Cisco ASR 1002 Datasheet | Manualzz
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers: A New
Paradigm for the Enterprise WAN
As enterprises expand globally, while simultaneously integrating a new wave of applications, the WAN
edge has become a critical gateway for business success. The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation
Services Routers are new wide-area edge routers that represent a dramatic advance in technology
innovation based on the company’s understanding of evolving customer requirements. These routers set
new expectations for industry-leading performance and scalability of embedded services atop a secure,
resilient hardware and software architecture.
With this innovative series of platforms and the accompanying solution framework--Cisco Unified WAN
Services--Cisco enters a new era for the enterprise WAN, providing best-of-class WAN services
aggregation products, architectures, guidance, and support to help enterprises transform their network
into the platform to aid business excellence.
The Network as the Platform for Business Opportunity
The Enterprise Landscape is Changing
Businesses are expanding globally. Industries are consolidating through mergers and acquisitions. Increasingly, IT
managers are finding themselves with more locations to manage--in more geographically diverse regions of the
At the same time, the workforce is becoming more mobile, escalating the demand for anytime, everywhere access to
network resources.
Emerging applications are being deployed globally as enterprises seek to take advantage of the benefits of Web 2.0.
Voice, video, interactivity, online collaboration, and real-time responsiveness put new stresses on the existing
network infrastructure.
As corporations expand into a 24-hour global market, requirements mount to comply with governmental, industry,
and local regulations; provide heightened levels of security; and eliminate downtime.
Overall, the scale, scope, and complexity of enterprise networks are expanding. This outward expansion enables
enterprise businesses to accelerate their growth potential significantly. At the same time, it defines a new set of
challenges for network architects and designers.
At the nexus of these changing requirements is the network infrastructure, which acts as the platform for such
exciting, business-enhancing opportunities as globalization, mobility, and Web 2.0. In particular, the WAN edge
plays a pivotal role as the enterprise expands its global reach. Although the WAN edge was formerly considered a
simple hub for reliable connectivity and data transport, it now has new, rapidly evolving responsibilities in the
transformation of the enterprise business model.
This new role of the WAN edge as a gateway to the world; a branch-office aggregation point; or a secure and
converged pathway for information, communication, and collaboration requires:
Increased WAN edge infrastructure performance: Enterprises need to deliver higher-performance, higherbandwidth services over their converged WANs, along with capacity headroom to operate efficiently.
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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The emergence of new business applications and a new communication paradigm has caused an
unprecedented increase in bandwidth and scalability requirements for the WAN.
Enterprises involved in data center consolidation need increased WAN performance and reliability to
provide consistent experiences to their branch-office employees and remote locations.
Older infrastructure cannot support high-bandwidth WAN aggregation and Internet edge applications.
For Ethernet WAN services, enterprise customers are looking for a small-form-factor, high-performance
router to provide services at multigigabit Ethernet speeds.
Highly available WAN infrastructure: Enterprises need to provide continuous, uninterrupted access to
applications and services over the WAN. This provision requires a more highly available, resilient, and
adaptive infrastructure than they have today. Customers need their WAN edge infrastructure to support:
Rapid failover without service disruption
Streamlined change management and service turn-up without WAN disruption—and with fewer errors
Increased system redundancy at the platform level
Full WAN security for data protection and compliance: Businesses need to satisfy industry regulations
regarding data privacy, and adhere to regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), Payment Card
Industry (PCI), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), etc. Customers need their WAN
edge infrastructure to:
Deliver network resiliency with a self-defending architecture
Secure all critical business and client information without creating a performance bottleneck
Integrate and embed security services within the network to reduce the need for standalone devices
Inspect traffic flows at high speeds for attack prevention, policy enforcement, and application security
Consistent service delivery with application intelligence: Enterprises need to meet demanding internal
service-level agreements (SLAs), with improved service delivery and application performance over the WAN.
To accomplish this level of service, customers need their WAN edge infrastructure to:
Fulfill internal SLAs while containing WAN and telecom expenses
Speed service and feature deployment to quickly adapt to changing network requirements
Provide advanced services that interoperate with critical network functions to ensure application
performance and security
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers
The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers are an innovative new line of Cisco routers designed to address the emerging
needs of the Cisco Unified WAN Services edge. While combining the best attributes of existing Cisco routers, the
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers deliver a resilient and secure next-generation WAN infrastructure, with powerful
performance and scalability for embedded services.
