why pipe matters in today`s energy industry
WHY PIPE MATTERS
IN TODAY’S
ENERGY INDUSTRY
STEEL CASING, TUBING
AND THREADED
CONNECTIONS ARE
EMPLOYED IN OIL
AND GAS EXTRACTION
LINE PIPE SERVES
TO TRANSPORT
HYDROCARBONS
FROM THE WELL
TO THE REFINERY
LINE AND PRESSURE
PIPES ARE USED IN OIL
AND GAS REFINERIES
AND PETROCHEMICAL
PLANTS
THE GAME
HAS CHANGED
STEEL PIPE IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF EACH STAGE IN THE OIL
from the drilling and completion of
exploration and production wells to the transportation
to refineries as well as in distribution networks carrying
hydrocarbon fluids and natural gas.
AND GAS INDUSTRY,
in which oil and gas companies operate
today have become increasingly complex in the quest to
find and exploit new reserves, placing extraordinary
demands on pipe manufacturers and service providers.
THE CONDITIONS
are critical factors for an industry
where investments involve major economic, human and
environmental risks.
QUALITY AND RELIABILITY
In addition, remote locations and difficult operating
environments require THE TIMELY SUPPLY of many different
tubular products and include the application of detailed
planning processes in order to comply with demanding
project schedules.
PIPE:
THROUGHOUT THE ENERGY PRODUCTION CYCLE
EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS DRIVE PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS. Steel tubular products
are used in well drilling and completion activities and are manufactured in a range
of fully tested materials and sizes to meet specific needs and applications in highly
challenging environments, which are often places of immense ecological sensitivity.
16
MILLION
TONS
3
~
GRAND PYRAMIDS
OF EGYPT
TOTAL INDUSTRY
OCTG CONSUMPTION
OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR GOODS
Casing, tubing and drill pipe are collectively
known as Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG).
Steel casing is used to shore up the walls of oil
and gas wells during and after drilling. Steel
tubing conducts production fluids, including
crude oil and natural gas in different forms, to
the surface after drilling has been completed.
Pipes are connected using threaded joints and
couplings, together known as connections.
10
MILLION
TONS
16
~
OIL TANKERS
TOTAL INDUSTRY LINE
PIPE CONSUMPTION
LINE PIPE. TRANSPORTATION AND
DISTRIBUTION CHALLENGES
HEALTH, SAFETY
AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Line pipe is the generic name for the steel tubular
products used in hydrocarbons transportation
throughout the energy cycle. In energy
distribution networks, pipe must transport oil
and gas safely across rivers and mountains,
through towns and villages, as communities and
the environment rely on its long-term integrity to
ensure their well-being.
The health and safety of workers and local
communities is critical, and thus the quality
and reliability of pipe products is of paramount
importance. The more sensitive the environment
and the more complex the drilling conditions in
terms of pressure, temperature and corrosion,
the more critical the performance of the pipe.
FROM DRILLING AND EXTRACTION
TO PROCESSING AND CONSUMPTION
THE DESIGN OF A CASING STRING
depends on various factors, including
well depth, geological conditions,
expected flow rates and whether the
well is located onshore or offshore.
CONDUCTOR CASING
The first tube in the sequence.
Its purpose is to support the well’s
structure.
SURFACE CASING
This section protects fresh water
deposits near the well’s surface from
being contaminated.
INTERMEDIATE CASING
Designed according to the well’s
formation, the number of these
strings and their depths depend
on geological conditions.
PRODUCTION CASING
This contains the tubing as well as the
production equipment and valves installations.
It also ensures that production fluids (oil, gas,
water) are safely conducted to the well head.
LINER
Part of the production string, it is
suspended from the last section of
casing from a liner hanger.
TUBING
This tube has the smallest diameter
in the entire structure.
It transports production fluids (oil
and gas) up the well and can also be
used for fluids injection.
RISERS
THE WORLD’S
DEEPEST OFFSHORE
DEVELOPMENT IS THE
PERDIDO PROJECT IN
THE GULF OF MEXICO.
WELLS ARE DRILLED
IN WATER DEPTHS OF
7,546 TO
9,843 FT.
(2,300 TO 3,000 M.)
