null  null
Final Report
Energy Conservation
Opportunities for
Greenhouse Structures
September 2003
Prepared For:
Minnesota Department of Commerce Energy Office
85 7th Place East, Suite 600
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101-3165
Prepared By:
Eugene A. Scales & Associates, Inc.
3101 Old Highway 8, Suite 100
Roseville, Minnesota 55113
This report was prepared as part of an account of work sponsored under U.S. Department
of Energy grant number DE-FG45-99-R530427 to the Minnesota Department of
Commerce, Energy Division. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or
recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
U.S. Department of Energy.
Customer Information Page
Customer:
Minnesota Department of Commerce
Energy Office
85 7th Place East, Suite 500
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101-3165
Contract Number:
A44931
Contact
Bruce Nelson, Senior Engineer
Minnesota Department of Commerce
State Energy Office
(651) 297-2313
Engineering Firm:
Eugene A. Scales & Associates, Inc.
33101 Old Highway 8, Suite 100
Roseville, Minnesota 55113
Gene Scales
Phone (651) 636-9928
Fax
(651) 639-1110
Table Of Contents
Section
Description
1
Introduction & Overview
2
Executive Summary
3
Baseline Greenhouse Structure
4
Analysis of Energy Saving Opportunities
Heating Systems
Covering Materials
Insulation of Walls
Thermal Blankets
Control Systems
Integrated Opportunities
Water Opportunities
Energy Saving Lighting Opportunities
Energy efficient Motor Opportunities
Appendixes
A
B
C
D
E
F
Heating and Ventilation Systems
Greenhouse Covering Materials
Insulation Materials
Thermal blankets
Energy Efficient Motors
Control Systems
Disclaimer
Estimated energy savings and implementation costs for each opportunity are
based on inputs from greenhouse owners, operators and suppliers along with
experience with similar applications. While the energy conservation opportunities
contained in this report have been reviewed for technical accuracy, Minnesota
Department of Commerce, State Energy Office and Eugene A. Scales &
Associates Inc. do not guarantee the cost savings or reduction in total energy
use presented in the recommendations. The Minnesota Department of
Commerce, State Energy Office and Eugene A. Scales & Associates Inc.
shall, in no event, be liable in the event that potential energy savings are not
achieved.
Specific manufacturers of coverings, thermal blankets, heating systems, etc., are
identified in the body of this report. The report uses equipment models and costs
to develop representative paybacks on energy saving opportunities.
Manufacturers identified in the report are provided for informational purposes
only and are not to be construed as recommendations.
Section 1
Introduction & Overview
This report identifies and quantifies energy conservation strategies for
greenhouse structures; both new and retrofit opportunities. Greenhouses
provide an environment for plant growth that includes controlled temperature,
humidity, ventilation, lighting and CO2 control. Different plants require different
combinations and variable amounts of these environmental controlled
requirements. Winter conditions in Minnesota provide a challenge in maintaining
an environment conducive to plant growth.
The primary objectives of this analysis are:
•
•
Determine conservation strategies providing paybacks of less than 10 years
that would facilitate compliance with the Minnesota State Energy Code for
new greenhouse structures (Minnesota Rules, Part 7676.0900, Subpart 1,
Items B and C).
Provide a resource for suppliers, owners and operators of new and existing
structures to identify and understand the value of energy conservation
opportunities for greenhouse structures.
A simulation was developed to analyze conservation strategies. This approach
was used to analyze the interactions of the strategies. The simulation
considered cover material, heating systems, insulation, lighting, occupants,
space conditions and operating schedules. Weather and solar data are based on
conditions found in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Minnesota region.
A basic greenhouse structure with two-ply polyethylene covering was analyzed
for two operating schedules:
•
A greenhouse - operating all year. This is typical of many greenhouse
structures currently found in the Minnesota.
•
A greenhouse - operating only during the period of February though the
summer months.
These extremes in operating schedules provide a range of simple paybacks for
the conservation strategies analyzed so that owners and operators can better
understand the feasibility of each and compare the relative economics of
implementation.
The analysis also addresses opportunities applicable to larger greenhouse
structures such as multiple units served by a central heating plant.
Section 1 - Page 1
Section 2
Executive Summary
Introduction
Energy conservation strategies for greenhouse structures were analyzed
separately and in selected combinations for the baseline structure operating year
around and for the period February through the early fall months. The baseline
structure was a 30’ wide by 96’ long by 8’ high sides structure with 2 ply
polyethylene covering and orientated east west along the long dimension.
Energy and cost savings, installation costs and simple paybacks are summarized
in Table 2 – 1 for opportunities evaluated singly and Table 2 – 2 for Integrated
opportunities. The opportunities summarized in Table 2 – 1 also assumes that
the structure has power vented heaters.
Energy Use and Supply
Space heating is the major energy use in greenhouse structures. A significant
amount of heating energy required is supplied by solar heat gain as indicated
below for full and partial year operation. Power for lighting and fan motors are
the other energy use needs. Percentages of energy required for each use and
sources that supply the required energy are summarized below.
Percentage of Energy Required/Supplied
Full Yr
Partial Yr
93.2%
97.4%
1.8%
5.0%
2.6%
<.1%
100.0%
100.0%
35.9%
57.2%
6.8%
.1%
40.7%
56.5%
2.6%
.2%
100.0%
100.0%
Energy Required For (Usage)
Natural Gas Energy Required
Space & Infiltration Air Heating
Electric Energy Required
Motors
Lighting
Totals
Energy Supplied By (Source)
Solar
Natural Gas
Electrical
People
Totals
Section 2 - Page 1
Strategies for reducing heating energy and costs include:
Low Cost High Impact Opportunities
Energy Efficient Heating Systems – Unit heating systems with power vented
exhaust as opposed to atmospherically vented systems stop airflow through the
flue when the unit is not operating. Continuous airflow through the exhaust
system during non-operating times allows the heating system to cool down.
Warm air is vented out of the structure. The net result is that the seasonal
efficiency of the heating system is reduced and excess energy is used.
Insulation on Walls – Insulation added to the North and East Walls during the
winter months reduces heat loss and has a minimal impact on solar heat gain
and transmission. Insulation panels, consisting of R-10 extruded polystyrene, put
in place during the fall and taken out in the spring.
Infrared Anti-Condensate (IRAC) Covering – Installing a layer of IRAC film on the
inside layer of the two ply covering reduces radiation during nighttime hours and
heat loss from warm objects in the greenhouse. Anti condensate features of the
film also disperse condensation and reduce dripping.
Night Setback Temperature Controls – If plant types grown can accommodate
reduced temperatures during nighttime periods, significant energy and cost
savings can be achieved.
High Impact High Cost Opportunities
Thermal Blankets – Thermal blankets can achieve significant energy savings.
Thermal blankets act like thermal barriers within the greenhouse, reducing the
amount of space that needs to be heated and radiant losses during nighttime
hours.
Double Ply Polycarbonate Covering – This covering material greatly reduces
heat loss and has a life expectancy of up to 20 years; 5 times longer than
polyethylene. In addition to energy savings, the covering will require less
maintenance over the years.
Section 4 also contains information on other energy and water saving
opportunities including:
•
•
•
Sewer Refunds
Energy Efficient Lighting for Office and Storage Area
Energy Efficient Motors
Section 2 - Page 2
Table 2 – 1, Summary of Energy Conservation Opportunities
Energy Conservation Opportunity
Energy
Savings
(MCF)
Energy
Opportunity
Cost Save
Costs
($)
($)
Simple
Payback
(Years)
Heating Systems - Full Year
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vent Heaters
143
160
$858
$960
$880
$4,170
1.03
4.34
61
69
$366
$414
$880
$4,170
2.40
10.07
127
225
$762
$1,350
$12,725
$100
16.70
0.07
37
75
$222
$450
$12,725
$100
57.32
0.22
110
127
$660
$762
$280
$280
0.42
0.37
R-5 Insulation
R-10 Insulation
42
47
$252
$282
$280
$280
1.11
0.99
Thermal Blanket - Full Year
308
$1,848
$13,750
7.44
Thermal Blanket - Partial Year
108
$648
$13,750
21.22
103
191
$618
$1,146
$350
$350
0.57
0.31
44
85
$264
$510
$350
$350
1.33
0.69
Heating Systems - Partial Year
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vent Heaters
Covering - Full Year
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Double Ply Film - Poly Outer, IRAC Inner
Coverings - Partial Year
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Double Ply Film - Poly Outer, IRAC Inner
Wall Insulation - Full Year
R-5 Insulation
R-10 Insulation
Wall Insulation - Partial Year
Night Setback - Full Year
5 F Setback
10 F Setback
Night Setback - Partial Year
5 F Setback
10 F Setback
Section 2 - Page 3
Table 2 – 2, Summary of Integrated Conservation Opportunities
Heating
Energy
(MCF)
Energy
Savings
(MCF)
Cost
Savings
($)
Total
Strategy
Cost ($)
Simple
Payback
(Yrs)
Baseline with Power Vented Heater
+ IRAC Film
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
713
488
410
292
225
303
421
1350
1818
2526
100
380
730
0.07
0.21
0.29
Baseline with Power Vented Heater
+ Thermal Blanket
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
713
316
263
181
397
450
532
2382
2700
3192
13,750
14,030
14,380
5.77
5.20
4.51
Baseline with Power Vented Heater
+ IRAC Film
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
304
229
199
142
75
105
162
450
630
972
100
380
730
0.22
0.60
0.75
Baseline with Power Vented Heater
+ Thermal Blanket
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
304
153
135
96
151
169
208
906
1014
1248
13,750
14,030
14,380
15.18
13.84
11.52
Integrated Strategy
Full Year Operation
Partial Year Operation
Section 2 - Page 4
Section 3
Baseline Greenhouse Structure
Structure Description/Orientation
The baseline greenhouse structure used to evaluate energy conservation strategies is a
representative single structure 30’ wide and 96’ long, orientated east/west along the
long axis. The structure would have an open gable or hoop roof, as illustrated below,
and vertical sides. Framing is aluminum tubing with cemented in ground anchor posts.
