laws of the sport of bowls

laws of the sport of bowls
LAWS OF THE SPORT OF BOWLS
SOUTH AFRICAN EDITION
Third Edition
These Laws take effect in South Africa
from 1 October 2014
Laws of the Sport of Bowls
Third Edition
Domestic regulations for
Bowls South Africa
Contents
Foreword.................................................................... 9
Introduction.................................................................. 9
Conventions................................................................ 9
Definitions.................................................................. 10
Section 1 – Game basics........................................ 19
Section 1.1 – Arranging a game............................. 19
1 Play arrangements............................................. 19
1.1 Singles game............................................. 19
1.2 Team game................................................ 19
1.3 Side game.................................................. 21
1.4 A series of games....................................... 21
1.5 A tournament of games.............................. 21
2 General form and length..................................... 22
3 Choosing the rinks for play................................. 22
4Practice.............................................................. 23
Section 1.2 – Getting a game underway................ 24
5 Starting the game............................................... 24
5.1 Trial ends.................................................... 24
5.2 Tossing for opening play............................ 25
5.3 The start of play......................................... 26
5.4 Play in other ends...................................... 26
1
6
  7
 8
  9
10
11
Placing the mat................................................... 27
6.1 At the start of each end.............................. 27
6.2 During each end......................................... 29
Position on the mat............................................. 30
Foot-faulting....................................................... 30
Delivering the jack.............................................. 31
Improper delivery of the jack.............................. 33
Team play........................................................... 34
11.1 Number of players...................................... 34
11.2 Order of play.............................................. 34
Section 1.3 – Possession of the rink..................... 36
12 Position of players.............................................. 36
12.1In relation to the rink of play....................... 36
12.2In relation to a neighbouring rink................ 37
13 Possession of the rink........................................ 37
Section 1.4 – Touchers and dead bowls................ 38
14Touchers............................................................. 38
15 Marking a toucher............................................... 40
16 Movement of touchers........................................ 41
17 Dead bowl.......................................................... 42
Section 1.5 – Live and dead jack........................... 44
18 Live jack in the ditch........................................... 44
19 Dead jack........................................................... 45
2
20 Dead end............................................................ 46
21 Rebounding jack................................................. 47
Section 1.6 – Result of an end............................... 47
22 The shot............................................................. 47
23 Deciding the number of shots scored................. 48
24 No shot scored – tied end.................................. 50
25 Delivering the final bowl of an end..................... 51
Section 1.7 – Game decisions................................ 51
26 Games played on one occasion......................... 51
27 Tournament games and games in a series........ 52
28A drawn game in a knockout (eliminating)
competition......................................................... 53
Section 2 – Game anomalies.................................. 54
Section 2.1 – Irregularities affecting play............. 54
29 Irregularities during play..................................... 54
29.1Playing out of turn...................................... 54
29.2Playing another player’s bowl.................... 55
29.3Changing bowls.......................................... 55
29.4Failing to play............................................. 56
30 Damaged jack.................................................... 56
31 Damaged bowls.................................................. 57
3
Section 2.2 – Factors affecting play...................... 58
32 Game stoppages................................................ 58
33 Leaving the green during the course of play........ 59
34 Objects on the green.......................................... 60
35 Unforeseen incidents.......................................... 61
36 Deliberate non-sporting action........................... 61
Section 2.3 – Bowl and jack displacement........... 62
37 Bowl displacement............................................. 62
37.1Bowl displacement by another
player......................................................... 62
37.2Bowl displacement by a disabled
player’s equipment or assistant.................. 65
37.3Bowl displacement by a neutral
person or neutral object............................. 65
37.4Bowl displacement when being
marked as a toucher or during
measuring.................................................. 68
37.5Bowl displacement by a rebounding
non-toucher................................................ 69
37.6Bowl displacement by a bowl from a
neighbouring rink........................................ 70
37.7Bowl displacement by a dead bowl............ 71
38 Jack displacement.............................................. 71
38.1Jack displacement by another player......... 71
38.2Jack displacement by a disabled
player’s equipment or assistant.................. 72
4
38.3Jack displacement by a neutral
person or neutral object............................. 72
38.4Jack displacement during measuring......... 73
38.5Jack displacement by a non-toucher.......... 74
38.6Jack displacement by a bowl from a
neighbouring rink........................................ 74
Section 2.4 – Defaults by players.......................... 75
39 Absentee players in a team or side.................... 75
39.1In a team game.......................................... 75
39.2In a side game............................................ 75
Section 3 – Duties of players and officials........... 76
Section 3.1 – Players and their duties................... 76
40 Players’ duties.................................................... 76
40.1The skip...................................................... 76
40.2The third..................................................... 78
40.3The lead..................................................... 79
40.4Other duties................................................ 79
41 Players with disabilities...................................... 79
Section 3.2 – Officials and their duties and
spectators................................................................ 81
42 The marker’s duties............................................ 81
43 The umpire’s duties............................................ 84
44 The coach........................................................... 86
45Spectators.......................................................... 86
5
Section 4 – Field of play and equipment............... 88
Section 4.1 – The green, ditch, banks and rinks... 88
46 The green........................................................... 88
47 The ditch............................................................. 88
48 The bank............................................................ 89
49 Division of the green........................................... 90
Section 4.2 – Equipment: mat, jack, bowls
and measures.......................................................... 95
50Mat................................................................... 95
51Jack
................................................................... 95
52Bowls.................................................................. 95
52.1Specifications............................................. 95
52.2Bias of bowls.............................................. 98
52.3Alteration to bias........................................ 98
52.4Lodging a challenge to bowls..................... 99
52.5Following up a challenge to bowls........... 100
52.6Bowls failing a test................................... 102
53 Bowls: World Bowls Stamp.............................. 103
54 Measuring equipment....................................... 105
Section 5 – Administration................................... 106
Section 5.1 – Playing formats.............................. 106
55 Formats of play................................................. 106
55.1World events and Commonwealth Games. 106
55.2International events.................................. 108
55.3Domestic events........................................111
6
56
Sets play............................................................112
56.1Format of play...........................................112
56.2Tie-breaker................................................113
56.3Winners of sectional play..........................114
56.4First to play................................................115
56.5Re-spotting the jack..................................116
Section 5.2 – Game regulations............................118
57 Regulations for play...........................................118
57.1Domestic regulations.................................118
57.2Conditions of Play.................................... 121
Section 5.3 – Administrative matters................... 121
58 International tours and competitions................ 121
59Regulating Singles, Pairs, Triples and
Fours games.................................................... 122
60Contracting out of the Laws of the
Sport of Bowls.................................................. 122
Appendices............................................................ 123
Appendix A............................................................. 123
A.1 Conditions of Play............................................ 123
A.2Footwear.......................................................... 125
A.3Clothing............................................................ 126
A.4Restricting the movement of players
during play........................................................ 126
A.5 Delaying (slow) play......................................... 128
7
Appendix B............................................................. 131
B.1 Position of the bank.......................................... 131
B.2 Marks on the surface of the rink....................... 132
B.3 Centring the jack.............................................. 135
B.4 Distance charts................................................. 136
Appendix C............................................................. 138
C.1 Bowl and jack displacement chart.................... 138
Domestic Regulations............................................. 147
Code of conduct and disciplinary procedure........... 158
8
Foreword
Introduction
No laws governing a sport can cope with every
situation, and the laws governing the sport of bowls are
no exception. Unusual situations not covered within
the laws can often arise. The Laws of the Sport of
Bowls (‘the laws’) have been drawn up in the spirit of
true sportsmanship. So, if a situation arises that is not
covered by these laws, players, markers and umpires
must use their common sense and a spirit of fair play to
decide on the appropriate course of action.
Conventions
1
References to ‘must’ and ‘will’ within these
laws mean that the action is compulsory.
2
References to ‘can’ within these laws
mean that the action is optional.
3
References to ‘between’ when used
to describe a range of weights or
measurements within these laws mean
that the smallest and largest numbers
given are included within the range.
9
Definitions
The definitions are in alphabetical order within each
section.
AControl
Controlling Body: the body with
immediate control over the Conditions of
Play (see law 57.2) under which a game
is played. The order is:
A.1
World Bowls (WB);
A.2
a National Bowling Authority that is
a member of WB (‘Member National
Authority’) or a group of Member National
Authorities;
A.3
divisions
within
Member
National
Authorities; and
A.4
the club on whose green the game is
being played.
BPlayers
B.1
Side: any agreed number of teams or
Singles players (or a combination of teams
and Singles players) whose combined
scores decide the result of a competition.
B.2
Skip: the player who is in charge of the
team.
B.3
Team play
B.3.1
Team: a Pair, a Triple or a Four.
10
B.3.2
Pair: a team of two players whose positions,
in order of play, are ‘lead’ and ‘skip’.
B.3.3
Triple: a team of three players whose
positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’,
‘second’ and ‘skip’.
B.3.4
Four: a team of four players whose
positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’,
‘second’, ‘third’ and ‘skip’.
C
Play
C.1
Centring the jack: placing the jack on
the centre line of the rink, at the same
distance from the mat line as it was when
it came to rest.
C.2
Defaulting player, team or side: the
player, team or side that does not meet the
requirements of any specific law or laws.
C.3
Delivery: deliberately releasing a jack or
a bowl from the hand or an artificial device
using an underarm movement. If the jack
or bowl accidentally slips from a player’s
hand or artificial device during delivery,
the player can pick it up and start the
delivery again.
C.4
Displaced jack or bowl: a jack or a
bowl which is moved in a way that is not
approved within the Laws of the Sport of
Bowls.
11
Disturbing the head: altering the position
of the jack or a bowl in the head.
C.6
Domestic play: any play under the direct
control of a Member National Authority,
a division within a Member National
Authority or a club.
C.7
End: delivery of the jack, delivery of all the
bowls required to be played by all of the
opponents in the same direction on a rink,
and deciding the number of shots scored.
C.8
End ditches
C.8.1
Front ditch: the ditch at the end of the
green which is directly in front of a player
when they stand on the mat.
C.8.2
Rear ditch: the ditch at the end of the
green which is directly behind a player
when they stand on the mat.
C.9
Face of the bank: the surface of the bank
from the surface of the ditch up to the top
of any surround or edging.
C.10
Forfeited game: a game that is awarded
to an opponent as a penalty for the
defaulting player, team or side not
meeting the requirements of one or more
laws.
C.11
Former position: the position of a jack
or a bowl at rest within the rink of play
C.5
12
C.12
C.13
C.14
immediately before it is displaced. If a law
says that a jack or a bowl must be put back
to its former position, the person replacing
the jack or bowl in this way must decide
where that position is. If this person cannot
accurately identify the former position,
they must put the jack or bowl as near as
possible to its former position.
Groundsheet: a rectangular piece of
canvas or other suitable fabric placed
temporarily on the surface of the green to
protect it from any damage caused as a
result of a player delivering the jack or a
bowl. The rear edge of the groundsheet
must be placed at least 2 metres from the
rear ditch and at least 25 metres from the
front ditch (in line with the requirements
for placing the mat described in laws 6.1.1
and 6.1.5).
Head: the jack and any bowls which
have come to rest within the boundaries
of the rink of play and are not dead. (Law
19.1 describes a dead jack and law 17.1
describes a dead bowl.)
Holding surface: a natural or synthetic
material that will prevent the jack or a bowl
from running along the ditch.
13
C.15
C.16
C.17
C.18
C.19
C.20
C.21
Jack or bowl in its original course:
a jack or a bowl from its delivery until it
comes to rest, no matter how many times
(for a bowl) it comes into contact with the
jack or other bowls before it comes to rest
or becomes dead.
Jack or bowl in motion: a jack or a bowl
which is moving during play after it has
been at rest as part of the head.
Licensed Manufacturer: person or
company licensed by WB to make bowls
in line with the standards laid down in
World Bowls Regulations.
Licensed Tester: person or company
licensed by WB to test bowls to make
sure they meet the standards laid down in
World Bowls Regulations and the Laws of
the Sport of Bowls.
Line jack or bowl: a jack or bowl which has
come to rest partly inside and partly outside
the side boundary of the rink of play.
Mat line: the edge of the mat nearest to
the front ditch. All measurements involving
the mat and a jack or a bowl will be taken
from the centre of the mat line.
Net total of set points: the total number
of set points a player or team scores
14
minus the total number of set points
scored against them.
C.22
Net total of shots: the total number of shots
a player, team or side scores minus the total
number of shots scored against them.
C.23
Neutral
C.23.1
Neutral person: a person who is not a
player on the rink of play. This includes the
marker and the umpire.
C.23.2 Neutral object:
C.23.2.1a jack, bowl or other object not belonging
to any player on the rink of play;
C.23.2.2a line jack or a line bowl belonging to a
player on a neighbouring rink; or
C.23.2.3a dead bowl that is at rest and has not
been removed from the rink of play.
C.24
Open tournaments: competitions in
which both members and non-members
of the club hosting the event are eligible
to take part, and in which more than one
round can be played on the same day.
C.25
Pace of the green: the number of seconds
taken by a bowl from its delivery to the
moment it comes to rest at approximately
27 metres from the mat line. The higher
the number of seconds taken, the faster
the pace of the green.
15
Position of bowl in relation to jack
Jack high or jack level: the nearest part
of a bowl is in line with and at the same
distance from the mat line as the nearest
part of the jack.
C.27
Rink and its boundaries
C.27.1
Rink: the section of the green on which a
game is played.
C.27.2
Rink of play: the section of the green
and the corresponding sections of the end
ditches on which a game is played.
C.27.3
Side boundaries of the rink of play: the
imaginary straight lines connecting the
centres of the boundary pegs on opposite
banks that show the limits of the rink of
play.
C.27.4
End boundaries of the rink of play: the
faces of the banks which are within the
side boundaries of the rink of play.
C.28
Set: a pre-determined number of shots or
ends forming part of a game.
C.29
Shot indicators (also known as lollipops
or paddles): thin pieces of plastic or other
suitable material, shaped, for example,
like oars. The heads of the indicators
match either the colours of the adhesive
markings on each player’s bowls (see law
C.26
16
52.1.8) or the colours of each player’s
bowls. During play, the marker holds up
the appropriate number of indicators, in
the appropriate colour, to signal to players
and spectators which player’s bowl or
bowls the marker considers to be shot.
C.30
Visiting skips: either:
C.30.1the skips of teams other than those playing
on their own green; or
C.30.2the skips of the second-named team in
each pair of competing teams when games
are being played at a neutral venue.
DBowls
D.1
Bias: the curved path along which a bowl
travels from delivery until it comes to rest.
(The shape of the bowl gives it its bias.)
D.2
Bias side of a bowl: the side of the bowl
that is the more rounded of the two sides,
which is identified by the small grooved
rings surrounding its centre. (The nonbias side is identified by the large grooved
rings surrounding its centre.)
D.3
Set of bowls: four bowls, all of which are:
D.3.1of a matched set;
D.3.2of the same make and model; and
D.3.3
of the same size, weight, colour, bias,
serial number and engraving.
17
D.4
Working Reference Bowl: a bowl
approved by WB as:
D.4.1having the minimum bias required; and
D.4.2in all other respects, following the Laws of
the Sport of Bowls.
Each Working Reference Bowl is engraved
with the words ‘Working Reference Bowl’
and WB makes sure that each Licensed
Tester is given a Working Reference Bowl.
The ‘Laws of the Sport of Bowls – Crystal Mark Third
Edition’ applies from a date decided by individual
Member National Authorities as long as that date is not
later than 1 April 2015.
Copyright © 2014 World Bowls Limited
All rights reserved. You cannot reproduce, store in a
retrieval system, or transmit any part of this publication,
in any form or by any means (whether electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise),
without written permission of World Bowls Limited.
18
Section 1 – Game basics
Section 1.1 – Arranging a game
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Play arrangements
Games must be organised as:
a Singles game;
a team game;
a side game;
a series of Singles games, team games or
side games; or
1.5
a tournament of games.
1.1
Singles game
A Singles game must be played between
two opposing players. Players must play
singly and in turn either two, three or
four of a set of bowls as decided by the
Controlling Body.
1.2
Team game
1.2.1
Pairs game
1.2.1.1
A Pairs game must be played by two
opposing teams, each with two players.
