Software Reference, The SNMP Shell

Software Reference, The SNMP Shell
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THE SNMP SHELL
September 2000
Software Reference
The SNMP Shell
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The SNMP Shell
Software Reference
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
THE SNMP SHELL
A
REFERENCE
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1
The SNMP shell
6
1.1
SNMP Explained
6
1.1.1
Overview
6
1.1.2
The MIB
7
1.2
SNMP Shell Overview
12
1.2.1
The Shell Prompt
12
1.2.2
Command Line Editing
13
1.2.3
Object Types
14
1.2.4
Shell Commands
15
1.2.5
External Commands
27
1.3
BinTec router System Tables
41
1.3.1
Short vs. Long Names
43
1.3.2
Creating Table Entries
44
1.3.3
Deleting Table Entries
45
1.3.4
Editing Table Entries
46
1.4
BinTec router Interfaces
48
1.4.1
Special Interfaces
49
1.4.2
Hardware Interfaces
50
1.4.3
Software Interfaces
53
1.5
BinTec router Configuration Files
55
1.5.1
Managing FLASH files
55
1.5.2
Transferring Files with TFTP
61
1.5.3
Transferring Files with XMODEM via Serial Port
66
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Table of Contents
1.5.4
4
Rebooting the System
The SNMP Shell
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REFERENCE
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The SNMP shell
1.1
SNMP Explained
1.1.1
Overview
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), the successor to SGMP (Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol), is
used to manage network devices (workstation, terminal
server, printer, bridge, hub). SNMP is an Application Layer
protocol and uses the underlying UDP (User Datagram
Protocol) as its transport medium; SNMP defines the rules
of communication between an SNMP Manager and SNMP
Agent allowing a network administrator to “watch” and/
or control individual devices by viewing/changing operational settings stored on the managed device.
SNMP-based network management is a Client-Server
system; however, the terms Manager and Agent are misleading in this context.
Server
Client
SNMP Agent
BRICK (snmpd)
SNMP Manager
HP OpenView
SNMP-Response
SNMP-Request
(UDP port 161)
SNMP can be seen as a simple asynchronous request–response protocol. Messages are passed via UDP (normally
port 161) and are binary in format. The SNMP Manager re-
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SNMP Explained
quests information from a specific device and an SNMP
Agent (running on the device) authenticates the requester
and responds with the requested information.
As mentioned above, different types of network devices
may be managed via SNMP. Inherently, such systems have
very different types of operational settings (comparing say
a router to a printer). SNMP is not concerned with the contents of the messages being sent but with the methods used
to obtain and change the settings on the remote devices.
This is why SNMP is referred to as a simple protocol; because all network management functions basically boil
down to a few basic operations. Operations available to the
manager and agent processes are as follows.
Operations available to the SNMP Manager:
get-request
Requests the value associated with a
specific variable.
get-next-request Requests the next value associated
with a variable that comprises a list of
elements.
set-request
Sets or changes the value of a specific
variable.
Operations available to the SNMP Agent:
get-response
Returns the value of a variable
associated with a previous getrequest or get-next-request message.
trap
Reports the occurrence of a fault
condition, or other
important relevant information.
1.1.2
The MIB
The MIB (Management Information Base) defines objects,
often called MIB objects, that can be managed (i.e., queried,
changed, created) for a particular device via SNMP. Objects
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per se are simply templates that define characteristics about
a particular device and would include such things as:
• Object Names—How can the object
be identified?
• Object Descriptions—How does
the object’s asMIB
signed value relate to the overall
operational state
of the device?
• Object Access—Who is allowed to
change the object’s setting?
• Object Types—Can the object’s value be changed?
• Object Ranges—What values can be assigned to the
object?
Consider IP routing for a multiprotocol router such as
the BinTec router. An IP route consists of several variables
including at a minimum: Destination IP Address, IP Netmask, IP Metric, and Router Interface. Each of these items
would be defined separately in the MIB. An example is an
IP route’s Next Hop object; though commonly referred to as
ipNextHop its complete name is: .iso.org.dod.internet.management.mib2.ip.iproutetable.ipNextHop.
And in numerical form: .1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1.7 (see MIB
Structure).
Also, a router’s routing tables consist of multiple entries;
thus multiple instances of the same object type would exist
on a running system. This is a fundamental concept and
means that the router needs a mechanism to uniquely identify a specific instance of an object. The naming structure
used by the MIB provides this mechanism by associating a
MIB object with a local number and is called Instance Identification. When managing an IP router via SNMP it is instances of objects that are being manipulated.
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SNMP Managers
Intelligent SNMP managers can communicate effectively
with devices when the structure of MIB objects are known
to it. ASCII files containing descriptions of MIB objects supported by a device are normally provided by the device’s
manufacturer and can be imported (or compiled) into
SNMP manager applications.
MIB Structure
MIB objects have a hierarchical naming structure that forces
every object to be unique to all other objects. This hierarchy
is similar to a tree structure and is managed by the IANA
(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). Each node in the
tree relates to a document that defines objects below that
point. In SNMP individual object names are called Object
Identifiers, or OIDs.
The figure on the following page shows the tree hierarchy relating to MIB objects implemented on the BIANCA/
BRICK.
Note that OIDs can be referenced in two ways.
• Numerically
Using the numbers assigned by the documents in the
tree shown here a router’s IP routing table is defined
as object #21 of the ip module in the document that
describes mib2.
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21
• Textually
Text names can also be used to identify objects. The
router’s IP route table would have the symbolic OID
of:
.iso.org.dod.internet.management.ip.iproutetable
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Objects under the .iso.org.dod.internet.management tree
are standard MIB objects defined by the ISO; enterprises
(companies such as router manufacturers and protocol developers) may be assigned subtrees by IANA where their
product specific objects can be defined. Since like devices
provide similar services, and to provide interoperability between existing SNMP managers most devices support
standard MIB objects defined by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
For internet routers MIB-2 (defined in RFC 1158) is the
current standard and defines such objects as IP routing tables and various IP protocol settings. Multiprotocol routers
that support IPX will also support Novell’s enterprise MIB
definitions.
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iso.org.dod.
1.3.6.
internet.
1
private
4
mgmt.
2
4
enterprises
1
mib2
1
system
1
interfaces
2
addr.
trans
3
ip
4
icmp
5
tcp
6
udptcp
7
mibdoc
2
system
1
circuit
2
forwarding
3
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traps
5
ospf
17
bibo
4
ripsap
20
services
4
frelay
14
bintec
272
novell
23
ipx
5
snmp
11
system
1
circuit
2
bintecsec
254
admin
1
isdn
2
ppp
3
dialmap
4
biboip
5
x25
6
capi
7
bridge
8
ipx
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1.2
SNMP Shell Overview
Along with other routing processes, the BinTec router starts
an SNMP Agent (see SNMP Explained) process when at
boot time. You’ll see these processes listed to the screen
when the system is started (if a console is attached via the
serial port). After all processes have been started, a login
prompt is presented to the screen.
This login session is what we call the SNMP-shell.
The SNMP shell serves the same purpose as an SNMP
Manager application. All of the BinTec router’s MIB objects
can be managed from this shell. And because the shell is
character based, the BinTec router can be accessed remotely
over any character-oriented connections such as:
• telnet sessions (from PCs or Workstations)
• HyperTerminal sessions (Windows 95 /Windows
NT)
• isdnlogin sessions (isdnlogin command is provided)
• X.25 pad calls (minipad utility is provided)
1.2.1
The Shell Prompt
As shown below the shell prompt consists of two parts separated by a colon.
mybrick:ipRouteTable>
Current SysName
Current system table.
If the contents of the sysName object (system table) is not
set, the first part of the prompt defaults to "brick".
Also, as you navigate among MIB objects the prompt
will change to reflect the last system table displayed; simi-
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lar to the "current working directory" variable used with
many UNIX shells.
Knowing the current system table can be very useful
when editing MIB objects because it allows you to use an
object’s short name instead of the complete object name;
this is covered in the section Short vs. Long Names.
1.2.2
Command Line Editing
A command line editor is available from the SNMP shell.
The command line editor allows you to edit commands on
the command line before pressing the <Return> key letting
you adjust parameter settings or typing mistakes of previously entered commands. The up, down, right, and left arrow keys can be used as follows.