Service Consolidation Without Compromise
Traditionally, the network architect’s dilemma has always been to achieve the service richness required at the WAN
edge without making difficult trade-offs regarding speed, scalability, and complexity. Layering multiple services on a
single platform often resulted in high CPU usage and decreased packet throughput. Taking the alternate approach-distributing service functions to a set of discreet appliances--has further drawbacks in terms of increased operational
and training costs, software maintenance expenses, integration and testing challenges, and higher total cost of
ownership (TCO).
The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers fundamentally change this equation. By consolidating network services within a
single high-performance, resilient, service-rich platform, the network architect attains many tangible benefits. These
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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benefits include reduced rack-space and power requirements, simplified single-point management and monitoring,
transparent service integration with routing, easy in-service software upgrade, and concurrent deployment of multiple
high-touch services. Taken together, these advantages can significantly simplify network design and lower the TCO.
The Cisco QuantumFlow Processor
At the heart of the innovation found in the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers is the new Cisco QuantumFlow Processor
(QFP). This processor combines the best attributes of both purpose-built application-specific integrated circuits
(ASICs) and general-purpose network processors--providing hardware-accelerated speed without sacrificing
Massive Parallel Processing: High-Performance Integrated Services
The Cisco QuantumFlow Processor is built around 40 custom Cisco QuantumFlow Processor Packet Processing
Engines (PPEs), each of which supports 4 threads of execution. With up to 160 independent processor threads
running in parallel, the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor can avoid the high CPU usage and excess latency found in
less-sophisticated hardware architectures. At a practical level, this architecture allows the processor to provide
concurrent deployment of multiple advanced services--such as Cisco IOS Firewall, intrusion-detection services,
Network Address Translation (NAT), Flexible Packet Matching (FPM), and deep packet inspection--without accruing
the performance penalties usually associated with such services.
Advanced Memory Management: High-Bandwidth, Low-Latency Execution
With all this computational power at its disposal, the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor has been designed with a
sophisticated memory-management architecture to best enable its innovative capabilities.
With high-speed, multilevel instruction caches, the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor has immediate access to the
necessary code to apply multiple services to any packet. If many flows transiting the router require the same set of
services (often the case), the instruction memory for this service chain is readily available to the processor,
drastically decreasing the time spent processing any individual packet.
Furthermore, at any given time the PPEs on the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor have access to the entire packet,
not just packet headers, as is the case in other architectures. For complex operations such as deep packet
inspection, this access effectively eliminates several steps in the processing, dramatically reducing overall onboard
As applications such as unified communications, digital video, conferencing, and collaboration become more
interactive and real-time, the need to reduce latency is paramount. The user experience and acceptance of these
new, business-enhancing applications will hinge upon their responsiveness.
Customized Quality of Service: Enabling Consistent Service Delivery
With so many different flows passing through the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor, and at such high speed, advanced
quality-of-service (QoS) mechanisms are a prerequisite. The Cisco QuantumFlow Processor boasts more than
100,000 hardware queues that you can allocate in an arbitrary hierarchy, facilitating a sophisticated, tiered trafficmanagement system that allows for application of multiple levels of QoS to a packet on a single pass through the
Cisco QuantumFlow Processor.
The Cisco QFP Traffic Manager can monitor millions of events per second across multiple channels, making it one of
the most accurate scheduling engines found in the industry today.
Even hardware resources external to the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor--such as the encryption engine, shared port
adapters (SPAs), and the route processor--can benefit from the sophisticated traffic-management capabilities of the
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers. Traffic to these devices is always queued in such a manner as to prevent
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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oversubscription, while maintaining appropriate priority. Thus, for example, you can schedule high-value businesscritical traffic for encryption and transmission before less-important bulk traffic.
As businesses move to voice, video, and interactive, real-time, collaborative applications, packet latency becomes a
genuine concern. Latency can lead to dropped frames, misordered packets, and--from a user perspective--garbled
voice and video, or frustrating lag in application response time. With sub-100-microsecond latency for high-priority
packets, the sophisticated QoS algorithms on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers remove bottlenecks and can
significantly improve your experience.
Integrated Services and Programmability: Speeding Service Deployment
Perhaps the most unique innovation in the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor is its capability to combine the speed of
an ASIC with the flexibility and programmability of a general-purpose processor. Rather than proprietary microcode,
the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor provides a standard ANSI C application programming interface (API) for
programming new functions. As a result of this ease of programming, Cisco can implement new services--even
those not invented yet--on the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor with a simple software upgrade. Moreover, because of
the unique multiprocessor, parallel processing architecture of the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor, new services are
immediately hardware-accelerated without any special development effort. For the enterprise customer, this new
architecture provides a faster “time to service” for new functions and a hardware investment that will retain its value
over time.
Embedded Security: Ensuring Data Protection and Compliance
Enterprises are striving to accommodate a more mobile workforce by providing secure, global network access. In
addition, more nonemployees, in the form of business partners, contractors, and customers, are gaining expanded
access to the enterprise network. Although such developments encourage productivity and business growth, there is
a natural concern about the effects of such openness on network security.
Here again, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router provides a comprehensive toolset to facilitate business flexibility
without assuming additional risk.
The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router features built-in, multilevel threat detection and containment through 5-, 10-, and
20-Gbps scalable, highly available, embedded firewall services. You can further supplement firewall services by
intrusion-detection services. As noted, all services are hardware-accelerated, so the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router
can continue to provide high performance, even with multiple security services enabled.
The ability to classify application traffic at hardware speeds is the foundation of a well-designed security solution. As
waves of new Web 2.0 applications come onto the network, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers are prepared with
advanced application intelligence. The widely deployed Cisco Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR)
technology is built into the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router and operates at hardware-enabled speeds. NBAR can
classify dozens of the most common applications found in enterprise networks, and--as you introduce new
applications--you can dynamically enhance the NBAR engine to recognize them through Protocol Description
Language Modules (PDLMs).
For enterprise networks looking for even more fine-grained control over application data, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series
Router also implements Cisco Flexible Packet Matching (FPM) technology.
Cisco FPM allows the network administrator to identify and classify packets--even for emerging or in-house
applications--by using a simple XML-based language.
For remote access, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router contains an integrated multigigabit cryptography engine to
support IP Security (IPsec) encryption. In addition to standard remote-access solutions, such as Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) VPN and IPsec VPN, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router also supports innovations such as Cisco
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) and Cisco Group Encrypted Transport VPN, which can vastly simplify the
provisioning and deployment of large numbers of branch offices.
No security implementation would be complete without the capability to manage and monitor network flows. The
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router supports NetFlow Version 9, a Cisco innovation that has been adopted as the
industry standard for application monitoring, network planning, security analysis, IP accounting, and traffic
engineering. NetFlow boasts a large partner ecosystem, with most well-known systems management vendors
providing the capability to capture and analyze NetFlow data.
If more detailed traffic analysis is needed, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router supports up to 1024 Encapsulated
Remote Switched Port Analyzer (ERSPAN) sessions. ERSPAN allows traffic on a switch port to be replicated and
tunneled to another location, to aid in advanced troubleshooting, security analysis, compliance verification, or
archival purposes.
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers provide standards-based and certified security services, delivered at exceptional
speed, and they facilitate a simplified, single-point solution for the management and monitoring of network security.
Performance and Scalability: Increased Capacity for Efficient Operations
The processing power of these routers is contained on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Embedded Services Processor
(ESP), which is the forwarding processor containing the Cisco QuantumFlow Processor, encryption engine, and
other hardware assists. The routers offer powerful performance and scalability:
All performance figures are based on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP with a 20-Gbps forwarding or
services engine and a 6-Gbps encryption engine. You can also deploy the Cisco ASR 1002 Router with an entrylevel 5-Gbps forwarding or services engine and a 1.5-Gbps encryption engine.
Throughput of 20 Gbps even with Cisco IOS Firewall, NAT, QoS, generic routing encapsulation (GRE), and
other services enabled
High-speed event logging of 40,000 sessions per second with NetFlow Version 9
Support for 2,000,000 concurrent sessions and 200,000 sessions per second for Cisco IOS Firewall
Support for 10,000 sessions per second for IPsec site-to-site or remote tunnels (Note: The Cisco ASR 1000
Series ESP20 has been tested internally to support up to 4,000 tunnels, but the ESP20 hardware itself can
support up to 10,000 IPsec tunnels.)
Support for 60,000 IP Multicast groups
Less than 100-microseconds latency for high-priority applications
Support for up to 4,000,000 IPv4 routes and 2,00,000 IPv6 routes with Cisco ASR 1000 Series Route
Processor 2 (RP2)
Support for up to 16,000 access control lists (ACLs)
Support for 2,000,000 NetFlow records
Although raw numbers alone do not tell the whole story of the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router, these figures
represent a powerful price-to-performance ratio.
In terms of an investment decision, the performance numbers indicate that the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router has
substantial headroom to accommodate the future business needs of even the largest of enterprises.
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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High-Value Integrated Services: Application Intelligence for the WAN Edge
Much has already been said about many of the familiar integrated services available on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series
Router, such as Cisco IOS Firewall, NAT, QoS, and IPsec VPN. Because the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router runs
the Cisco IOS XE Software, it also benefits from several innovative features available in this software.
One example of this is the Cisco Unified Border Element (SP Edition). Formerly known only as Session Border
Controller (SBC), the Cisco Unified Border Element (SP Edition) allows service providers and large enterprises to
connect isolated voice, video, and unified communications networks directly over IP-IP interconnection, avoiding
PSTN. End-to-end IP enables services such as SIP trunking, service provider VoIP peering, residential triple play,
and business-to-business Cisco TelePresence™ and provides new revenue opportunities, enhances quality,
increases scalability, lowers costs, and reduces network complexities.
The Cisco Unified Border Element (SP Edition) on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series builds on the continuous operation
and service aggregation provided by the powerful and flexible Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services
Routers. With media-forwarding performed on an embedded services processor (ESP) and control functions on a
route processor, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series delivers an extensible pay-as-you-grow SBC solution through modular
ESPs and route processors. The Cisco Unified Border Element (SP Edition) on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series
completely integrates the SBC with other Layer 2 and Layer 3 Cisco IOS XE Software services without requiring
additional application-specific hardware (service blades). Additionally, the clean separation of control and forwarding
planes helps ensure that the multimedia signaling and control processing remain separate from the actual media
processing. Phone calls or video sessions are never lost or delayed because the system is too busy to handle the
necessary signaling.
More importantly, because SBC functions are usually implemented in an external appliance, consolidating these
functions into the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router saves on power, rack space, and training costs, and allows for a
consolidated location for monitoring and management.
Another important service delivered in Cisco IOS XE Software is Cisco Performance Routing. Using built-in tools
such as NetFlow, NBAR, and Cisco IP SLAs, Cisco Performance Routing can monitor both the availability and
performance of wide-area links. If an application is not receiving its desired performance attributes, Cisco
Performance Routing can reroute the application through an alternate path to achieve the proper performance. Using
this technology, network designers can dynamically route around performance bottlenecks or service provider
“brown-outs”. Cisco Performance Routing can increase overall network availability and improve response time for
critical applications, as well as improving your experience.
Enterprises are constantly looking at new ways to cut costs, increase productivity, and provide innovative services to
their customers and employees. The Cisco WebEx™ node for the Cisco ASR 1000 Series offers simplified
management, reduced external bandwidth, more granular security, and an enhanced user experience for onpremises WebEx Meeting Centers to reduce costs and improve collaboration without having to travel. The Cisco
WebEx node, a shared port adapter for the Cisco ASR 1000, can help large enterprises reduce WebEx WAN
bandwidth usage by up to 80 percent. The adapter is easy to install and functions transparently as a part of the
WebEx collaboration cloud. This results in reduced WAN costs and reduced firewall load.
Business-Critical Resiliency: Delivering Nonstop Communications
As the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router becomes the central conduit for high-value, business-critical traffic, it is vital
that it embody a best-of-class high-availability solution. The router was architected for this type of resiliency.
All forwarding on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router is handled directly in hardware by the Cisco QuantumFlow
Processor and shared port adapters. The control-plane function is implemented by a separate route processor. This
clean separation--both physical and logical--of the routing and forwarding planes helps ensure that the critical
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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functions of the route processor are never affected during times of high traffic. Further, this setup leaves the routeprocessor CPU free to perform vital operations such as route convergence at the greatest possible speed.
Unplanned downtime resulting from a hardware or software service outage can also be mitigated. Using the fieldproven Cisco Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO) technology, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series
Router can respond to any software-related outage by providing fault containment and dynamic restartability with
zero packet loss. Unique among routers in this class, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router can run dual copies of the
Cisco IOS XE Software on a single route processor, switching to the recovery software image instantaneously upon
detection of an outage. For larger enterprise customers who want even further levels of resiliency, the Cisco ASR
1006 Router supports redundant hardware routing and forwarding processors, also capable of zero packet loss
during a service outage. (Zero packet loss is based upon route-processor failure. For forwarding-processor failure,
minimal packet loss may occur for packets in transit at the time of the failover.)
As more businesses move toward 24-hour operations, finding a maintenance window to perform software upgrades
becomes increasingly challenging. In addition to unplanned downtime, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers can also
account for these incidents of planned downtime through their industry-leading In Service Software Upgrade (ISSU)
function. ISSU permits the complete upgrade of the operating system while the router is actively passing traffic. As
with NSF/SSO, you can perform the upgrade operation in a hitless manner--with zero packet loss throughout the
procedure. Thus, you can enable new features and functions while business operations remain uninterrupted.