LINE PIPE
PRODUCTS
RISERS
A riser is a pipe that
connects an offshore
Floating Production
Structure or a Drilling
Rig to a sub-sea system
either for drilling,
completion and
workover purposes
or production injection
and export.
FLOWLINES
Flowlines, sometimes
called export pipelines,
transport processed or
non-processed oil or gas
fluids to the shore.
PROCESSING
A wide range of line
and pressure pipes is used
downstream at refineries,
petrochemical and
gas-processing plants.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY:
THE DAYS OF SPINDLETOP ARE LONG GONE
1859
1859
The first commercial oil
well in North America
also signaled the start of
modern drilling methods
using pipe. Developed in
Pennsylvania by Colonel
Drake, a drill bit was hung
from a cable attached to
a walking beam powered
by a steam engine. This
raised and dropped the
bit to penetrate the rocks.
An iron pipe was then
sunk into the borehole to
avoid water and gravel
collapsing inwards while
crude oil rose up the pipe.
1901
1901
The legendary Texan
Spindletop well,
drilled to 1,100 FEET,
which produced over
80,000
BPD
(BARRELS PER DAY)
in its heyday, it
proved the value
of hydraulic rotary
drilling equipment
in unconsolidated
formations by using
mud circulation
for the first time.
1908
1908
The Anglo-Persian Oil
Company was created
after a large oil field find
in Persia, now western
Iran. A pipeline whose
sections were carried
by mule was laid across
210 km of mountainous
terrain to transport
the thick crude oil to a
refinery complex in the
Persian Gulf.
1910
1910
After Henry Williams’
successful use of piers
to support drilling rigs
in the shallow waters
off the Californian coast
of Summerland, GULF
REFINING CO. EMBARKED
ON AMERICA’S FIRST
TRUE OFFSHORE drilling
in Caddo Lake, Louisiana.
That same year, the first
long-distance pipeline was
completed, transporting
crude oil from Caddo
Parish to the refineries at
Baton Rouge.
1967
When the FIRST NORTH SEA WELL WAS DRILLED hardly anyone
believed oil would be found. Six months later, crews found the
Forties field, able to produce 400,000 barrels of crude oil a
day. Oil prices at the time were booming, making exploration
and production costs viable. For pipe manufacturers, the move
offshore represented the advent of premium connections
since these difficult conditions required enhanced connection
sealability and compression performance.
1944
1944
OPERATION PLUTO
(Pipe Lines Under The
Ocean) was a World War
II operation developed
by UK scientists, oil
companies and the armed
forces to build oil pipelines
under the English Channel
between England and
France. The scheme aimed
to provide allied forces on
the continent with fuel
to relieve dependence
on slow, vulnerable oil
tankers. The first pipeline,
laid in August 1944, ran
from the Isle of Wight to
Cherbourg.
1967
Europe’s first major
transnational pipelines
were built to bring
natural gas from the vast
Groningen field in the
Netherlands (discovered
in 1959) and from a
number of smaller gas
fields in western Ukraine
(which were known since
before the war) to major
consumption centers
in Western and Eastern
Europe, respectively. By
the early ‘70s, the Soviet
Union was exporting
gas through the
Trans-Siberian pipeline
through Czechoslovakia
to the West. The TransAlaska Pipeline System
was built between 1974
and 1977 on extremely
tough terrain.
1980
1980
Stable offshore production
output in the 1980s led to BIG
CHANGES IN THE GULF OF
MEXICO, as seismic limitations
drove exploration for larger
fields to deeper waters where
huge reserves lay thousands of
feet under the sea floor. Drilling
and survey technology became
more sophisticated, while
platform design shifted from
fixed to semi-submersible to
accommodate the greater depths
and rougher weather out to
sea. Deepwater field flow rates
often exceeded 10,000 bpd.
Exploration in the Gulf of Mexico
caused pipe manufacturers to
develop proprietary steel grades
and new premium connection
technologies –including integral
flush and semi-flush connectionsto adapt to the design
requirements and take on high
pressures and temperatures.
2009
2009
The SHALE BOOM
changes the North
American energy
landscape. Large oil and
gas deposits trapped in
rock formations are now
accessible due to hydraulic
fracturing and horizontal
drilling technologies. Pipe
used in these operations
must withstand high
tension and compression,
with horizontal extensions
as long as the Empire State
Building in New York.
