ICM7216B, ICM7216D
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
OBSOLETE PRODUCT
NO RECOMMENDED REPLACEMENT
contact our Technical Support Center at
www.intersil.com/tsc
DATASHEET
FN3166
Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
8-Digit, Multi-Function, Frequency Counters/Timers
The ICM7216B is a fully integrated Timer Counters with LED
display drivers. They combine a high frequency oscillator, a
decade timebase counter, an 8-decade data counter and
latches, a 7-segment decoder, digit multiplexers and 8segment and 8-digit drivers which directly drive large
multiplexed LED displays. The counter inputs have a
maximum frequency of 10MHz in frequency and unit counter
modes and 2MHz in the other modes. Both inputs are digital
inputs. In many applications, amplification and level shifting
will be required to obtain proper digital signals for these
inputs.
Features, All Versions
The ICM7216B can function as a frequency counter, period
counter, frequency ratio (fA /fB) counter, time interval
counter or as a totalizing counter. The counter uses either a
10MHz or 1MHz quartz crystal timebase. For period and
time interval, the 10MHz timebase gives a 0.1s resolution.
In period average and time interval average, the resolution
can be in the nanosecond range. In the frequency mode, the
user can select accumulation times of 0.01s, 0.1s, 1s and
10s. With a 10s accumulation time, the frequency can be
displayed to a resolution of 0.1Hz in the least significant
digit. There is 0.2s between measurements in all ranges.
• Internally generated decimal points, interdigit blanking,
leading zero blanking and overflow indication
The ICM7216D functions as a frequency counter only, as
described above.
All versions of the ICM7216 incorporate leading zero
blanking. Frequency is displayed in kHz. In the ICM7216B,
time is displayed in s. The display is multiplexed at 500Hz
with a 12.2% duty cycle for each digit. The ICM7216B and
ICM7216D are designed for common cathode displays with
typical peak segment currents of 12mA. In the display off
mode, both digit and segment drivers are turned off,
enabling the display to be used for other functions.
• Functions as a frequency counter (DC to 10MHz)
• Four internal gate times: 0.01s, 0.1s, 1s, 10s in frequency
counter mode
• Directly drives digits and segments of large multiplexed
LED displays (common anode and common cathode
versions)
• Single nominal 5V supply required
• Highly stable oscillator, uses 1MHz or 10MHz crystal
• Display off mode turns off display and puts chip into low
power mode
• Hold and reset inputs for additional flexibility
Features, ICM7216B
• Functions also as a period counter, unit counter,
frequency ratio counter or time interval counter
• 1 cycle, 10 cycles, 100 cycles, 1000 cycles in period,
frequency ratio and time interval modes
• Measures period from 0.5s to 10s
Features, ICM7216D
• Decimal point and leading zero banking may be externally
selected
Part Number Information
PART
NUMBER
TEMP. RANGE
(oC)
PACKAGE
PKG. NO.
ICM7216BlPl
-25 to 85
28 Ld PDIP
E28.6
ICM7216DlPl
-25 to 85
28 Ld PDIP
E28.6
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 1 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Pinouts
ICM7216B (PDIP)
COMMON CATHODE
TOP VIEW
28 INPUT A
CONTROL INPUT 1
INPUT B 2
27 HOLD INPUT
FUNCTION INPUT 3
26 OSC OUTPUT
DIGIT 1 OUTPUT 4
25 OSC INPUT
DIGIT 3 OUTPUT 5
24 EXT OSC INPUT