Key
Meaning
Command History
Moves you backwards through the list of commands
entered during this shell session.
Command History
Moves you forwards through the list of commands
entered during this shell session.
Command Editing
Moves the cursor backwards through the currently displayed command.
Command Editing
Moves the cursor forwards through the currently displayed command.
The command line editor is always in insert mode. Once
the cursor is moved along the command line new characters typed in are inserted at the cursor’s location. The
<backspace> key can be used to erase characters.
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1.2.3
Object Types
Each MIB object has a type associated with it that defines
the types of values that it can be assigned. An object’s type
can be any of the following.
• Integer Value
• Character String
• IP Address
• Object Identifier
• Octet String
• Enumerated Value
For some objects the type of value that it may be assigned
will be clear from the object’s name. The Address variable
in the biboPPPIpAssignTable is a good example, it accepts
an IP address in dot format. You can determine an object’s
type from the SNMP shell by entering the object’s name followed by a ? (no space in between) and pressing <Return>.
For example;
mybrick::system> ipRouteDest?
ipRouteDest: (readwrite) IP-address in dot-format (eg. 1.2.3.4)
mybrick::ipRouteTable> ipRouteInfo?
ipRouteInfo: (readwrite) object identifier in dot format (eg. .1.3.6.1)
mybrick::ipRouteTable> ipRouteType?
ipRouteType: (readwrite) other (1), delete (2), invalid (2), direct (3), indirect
mybrick:ipRouteTable> biboDialStkMask?
biboDialStkMask: (readwrite) binary integer (e.g. 0b1101)
Objects that accept "integer values" can be set using one
of four numbering systems as descibed below. Note however that some objects only accept numerical values in a specific numbering system such as "binary integers" as shown
in the last example above.
Integer Values
When setting MIB objects that accept integer values the
four numbering systems shown below may be used.
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Numbering
System
Prefix
Example
Command
<none>
ipDefaultTTL=10
Octal
0
ipDefaultTTL=012
Hexadeximal
0x
ipDefaultTTL=0xa
Binary
0b
ipDefaultTTL=0b1010
Decimal
Resulting
Decimal
Value
10
In most cases the decimal system is used; when using
other numbering systems the above prefixes must be used
to identify the appropriate numbering system.
Enumerated Types
Many MIB objects only accept values from a predefined list.
These objects are said to be enumerated types. For example
the Compression object in the biboPPPTable can be set to
none, v42bis, or stac. No other values are acceptable.
The values for these objects are numbered starting at one
with the first value being the objects default value. These
numbers can also be used to set an object to the respective
enumerated value. This means that the commands Compression=v42bis has the same effect as Compression=2
1.2.4
Shell Commands
The following commands are available from the SNMP
shell.
Command
Help
Software Reference
Usage
?
Meaning
Lists all shell and external commands.
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Command
Meaning
c [<community>]
Sets/displays current SNMP community.
g [<groupnumber> |
<groupname> | *]
Lists all groups or all tables within a
group.
l
Lists all tables.
Priority
p [<high | low>]
Sets/displays current shell priority setting.
Columns
u [<columns>]
Sets/displays the number of columns
used when displaying table output to
screen.
Raw-Mode
x
Toggles shell’s raw mode on and off.
Table-Mode
y
Toggles shell’s table mode on and off.
z [<lines>]
Sets/displays the number of lines used
when displaying table output to screen.
exit
Exits the current SNMP shell.
Community
Group
List
Lines
Exit
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Usage
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SNMP Shell Overview
The help command (?)
Usage: ?
The help command simply lists a summary of all available
internal and external shell commands to the screen.
The Community Command (c)
Usage: c [ <communityname>]
The community command sets or displays the current
SNMP community name to use for SNMP command requests issued from the current shell.
Community names correspond to the password strings
configured for the biboAdmAdminCommunity, biboAdmReadCommunity, and biboAdmWriteCommunity objects of
bintecsec.
For example, if:
1. The current value of biboAdmAdminCommunity =
bianca AND
2. You are currently logged in as the admin user,
AND
3. The community hasn’t changed since logging in.
then your current community name (as displayed
using c) is bianca.
Changing the community name during an SNMP shell
session effectively changes read/write permission for MIB
objects. This is similar to the UNIX su command except that
no subshell is started.
If you log in as the admin user and change the value of
biboAdmAdminCommunity, the current community is automatically adjusted to the new value (with one exception
as noted below).
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NOTE
If you manually changed the community name any
time during a shell session, the BinTec router will no
longer be able to automatically update the community name upon changes to biboAdmAdminCommunity.
You will have to change the community name manually or log out and log in again using the new value.
The Group Command (g)
Usage: g [ <groupnumber> | <groupname> |* ]
The group command lists BinTec router subsystem groups,
or all tables within a specific group to the screen. Options
are used as follows:
<groupnumber>
NOTE
Specifies a group whose tables should
be listed.
The shell interprets integer values according to the format they are entered in. See Integer Values.
If you enter the command g 08, the shell interprets
the leading 0 as identifying an octal and will report that
the group doesn’t exist. The command g 010 would
display tables in group eight; as would g 0b1000,
g 0xb, and g 8.
<groupname>
*
Specifies a group whose tables should
be listed.
Possible group names are those listed
using the g command without
parameters.
Lists all tables without showing
which group they belong to.
The List Command (l)
Usage: l
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The list command lists all system tables to the screen. Table
names are displayed in numerical order grouped by BinTec
router subsystem. A table’s contents may be listed by entering the table name, or its number; i.e., entering system displays the same results as entering 1.
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The Priority Command (p)
Usage: p [ high | low ]
The p (priority) command sets the priority (high or low) of
the BinTec router’s SNMP shell with respect to other system
processes.
The specified priority becomes effective for the current
shell and all sub-processes started from this shell. When the
p command is used without arguments the current shell
priority is displayed.
By default, the SNMP shell has a lower priority than
routing processes which means that an interactive configuration session (setup) will not affect performance on systems with many WAN partners.
Management
Priority
SNMP
Mgr.
Routing
Configuration
other
isdnlogind
p high
load
telnetd
minipad
routing
save
SNMP
Shell
p low
copy
move
lcdd
httpd
Shell-priority and cmd=save commands:
If the shell’s priority is set to high and a configuration is
saved, the SNMP shell immediately returns you to the command prompt. This is in contrast to low status where the
prompt is returned only after the save command is completed. The state of a cmd=save command can be verified
by displaying the biboAdmConfigTable.
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Note:
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This does not apply to SetupTool sessions.
SetupTool always waits for configuration management
commands to complete before proceeding.
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The Columns Command (u)
Usage: u [ <columns> ]
The columns command displays or sets the number of columns to use when writing to the screen; by default 79 columns. This is useful in Table Mode when using a nonstandard sized terminal window (i.e., bigger than 80x24).
When using Setup Tool, the number of columns doesn’t
matter, since Setup Tool always displays output for a 79 column terminal window.
The Lines Command (z)
Usage: z [ <lines> ]
The lines command displays or sets the number of lines to
use when writing to the screen; by default 24 lines. This is
useful in Table-Mode when using a non standard sized terminal window (i.e., bigger than 80x24).
When in Table-Mode, the shell displays as many "complete" table entries as possible (<lines required> ≤ z <lines> )
before prompting the user to continue with "Press <RETURN> to continue or <q> to quit."
The Exit Command (exit)
Usage: exit
The exit command ends the current SNMP shell session
and returns you to a new login prompt. Another way to exit
the current shell is to enter Control-d, (holding down the
Ctrl key and entering d).
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The Raw-Mode Command (x)
Usage: x
The Raw-Mode command toggles Raw-Mode on and off.
After entering the command, the shell reports which mode
it is entering. By default Raw-Mode is off from the SNMP
shell.
Raw-Mode means that MIB objects are dumped to the
screen in the following format:
<MIB OID>.<DB Key>.<Dynamic Number>
(<Type>) <Value>
MIB OID
The MIB Object’s OID in numerical
format.
DB Key
The DB Key identifies a specific
instance of MIB OID and consists of
the numerical values of all index
variables for the system table.