As enterprises expand into a global market, network downtime--whether planned or unplanned--has become a
business- and revenue-affecting event. The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers are architected with state-of-the-art
resiliency to help ensure that mission-critical business functions are always available.
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers Quick Fact Sheet
Table 1 compares the Cisco ASR 1000 Series chassis and gives router specifications.
Table 1.
Cisco ASR 1000 Series: Chassis Comparison and Product Specifications
Cisco ASR 1002
Cisco ASR 1004
Cisco ASR 1006
Size: 2 rack units (2RU)
Size: 4RU
DC power (maximum): 590W
DC power (maximum): 1020W
AC power (maximum): 560W
AC power (maximum): 960W
Size: 6RU
Scalable to 10 Gbps
Scalable to 40 Gbps
DC power (maximum): 1700W
Software failover
Software failover
AC power (maximum): 1600W
Scalable to 40 Gbps
Hardware failover
One 5-Gbps Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP
One Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP10
One or two Cisco ASR 1000 Series
ESP10s (ASR1000-ESP10)
(part number ASR1000-ESP5) or one 10Gbps Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP (ESP10)
one Cisco ASR 1000 Series non crypto
ESP (ASR1000-ESP10-N)
one Cisco ASR 1000 Series non crypto
ESP (ASR1000-ESP10-N)
(part number ASR1000-ESP10) or one 10Gbps Cisco ASR 1000 Series non crypto ESP or
(ESP10-N) ( part number ASR1000-ESP10-N)
One Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP20
4–8 millions of packets per second (Mpps)
5-Gbps forwarding
16 Mpps
20-Gbps forwarding
One or two Cisco ASR 1000 Series
ESP20s (ASR1000-ESP20)
1 + 1 redundancy
16 Mpps
20-Gbps forwarding
© 2008-2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
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Integrated in the chassis
4-GB memory
One Cisco ASR 1000 Series Route
Processor 1 (RP1)
One or two Cisco ASR 1000 Series RP1s
One Cisco ASR 1000 Series Route
Processor 2 (RP2)
One Cisco ASR 1000 Series Route
Processor 2 (RP2)
SPA Interface
Integrated: 3 SPA slots
1 + 1 redundancy
2- or 4-GB memory
2- or 4-GB memory
Optional 40-GB hard disk drive (RP1
Optional 40-GB hard disk drive
Optional 80-GB hard disk drive (RP2
Optional 80-GB hard disk drive (RP2 only)
(RP1 only)
Up to two Cisco ASR 1000 Series SPA
Interface Processors (SIPs)
Up to three Cisco ASR 1000 Series SIPs
12 SPA slots
8 SPA slots
Cisco IOS XE Software
Cisco IOS XE Software
Cisco IOS XE Software
Minimum release: 2.1
Based on Cisco IOS Software Release
Minimum release: 2.1
Based on Cisco IOS Software Release
Minimum release: 2.1
Based on Cisco IOS Software Release
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers: An Investment in the Future, Available Now
The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers have been crafted to meet and exceed the most exacting standards that rapidly
evolving enterprise business requirements can demand:
Consolidation of services into a single, high-performance chassis, eliminating the need for multiple,
single-function appliances: Savings in power budget, rack space, training, integration and testing costs,
and lower TCO
Massive forwarding power, even with multiple features enabled: Extremely low latency for delaysensitive voice, video, real-time, and collaborative applications, without sacrificing security
Software upgradable for new, hardware-accelerated services: Significant investment protection, longevity
of deployment, and faster “time to service”
Integrated high-speed security and encryption: Suitable for high-density aggregation of thousands of
remote sites, while concurrently supporting mobile workforce, contractors, partners, and customers
Industry-leading high availability and resiliency: Support for 24-hour global operations and mitigation of
costly, business-affecting service outages
With such significant processing power on a single Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP, plus the capability to enable new
hardware-accelerated services with a straightforward software upgrade, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router is an
investment not just for the short term, but for years to come.
Cisco Services for the Enterprise WAN Edge
Cisco and our partners help make your enterprise WAN edge deployment a success with a broad portfolio of
services based on proven methodologies. We can help you establish a secure, resilient WAN architecture and
successfully integrate Cisco Unified Communications, Cisco TelePresence™, security, and mobility technologies
with bandwidth to support video, collaboration, branch solutions, and growth in alignment with your business goals.
Planning and design services align technology with business goals and can increase the accuracy, speed, and
efficiency of deployment. Technical services help maintain operational health, strengthen software application
functionality, solve performance issues, and lower expenses. Optimization services are designed to continually
improve performance and help your team succeed with new technologies. For more information, visit
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For More Information
For more information about the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers, visit
Printed in USA
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