DIGIT 2 OUTPUT 6
23 DECIMAL POINT OUTPUT
DIGIT 4 OUTPUT 7
22 SEG g OUTPUT
VSS 8
21 SEG e OUTPUT
DIGIT 5 OUTPUT 9
20 SEG a OUTPUT
DIGIT 6 OUTPUT 10
19 SEG d OUTPUT
DIGIT 7 OUTPUT 11
18 VDD
DIGIT 8 OUTPUT 12
17 SEG b OUTPUT
RESET INPUT 13
16 SEG c OUTPUT
RANGE INPUT 14
15 SEG f OUTPUT
ICM7216D (PDIP)
COMMON CATHODE
TOP VIEW
CONTROL INPUT 1
MEASUREMENT IN PROGRESS 2
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
28 INPUT A
27 HOLD INPUT
DIGIT 1 OUTPUT 3
26 OSC OUTPUT
DIGIT 3 OUTPUT 4
25 OSC INPUT
DIGIT 2 OUTPUT 5
24 EXT OSC INPUT
DIGIT 4 OUTPUT 6
23 DECIMAL POINT OUTPUT
VSS 7
22 SEG g OUTPUT
DIGIT 5 OUTPUT 8
21 SEG e OUTPUT
DIGIT 6 OUTPUT 9
20 SEG a OUTPUT
DIGIT 7 OUTPUT 10
19 SEG d OUTPUT
DIGIT 8 OUTPUT 11
18 VDD
RESET INPUT 12
17 SEG b OUTPUT
EX. DECIMAL POINT INPUT 13
16 SEG c OUTPUT
RANGE INPUT 14
15 SEG f OUTPUT
Page 2 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Functional Block Diagram
EXT
OSC
INPUT
OSC
INPUT
3
OSC
SELECT
8
DIGIT
DRIVERS
DECODER
OSC
OUTPUT
8
DIGIT
OUTPUTS
(8)
REFERENCE
COUNTER
103

RANGE
CONTROL
LOGIC
RANGE SELECT
LOGIC
 104 OR  105
RANGE
INPUT
100Hz
5
STORE AND
RESET LOGIC
RESET
INPUT
6
CONTROL
LOGIC
CONTROL
INPUT
MAIN
 103 COUNTER
EN
CL
INPUT A
INPUT B
(NOTE 1)
4
INPUT
CONTROL
LOGIC
DP
LOGIC
OVERFLOW
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
DATA LATCHES AND
STORE
OUTPUT MUX
4
D
INPUT
CONTROL
LOGIC
DECODER
LOGIC
7
SEGMENT
DRIVER
8
SEGMENT
OUTPUTS
(8)
Q
FUNCTION
INPUT
(NOTE 1)
EXT
DP
INPUT
(NOTE 2)
CL
MAIN
FF
MEASUREMENT
IN PROGRESS
OUTPUT
(NOTE 2)
FN
CONTROL
LOGIC
6
HOLD
INPUT
NOTES:
1. Function input and input B available on ICM7216B only.
2. Ext DP input and MEASUREMENT IN PROGRESS output available on ICM7216D only.
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 3 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Maximum Supply Voltage (VDD - VSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5V
Maximum Digit Output Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400mA
Maximum Segment Output Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60mA
Voltage On Any Input or
Output Terminal (Note 3). . . . . . . . . . . (VDD +0.3V) to (VSS -0.3V)
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 4)
Operating Conditions
JA (oC/W)
PDIP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Junction Temperature
JC (oC/W)
55
N/A
PDIP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150oC
o
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . -65 C to 150oC
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 300oC
Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -25oC to 85oC
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
NOTES:
3. The ICM7216 may be triggered into a destructive latchup mode if either input signals are applied before the power supply is applied or if input
or outputs are forced to voltages exceeding VDD to VSS by more than 0.3V.
4. JA is measured with the component mounted on an evaluation PC board in free air.
Electrical Specifications
VDD = 5.0V, VSS = 0V, TA = 25oC, Unless Otherwise Specified
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
-
2
5
mA
ICM7216B
Operating Supply Current, IDD
Display Off, Unused Inputs to VSS
Supply Voltage Range (VDD -VSS), VSUPPLY
INPUT A, INPUT B Frequency at fMAX
4.75
-
6.0
V
Maximum Frequency INPUT A, Pin 28, fA(MAX)
Figure 6, Function = Frequency, Ratio,
Unit Counter
10
-
-
MHz
Function = Period, Time Interval
2.5
-
-
MHz
Maximum Frequency INPUT B, Pin 2, fB(MAX)
Figure 7
2.5
-
-
MHz
Minimum Separation INPUT A to INPUT B Time
Interval Function
Figure 1
250
-
-
ns
10
-
-
MHz
-
-
100
kHz
2000
-
-
S
Maximum Oscillator Frequency and External Oscillator
Frequency, fOSC
Minimum External Oscillator Frequency, fOSC
Oscillator Transconductance, gM
VDD = 4.75V, TA = 85°C
Multiplex Frequency, fMUX
fOSC = 10MHz
-
500
-
Hz
Time Between Measurements
fOSC = 10MHz
-
200
-
ms
Input Low Voltage, VINL
-
-
1.0
V
Input High Voltage, VlNH
3.5
-
-
V
100
400
-
k
-
-
20
A
-
15
-
mV/s
Input Voltages: Pins 2, 13, 25, 27, 28
Input Resistance to VDD Pins 13, 24, RIN
VIN = VDD -1.0V
Input Leakage Pins 27, 28, 2, IILK
Input Range of Change, dVlN /dt
Supplies Well Bypassed
Digit Driver: Pins 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12
Low Output Current, IOL
VOUT = VSS +1.3V
50
75
-
mA
High Output Current, IOH
VOUT = VDD -2.5V
-
-100
-
A
High Output Current, IOH
VOUT = VDD -2.0V
-10
-
-
mA
Leakage Current, ISLK
VOUT = VDD -2.5V
-
-
10
A
Segment Driver: Pins 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23
Multiplex Inputs: Pins 1, 3, 14
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 4 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Electrical Specifications
VDD = 5.0V, VSS = 0V, TA = 25oC, Unless Otherwise Specified (Continued)
PARAMETER
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
Input Low Voltage, VINL
-
-
VDD 2.0
V
Input High Voltage, VlNH
VDD 0.8
-
-
V
100
360
-
k
-
2
5
mA
4.75
-
6.0
V
10
-
-
MHz
10
-
-
MHz
Input Resistance to VDD, RIN
TEST CONDITIONS
VlN = VDD -2.5V
ICM7216D
Operating Supply Current, IDD
Display Off, Unused Inputs to VSS
Supply Voltage Range (VDD -VSS), VSUPPLY
INPUT A Frequency at fMAX
Maximum Frequency INPUT A, Pin 28, fA(MAX)
Figure 6
Maximum Oscillator Frequency and External Oscillator
Frequency, fOSC
-
-
100
kHz
2000
-
-
S
fOSC = 10MHz
-
500
-
Hz
fOSC = 10MHz
-
200
-
ms
Minimum External Oscillator Frequency, fOSC
Oscillator Transconductance, gM
VDD = 4.75V, TA = 85°C
Multiplex Frequency, fMUX
Time Between Measurements
Input Voltages: Pins 12, 27, 28
Input Low Voltage, VINL
-
-
1.0
V
Input High Voltage, VINH
3.5
-
-
V
100
400
-
k
-
-
20
A
-
-
mA
Input Resistance to VDD, Pins 12, 24, RIN
VIN = VDD -1.0V
Input Leakage, Pins 27, 28, IILK
Output Current, Pin 2, IOL
VOL = +0.4V
0.36
Output Current, Pin 2, IOH
VOH = VDD -0.8V
265
-
-
A
Input Rate of Change, dVlN /dt
Supplies Well Bypassed
-
15
-
mV/s
50
75
-
mA
-
A
Digit Driver: Pins 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11
Low Output Current, IOL
VOUT = +1.3V
High Output Current, IOH
VOUT = VDD -2.5V
-
100
High Output Current, IOH
VOUT = VDD -2.0V
10
15
Leakage Current, ISLK
VOUT = VDD -2.5V
-
-
10
A
Input Low Voltage, VlNL
-
-
VDD 2.0
V
Input High Voltage, VINH
VDD 0.8
-
-
V
100
360
-
k
Segment Driver: Pins 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23
mA
Multiplex Inputs: Pins 1, 13, 14
Input Resistance to VDD, RlN
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
VIN = VDD -1.0V
Page 5 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Timing Diagram
40ms
INTERNAL
STORE
30ms TO 40ms
60ms
FUNCTION:
TIME INTERVAL
INTERNAL
RESET
40ms
UPDATE
190ms TO 200ms
UPDATE
PRIMING
MEASUREMENT INTERVAL
MEASUREMENT
IN PROGRESS
(INTERNAL ON
7216B)
INPUT A
PRIMING EDGES
INPUT B
250ns MIN
MEASURED
INTERVAL
(FIRST)
MEASURED
INTERVAL
(LAST)
NOTE:
5. If range is set to 1 event, first and last measured interval will coincide.
FIGURE 1. WAVEFORMS FOR TIME INTERVAL MEASUREMENT (OTHERS ARE SIMILAR, BUT WITHOUT PRIMING PHASE)
Typical Performance Curves
30
20
4.5  VDD  6V
fA (MAX) FREQUENCY UNIT COUNTER,
FREQUENCY RATIO MODES
-20oC
25oC
ISEG (mA)
FREQUENCY (MHz)
15
10
fA (MAX) fB (MAX) PERIOD,
TIME INTERVAL MODES
20
85oC
10
5
TA = 25oC
0
3
0
4
5
6
VDD-VSS (V)
FIGURE 2. fA(MAX), fB(MAX) AS A FUNCTION OF SUPPLY
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
0
1
2
VDD-VOUT (V)
FIGURE 3. TYPICAL ISEG vs VDD-VOUT
Page 6 of 18
3
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
200
200
TA = 25oC
-20oC
VDD = 5V
VDD = 5.5V
25oC
50
IDIGIT (mA)
IDIGIT (mA)
150
85oC
100
VDD = 4.5V
100
50
50
0
VDD = 5V
0
0
1
2
3
0
1
VOUT (V)
FIGURE 4. TYPICAL IDIGIT vs VOUT
Description
2
3
VOUT (V)
FIGURE 5. TYPICAL IDIGIT vs VOUT
.
TABLE 1. MULTIPLEXED INPUT FUNCTIONS
INPUTS A and B
FUNCTION
INPUTS A and B are digital inputs with a typical switching
threshold of 2V at VDD = 5V. For optimum performance the
peak-to-peak input signal should be at least 50% of the supply
voltage and centered about the switching voltage. When these
inputs are being driven from TTL logic, it is desirable to use a
pullup resistor. The circuit counts high to low transitions at both
inputs. (INPUT B is available only on lCM7216B).
FUNCTION INPUT
(Pin 3, lCM7216B Only)
Note that the amplitude of the input should not exceed the
device supply (above the VDD and below the VSS) by more
than 0.3V, otherwise the device may be damaged.
RANGE INPUT, Pin 14
Frequency
D1
Period
D8
Frequency Ratio
D2
Time Interval
D5
Unit Counter
D4
Oscillator Frequency
D3
0.01s/1 Cycle
D1
0.1s/10 Cycles
D2
1s/100 Cycles
D3
10s/1K Cycles
Multiplexed Inputs
The FUNCTION, RANGE, CONTROL and EXTERNAL
DECIMAL POINT inputs are time multiplexed to select the
function desired. This is achieved by connecting the
appropriate Digit driver output to the inputs. The function,
range and control inputs must be stable during the last half of
each digit output, (typically 125s). The multiplexed inputs are
active low for the common cathode lCM7216B and lCM7216D.
CONTROL INPUT, Pin 1
Noise on the multiplex inputs can cause improper operation.
This is particularly true when the unit counter mode of
operation is selected, since changes in voltage on the digit
drivers can be capacitively coupled through the LED diodes to
the multiplex inputs. For maximum noise immunity, a 10k
resistor should be placed in series with the multiplexed inputs
as shown in the application circuits.
External DP INPUT
(Pin 13, ICM7216D Only)
DIGIT
D4
Display Off
D4 and
Hold
Display Test
D8
1MHz Select
D2
External Oscillator Enable
D1
External Decimal Point
Enable
D3
Decimal point is output for same digit
that is connected to this input.
Table 1 shows the functions selected by each digit for these
inputs.
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 7 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
COUNTED
TRANSITIONS
50ns MIN
INPUT A
4.5V
0.5V
tr = tf = 10ns
50ns MIN
FIGURE 6. WAVEFORM FOR GUARANTEED MINIMUM
fA(MAX) FUNCTION = FREQUENCY,
FREQUENCY RATIO, UNIT COUNTER
9.
MEASURED
INTERVAL
250ns
MIN
INPUT A OR 4.5V
INPUT B 0.5V
250ns
MIN
tr = tf = 10s
FIGURE 7. WAVEFORM FOR GUARANTEED MINIMUM
fB(MAX) AND fA(MAX) FOR FUNCTION = PERIOD
AND TIME INTERVAL
Function Input
The six functions that can be selected are: Frequency, Period,
Time Interval, Unit Counter, Frequency Ratio and
Oscillator Frequency. This input is available on the
lCM7216B only.
The implementation of different functions is done by routing the
different signals to two counters, called “Main Counter” and
“Reference Counter”. A simplified block diagram of the device
for functions realization is shown in Figure 8. Table 2 shows
which signals will be routed to each counter in different cases.
The output of the Main Counter is the information which goes
to the display. The Reference Counter divides its input by 1,
10, 100 and 1000. One of these outputs will be selected
through the range selector and drive the enable input of the
Main Counter. This means that the Reference Counter, along
with its associated blocks, directs the Main Counter to begin
counting and determines the length of the counting period.
Note that Figure 8 does not show the complete functional
diagram (See the Functional Block Diagram). After the end of
each counting period, the output of the Main Counter will be
latched and displayed, then the counter will be reset and a new
measurement cycle will begin. Any change in the FUNCTION
INPUT will stop the present measurement without updating the
display and then initiate a new measurement. This prevents an
erroneous first reading after the FUNCTION INPUT is
changed. In all cases, the 1-0 transitions are counted or timed.
INTERNAL CONTROL
INTERNAL CONTROL
100Hz
INPUT
SELECTOR
INPUT A
CLOCK
INPUT B
REFERENCE COUNTER
1
INTERNAL CONTROL
INTERNAL OR
EXTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
INTERNAL CONTROL
100 1000
RANGE SELECTOR
ENABLE
INPUT
SELECTOR
INPUT A
10
CLOCK
MAIN COUNTER
FIGURE 8. SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FUNCTIONS IMPLEMENTATION
TABLE 2. 7216B INPUT ROUTING
FUNCTION
MAIN
COUNTER
REFERENCE COUNTER
TABLE 2. 7216B INPUT ROUTING (Continued)
FUNCTION
MAIN
COUNTER
REFERENCE COUNTER
Frequency (fA)
Input A
100Hz (Oscillator 105 or
104)
Unit Counter
(Count A)
Input A
Not Applicable
Period (tA)
Oscillator
Input A
Oscillator
100Hz (Oscillator 105 or
104)
Ratio (fA /fB)
Input A
Input B
Osc. Freq.
(fOSC)
Time Interval
(AB)
Oscillator
Input A
Input B
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 8 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Frequency - In this mode input A is counted by the Main
Counter for a precise period of time. This time is determined by
the time base oscillator and the selected range. For the 10MHz
(or 1MHz) time base, the resolutions are 100Hz, 10Hz, 1Hz
and 0.1Hz. The decimal point on the display is set for kHz
reading.
Period - In this mode, the timebase oscillator is counted by the
Main Counter for the duration of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 (range
selected) periods of the signal at input A. A 10MHz timebase
gives resolutions of 0.1s to 0.0001s for 1000 periods
averaging. Note that the maximum input frequency for period
measurement is 2.5MHz.
Frequency Ratio - In this mode, the input A is counted by the
Main Counter for the duration of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 (range
selected) periods of the signal at input B. The frequency at
input A should be higher than input B for meaningful result.
The result in this case is unitless and its resolution can go up to
three digits after decimal point.
Time Interval - In this mode, the timebase oscillator is counted
by the Main Counter for the duration of a 1-0 transition of input A
until a 1-0 transition of input B. This means input A starts the
counting and input B stops it. If other ranges, except 0.01s/1
cycle are selected the sequence of input A and B transitions
must happen 10, 100 or 1000 times until the display becomes
updated; note this when measuring long time intervals to give
enough time for measurement completion. The resolution in this
mode is the same as for period measurement. See the Time
Interval Measurement section also.
Unit Counter - In this mode, the Main Counter is always
enabled. The input A is counted by the Main Counter and
displayed continuously.
Oscillator Frequency - In this mode, the device makes a
frequency measurement on its timebase. This is a self test
mode for device functionality check. For 10MHz timebase the
display will show 10000.0, 10000.00, 10000.000 and Overflow
in different ranges.
Range Input
The RANGE INPUT selects whether the measurement period
is made for 1, 10, 100 or 1000 counts of the Reference
Counter. As it is shown in Table 1, this gives different counting
windows for frequency measurement and various cycles for
other modes of measurement.
In all functional modes except Unit Counter, any change in the
RANGE INPUT will stop the present measurement without
updating the display and then initiate a new measurement.
This prevents an erroneous first reading after the RANGE
INPUT is changed.
Control Input
Unlike the other multiplexed inputs, to which only one of the
digit outputs can be connected at a time, this input can be tied
to different digit lines to select combination of controls. In this
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
case, isolation diodes must be used in digit lines to avoid
crosstalk between them (see Figure 14). The direction of
diodes depends on the device version, common anode or
common cathode. For maximum noise immunity at this input,
in addition to the 10K resistor which was mentioned before, a
39pF to 100pF capacitor should also be placed between this
input and the VDD or VSS (See Figure 14).