Dynamic Number A local number that the BinTec router
assigns locally.
Type
The MIB Object’s type; integer, string,
IP address, etc.
Value
The current value of this instance of
MIB OID.
When Raw-Mode is on the current columns, lines, and
Table-Mode settings are disregarded. Although the command prompt is not present when Raw-Mode is on, the
command-line editor (cursor and backspace keys) can still
be used. MIB objects can be set or queried using their numerical or symbolic names. Although this mode is not intended for interactive use it is possible to selectively display
and set system variables. The difference between RawMode on and off is shown below.
Raw-Mode on:
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mybrick:system> x
rawmode on
ipNetToMediaTable
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.1.1000.192.168.6.7.0
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.2.1000.192.168.6.7.0
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.3.1000.192.168.6.7.0
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.4.1000.192.168.6.7.0
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.1.1000.192.54.54.2.1
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.2.1000.192.54.54.2.1
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.3.1000.192.54.54.2.1
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4.22.1.4.1000.192.54.54.2.1
(Integer) 1000
(PhysAddress) 0:a0:f9:0:3:f2
(IpAdress) 192.168.6.7
(Integer) 4
(Integer) 1000
(PhysAddress) 0:0:f1:ab:f2:f3
(IpAdress) 192.54.54.2
(Integer) 4
Raw-Mode Off (default):
x
rawmode off
mybrick:system> ipNetToMediaTable
inx IfIndex(*rw)
PhysAddress(rw)
NetAddress(*rw)
Type(-rw)
00 1000
0:a0:f9:0:3:f2
192.168.6.7
static
01 1000
0:0:f1:ab:f2:f3
192.54.54.2
static
mybrick:ipNetToMediaTable>
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The Table-Mode Command (y)
Usage: y
The Table-Mode command toggles Table-Mode on and off.
After entering the command the shell reports which mode
it is now entering. By default Table-Mode is on.
When Table-Mode is on the shell formats output using
the current lines, and columns settings. Thus when a table’s
contents are displayed as many "complete" table entries are
displayed as possible. The table’s column names are displayed followed by the rows with each row separated by a
blank line. If the table consists of more entries than can be
displayed to the window (see the lines command), the user
is prompted to continue.
Table-Mode On (default):
zeusbox:system> ipRouteTable
inx Dest(*rw)
Metric3(rw)
Proto(ro)
Info(ro)
IfIndex(rw)
Metric4(rw)
Age(rw)
Metric1(rw)
NextHop(rw)
Mask(rw)
Metric2(rw)
Type(-rw)
Metric5(rw)
00 192.168.12.0 1000
-1
-1
netmgmt
28674
.0.0
0
-1
192.168.12.20
direct
255.255.255.128 -1
01 192.168.6.0
-1
netmgmt
.0.0
1000
-1
28674
0
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
-1
indirect
-1
02 16.0.0.30
-1
netmgmt
.0.0
10001
-1
28675
0
16.0.0.30
255.255.255.0
-1
direct
-1
Press <RETURN> to continue or <q> to quit.
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Table-Mode Off:
15: ipRouteMetric2.192.168.4.128.15( rw):
15: ipRouteMetric3.192.168.4.128.15( rw):
15: ipRouteMetric4.192.168.4.128.15( rw): :
15: ipRouteNextHop 192.168.4.128.15( rw):
15: ipRouteType.192.168.4.128.15(-rw):
15: ipRouteProto.192.168.4.128.15( ro):
15: ipRouteAge.192.168.4.128.15( rw):
15: ipRouteMask.192.168.4.128.15( rw): :
15: ipRouteMetric5.192.168.4.128.15( rw) :
15: ipRouteInfo.192.168.4.128.15( ro):
16: ipRouteDest.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteIfIndex.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteMetric1.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteMetric2.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteMetric3.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteMetric4.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteNextHop.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteType.16.0.0.15.16(-rw):
16: ipRouteProto.16.0.0.15.16( ro):
16: ipRouteAge.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteMask.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteMetric5.16.0.0.15.16( rw):
16: ipRouteInfo.16.0.0.15.16( ro):
zeusbox:ipRouteTable>
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-1
-1
-1
192.168.4.128
indirect
rip
4
255.255.255.128
-1
.:0.0
16.0.0.15
1000
2
-1
-1
-1
16.0.0.15
indirect
rip
5
255.255.255.0
-1
.0.0
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1.2.5
External Commands
As listed by the help (?) command the following external
commands are also available from the SNMP shell.
• ping
• ipxping
• setup
• ifstat
• debug
• ospfmon
• telnet
• minipad
• update
• netstat
• date
• traceroute
• isdnlogin
• halt
• ifconfig
• modem
The ping Command
Usage: ping [-i][-f<precount>][-d<msec>][c<count>]<target> [<size>]
The ping program can be used to test communication with
another host. Ping sends ICMP echo_request packets of
length size to host.
• -i: incremental. Each successive packet is sent with
one additional byte.
• -f: flood. Each packet(s) is sent immediately after
one is received. <precount> sets the number of packets to be sent without acknowledgement. The
command -f 1 without -d nn sends/receives nearly
half of the bandwidth.
• d: delay. The time in milliseconds to wait before the
next packet is sent (default is 1000).
• -c: count. Only a specified number of packets is
sent.
• Target is a required parameter which takes an IP
address or a hostname.
• Size is optional and sets the length (in bytes) of the
packets to use.
The ping command operates in continuous mode and
keeps sending packets until the program is stopped by en-
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tering Control-C; that is, holding down the "Ctrl" key
("Strg" key on German keyboards) and pressing "C".
The telnet Command
Usage: telnet <host> [<port>]
The telnet program can be used to establish a terminal session with the host specified by the host parameter. The
host’s numerical IP address or hostname can be used. The
optional port parameter specifies which TCP port to connect to on the host.
The traceroute Command
Usage: traceroute [-m <maxhops>] [-p <port>] [-q
<nqueries>] [-w <waittime>] <address> [<packetsize>]
By using the Internet Protocol’s "Time-To-Live" field, the
traceroute program prints the route packets take to arrive at
a network host. The only mandatory parameter is the destination address which may be the host’s name or numerical
IP address. Options are used as follows:
-m <maxhops> The maximum number of hops probe
packets may travel before reaching
host (i.e., the value of each
packet’s TTL, Time-To-Live field).
-p <port>
The UDP port to use. By default port
33333 is used.
Traceroute requires that host is not
using ports
between port and (port + maxhops-1). If
needed this option should be used to
select an unused port range.
-q <nqueries> The number of queries to send,
default is 3.
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-w <waittime> Seconds to wait for a response to a
probe packet.
<address>
IP address (or hostname) of
destination host.
<packetsize>
The size (in bytes) to use for each
probe packet.
The ipxping Command
Usage: ipxping [-c <count>] [-d <delay>] [-s]
<net> [<node>]
The ipxping command can be used to test communication
between the BinTec router and an IPX server and is comparable to IP’s ping command. ipxping has one required argument, net which specifies the server’s (or BinTec router’s)
IPX Network Number. The optional arguments are used as
follows:
-c <count>
-d <delay>
-s
<node>
Note:
Software Reference
Send exactly <count> packets. By
default one packet is sent (that is, if
both -c and -s are not used).
The time (in seconds) to wait between
packets.
By default, 1 one second delay is
used.
Send 10000 packets.
Optional IPX node number. Should
be used if the IPX host’s Internal
Network Number is not = 0:0:0:0:0:1.
Even if the BinTec router’s IPX network configuration is
correct, the IPX server may not answer ipxping requests
if it hasn’t loaded its IPXRTR.NLM. It may be helpful to
verify that the module is loaded if problems occur.
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The minipad Command
Usage: minipad [-7] [-p <pktsz>] [-w <winsz>] [-c
<cug>] [-o <outgocug>] [-b <bcug>] <x25address>
The minipad program is a basic PAD (Packet Assembler/
Disassembler) program that can be used to provide remote
login services for remote X.25 hosts. Minipad is also useful
for testing X.25 routes. To disable incoming X.25 connections to minipad, set x25LocalPadCall to dont_accept.