Domestic oil production in
the United States begins
to increase after 25 years
of decline and shale gas
accounts for 15% of US
gas production.
1,000 M.
GROWTH IN OFFSHORE
AND DEEPER WELLS HERALDS NEW CHALLENGES
1,000 M.
Most of the largest onshore fields were discovered by the late 1960s. Since then,
offshore development in the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico has encouraged
exploration in deeper waters. Today, offshore spending accounts for around 30% of
total exploration and production spending, as the oil and gas industry moves to meet
rising energy demand and high rates of depletion from producing fields.
1,000 M.
WATER DEPTH
1,000 M.
1,000 M.
Companies today are capable of working at water
depths in excess of 10,000 ft. (3,048 m.) and in
total vertical depths of over 30,000 ft. (9,144 m.),
requiring the development of pipes that can
perform in these extreme conditions.
FAR BENEATH THE EARTH’S CRUST
Ultra-deepwater wells plunge a mile or even two
beneath the waves down into the ocean bed
through several more miles of hard rock, dense
salt and thick sand to the oil and gas reservoirs
below. Yet last year they accounted for more
than half the world’s new discoveries.
The Gulf of Mexico is the leading location for
ultra-deepwater development, a challenge
that presents a host of complications, while
potentially lucrative prospects beckon in still
greater depths such as the Lower Tertiary where
exploration is only just beginning.
PRESSURE
25,000 PSI
TEMPERATURE
350OF
2,000 FT
10,000 PSI
260OF
130OF
2,000 PSI
90OF
150 PSI
1930
1970
2000
1930
1970
2000
6,000 FT
10,000 FT
PRE-SALT CHALLENGES
In the Santos basin offshore
Brazil, challenges include
drilling through
1.25 MILES
(2 KM)
of salt into unchartered
carbonate reserves with
corrosive compounds
in the mix.
THE PRESSURE AT THIS
DEPTH IS SIMILAR TO
A PERSON BALANCING
15 JUMBO JETS.
WELL DEPTH
Similarly, average well depth has grown
to reach some 25,000 ft. (7,620 m.) with
major horizontal lateral sections that
put severe strains on pipe.
ONE OF THE DEEPEST WELLS
HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES
The Tiber Prospect well
lies 35,055 ft. (10,685 m.)
beneath the Gulf of
Mexico, under 4,000 ft.
(1,200 m.) of water,
where vast deposits
of crude oil have recently
been discovered.
The percentage of high pressure and high
temperature (HP/HT) wells has dramatically
increased, creating the need for special pipes
and premium connections to resist high
internal pressure and customized alloys to
withstand the enhanced effects of corrosion.
35,055 FT
(10,685 M)
TEMPERATURE =
250º F
EXTREME CONDITIONS:
RAISING THE BAR FOR TUBULAR PRODUCTS
The specific difficulties encountered in oil and gas operations have become
a major issue for the industries supplying operators and spurred competitive
development in new materials and applications.
SHALES
HAYNESVILLE SHALE, USA
LOCATION
10,500 to 13,000 ft. (3,200 to 4,000 m.)
below ground
FORMATION TEMPERATURE
North Sea
Canada
260 to 380ºF (126 to 194ºC)
SPECIAL FEATURES
The high-pressure / high-temperature
environment demands specially-manufactured
pipes and connections to ensure safe and
efficient completion.
This formation is unusually deep and thick
(approximately 60 meters or 200 feet) and thus
pressures and temperatures are high, with both
vertical and horizontal wellbore temperatures
ranging from 260 to 380ºF (126 to 194ºC).
The connections must be strong enough to bear
the hydraulic fracturing.
USA
Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
Venezuela
Offshore West Africa
DEEPWATER
GULF OF MEXICO, USA
Brazil
LOCATION
In 3,000 ft. (914 m.) of water
PRODUCTION
770 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe)
(1989-2011)
SPECIAL FEATURES
The challenges include strong currents and
depositional formations which require lighter
drilling fluids at the same time as rising downhole
pressures can potentially destabilize the wellbore
The Mars oil and gas field is one of the oldest
deepwater developments in the Gulf of Mexico,
lying in some 3,000 ft. (914 m.) of water.