Display Off - To disable the display drivers, it is necessary to tie
the D4 line to the CONTROL INPUT and have the HOLD input
at VDD . While in Display Off mode, the segments and digit
drivers are all off, leaving the display lines floating, so the display
can be shared with other devices. In this mode, the oscillator
continues to run with a typical supply current of 1.5mA with a
10MHz crystal, but no measurements are made and multiplexed
inputs are inactive. A new measurement cycle will be initiated
when the HOLD input is switched to VSS .
Display Test - Display will turn on with all the digits showing 8s
and all decimal points on. The display will be blanked if Display
Off is selected at the same time.
1MHz Select - The 1MHz select mode allows use of a 1MHz
crystal with the same digit multiplex rate and time between
measurement as with a 10MHz crystal. This is done by dividing
the oscillator frequency by 104 rather than 105. The decimal
point is also shifted one digit to the right in period and time
interval, since the least significant digit will be in s increment
rather than 0.1s increment.
External Oscillator Enable - In this mode, the signal at EXT
OSC INPUT is used as a timebase instead of the on-board
crystal oscillator (built around the OSC INPUT, OSC OUTPUT
inputs). This input can be used for an external stable
temperature compensated crystal oscillator or for special
measurements with any external source. The on-board crystal
oscillator continues to work when the external oscillator is
selected. This is necessary to avoid hang-up problems, and
has no effect on the chip's functional operation. If the on-board
oscillator frequency is less than 1MHz or only the external
oscillator is used, the OSC INPUT must be connected to the
EXT OSC INPUT providing the timebase has enough voltage
swing for OSC INPUT (See Electrical Specifications). If the
external timebase is TTL level a pullup resistor must be used
for OSC INPUT. The other way is to put a 22M resistor
between OSC INPUT and OSC OUTPUT and capacitively
couple the EXT OSC INPUT to OSC INPUT. This will bias the
OSC INPUT at its threshold and the drive voltage will need to
be only 2VP-P . The external timebase frequency must be
greater than 100kHz or the chip will reset itself to enable the
on-board oscillator.
External Decimal Point Enable - In this mode, the EX DP
INPUT is enabled (lCM7216D only). A decimal point will be
displayed for the digit that its output line is connected to this
input (EX DP INPUT). Digit 8 should not be used since it will
override the overflow output. Leading zero blanking is effective
for the digits to the left of selected decimal point.
Page 9 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Hold Input
Except in the unit counter mode, when the HOLD input is at
VDD , any measurement in progress (before STORE goes low)
is stopped, the main counter is reset and the chip is held ready
to initiate a new measurement as soon as HOLD goes low.
The latches which hold the main counter data are not updated,
so the last complete measurement is displayed. In unit
counter mode when HOLD input is at VDD , the counter is not
stopped or reset, but the display is frozen at that instantaneous
value. When HOLD goes low the count continues from the new
value in the new counter.
Table 3 shows the decimal point position for different modes of
lCM7216 operation. Note that the digit 1 is the least significant
digit. Table 3 is for 10MHz timebase frequency.
Overflow Indication
When overflow happens in any measurement it will be indicated
on the decimal point of the digit 8. A separate LED indicator can
be used. Figure 9 shows how to connect this indicator.
RESET Input
a
f
The RESET input resets the main counter, stops any
measurement in progress, and enables the main counter
latches, resulting in an all zero output. A capacitor to ground
will prevent any hang-ups on power-up.
b
g
e
c
DP
d
FIGURE 9. SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION AND DISPLAY FONT
MEASUREMENT IN PROGRESS
This output is provided in lCM7216D. It stays low during
measurements and goes high for intervals between
measurements. It is provided for system interfacing and can
drive a low power Schottky TTL or one ECL load if the ECL
device is powered from the same supply as lCM7216D.
Overflow will be indicated on the decimal point output of digit 8.
A separate LED overflow indicator can be connected as
follows:
DEVICE
ICM7216B/D
CATHODE
ANODE
D8
Decimal Point
Decimal Point Position
TABLE 3. DECIMAL POINT POSITIONS
RANGE
FREQUENCY
PERIOD
FREQUENCY
RATIO
TIME
INTERVAL
UNIT
COUNTER
OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY
D2
D2
D1
D2
D1
D2
0.01s/1 Cycle
0.1s/10 Cycle
D3
D3
D2
D3
D1
D3
1s/100 Cycle
D4
D4
D3
D4
D1
D4
10s/1K Cycle
D5
D5
D4
D5
D1
D5
Time Interval Measurement
When in the time interval mode and measuring a single event,
the lCM7216B must first be “primed” prior to measuring the
event of interest. This is done by first generating a negative
going edge on Channel A followed by a negative going edge on
Channel B to start the “measurement interval”. The inputs are
then primed ready for the measurement. Positive going edges
on A and B, before or after the priming, will be needed to restore
the original condition.