Minipad has one mandatory argument, x25address,
which can be a standard X.121 address, when preceded by
an "@", or an extended X.25 address. Data calls to closed
user groups defined in the x25RouteTable and
x25RewriteTable can be placed using the -c, -o, and -b options.
-7
-p <pktsz>
-w <winsz>
-c <cug>
-o <outgocug>
-b <bcug>
<x25address>
Use 7-bit data bytes.
The packet size to use.
The window size to use.
Open connection with closed
usergroup cug.
Open connection with outgoing
closed user group outgocug.
Open connection with bilateral closed
user group bcug.
The remote host’s X.25 address.
The isdnlogin Command
Usage: isdnlogin [-c <stknumber>] [-C] [-s <service>] [-a <addinfo>] [-b <bits>] <ISDN-number>
<ISDN-servicename>
The isdnlogin program enables you to start a remote login
shell on the BinTec router over ISDN. Using the ISDNnumber and ISDN-servicename parameters, you select the
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ISDN partner to login to, and the ISDN service to use. Valid
ISDN servicenames are shown below.
Through D-channel signalling, isdnlogin can also accept
incoming calls from analog modem with V.110 bitrate adaption. Connections to V.110 stations can also be established
with isdnlogin when the appropriate layer 1 protocol is
supplied on the command line.
-c <stknumber>
-C
-s <service>
-a <addinfo>
-b <bits>
<ISDN-number>
<ISDN-servicename>
The ISDN stack number to use.
Attempt to use V42bis
compression.
The 1TR6 service code to use for
outgoing calls.
The 1TR6 additional info code
for outgoing calls.
Use <bits>-bit data for
transmission.
The remote host’s telephone
number.
The service names shown below
are supported:
data
telephony
t_online datex_j
56k
trans
v110_1200 v110_2400
v110_14400v110_19200
faxg3
faxg4
btx
modem
dovb
v110_4800 v110_9600
v110_38400
The setup Command
Usage: setup
The setup command is used from the SNMP shell to start
the Setup Tool program. Setup Tool provides a menu oriented interface to configuring the BinTec router, its major
features, and administering/monitoring its operational
state. The User’s Guide is completely Setup Tool based;
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please refer to it for information on using the Setup Tool
program.
The update Command
Usage: update <ipaddress> <filename>
The update command can be used to upgrade the BinTec
router’s internal system software using TFTP. The host at
ipaddress can be a UNIX system or a PC as long as it’s been
configured as a TFTP server. For PCs, DIME Tools includes
a TFTP Server application. For UNIX systems see the section Setting up a TFTP Server in Chapter 5. The filename
specifies the image to load into flash ROM. This image must
be present in the TFTP-root directory configured on the
server.
The halt Command
Usage: halt
The halt command halts the system and reboots using the
default boot configuration file. The halt command has the
same effect as powering the system off and on; i.e. it immediately shuts down the BinTec router. Therefore we recommend to better use cmd=reboot, because this way first
running processes are completed, before the system is shut
down (see Rebooting the System).
The ifstat Command
Usage: ifstat [-l] [-u ] [<ifcname>]
The ifstat command displays status information for each of
the system’s interfaces, based on the contents of the ifTable.
-l
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Displays the full length of the interface
descriptions (normally the description is
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-u
‹ifcname›
limited to 12 characters).
Only display information for interfaces in
the up state.
Only display information for interfaces
whose description starts with the given
characters (e.g. ifstat en1 displays
information on the interfaces en1, en1-llc,
and en1-snap).
Status information for the desired interfaces is displayed
in eleven columns as shown below.
Column
Meaning
ifTable Object
Index
ifIndex
The BinTec router’s interface number. Numbers > 10000 indicate software (or virtual) interfaces.
Descr
The interface’s description as assigned to ifDescr.
ifDescr
Ty
ifType
Mtu
ifMtu
Speed
ifSpeed
St
ifOperStatus
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Interface type. Integer values correspond to the enumerated
types of the ifType object. 6=ethernet_csmacd,
7=iso88023_csmacd, 23=ppp, 32=frame_relay.
Maximum Transmission Unit for this interface; i.e., the largest network datagram that can be sent over this interface.
The interface’s estimated bandwidth in bits per second.
For interfaces whose bandwidth doesn’t change nominal
bandwidth is reported.
The current operational status of the interface. May be:
up (up), dn (down), ts (testing), do (dormant),or bl (blocked).
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Column
Meaning
ifTable Object
Ipkts
ifInNUcastPkts
ifInUcastPkts
Ies
ifInDiscards
ifInErrors
The number of packets received via this interface (the sum of
ifInNUcastPkts and ifInUcastPkts objects) since sysUpTime.
The number of incoming packets that couldn’t be delivered
due to errors (the sum of ifInDiscards and ifInErrors objects)
since sysUpTime.
Opkts
ifOutNUcastPkts
ifOutUcastPkts
Oes
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The number of packets requested via this interface (the sum of
ifOutNUcastPkts and ifOutUcastPkts objects) since sysUpTime.
ifOutErrors
ifOutDiscards
The number of outgoing packets that couldn’t be sent due to
errors (the sum of ifOutDiscards and ifOutErrors objects) since
sysUpTime.
PhysAddress/
ChgTime
The final column of the ifstat application display is divided into
two parts: physical (MAC) address and change time.
ifPhysAddress
IfLastChange
• On non-LAN interfaces, ifstat also shows the
amount of time since the last change in the state
of that interface. For example, if the interface is
up, the length of time the interface has been up is
displayed.
• On LAN interfaces, on the other hand, the application will display the physical (MAC) address.
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The netstat Command
Usage: netstat [-i] [-r] [-p]
The netstat command can be used to display a quick system
status. Depending on which option is used, statistical information is retrieved from the biboDialTable, ipxCircTable,
and ipRouteTable. The three options are as follows:
-i
-p
Column
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Display status information for each interface.
Output is displayed in 10 columns similar to the
ifstat command. See the description of ifstat for
information on each column.
Display information for each configured ISDN
partner.
Output is displayed in seven columns as
follows:
Meaning
Index
Interface number taken from biboPPPIfIndex.
Partnername
The software interface’s name as set in IfDescr.
Protocol
The protocol configured for this interface as set in
biboPPPEncapsulation.
State
The current operational status as set in ifOperStatus.
Destination
Associates IP address with this partner. The displayed address’ type is specified in the Type field.
Type
Type of address specified in the Destination field,
may be: LOC (local), HOS (host), DEF (default), or
NET (network).
Telno
Lists telephone numbers configured for the partner
(biboDialNumber). A number’s direction (biboDialDirection) is indicated by a greater-than sign (>) for
outgoing, a less-than sign (<) for incoming, or both
(< >) for both in and outgoing.
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-r
-e
-d
Displays the current routing table entries.
Output is displayed in seven columns as
follows:
Display extended routing parameters
Display routes to destination.
Column
Meaning
Typ
Type of address specified in the Destination field,
may be: LOC (local), HOS (host), DEF (default), or
NET (network).
Destination
The destination IP address for this route as set in the
ipRouteDest object.
Netmask
The netmask for this route as set in ipRouteMask.
Gateway
The IP address as set in ipRouteNextHop.
Met.
The current operational status as set in ifOperStatus.
Interface
The interface’s name as set in ifDescr
Proto
Identifies how this route was learned as stored in
ipRouteProto (local=manually configured routes).
The ifconfig Command
Usage: ifconfig <interface> [destination <destaddr>] [<address>] [netmask <mask>] [up|down|dialup]
[-] [metric <n>]
The ifconfig command can be used to assign an address to
a network interface and/or to configure network interface
parameters and change the respective routing table entries.
When only the required interface parameter is used, ifconfig displays the current settings for the interface.
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Options (and their respective ipRouteTable entries) are
used as follows:
<interface>
Interface name (ifDescr)
destination <destaddr> Destination IP address of a
host for adding
host routes. (ipRouteDest,
ipRouteMask)
<address>
BinTec router’s IP Address
for this interface.
(ipRouteNextHop)
netmask <mask>
Netmask of interface
(ipRouteMask)
–
Don’t define own IP
address
(i.e. ipRouteNextHop =
0.0.0.0)
metric <n>
Sets route metric to n
(ipRouteMetric1)
The debug Command
Usage: debug [-t] [show | all | [ <subs> [<subs> ...]]]