Players must play singly and in turn either
two, three or four of a set of bowls as
decided by the Controlling Body.
1.2.1.2The Controlling Body will also decide the
order in which the players will play their
bowls as follows.
19
1.2.1.2.1 If each player is playing four bowls:
1.2.1.2.1.1the leads will play their four bowls followed
by the skips playing their four bowls;
1.2.1.2.1.2
the leads will play two of their bowls,
followed by the skips playing two of their
bowls, followed by the leads playing their
final two bowls, followed by the skips
playing their final two bowls; or
1.2.1.2.1.3 in the first end and every following oddnumbered end, the leads will play two of
their bowls, followed by the skips playing
their four bowls, followed by the leads
playing their final two bowls. In the second
end and every following even-numbered
end, the skips will play two of their bowls,
followed by the leads playing their four
bowls, followed by the skips playing their
final two bowls.
1.2.1.2.2If each player is playing two or three bowls,
the leads will play all their bowls, followed
by the skips playing all their bowls.
1.2.2
Triples game
A Triples game must be played by two
opposing teams, each with three players.
Players must play singly and in turn either
two or three of a set of bowls as decided
by the Controlling Body.
20
1.2.3
Fours game
A Fours game must be played by two
opposing teams, each with four players.
Players must play singly and in turn two of
a set of bowls.
1.3
Side game
A side game must be played by two
opposing sides, each with the same
number of teams or Singles players (or
a combination of teams and Singles
players).
1.4
A series of games
Games in a series must be arranged to be
played on several occasions as:
1.4.1
an ordered series of games organised
as a knockout (eliminating) competition
and arranged as Singles, Pairs, Triples or
Fours; or
1.4.2an ordered series of side games organised
as either a league competition or a knock­
out (eliminating) competition.
1.5
A tournament of games
1.5.1
Singles games and team games can
be arranged into sections (or groups)
as a tournament of games in which the
contestants either:
1.5.1.1
play each other in turn;
21
1.5.1.2play as paired-off teams of players; or
1.5.1.3play in line with any other format decided
by the Controlling Body.
1.5.2The games can be played on one or several
greens in line with a common timetable.
2
General form and length
2.1
A game of bowls must be played on one
rink or on several rinks.
2.2
The game must consist of a pre-arranged
number of shots or ends, or be played
for a fixed period of time that is decided
beforehand.
2.3
Ends must be played in turn from opposite
directions, except as described in laws 20,
30, 37 and 38.
3
Choosing the rinks for play
3.1
The skips, their representatives or the
Controlling Body must make the draw
for the rinks on which games are to be
played.
3.2
In games where competing skips have
previously been decided, the visiting skips,
their representatives or the Controlling
Body must make the draw to decide the
numbers of the rinks to be played on.
3.3
If, after the draw for rinks has been made,
a player in a competition or game plays on
22
the same rink before the start of play on
the day of the competition or game, that
player will be disqualified. This does not
apply to open tournaments.
3.4
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the requirements
for playing or practising on the same rink
on the day of a competition or game.
4Practice
4.1
If a player or team that has not yet played
is due to meet a player or team that has
already played on the same day, the
player or team that has not yet played can
practise as long as:
4.1.1
the Controlling Body gives approval;
4.1.2
there is enough time available without
delaying the competition; and
4.1.3
another rink is available apart from that on
which the player or team has been drawn
to play later that day.
4.2
If a player or team has already played on
the same green on the same day, that
player or team can practise in line with law
4.1 if they have a ‘bye’. (A player or team
has a ‘bye’ in any round of a competition
if they don’t have an opponent in that
round.)
23
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
The Controlling Body must allocate
the rink on which a player or team can
practise.
If two players or two teams are entitled to
practise:
they can practise together; and
the format of, and the number of bowls
used in, the practice must be decided by
the players concerned.
Section 1.2 – Getting a game underway
5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
Starting the game
Trial ends
Before the start of play in any game, or
before continuing an unfinished game on
another day, one trial end must be played
in each direction.
For domestic play, the Controlling Body
can limit the number of trial ends to be
played (no trial ends or one trial end in one
direction). It can also decide whether the
trial ends are played immediately before
or immediately after the scheduled start
time for the game.
Trial ends must be played on the same
rink that the game will be played on.
24
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.8
5.1.9
5.2
5.2.1
Each player must not use more than the
number of bowls being used during the
game. If a player or an umpire notices
that a player is using more than the
permitted number of bowls, the defaulting
player will lose the right to play any
bowls remaining to be played in the trial
ends.
Each player can use any combination of
bowls taken from different sets of bowls.
The opponents of the team which started
the first trial end must start the second
trial end.
The team which starts the trial end must
place the mat, deliver the jack and place
the jack on the centre line of the rink at
a distance they choose from the mat line
(the distance must not be changed during
the course of the trial end).
When each bowl comes to rest, any player
or the marker can remove it and place it
towards the front ditch.
If a bowl moves the jack, the jack must be
put back to its former position.
Tossing for opening play
The coaches in a side game (or, in their
absence, representatives of the sides),
25
5.2.2
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.4
skips in a team game or opponents in
Singles must toss a coin.
The winner of the toss must choose
whether to:
place the mat and then deliver the jack
and the first bowl; or
tell the opposing player to place the mat
and deliver the jack and the first bowl (the
opposing player cannot refuse).
The option chosen by the coach or
representative who wins the toss in a side
game will apply to all teams or Singles
players (or a combination of teams and
Singles players) who make up the side.
If the coin is tossed before the start of the
trial ends, the option the winner of the toss
chooses will apply to both the first trial end
and the first end of the game.
The start of play
In any game, the start of play is the
delivery of the jack by the first player to
play in the first end.
In any end, the start of play is the delivery
of the jack by the first player to play in
that end.
Play in other ends
In all ends after the first but apart from in
26
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
an extra end, the winner of the previous
scoring end must place the mat and then
deliver the jack and the first bowl.
Placing the mat
At the start of each end
Before the start of play in each end, the
player to play first must place the centre
line of the mat lengthwise along the centre
line of the rink, with the mat line at least
2 metres from the rear ditch and at least
25 metres from the front ditch.
If, before the jack has been delivered, a
player or the marker finds that the mat
has not been placed as described in law
6.1.1, the player to play first must correctly
position the mat.
If, after the jack has been delivered but
before the first bowl is delivered, a player
or the marker finds that the mat line has
not been positioned within the distances
described in law 6.1.1, the opposing
player must place the mat as described in
law 6.1.1 and re-deliver the jack, making
sure that it is centred, but the opposing
player must not play first.
After the first player to play has delivered
the first bowl, no-one has the right to
27
6.1.5
6.1.5.1
6.1.5.2
6.1.5.3
6.1.5.4
6.1.5.5
6.1.5.6
challenge the legality of the original
distance of the mat line from the rear and
front ditches.
If one or more groundsheets are to be
used (outdoor play only), the following will
apply:
The Controlling Body must consult the
nominated green­
keeper before deciding
where the groundsheets will be placed.
The position must be in line with definition
C.12.
The Controlling Body can make the
decision to use groundsheets either before
the start of play or at any time during play.
The groundsheets must be securely
fastened to the surface of the green using
flat-headed pins (or an equivalent) that do
not stick up from the surface.
The groundsheets must stay in the same
position until the end of the game or until
the Controlling Body decides that they are
no longer needed.
The mat line must be placed on the rear
edge of the groundsheet.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the requirements
for using portable groundsheets as an
28
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
alternative to the fixed groundsheets
mentioned in this law.
During each end
After the start of play in any end, the mat
must not be moved from its original position
except in the following circumstances.
If the mat is displaced, it must be replaced
in its original position.
If the mat is out of line with the centre line,
it must be straightened on that line.
If the mat is off the centre line, it must be
moved to that line.
If a player picks up the mat before the
end has been completed, an opposing
player must replace the mat in its original
position.
If a bowl from a neighbouring rink, moving
in its original course and on a bias
which will take it back into its own rink,
is travelling on a path which will bring it
into contact with the mat, any player on
the rink on which the mat is being used
can lift it so that the bowl can pass
and then replace the mat in its original
position.
To gain better grip during adverse weather
conditions a player can, before delivering
29
their bowl, lift the mat, turn it over and
replace it in its original position.
6.2.7
After the last bowl required to be played
in each end has been delivered, a player
or the marker must lift the mat and place
it completely beyond the face of the rear
bank. Opponents in Singles can, however,
agree to carry the mat up the rink so that
they can use it at the next end.
7
Position on the mat
7.1
Before delivery a player must be standing
on the mat with all or part of at least one
foot on the mat. At the moment they deliver
the jack or a bowl, the player must have all
or part of one foot on or above the mat.
7.2
Before delivery a player using an approved
wheelchair must have one wheel on the
mat and, at the moment they deliver the
jack or a bowl, the player must have all or
part of one wheel on or above the mat.
7.3
Any player not meeting the terms of this
law is committing a foot-fault, and law 8
will apply.
8Foot-faulting
8.1
If the umpire, either by their own
observation or on appeal by one of the
skips or opponents in Singles, decides
30
8.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.4
9
9.1
9.2
that a player has not met the terms of
law 7, the umpire must, on the first
occasion, warn the player in the presence
of the skip and advise the coach when they
are present that a warning has been given.
On each occasion after this, the umpire
must have the player’s bowl stopped and
declared dead.
If it has not been possible to stop the bowl
and it disturbs the head, the opponent
must choose whether to:
replace the head;
leave the head as altered; or
declare the end dead.
If a player has been given a warning and
still fails to meet the terms of law 7 while
delivering the jack, law 10.2 will apply.
Delivering the jack
Before the jack is delivered, the mat must
be placed as described in law 6.1.1. The
player to play first must deliver the jack
and make sure that it is centred.
If the jack in its original course comes
to rest less than 2 metres from the front
ditch, it must be placed on the centre line
of the rink with the nearest point of the
jack to the mat line being 2 metres from
31
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
the front ditch. This must be done by:
placing the jack at a mark on the centre
line of the rink measuring a distance of
2 metres from the front ditch (see diagram
B.3.1 in appendix B.3); or
placing the jack alongside the edge of a
2-metre measuring device (for example,
a thin wooden batten which is 2 metres
long – see diagram B.3.2 in appendix B.3)
If, in its original course, the jack is
displaced by one of the other players, law
38.1.1 will apply.
If, in its original course, the jack is
displaced by a neutral person or neutral
object, law 38.3.1 will apply.
If, before a bowl has been played by each
team, a player notices that the wrong
team has delivered the jack, the correct
team will re-start the end.
If, after a bowl has been played by each
team, a player notices that the wrong
team has delivered the jack, play in that
end must continue in that order.
After the first player to play has delivered
the first bowl, no-one has the right to
challenge the legality of the original
position of the jack.
32
10
10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5
10.2
10.3
Improper delivery of the jack
The jack has been improperly delivered if
it comes to rest:
in the ditch;
completely outside the boundaries of the
rink;
at a distance of less than 23 metres from
the mat line, as measured in a straight
line from the centre of the mat line to the
nearest point of the jack, after the jack has
been centred;
on the rink after contact with the face of
the bank; or
on the rink after contact with any object or
person completely outside the boundaries
of the rink.
If a player improperly delivers the jack, the
opposing player must place the mat as
described in law 6.1.1 and re-deliver the
jack, making sure that it is centred, but the
opposing player must not play first.
If the jack is improperly delivered once
by each player in any end, it must not
be delivered again in that end. Instead,
it must be centred with the nearest point
of the jack to the mat line being 2 metres
from the front ditch, and the mat must be
33
10.4
10.5
10.5.1
10.5.2
10.5.3
11
11.1
11.2
11.2.1
placed as described in law 6.1.1 by the
first player to play.
If the jack is improperly delivered once by
each player and the end is then declared
dead, law 20.3 will apply.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide to change the
distance mentioned in law 10.1.3 from 23
metres to 21 metres. If a Member National
Authority decides to make that change, it
must also change:
the distance mentioned in laws 19.1.4,
56.5.1, 56.5.2.4, and appendix B.4.2 from
20 metres to 18 metres;
the distance mentioned in definition C.12,
laws 6.1.1, 49.12, 49.13 and appendices
B.2.1, B.4.1 and B.4.2 from 25 metres to
23 metres; and
the distance mentioned in law 42.2.2
and appendix B.4.2 from 23 metres to 21
metres.
Team play
Number of players
A team must consist of two, three or four
players in line with definition B.3.
Order of play
The leads must play their bowls in turn,
34
followed by each pair of players in their
order of play.
11.2.2
If a player delivers a bowl before the
previous bowl has come to rest,
11.2.2.1
the first time this happens the umpire
must:
11.2.2.1.1 warn the player, while the skip is present;
and
11.2.2.1.2 tell the coach, if they are present, that the
player has received a warning.
11.2.2.2
on each occasion after this, the umpire
must declare the player’s bowl dead. If
that bowl has disturbed the head, the
opposing skip or opponent in Singles
must choose whether to:
11.2.2.2.1 replace the head;
11.2.2.2.2 leave the head as altered; or
11.2.2.2.3 declare the end dead.
11.2.3
The positions of players within a team
must not be changed after the first end
has been completed unless the change
is necessary because a substitute is
introduced as described in law 33.
11.2.4
If players in a team game change positions
when law 11.2.3 does not apply, the team
will be disqualified and they will forfeit the
game to their opponents.
35
11.2.5
If players in a side game change positions
within a team when law 11.2.3 does not
apply, or if they change teams, the side
will be disqualified and they will forfeit the
game to their opponents.
Section 1.3 – Possession of the rink
12
12.1
12.1.1
12.1.2
12.1.2.1
12.1.2.2
12.1.2.3
12.1.2.4
12.1.3
Position of players
In relation to the rink of play
Players at the mat-end of the rink who are
not delivering a bowl must stand at least
1 metre behind the mat.
Players at the head-end of the rink and
who are not controlling play must stand:
behind the jack if they are members of the
team which is in possession of the rink;
behind the jack and away from the head if
they are members of the team which is not
in possession of the rink;
on the surrounds of the green if the jack is
in the ditch; or
well clear of the head if it is not possible to
stand on the surrounds.
As soon as a bowl is delivered, a player
who is controlling play from a position that
is either level with or in front of the jack,
36
12.1.4
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.2.4
13
13.1
13.2
must take their position as described in
law 12.1.2.
If a player does not meet the terms of this
law, law 13 will apply.
In relation to a neighbouring rink
A player must not go into a neighbouring
rink where play is in progress.
A player must neither go into nor walk
along a neighbouring rink, even if it is not
being used, while an opponent is about to
deliver or is actually delivering a bowl.
If the rink of play is an outside rink (see
law 49.6), a player must neither go into
nor walk along the section of green that
lies between the outside side boundary
of the rink and the side ditch while an
opponent is about to deliver or is actually
delivering a bowl.
If a player does not meet the terms of this
law, law 13 will apply.
Possession of the rink
Possession of the rink will belong to
the player or team whose bowl is being
played.
As soon as each bowl comes to rest,
possession of the rink will transfer to the
opposing player or team after allowing
37
13.3
13.3.1
13.3.1.1
13.3.1.2
13.3.2
13.3.2.1
13.3.2.2
13.3.2.3
time for marking a toucher as soon as it
comes to rest.
If the umpire, either by their own
observation or on appeal by one of the
skips or opponents in Singles, decides
that the players in possession of the rink
are being interfered with, annoyed or
distracted in any way by their opponents,
the first time this happens the umpire must:
warn the offending player, while the skip is
present; and
tell the coach, if they are present, that the
player has received a warning.
on each occasion after this, the umpire
must have the bowl last played by the
offending player or team declared dead.
If that bowl has disturbed the head, the
opponent must choose whether to:
replace the head;
leave the head as altered; or
declare the end dead.
Section 1.4 – Touchers and dead bowls
14Touchers
14.1
A bowl in its original course which touches
the jack, even though it comes to rest
38
14.2
14.2.1
14.2.2
14.3
14.4
in the ditch within the boundaries of the
rink of play, is a live bowl and is called
a toucher. If a bowl in its original course
does not touch the jack, it is called a nontoucher.
A bowl is also a toucher if, after having
come to rest:
it falls and touches the jack before the
next bowl is delivered; or
in the case of the last bowl of an end, it
falls and touches the jack within the period
of 30 seconds that applies under law 23.1.
No bowl will become a toucher if it plays
onto, or comes into contact with, the jack
when the jack is in the ditch.
The position of a toucher in the ditch must
be marked by a brightly coloured indicator
not more than 50 millimetres wide and
not more than 100 millimetres high, and
which is fixed vertically either against the
face of the bank or on top of the bank,
immediately in line with the toucher. As
well as the indicator, if the surface of the
ditch is sand, lines can be drawn in the
sand around the toucher. If the surface
of the ditch is vegetation or synthetic, the
lines can be drawn with chalk.
39
15
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
Marking a toucher
A toucher must be marked with chalk by
a member of the team that delivered the
bowl or the marker as soon as it comes
to rest.
If, in the opinion of either skip or opponent
or the marker, a toucher comes to rest in a
position in which marking it would be likely
to move the bowl or alter the head, the
bowl must not be marked but nominated
as a toucher instead.
If, before the next delivered bowl comes
to rest or, in the case of the last bowl of
an end, before a period of 30 seconds that
applies under law 23.1, a bowl is neither
marked nor nominated, it is no longer
a toucher.
If a bowl has been nominated as either a
toucher or a non-toucher, and both skips
or the opponents in Singles agree that
further movement of the bowl means it
must no longer be nominated, the bowl
must be marked or have its mark removed
as appropriate.
If a player fails to remove a mark from a
bowl before delivery and that bowl does
not become a toucher, a member of the
40
15.6
16
16.1
16.1.1
16.1.2
16.1.3
16.2
16.3
opposing team or the marker must remove
the mark as soon as the bowl comes
to rest.
If, in the opinion of either skip or opponent
or the marker, a wrongly marked bowl
comes to rest in such a position that
removing the mark would be likely to
move the bowl or alter the head, the mark
must not be removed and the bowl must
instead be nominated as a non-toucher.
Movement of touchers
The position of a toucher in the ditch will be
validly altered if the toucher is moved by:
a jack in play;
another toucher in play; or
a non-toucher while it is partly on the
rink and partly overhanging the ditch, as
long as part of the non-toucher is still on
the rink when it comes to rest after it has
moved the toucher.
If a toucher in the ditch is moved by a nontoucher entering the ditch, law 37.7 will
apply.
If, once its position has been marked, there
is further valid movement of a toucher in
the ditch as described in law 16.1, its new
position must be marked as described in
41
17
17.1
17.1.1
17.1.2
17.1.3
17.1.4
17.1.5
17.1.6
law 14.4 by moving the indicators and
re­­
moving and redrawing the lines as
appropriate.
Dead bowl
A bowl is a dead bowl if:
it is not a toucher and comes to rest in the
ditch;
it is not a toucher and rebounds onto the
rink after contact with the face of the bank
or with the jack or a toucher in the ditch;
after completing its original course or after
being moved as a result of play, it comes
to rest at a distance of less than 14 metres,
as measured in a straight line, from the
centre of the mat line to the nearest point
of the bowl;
it passes completely outside the
boundaries of the rink of play after being
moved as a result of play;
in its original course, it passes outside a
side boundary of the rink on a bias which
would prevent it from re-entering the rink
of play; or
in its original course, it comes to rest
outside a side boundary of the rink even
though it may have come to rest in contact
with the outside edge of a line jack.
42
17.2
17.2.1
17.2.2
17.2.3
17.2.4
17.2.5
17.3
17.4
A bowl is not a dead bowl if:
it is carried by a player while inspecting
the head;
in its original course, it comes to rest within
the boundaries of the rink even though it
may have passed outside a side boundary
of the rink during its course;
it is a toucher which rebounds from the
face of the bank onto the rink of play;
it is a toucher which comes to rest on top
of the jack or another toucher at rest in the
ditch; or
it comes to rest on top of the jack or any
bowls that are at rest within the boundaries
of the rink.
The skips or opponents in Singles must
decide whether a bowl is dead or not as
soon as they realise it is necessary. (If the
players do not realise that a decision is
necessary as soon as the bowl comes to
rest, the decision can still be made even if
a number of bowls have been played after
the bowl in question came to rest.) If they
cannot reach agreement, they must ask
the umpire to make a decision.
A dead bowl must be removed from the rink
of play as soon as it has been declared dead.
43
Section 1.5 – Live and dead jack
18
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.3.1
18.3.2
Live jack in the ditch
A jack that is moved by a bowl in play into
the front ditch within the side boundaries
of the rink of play is a live jack.
The position of a jack in the ditch must
be marked by a white indicator, which is
not more than 50 millimetres wide and
not more than 100 millimetres high and
is placed vertically either against the
face of the bank or on top of the bank,
immediately in line with the jack. As well
as the indicator, if the surface of the ditch
is sand, lines can be drawn in the sand
around the jack. If the surface of the ditch
is vegetation or synthetic, the lines can be
drawn with chalk.
The position of a jack in the ditch will
be validly altered if the jack is moved by
either:
a toucher in play; or
a non-toucher while it is partly on the
rink and partly overhanging the ditch, as
long as part of the non-toucher is still on
the rink when it comes to rest after it has
moved the jack.
44
18.4
18.5
19
19.1
19.1.1
19.1.2
19.1.3
19.1.4
19.2
19.2.1
19.2.2
19.3
If a jack in the ditch is displaced by a nontoucher entering the ditch, law 38.5.3 will
apply.
If, once its position has been marked,
there is further valid movement of a jack
in the ditch (as described in law 18.3),
its new position must be marked (as
described in law 18.2) by moving the
indicators or removing and redrawing the
lines as appropriate.
Dead jack
If the jack is moved by a bowl in play, it is
a dead jack if it:
passes above the face of the bank;
passes completely outside a side boundary
of the rink of play;
comes to rest in any hollow in the face of
the bank; or
comes to rest at a distance of less than
20 metres, as measured in a straight
line, from the centre of the mat line to the
nearest point of the jack.
A jack is not a dead jack if it comes to rest:
on top of a toucher at rest in the ditch; or
on top of any bowls that are at rest within
the boundaries of the rink.
The skips or opponents in Singles must
45
19.4
20
20.1
20.2
decide whether a jack is dead or not as
soon as they realise it is necessary. (If the
players do not realise that a decision is
necessary as soon as the jack comes to
rest, the decision can still be made even if
a number of bowls have been played after
the jack came to rest.) If they cannot reach
agreement, they must ask the umpire to
make a decision.
If the jack is dead, the end is a dead end
and law 20 will apply. However, Controlling
Bodies can decide not to have the end
declared dead. Instead, they can decide
to have the jack re-spotted in line with
law 56.5.
Dead end
A dead end is not counted as a completed
end even if all the bowls required to be
played have been played.
A dead end must be replayed in the same
direction unless the skips or opponents
in Singles agree to play it in the opposite
direction. (If the jack and bowls need to
be transferred to the opposite end of the
rink before the end is replayed, they must
be transferred in a way which avoids
distracting players on neighbouring rinks.)
46
20.3
21
21.1
21.2
If the skips or opponents in Singles or the
umpire declare an end dead, the first to
play in that end must also play first when
the end is replayed.
Rebounding jack
The end will continue if:
when the jack is at rest on the rink, it is
driven against the face of the bank and
rebounds onto the rink of play; or
when the jack is at rest in the ditch, it is
moved by a toucher and this takes it back
onto the rink.
Section 1.6 – Result of an end
22
22.1
22.2
22.3
The shot
A shot or shots refers to the bowl or bowls
(called shot bowls) which is or are nearer
to the jack than the nearest bowl played by
the opposing team or opponent in Singles.
No bowl must be moved until the
opponents have agreed whether it is a
shot or not, except where a bowl has to
be moved so that another bowl can be
measured.
As the shots are agreed, each shot bowl
can be removed from the head.
47
22.4
22.5
22.6
23
23.1
23.2
23.3
Shot bowls can be placed in a group where
they will not interfere with measuring.
If shot bowls have been placed in a group,
the number of bowls in the group must be
agreed by the opponents.
The skips or the marker where appropriate
must be told (or have signalled to them)
the number of shots scored in each end.
Deciding the number of shots scored
The process of deciding the number of
shots scored must not start until the last
bowl required to be played in an end has
come to rest, or 30 seconds after that if
either skip or opponent in Singles asks for
this 30-second period (for example, to see
whether or not a bowl lying at an angle will
fall of its own accord within that time).
If either skip or opponent in Singles has
asked for a 30-second period, no bowl
which is likely to fall must be secured
during that period.
No measuring (that is, the use of
equipment, such as that described in law
54, placed between the jack and bowls to
decide which bowls are shot) will be allowed
before the process of deciding the number
of shots scored starts (as described in law
48
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.6.1
23.6.2
23.1). If a player measures before the
process of deciding the number of shots
scored starts, the defaulting team will lose
the right to play any bowls remaining to be
played in that end and the non-defaulting
team will deliver their remaining bowls to
complete the end.
All measurements must be made between
the nearest points of the jack and the bowl.
When measuring between a jack in the
ditch and a bowl on the green or a jack
on the green and a bowl in the ditch, the
measurement must be carried out using
a flexible or string measure whenever
possible.
At any time during the process of deciding
the number of shots scored:
if a bowl is likely to fall, either opponent
can use the best available means to
secure it in its position;
if a bowl needs to be measured and it is
currently resting on another bowl which
is interfering with the measurement in
any way, any player must use the best
available means to secure the resting
bowl in its position and then remove the
other bowl;
49
23.6.3
23.6.4
23.6.5
24
24.1
24.1.1
24.1.2
24.1.3
24.2
24.3
24.4
if a bowl falls of its own accord, it must be
left in its new position while deciding the
number of shots scored continues, and all
the shots agreed before the bowl fell will
count;
if a bowl is displaced by the equipment
being used during measuring, law 37.4
will apply; and
if the jack is displaced by the equipment
being used during measuring, law 38.4
will apply.
No shot scored – tied end
There will be no shot scored by either
team if it is agreed that:
the nearest bowl of each team is touching
the jack;
the nearest bowl of each team is the same
distance from the jack; or
no live bowls are left within the boundaries
of the rink of play.
The end must be declared tied and
recorded on the score card as a completed
end.
Following a tied end, law 5.4 will apply.
If, however, the first end is a tied end, the
first to play in that end must also play first
in the second end.
50
25
Delivering the final bowl of an end
It is not compulsory for the last player to
play in any end to deliver the final bowl
of the end, but the player must tell the
opposing skip or opponent in Singles of
the decision not to deliver the final bowl
before the process of deciding the number
of shots scored starts (as described in law
23.1). This decision is final.
Section 1.7 – Game decisions
26
26.1
26.1.1
26.1.2
26.1.3
26.1.4
Games played on one occasion
In Singles games, team games or side
games played on one occasion or at
any stage of a knockout (eliminating)
competition, victory will be awarded to the
player, team or side that, when the game
finishes and in line with the Conditions of
Play, has:
the highest total score of shots;
the highest number of ends won;
the highest number of sets; or
a combination of the highest total score
of shots, the highest number of ends won
and the highest number of sets as decided
by the Controlling Body.
51
26.2
27
27.1
27.1.1
27.1.2
27.2
27.3
27.4
If competitions or games are played for a
fixed length of time, the Controlling Body
will be responsible for making sure that
Conditions of Play are in place to cover
these competitions or games.
Tournament games and games in a
series
In tournament games or games in a series,
victory will be awarded to the player, team
or side that, when the tournament or
series of games finishes and in line with
the Conditions of Play, has:
the highest number of games won; or
the highest net total of shots.
The Controlling Body will be responsible
for making sure that Conditions of Play
are in place to decide the winner if, in line
with the Conditions of Play mentioned in
law 27.1, two or more players, teams or
sides are equal.
If two or more players, teams or sides are
equal in line with the Conditions of Play
mentioned in law 27.1, points can be
awarded for games won or drawn. The
player, team or side with the highest number
of points will be declared the winner.
If points are equal, the Controlling Body
52
27.5
28
28.1
28.2
28.3
will divide the total of shots scored against
each player, team or side into the total of
shots it has scored. The player, team or
side with the highest result will be declared
the winner.
The Controlling Body has the power to
include in its Conditions of Play regulations
for deciding the winners of tournament
games and games in a series which are
different from those mentioned in laws
27.1, 27.2, 27.3 and 27.4.
A drawn game in a knockout (eliminating)
competition
In a knockout (eliminating) competition
with a fixed number of ends, if the scores
are equal when all ends have been played,
an extra end must be played to decide the
result.
The coaches in a side game (or, in their
absence, representatives of the sides),
skips in a team game or opponents in
Singles must toss a coin and the winner
will decide who must play first as described
in laws 5.2.2 and 5.2.3.
The extra end must be played from where
the previous end was completed. If, before
a bowl has been played by each team, a
53
28.4
28.5
28.6
player or the umpire notices that the extra
end is being played in the wrong direction,
it will be restarted in the correct direction.
If a bowl has been played by each team,
play in that end will continue.
If an extra end is completed and the
scores are still equal, another extra end
must be played.
If more than one extra end is needed,
the coaches or representatives, skips or
opponents must again toss a coin, and the
winner will decide who must play first.
If an extra end is declared dead, law 20.3
will apply.
Section 2 – Game anomalies
Section 2.1 – Irregularities affecting play
29
29.1
29.1.1
29.1.2
Irregularities during play
Playing out of turn
If a player plays out of turn, the opposing
skip can stop the bowl and return it to the
player to play it in the proper order.
If the bowl has come to rest and has not
disturbed the head, the opposing skip
must choose whether to:
54
29.1.2.1
29.1.2.2
29.1.3
29.1.3.1
29.1.3.2
29.1.3.3
29.2
29.2.1
29.2.2
29.3
29.3.1
leave the head as it is and have their team
play two bowls one after the other to get
back to the proper order of play; or
return the bowl and get back to the proper
order of play.
If the bowl has disturbed the head, the
opposing skip must choose whether to:
leave the disturbed head as it is and have
their team play two bowls one after the
other to get back to the proper order of
play;
replace the head in its former position,
return the bowl and go back to the proper
order of play; or
declare the end dead.
Playing another player’s bowl
If a player plays another player’s bowl
instead of their own, the other player’s
bowl must be replaced with the player’s
own bowl.
If the bowl which was replaced was
marked or nominated as a toucher, the
player’s own bowl must be marked or
nominated as a toucher.
Changing bowls
If a player changes their set of bowls
during an uninterrupted game, or during a
55
29.3.2
29.4
29.4.1
29.4.2
30
30.1
game that has been stopped as described
in law 32 and continued on the same
day, the game must be forfeited to the
opponent unless the player changes their
set because a bowl has been damaged
(see law 31).
If a game that has been stopped as
described in law 32 is continued on
another day, a player can use a different
set of bowls to the set they used during
the game that was stopped.
Failing to play
If the result of an end has been agreed
or the process of deciding the number of
shots scored has started (as described in
law 23.1), a player who has failed to play
a bowl (either deliberately or accidentally)
will lose the right to play the bowl.
If a bowl has been played by each team
before the players discover that one
of them has failed to play a bowl in the
proper order, that player will lose the right
to play the bowl.
Damaged jack
If the jack is damaged during the course
of play, the umpire must decide if a
replacement jack is needed.
56
30.2
31
31.1
31.2
31.3
31.4
31.5
If a replacement jack is needed, the end will
be declared dead and law 20 will apply.
Damaged bowls
If a bowl is damaged during the course
of play, the umpire must decide if a
replacement bowl is needed.
If a bowl that has been struck by another
bowl during the course of play splits
into pieces, the end must be declared
dead.
In the circumstances described in laws
31.1 and 31.2, the damaged bowl must be
replaced by another bowl from the same
set before the start of the next or replayed
end as appropriate.
If a bowl at rest in the rink of play splits
into pieces without having been struck by
another bowl, the bowl must be replaced
with another bowl from the same set and
the end continued.
If a damaged bowl cannot be replaced by
another bowl from the same set, all bowls
in the damaged set must be replaced with
bowls from a different set.
57
Section 2.2 – Factors affecting play
32
32.1
32.1.1
32.1.2
32.1.3
32.2
32.3
Game stoppages
If a game is stopped because of darkness,
weather conditions or any other valid
reason by:
the Controlling Body;
the umpire after an appeal has been made
by the players; or
agreement between the players when
an umpire or a representative of the
Controlling Body is not present; the game
must be continued either on the same day
or on a different day. The scores will be as
they were when the game was stopped.
If an end has started but all the required
bowls have not been played, it must
be declared dead. (The end must be
declared dead even if one or more players
choose to remain on the green during the
stoppage.)
If all the required bowls in an end have
been played but the process of deciding
the number of shots scored (as described
in law 23) has not been completed, the
number of shots scored must be decided
before the game stops.
58
32.4
32.4.1
32.4.2
33
33.1
33.2
33.3
Substitutes in a game that is being
continued after a stoppage.
If any one of the original players in a team
is not available, one substitute will be
allowed as described in law 33.
Players, however, must not be transferred
from one team to another. If players are
transferred from one team to another, the
defaulting team will forfeit the game to
their opponents.
Leaving the green during the course of
play
No player must delay play by leaving
the rink of play or their team unless their
opponent agrees, and then only for no
more than 10 minutes.
If a player has to leave the green during
the course of a team or side game due to
illness or some other reasonable cause,
and they cannot return within 10 minutes,
the umpire or the Controlling Body can
approve the introduction of a substitute.
A substitute must only be introduced if, in
the opinion of both skips or, if they cannot
agree, in the opinion of the umpire or
the Controlling Body, the substitution is
necessary.
59
33.4
33.5
33.6
33.6.1
33.6.2
33.7
33.8
33.9
34
The substitute must play in any position
other than skip, and the other members of
the team can rearrange their positions as
necessary.
The Controlling Body will decide the
substitute’s eligibility.
If no eligible substitute is available:
in a team game, the defaulting team will
forfeit the game to their opponents; and
in a side game, either law 39.2.2 or law
39.2.3 will apply from the end in which the
substitution became necessary.
If a player has to leave the green during
the course of a Singles game due to
illness or some other reasonable cause,
and they cannot return within 10 minutes,
the defaulting player will forfeit the game
to their opponent.
If a player or team breaks this law, they
will forfeit the game to their opponent.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the requirements
for introducing a substitute player.
Objects on the green
Under no circumstances, other than those
described in laws 14, 18, 41, 49, and 56.5,
must any object be placed on the bank,
60
35
36
36.1
36.2
36.3
the green, in the ditch, on the jack, on a
bowl or anywhere else to help a player.
Unforeseen incidents
If, during the course of play, the position of
the jack or a bowl is altered by the wind, a
storm or any other unforeseen incident, the
skips or opponents in Singles must put the
jack or bowl back to its former position. If they
cannot agree on the jack’s or bowl’s former
position, they must declare the end dead.
Deliberate non-sporting action
If an opponent, the coach in a side game,
the umpire or the Controlling Body decides
that a player has deliberately committed
an act designed to give them or their team
an unfair advantage, they can appeal to
the Controlling Body.
If an appeal is made, it must be made to
the Controlling Body no later than 24 hours
after the final end in the game affected is
completed.
The person making the appeal must take
immediate steps to send details to the
Secretary of the Controlling Body who
must arrange for it to be dealt with in line
with their code of conduct and disciplinary
procedures.
61
Section 2.3 – Bowl and jack displacement
37
37.1
37.1.1
37.1.1.1
37.1.1.2
37.1.1.2.1
37.1.1.2.2
37.1.1.3
37.1.1.3.1
37.1.1.3.2
Bowl displacement
(See the displacement chart in Appendix
C for a quick-reference guide to laws 37.1,
37.2 and 37.3.)
Bowl displacement by another player
Displacement of a bowl in its original
course that has not disturbed the head
before it is displaced
If the bowl is displaced by a member of the
team that delivered the bowl and it has not
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
opposing skip must declare the bowl dead.
If the bowl is displaced by a member of
the team that delivered the bowl and it has
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
opposing skip must:
replace the head; and
declare the bowl dead.
If the bowl is displaced by an opponent
and it has not disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the skip of the team that played
the bowl must choose whether to:
have the bowl replayed;
place the bowl where the skip believes it
would have come to rest; or
62
37.1.1.3.3 leave the bowl where it came to rest.
37.1.1.4
If the bowl is displaced by an opponent
and it has disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the skip of the team that played
the bowl must choose whether to:
37.1.1.4.1 replace the head and have the bowl
replayed;
37.1.1.4.2 replace the head and place the bowl
where the skip believes it would have
come to rest; or
37.1.1.4.3 declare the end dead.
37.1.2
Displacement of a bowl in its original
course that has disturbed the head before
it is displaced
37.1.2.1
If a bowl has disturbed the head before it
is displaced by a player, this disturbance
is valid. (The opposing skip must not
replace any part of the head that has been
disturbed before the displacement.)
37.1.2.2
If the bowl is dis­placed by a player and
it has not dis­turbed the head after it is
displaced, the opposing skip must choose
whether to:
37.1.2.2.1 place the bowl where the skip believes it
would have come to rest; or
37.1.2.2.2 leave the bowl where it came to rest.
37.1.2.3
If the bowl is displaced by a player and it
63
37.1.2.3.1
37.1.2.3.2
37.1.3
37.1.3.1
37.1.3.1.1
37.1.3.1.2
37.1.3.2
37.1.3.2.1
37.1.3.2.2
37.1.4
37.1.4.1
has disturbed the head after it is displaced,
the opposing skip must replace any part of
the head disturbed after the displacement
and choose whether to:
place the bowl where the skip believes it
would have come to rest; or
leave the bowl where it came to rest.
Displacement of a bowl in motion
If a bowl in motion is displaced by a player
and it has not disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the opposing skip must choose
whether to:
place the bowl where the skip believes it
would have come to rest; or
declare the end dead.
If a bowl in motion is displaced by a player
and it has disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the opposing skip must choose
whether to:
place the bowl where the skip believes
it would have come to rest and replace
any part of the head disturbed after the
displacement; or
declare the end dead.
Displacement of a bowl at rest
If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch
is displaced by a player and it has not
64
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
opposing skip must put the bowl back to
its former position.
37.1.4.2
If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is
displaced by a player and it has disturbed
the head after it is displaced, the opposing
skip must put the bowl back to its former
position and replace any part of the head
disturbed after the displacement.
37.2
Bowl displacement by a disabled
player’s equipment or assistant
If a bowl is displaced by a disabled player’s
equipment or assistant as described in
law 41, the equipment or assistant must
be treated as if it was the player for all
purposes under law 37.1.
37.3Bowl displacement by a neutral person
or neutral object
37.3.1
Displacement of a bowl in its original
course that has not disturbed the head
before it is displaced
37.3.1.1 If the bowl is displaced within the
boundaries of the rink of play by a neutral
person or neutral object and it has not
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
bowl must be replayed.
37.3.1.2 If the bowl is displaced within the
65
37.3.1.3
37.3.1.4
37.3.2
37.3.2.1
boundaries of the rink of play by a neutral
person or neutral object and it has
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
skips or opponents in Singles must agree
how to replace the head and then have
the bowl replayed. If they cannot agree,
they must declare the end dead.
If the bowl, running on a bias that would
have brought it back into the rink of play,
is displaced outside the boundaries of
the rink of play by a neutral person or
neutral object and it has not disturbed the
head after it is displaced, the bowl must
be replayed.
If the bowl, running on a bias that would
have brought it back into the rink of play, is
displaced outside the boundaries of the rink
of play by a neutral person or neutral object
and it has disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles
must agree how to replace the head and
then have the bowl replayed. If they cannot
agree, they must declare the end dead.
Displacement of a bowl in its original
course that has disturbed the head before
it is displaced
If a bowl has disturbed the head before it
66
37.3.2.2
37.3.2.3
37.3.3
37.3.3.1
is displaced by a neutral person or neutral
object, this disturbance is valid. (The skips
or opponents in Singles must not replace
any part of the head that has been
disturbed before the displacement.)
If the bowl is displaced by a neutral person
or neutral object and it has not disturbed
the head after it is displaced, the skips or
opponents in Singles must agree where the
bowl would have come to rest. If they cannot
agree, they must declare the end dead.
If the bowl is displaced by a neutral person
or neutral object and it has disturbed the
head after it is displaced, the skips or
opponents in Singles must agree where
the bowl would have come to rest and how
to replace any part of the head disturbed
after the displacement. If they cannot
agree, they must declare the end dead.
Displacement of a bowl in motion
If a bowl in motion is displaced by a neutral
person or neutral object and it has not
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
skips or opponents in Singles must agree
where the bowl would have come to rest.
If they cannot agree, they must declare
the end dead.
67
37.3.3.2
If a bowl in motion is displaced by a neutral
person or neutral object and it has disturbed
the head after it is displaced, the skips or
opponents in Singles must agree where the
bowl would have come to rest and how to
replace any part of the head dis­
turbed
after the displacement. If they cannot
agree, they must declare the end dead.
37.3.4
Displacement of a bowl at rest
37.3.4.1
If a bowl at rest is displaced by a neutral
person or neutral object and it has not
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
skips or opponents in Singles must agree on
the former position of the bowl. If they cannot
agree, they must declare the end dead.
37.3.4.2
If a bowl at rest is displaced by a neutral
person or neutral object and it has
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the
skips or opponents in Singles must agree
on the former position of the bowl and how
to replace any part of the head disturbed
after the displacement. If they cannot
agree, they must declare the end dead.
37.4Bowl displacement when being marked
as a toucher or during measuring
37.4.1
If a bowl is displaced by a player when
marking it as a toucher, or by the equipment
68
being used by a player during measuring,
an opponent must put it back to its former
position.
37.4.2
If a bowl is displaced by the marker
when marking it as a toucher, or by the
equipment being used by the marker
during measuring, the marker must put
the bowl back to a position agreed by
the opponents. If the opponents cannot
agree, the marker must put the bowl back
to its former position.
37.4.3
If a bowl is displaced by the equipment
being used by the umpire during
measuring, the umpire must put the bowl
back to its former position.
37.5
Bowl displacement by a rebounding
non-toucher
37.5.1
Displacement of a bowl in its original
course
If a bowl in its original course is displaced
by a non-toucher rebounding from the
face of the bank, the skips or opponents
in Singles must put the displaced bowl
where they believe it would have come
to rest. If they cannot agree on the bowl’s
final position, the end must be declared
dead.
69
37.5.2
Displacement of a bowl in motion
If a bowl in motion is displaced by a nontoucher rebounding from the face of the
bank, the skips or opponents in Singles
must put the displaced bowl where they
believe it would have come to rest. If they
cannot agree on the bowl’s final position,
the end must be declared dead.
37.5.3
Displacement of a bowl at rest
If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch
is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding
from the face of the bank, an opponent or
the marker must put it back to its former
position.
37.6Bowl displacement by a bowl from a
neighbouring rink
37.6.1
If a bowl at rest on the rink is in danger
of being moved by a bowl from a
neighbouring rink, any player at the head
must choose whether to:
37.6.1.1
lift the bowl at rest to allow the other bowl
to pass and then replace it, as long as this
action would not influence the outcome of
the head; or
37.6.1.2
stop the bowl from the neighbouring rink.
37.6.2
If, during a Singles game, a bowl at rest on
the rink is in danger of being moved by a
70
bowl from a neighbouring rink, the marker
must stop the bowl from the neighbouring
rink.
37.6.3
If a bowl that has been stopped was in its
original course and was delivered on a
bias that would have taken it back into its
own rink, it must be replayed.
37.7Bowl displacement by a dead bowl
If a toucher in the ditch is displaced by
a dead bowl from the rink of play, an
opponent or the marker must put it back
to its former position.
38
Jack displacement
(See the displacement chart in Appendix
C for a quick-reference guide to laws 38.1,
38.2 and 38.3.)
38.1
Jack displacement by another player
38.1.1
Displacement of a jack in its original course
38.1.1.1
If a jack in its original course is displaced
by a member of the team that delivered
the jack, the opposing lead must place
the mat as described in law 6.1.1 and
re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is
centred, but must not play first.
38.1.1.2
If a jack in its original course is displaced
by an opponent, it must be re-delivered by
the same player.
71
38.1.2
38.1.2.1
38.1.2.2
38.1.3
38.2
38.3
38.3.1
Displacement of a jack in motion
If a jack in motion is displaced by a player,
the opposing skip or opponent in Singles
must choose whether to:
place the jack where they believe it would
have come to rest and replace any part of the
head disturbed by the displaced jack; or
declare the end dead.
Displacement of a jack at rest
If a jack at rest within the rink of play is
displaced by a player, the opposing skip
or opponent in Singles must put the jack
back to its former position.
Jack displacement by a disabled
player’s equipment or assistant
If a jack is displaced by a disabled player’s
equipment or assistant as described in
law 41, the equipment or assistant must
be treated as if it was the player for all
purposes under law 38.1.
Jack displacement by a neutral person
or neutral object
Displacement of a jack in its original
course
If a jack in its original course is displaced
by a neutral person or neutral object, it
must be re-delivered by the same player.
72
38.3.2
38.3.3
38.4
38.4.1
38.4.2
38.4.3
Displacement of a jack in motion
If a jack in motion is displaced by a neutral
person or neutral object, the skips or
opponents in Singles must place the jack
where they believe it would have come to
rest. If they cannot agree on the jack’s final
position, the end must be declared dead.
Displacement of a jack at rest
If a jack at rest within the rink of play is
displaced by a neutral person or neutral
object, it must be put back to its former
position. If the skips or opponents in
Singles cannot agree on the jack’s former
position, the end must be declared dead.
Jack displacement during measuring
If the jack is displaced by the equipment
being used by a player during measuring,
an opponent must put it back to its former
position.
If the jack is displaced by the equipment
being used by the marker during measuring,
the marker must put the jack back to a
position agreed by the opponents. If the
opponents cannot agree, the marker must
put the jack back to its former position.
If the jack is displaced by the equipment
being used by the umpire during
73
38.5
38.5.1
38.5.2
38.5.3
38.6
measuring, the umpire must put the jack
back to its former position.
Jack displacement by a non-toucher
If a jack in motion is displaced by a nontoucher rebounding from the face of the
bank, the skips or opponents in Singles
must put the jack where they believe it
would have come to rest. If they cannot
agree on the jack’s final position, the end
must be declared dead.
If a jack at rest on the rink is displaced by
a non-toucher rebounding from the face of
the bank, an opponent or the marker must
put it back to its former position.
If a jack at rest in the ditch is displaced
by a non-toucher entering the ditch, an
opponent or the marker must put it back
to its former position.
Jack displacement by a bowl from a
neigh­bour­ing rink
If a jack at rest on the rink is in danger of
being moved by a bowl from a neighbouring
rink, any player at the head or the marker
must stop the bowl. If the bowl was in its
original course and was delivered on a
bias that would have taken it back into its
own rink, it must be replayed.
74
Section 2.4 – Defaults by players
39
39.1
39.1.1
39.1.2
39.2
39.2.1
39.2.2
39.2.2.1
Absentee players in a team or side
In a team game
In a team game, the Controlling Body will
decide on the eligibility of each member of
the team. If a team introduces an ineligible
player, the defaulting team will forfeit the
game to their opponents.
If, 30 minutes after the scheduled start
time for a game, or sooner if the Controlling
Body decides, one or more players are
absent from a team, the defaulting team
will forfeit the game to their opponents.
In a side game
In a side game, the Controlling Body will
decide on the eligibility of each member of
the side. If a side introduces an ineligible
player, the defaulting side will forfeit the
game to their opponents.
If, 30 minutes after the scheduled start
time for a game, or sooner if the Controlling
Body decides, one player is absent from
one or more teams in a side, the game
must continue but:
the number of bowls played by each
defaulting team must be made up by the
75
39.2.2.2
39.2.3
lead and second, both playing three bowls
singly and in turn; and
one fourth of the total shots scored
(including decimal places) by each
defaulting team must be deducted
from their score after the game has
finished.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can approve regulations which
are different from those mentioned in law
39.2.2.
Section 3 – Duties of players and officials
Section 3.1 – Players and their duties
40
40.1
40.1.1
40.1.2
40.1.3
Players’ duties
The skip
The skip will have sole charge of the team
and all players in the team must follow the
skip’s instructions.
The skip must decide all disputed points
with the opposing skip, making sure that
any decision reached is in line with the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
If the skips need to check any part of
the Laws of the Sport of Bowls before
76
40.1.4
40.1.5
40.1.6
40.1.7
40.1.7.1
40.1.7.2
40.1.7.3
40.1.7.4
reaching a decision, they must ask the
umpire for an explanation.
If the umpire considers that a decision
reached by the skips is not in line with the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls, the umpire
must overrule that decision so that it is in
line with the laws.
If the skips cannot reach agreement on
any disputed point, they must ask the
umpire to make a decision. The umpire’s
decision is final.
If the Controlling Body has not appointed an
umpire, the skips must choose a competent
neutral person to act as the umpire.
The skip must:
be responsible for the score card supplied
by the Controlling Body while play is in
progress;
make sure that the names of all players of
both teams are correctly entered on the
score card;
record, on the score card, all shots scored
for and against both teams as each end is
completed;
compare and agree the score card with
that of the opposing skip as each end is
completed; and
77
40.1.7.5
40.1.8
40.1.9
40.1.10
40.2
40.2.1
40.2.2
at the end of the game, record on the
score card the time that the game finished
and then sign their own and the opposing
skip’s score cards.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the procedures for
using a scoreboard instead of one of the
score cards.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can transfer the skip’s duties
described in law 40.1.7 to other members
of the team. However, they must make
sure that the duties are transferred to
players whose positions, in order of play,
are the same in each team.
Skips can, at any time, delegate their
own powers and any of their own duties
(except those described in law 40.1.7)
to any other members of the team as
long as they tell the opposing skip
immediately.
The third
The third can measure any and all
disputed shots.
The third can tell the skip the number of
shots scored for or against their team as
each end is completed.
78
40.3
40.3.1
40.3.2
40.4
41
41.1
41.2
The lead
The lead of the team to play first in an end
must:
place the mat as described in law 6.1.1;
and
deliver the jack and make sure that it is
centred before delivering the first bowl of
the end.
Other duties
Along with the duties mentioned in the
previous paragraphs of law 40, players
can carry out any other duties assigned
to them by their skip as described in law
40.1.10.
Players with disabilities
Wheelchairs must be of a type approved
by both WB and the Governing Body for
wheelchair bowlers in the country in which
the player is playing.
Wheelchair bowlers can use any form of
assistance necessary (including having
an assistant with them) to allow them to
take part in the sport of bowls, as long
as the assistance is approved by the
Governing Body for wheelchair bowlers
in the country in which the player is
playing.
79
41.3
41.4
41.4.1
41.4.2
41.4.3
41.5
Players who are classified partially sighted
or blind by their National Governing Body
for partially sighted and blind bowlers can
use any form of assistance necessary
(including having an assistant with them,
and having a white, breakable string
placed on the surface of the green, along
the centre line of the rink) to allow them
to take part in the sport of bowls, as long
as the assistance is approved by the
Governing Body for partially sighted and
blind bowlers in the country in which the
player is playing.
The person assisting a partially sighted or
blind bowler will not be breaking law 13.2
or law 45.3 if the assistant:
repeats the skip’s instructions to the
player;
helps to direct the player; or
tells the player where the jack or a bowl
came to rest.
A player who has a physical disability will
be allowed to use a support or an artificial
device (or both) when delivering the jack
or a bowl, or when walking on the green.
The support must have a base covered
with rubber or a similar material. This
80
41.6
41.7
41.8
base must measure at least 76 millimetres
across, and it can be placed on or next to
the mat.
A player who has a physical disability will
be allowed to kneel on the green to deliver
the jack or their bowls. One or both knees
must be positioned either in front of the
mat with all or part of at least one foot on
the mat, or on the mat with all or part of
at least one foot on the green behind the
mat.
Players with a hearing disability can
use electronic devices to communicate
with each other while on the rink of play.
Electronic devices must be used in line with
the regulations set out in the Conditions of
Play by the Controlling Body.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can approve the use of artificial
devices for delivering the jack or a bowl.
Section 3.2 – Officials and their duties
and spectators
42
42.1
The marker’s duties
In the absence of an umpire, the marker
must:
81
42.1.1
42.1.2
42.1.2.1
42.1.2.2
42.1.2.3
42.2
42.2.1
42.2.2
42.2.3
42.2.4
42.2.5
42.2.6
make sure that all aspects of play are
carried out in line with the Laws of the
Sport of Bowls;
make sure, before the game starts, that:
all bowls have a clearly visible, valid World
Bowls Stamp imprinted on them;
the rink of play is the correct width in line
with law 49.1 by measuring it; and
the pegs or discs on the side banks in the
direction of play are the correct distances
in line with law 49.12 by measuring them.
The marker must:
centre the jack;
make sure that the jack is at least
23 metres from the mat line after it has
been centred;
place a jack that comes to rest less than
2 metres from the front ditch as described
in law 9.2;
stand to one side of the rink, behind the
jack and away from the head;
answer any specific question about the
state of the head which is asked by the
player in possession of the rink;
when asked, tell or show the player in
possession of the rink the position of the
jack;
82
42.2.7
42.2.8
42.2.9
42.2.10
42.2.11
42.2.12
42.2.13
42.2.14
when asked, tell or show the player in
possession of the rink which bowl or bowls
the marker considers to be shot;
when authorised by the Controlling Body,
signal to players and spectators (using
the appropriate number and colour of shot
indicators or some other suitable method)
which player’s bowl or bowls the marker
considers to be shot;
mark all touchers with chalk and remove
the chalk marks from non-touchers as
soon as they come to rest;
stop any bowl that is from a neighbouring
rink and could move a jack or bowl that is
at rest;
if both players agree, remove all dead
bowls from the rink of play;
mark the position of a jack and any touchers
which are in the ditch as described in laws
14.4 and 18.2;
not move, or cause to be moved, either
the jack or any bowls until the players
have agreed the number of shots scored;
and
measure any disputed shot or shots when
asked to do so by either player. If the
players are not satisfied with the marker’s
83
42.3
42.3.1
42.3.2
42.3.3
42.4
42.4.1
42.4.2
42.4.3
43
43.1
43.2
decision, the marker must ask the umpire
to do the measuring. If the Controlling
Body has not appointed an umpire, the
marker must choose a competent neutral
person to act as the umpire. The umpire’s
decision is final.
When each end has been completed, the
marker must:
record the score on the score card;
if scoreboards are not being used, tell the
players the running totals of the scores;
and
remove from the rink the mat used during
the previous end, if necessary.
When the game has been completed, the
marker must make sure that the score card:
contains the names and signatures of the
players;
contains the time at which the game was
completed; and
is dealt with in line with the Conditions of
Play.
The umpire’s duties
An umpire must be appointed by, or on
behalf of, the Controlling Body for the
competition.
The umpire’s duties are as follows.
84
43.2.1
43.2.1.1
43.2.1.2
43.2.1.3
43.2.2
43.2.3
43.2.4
43.2.5
43.2.6
To make sure, before the game starts, that:
all bowls have a clearly visible, valid World
Bowls Stamp imprinted on them;
the rink of play is the correct width in line
with law 49.1 by measuring it; and
the pegs or discs on the side banks in the
direction of play are the correct distances
in line with law 49.12 by measuring them.
The umpire must measure any disputed
shot or shots using suitable measuring
equipment, such as that described in
law 54.
The umpire must decide whether the
distance of the mat from the rear and front
ditches and the distance of the jack or a
bowl from the mat line are in line with the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls or not.
The umpire must decide whether a jack or
a bowl is in play or not.
The umpire must make sure that all
aspects of play are in line with the Laws of
the Sport of Bowls.
The umpire’s decision is final in all
circumstances except those relating to
the meaning or interpretation of a law, in
which case there will be a right of appeal
to the Controlling Body.
85
44
The coach
Either the coach of a player, team or side
or, in their absence, the coach’s delegated
deputy, can give advice to a player during
the course of play as long as:
44.1
the umpire is given the names of the
coach or the coach’s delegated deputy as
appropriate before the game starts;
44.2
only one person is present at the rink to
give advice at any one time;
44.3
the person giving the advice does so
when their team or side is in possession
of the rink; and
44.4
the person giving the advice does so from
outside the boundaries of the green.
44.5
If, in the umpire’s opinion, this law has been
broken, the umpire must ask the coach or
delegated deputy concerned to stay within
the law. If they do not stay within the law,
the umpire must ask the Controlling Body
to take immediate action to make sure
that the offender stops breaking the law.
45Spectators
45.1
Spectators and anyone else not directly
taking part in the game must stay outside
the boundaries of the green and clear of
the players.
86
45.2
45.3
45.4
45.5
If part of the green is being used for
spectators, they must stay outside the
boundaries of the rinks of play and clear
of the players.
They must not disturb or advise the
players in any way.
If, in the umpire’s opinion, this law has
been broken, the umpire must ask the
spectator or spectators concerned to stay
within the law. If they do not stay within the
law, the umpire must ask the Controlling
Body to take immediate action to make
sure that the offender stops breaking this
law, including escorting the offender away
from the area immediately surrounding
the green or away from the venue as
appropriate.
Betting or gambling on any game or
games will not be allowed or take place
within the grounds of any club. (See World
Bowls Regulations, Part VIII – Betting and
match-fixing.)
87
Section 4 – Field of play and equipment
Section 4.1 – The green, ditch, banks and rinks
46
46.1
46.2
46.3
46.4
46.5
47
47.1
47.2
47.2.1
47.2.2
47.3
The green
The green must be either rectangular or
square.
The length of the green in the direction of
play must be between 31 metres and 40
metres.
The green must have a suitable level
playing surface.
The playing surface must be either
vegetation or a synthetic surface approved
by a Member National Authority.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the standards for
greens constructed in line with previous
editions of this law.
The ditch
The green must be surrounded by a ditch.
The ditch must be:
between 200 millimetres and 380
millimetres wide; and
between 50 millimetres and 200
millimetres deep.
The ditch must have a holding surface
88
47.4
48
48.1
48.2
48.3
48.4
48.5
48.6
which is free from obstacles and made of
a material which will not damage the jack
or the bowls.
For indoor greens and outdoor greens
where play is possible in only one
direction, only the end ditches in the
direction of play must meet the standards
mentioned in laws 47.2 and 47.3.
The bank
The ditch must have a bank against its
outer edge.
The top of the bank must be at least 230
millimetres above the surface level of the
green.
The bank must be vertical and set at a
right angle (90°) to the surface of the
green, or sloped at an angle of not more
than 35° from the vertical (see diagrams
B.1.1, B.1.2 and B.1.3 in appendix B.1).
The surface of the face of the bank must
be made of, or be covered with, a material
which will not damage the jack or the
bowls.
There must be no steps that could interfere
with play either cut into or positioned
against the face of the bank.
If advertising banners are fixed to the
89
49
49.1
49.1.1
49.1.2
49.2
49.2.1
face of the bank, they must be made of
a material which will not damage the jack
or the bowls. Also, they must be fixed in
a way that makes sure the specifications
for the ditch and the bank, as described in
laws 47 and 48, still apply. The banners
will be considered to be part of the face of
the bank for all purposes within the laws.
Division of the green
The green must be divided into sections
called rinks.
The rinks must be:
between 4.3 metres and 5.8 metres wide
for outdoor play; and
between 4.6 metres and 5.8 metres wide
for indoor play.
Wherever possible, all rinks on a green
must be the same width. For domestic
play, Member National Authorities can
decide the standard for the minimum
width of a rink.
The rinks must be numbered in order,
with the centre of each rink being marked
on the bank at each end by a peg, disc
or other suitable device that has the rink
number on it and is fixed vertically:
to the face of the bank and flat against it; or
90
49.2.2
49.2.3
49.3
49.3.1
49.3.2
49.4
49.4.1
49.4.2
49.4.3
on the top of the bank not more than 100
millimetres back from its face; or
on the wall behind the bank (for indoor
play only).
The four corners of the rinks must be
marked by white or brightly coloured
boundary pegs that are fixed vertically:
to the face of the bank and flat against it;
or
on the top of the bank not more than 100
millimetres back from its face.
The boundary pegs must be:
not more than 50 millimetres wide and not
more than 430 millimetres high if they are
fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor
green; or
not more than 25 millimetres wide and
not less than 600 millimetres high if they
are fixed on the top of the bank of either
an outdoor or an indoor green (although
this height limitation does not apply to
flexible boundary pegs containing a spring
or similar mechanism in their base that
allows them to bend on contact with an
object or person); or
not more than 25 millimetres wide and the
centre of the peg must be clearly marked
91
49.5
49.5.1
49.5.2
49.6
49.6.1
49.6.2
49.7
49.8
by a thin black vertical line if they are fixed
to the face of the bank of an indoor green.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide:
the standards for boundary pegs made in
line with previous editions of this law; and
the requirements for thin black vertical
lines marking the centres of boundary
pegs that are fixed to the face of the bank
of an outdoor green or fixed on the top
of the bank of either an outdoor or an
indoor green.
The boundary pegs of an outside rink
must be:
at least 600 millimetres from the side ditch
for outdoor play; and
at least 460 millimetres from the side ditch
for indoor play.
If a boundary peg is not vertical, it must
be put so before a player or the umpire
decides whether or not a jack or a bowl is
within the boundary. (The requirement to
put the peg vertical need not apply if the
umpire uses a boundary scope to make
the decision.)
If a player or the umpire finds a boundary
peg in the wrong position, they must not
92
49.9
49.10
49.11
49.12
move it until the end has been completed
on any rinks affected. The peg must then
be correctly positioned by the umpire
or by agreement between the skips or
opponents in Singles on the rinks affected.
For outdoor play, the side boundary of the
rink of play can be marked by connecting
the boundary pegs with a green thread
drawn tightly along the surface of the
green, leaving enough loose thread to
reach the corresponding pegs on the face
or on the top of the bank. For domestic
outdoor play, Member National Authorities
can decide not to use boundary threads.
The boundary thread (see law 49.9) must
not be lifted or held down when the jack or
a bowl is in its original course or in motion.
Pegs, discs and other types of markers
used to mark the centre and corners of the
rinks must be made of a material which
will not damage the jack or bowls.
White or brightly coloured pegs, discs or
other suitable markings must be fixed or
marked vertically against the face of the
side banks or fixed on top of the side
banks in the direction of play to mark
distances of 2 metres and 25 metres from
93
49.13
49.14
49.14.1
49.14.2
49.15
49.16
the end ditches (see diagram B.4.1 in
appendix B.4). Wherever possible, these
must be the only pegs, discs or markings
visible on the side banks.
The centre line of each rink can be marked
along the surface of the green starting 2
metres from each end ditch and finishing
at any point up to, but not less than, 25
metres from the opposite end ditch (see
diagram B.2.1 in appendix B.2).
The centre line of the rink can be marked
at a distance of 2 metres from each end
ditch (see diagram B.2.2 in appendix B.2).
The mark can be:
lines drawn in the form of a ‘T’; or
a small piece of suitable material inserted
immediately below the surface of the
green (for outdoor play only).
If part of the green is used for spectators,
side ditches do not have to be used,
but the distance markers on the side
banks must be brought forward and fixed
appropriately. They must be clearly visible
to the players.
While there is temporary seating on
the green, there must be a completely
unrestricted area of the green that is at
94
least 900 millimetres wide between the
seated area and the outside boundary of
the nearest rink.
Section 4.2 – Equipment: mat, jack,
bowls and measures
50Mat
The mat must be 600 millimetres long and
360 millimetres wide.
51Jack
51.1
The jack must be a solid sphere (ball
shaped) and either white or yellow.
51.2
For outdoor non-synthetic greens, the
jack must:
51.2.1
measure between 63 millimetres and 64
millimetres across (the diameter); and
51.2.2
weigh between 225 grams and 285 grams.
51.3
For outdoor synthetic greens and indoor
greens, the jack must:
51.3.1
measure between 63 millimetres and 67
millimetres across (the diameter); and
51.3.2
weigh between 382 grams and 453 grams.
52Bowls
52.1
Specifications
52.1.1
Bowls must be made of wood (lignum
vitae), rubber or plastic resin (called
95
52.1.2
52.1.3
52.1.4
52.1.5
52.1.6
52.1.6.1
52.1.6.2
composition or plastic bowls) and must
be any colour or combination of colours
approved by WB. The basic colours are
added during the manufacturing process.
Indentations designed to help the
player grip the bowl during delivery (for
example, grooved rings or dimples) can
be incorporated during the manufacturing
process. They can also be added at a later
date, but only by a Licensed Manufacturer
or a Licensed Tester.
Each set of bowls can carry a player’s
individual emblem, logo or engraving as
a distinguishing mark inside the smallest
grooved ring on both sides of every bowl.
The requirement for distinguishing marks
applies to all bowls used in International
Events, World Bowls Championships and
Commonwealth Games.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the requirements
for distinguishing marks.
Bowls made of wood must:
measure between 116 millimetres and
134 millimetres across at their widest
points; and
weigh up to 1.59 kilograms.
96
52.1.7
52.1.7.1
52.1.7.2
52.1.8
52.1.8.1
52.1.8.2
52.1.8.3
52.1.8.4
Bowls made of rubber or plastic resin
must:
measure between 116 milli­m etres and
131 millimetres across at their widest
points; and
weigh up to 1.59 kilograms.
The Controlling Body can supply adhesive
(stick-on) markings for players to
temporarily fix to both sides of their bowls,
or allow players to use their own markings.
When these markings are used:
they are part of the bowl for all purposes
under the Laws of the Sport of Bowls;
there must be only one layer of markings
fixed to either side of the bowl;
they must not be put over the serial number
and the World Bowls Stamp which are
present on the bias side of the bowl; and
all bowls belonging to players within a
team or side must have these markings
on them and the markings must all be
the same design and colour. However,
players may use markings which are
different in size from those used by other
players in their team or side where this is
necessary due to differences in the sizes
of the manufacturers’ rings on the bowls.
97
52.1.8.5
52.1.9
52.2
52.2.1
52.2.2
52.2.3
52.3
52.3.1
If opposing teams or sides have the
same design or colour of markings and
an alternative is not available, players in
the team or side listed second in the draw
must remove their markings.
In all games, each player must play with
the appropriate number of bowls from the
same set.
Bias of bowls
A Working Reference Bowl will have a
bias approved by WB. All bowls must have
a bias that is not less than that of a Working
Reference Bowl and must be imprinted
with the registered World Bowls Stamp.
To check the accuracy of the bias and the
visibility of the World Bowls Stamp, all
bowls must be re-tested and re-stamped
at least once every 10 years, or earlier if
the date of the stamp is not clearly legible.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the requirements
for re-testing and re-stamping bowls.
Alteration to bias
A player must not alter, or cause to be
altered other than by a Licensed Tester,
any bowl imprinted with the registered
World Bowls Stamp in any way that would
98
52.3.2
52.3.3
52.3.4
52.4
52.4.1
52.4.2
52.4.3
alter the bias of the bowl.
Any player breaking this law will be
suspended from playing for as long as the
Member National Authority of which the
player’s club is a member decides.
The Member National Authority which
suspended the player must give WB
details of the suspension, and the
suspension will apply among all Member
National Authorities.
Players or owners who colour the grooved
rings or dimples on a bowl for decoration
are not breaking this law.
Lodging a challenge to bowls
Any challenge to bowls must be based
on the grounds that they do not meet one
or more of the requirements of laws 52.1
and 52.2.
A challenge can be lodged by a player, the
coach in a side game, the umpire or the
Controlling Body.
No challenge, or notice that a challenge
will be made, must be lodged during the
trial ends or during a game. If the person
making such a challenge is a player, that
person will be disqualified and the game
will be forfeited to the opponent.
99
52.4.4
52.4.4.1
52.4.4.2
52.4.4.3
52.4.5
52.5
52.5.1
52.5.2
52.5.3
If a challenge is lodged:
it must be lodged with the umpire or the
Controlling Body;
it must be made not later than 10 minutes
after the final end in which the bowls were
used is completed; and
the person making the challenge, if they
are an opponent or the coach in a side
game, must pay a deposit to the umpire
or the Controlling Body for a fixed amount
decided each year by WB or the relevant
Member National Authority.
Once a challenge is lodged and the
deposit paid, it cannot be withdrawn.
Following up a challenge to bowls
The umpire or the Controlling Body must
ask the player using the bowls concerned
(the user) or the person who owns the
bowls concerned (the owner) to hand over
the set of bowls so that the Controlling
Body can send them for testing by a
Licensed Tester.
Bowls sent for testing must be in sets
of four.
The bowls do not have to be sent to a
Licensed Tester if the challenge relates to
the bowls not meeting the requirements of
100
52.5.3.1
52.5.3.2
52.5.4
52.5.5
52.5.6
law 52.1.9. In this case, the challenge can
be dealt with by the Controlling Body (for
example, by checking the serial numbers).
If the Controlling Body finds that the bowls
meet the requirements of law 52.1.9, law
52.5.7 will apply.
If the Controlling Body finds that the bowls
do not meet the requirements of law
52.1.9, law 52.6.1.3 will apply.
If the user or owner of the challenged
set of bowls refuses to hand the whole
set over to the umpire, the game will be
forfeited to the opponent.
Neither the user nor the owner must use
the challenged set of bowls in any game
controlled or permitted by the Controlling
Body until the set of bowls has been tested
by a Licensed Tester.
When the umpire has received the
challenged set of bowls, they must take
immediate steps to pass the set to the
Secretary of the Controlling Body who
must arrange for them to be tested by a
Licensed Tester as soon as possible. The
test must be carried out in the presence
of representatives of any of the following:
WB, the Member National Authority, the
101
52.5.7
52.5.7.1
52.5.7.2
52.6
52.6.1
52.6.1.1
52.6.1.2
52.6.1.3
Controlling Body, and the user or owner if
they want to attend.
If a Licensed Tester finds that the
challenged set of bowls meets the
requirements of laws 52.1 and 52.2:
the set of bowls must be returned to the
user or owner by the Controlling Body;
and
the person who lodged the challenge must
lose their deposit and pay the Controlling
Body for all expenses in having the tests
done.
Bowls failing a test
Failing a test as a result of a challenge
being lodged (see law 52.4)
If a Licensed Tester finds that a bowl
does not meet the requirements of laws
52.1 or 52.2, they must alter the bowl as
necessary before returning it.
If a Licensed Tester cannot alter a bowl to
meet the requirements of laws 52.1 and
52.2, they must cancel any current stamp
imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’
over it before returning it.
If a Licensed Tester tests a challenged set
of bowls and finds that they do not meet
the requirements of laws 52.1 and 52.2:
102
52.6.1.3.1 the game in which they were used must
be forfeited to the opponent;
52.6.1.3.2 the deposit must be returned to the person
who lodged the challenge; and
52.6.1.3.3 the user or owner of the set of bowls must
pay the Controlling Body for all expenses
in having the tests done.
52.6.2
Failing a test as a result of routine retesting (see law 52.2.2)
52.6.2.1
If a Licensed Tester finds that a bowl does
not meet the requirements of laws 52.1 or
52.2, the user or owner of the set of bowls
must choose whether to:
52.6.2.1.1 have the Licensed Tester alter the bowl as
necessary before returning it; or
52.6.2.1.2 leave the bowl unaltered and have the
Licensed Tester cancel any current stamp
imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’
over it before returning it.
52.6.2.2
If a Licensed Tester cannot alter a bowl to
meet the requirements of laws 52.1 and
52.2, they must cancel any current stamp
imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’
over it before returning it.
53
Bowls: World Bowls Stamp
53.1
Licensed Manufacturers and Licensed
Testers are entitled to imprint the
103
registered World Bowls Stamp between
the inner and outer rings of bowls. Imprints
on the running surfaces of bowls must be
avoided wherever possible.
A
17
WB
®
WB
World Bowls
A
is the code letter of the Licensed
Manufacturer or the Licensed Tester
Numbersis the year that the stamp expires (in this
example, 2017)
R
shows that the stamp is a registered
trademark
53.2
53.3
The current World Bowls Stamp was
introduced on 1 April 2002 and must be
used on all new and re-tested bowls from
that date.
Both the International Bowling Board
(IBB) and the World Bowls Board (WBB)
stamps, which were used before the
104
53.4
53.5
54
54.1
54.2
54.3
current World Bowls Stamp, will be valid
until the end of the year that the stamp
expires. (For example, the stamp in the
above illustration would not be valid after
31 December 2017.)
If bowls are imprinted with the registered
World Bowls Stamp and are in line with
the Laws of the Sport of Bowls in all other
ways, they can be used in all games under
the control of WB or any Member National
Authority.
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can decide the requirements
for the stamps on bowls.
Measuring equipment
The umpire must bring, or be provided
with by the club on whose green the game
is being played, suitable equipment to
carry out the duties described in law 43.
This equipment must at least include:
a copy of the current Laws of the Sport of
Bowls;
a tape measure at least 25 metres long;
equipment for measuring between the jack
and bowls when the distances between
them are beyond the range of a flexible
measure (for example, a string measure);
105
54.4
a flexible measure (for example, a box
measure or a bullet measure);
54.5callipers;
54.6
feeler gauges;
54.7
wedges (for supporting leaning bowls);
and
54.8
equipment (for deciding whether or not the
jack or a bowl is within the side boundary
of the rink when the side boundary is not
marked by a green thread as described in
law 49.9) such as:
54.8.1
a portable, retractable line;
54.8.2
a mirror and a square (both with a levelling
bubble);
54.8.3
a liner siter; or
54.8.4
a boundary scope.
Section 5 – Administration
Section 5.1 – Playing formats
55
55.1
55.1.1
Formats of play
World events and Commonwealth
Games
Singles will be 21 shots (shots scored
over 21 will not be counted), sets play or
any other format decided beforehand by
106
55.1.2
55.1.3
55.1.4
55.1.5
55.1.5.1
55.1.5.2
55.1.5.3
WB. Four bowls will be played, with each
player playing in turn.
Pairs will be 18 ends, sets play or any
other format decided beforehand by WB.
Two, three or four bowls can be played,
with each player playing in turn.
For Triples, two or three bowls can be
played, with each player playing in turn.
The format of play will be 18 ends (each
player plays two bowls), 15 ends (each
player plays three bowls), sets play, or
any other format decided beforehand
by WB.
Fours will be 18 ends, sets play or any
other format decided beforehand by WB.
Two bowls must be played, with each
player playing in turn.
There can be a time limit on play. The
Controlling Body will decide the time limit
before the game begins. The game will end:
when the pre-arranged number of shots
has been scored;
when the pre-arranged number of ends
has been completed; or
if an end is in progress when a prearranged time limit is reached, when that
end has been completed.
107
55.1.6
55.1.7
55.2
55.2.1
The Controlling Body has the power to
include in its Conditions of Play regulations
for introducing substitutes which are
different from those described in laws 32
and 33, if that Controlling Body decides
that this is essential to successfully carry
out its Championship. The Controlling
Body can also decide on the regulations
for introducing reserve or replacement
players to take the place of players who
cannot play in any round after the first
round.
Changing the programme
The Controlling Body has the power to
alter or amend the programme of the
Championship as it considers necessary
or appropriate if the weather or other
conditions are unsuitable. The Controlling
Body can also suspend play temporarily
in any game or abandon any game, and
it can also alter any of the conditions of
its programme if it decides that this is
essential to successfully carry out or finish
the Championship.
International events
Singles will be 21 shots (shots scored
over 21 will not be counted), sets play or
108
55.2.2
55.2.3
55.2.4
55.2.5
55.2.6
any other format agreed beforehand by
WB. Four bowls will be played, with each
player playing in turn.
Pairs will be 18 ends, sets play or any
other format agreed beforehand by WB.
Two, three or four bowls can be played,
with each player playing in turn.
For Triples, two or three bowls can be
played, with each player playing in turn.
The format of play will be 18 ends (each
player plays two bowls), 15 ends (each
player plays three bowls), sets play, or
any other format decided beforehand by
WB.
Fours will be 18 ends, sets play or any
other format agreed beforehand by WB.
Two bowls must be played, with each
player playing in turn.
The formats of play for Singles, Pairs,
Triples and Fours which are played as
part of a side game will be the same as
those described in laws 55.2.1, 55.2.2,
55.2.3 and 55.2.4 as appropriate.
There can be a time limit on play. The
Controlling Body will decide the time limit
before the game begins. The game will
end:
109
55.2.6.1
55.2.6.2
55.2.6.3
55.2.7
55.2.8
when the pre-arranged number of shots
has been scored;
when the pre-arranged number of ends
has been completed; or
if an end is in progress when a prearranged time limit is reached, when that
end has been completed.
The Controlling Body has the power to
include in its Conditions of Play regulations
for introducing substitutes which are
different from those described in laws 32
and 33, if that Controlling Body decides
that this is essential to successfully carry
out its Championship. The Controlling
Body can also decide on the regulations
for introducing reserve or replacement
players to take the place of players who
cannot play in any round after the first
round.
Changing the programme
The Controlling Body has the power to
alter or amend the programme of the
Championship as it considers necessary
or appropriate if the weather or other
conditions are unsuitable or, in the case of
indoor play, if there is a power failure and
the lighting is affected. The Controlling
110
55.3
55.3.1
55.3.2
55.3.2.1
55.3.2.2
55.3.2.3
55.3.3
Body can also suspend play temporarily
in any game or abandon any game, and
it can also alter any of the conditions of
its programme if it decides that this is
essential to successfully carry out or finish
the Championship.
Domestic events
The formats of play for Singles, Pairs,
Triples, Fours and side games will be
decided by the Controlling Body.
There can be a time limit on play. The
Controlling Body will decide the time limit
before the game begins. The game will
end:
when the pre-arranged number of shots
has been scored;
when the pre-arranged number of ends
has been completed; or
if an end is in progress when a prearranged time limit is reached, when that
end has been completed.
The Controlling Body has the power to
include in its Conditions of Play regulations
for introducing substitutes which are
different from those described in laws 32
and 33, if that Controlling Body decides
that this is essential to successfully carry
111
55.3.4
56
56.1
56.1.1
56.1.2
out its Championship. The Controlling
Body can also decide on the regulations
for introducing reserve or replacement
players to take the place of players who
cannot play in any round after the first
round.
Changing the programme
The Controlling Body has the power to alter
or amend the programme of the event as it
considers necessary or appropriate if the
weather or other conditions are unsuitable
or, in the case of indoor play, if there is a
power failure and the lighting is affected.
The Controlling Body can also suspend
play temporarily in any game or abandon
any game, and it can also alter any of the
conditions of its programme if it decides
that this is essential to successfully carry
out or finish the event.
Sets play
Format of play
Competitions played in the sets format
must consist of sectional play, knockout
(eliminating) play or a combination of
both.
Each game must be played over the
better of two sets, with each set consisting
112
of nine ends or any other format agreed
beforehand by the Controlling Body.
56.1.3
The winner of a set will be the player or
team with the highest number of shots
when the ninth end is completed.
56.1.4
If the shot scores are tied after the ninth
end of a set, the set will be a draw.
56.1.5
During sectional play, all nine ends of a
set must be completed.
56.1.6
During knockout play, there must be
no further play in a set if, at any point, it
becomes impossible for one player or
team to draw or win the set, given the
number of ends left.
56.2Tie-breaker
56.2.1
If the game is tied after the two sets have
been completed (each player or team
having won one set or both sets having
been drawn), a tie-breaker consisting of
three ends must be played to decide the
winner.
56.2.2
The winner of the tie-breaker will be the
player or team with the highest number of
shots when the third end is completed.
56.2.3
There must be no further play in the
tie-breaker if, at any point, it becomes
impossible for one player or team to draw
113
56.2.4
56.2.5
56.3
56.3.1
56.3.1.1
56.3.1.2
56.3.1.3
56.3.2
or win the tie-breaker, given the number of
ends left.
If the shot scores are tied after the third
end of the tie-breaker, the players or
teams must play a fourth tie-breaker end
to decide the winner.
If the fourth end of a tie-breaker is a tied
end, the players or teams will play more
tie-breaker ends until a winner is found.
Winners of sectional play
Points will be awarded as follows.
Three game points will be awarded for
each game won. No game points are
awarded for any game lost.
One set point will be awarded for each
set won. A half set point will be awarded
for each set drawn. No set points are
awarded for any set lost. (The tie-breaker
is not a set.)
If a game is forfeited, the non-offending
player or team will be awarded three
game points, two set points and a net total
of shots that is equal to the average net
total of shots scored by the winners of all
other games played in the same round of
the same section.
Section winners will be decided as follows.
114
56.3.2.1
56.3.2.2
56.3.2.3
56.3.2.4
56.3.2.5
56.4
56.4.1 56.4.2 56.4.3
Highest number of game points scored.
If game points are equal, the player or
team with the highest number of sets won.
If game points and sets won are equal, the
player or team with the highest net total of
set points over all games in the section.
If game points, sets won and net totals of
set points are equal, the player or team
with the highest net total of shots over all
games in the section (not including tiebreaker ends).
If game points, sets won, net totals of set
points and net totals of shots are equal, the
player or team that won the game between
the players or teams that are equal.
First to play
First set: the skips or opponents in Singles
must toss a coin and the winner of the toss
has the options described in law 5.2.2.
Second set: the winner of the first set
must place the mat and then deliver the
jack and the first bowl. If the first set is a
draw, the winner of the last scoring end
in that set must place the mat and then
deliver the jack and the first bowl.
First, fourth and any further ends of a tiebreaker: the skips or opponents in Singles
115
56.4.4
56.5
56.5.1
56.5.2
56.5.2.1
must toss a coin and the winner of the toss
has the options described in law 5.2.2.
In all ends after the first in each set
(including tie-breaker ends), the winner of
the previous scoring end must place the
mat and then deliver the jack and the first
bowl. If, however, the first end of the first
set or the first end of a tie-breaker is a tied
end, the first to play in that end must also
play first in the second end of the first set
or the second end of the tie-breaker.
Re-spotting the jack
If a jack in motion passes completely
outside the boundaries of the rink of play,
comes to rest in any hollow in the face
of the bank, or rebounds to a distance of
less than 20 metres from the mat line, the
end must not be declared dead. Instead,
the jack must be placed with the nearest
point of the jack to the mat line at the
appropriate spot described in either law
56.5.2 or 56.5.3, and play must continue.
Three re-spot positions
If the jack passes outside the side
boundary on the right of the rink, it must
be placed with the nearest point of the
jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink
116
which is 2 metres from the front ditch and
1.5 metres to the right of the centre line.
56.5.2.2 If the jack passes outside the side
boundary on the left of the rink, it must
be placed with the nearest point of the
jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink
which is 2 metres from the front ditch and
1.5 metres to the left of the centre line.
56.5.2.3
If the jack passes above the face of the
bank that is within the side boundaries of
the rink of play, or comes to rest in any
hollow in the face of the bank, it must be
placed with the nearest point of the jack
to the mat line at a spot on the rink which
is 2 metres from the front ditch and on the
centre line.
56.5.2.4
If the jack rebounds to a distance of less
than 20 metres from the mat line, it must
be placed:
56.5.2.4.1 with the nearest point of the jack to the
mat line at the appropriate spot described
in laws 56.5.2.1 and 56.5.2.2; or
56.5.2.4.2 with the nearest point of the jack to the mat
line at the spot described in law 56.5.2.3 if
it comes to rest on the centre line.
56.5.3
One re-spot position
A single re-spot position which is 2 metres
117
56.5.4
56.5.5
from the front ditch and on the centre line
can be used as an alternative to the three
re-spot positions described in law 56.5.2.
If any of the spots mentioned in laws
56.5.2 and 56.5.3 are partly or completely
covered by a bowl, the jack must be placed
as close as possible to the covered spot,
between and in line with that spot and the
corresponding spot at the opposite end of
the rink, without touching a bowl.
The spots mentioned in laws 56.5.2 and
56.5.3 must be marked using chalk or
some other suitable method (see diagrams
B.2.3.1 and B.2.3.2 in appendix B.2).
Section 5.2 – Game regulations
57
57.1
57.1.1
57.1.1.1
57.1.1.2
Regulations for play
Domestic regulations
For domestic play, Member National
Authorities can make regulations
(‘domestic regulations’) to cover the
following aspects of the sport:
requirements for playing or practising on
the same rink on the day of a competition
or game (see law 3.4);
requirements for using portable ground­
118
57.1.1.3
57.1.1.4
57.1.1.5
57.1.1.6
57.1.1.7
57.1.1.8
57.1.1.9
57.1.1.10
57.1.1.11
57.1.1.12
57.1.1.13
sheets as an alternative to fixed ground­
sheets (see law 6.1.5.6);
the distance from the mat line within
which a jack can come to rest for it to be
considered to be improperly delivered
(see law 10.5);
substitute players (see law 33.9);
absentee players in a side game (see law
39.2.3);
the use of a scoreboard instead of one of
the score cards (see law 40.1.8);
transferring the skip’s duties relating to
score cards to other team members (see
law 40.1.9);
artificial devices for delivering the jack or a
bowl (see law 41.8);
the use of synthetic surfaces (see law
46.4);
standards for greens constructed in line
with previous editions of the Laws of the
Sport of Bowls (see law 46.5);
standards for the minimum width of a rink
(see law 49.1);
standards for boundary pegs made in line
with previous editions of the Laws of the
Sport of Bowls (see law 49.5);
requirements for thin black vertical lines
119
to mark the centres of boundary pegs
that are fixed to the face of the bank of
an outdoor green or fixed on the top of
the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor
green (see law 49.5);
57.1.1.14 the use of boundary threads (see law 49.9);
57.1.1.15 distinguishing marks on bowls (see law
52.1.5);
57.1.1.16 re-testing and re-stamping bowls (see law
52.2.3);
57.1.1.17 the deposit to be paid when a challenge to
bowls is lodged (see law 52.4.4.3);
57.1.1.18 requirements for the stamps on bowls
(see law 53.5);
57.1.1.19 limits on financial rewards (see law
57.2.2);
57.1.1.20 colours for footwear and the types of sole
(see appendix A.2.2); and
57.1.1.21 colours and types of clothing, including
bowling gloves (see appendix A.3).
57.1.2
If there is no domestic regulation to cover
a specific aspect of the sport listed in law
57.1.1, all games will be played in line with
the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
57.1.3
Member National Authorities must give a
copy of their domestic regulations to all
divisions and clubs within their authority.
120
57.2
57.2.1
57.2.2
57.2.3
Conditions of Play
Controlling Bodies must decide what
Conditions of Play are necessary to
govern their competitions.
Controlling Bodies that govern club
competitions which are purely social or
recreational (that is, competitions that do
not directly or indirectly lead to the winners
being awarded a club title, qualifying
to compete for a district, national or
inter­­national title, or receiving financial
rewards within limits set by the Member
National Authority) can set Conditions of
Play which include aspects of play that
are different from those described within
the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
Controlling
Bodies
that
govern
competitions other than the types of club
competitions described in law 57.2.2 must
make sure that their Conditions of Play are
in line with the requirements described in
appendix A.1.
Section 5.3 – Administrative matters
58
International tours and competitions
(World Bowls Regulations Part V – Laws
121
58.1
58.2
58.3
59
60
of the Sport, Clause 9 – International
Tours and Competitions.)
An International Event needs written
approval from WB.
The approval will only be granted if the
players involved are affiliated to (in other
words, members of) a Member National
Authority.
If a Member National Authority competes
against a National Authority that is not
affiliated to WB, the Board of WB will
penalise the Member National Authority
(including disqualification from a future
International Event) as they consider
appropriate in the circumstances.
Regulating Singles, Pairs, Triples and
Fours games
Where appropriate, all Laws of the Sport of
Bowls will apply to Singles, Pairs, Triples
and Fours games.
Contracting out of the Laws of the
Sport of Bowls
No Controlling Body or individual has the
right or power to contract out of any of the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
122
Appendices
A.1
A.1.1
A.1.2
A.1.3
A.1.3.1
A.1.3.2
A.1.3.3
A.1.3.4
A.1.3.5
A.1.3.6
Appendix A
Conditions of Play
The Controlling Body must decide on the
Conditions of Play for an event before
details of the event are publicised.
The Conditions of Play must be available
to umpires and to entrants who ask for
them and must be clearly displayed at
all venues throughout the course of the
event.
Conditions of Play must at least include
the following.
The type of event (for example, Invitation
Pairs Tournament, Mixed Fours and so
on).
Start and finish dates and times.
Venue (or venues).
Entry conditions (for example, open or
restricted entry, player eligibility and so
on).
Format of play (such as sectional or
knockout).
Length of games (such as the number of
bowls, ends, shots, sets, time limits and
so on).
123
A.1.3.7
A.1.3.8
A.1.3.9
A.1.3.10
A.1.4
A.1.4.1
A.1.4.2
A.1.4.3
A.1.4.4
A.1.4.5
A.1.4.6
Arrangements for trial ends.
Footwear and clothing (including any
sponsors’ requirements). (See appendices
A.2 and A.3.)
Requirements for the stamps on bowls.
Statement that all games will be played in
line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
If appropriate, details of the following
must also be included in the Conditions
of Play.
Statement that the event has either written
approval from WB or a licence or approval
from a Member National Authority or a
division within a Member National Authority
as appropriate.
Alterations to the format or length of the
game (or both) if the game has to be
stopped.
Arrangements for re-spotting the jack.
Arrangements for deciding the winners of
tournament games and games in a series.
If points are to be awarded for games won
or drawn, the number of points awarded
must be three and one respectively.
Arrangements for the use of electronic
devices by players with a hearing disability.
Arrangements for practice.
124
A.1.4.7
A.1.4.8
Arrangements for players to ‘warm up’.
The period, immediately after the
scheduled start time of a game, during
which players must be present.
A.1.4.9
Arrangements for absentee players in a
side game.
A.1.4.10
Arrangements for substitutes.
A.1.4.11
Arrangements for dealing with slow play
(see appendix A.5).
A.1.4.12
Arrangements for restricting the movement
of players during play (see appendix A.4).
A.1.4.13 Policy on tobacco and alcohol at each
venue.
A.1.4.14
Arrangements for drug testing.
A.1.4.15 Code of conduct and disciplinary
procedures.
A.1.4.16 Emergency committee and disputes
committee.
A.1.4.17
Prizes and awards.
A.2Footwear
A.2.1
Players, umpires and markers must wear
flat-soled (‘heel-less’) footwear when they
play on the green or act as umpires or
markers.
A.2.2
WB and Member National Authorities can
approve specific colours for footwear and
the types of sole.
125
A.3Clothing
WB and Member National Authorities
can approve specific colours and types
of clothing (including bowling gloves) for
players, umpires and markers when they
play on the green or act as umpires or
markers.
A.4
Restricting the movement of players
during play
If a Controlling Body decides that it is
appropriate to restrict the movement of
players during play, provision for this must
be included within the Conditions of Play.
Controlling Bodies can adopt or adapt the
following.
A.4.1
After delivering their first bowl, players will
only be allowed to walk up to the head
under the following circumstances.
A.4.1.1
Singles game
A.4.1.1.1 the opponents: after delivery of their third
and fourth bowls.
A.4.1.2
Pairs game (each player playing four
bowls)
A.4.1.2.1 the leads: after delivery of their third and
fourth bowls; and
A.4.1.2.2 the skips: after delivery of their second,
third and fourth bowls.
126
A.4.1.3
A.4.1.3.1
A.4.1.3.2
A.4.1.4
A.4.1.4.1
A.4.1.4.2
A.4.1.5
A.4.1.5.1
A.4.1.5.2
A.4.1.5.3
A.4.1.6
A.4.1.6.1
A.4.1.6.2
A.4.1.6.3
Pairs game (each player playing three
bowls)
the leads: after delivery of their third bowl;
and
the skips: after delivery of their second
and third bowls.
Pairs game (each player playing two
bowls)
the leads: after delivery of their second
bowl; and
the skips: after delivery of each of their
bowls.
Triples game (each player playing three
bowls)
the leads: after delivery of their third bowl;
the seconds: after delivery of their second
and third bowls; and
the skips: after delivery of each of their
bowls.
Triples game (each player playing two
bowls)
the leads: after delivery of their second
bowl;
the seconds: after delivery of their second
bowl; and
the skips: after delivery of each of their
bowls.
127
A.4.1.7
A.4.1.7.1
A.4.1.7.2
A.4.1.7.3
A.4.1.7.4
A.4.2
A.4.3
A.4.4
A.5
Fours game
the leads: after the second player in their
team has delivered their second bowl;
the seconds: after delivery of their second
bowl;
the thirds: after delivery of their second
bowl; and
the skips: after delivery of each of their
bowls.
In exceptional and limited circumstances,
a Singles player can ask the marker for
permission to walk up to the head, or a
skip can ask that a player walks up to the
head earlier than described in law A.4.1.
When a player at the head walks up to the
mat to deliver their first bowl, their direct
opponent can remain at the head until that
bowl has come to rest before walking up
to the mat to deliver their own first bowl.
If a player does not meet the terms of this
law, law 13 will apply.
Delaying (slow) play
If a Controlling Body decides that it is
appropriate to include regulations for
dealing with slow play, provision for this
must be included within the Conditions of
Play. Controlling Bodies can adopt or adapt
128
1)
2)
the following regulations (which are based
on a 15-end game being played within a
two-and-one-quarter hour time limit).
Players must play without undue delay
and in a way which does not prevent their
opponents from being able to complete
the required number of ends within the
time limit decided by the Controlling
Body. The following conditions will apply
in cases where players fail to meet this
requirement.
If one of the skips or one of the coaches
makes an appeal that, due to the actions
of their opponents their team is being
prevented from playing all their bowls
within the time decided for the game, the
umpire will tell the offending team that they
are being ‘put on the stopwatch’ when any
end in progress has been completed. This
will also happen if the Controlling Body
appeals as a result of its own observation.
Once the offending team has been put
on the stopwatch, they will be required
to deliver all their bowls in each of the
remaining ends within a four-minute period
(timed by an official specifically allocated
for that purpose).
129
3)
4)
5)
6)
In each end, timing will start as soon as
the jack has been properly delivered
and centred (if the offending team is the
first to play in an end) or as soon as the
non-offending team’s first bowl has come
to rest (if the non-offending team is the
first to play in an end). Timing will then
continue whenever the offending team
is in possession of the rink, and will stop
when the offending team’s last bowl of the
end has been delivered.
Timing will stop during any interventions by
the umpire (for example, to check a short
jack or a line bowl) or any interventions by
a coach.
A skip can call for a maximum of two timeouts during the period in which timing
is being carried out. When a time-out is
called, the time allowed to complete an
end will be extended from four minutes
to five minutes. If two time-outs are called
in the same end, the time allowed to
complete an end will be extended from
four minutes to six minutes.
The timing official will tell the offending
team when the time remaining in any end
reaches one minute.
130
7)
At the end of the four-minute period (fiveminute or six-minute period if time-outs
have been called) the offending team will
forfeit any bowls remaining to be delivered
in that end. However, the non-offending
team will deliver their remaining bowls to
complete the end.
Appendix B
B.1
Position of the bank
B.1.1Vertical
B.1.2
Sloped inwards towards the green
131
B.1.3
Sloped outwards from the green
The standard described in diagram B.1.3 above applies
only to banks constructed in line with previous editions
of the laws. After the introduction of the Crystal Mark
Edition of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls (1 September
2006 in the southern hemisphere and 1 April 2007
in the northern hemisphere), all new banks that are
constructed, and all existing banks that are replaced,
must meet the standard described in either diagram
B.1.1 or diagram B.1.2 above.
B.2
B.2.1
Marks on the surface of the rink
Marking the centre line of the rink
25 metres from end ditches
E
n
d
d
i
t
c
h
2 metres
Marks to show the centre
line of the rink
132
E
n
d
2 metres
d
i
t
c
h
B.2.2Marking 2 metres from each front ditch on the
centre line of the rink
Piece of suitable
material
Cross bar of a ‘T’
2 metres
2 metres
2 metres
Front ditch
B.2.3Marking the spots to meet the terms of laws
56.5.2 and 56.5.3
B.2.3.1 Law 56.5.2
Centre
line of
1.5 metres
2 metres
1.5 metres
2 metres
Front ditch
133
2 metres
B.2.3.2
Law 56.5.3
Centre
line of
2 metres
Front ditch
134
B.3
Centring the jack
B.3.1Position of the jack in relation to the marks
that are 2 metres from each front ditch on the
centre line of the rink (see diagram B.2.2 in
appendix B.2)
Nearest
portion of
the jack to
the mat line
2 metres
2 metres
2 metres
Front ditch
B.3.2
Position of the jack alongside a 2-metre
measuring device
Nearest portion
of the jack to the
mat line
Jack
Measuring
device such as a
wooden batten
2 metres
Front ditch
135
B.4
B.4.1
Distance charts
Pegs, discs or other suitable markings fixed
against the face of the side banks or on top of
the side banks (illustrated by a ‘+’)
136
B.4.2 Illustration of distances in the direction of play
A:2 metres – m
inimum distance of a delivered jack from the
front ditch.
B:14 metres – minimum distance of a live bowl from the mat
line.
C:20 metres – minimum distance of a rebounding jack from
the mat line.
D:23 metres – minimum distance of a delivered jack from the
mat line.
E:27 metres – distance of the jack from the mat line when
measuring the pace of the green.
F:25 metres – minimum distance of the mat line from the
front ditch.
G:2 metres – minimum distance of the mat line from the
rear ditch.
137
Appendix C
C.1 C.1.1
C.1.1.1
C.1.1.2
C.1.1.3
C.1.1.4
C.1.1.5
C.1.1.6
C.1.2
C.1.2.1
C.1.2.2
C.1.2.3
C.1.3
Bowl and jack displacement chart
Laws 37 and 38 describe the action that
needs to be taken when a bowl or jack
is displaced in a number of situations. To
decide what is the correct action to take,
players and umpires must decide the
following.
Who or what caused the bowl or jack to be
displaced
A player or a disabled player’s equipment
or assistant as described in law 41
A neutral person or a neutral object
Being marked as a toucher or during
measuring
A rebounding non-toucher
A bowl from a neighbouring rink
A dead bowl
Where the bowl or jack was when it was
displaced
In its original course
In motion
At rest
Whether the head was disturbed before or
after the bowl or jack was displaced
138
C.1.3.1
C.1.3.2
C.1.3.3
C.1.3.4
Not disturbed before and not disturbed
after
Not disturbed before but disturbed after
Disturbed before but not disturbed after
Disturbed before and disturbed after
The chart on the following page provides a quickreference guide for deciding what action to take in the
two most complex situations – displacement by a player
(laws 37.1 and 38.1), a disabled player’s equipment or
assistant as described in law 41 (laws 37.2 and 38.2),
and displacement by a neutral person or neutral object
(laws 37.3 and 38.3).
139
Situation
Action
Bowl displaced by a player or a disabled player’s
equipment or assistant
In original course – head not disturbed before
•By member
of team that
delivered the
bowl, head not
disturbed after
Declare the bowl dead
•By member
of team that
delivered the
bowl, head
disturbed after
Replace the head and declare
the bowl dead
•By opponent,
head not
disturbed after
Have the bowl replayed, or
place the bowl where it is
believed it would have come to
rest, or leave the bowl where it
came to rest
•By opponent,
head disturbed
after
Replace the head and have the
bowl replayed, or replace the
head and place the bowl where
it is believed it would have
come to rest, or declare the end
dead
140
Situation
Action
In original course – head disturbed before
•Head not
disturbed after
Do not replace any part of
the head disturbed before
the displacement. Place
the bowl where it is believed
it would have come to rest,
or leave the bowl where it came
to rest
•Head disturbed
after
Do not replace any part of
the head disturbed before
the displacement. Replace
any part of the head
disturbed after
displacement and either
place the bowl where it is
believed it would have
come to rest or leave
the bowl where it came to
rest
In motion
•Head not
disturbed after
Place the bowl where it is
believed it would have
come to rest, or declare the end
dead
141
Situation
•Head disturbed
after
Action
Place the bowl where it is
believed it would have come
to rest and replace any part
of the head disturbed after
displacement, or declare the
end dead
At rest
•Head not
disturbed after
Put back to former position
•Head disturbed
after
Put back to former position
and replace any part of
the head disturbed after
displacement
Bowl displaced by a neutral person
or neutral object
In original course – head not disturbed before
•Within
boundaries of
rink, head not
disturbed after
Have the bowl replayed
•Within
boundaries
of rink, head
disturbed after
Agree how to replace the head
and have the bowl replayed,
or, if no agreement, declare the
end dead
142
Situation
Action
•Outside
boundaries
on correct
bias, head not
disturbed after
Have the bowl replayed
•Outside
boundaries on
correct bias,
head disturbed
after
Agree how to replace the head
and have the bowl replayed,
or, if no agreement, declare the
end dead
In original course – head disturbed before
•Head not
disturbed after
Do not replace any part of
the head disturbed before the
displacement. Agree where the
bowl would have come to rest,
or, if no agreement, declare the
end dead
•Head disturbed
after
Do not replace any part of the
head disturbed before the dis­
placement. Agree where the
bowl would have come to rest
and replace any part of the
head disturbed after displace­
ment, or, if no agreement,
declare the end dead
143
Situation
Action
In motion
•Head not
disturbed after
Agree where the bowl
would have come to rest,
or, if no agreement, declare
the end dead
•Head disturbed
after
Agree where the bowl
would have come to rest
and replace any part of
the head disturbed after
displacement, or if no
agreement, declare the end
dead
At rest
•Head not
disturbed after
Put back to former position, or,
if no agreement, declare the
end dead
•Head disturbed
after
Put back to former position and
replace any part of the head
disturbed after displacement,
or, if no agreement, declare the
end dead
144
Situation
Action
Jack displaced by a player or a disabled player’s
equipment or assistant
In original course
•By member
of team that
delivered the
jack
Opposing lead to place the mat
and re-deliver the jack (but not
play first)
•By opponent
Re-delivered by same player
In motion
•Head not
disturbed after
Place the jack where it is
believed it would have
come to rest or declare
the end dead
•Head disturbed
after
Place the jack where it is
believed it would have
come to rest and replace
any part of the head
disturbed by the displaced
jack, or declare the end
dead
At rest
Put back to former position
145
Situation
Action
Jack displaced by a neutral person
or neutral object
In original course
Re-delivered by same player
In motion
Place the jack where it is
believed it would have come
to rest, or, if no agreement,
declare the end dead
At rest
Put back to former position, or,
if no agreement, declare the
end dead
Domestic regulations
Plain English Campaign’s Crystal Mark does not apply
to these domestic regulations.
146
LAWS OF THE SPORT OF BOWLS
Third Edition (2014)
DOMESTIC REGULATIONS
For Domestic play the following
regulations have been amended
as per World Bowls (Law 57)
147
BOWLS SOUTH AFRICA – DOMESTIC
REGULATIONS 2014
Laws of the Sport of Bowls
Crystal Mark Third Edition
Law 3.4 Law 10.5
Law 32.1
Law 33.9 1.
No player/team should on any day of a
competition play on the same rink.
The minimum distance between the mat
and the delivered jack will be 23m as per
Law 10.1.3
Lightning – Umpires shall not be
responsible to call off the players during
lightning/thunderstorm activity, unless an
appeal has been made by a player(s).
SUBSTITUTES AND RESERVES
Bowls South Africa decided that Circular
08/2005 will still apply and that the use of
reserves and/or substitutes in all formats
of the game (except singles) will be
allowed. Bowls South Africa furthermore
accepted the following interpretations
when reference is made to bona fide
members, reserves and substitutes.
Bona fide members
Bona fide members shall include:•
Life members and honorary life
148
members with full privileges;
•All members liable to pay subscriptions;
•Junior members whether they pay any
form of subscription or not.
2.Reserve
Means a player who is a bona
fide member of the same club in a
tournament of clubs, or the same district
in a tournament of districts, and who is
registered together with the team, or
side, prior to the commencement of the
tournament.
3.
Substitute
Means a player whose name has
been drawn in the approved manner,
to replace a player who fails to appear
at the start or restart of a game; or
who is compelled to withdraw for any
valid reason acceptable to both skips;
or failing agreement by them, by the
Controlling Body during the course of
a game. The substitute introduced may
in all likelihood not be from the same
club, as the club requesting a substitute.
The “approved manner” is described in
the section that deals with the use of
substitutes in tournaments below.
149
4.Use of reserves and substitutes.
The use of reserves will be as follows:
4.1Use of reserves in both the trips and the
fours a reserve may be registered and
used. A substitute may only be used if
a reserve is already playing or was not
registered.
In pairs the general rule that will apply
is that one of the original players must
always be present on the green. If,
during a game, the pair’s team should
be playing with a reserve or a substitute
and the original player cannot continue
for reasons acceptable to the Controlling
Body, the game will be conceded to the
opposition. In any mixed competition
two reserves, one of each gender will
be allowed and the same conditions as
described above will apply.
4.2
Use of substitutes will be as follows:
1.
In the event that there are no reserves
or the registered reserves are already
playing, the names of not more than four
bowlers, who have not played for any team
participating in the Tournament, shall be
recorded and placed in a hat/container.
150
2.
The Coach, or failing him the Captain
of the opposing team concerned, shall
be allowed to draw out one name from
the hat/container and the Controlling
Body should accept this name. This
player will be allowed to play for the
team for as many matches as he/she
may be required but may not skip. In
any instance of absence a reserve, if
registered, should be used before a
substitute is considered.
Absentee players in a team or side in
fours play. Due to the acceptance of the
above changes, the use of a reserve or
substitute will NOT be construed as the
introduction of an ineligible player as
described in laws 39.2.2.1 and 39.2.2.2
Law 39.2.3 No regulations that are different from
Law 39.2.2 have been approved.
Law 40.1.8 A scoreboard may be used in lieu of one
of the scorecards. In the event of any
discrepancy between the scoreboard
and the score card the two skips will
agree to the correct score. If there is no
consensus, the scoreboard will overrule
the score card. It is the responsibility of
151
the team winning the toss to ensure that
the scoreboard is updated after each
end.
Law 40.1.9 The skips can transfer their duties
described in law 40.1.7 to other members
of the team. However, they must make
sure that the duties are transferred to
players whose positions, in order of play,
are the same in each team.
Law 41.8
Players with disabilities may make use
of anartificial device for delivering the
jack or bowl with the prior approval of the
Controlling Body.
Law 46.4 Synthetic surfaces may be used if
approved by the Controlling Body
Law 46.5 All greens previously constructed prior to
these laws may be approved for use by
the Controlling Body
Law 49.1 Rink widths may not deviate from those
laid down in the laws. It is recommended
that rinks be 5 meters wide whenever
practically possible.
Law 49.5 Boundary pegs are acceptable without
the centre line on the peg being defined.
Law 49.9 Boundary threads may NOT be used
when a mirror complying with law 54.8
is available (mirror and square both with
152
leveling bubbles or a portable retractable
line.)
Law 52.1.5 Distinguishing marks should be visible
on all bowls.
Law 52.2.3 Re-testing and re-stamping of bowls
will not be enforced until further notice.
However, alteration to bowls can only be
done by a Licensed Tester.
All bowls used by players in the SA
Masters Tournament, should have a World
Bowls Stamp not older than 10 years.
Any further enforcement of this law will
be subject to the availability of testing
facilities in South Africa.
Law 52.3.2 Alteration to the bias of bowls/tampering
may result in the suspension of the
player for a period not exceeding one
year
Law 52.4.4.3 A deposit of R5000 (in cash) is to be paid
when a challenge is lodged against a set
of bowls. All costs incurred to have the
bowls tested will be for the challenger’s
account should the bowls pass the test.
However, should the challenged bowls
fail the test, the owner/player of the
challenged set will be responsible for the
costs involved of the testing the bowls
153
as well as the costs of re-stamping the
bowls (where applicable).
Law 53.5 All bowls used by players in the SA
Masters Tournament, should have World
Bowls Stamp not older than 10 years.
Any further enforcement of this law will
be subject to the availability of testing
facilities in South Africa.
Law 57.1.1.1:Practice: Teams/player not playing for
whatever reason, but due to play in the
next round, may practice on any rink
allocated by the Controlling Body.
A.2.2
Warm up: Any team/player may warm up
before any game, time allowing and with
approval of the Controlling Body. Warm
up should be in the opposite direction of
expected play. Warm up should not be
deliberate play and no target such as
a jack may be used, but bowls may be
delivered to enable the player to warm/
loosen up.
Players, Umpires and Markers shall
wear conventional shoes or sports
shoes which have a continuous smooth
sole or a sole with a channel rise in the
middle of the sole, as long as the sole
154
is clearly in one piece and the heel area
does not sit at a different height to the
front of the shoe. To assist in traction
the sole can have indented grooves up
to 2 mm (thickness of matchstick), but
no protuberances. The width of the rear
part of the shoe shall be at least 50% of
the widest part of the sole. Conventional
sandals are acceptable providing they
have a back strap. The National Authority
reserves the right to allow or disallow the
use of specific colours and brands of
footwear.(Circular 40/2010)
155
A.3
Men
1.
2. 3.
DRESS: In all representatives matches
(all matches other than social games
and club competitions) players shall
wear either white or cream or official
colours registered by the club, district or
Member National Authority for clothing
as specified hereunder. Controlling
Bodies may authorize variations in
these clothing specifications from time
to time. Furthermore, the Controlling
Body shall also have the right, even
retrospectively, to declare any variation
in dress unacceptable after which such
variation in dress shall not be worn.
All players participating in a team
event are required to be uniformly
dressed.
Headwear, if worn, may have approved
insignia or hatbands. Caps are to be
worn with the peak facing forward.
Shirts shall have conventional collars
and be adequately buttoned.
Full length trousers or tailored shorts,
(knee length) with pockets may be worn
or shorts approved by Bowls SA. (Under
no circumstances shall Cargo, Combat,
156
Ladies
1.
2.
3.
Denim trousers or Rugby shorts be
permitted). String tied trousers (cricket
trousers), tracksuit trousers or tracksuit
shorts, without a front zip, approved by
a club, district or member authority are
also acceptable. Ankle socks, secret
socks or golf hose must be worn with
shorts.
Headwear, if worn, may have approved
insignia and/or hat-bands. Caps are to
be worn with the peak facing forward.
A bowling dress with collar, a skirt or
tailored slacks of any length together
with a blouse with a collar, is permissible
provided they are not manufactured from
Lycra or any other body clinging material.
Bowls South Africa has approved the
‘Skort’ as acceptable apparel for female
bowlers. This approval is subject to the
‘Skort’ being a branded garment. The
homemade and tennis ‘Skort’ remains
unacceptable.
157
Code of conduct and
disciplinary procedure
1.Players shall at all times comply with the laws of
the Sport of Bowls as read within the Conditions of
Play imposed in terms of Law 17.2 together with
Appendix A.1 of the said Laws.
2.
Players shall not, under any circum­
stances, use
obscene language; use any obscene signs, assault
or threaten to assault; threaten or victimise any other
player, official or spectator, whether during or after
play on the greens, or in or around the venue where
the competition is held, or conduct themselves in
any manner which in the sole and absolute opinion
of the organising Controlling Body is contrary to the
spirit of the game of bowls;
3.The Controlling Body has the power to restrict the
use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products on
the green. It is proposed that no tobacco products
be used on the green.
4.Any player who is deemed to be in breach of the
provision of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 above, shall be
guilty of an offence;
5.The Controlling Body shall have the power to;
a)through the presiding Umpire, take any action
which the said umpire may consider necessary
at the time which may include, but not be limited
158
to, the forthwith suspension of the player from
the game; and/or
b)
require the player concerned to attend a
disciplinary hearing at a time and place
determined by the Controlling Body. No party
shall be entitled to legal representation.
6.
Upon the completion of the disciplinary hearing
referred to in 5b) above the Controlling Body may,
at its sole and absolute discretion, impose any
penalty and/or sanctions which it deems appropriate
in the circumstance on such player. The penalty and/
or sanctions may include a period of suspension of
the player from playing bowls and/or the payment
of a fine.
7.
The decision of the Controlling Body made in
terms of paragraph 6 above shall not be subject to
appeal to any body or authority, including recourse
to any court or official tribunal of the Republic of
South Africa, other than that provided for in the
Constitutions of the District and of Bowls South
Africa.
159
NOTES
160
NOTES
161
162
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