Argentina
EACH PARTICULAR WELL HAS INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS THAT
DETERMINE ITS COMPLEXITY. Operators plan the pipe program and identify
the main challenges that need to be addressed, such as high temperatures,
pressures or corrosive environments that call for specialized products.
EXTENDED REACH WELLS
SAKHALIN ISLAND, RUSSIA
LOCATION
The North Pacific, off the eastern coast
of Sakhalin in the Sea of Okhotsk
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Russia
Poland
-4ºF (-20°C)
SPECIAL FEATURES
Kazakhstan
Ukraine
Pipes are expected to provide absolute reliability
throughout the entire lifecycle of the well, which
may last up to 50 years.
China
The Odoptu OP-11 is the longest extended-reach
well to-date and was bored 37,648 ft. (11,470
m.) under the sea floor to reach the hydrocarbon
reserves. This kind of well requires pipes to be
rotated into place horizontally following an initial
vertical section.
Kuwait
Saudi Arabia
UAE
Oman
Southeast Asia
HIGHLY CORROSIVE
ENVIRONMENTS
KASHAGAN, KAZAKHSTAN
DEEP WELLS
Wells with a depth of more than
13,000 ft. (4,000 m.)
HIGHLY CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
Certain chemical combinations downhole
can cause pipes to fail due to cracks
DEEPWATER
Exploration and production operations in
water depths of more than 1,000 ft. (305 m.)
HP/HT
Wells with high temperatures (over
300°F/150°C) and pressures (10,000 psi)
SHALES
A dense, non-porous gas and oil-bearing rock
EXTRA HEAVY OIL
Pipes must withstand temperatures of up to
350° during steam injection to extract oil of
less than 10° API gravity.
EXTENDED REACH WELLS
The long horizontal extension requires high
torque and bending capabilities.
Australia
LOCATION
The Kashagan Field
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
-31 to 104ºF (-35 to 40°C)
SPECIAL FEATURES
These service conditions require the use of special
Corrosion Resistant Alloys able to withstand
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and premium connections
capable of enduring extreme temperatures and
loads for a prolonged period of time.
The Kashagan Field is estimated to have
recoverable reserves of some 13 billion
barrels of crude oil. Harsh conditions and
extreme temperatures make it one of the most
challenging worldwide.
PREMIUM CONNECTION PERFORMANCE
IN TODAY’S CHALLENGING PROJECTS
ACCORDING TO INDUSTRY ANALYSIS, more than 90% of pipe failures occur
in the connection, which takes up a mere 3% of the pipe length and represents
10-50% of the total tubular costs. Any possible connection failure would be a
significant problem in a context of escalating well investment costs.
PERMIAN BASIN, TEXAS
OFFSHORE ABU DHABI
In the past,
many wells
were simply
built, a vertical
construction
Fast and reliable
downwards
pipe installation
with only a few
is imperative in
casing strings.
horizontal wells,
as the risk of
an open hole
collapsing is
higher than
in vertical
wells.
In simpler wells,
pipe costs represent
approximately
20%
of the entire
investment.
In more complex
projects, pipe
represents
4-5%
of the well cost.
Choosing the right
connection is critical:
90%
of pipe failures occur
in the connection.
Pipe manufacturers and suppliers invest major
sums in R&D to create proprietary connection
technology with optimum structural and sealing
performance for steel casing and tubing in hightemperature and high-pressure environments. The
aim is to achieve 100% reliability and performance
Premium connections
vs standard connections
As well design becomes more challenging,
operators turn to premium connections to
help ensure reliability.
through the design of special threads applied to
the end of the pipe. Manufacturers of premium
connections and pipe –once separate businesses–
are now leveraging their understanding of casing
and tubing performance and how steel reacts in
varied environments to create perfect-fit seals.
PREMIUM
CONNECTIONS
aim to achieve
reliability through
special engineered
threads applied to the
end of the pipe.
Certain designs
can provide
100%
connection efficiency,
which means they can
withstand the same
loads as the pipe body.