The debug command can be used to selectively display debugging information originating from one or more of the
various subsystems. Command line parameters are used as
follows:
-t
show
Print a timestamp before each debugging
message.
Show all possible subsystems that can be
debugged.
ACCT ISDN INET X.25 IPX CAPI PPP BRIDGE
CONFIG SNMP X.21 TOKEN ETHER RADIUS
TAPI OSPF FR MODEM RIP
all
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Display debugging information for all
subsystems.
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<subs>
One or more subsystems separated by
whitespace can be entered to display only
debugging information from these
subsystems. Current BinTec router
subsystems include:
The date Command
Usage: date [-i] [YYMMDDHHMMSS]
The date command is used to set or display the current
time. All BinTec router products have a software clock
which stores the current time as retrieved from the host at
biboAdmTimeServer. The optional date-string sets the current date to the specified Year, Month, Day, Hour, Minute,
and Second.
Note that the BRICK-XM and BRICK-XL also have a realtime clock (hardware).The -i option displays the date
stored in the software clock and is therefore only available
on the XM and XL
Date Command:
Product
date
V!CAS
BRICK-XS
BRICK-XM
BRICK-XL
date <YYMMDDHHMMSS>
Displays date currently stored in the
software clock
Sets the software clock to
<YYMMDDHHMMSS>
Displays date currently stored in the
hardware clock
Sets the hardware AND software clocks to
<YYMMDDHHMMSS>
The modem Command
Usage: modem [update <TFTP host> <TFTP filename> |
status]
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The modem command is used to update the system software of your CM-2XBRI module and FM-8MOD modem
connector module, or to display the current operating status of all modems. Note that the FM-8MOD module is only
available on the BRICK-XL. The command can be used as
follows.
If the keyword update is used the following parameters
are required.
<TFTP host>
<TFTP file>
The IP address of your TFTP server;
i.e. the host where the modem
software image can be retrieved.
The file name of the modem software
image.
If you supplied the correct TFTP host and file name you
will see some screen output concerning the loading and
verifying of the image file. The update application will automatically detect all your modem connector modules and
you will be queried to update each one individually.
If you reply with y the update will be performed. This
will take approximately 60 seconds. After the modem update is complete you should reboot your BinTec router immediately if you want to use the new modem software.
Note
To update the modem software image, a TFTP server
(where your BinTec router can retrieve the software
image) must be configured (see Setting up a TFTP
Server in Chapter 5 for additional information).
When the status keyword is used, the system displays
the current status for each modem similar to the following.
No
00
01
02
03
04
State
IDLE
IDLE
IDLE
CALLING
CONNECTED
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OBytes
280
278
18481
0
59635
IBytes
2704
2701
22233
0
64330
LastMessage
CONNECT 115200/K56/LAPM/NONE/38000:TX/31200:RX
CONNECT 115200/V34/LAPM/V42BIS/33600:TX/33600:RX
CONNECT 115200/K56/LAPM/NONE/40000:TX/31200:RX
CONNECT 115200/V34/LAPM/NONE/33600:TX/33600:RX
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05
06
07
CONNECTED
CALLED
IDLE
407
0
0
79
0
0
CONNECT 115200/K56/LAPM/V42BIS/36000:TX/31200:RX
The ospfmon Command
Usage: ospfmon db [rtr|net|sum|asbr|ext|stat] <options>
The ospfmon application can be used from the SNMP
shell to display the contents of the BinTec router’s OSPF
Link State Database. Note that only LSA header information is stored in the MIB system tables, this application can
be used to dump the complete contents of the database. The
various parameters can be used to selectively display specific types of database entries.
Only one of the six identiers can be used at time to display a cross section of the database.
rtr
net
sum
asbr
ext
stat
Show all Router links.
Show all Network links.
Show all Summary links.
Show all AS Border Router links.
Show all External Links.
Show OSPF database statistics.
Additional options may also be used to further identify
more specific types of entries and include.
area <id> Show database entries for area <id>.
rtrid <id> Show entries generated by router ID <id>.
lsid <id> Show database entry with link state ID
<id>.
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Example:
Router Links from the Link State Database for Area
0.0.0.0 (from BRICK-XL in this diagram) might look like
this.
BRICK-XL:> ospfmon db rtr area 11.0.0.0
Area 11.0.0.0
Router Link Age 920 Options 0x20 LsId 192.168.30.1
RtrId 192.168.30.1Seq 0x80000002 Checksum 0xe72a Len 48
options 0x2 links 2
Stub Network id 12.0.0.2 data 255.255.255.255 metric 1562
Stub Network id 12.0.0.3 data 255.255.255.255 metric 0
Note that the Link State ID (Lsid) of the database entry
has different meanings based on the type of Link State Advertisement that is displayed. The table below shows the
meanings for the five LSA types.
LSA Type:
Meaning of Link State ID:
Router Link
The Router ID of the router that generated
the LSA.
Network Link
The IP Address of the DR on the destination
network
Summary Link
The ipRouteDest of the propagated IP route.
ASBR
Summary Link
The Router ID of the Autonomous System Border Router.
External Link
The ipRouteDest of the propagated IP route.
1.3
BinTec router System Tables
When booting the BinTec router loads its configuration file
into memory. Normally the configuration file (named
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"boot") is loaded from flash memory. (A configuration file
can also be loaded from a remote TFTP host at any time
during operation.)
The BinTec router’s configuration file consists of system
tables and variables whose format and structure are defined in The MIB. Upon loading this information is stored
in memory (RAM) and can be seen as a sort of relational database whose current contents can be manipulated from the
SNMP shell. Each table in the database consists of rows and
columns where:
• Column headings represent individual MIB object
type.
• Rows consist of instances of several MIB objects.
There are static tables only containing just one row (e.g.
system). Tables with multiple rows are numbered (inx)
starting from 00., Thus each table entry, or row, refers to an
instance of several MIB objects, or variables. The ipNetToMediaTable (the current ARP cache) is shown below.
ipNetToMediaTable
inx
00
01
02
03
IfIndex(*rw)
1000
1000
2000
2000
PhysAddress(rw)
8:0:24:af:b2:3
0:a0:f9:c7:4:4
0:8:2:4b:4e:24
0:af:92:5a:1:2
NetAddress(*rw)
192.168.6.140
192.168.6.12
192.168.6.5
192.168.6.37
Type(–rw)
static
static
dynamic
dynamic
The characters (in parentheses) following each column
name have special meanings for creating and deleting table
entries. The inx number identifies a specific row and can be
used when editing table entries.
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*
Identifies index objects. Index objects define a unique database
key that is required when creating new table entries.
–
Identifies the variable that contains the delete flag.
These variables are used to delete a table entry.
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ro
Identifies a variable as being Read-Only.
These variables contain values that may not be changed.
rw
Identifies a variable as being Read-Write.
Values for these variables can be changed.
1.3.1
Short vs. Long Names
When Creating, Deleting, or Editing BinTec router system
table entries, MIB variables are normally identified from
the command line using their complete (or Long Name)
name as defined in The MIB. Long Names for the MIB objects defined in the ipNetToMediaTable are:
ipNetToMediaIfIndex
ipNetToMediaPhysAddress
ipNetToMediaNetAddress
ipNetToMediaType
Note that objects contained in the system table currently
displayed in The Shell Prompt are also accessible via their
Short Names. This allows the shell prompt to operate as a
sort of Current Working Directory. Before changing (or creating) table entries from the SNMP shell, you’ll probably
want to display the table’s contents first. As the table’s contents are written to the screen the table’s short names are
displayed. The short names for MIB objects contained in the
ipNetToMediaTable (shown on the previous page) are:
IfIndex
PhysAddress
NetAddress
Type
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Note:
MIB objects are NOT case sensitive. Upper and lower
case characters have been used above for added
readability. System table entries can be manipulated
using any combination of upper/lower case characters
with either long or short names as explained above.
1.3.2
Creating Table Entries
Creating table entries is comparable to adding a new entry
into the database that’s currently stored in memory.1 Since
variables in the database are individual instances of MIB
objects each variable must be identified by a unique key.
Each table row contains a unique database key which consists of the values of all the index objects for that row. And
because a table row can only contain one instance for each
MIB object, the key identifies the instances of all variables
for the row.
In the ipNetToMediaTable shown above, the IfIndex and
the NetAddress objects are index variables. The four instances of the PhysAddress object can be uniquely identified in the database their respective keys as follows:
PhysAddress Instance
8:0:24:af:b2:3
0:a0:f9:c7:4:4
0:8:2:4b:4e:24
0:af:92:5a:1:2
DB Key
(IfIndex.NetAddress)
1000.192.168.6.140
1000.192.168.6.12
2000.192.168.6.5
2000.192.168.6.37
For index objects that are Enumerated Types the numeric
value is always used. If the IfIndex object consisted of the
values ethernet (1), token_ring (2), or other (3)
the respective keys shown above might be: 1.192.168.6.140,
1.192.168.6.12, 2.192.168.6.5, and 2.192.168.6.37.
1.The reference to "memory" is here because changes to a table’s contents are only saved to a writeable medium (flash ROM or a remote system’s disk) upon explicit instruction.
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This complicated explanation simply means that in order to create a new table entry, a new database key has to be
defined which involves setting all index variables within
one command. Additional variables may also be set at the
same time. Variables not defined when a row is created are
assigned default values that may be changed later (see Editing Table Entries).
A new static ARP mapping entry (comparable to: arp s on most operating systems) could be added to the ipNetToMediaTable shown above using the following command.
mybrick:system> ipNetToMediaIfIndex=1000 ipNetToMediaNetAddress=192.168.6.6
ipNetToMediaPhysAddress=0:4:f1:a0:8:f3
mybrick:ipNetToMediaTable>
In this example, setting the ipNetToMediaPhysAddress
object is not actually required for creating the table entry,
however, it makes sense to associate the IP address with the
hardware address within the same command.
Some system tables contain MIB objects for which only
one instance is possible (the admin table for example;
which among other things, contains the TCP port numbers
the BinTec router uses). Logically these tables (called static
tables) can only contain one row.
NOTE
Some system tables are not intended to be changed
manually (e.g., tables that contain ISDN call or IP session
logging information) an only contain Read-Only variables. Although MIB objects are marked as index variables
(with an *) in these tables they’re also marked ro; meaning that only the BinTec router can update these tables.
1.3.3
Deleting Table Entries
To delete a table entry the variable (in the row that you
want to delete) containing the delete flag must be set to de-
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lete. The delete flag is denoted by the (–) character in parentheses in the column name.
As mentioned above the database key identifies all instances of MIB objects on a specific table row. This key
could be used to identify a specific instance of the delete object thereby deleting a complete table row. The format is
<MIB object>:<DB Key>=delete. The first row in our ipNetToMediaTable could be deleted in this manner using the
command:
ipNetToMediaType.1000.192.168.6.140=delete
So that you don’t have to decipher database keys (which
can sometimes be long and consist of multiple variables)
the best way to remove a table entry is to append the table
row number to the delete object (separated by a colon). The
format is <MIB Object>:<inx number>=delete. The same
row could be deleted from our ipNetToMediaTable using:
ipNetToMediaType:0=delete
or
ipNetToMediaTable:0=delete
The row numbers of each table are indicated by the inx
number which is shown when displaying a table’s contents
to the screen.
1.3.4
Editing Table Entries
The contents of a specific instance of a MIB object, i.e., the
contents of a specific table cell, can be changed. Both methods mentioned in Deleting Table Entries can be used. Again
the preferable (easier) method involves using the inx value
to identify the table row.
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We could change the hardware address associated with
IP address 192.168.6.5 in our ipNetToMediaTable with either of the following commands.
ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1000.192.168.6.5=0:0:f3:a0:3:f1
ipNetToMediaPhysAddress:0=0:0:f3:a0:3:f1
Of course variables can only be assigned values that are
appropriate to the respective Object Types.
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1.4
BinTec router Interfaces
One of the key concepts used on the BinTec router is the
idea of interfaces; however, several different types of interfaces are used. These include the following which are described below.
• Special Interfaces
• Hardware Interfaces (i.e., the physical interface)
• Software Interfaces (also referred to as virtual interfaces)
The numeric value of the ifIndex variable, used in many
BinTec router system tables identifies a specific BinTec router interface. The ifIndex is a five digit number (leading 0s
are normally not shown) that identifies the interface’s type
and some of the special characteristics of the interface
which are described in the following sections.
Type
Special Interfaces
Range
Comments
0
The REFUSE Interface
1
The LOCAL Interface
2
The IGNORE Interface
1000
Hardware Interfaces
(Physical Interfaces)
...
9999
10000
Software Interfaces
(Virtual Interfaces)
...
99999
SUCC
Channel
Unit
Slot
Software interfaces sequentially
ordered by category,
see: (Software Interfaces)
This shows the initial breakdown based on the interface
types; software and hardware interfaces can be broken
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down further according to their specific characteristics.
This is explained in the following sections.
1.4.1
Special Interfaces
Three special (destination) interfaces are available on the
BinTec router and are mainly useful when creating special
routes for handling different situations depending on the
characteristics of the interface.
These interfaces are always listed first in the ifTable (Interface Table) and have the following characteristics.
The REFUSE Interface (ifIndex = 0)
When packets are routed to the REFUSE interface (in the
ipRouteTable and the ipExtRtTable) the packet is discarded
and an "ICMP Destination unreachable” message is transmitted to the sender; i.e., the host at the address identified
in the Source IP Address field of the IP datagram (see the diagram of the Internet Layer in Chapter 6).
The LOCAL Interface (ifIndex = 1)
Packets routed to the LOCAL interface are given to an appropriate internal process on the BinTec router such as the
BinTec router’s minipad application.
The IGNORE Interface (ifIndex 2)
Packets routed (via the ipRouteTable and the ipExtRtTable)
to the IGNORE interface are discarded meaning that the
packet is not forwarded. This destination interface is similar to the REFUSE interface with one exception. No status
information is transmitted to the sender for packets routed
to this interface.
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1.4.2
Hardware Interfaces
BinTec router hardware modules are listed by SBus slot in
the biboAdmBoardTable. Both Feature Modules (FM) and
Communications Modules (CM) are shown there. Communications modules that provide hardware interfaces routing
capable of routing are listed in the ifTable and are identified
by ifIndex values that are in the range:
ifIndex
ifIndex
HW Interface
≤
1000
value
<
10000
These interfaces consist of Point-To-Multipoint interfaces (such as ethernet, and token ring interfaces), and PointTo-Point interfaces (such as ISDN S0, ISDN S2M, and X.21
interfaces).
Point-to-Multipoint
Point-to-multipoint interfaces (Ethernet and Token-Ring)
are listed in the ifTable. The value of the ifIndex and ifDescr
objects are encoded as follows.
Slot Number where
this module is installed.
ifIndex:
1002
ifDescr: en1-snap
Framing method
000 = en1
001 = llc
002 = snap
003 = nov802.3
The ifIndex shown above identifies a point-to-multipoint
interface installed in slot 1. On most systems this is the CMBNCTP ethernet module but may also be a token ring mod-
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ule (CM-TR). The biboAdmBoardTable entries would verify this module. This hardware interface uses SNAP framing. For information on the frame formats used with pointto-multipoint interfaces refer to Appendix B).
Point-to-Point
Point-to-point interfaces include various forms of X.21,
X.25, and ISDN interfaces. These different types of point-topoint interfaces depend on the type of installed hardware,
how the hardware is configured, and where (which SBus
slot) the hardware is installed.
X.21 Interfaces
• X.21 interfaces are listed in the ifTable. Only the slot
digit is used and identifies the applicable slot for
the CM-X21 module (i.e., 3000 for CM-X21 in slot
3). A corresponding entry (x21IfIndex) is also
present in the x21IfTable.
X.31 Interfaces
• X.31 (in the D-Channel) Interfaces
X.31 interfaces are listed in the ifTable. A corresponding entry is also found in the
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x25LinkPresetTable. The ifIndex used for X.31 interfaces is encoded as follows.
Slot #
TEI #
Slot #
TEI (+33)1
ifIndex
2056
ifDescr x31d2-0-23
Unit #
1.) 0 - 32 are reserved for ISDN leased B-Channel interfaces
ISDN Interfaces
• Dialup Interfaces
ISDN Dialup interfaces are not listed in the ifTable
since they do not provide directly routeable interfaces; this is where the software interfaces are required.
• ISDN Leased Line Interfaces
Leased line interfaces are listed in the ifTable since
these interfaces identify a directly routable interface. Two types of leased line interfaces exist: interfaces consisting of a single ISDN B-channel (S0) and
interfaces that consist of multiple ISDN B-Channels
(S0 or S2M), called Bundles.
For Leased line interfaces consisting of a single BChannel, the ifIndex and ifDescr objects are encod-
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ed as follows:
Leased
B-Channel
Slot #
ifIndex:
2002
ifDescr: bri2-0-2
Unit #
Channel
Number
Unit #
For bundle interfaces the ifIndex and ifDescr objects are encoded as follows:
Bundle
Bundles
index
ifIndex:
9020
ifDescr: bundle20
Unit #
Unit #
Slot #
Slot #
Always 9
for Bundles
1.4.3
Software Interfaces
Software interfaces are also referred to as virtual interfaces
since they are mapped to one or more hardware interfaces
(point-to-point or point-to-multipoint). The most common
examples are dial-up ISDN partner interfaces. When setting
up these software interfaces you may decide to associate
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one or more ISDN B-channels from one or more ISDN ports
(BRICK-XM and BRICK-XL only) that are used to accept
calls from, or place calls to, the partner.
Software interfaces are listed in the ifTable and are identified by ifIndex values that are in the range:
ifIndex
10001
ifIndex
SW Interface
≤
value
<
29999
Software interfaces can be further distinguished as follows:
ifIndex
10001 ... 14999
15001 ... 15999
18001 ... 19999
20000 ... 29999
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Dial-Up ISDN Interfaces
RADIUS Interfaces
Frame Relay over ISDN Interfaces
Multiprotocol over X.25 Interfaces
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1.5
BinTec router Configuration Files
BinTec router configuration files are stored either locally on
the BinTec router or on a remote host (TFTP server). When
booting this information is loaded into memory and becomes the BinTec router’s active configuration.
Configuration files stored locally on the BinTec router are
stored in FLASH PROM (programmable read-only memory) memory which we simply refer to as flash. The contents
of flash can be seen as a directory whose contents are listed
in the biboAdmConfigDirTable. Configuration files stored
in flash can be managed using the commands described in
Managing FLASH files below.
Configuration files can be sent to or retrieved from remote hosts using the TFTP commands described in Transferring Files with TFTP.
The system can also be rebooted using the cmd=reboot
command described in Rebooting the System.
1.5.1
Managing FLASH files
To help you manage different configuration files, the BinTec
router uses the biboAdmConfigTable. This table contains
the fields Cmd, Object, Path, Pathnew, Host, State, and File.
This table is read by the configuration daemon, the configd process, which periodically:
1. Reads table entries.
2. Performs requested actions, using the respective
field values as command parameters.
3. Updates the respective State field according to the
State of the requested command.
4. Removes table entries once the respective action is
performed.
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An action is requested by assigning a value to the fields
appropriate to the command, the configd process executes the requested actions.
The State field is updated intermittently while performing the action. The State field may be; todo, running, done, or
error, depending on the status of the requested action. If the
command resulted an error condition, you can find a detailed explanation of what caused the error by viewing the
biboAdmSyslogTable. Once the requested action is completed the results can be seen by viewing the biboAdmConfigDirTable.
Tip
When using third party SNMP managers configuration
data can be managed by accessing the respective
objects in the biboAdmConfigTable.
Configuration files can be stored on the BinTec router
(i.e., in flash) using the commands shown below. Although
this information is presented in command syntax notation
the actual commands simply involves assigning various
parameter values to the contents of the biboAdmConfigTable.
cmd=save [path=<dirname>] [object=<tableobj>]
cmd=load [path=<dirname>] [object=<tableobj>]
cmd=delete path=<dirname> [object=<tableobj>]
cmd=copy path=<oldname> pathnew=<newname>
cmd=move path=<oldname> pathnew=<newname>
Saving Configuration Files
The BinTec router allows you to have multiple configuration files as long as there is enough room in flash to store
them. To make sure that your configuration information
(and any changes you have made while the system is running) is available after every system bootup, you must instruct the BinTec router to write the configuration data. This
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is done by assigning
biboAdmConfigCmd field.
the
value
“save”
to
the
Usage:
cmd=save [path=<dirname>] [object=<tableobj>]
Optional arguments:
path
Specifies the file in flash to write data to.
The default value is “boot”. If dirname con
tains spaces, the name must be enclosed in
double quotes.
object Specifies the object(s) to save. Either a spe
cific table of information can be saved or a
complete configuration. If no objects are
specified, all tables are written to path.
The result of this command is that all Read-Write information is written to the file specified by path. If the optional
parameters are not used, the complete configuration (all tables) is saved to the "boot." file.
For example,
cmd=save
would write all configuration information to flash as
“boot”. If you want to save just the ipRouteTable in the file
test, you could issue:
cmd=save path=test object=ipRouteTable
You can verify the actions have been completed by listing the entries in biboAdmConfigDirTable. You should see
a listing of each configuration file you saved. Each line
shows you the name of the file (Name), the number of tables
saved in the file (Count), and the contents of the file (Contents), i.e., “all” or a list of individual table numbers separated by colons.
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Note:
The internal procedure of writing configuration files can
take between 5 and 20 seconds. It is strongly recommended that during this time no additional changes be
made to the configuration. Verify your current changes
before making additional ones.
Loading Configuration Files
During system initialization, the default configuration file
("boot") is loaded into memory. This boot file may be loaded
locally or via a remote system, using BootP. The working
state of the BinTec router is dependent upon on the configuration information in active memory. A new configuration
file (or a single table) can be loaded into memory from flash
while the system is running. This is done by assigning load
to biboAdmConfigCmd.
Usage:
cmd=load [path=<dirname>] [object=<tableobj>]
Optional arguments:
path
Specifies the file in flash to load data from.
Default is “boot”. If dirname contains spaes,
the name must be enclosed in double
quotes.
object Specifies the object(s) to load into memory.
All tables can be loaded from a file or individual tables. If no objects are pecified, all
tables are loaded from path.
For example, to load a configuration from flash from the
file “test”
cmd=load path=test
would be used; while the command
cmd=load path=test object=admin
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would only load the Admin table from “test”. After loading
configuration information, changes take effect automatically since the information is loaded directly into memory.
Deleting Configuration Files
Deleting complete configuration files or specific tables
within them is done by assigning “delete” to the Cmd field.
Usage:
cmd=delete path=<dirname> [object=<tableobj>]
Required arguments:
path
Specifies the file in flash RAM to remove
data from.
Default is “boot”. If dirname contains spaces, the name must be enclosed in double
quotes.
Optional arguments:
object Specifies the objects to remove. If no objects
are specified, all tables are removed from
<path>.
For example, to delete all configuration information
from flash file “test”,
cmd=delete path=test
could be used; to delete only the ipRouteTable from the
flash file “test” you could use
cmd=delete path=test object=ipRouteTable
Copying Configuration Files
To copy configuration files you can assign the value “copy”
to the biboAdmConfigCmd object. When using “copy” the paSoftware Reference
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Tip
When deleting configuration files you may notice that
the amount of available memory space shown in the
biboAdmConfigDirTable is not adjusted. This is because
flash can’t be erased progressively; configuration files
are only marked for deletion. When the flash becomes
full, the system automatically reorganizes flash RAM,
deleting previously marked data.
Note:
You can delete the contents of the flash RAM completely by assigning “/” to the path parameter. It is recommended however, that you save all configuration
information to a remote host using TFTP and the
cmd=put assignment before using this syntax.
rameters differ slightly from their previously discussed usage.
Usage:
cmd=copy path=<oldname> pathnew=<newname>
Required arguments:
path
Specifies the file in flash to copy data from.
If path contains spaces, it must be enclosed
in double quotes.
pathnew Specifies the new file in flash to write the
data to. If pathnew contains spaces, it must
be enclosed in double quotes.
This command is not capable of selecting individual tables from path; only complete files can be copied. Thus, the
command:
cmd=copy path=boot pathnew=backup
copies the configuration file “boot” to the file “backup”.
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Moving Configuration Files
You can assign the value “move” to the Cmd field to rename
configuration files. This has the same effect as issuing the
cmd=copy and cmd=delete commands consecutively.
Usage:
cmd=move path=<oldname> pathnew=<newname>
Required arguments:
path
Specifies the file in flash to remove.
pathnew Specifies the new file in flash to create.
The result of this operation is that the file <oldname> is renamed to <newname>. To rename the “boot” file to “oldboot” use the command:
cmd=move path=boot pathnew=oldboot
1.5.2
Transferring Files with TFTP
Using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) you can transmit
and retrieve configuration files to and from remote hosts on
your network. This is made possible using three additional
enumerated values for the biboAdmConfigCmd object: put,
get, and state.
To exchange configuration files with remote hosts you
must first set up a TFTP server on these hosts. Information
on setting up a TFTP server on UNIX machines is provided
in Chapter 5 in Setting up a TFTP Server. A TFTP Server application for PCs is included with BRICKware for Windows.
The commands used for exchanging configuration information among remote TFTP hosts are as follows.
cmd=put host=<a.b.c.d> [path=<flashname>]
[file=<filename>] [object=<tableobj>]
cmd=get host=<a.b.c.d> [path=<flashname>]
[file=<filename>] [object=<tableobj>]
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cmd=state host=<a.b.c.d> [file=<filename>] [object=<tableobj>]
Note:
Configuration files may contain the current passwords
for the Read, Write and Admin Communities. If you use
the cmd=put or cmd=state commands to transfer
BinTec router configuration files to remote hosts, you
should also control access to these files for security reasons.
Sending TFTP Files
Once TFTP is setup you can assign “put” to the biboAdmConfigCmd object to transmit configuration information
stored in flash to a file on a remote host. Only Read-Write
information is included in the file.
The TFTP file to be written on the remote host must already exist (and, for UNIX hosts, must be world writable)
prior to executing the command.
If problems occur in connection with older BSD based
TFTP servers see the Special Note: in Chapter System Administration.
Usage:
cmd=put [host=<a.b.c.d>] [path=<flashname>]
[file=<filename>] [object=<tableobj>]
Optional arguments:
host
Specifies the IP address of the host to send
information to. A hostname can also be
used if it can be resolved via DNS.
If not specified the address set in biboAdmNameServer is used by default.
path
Specifies the file in flash RAM to copy data
from. If not specified the default flash file
is “boot”.
file
Specifies the TFTP file to create on the remote host.
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object
The file name is relative to the TFTP-boot
directory configured on the host. (The
default is C:\BRICK for PCs
running DIME Tools’ TFTP Server; or the
last field of the tftp entry in
/etc/inetd.conf on UNIX systems.)
The file name defaults to “brick.cf” if <file>
is not specified.
Specifies the table objects(s) to send. Either
a specific table, or a complete configuration
file can be sent. If no objects are
specified, all tables are sent by default.
To retrieve the ifTable from the flash file "temp" and store
the information in file "file.cf" on the host at 192.168.3.4 this
command would be used:
cmd=put host=192.168.3.4 path=temp
file=file.cf ➯
object=ifTable
Retrieving TFTP Files
You can also retrieve configuration data from remote hosts
by assigning “get” to the biboAdmConfigCmd object. Once
the retrieved file (or table information) is written to flash,
the information can then be loaded into memory with
cmd=load for it to take effect.
Usage:
cmd=get [host=<a.b.c.d>] [path=<flashname>]
[file=<filename> object=<tableobj>]
Optional arguments:
host
Specifies the IP address of the host to
retrieve data from.
A hostname can also be used if it can be
resolved via DNS.
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If not specified the address set in biboAdmNameServer is
used by default.
path
Specifies the file in flash to write data to.
If the file already exists in flash its contents
are overwritten. The default flash name is
“boot”.
file
Specifies the file on the remote host to
retrieve data from.
If not specified the TFTP file named
“brick.cf” is requested.
object Specifies the object(s) to retrieve. Here,
either a specific table or a complete
configuration file can be retrieved. If not
specified all system tables are retrieved.
For example, using the command
cmd=get host=192.168.3.4 path=file.cf
file=temp ➯
object=ifTable
would retrieve the ifTable from the file file.cf on host
192.168.3.4 and save it in a flash file named “temp”.
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Transmitting State Information
The previously mentioned TFTP commands only send or
retrieve variables with Read-Write status. They also send/
retrieve information from files stored in flash. Using
“cmd=state”, you can save all configuration information
currently in memory and send the data to a remote TFTP
host. This information includes Read-Write AND ReadOnly data such as status/accounting information.
The TFTP file to be written on the remote host must already exist (and, for UNIX hosts, must be world writable)
prior to executing the command.
If problems occur in connection with older BSD based
TFTP servers see the Special Note: in Chapter 5.
Usage:
cmd=state [host=<a.b.c.d>] [path=<flashname>]
[file=<filename>] [object=<tableobj>]
Optional parameters:
host
Specifies the IP address of the host to send
data to. If not specified the current value of
biboAdmNameServer is used by default.
file
Specifies the file name on the remote host
to write data to (and is relative to the TFTP
boot directory on that host).
If not specified the default file name is
"brick.st".
object Specifies the table(s) to retrieve data from.
If no objects are specified, the contents of
all tables are sent.
For example, using
cmd=state host=1.2.3.4
file=brick1.st ➯
object=system
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would retrieve all data from the system table and places
it in “/tftpboot/brick1.st” on host 1.2.3.4 (if present the file is
overwritten).
Tip
If you need to contact BinTec support, it is recommended that you have a complete state file available.
This would be done with the command shown below.
cmd=state host=<IP Address>
where <IP Address> identifies a TFTP host you have access
to.
1.5.3
Transferring Files with XMODEM via Serial
Port
It is possible to load and save configuration files via the serial interface using the protocol XMODEM. Therefore the
variable file is assigned the value xmodem or xmodem-1k.
xmodem-1k uses a packet size of 1024 byte (default: 128
byte) and in general reaches a higher throughput. The packet size is defined by the sender so that the value xmodem1k only makes sense on the sending end; on the receiving
end it is ignored.
To make use of this new feature you have to access your
BinTec router from a computer via the serial port and a terminal program.
Getting the Configuration
cmd=get file=xmodem path=new_config
loads a file received via XMODEM with the name
new_config into the flash ROM of the BinTec router.
After this command has been started the terminal program must be set to Send (Upload) and the transmission
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protocol (XMODEM) as well as the source file name and location must be entered. For the time of the file transfer the
console cannot be used.
Putting the Configuration
cmd=put file=xmodem path=boot
sends the BinTec router’s flash ROM file boot via XMODEM.
After this command has been started the terminal program must be set to Receive (Download) and the transmission protocol (XMODEM) as well as the destination file
name and location must be entered. For the time of the file
transfer the console cannot be used.
Transmitting State Information
The previously mentioned commands only send or retrieve
the configuration files containing variables with ReadWrite status. They send/retrieve information from files
stored in flash. Using “cmd=state” you can save all configuration information currently in memory. This information
includes Read-Write AND Read-Only data such as status/
accounting information.
cmd=state file=xmodem
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BinTec router configuration files, you should also
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When nothing is specified the currently selected baud rate
is used for the transfer. The transfer baud rate can be
changed by adding @baud to the file variable, e.g.:
cmd=put [email protected] path=boot
Possible baud rates are 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400,
57600, 115200. For transmitting data to the BinTec router
(cmd=get) you should not select a rate higher than 9600. Selecting higher than default baud rates may result in transmission errors. There are no limitations for BIANCA/
BRICK-XL/XL2.
In case of transmission errors a syslog is generated.
This feature can only be used via the SNMP shell, not via
Setup Tool.
1.5.4
Rebooting the System
The system can also be rebooted via SNMP by assigning
“reboot” to the biboAdmConfigCmd object. This can be
used for example, to stop and restart the system remotely
from a telnet, isdnlogin, or minipad session.
cmd=reboot
No additional parameters are required.
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