30 Ft Wide
8 Ft Sides
13.5 Ft High
96 Ft Long
Surface Areas
Square feet
Roof (North Slope)
Roof (South Slope)
East Wall
West Wall
North Vertical Wall
South Vertical Wall
1,536
1,536
322.5
322.5
768
768
Total Surface Area
Floor Area
Volume
5,253
2,880 Sq Ft
30,960 Cu Ft
Section 3 - Page 1
Solar Radiation
The greenhouse structure is assumed to be sited in an open area. Thus, the total or
global amount of solar radiation would include direct and diffuse (i.e. sky and ground
reflection) components.
Orientation
The baseline structure is assumed to be orientated with the long dimension along the
east/west direction to maximize solar gain.
Solar Radiation
Average solar heat gain, by month, for the Minneapolis/St. Paul area for horizontal and
north, south, east and west surfaces published by the National Solar Research Lab was
used.
Operational Schedules
Two operational scenarios are analyzed to provide a range of the economics of energy
conservation.
•
Operation all year
•
Partial year operation from February through the summer months
Covering
The baseline structure is covered with double ply polyethylene having solar
transmissivity and R values of:
•
•
Solar Transmissivity
R Value
= .83 (% visible light)
= 1.43 sq ft Hr Sq Ft/BTU
The structure has a small inflation fan to create an air pocket between polyethylene
sheets.
Internal Lighting System
Lighting consists of:
•
Twenty-two 400 watt high pressure sodium fixtures, manually controlled during the
evening hours during plant growth periods.
• Greenhouses that operate all year have lighting. Those operating from February
through summer have no photoperiod lighting.
Section 3 - Page 2
Infiltration
One air change per hour (i.e. 516 cubic feet per minute (cfm))
Indoor Temperature
68 F Constant
Insulation
No insulation on walls or perimeter areas around floor.
Internal Heating & Ventilating Systems
Heating Systems
Gas fired unit heaters, atmospherically vented, 65% seasonal efficiency, single stage
gas and temperature control. Fan operates when burner is on.
Horizontal Circulation Fans
Four circulation fans with manual on/off, 2600 cfm and 1/10 HP. Circulation fans
operate continuously during winter months to minimize temperature stratification.
Exhaust Fans
Two general exhaust fans, ¾ HP, two speed, temperature controlled with manual
override, interlock with intake dampers 16,500/1,000 cfm.
One continuous exhaust fan, 1/3 HP, two speed, manual control, 1,100/1,600 cfm.
Baseline Structure Energy Use
Baseline structure energy use for each of the two operational scenarios is summarized
in Tables 3-1 (all year operation) and 3-2 (February through summer). These tables
represent heat loss through the greenhouse covering (i.e. conduction), heat required for
infiltration and ventilation air, internal heat gains from lighting and motors and solar heat
gain.
Simulation of the baseline structures indicate that 85% to 95% of the energy used in
greenhouse structures is for space heating and ventilation. Ventilation includes
infiltration of outdoor air into the structure. Required energy is:
Full Year Operation
Section 3 - Page 3
Space Heating
Ventilation Air Heating
Total
467 MMBTU
89 MMBTU
556 MMBTU (Million BTU)
Partial Year Operation (February through Summer)
Space Heating
Ventilation Air Heating
203 MMBTU
34 MMBTU
Total
237 MMBTU
The tables also indicate the sources of energy that provide the required heating. Solar
energy provides a large percentage of the heating and ventilation load.
Full Year Operation
February through Summer Operation
349 MMBTU (36%)
171 MMBTU (41%)
Energy costs are based on natural gas at $6.00/MCF (i.e. $0.60 per therm), electric
demand costs at $7.00/kW and electric energy use at $0.045/kWh.
The tables do not contain data on radiant heat losses from plants and warm objects
within the greenhouse. Radiant heat losses are difficult to determine. The approach
used by many manufacturers has been to install systems and components that reduce
radiant heat loss (e.g. thermal blankets and IR covering materials). Energy use and
savings were determined by comparing similar or the same greenhouse structures with
and without the component.
Section 4 and Appendixes C & D provide additional information on thermal blankets and
infrared films that reduce radiant heat losses. Through measurements of energy use in
greenhouses with this technologies, space heating requirements have been shown to
be reduced by:
Thermal Blankets
IR Films
30% to 70%
30%
Section 3 - Page 4
Table 3 – 1, Baseline Greenhouse, Full Year Operation
Energy
Use
Energy Sources &
Costs
Usage
kW
kWh
MMBTU
Electric
Motors
Lights
1.60
10.23
5,001
14,424
17
49
Heating
Envelop
467
89
% Use
2.7%
7.9%
75.0%
14.4%
Sources
MMBTU
%
Solar
Heating
Ventilation
Lights
People
Motors
349
467
89
49
1
17
35.9%
48.0%
9.2%
5.1%
0.1%
1.8%
Totals
973
kW
kWh
Costs ($)
10.23
14,424
1.60
5,001
$0
$4,310
$826
$1,308
$0
$385
100%
11.83
19,425
$6,828
MMBTU
%
kW
kWh
Costs ($)
Solar
Heating
Ventilation
Lights
People
Motors
171
203
34
0
1
11
40.7%
48.3%
8.1%
0.0%
0.2%
2.7%
Totals
420
100%
Ventilation
Totals
623
Table 3 – 2, Baseline Greenhouse, Partial Year Operation
Energy
Use
Energy Sources &
Costs
Usage
kW
kWh
MMBTU
% use
Electric
Motors
Lights
1.60
0
3,304
0
11
0
4.5%
0.0%
Heating
Envelop
203
34
81.7%
13.7%
Sources
0.00
0
1.60
3,304
$0
$1,872
$315
$0
$0
$303
1.60
3,304
$2,490
Ventilation
Totals
248
Section 3 - Page 5
Section 4
Analysis of Energy Saving Opportunities
Introduction
This section identifies and analyzes feasible energy saving opportunities for both new and
retrofit on existing greenhouse structures. These opportunities are analyzed singly and in
selected combinations.
Energy saving opportunities is evaluated individually with respect to a baseline structure
and for selected combinations. A fixed energy cost structure - $6.00/MCF natural gas,
$7.00/KW electric demand and $0.045/KWH electric energy use is used to determine
paybacks. Sales tax of 6.5% is included in the payback analysis of electric cost savings.
Energy savings are identified for each opportunity such that the analysis can be customized
for different rate structures.
Detailed data and costs on opportunities such as coverings, heating systems and thermal
blanket costs are contained in the attached appendixes.
Utility Rebates
Electric/Gas Utilities
Utility rebates are often available for energy efficient equipment, systems and controls.
Readers are encouraged to check with their local gas and electric utilities for prescriptive
and custom efficiency rebates on new and retrofit equipment, systems and controls that
save energy. Examples of applicable rebates that may be available from your utilities
include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High intensity discharge lighting such as high-pressure sodium, metal halide or pulse
start metal halide.
T5 and T8 lamps and electronic ballasts
Compact fluorescent lamps
High efficiency heating systems such as power vented unit heaters and condensing
boilers
High efficiency unit heaters such as power vented or direct vented combustion models
Systems that control space temperatures and shut off equipment
Systems that control lighting
Thermal blankets
Perimeter and wall Insulation
Steam trap surveys and new or rebuilt steam traps
Section 4 - Page 1
Water Utilities
Many city and municipal water utilities offer refunds for sewer charges for water that
evaporates and does not return to the sewer. These rebates and additional information
about sub-metering requirements are further explained in this section of the report.
Readers are encouraged to check with their local water utility for further information.
Heating Systems
A typical heating system used in greenhouse is a unit heater with propeller or blower fans
controlled by a thermostat. Appendix A provides detailed descriptions.
Three units having different efficiencies are evaluated:
Atmospherically Vented – The baseline greenhouse structure is assumed to have a
atmospherically vented heating system with a seasonal efficiency of 65%.
Power Vented – Combustion air is metered through the unit by a separate fan. When the
unit is off, air venting is shut off. The unit has intermitted spark ignition. Seasonal
efficiency is 78%.
Direct Vented – Combustion air is taken from the outside and vented to the outside. Unit
designs allow some heat recovery from flue gas. The unit has intermittent spark ignition.
Seasonal efficiency is 80%.
Each unit heating system type is assumed to have a single stage gas control and
thermostat. Unit heaters can optionally burn propane for little or no additional cost. Oil
fired models are available, but costs are high.
Number/Size of Heating Systems
The number and size of heating systems required is determined by the design-heating load
for the structure. That is, the amount of heating energy required on a day when outdoor
temperatures are –20 F, indoor air temperatures are 70 F and infiltration is about one air
change per hour (i.e. 516 cfm) Simulations indicate a design heating load of 381,000
BTUH. Therefore, the heating systems and costs selected from Table A - 1, Appendix A
are:
Atmospherically Vented
List Costs
1 Heater 200,000 BTU Output
1 Heater 200,000 BTU Output
$ 1,350
$ 1,350
Total
$ 2,700
Section 4 - Page 2
Powered Vented
1 Heater 200,000 BTU Output
1 Heater 200,000 BTU Output
$ 1,755
$ 1,755
Total
Direct Vented
$ 3,510
1 Heater 229,600 BTU Output
1 Heater 184,500 BTUU Output
$ 3,590
$ 3,280
Total
$ 6,870
Table 4 -1 illustrates heating energy savings and costs and the economics of purchasing
unit heaters with high thermal and seasonal efficiencies. Benefits are determined for both
year around operation and partial year operation.
Incremental costs indicated in Table 4 - 1 do not include installation costs since these costs
are approximately the same for each type of natural gas or propane heating system.
Design heating capacities and are the same for both full and partial year operation. Oil
fired heating systems are not analyzed in this report. However, typical costs are about 2.25
times higher.
The results indicate that additional costs of a power vented unit heater have a relatively
short payback, even for greenhouses that operate a portion of the year. The results apply
to both new and retrofit opportunities.
Section 4 - Page 3
Table 4 – 1, Energy Efficient Heating Options
Structure Description
Heating
Energy
(MMBTU)
Gas
Heat
Energy System
(MCF) Cost ($)
Heating Energy Increment Simple
System Cost Equip Cost Payback
($)
Save
($)
(Years)
($)
Full Year Operation
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
556
855
$2,700
$5,132
Power Vented Heaters
556
713
$3,580
$4,277
$855
$880
1.03
Direct Vented Heaters
556
695
$6,870
$4,170
$962
$4,170
4.33
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
237
365
$2,700
$2,188
Power Vented Heaters
237
304
$3,580
$1,823
$365
$880
2.41
Direct Vented Heaters
237
296
$6,870
$1,778
$410
$4,170
10.17
February - Summer
Operation
Section 4 - Page 4
Covering Materials
Many transparent and translucent materials are used for greenhouse coverings including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Glass
Polyethylene (Single and Double Layer)
Polycarbonate (Single, Double and Triple Layer)
Fiberglass
Acrylic
Selected Combinations of coverings (e.g. polyethylene over single pane glass)
Each has slightly different characteristics of insulation values, visible and infrared light
transmittance, life expectancy and cost as indicated below. Double Ply Polyethylene is the
baseline greenhouse covering used in this analysis.
Table B – 1, Appendix B provides typical greenhouse coverings used in Minnesota and
associated solar transmission, insulation values and costs per square foot. Properties and
costs vary by manufacturer. Typical coverings are identified in Table 4 – 2.
Table 4 – 2, Selected Greenhouse Covering Materials
Material
Single Pane Glass
Single Ply Polyethylene
Double Ply Polyethylene
Single Wall Polycarbonate
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
IRAC Inner, Poly Outer
Life
(Years)
U Value
R Value
>20
4
4
20
20
4
0.91
1.10
0.70
1.10
0.60
0.50
1.1
0.91
1.43
0.91
1.67
2
Transmittance
Solar
IR Thermal
% Visible
(%)
Light
90
87
78
90
83
76.5
<3
50
50
<3
<23
Cost
Sq Ft ($)
$0.09
$0.18
$1.30
$2.10
$0.20
Covering tradeoff considerations can be evaluated on the basis of more than energy and
lowest costs. Longer life expectancies of the hard coverings will save on-going
maintenance and replacement costs. Tables 4 – 3 and 4 – 4 illustrate the costs benefits of
selected coverings. Since the results are sensitive to heating system efficiencies, the
results are illustrated for two heating systems; atmospherically vented and power vented.
The tables also illustrate energy use and costs for two-selected single ply coverings of
polyethylene and polycarbonate. An infrared anti-condensate (IRAC) covering material is
also analyzed . The combination includes an outer layer of clear polyethylene and inner
layer of IRAC film.
Section 4 - Page 5
IRAC covering material and infrared reduction benefits are discussed in Appendix D. A
main benefit is the reduction of infrared heat loss to clear skies during nighttime hours.
Benefits cited by one manufacturer are a 30% heating energy savings. In addition, newer
films have improved solar transmittance values approaching clear polyethylene coverings.
The covering was evaluated on the basis of an advertised 30% reduction in heat loss with
respect to a double ply polyethylene covering having a U value of .7 BTU/Sq Ft hr F. A
30% reduction would result in a U value of .5 BTU/sq ft hr F. This represents a two-ply
covering consisting of clear polyethylene on the outer layer and IRAC film on the inner
layer. The layers are separated by an air space.
The other issue is life cycle costs associated with covering materials such as polycarbonate
that have an expected life of 20 years or about 5 times the life of 2 ply polyethylene. If
evaluated on a comparable basis (i.e. assuming no inflation in energy costs), the following
simple paybacks over 20 years are available:
Energy Savings ($)
Material costs ($)
Simple Payback (yrs)
$1,540
$ 4,950
3.20
$15,240
$ 14,500
0.95
Thus, for those evaluating covering options over a longer period of ownership, paying more
initial construction costs will provide greater benefits over time. If other factors such as
replacement time and cost were added to the analysis, the difference in paybacks would be
larger.
Section 4 - Page 6
Table 4 – 3, Selected Greenhouse Covering Material, (Atmospherically Vented Furnace)
Heating
(MMBTU)
Natural
Gas
(MCF)
Cost ($)
Heating
Single Ply Polyethylene
Single Ply Polycarbonate
914
904
1,406
1,391
$8,437
$8,345
Double Ply Polyethylene
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Double Ply IRAC Film (Inner
Layer, Polyethylene Outer)
556
457
381
855
703
586
Single Ply Polyethylene
Single Ply Polycarbonate
370
366
Double Ply Polyethylene
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Double Ply IRAC Film (Inner
Layer, Polyethylene Outer)
237
208
179
Structure Description
Net Save
Heating
($)
Material
Cost ($)
Simple
Payback
(Years)
Full Year Operation
$92
$1,250
$10,050
95.33
$5,132
$4,218
$3,517
$914
$1,615
$1,775
$14,500
$1,875
13.92
0.06
569
563
$3,415
$3,378
$37
$1,250
$10,050
238.33
365
320
275
$2,188
$1,920
$1,652
$268
$535
$1,775
$14,500
$1,875
47.54
0.19
February - Summer Operation
Notes:
1 - Area of Covering Material =
5,253 Sq Ft
2 - Cost of Material includes clamping systems and or additional
structure supports
3 - Assumes installation by
Owner/Operator
Section 4 - Page 7
Table 4 – 4, Selected Greenhouse Covering Material, (Power Vented Furnace)
Heating
(MMBTU)
Natural
Gas
(MCF)
Cost ($)
Heating
Single Ply Polyethylene
Single Ply Polycarbonate
914
904
1,172
1,159
$7,031
$6,954
Double Ply Polyethylene
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Double Ply IRAC Film (Inner
Layer, Polyethylene Outer)
556
457
381
713
586
488
Single Ply Polyethylene
Single Ply Polycarbonate
370
366
Double Ply Polyethylene
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Double Ply IRAC Film (Inner
Layer, Polyethylene Outer)
237
208
179
Structure Description
Net Save
Heating
($)
Material
Cost ($)
Simple
Payback
(Years)
Full Year Operation
$77
$1,250
$10,050
114.40
$4,277
$3,515
$2,931
$762
$1,346
$1,775
$14,500
$1,875
16.71
0.07
474
469
$2,846
$2,815
$31
$1,250
$10,050
286.00
304
267
229
$1,823
$1,600
$1,377
$223
$446
$1,775
$14,500
$1,875
57.04
0.22
February - Summer Operation
Notes:
1 - Area of Covering Material =
5,253 Sq Ft
2 - Cost of Material includes clamping systems and or additional
structure supports
3 - Assumes installation by
Owner/Operator
Section 4 - Page 8
Insulation of Walls
Additional insulation can be temporarily installed on the structure sidewalls to save heating
energy (Appendix C). Areas where additional panels can be installed on the baseline
structure while minimizing loss of solar gain are:
•
•
North Wall – 8 Feet High Wall x 96 Feet Long (768 Sq Ft)
East Wall – 8 Feet Wall x 30 Feet Long (240 Sq Ft)
The type of insulation installed is assumed to be 4’ wide x 8’ high polystyrene panels along
the wall and held in place by a simple clamps connected to structure supports. Two
insulation scenarios for the baseline structure are evaluated.
Additional Insulation Scenario 1 - 1 “ Polystyrene Panel
•
•
•
R = 5.0 Sq Ft Hr F/BTU (U = .2)
Insulated Area of 1008 Sq Ft (19.2% of Surface Area)
Net Structure R Value increased from R = 1.43 to R = 2.47
Additional Insulation Scenario 2 - 2 “ Polystyrene Panel
•
•
•
R = 10.0 Sq Ft Hr F/BTU (U = .2)
Insulated Area of 1008 Sq Ft (19.2% of Surface Area)
Net Structure R Value increased from R = 1.43 to R = 3.51
Energy and cost savings are summarized in Table 4 – 4 and 4 – 5. The analysis indicated
that the additional insulation decreased the heating load by:
R – 5 Insulation
•
•
Full Year Operation
Partial Year Operation
15.5%
13.8%
R –10 Insulation
•
•
Full Year Operation
Partial Year Operation
17.8%
15.6%
The resulting paybacks on installing the additional insulation are less than one year.
Section 4 - Page 9
Another benefit of installing insulation (i.e. on a permanent or annual basis) is the
decrease in design heating capacity as indicated below:
Structure/Insulation
Design Heat Load (BTUH)
Baseline
Baseline + R -5
Baseline + R -10
381,000
328,000
321,000
The capacity of the unit heaters installed can be reduced, resulting in lower initial
structure costs. A comparison to the baseline heating capacity for two different heating
system efficiencies is illustrated below.
Structure/Insulation
Cost of Unit Heaters
2 Ply Cov 2 Ply + R5/10
Savings
Baseline
Atmospherically Vented
$2,700
$2,420
$280
Power Vented
$3,500
$3,180
$320
The above analysis assumes that the added insulation would be installed each year or
left in place all year. Of interest is that the savings from reduced heating system costs
are about the same as the cost of the insulation. The design heating loads between R –
5 and R – 10 insulation did not warrant a smaller unit heater.