SERVING THE INDUSTRY:
TIMELY, PRECISE SUPPLY
IN OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION, where major sums
are at stake and the risk potential for the environment is huge, quality
acquires critical relevance for every part of the process, through product
design, manufacturing, delivery and onsite assistance.
>
1
>
2
PRODUCT CUSTOMIZATION
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Many pipe manufacturers work in close
PARTNERSHIP WITH OIL AND GAS COMPANIES to
jointly analyze, measure and control all variables
capable of impacting on project performance
and risk: manufacturers offer material selection
and string design services to help companies
limit risk exposure by providing advice about
the performance of casing, tubing and premium
connections for each operating environment.
PIPE MANUFACTURERS SET SPECIFIC
CONTROLS AT KEY POINTS
IN THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS
These controls, as well as end-product
testing, are enshrined in quality management
systems that are documented to align information
with process controls. They also ensure a common
set of standards is met. All controls are predetermined by the pipe’s downhole functions
according to the dimensional and mechanical
specifications set by the customer in the context
of the well service conditions.
>
>
3
4
TIMING AND ON-SITE SERVICE
PARTNERSHIP
Supply chain teams are assigned by some
manufacturers to follow the evolution
of each project, and implement any changes in
production requirements, or propose logistics
solutions to access challenging locations.
The pipe manufacturing industry for the oil and
gas sector has evolved into a complex business
providing tailored solutions on time to some of
the most remote locations in the world, enhanced
by the ability to develop a rich and many-layered
partnership with operators with whom they share
the same concerns, responsibilities and values.
In addition, many pipe manufacturers deploy field
service specialists to optimize product installation
safety and efficiency on site. These added value
services aim to reduce well installation costs and
improve returns on capital investment.
SUSTAINABILITY
THE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY of steel pipe is a critical
factor in minimizing the risks of accidents and environmental
damage in the oil and gas industry.
Today oil and gas operators need to pay close
attention to the careful selection of steel pipes
in accordance with the operating conditions that
can be expected over the life cycle of a well or a
pipeline. Quality is paramount and certain pipe
manufacturers have developed integrated quality
management systems to ensure the reliable
supply of high-quality products.
Leading steel pipe manufacturers employ
health, safety and environment management
systems to minimize the risks of accidents and
the environmental impact of their operations.
These include programs to reduce the use of
energy and water and minimize emissions. Steel
is a recyclable material and to a large extent
by-products and wastes generated in steel
pipe manufacturing processes are recycled.
Manufacturers also provide logistic and supply
chain management services designed to
minimize excess supply and inventories and to
reduce project management time and risks.
To reduce the use of contaminating compounds
used for pipe storage and running at oil and
gas rigs, special coatings are being developed
and applied to pipe connections during the
manufacturing process. Dope-free coatings help
to considerably decrease health and safety risks
at the rig and minimize contamination in the field
and the reservoir.
ABOUT TENARIS
Tenaris is a leading manufacturer and supplier
of steel pipe products and services for the
energy industry worldwide. Operating an
integrated global network of manufacturing,
research, testing, finishing and service facilities
present in most oil and gas markets worldwide
and producing a wide range of over 100,000
high quality pipe products, Tenaris plays a key
role in the world’s oil and gas industry.
MANUFACTURING
CONTROLS HELP
GUARANTEE
CUSTOMIZED, QUALITY
PIPE PRODUCTS.
SPECIAL COATINGS
HAVE BEEN
DEVELOPED TO
AVOID THE NEED
FOR PIPE DOPE.
EXPERIENCED
PROFESSIONALS
MINIMIZE RISK
ONSITE.
For contact information, please visit
www.tenaris.com
Tenaris has produced this brochure for general information only. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this publication,
Tenaris does not assume any responsibility or liability for any loss, damage, injury resulting from the use of information and data herein. Tenaris products and services are only subject
to the Company’s standard Terms and Conditions or otherwise to the terms resulting from the respective contracts of sale, services or license, as the case may be. The information in
this publication is subject to change or modification without notice. For more complete information please contact a Tenaris representative or visit our website at www.tenaris.com.
Pipe, an integral part of the energy industry / Version 01 / April 2013. ©Tenaris 2013. All rights reserved.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising