOS
definition of, 495
(see also boot process)
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), 35
boot loader, 81, 101
(see also GRUB)
configuration, 101
GRUB, 101
installing on boot partition, 104
MBR, 104
password, 104
upgrading, 81
boot loader password, 104
boot loaders, 483
(see also GRUB)
definition of, 483
types of
ELILO, 483
GRUB, 483
OS/400, 483
YABOOT, 483
z/IPL, 483
boot options, 38
from network, 38
mediacheck, 38
serial mode, 39
UTF-8, 39
text mode, 38
boot process, 495, 495
(see also boot loaders)
chain loading, 483
direct loading, 483
for x86, 495
stages of, 495, 495
/sbin/init command, 497
BIOS, 495
boot loader, 496
EFI shell, 495
kernel, 497
booting
emergency mode, 438
installation program
x86, AMD64 and Intel 64, 36
rescue mode, 436
single-user mode, 438
booting the installation program
IBM System p , 149
C
canceling the installation, 47, 251
CD/DVD media
booting, 35, 149
making, 5
(see also ISO images)
Chain loading, 60, 77, 84, 104, 167, 185, 191
chkconfig , 502
(see also services)
clock, 73, 181, 274
CMS configuration files, 331
sample CMS configuration file, 338
configuration
clock, 73, 73, 181, 181, 274, 274
GRUB, 101
hardware, 21
time, 73, 181, 274
time zone, 73, 181, 274
configuration files
CMS configuration files, 331
the z/VM configuration file, 332
consoles, virtual, 54, 162
D
DASD installation, 251
DHCP
diskless environment, 355
PXE installations, 355
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol),
63, 170, 264
Disk Partitioner
adding partitions, 88, 195, 288
disk partitioning, 82, 189, 281
disk space, 12, 128
diskless environment
DHCP configuration, 355
519
Index
documentation
other manuals, xx
driver diskette, 36
DVD
ATAPI, 46, 156
IDE, 46, 156
installation from, 46, 156
SCSI, 47, 156, 251
DVD media
downloading, 1
(see also ISO images)
E
EFI shell
definition of, 495
(see also boot process)
emergency mode, 438
Encryption
Backup passphrases
Creating backup passphrases, 477
Saving backup passphrases, 477
Passphrases
Saving passphrases, 477
ext2 (see file systems)
ext3 (see file systems)
ext4 (see file systems)
extended partitions, 465
Extensible Firmware Interface shell (see EFI
shell)
F
FCoE
installation, 60, 167, 262
FCP devices, 263
feedback
contact information for this manual, xviii
file system
formats, overview of, 461
file system types, 90, 197, 289
file systems
ext2, 47, 156, 251
ext3, 47, 156, 251
ext4, 47, 156, 251
vfat, 47, 156, 251
firewall
documentation, 516
Firstboot , 413
via Kickstart, 368
FTP
installation, 15, 50, 131, 159, 231, 253
G
GRUB, 101, 483, 496
520
(see also boot loaders)
additional resources, 493
installed documentation, 493
related books, 493
useful websites, 493
alternatives to, 106
boot process, 483
Changing Runlevels at Boot Time, 492
changing runlevels with, 487
commands, 488
configuration, 101
configuration file
/boot/grub/grub.conf , 490
structure, 490
definition of, 483
documentation, 515
features, 484
installing, 485
interfaces, 487
command line, 487
menu, 487
menu entry editor, 487
order of, 488
menu configuration file, 490
directives, 491
role in boot process, 496
terminology, 485
devices, 485
files, 486
root file system, 487
grub.conf , 490
(see also GRUB)
H
halt, 502
(see also shutdown)
Hard disk
initializing, 78, 186, 278
hard disk
basic concepts, 461
extended partitions, 465
file system formats, 461
partition introduction, 462
partition types, 464
partitioning of, 461
hard drive installation, 47, 156, 251
preparing for, 17, 134, 233
hardware
compatibility, 11
configuration, 21
hardware preparation, eServer System p, 127
help
getting help, xvii
HMC vterm, 163
hostname, 63, 63, 170, 170, 264, 264
HTTP
installation, 15, 50, 131, 159, 231, 253
I
init command, 497
(see also boot process)
configuration files
/etc/inittab , 501
role in boot process, 497
(see also boot process)
runlevels
directories for, 501
runlevels accessed by, 501
SysV init
definition of, 501
install log file
/root/install.log , 112
installation
aborting, 47, 251
disk space, 12, 128
DVD, 46, 156
from network, 38
FTP, 15, 50, 131, 159, 231, 253
GUI, 53, 161, 255
hard drive, 17, 47, 134, 156, 233, 251
HTTP, 15, 50, 131, 159, 231, 253
keyboard navigation, 45, 155, 249
kickstart (see kickstart installations)
mediacheck, 38
method
DVD, 12
hard drive, 13
NFS image, 13
selecting, 12
URL, 13
network, 15, 131, 231
NFS, 15, 49, 131, 158, 231, 252
server information, 49, 159, 253
partitioning, 85, 192, 284
program
graphical user interface, 53, 161, 255
starting, 36
text mode user interface, 43, 153, 247
virtual consoles, 54, 162
serial mode, 39
UTF-8, 39
starting, 46, 156
text mode, 38
installation method
selecting, 46, 156, 250
installation program
x86, AMD64 and Intel 64
booting, 36
installing packages, 106, 206, 297
introduction, xix
IPL NWSSTG, 219
IPv4, 63, 170, 264
iscsi
installation, 60, 167, 262
ISO images
downloading, 1
K
kdump, 424
kernel
role in boot process, 497
kernel options, 39
keyboard
configuration, 55, 170
navigating the installation program using, 45,
155, 249
keymap
selecting type of keyboard, 55, 170
Kickstart, 230, 348
kickstart
how the file is found, 388
parameters for System z parameter files, 336
Kickstart Configurator , 395
%post script, 408
%pre script, 407
authentication options, 404
basic options, 395
boot loader, 397
boot loader options, 397
Display configuration, 405
firewall configuration, 404
installation method selection, 396
interactive, 396
keyboard, 395
language, 395
network configuration, 403
package selection, 406
partitioning, 398
software RAID, 400
preview, 395
reboot, 396
root password, 395
encrypt, 395
saving, 409
SELinux configuration, 405
text mode installation, 396
time zone, 395
kickstart file
%include , 382
%post, 385
%pre, 384
auth , 363
521
Index
authconfig , 363
autopart , 362
autostep , 363
bootloader , 365
CD-ROM-based, 387
clearpart , 366
cmdline , 366
creating, 362
device , 366
diskette-based, 387
driverdisk , 367
firewall , 367
firstboot , 368
flash-based, 387
format of, 361
graphical , 368
halt , 368
ignoredisk , 363
include contents of another file, 382
install , 368
installation methods, 368
interactive , 369
iscsi , 369
iscsiname , 370
key , 370
keyboard , 370
lang , 370
langsupport , 370
logging , 372
logvol , 371
mediacheck , 372, 372, 378
mouse , 372
multipath , 374
network , 372
network-based, 387, 388
options, 362
partitioning examples, 382
package selection specification, 383
part , 374
partition , 374
post-installation configuration, 385
poweroff , 376
pre-installation configuration, 384
raid , 376
reboot , 378
rootpw , 378
selinux , 378
services , 379
shutdown , 379
skipx , 379
sshpw , 379
text , 380
timezone , 380
upgrade , 380
522
user , 380
vnc , 381
volgroup , 381
what it looks like, 361
xconfig , 381
zerombr , 382
zfcp , 382
kickstart installations, 361
CD-ROM-based, 387
diskette-based, 387
file format, 361
file locations, 386
flash-based, 387
installation tree, 388
LVM, 371
network-based, 387, 388
starting, 388
from a boot CD-ROM, 389
from DVD with a diskette, 389
L
language
selecting, 45, 155, 249
LILO, 496
(see also boot loaders)
role in boot process, 496
log files, 113, 213, 305
kickstart installations, 361
LVM
documentation, 515
logical volume, 481
physical volume, 481
understanding, 481
volume group, 481
with kickstart, 371
M
manuals, xx
master boot record, 101
Master Boot Record, 435 (see MBR)
reinstalling, 438
MBR
definition of, 495, 495
(see also boot loaders)
(see also boot process)
installing boot loader on, 104
modem, 63, 170, 264
mount points
partitions and, 470
N
network
installations
FTP, 50, 159, 253
HTTP, 50, 159, 253
NFS, 49, 158, 252
network installation
performing, 48, 157, 252
preparing for, 15, 131, 231
NFS
installation, 15, 49, 131, 158, 231, 252
NFS (Network File System)
install from, 48, 252
NTP (Network Time Protocol), 73, 274, 423
ntsysv , 502
(see also services)
O
OpenSSH, 515
(see also SSH)
OS/2 boot manager, 104
OS/400, 483
(see also boot loaders)
P
package groups, 110, 210, 301
packages
groups, 106, 206, 297
selecting, 106, 206, 297
installing, 106, 206, 297
selecting, 106, 206, 297
parameter files, 331
installation network parameters, 332
kickstart parameters, 336
loader parameters, 336
required parameters, 331
sample parameter file, 338
VNC parameters, 336
X11 parameters, 336
parm files (see parameter files)
parted partitioning utility, 469
partition
extended, 465
partitioning, 85, 192, 284
automatic, 82, 189, 281
basic concepts, 461
creating new, 88, 195, 288
file system type, 90, 197, 289
destructive, 467
extended partitions, 465
how many partitions, 463, 471
introduction to, 462
making room for partitions, 465
mount points and, 470
naming partitions, 469
non-destructive, 467
numbering partitions, 469
other operating systems, 470
primary partitions, 463
recommended, 97, 204
types of partitions, 464
using free space, 466
using in-use partition, 466
using unused partition, 466
Partitioning , 85, 192, 284
adding partitions
file system type, 90, 197, 289
Passphrases
Block device encryption passphrases
Creating backup block device encryption
passphrases, 477
Saving backup block device encryption
passphrases, 477
Saving block device encryption
passphrases, 477
password
boot loader, 104
setting root, 75, 182, 275
Planning for Installation
System z, 225
POWER systems rescue mode, 439
accessing SCSI utilities, 439
program.log, 113, 213, 305
programs
running at boot time, 501
PulseAudio, 515
PXE (Pre-boot eXecution Environment), 41, 151
PXE installations
boot message, custom, 356
configuration, 355
DHCP configuration, 355
overview, 355
performing, 356
setting up the network server, 355
R
RAID
hardware, 11, 128
kickstart installations, 376
Kickstart Configurator, 400
software, 11, 128
system unbootable after disk failure, 485
trouble booting from drive attached to RAID
card, 113
rc.local
modifying, 501
rc.serial , 501
(see also setserial command)
re-installation, 441
removing
523
Index
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from IBM System z, 457
from x86-based systems, 445
rescue discs, 351
rescue mode, 105, 351
definition of, 435
utilities available, 437
rescue mode, POWER systems, 439
accessing SCSI utilities, 439
root / partition
recommended partitioning, 97, 204
root password, 75, 182, 275
runlevel 1, 438
runlevels (see init command)
changing with GRUB, 487
configuration of, 502
(see also services)
S
scp, 516
(see also SSH)
screenshots
during installation, 54
selecting
packages, 106, 206, 297
SELinux
documentation, 516
serial console, 344
serial ports (see setserial command)
services
configuring with chkconfig , 502
configuring with ntsysv , 502
configuring with Services Configuration Tool ,
502
Services Configuration Tool , 502
(see also services)
setserial command
configuring, 501
shutdown, 502
(see also halt)
single-user mode, 438
SSH (Secure SHell)
documentation, 515
starting
installation, 36, 46, 156
steps
booting with CD-ROM or DVD, 13
disk space, 12, 128
eServer System p hardware preparation, 127
hardware compatibility, 11
installing from DVD, 129
storage devices
basic storage devices, 56, 163, 257
specialized storage devices, 56, 163, 257
524
storage.log, 113, 213, 305
swap file
upgrade, 442
swap partition
recommended partitioning, 97, 204
syslog, 113, 213, 305, 347
system recovery, 435
common problems, 435
forgetting the root password, 435
hardware/software problems, 435
reinstalling the boot loader, 438
unable to boot into Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, 435
system-config-kickstart (see Kickstart
Configurator )
SysV init (see init command)
T
TCP/IP configuration, 48, 157, 252
Telnet, 347
text interface, 344
tftp , 355
time zone
configuration, 73, 181, 274
traceback messages
saving traceback messages without
removeable media, 115, 115, 214, 214, 306,
306
troubleshooting, 113, 213, 305
after the installation, 120, 219, 310
Apache-based httpd service hangs during
startup, 124, 221, 311
booting into a graphical environment, 121,
219
booting into GNOME or KDE, 121, 219
booting into the X Window System, 121, 219
graphical GRUB screen, 120
graphical login, 310
logging in, 122, 221, 310
printers, 123, 221, 311
RAM not recognized, 123
Sendmail hangs during startup, 124, 221,
311
X (X Window System), 121, 220
X server crashes, 122, 220
beginning the installation, 114, 214
frame buffer, disabling, 114, 214
GUI installation method unavailable, 114,
214
booting, 113, 213, 305
RAID cards, 113
signal 11 error, 114, 213, 305
during the installation, 115, 214, 305
completing partitions, 119, 218, 309
No devices found to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux error message, 115, 214,
305
partition tables, 119, 119, 218, 218
Python errors, 119, 218, 309
saving traceback messages without
removeable media, 115, 214, 306
using remaining hard drive space, 119
DVD failure
DVD verification, 38
(see also boot loaders)
U
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface), 35
uninstalling
from IBM System z, 457
from x86-based systems, 445
upgrade, 441
adding a swap file, 442
USB flash media
downloading, 1
making, 5
USB media
booting, 35, 149
user interface, graphical
installation program, 53, 161, 255
user interface, text mode
installation program, 43, 153, 247
V
vfat (see file systems)
virtual consoles, 54, 162
virtualization, xix
Virtualization
documentation, 516
VNC (Virtual Network Computing), 345
documentation, 515
enabling, 345
installing client, 345
listening mode, 346
X
XDMCP, 310
Xorg, 515
Y
YABOOT, 483
(see also boot loaders)
yum
documentation, 516
yum.log, 113, 213, 305
Z
z/IPL, 483
525
526
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