Section 4 - Page 10
Table 4 – 4, Insulation with 1” (R-5) Polystyrene Panels
Operational Scenario
Baseline Structure
(MMBTU)
(MCF)
Insulated Structure
(MMBTU)
(MCF)
Atmospherically Vented Heaters
(65% Seasonal Eff)
Full Year
556
855
470
723
Partial Year
237
365
204
314
Power Vented (78% Seasonal Eff)
Full Year
556
713
470
603
Partial Year
237
304
204
262
Insulation
Cost ($)
Simple
PB (Yrs)
Operational Scenario
Savings
(MCF)
Cost Save
($)
Atmospherically
Vented Heaters
Full Year
132
$794
$280
0.35
Partial Year
51
$305
$280
0.92
Full Year
110
$662
$280
0.42
Partial Year
42
$254
$280
1.10
Power Vented
Section 4 - Page 11
Table 4 – 5, Insulation with 2” (R-10) Polystyrene Panels
Operational Scenario
Baseline Structure
(MMBTU)
(MCF)
Insulated Structure
(MMBTU)
(MCF)
Atmospherically Vented Heaters
(65% Seasonal Eff)
Full Year
556
855
457
703
Partial Year
237
365
200
308
Power Vented (78% Seasonal Eff)
Full Year
556
713
457
586
Partial Year
237
304
200
256
Insulation
Cost ($)
Simple
PB (Yrs)
Operational Scenario
Savings
(MCF)
Cost Save
($)
Atmospherically
Vented Heaters
Full Year
152
$914
$280
0.31
Partial Year
57
$342
$280
0.82
Full Year
127
$762
$280
0.37
Partial Year
47
$285
$280
0.98
Power Vented
Section 4 - Page 12
Thermal Blankets
Description
Thermal blankets are used as an internal cover for plants and creates a “envelop” within
the greenhouse structure much like a home with an attic. Thermal blankets reduce
energy use in three ways:
•
•
•
Reduce the amount of greenhouse volume that requires heating.
The additional insulation values of the blanket material provide thermal resistance.
The amount is dependent on the material and is difficult to predict because of the
characteristic of the material.
Radiant heat loss reduction is the largest benefit. Warm plant surfaces radiate
energy. The net energy exchange is the rate of emission of the surface (emissivity),
temperature and surface area. A thermal blanket blocks and thus reduces the
radiation. The reduction is dependent on the blanket material and its emissivity. A
good material is one that has low emissivity (i.e. high reflectivity) on the surface
facing the outer cover and is highly reflective on the inner surface facing the plants.
Since heat loss is a direct function of emissivity, blanket materials having aluminized
surfaces with low emissivity values minimize heat loss.
Since thermal blankets also serve to shade crops, the material tends to be porous (e.g.
woven materials). Porous blankets allow moisture to drain and allow some heat to
escape. Non-porous materials, such as polyethylene trap water and condensation and
block out light (i.e. depends on material) that reduces heat retention during daylight
hours. Aluminized material provides a compromise between the two extremes;
reflecting sunlight during the day and reducing heat loss at night.
As indicated in Appendix D, the radiant heat loss calculations are dependent on
temperatures and emissivity values that are difficult to determine and vary by plant type,
greenhouse covering and outdoor temperatures.
Published information on heat loss savings for greenhouse’s having thermal blankets
have been determined by installing thermal blankets, measuring or recording energy
use over a period of time or season and adjusting the overall U value of the greenhouse
covering thermal blanket combination.
Installation & Retrofit
Installation on a new structure is the most optimal since the blanket and drive system
can be installed on overhead structural supports before other components such as fans
and lights are attached. Thermal blankets can be retrofit on existing greenhouse
structures. The main issue is that existing equipment and systems mounted on the
ceiling supports (e.g., lighting fixtures, piping, fans, heaters) may have to be re-moved
and re-mounted.
Section 4 - Page 13
Insulation Values of Installed Thermal Blanket Material
Insulation values published in Greenhouse Engineering publications provide net
insulation values for selected combinations of thermal blankets material and single
glass glazing. These are summarized in Table 4 - 6.
Table 4 - 6, Insulation Values of Selected Greenhouse Single Pane Glass
Covering/Thermal Blanket Combinations
Blanket Description
Single Glass Glazing
Aluminized Polyethylene Tubes
White-White Spun Bonded
Polyolefin Film
Heavy Weight Grey White Spun
Bonded Film
Light Weight Grey White Spun
Bonded Film
Clear Polyethylene Film
Black Polyethylene Film
Aluminum Foil-clear Vinyl Film
Laminate
Aluminum Foil - Black Vinyl Film
Aluminum Fabric
Net U Value
Net R Value
BTU/Sq Ft Hr F Sq Ft Hr F/BTU
1.1
0.54
0.91
1.85
0.51
1.96
0.43
2.33
0.56
0.45
0.48
1.79
2.22
2.08
0.4
0.63
0.39
2.50
1.59
2.56
One manufacturer of thermal blanket material publishes energy saving potential for their
product (e.g. L.S. Svenson). Published energy saving data ranges from 47% to 72% for
the XLS10 to XLS18 material, which is aluminum foil with clear vinyl film laminate. The
different energy savings are functions of the percentage blanket area covered by the
aluminum foil.
The baseline building used for comparison in this analysis has a covering of 2 ply
polyethylene (i.e. U = .69). A comparative range of net U values from .41 BTU/Sq Ft hr
F (40% save) to .28 BTU/Sq Ft hr F (60% save) are used in the analysis illustrated in
Tables 4 - 7 and 4 - 8. Paybacks range from 4.5 to 7.5 years, for full year operation.
Payback on partial year operation ranges from 12.3 to 21.8 years.
Cost of Thermal Blankets
Costs of an installed thermal blanket for a new baseline structure are about $14,750 for
the baseline structure. The tables below indicate the same cost for both of the thermal
blanket materials analyzed. Thermal blanket cloth material portion of the total costs is
about 10%. The main costs are the hardware and controls and installation. Users
should consider material with higher energy savings if shading is not an issue.
Section 4 - Page 14
Table 4 – 7, Thermal Blanket (40% Heat Save)
Structure Description
Heating Natural Cost ($)
(MMBTU) Gas
Heating
(MCF)
Net Save Initial
Simple
($)
Cost ($) Payback
(Years)
Full Year Operation
Baseline Structure W/O Blanket
556
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
Baseline Structure With Blanket
855
$5,132
713
695
$4,277
$4,170
486
$2,917
$2,215
$13,750
6.21
405
395
$2,431
$2,370
$1,846
$1,800
$13,750
$13,750
7.45
7.64
365
$2,188
304
296
$1,823
$1,778
235
$1,412
$775
$13,750
17.73
196
191
$1,177
$1,148
$646
$630
$13,750
$13,750
21.28
21.83
316
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
February - Summer Operation
Baseline Structure W/O Blanket
237
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
Baseline Structure With Blanket
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
153
Section 4 - Page 15
Table 4 – 8, Thermal Blanket (60% Heat Save)
Structure Description
Heating Natural
(MMBTU)
Gas
(MCF)
Cost ($)
Heating
Net Save Initial
Simple
($)
Cost ($) Payback
(Years)
Full Year Operation
Baseline Structure W/O Blanket
556
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
Baseline Structure With Blanket
855
$5,132
713
695
$4,277
$4,170
354
$2,123
$3,009
$13,750
4.57
295
288
$1,769
$1,725
$2,508
$2,445
$13,750
$13,750
5.48
5.62
365
$2,188
304
296
$1,823
$1,778
178
$1,071
$1,117
$13,750
12.31
149
145
$892
$870
$931
$908
$13,750
$13,750
14.77
15.15
230
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
February - Summer Operation
Baseline Structure W/O Blanket
237
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
Baseline Structure With Blanket
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Power Vented Heaters
Direct Vented Heaters
116
Section 4 - Page 16
Control Systems
Control systems are available to perform a number functions to optimize greenhouse
operation including the following basic functions:
Heating system Control
Space Temperature Control
Start/Stop of Equipment and Systems (e.g. exhaust, circulation fans, thermal blankets
and lighting)
Appendix F provides additional information on control systems and costs.
Functions applicable to saving energy in the baseline greenhouse structure are:
•
•
Temperature control as a function of time of day, especially night setback. Note that
temperature setback is dependent on type of crop and growth cycle and may not be
applicable to all greenhouse operations.
Lighting system start/stop control.
The following analysis illustrates energy savings for:
•
•
Temperature Setback - Two setback strategies; a 5 F setback and a 10 F setback
during nighttime hours.
Lighting System Control – Assumes that typical savings of 10% in optimal start stop
times can be achieved.
Paybacks are provided for two approaches, simple setback thermostats and timers and
a basic control system.
Night Setback
Tables 4 – 9 and Table 4 – 10 provides potential energy and cost savings from reducing
night time space temperatures during the period 9 PM to 8 AM for 5 F and 10 F
temperature setbacks. Table 4 – 9 provides paybacks for a simple programmable
thermostat and Table 4 – 10 for a basic control system.
Section 4 - Page 17
Lighting Control
Lighting controls reduce lighting energy use, but increase nighttime heating energy.
Potential energy and cost savings from reduced lighting energy using simple
mechanical timers can be illustrated as follows:
Energy Use/Costs
Baseline Structure Baseline Structure with
Lighting Control
______________________________________________________________
Lighting
Energy Use kWh
Cost
14,424
$1,308
13,043
$1,241
713
$4,277
719
$4,315
Heating
Heating Energy MCF
Cost
Net Savings
$
38
Installed timers costs (two totaling about $620, Appendix F) would have a payback
exceeding 10 years.
Section 4 - Page 18
Table 4 – 9, Night Temperature Setback (5 F & 10 F) with Setback Thermostat
Operational Scenario
Baseline
Energy
(MCF)
Energy Use
5 F Setback
(MCF)
Energy
Saving
(MCF)
Energy Use
10 F Setback
(MCF)
Energy
Saving
(MCF)
885
365
732
313
153
52
625
264
260
101
713
304
610
260
103
44
522
219
191
85
Cost Save
5 F Setback
($)
Cost Save
10 F Setback
($)
Installed
Cost ($)
Simple
Payback
5 F (Yrs)
Simple
Payback
10 F (Yrs)
$918
$312
$1,560
$606
$350
$350
0.38
1.12
0.22
0.58
$618
$264
$1,146
$510
$350
$350
0.57
1.33
0.31
0.69
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters (65% Sesonal
Eff)
Full Year
Partial Year
Power Vented (78%
Seasonal Eff)
Full Year
Partial Year
Operational Scenario
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Full Year
Partial Year
Power Vented
Full Year
Partial Year
Section 4 - Page 19
Table 4 – 10, Night Temperature Setback (5 F & 10 F) with Basic Controller
Operational Scenario
Baseline
Energy
(MCF)
Energy Use
5 F Setback
(MCF)
Energy
Saving
(MCF)
Energy Use
10 F Setback
(MCF)
Energy
Saving
(MCF)
885
365
732
313
153
52
625
264
260
101
713
304
610
260
103
44
522
219
191
85
Cost Save
5 F Setback
($)
Cost Save
10 F Setback
($)
Installed
Cost ($)
Simple
Payback
5 F (Yrs)
Simple
Payback
10 F (Yrs)
$918
$312
$1,560
$606
$2,500
$2,500
2.72
8.01
1.60
4.13
$618
$264
$1,146
$510
$2,500
$2,500
4.05
9.47
2.18
4.90
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters (65% Sesonal
Eff)
Full Year
Partial Year
Power Vented (78%
Seasonal Eff)
Full Year
Partial Year
Operational Scenario
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
Full Year
Partial Year
Power Vented
Full Year
Partial Year
Section 4 - Page 20
Mixed Strategy Opportunities
Combinations of individual energy saving opportunities can be analyzed to determine the
benefits of mixed or integrated conservation strategies. The following selected
combinations are illustrated for full year operation.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Baseline with power vented heater
Baseline with power vented heater + IRAC Film on inner layer
Baseline with power vented heater + IRAC Film on inner layer + Insulation on North &
East Walls
Baseline with power vented heater + IRAC Film on inner layer + Insulation on North &
East Walls + Night Setback of 10 F
Baseline with power vented heater
Baseline with power vented heater + Thermal Blanket
Baseline with power vented heater + Thermal Blanket + Insulation on North & East
Walls
Baseline with power vented heater + Thermal Blanket + Insulation on North & East
Walls + Night Setback of 10 F
These basic combinations were analyzed for the baseline greenhouse structure with power
vented unit heaters for year around operation. The results of the analysis are contained in
Tables 4 - 11. Note that IRAC film costs are incremental costs over polyethylene and that
total strategy costs are accumulative.
Section 4 - Page 21
Table 4 – 11, Mixed Integrated Conservation Strategies
Heating
Energy
(MCF)
Energy
Savings
(MCF)
Cost
Savings
($)
Total
Strategy
Cost ($)
Simple
Payback
(Yrs)
Baseline with Vented Heater
+ IRAC Film
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
713
488
410
292
225
303
421
1350
1818
2526
100
380
730
0.07
0.21
0.29
Baseline with Vented Heater
+ Thermal Blanket
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
713
316
263
181
397
450
532
2382
2700
3192
13,750
14,030
14,380
5.77
5.20
4.51
Baseline with Vented Heater
+ IRAC Film
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
304
229
199
142
75
105
162
450
630
972
100
380
730
0.22
0.60
0.75
Baseline with Vented Heater
+ Thermal Blanket
+ R-10 Insulation on N/E Wall
+ Setback Thermostat (10F)
304
153
135
96
151
169
208
906
1014
1248
13,750
14,030
14,380
15.18
13.84
11.52
Integrated Startegy
Full Year Operation
Partial Year Operation
Section 4 - Page 22
Energy Saving Strategies Applicable to General Greenhouse Operations
The following energy conservation strategies are applicable to new and or retrofit
opportunities typically encountered in greenhouses or adjoining structures such as office
and storage areas.
Water Cost Saving Opportunities
The amount of water used in a greenhouse will vary depending on area, plant type, time of
year, weather and heating ventilation system. Water used in greenhouses may be eligible
for a sewer surcharge rebate since it does not return to the sanitary sewer. The reader
should check with their local water utility for potential surcharge rebates.
Sewer surcharges for water are available from many communities for applications such as
commercial lawn sprinklers, and cooling tower makeup water. Typically, the following is
required for a sewer surcharge rebate:
Water must be purchased from the local water utility.
The local water utility has a sewer surcharge. Typically, sewer surcharges are 50% to 60%
of the total charge.
Water used for applications qualifying for sewer surcharge rebates must be metered
separately or sub-metered off the general building service. Note that some water utilities
have specific qualifications for meter types that must be used.
Typical Amounts of Water Required for Plants
Estimates of maximum daily water requirements for selected different crops were obtained
from Greenhouse Engineering and are based on a per square foot area of the greenhouse
floor. These include:
Crop Description
Gallons/Sq Ft Day
Bench Crops
Bedding/Pot Plants
Mums/Hydrangea
Roses
Tomatoes
= .4
= .5
= 1.5
= .7
= .25
Total Annual Requirement Estimates
The following provide an estimate of the total amounts of water required based on a
greenhouse footprint of 30’ x 96’ or 2,880 sq ft. The analysis is used for illustrative
purposes and provides sewer rebate amounts.
Section 4 - Page 23
.25 gal/sq ft
1.5 gal/sq ft
Daily Range
720
4,320
Annual Range (180 days)
129,600 gal
777,600 gal
Water/Sewer Rates
Water/sewer rates for Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota (2003) were used to provide a
range of estimated surcharge amounts.
City of Minneapolis, Minnesota
•
•
Water
Sewer
$ 2.95/1,000 Gal
$ 4.38/1,000 Gal
City of St. Paul, Minnesota
•
•
Water
Sewer
$ 2.03/1,000 Gal
$ 3.23/1,000 Gal
Sewer Surcharge Rebates
City
Minneapolis
St. Paul
Range of Refund
$569 - $3,407
$420 - $2,513
Installed cost of Water Meter
The installed cost of the water meter can depend on a number of factors. A worst-case
scenario is that an additional water meter with backflow preventer would have to be
installed. Estimated installed costs are $1,500. Payback ranges are:
Minneapolis
.5 to 2.6 years
St. Paul
.6 to 3.5 years
The reader is cautioned to check with their local utility for availability of potential surcharge
rebates and rules governing installation and meter types.
Section 4 - Page 24
Energy Saving Lighting Opportunities
Greenhouse structures and adjoining office/storage facilities use a variety of lighting
systems. The following illustrates comparative energy use and costs for common
opportunities in the following two areas.
Greenhouse and Storage Areas
•
•
Pulse Start Metal Halide Fixtures
High/Low Bay T8 Fluorescent Fixtures
Office Areas
•
•
•
Fluorescent fixtures having 4’ T8 lamps and electronic ballast instead of T12 lamps
Compact Fluorescent Lamps in fixtures having incandescent lamps
Light Emitting Diode (LED) Exit Signs
Greenhouse and Storage Areas
Pulse Start Metal Halide Fixtures and Retrofits
A common lighting fixture used in greenhouse storage areas and sometimes in
greenhouses for photoperiod light is a 400-watt metal halide fixture. Although highpressure sodium is more common, this lighting technology, a variation of standard metal
halide technology, has been available for about 5-6 years. Recent additions to the product
line have included larger wattage 750, 875, 1000 and 2000-watt fixtures.
Pulse start fixtures offer many features including lower lumen depreciation. This provides
an opportunity to use lower wattage lamps that provide equal or greater lighting levels with
less energy use. Use of a pulse start fixture also provides the opportunity to design a
lighting system that requires fewer fixtures.
Unfortunately, large wattage pulse start metal halide lamps are limited to base up
configurations (e.g. light must hand down) at the current time. One manufacturer, Sylvania,
manufacturers a 750 watt pulse start lamp for horizontal configuration. Large pulse start
metal halide lamps for universal and/or horizontal configuration are expected to be
available in the near future (i.e. 1- 2 years) as the market matures.
Pulse start metal halide fixtures for new structures and retrofit applications are currently
limited to replacement or retrofit for the current fixtures if base up lamps are used.
Section 4 - Page 25
Costs
New pulse start fixtures cost about 15% to 20% more than standard metal halide fixtures.
Pulse Start Retrofit Examples
Two opportunities are analyzed to illustrate the benefits of pulse start lighting. Operating
hours are assumed to be 2,500 hours per year.
Retrofit Existing 400 Watt Metal Halide with 320 Watt Pulse Start Lamp and Ballast
Energy Savings
Demand (kW)
(460 – 365) Watts
= .095 kW
Energy Use (kWh)
.095 kW x 2,500 hrs/yr
= 238 kWh
Cost Savings
Demand
.095 kW x $7.00 x 12 mo
=$
7.98
Energy Use
238 kWh x $0.045/kWh
=$ 10.71
Sales Tax @ 6.5%
=$
Total Annual Save
1.21
=$ 19.90
Costs
Lamp and Ballast
Estimated Labor
=$ 75.00
=$ 80.00
Total
=$ 155.00
Simple Payback
$155/$19.90
= 7.8 years
Section 4 - Page 26
Install 320 Watt Pulse Start Fixtures – New Construction
Incremental Cost
=$ 55.00
Note that labor costs would be the same as installing a standard 400-watt metal halide
fixture.
Simple Payback
$55/$19.90
= 2.8 years
High/Low Bay T8 Fluorescent Fixtures
Lighting fixtures used for greenhouse photoperiod lighting tend to be compact fixtures with
reflectors that are hung from overhead support structures. Height above the plants and
spacing are important considerations. High-pressure sodium lamps are typical, but metal
halide lamps are also available.
A recent innovation is a T8 fixture having six (6) 32 watt 4’ lamps, electronic ballast with
optional reflector. These fixtures provide approximately the same amount of lumens as a
400-watt metal halide, but use substantially less energy (e.g. about 224 watts/fixture) and
have about the same expected life. They were designed to replace standard high/low bay
400-watt metal halide fixtures. Thus, they would be directly applicable for storage areas
and potentially for photoperiod lighting. Costs are about $100 more per fixture than a
standard 400-watt metal halide fixture. The following illustrates the benefits of installing
these fixtures in a new application, 2,500 operational hours per year are assumed.
Energy Savings
Demand (kW)
(460 – 224) watts
= .236 kW
Energy Use (kWh)
.236 kW x 2,500 hrs/yr
= 509 kWh
Cost Savings
Demand
.236 x $7.00/mo x 12 mo
=$ 19.82
Section 4 - Page 27
Energy Use (kWh)
590 kWh x $0.045
=$ 26.55
Sales Tax @ 6.5%
=$
Total Annual Savings
3.01
=$ 49.38
Incremental Cost
=$ 100.00
Simple Payback
= 2 years
Office Areas
T8 Lighting
Fluorescent fixtures having T8 lamps with electronic ballasts are a common retrofit for
existing fluorescent fixtures having T12 lamps and older style magnetic ballasts.
Benefits include:
•
•
Energy savings up to 40%, depending on the number of lamps per fixture
Increased lighting levels because of decreased lumen depreciation. That is, the
lighting output of all fluorescent lamps decreases over time. Light from T8 lamps
does not decrease as much as T12 lamps, so the light output remains high.
T8 lighting technology is about 10-12 years old. Cost of new fixtures having T8 lamps
and electronic ballasts is about the same, or less, than similar fixtures having T12
lamps.
The following illustrates energy and cost savings from retrofitting a four-lamp fixture
operating 2,500 hours per year.
Energy Savings
Demand (kW)
(178-109) watts
= .071 kW
Energy Use Savings (kWh)
.071 kW x 2,500 hrs/yr
= 178 kWh
Section 4 - Page 28
Cost Savings
Demand
.071 kW x $71/kW x 12 mo
=$
5.96
178 kWh x $0.045/kWh
=$
8.01
Sales Tax at 6.5%
=$
0.91
Energy Use
Total Annual Save
Retrofit Costs
Ballast
4 T8 Lamps @ $2.25
Labor @ $25/fixture
Lamp/Ballast Disposal
=$ 14.06
=$ 24.00
=$ 9.00
=$ 25.00
=$ 5.00
Total Cost
Simple Payback
=$ 63.00
= 4.5 years
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps are direct replacements for incandescent lamps in typical
office fixtures including table lamps and recessed ceiling fixtures. Advances in the
technology and physical packaging of the lamps have resulted in lamps that can fit in
most any fixture and still maintain acceptable light levels and appearance.
Compact fluorescent lamps save about 60% of the energy used by a comparable sized
incandescent lamp and have an expected life approaching 10,000 hours. The following
illustrates the benefits of replacing a 75-watt incandescent lamp with a 23-watt compact
fluorescent lamp, 2500 operational hours per year are assumed.
Energy Savings
Demand (kW)
(75-23) watts
= .052 kW
Energy Use (kWh)
.052 kW x 2500 hrs/yr
= 130 kWh
Section 4 - Page 29
Cost Savings
.052 kW x $7.00/mo
130 kWh x $0.045/kWh
=$ 4.37
=$ 5.85
Sales Tax @ 6.5%
=$ 0.66
Total Annual Save
=$ 6.51
Cost of Compact Fluorescent Lamp
Costs of compact fluorescent lamps have dropped considerably and can now be
purchased at lighting companies, home improvement stores and hardware stores.
Costs vary considerably, but $3 - $4 per lamp is typical.
Simple Payback
$3.50/$4.51
= .5 years
Light Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofits of Exit Signs
LED exits signs consume about 2 watts of power as opposed to exit signs having
incandescent (two 15 – 20 watt) or fluorescent (two 5 – 7 watt) lamps. Since they also
have an expected life of 25 years plus, they provide on-going maintenance savings.
The existing state of Minnesota Energy Code limits exit sign power to 5 watts per side on
new structures.
LED kits can be retrofit on existing exit signs. Two typical scenarios are analyzed; an
existing fixture having two 7-watt lamps and one having two 15-watt lamps.
Common Assumptions
•
8,760 hours per year operation.
Existing Fixture with Two 7 Watt Lamps
Demand Savings
1 Fixtures x (14 – 2) watts per fixture
= .012 kW
Energy Use Savings
.012 kW x 8,760 hrs/yr
= 105 kWh
Section 4 - Page 30
Annual Cost Savings
.012 kW x $7.00/kW x 12 months
105 kWh x $0.045/kWh
Sales Tax at 6.5%
Total
=$ 1.01
=$ 4.73
=$ 0.37
=$ 6.11
Cost
1 Conversion Kits @ $45 each
1 Installations @ $20 each
Totals
=$ 45.00
=$ 20.00
=$ 65.00
Simple Payback
= 10.6 Yrs
Existing fixture with Two 15 watt lamps
Demand Savings
1 Fixtures x (30 – 2) watts per fixture
= .028 kW
Energy Use Savings
.028 kW x 8,760 hrs/yr
= 245 kWh
Annual Cost Savings
.028 kW x $7.00/kW x 12 months
245 kWh x $0.045/kWh
Sales Tax at 6.5%
Total
=$ 2.35
=$ 11.03
=$ 0.87
=$ 14.25
Initial Cost
1 Conversion Kits @ $45 each
1 Installations @ $20 each
Totals
=$ 45.00
=$ 20.00
=$ 65.00
Simple Payback
= 4.6 Yrs
Section 4 - Page 31
Energy Efficient Motors Opportunities
Heating, ventilating units and pumping systems are sold with energy efficient motors.
Energy efficient motors greater than 1 HP are required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992
(Appendix E). Most systems can be ordered with premium efficient motors for an
incremental cost, depending on the size of the motor. Premium efficient motors also qualify
for rebates from most utilities.
Premium efficient motors can also be retrofit on existing heating, ventilating and pumping
systems having either older standard efficient or newer energy efficient motors. Paybacks
are dependent on operating hours.
The economics of purchasing premium efficient motors is highly dependent on operating
hours. Two examples are provided to illustrate paybacks:
•
•
Replacing an older standard efficiency motor with a premium efficient motor
Purchasing an optional premium efficient motor
Both scenarios assume that the motor will operate 2,500 hrs/yr (i.e. about 7 hr/day)
Common Assumptions
Motor Size
Standard Efficiency Rating
High Efficiency Rating
Premium Efficiency Rating
Incremental Cost (premium vs high)
Labor Cost
No labor costs are assumed since the motor needs to be replaced.
Section 4 - Page 32
= 2 HP
= 80.7%
= 84.0%
= 86.5%
= $65.00
= None
Replace 2 HP Standard Efficiency Motor with Premium Efficiency Motor
Energy Savings
kW = 2 HP x .746 kW/HP x (1/80.7% - 1/86.5%)
kWh = .12 kW x 2500 hrs/yr
= .12 kW
= 300 kWh
Cost Save
kW = .12 kW x $7/kW x 12 mo/yr
kWh = 300 kWh x $0.045/kWh
Sales Tax
Total Save
= $10.00
= $13.50
= $ 1.50
= $25.00
Simple Payback
$65 Cost/$25.00 Save
= 2.6 yrs
Order optional 2 HP Premium Efficient Motor as opposed to High Efficient Motor
Energy Savings
kW = 2 HP x .746 kW/HP x (1/84.0% - 1/86.5%)
kWh = .05 kW x 2500 hrs/yr
= .05 kW
= 125 kWh
Cost Save
kW = .05 kW x $7.00/kW x 12 mo/yr
kWh = 125 kWh x $0.045/kWh
Sales Tax
Total Save
= $ 4.20
= $ 5.60
= $ 0.65
= $10.45
Simple Payback
$65 Cost/$10.45 save
= 6.2 yrs
Section 4 - Page 33
Energy Efficient Heating System Opportunities
Larger greenhouses often use a combination of heating systems including unit heaters and
boilers to provide space heating. Standard efficiencies of boilers is about 80%
Other types of heating systems are available to provide space and ventilation air heating
that have higher efficiencies, but with higher first costs. This analysis illustrates one
potential option for greenhouses that use hot water boilers
High Efficiency condensing Hot Water Boiler System
High efficiency condensing boilers for space and ventilation air heating have efficiencies up
to 95%. These boilers also have high turndown or fully modulating burners that increase
overall efficiency during the spring fall months when heating loads are light. The following
illustrates the potential savings for a greenhouse consisting of four gutter connected units
having a annual heating load of about 2,000 MMBTU.
Costs Estimates
•
•
One condensing hot water boilers, 92% Efficiency,
1 MMBTU Input
Cost of Standard efficiency boiler, 1 MMBTU Input and
Standard high/low off burner
=$ 13,000
=$ 5,500
Note that it is assumed that installation costs and pumping costs would be about the same
for both a standard efficiency and a condensing boiler.
Energy Use
Standard Efficiency Unit with Seasonal Efficiency of 70%
2000 MMBTU/.7 eff
= 2,857 MCF
Condensing Boiler at 90% Seasonal Efficiency
2000 MMBTU/.9 eff
= 2,222 MCF
Energy Savings
= 635 MCF
Cost Savings
635 MVF x $6.00/MCF
=$ 3,810
Simple Paybacks
$7,500 Cost Difference/$3,810
Section 4 - Page 34
= 2 Yrs
Appendix A
Heating and Ventilation Systems
Appendix A - Page 1
Heating Systems
Typical heating systems for greenhouse structures are unit heaters with propeller
or blower fans. Blower fans are preferred on units ducted under the tables.
Controls provide one (100%) or two (50%) stage gas and temperature control.
Multistage control contributes to greater seasonal efficiency during the spring/fall
months when heating loads are reduced.
Total heating capacity required is dependent on the size of the greenhouse and
insulation value of the coverings at design winter temperatures. Design winter
temperatures in Minnesota range from –16 F in the southern part of the State to
–21 F in the northern part of the State.
Table A – 1 illustrates typical thermal and seasonal efficiencies of gas fired unit
heaters from one manufacturer, Modine Company.
Table A – 1, Typical Unit Heating Systems & Efficiencies
Heat System Type
Thermal
Seasonal
Eff (%)
Eff (%)
________________________________________________________
Atmospherically Vented
Power Vented
Direct Vented
80
80
82
65
78
80
Descriptions include:
Atmospherically Vented – Combustion air is drawn from inside the greenhouse.
Atmospherically vented systems allow warm air to vent out when the unit is off.
Power Vented – Combustion air is metered through the heater unit by separate
fans. When the unit is off, warm air venting is cut off. Seasonal efficiency is
increased. Exhausts can be installed through the side walls.
Direct Vented – Combustion air is taken from the outside and vented to the
outside. Unit designs allow some heat recovery from the flue gases. When the
unit is off, warm air venting is cut off and seasonal efficiency is increased.
Table A – 2 provides information on typical list prices for unit heater having
different capacities and efficiencies.
Appendix A - Page 2
Table A – 2, Typical List Prices & Capacities of Unit Heaters
BTUH
Input
BTUH
Output
List Price
($)
280,000
240,000
200,000
160,000
140,000
116,000
$1,780
$1,580
$1,350
$1,210
$1,140
$1,055
280,000
240,000
200,000
160,000
140,000
116,000
$2,350
$2,090
$1,755
$1,590
$1,485
$1,330
275,400
229,600
184,500
123,000
$3,970
$3,590
$3,280
$2,640
Atmospherically Vented
Heaters
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
175,000
145,000
Power Vented Heaters
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
175,000
145,000
Direct Vented Heaters
340,000
280,000
225,000
150,000
Notes:
1 - List Prices for Quantity 1 - 2
2 - Include Sales Tax & Estimated Shipping
3 - Direct Vented Units include Vent Kit
4 - Single Stage Gas Control and Thermostat
Note that the unit heaters efficiencies and costs are for either natural gas or
propane fuels. Oil fired units are available, but the initial costs are about 225%
higher. Efficiencies of oil fired units would be about the same as gas fired.
Appendix A - Page 3
Exhaust & Ventilation Fans
Horizontal Circulation Fans
Horizontal circulation fans are required to distribute heated air and minimize
thermal stratification. Moving air over the plants also minimizes condensation
and distributes fresh air. The latter replenishes carbon dioxide (CO2).
Horizontal circulation fan capacity (cfm) is typically sized at 25% of the
greenhouse volume. Multiples ceiling hung fans are typically used. Single and
variable speed fans can be used to match airflow with requirements. Variable
speed fans controls (i.e. 20% to 100%) of capacity are available. Typical sizes
and power requirements are:
•
•
•
12” Fan – 1/10 HP, 115V, .45/.9 A, 2,600 cfm
20” Fan – 1/3 HP, 115V, 1.8/3.5A, 6,000 cfm
24” Fan – ½ HP, 115V, 2.0/4.0A, 8,500 cfm
Exhaust Fans
Exhaust fans provide two functions:
Provide continuous flow of fresh air to greenhouses to mitigate humidity and
condensation and replenish CO2. They are typically sized at 2 cubic feet per
minute (cfm) per square foot of floor area.
Larger exhaust fans provide temperature control of greenhouse areas in the
spring, summer and fall months. Exhaust fans are typically sized to provide
about 8 F temperature drop. Because of the capacities required, many
greenhouses have two exhaust fans. Total fan cfm for the structure is about 25%
of the volume. Typical single and two speed exhaust fans sizes and power is:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24”, ½ HP, 115V, 6,400 cfm
36”, ½ HP, 115V, 11,000 cfm
36”, ½ HP, 115V, 7,900/11,900 cfm
42”, ¾ HP, 115V, 16,400 cfm
42”, ¾ HP, 230V, 16,400/10,840 cfm
48”, 1 HP, 115V, 22,730 cfm
48”, 1 HP, 230V, 15,000/22,700 cfm
Note that many fan models can be retrofit with variable speed controls.
Appendix A - Page 4
Continuous Exhaust Fans
Continuous exhaust fans operate for extended periods of time to replenish fresh
air within the greenhouse.
•
•
•
•
•
12”, 1/3 HP, 115V, 2.8/2.3A, 1,050/1,550 cfm
16”, 1/3 HP, 115V, 1.8 - 3.5A, 3,085 cfm
20”, 1/3 HP, 115V, 2.8/2.3A, 2,590/3,540 cfm
20”, 1/3 HP, 115V, 3.5 - 1.8A, 3,530 cfm
20”, ½ HP, 115V, 4.0 - 2.0A, 4,960 cfm
Inflation Blowers
Inflation blowers are small mounted fans on the inside that maintain an air space
between outer coverings. The units can be installed to use inside or outside air,
although outside air is recommended in cold climates. Typical capacities and
power requirements are:
•
•
1/100 HP, 115V, .5 A, 60 cfm
1/20 HP, 115V, 1.5 A, 148 cfm
Appendix A - Page 5
Appendix B
Greenhouse Cover Materials
Appendix B - Page 1
Cover Materials
Many transparent and translucent materials are used for greenhouse coverings
including:
•
Glass
-
•
Polyethylene (Single and Double Layer)
-
•
Extended life, hail proof, flexible, better insulation values
High cost, prone to UV light discoloring
Acrylic
-
•
Low cost, easy to install
Short life
Polycarbonate (Single, Double and Triple Layer)
-
•
High transmissivity of light, durable, long life
Costly, heavy, difficult for small owners to install
Good transmissivity of light, good UV resistance
High cost
Selected Combinations of coverings (e.g. polyethylene over single pane
glass)
Each has slightly different characteristics of insulation values, visible and infrared
light transmittance, life expectancy and cost as indicated below.
Double Ply Polyethylene is a most common greenhouse covering used in
Minnesota.
Table B – 1 provides typical greenhouse coverings used in Minnesota and
associated solar transmission, insulation values and costs per square foot.
Actual values vary by manufacturer.
Appendix B - Page 2
Table B – 1, Selected Greenhouse Covering Materials
Material
Single Pane Glass
Single Ply Polyethylene
Double Ply Polyethylene
Single Wall Polycarbonate
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
IRAC Inner, Poly Outer
Transmittance
Life
U Value R Value
Solar
IR Thermal
(Years)
% Visible
(%)
Light
>20
4
4
20
20
4
0.91
1.10
0.70
1.10
0.60
0.50
1.1
0.91
1.43
0.91
1.67
2
90
87
78
90
83
76.5
<3
50
50
<3
<23
Cost
Sq Ft ($)
$0.09
$0.18
$1.30
$2.10
$0.20
Covering materials are of similar thickness and thus have similar heat conduction
characteristics. As indicated in table B – 1, the single cover materials have U
values between .9 and 1.1 BTU/Sq Ft Hr F and double wall covering materials
between .6 and .7 BTU/Sq Ft Hr F. Note that all two-ply coverings have an air
space between layers.
IR anti-condensate (IRAC) films offer characteristics that address a number of
issues of associated with greenhouse coverings. These include:
•
•
•
Eliminate condensation drops from the film and allow lighter to reach the
plants. Condensate spreads over the film and drains off the sides.
Provides diffuses light within the greenhouse that penetrates to all plant
surfaces. Solar transmittance is slightly lower than two-ply clear
polyethylene.
Reduces radiation losses during clear nighttime hours. Additives to the film
reduce radiation at night. Reductions claimed by one manufacturer are up to
30%. The resultant effect on a two-ply application would be a U value of .5
BTU/Sq Ft Hr F.
IRAC film costs are slightly higher than polyethylene (i.e. about $0.02/Sq Ft
more). Thus a two ply covering of I film on the inside layer and clear
polyethylene on the outside layer would cost about $0.20/Sq Ft.
Studies have shown that while additional benefits are available, IR films do not
provide the heat loss reductions available from thermal blankets. Thermal
blankets can serve a dual purpose in that they provide shading during the
summer months. Shading is more of an issue in southern states than in
Minnesota. Costs of thermal blankets are high (Appendix D).
Appendix B - Page 3
Cost of Clamping Systems
Material costs indicated include only material. Additional costs for material
clamping systems for the baseline structure size is estimated at:
Double Ply Films
Twin Wall Polycarbonate
Single Wall Polycarbonate
=$ 750
=$ 2,750
=$ 2,750
Appendix B - Page 4
Appendix C
Insulation Materials
Appendix C - Page 1
Insulation Applications in Greenhouses
Insulation can be added to many areas within and exterior to greenhouse
structures. Common areas include:
•
•
•
Lower Walls – Lower areas on exterior walls. On structures with nonconcrete or brick walls, the insulation would be clamped to structure support
members.
Upper Walls – Upper wall areas on sides (e.g. North and East) that will
minimize loss of solar gain and light during the winter months.
Footings – Exterior or interior areas on poured concrete or brick wall footings
along post foundations. The insulation would be installed below and above
grade.
Insulation has also been used to provide side supports when used in conjunction
with ceiling mounted thermal blankets. Insulation can be incorporated into the
design and construction of new greenhouses or retrofit on existing structures.
Two types include polyurethane and polystyrene 4’ x 8’ sheets. Both have been
used in the home and commercial building construction. Polystyrene is a more
rigid material and durable material. Thicker panels will provide additional support
and have increased life expectancy. Costs and insulation values are described
below.
Type
R Value
(Sq Ft Hr F/BTU)
Cost per 4’ x 8’
($)
Polystyrene (4’ x 8’ x 1”)
5.0
$9.50 to $10.00
Polystyrene (4’ x 8’ x 1.5”)
7.5
$13.50 to $14.00
Polystyrene (4’ x 8’ x 2.0”)
10.0
$15.00 to $15.50
A simple clamping system is estimated to cost about $7.50 per panel.
Installation costs are not included. It is assumed that owners and operators
would install the insulation panels during the heating season, mid October
through March, and remove the panels during the spring, summer and fall
months.
Polystyrene is readily available from most lumber and home building stores.
Appendix C - Page 2
Appendix D
Thermal Blankets
Appendix D - Page 1
Description
Thermal blankets are used as an internal cover for plants and creates a
“envelop” within the greenhouse structure much like a home with an attic.
Outer Greenhouse Covering
Thermal Blanket
Thermal blankets reduce energy use in three ways:
Reduce heated air space – Reduce the amount of greenhouse volume that
requires heating.
Provides additional insulation value – The additional insulation values of the
blanket material provide thermal resistance. The amount is dependent on the
material and is difficult to predict because of the characteristic of the material.
Reduce radiant heat loss – Radiant heat loss reduction is the largest benefit.
Warm plant surfaces radiate energy. The net energy exchange is the rate of
emission of the surface (emissivity), temperature and surface area. A thermal
blanket blocks and thus reduces the radiation. The reduction is dependent on
the blanket material and its emissivity. A good material is one that has low
emissivity (i.e. high reflectivity) on the surface facing the outer cover and is highly
reflective on the inner surface facing the plants. Since heat loss is a direct
function of emissivity, heat loss is minimized by blanket materials having
aluminized surfaces with low emissivity values.
Since thermal blankets also serve to shade crops, the material tends to be
porous (e.g. woven materials). Porous blankets allow moisture to drain and allow
some heat to escape. Non-porous materials, such as polyethylene trap water
and condensation and block out light (i.e. depends on material) that reduces heat
retention during daylight hours. Aluminized material provides a compromise
between the two extremes; reflecting sunlight during the day and reducing heat
loss at night.
Appendix D - Page 2
Radiant Heat Loss
Radiant heat loss can be calculated by the following methodology suggested in
ASHRAE.
Q = Ceiling Area x Fci x Const x (Tc**4 – Tp**4)
Where
Fci
Q
Ac
Ap
Ec
Ep
fci
= [1/fci + (1/Ec – 1) + Ac/Ap x (1/Ep – 1)]
= Radiant heat loss (BTU/Sq Ft Hr)
= Area of ceiling (Sq Ft)
= Plant Area (Sq Ft)
=Emissivity of ceiling material
= Emissivity of plant material
= Angle factor (ceiling to plant) and dependent of greenhouse
geometry, but between 0 and 1.
Const = Stephan-Boltzman constant (.0.1714 x 10**-8 BTU/Hr Sq Ft R**4)
Tc
= Surface temperature of ceiling ( Degrees R)
Tp
= Surface temperature of plant (Degrees R)
As indicated, the calculation is dependent on temperatures and emissivity values
that are difficult to determine and vary by plant type, greenhouse covering and
outdoor temperatures.
Published information on heat loss savings for greenhouse’s having thermal
blankets have been determined by installing thermal blankets, measuring or
recording energy use over a period of time or season and adjusting the overall U
value of the greenhouse covering thermal blanket combination.
Installation
Installation on a new structure is the most optimal since the blanket and drive
system can be installed on overhead structural supports before other
components such as fans and lights are attached.
Retrofit on Existing Structures
Thermal blankets can be retrofit on existing greenhouse structures. The main
issue is that existing equipment and systems mounted on the ceiling supports
(e.g., lighting fixtures, piping, fans, heaters) may have to be re-moved and remounted.
Appendix D - Page 3
Insulation Values
Insulation values published in Greenhouse Engineering publications provide net
insulation values for selected combinations of thermal blankets material and
single glass glazing. These are summarized in Table D – 1.
Table D – 1, Insulation Values of Selected Greenhouse Single Pane Glass
Covering/Thermal Blanket Combinations
Blanket Description
Single Glass Glazing
Aluminized Polyethylene Tubes
White-White Spun Bonded
Polyolefin Film
Heavy Weight Grey White Spun
Bonded Film
Light Weight Grey White Spun
Bonded Film
Clear Polyethylene Film
Black Polyethylene Film
Aluminum Foil-clear Vinyl Film
Laminate
Aluminum Foil - Black Vinyl Film
Aluminum Fabric
Net U Value
Net R Value
BTU/Sq Ft Hr F Sq Ft Hr F/BTU
1.1
0.54
0.91
1.85
0.51
1.96
0.43
2.33
0.56
0.45
0.48
1.79
2.22
2.08
0.4
0.63
0.39
2.50
1.59
2.56
Heat losses vary from approximately 34% to 54%.
One manufacturer of thermal blanket material publishes energy saving potential
for their product (e.g. L.S. Svenson). Published energy saving data ranges from
47% to 72% for the XLS10 to XLS18 material, which is aluminum foil with clear
vinyl film laminate. Different energy savings are functions of the percentage
blanket area covered by the aluminum foil.
The baseline building used for comparison in this analysis has a covering of 2 ply
polyethylene (i.e. U = .69). A comparative range of net U values from R=2.44
(40% save) to R=3.57 (60% save) are used in the analysis presented in this
report.
Appendix D - Page 4
Cost estimates for a thermal blanket installed in a new greenhouse structure
30’ wide x 96’ long are:
Material
Installation Estimate
$ 8,250
$ 6,500
This single quote is based on an aluminum material with 55% shade factor and
64% energy savings and does not include a fire retardant material. This would
cost an additional $1,150. Material costs include blanket material (i.e. estimated
at about $1,000 of the material cost) and the transport system and controls.
Appendix D - Page 5
Appendix E
Energy Efficient Motors
Appendix E -Page 1
Energy Efficient Motors
The Energy Pact Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) requires that most general purpose
motors manufactured for sale in the United States after 10/24/97 meet minimum
efficiency standards. These efficiency standards are known as EPACT or
Energy Efficient Motors and apply to all single speed, T Frame, Open Drip Proof
and Totally Enclosed Fan Powered general purpose motors between 1 and 200
HP. These types of motors are supplied in heating, cooling and ventilation
systems.
Premium Efficient Motors
Motors efficiency levels have increased and now premium efficiency motors are
available. Premium efficiency levels were established by NEMA and thus have a
“recognized and consistent efficiency standard”. They can be ordered as option
on new fan systems and pumps or retrofit on existing systems. Table E – 1
illustrates premium efficient motor catalog efficiency and list prices for open drip
proof motors.
Many motors used in greenhouse heating and ventilation systems are less than 1
HP. Some manufactures have premium efficient motors in fractional HP sizes
from about .5 HP to 1 HP.
Incremental Costs
Average incremental list prices for premium efficient motors from 1 to 5 HP are
illustrated in Table E – 1 for two major vendors.
Table E – 1, Energy Efficient & Premium Efficient Motor Efficiency &
Average Cost Differences
HP
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
5.0
7.5
Energy
Efficient (%)
82.5
84.0
84.0
86.5
87.5
88.5
Premium
Efficient (%)
85.5
86.5
86.5
88.5
89.5
91.0
Appendix E -Page 2
Average Cost
Difference ($)
35
60
65
80
120
145
Appendix F
Control Systems
Appendix F - Page 1
Control Systems
Control systems are available to perform a number of control functions for
greenhouse operations. Control systems range from simple thermostats and
timers to more sophisticated microprocessor control systems that can provide
monitoring and control of a number of greenhouse systems. The following
outlines three options applicable to the baseline greenhouse structure.
Thermostats
Thermostats are required to control temperatures during both the heating season
and during spring/fall months when solar heat gain causes interior temperatures
to raise. Typical thermostats used for heating system control are single and dual
stage thermostats that can withstand greenhouse environments. Costs range
from $100 to $125 plus installation.
Thermostats that control space temperatures as a function of time of day are
available. Thermostats having multiple time set points per day are preferable to
meet the many types of crops and their growth cycles needs. An environmental
enclosure with remote sensing capability is required. Typical costs range from
$200 to $250 plus installation time (i.e. estimated at $100).
Timers
Mechanical and digital timers are available to control systems such as lighting
and exhaust fans as a function of time of day. Mechanical and digital timers can
be purchased for about $125 to $150 and installed by an electrician in about 3 –
4 hours (i.e. estimated at $320).
Microprocessor Control Systems
Control systems are available to perform a number of control functions for
greenhouse operations, including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Start/Stop of Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Systems (e.g. circulation fans,
exhaust fans).
Space Temperature Control as a Function of Time of Day (e.g. Day, Night,
Differentials)
Multi-Stage Space Temperature Control
Relative Humidity Control
Fogging Control
Thermal Blanket Operation (Energy savings and Shading)
CO2 Control
Roof/Siding Ventilation Control
Lighting Control
Alarm Monitoring and Reporting
Appendix F - Page 2
The primarily advantage of microprocessor based controls is the ability to
develop more complex control strategies such as controlling the on/off operation
of exhaust fans to maintain specified space temperatures.
A number of these control functions can save energy and optimize crop growth
by more precise control of environmental conditions within the greenhouse.
These types of control systems have been used successfully in commercial
buildings over the last 30 – 35 years to control workspace environment and have
often provided energy savings ranging from 10% to 20% of total building energy
use. The advent of microprocessor based control technology has resulted in
systems that can meet the needs of both small and large greenhouse operations
at reasonable costs. The following is an example of a basic system and costs.
Basic System Functionality & Costs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling System Control – 3 Stages
Heating System Control – 2 Stages
Space Temperature Control – Multiple Day Settings
Air Circulation Control
Sensors and Sensor Cable
Outputs for Additional Equipment Controls
Note that additional relays are required to control the start/stop operation of
equipment such as lights and exhaust fans.
Approximate Costs
Control System
Installation (One Day of Electrician Time)
Additional Control Relays
Appendix F - Page 3
=$ 1,000 to $1,200
=$ 500 to $700
=$ 200 to $300 each
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