Priming can be easily accomplished using the circuit in Figure
10 (next page).
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 10 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
SIGNAL A
2
INPUT A
2
INPUT B
SIGNAL B
VDD
VDD
PRIME
N.O.
150K
1
1
1
1
10K
1N914
100K
0.1F
VSS
10nF
VSS
DEVICE
VSS
TYPE
1
CD4049B Inverting Buffer
2
CD4070B Exclusive - OR
FIGURE 10. PRIMING CIRCUIT, SIGNALS A AND B BOTH
HIGH OR LOW
Following the priming procedure (when in single event or 1
cycle range) the device is ready to measure one (only) event.
When timing repetitive signals, it is not necessary to “prime”
the lCM7216B as the first alternating signal states
automatically prime the device. See Figure 1.
During any time interval measurement cycle, the lCM7216B
require 200ms following B going low to update all internal logic.
A new measurement cycle will not take place until completion
of this internal update time.
Oscillator Considerations
The oscillator is a high gain CMOS inverter. An external
resistor of 10M to 22M should be connected between the
OSCillator INPUT and OUTPUT to provide biasing. The
oscillator is designed to work with a parallel resonant 10MHz
quartz crystal with a static capacitance of 22pF and a series
resistance of less than 35.
For a specific crystal and load capacitance, the required gM
can be calculated as follows:
C O 2

2
g M =  C IN C OUT R S  1 + --------
CL 

 C IN C OUT 
where C L =  ---------------------------------
 C IN + C OUT
CO = Crystal Static Capacitance
RS = Crystal Series Resistance
CIN = Input Capacitance
COUT = Output Capacitance
 = 2f
The required gM should not exceed 50% of the gM specified
for the lCM7216 to insure reliable startup. The OSCillator
INPUT and OUTPUT pins each contribute about 5pF to CIN
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
and COUT . For maximum stability of frequency, CIN and
COUT should be approximately twice the specified crystal
static capacitance.
In cases where non decade prescalers are used it may be
desirable to use a crystal which is neither 10MHz or 1MHz. In
that case both the multiplex rate and time between
measurements will be different. The multiplex rate is
f OSC
f OSC
f MUX = ------------------- for 10MHz mode and f MUX = ------------------- for the
4
3
2  10
2  10
6
2  10
1MHz mode. The time between measurements is ------------------- in
f OSC
5
2  10
the 10MHz mode and ------------------- in the 1MHz mode.
f OSC
The crystal and oscillator components should be located as
close to the chip as practical to minimize pickup from other
signals. Coupling from the EXTERNAL OSClLLATOR INPUT
to the OSClLLATOR OUTPUT or INPUT can cause
undesirable shifts in oscillator frequency.
Display Considerations
The display is multiplexed at a 500Hz rate with a digit time of
244s. An interdigit blanking time of 6s is used to prevent
display ghosting (faint display of data from previous digit
superimposed on the next digit). Leading zero blanking is
provided, which blanks the left hand zeroes after decimal point
or any non zero digits. Digits to the right of the decimal point
are always displayed. The leading zero blanking will be
disabled when the Main Counter overflows.
The lCM7216B and lCM7216D are designed to drive common
cathode displays at peak current of 15mA/segment using
displays with VF = 1.8V at 15mA. Resistors can be added in
series with the segment drivers to limit the display current in
very efficient displays, if required. The Typical Performance
Curves show the digit and segment currents as a function of
output voltage.
To get additional brightness out of the displays, VDD may be
increased up to 6.0V. However, care should be taken to see
that maximum power and current ratings are not exceeded.
The segment and digit outputs in lCM7216s are not directly
compatible with either TTL or CMOS logic when driving LEDs.
Therefore, level shifting with discrete transistors may be
required to use these outputs as logic signals.
Accuracy
In a Universal Counter crystal drift and quantization effects
cause errors. In frequency, period and time interval modes,
a signal derived from the oscillator is used in either the
Reference Counter or Main Counter. Therefore, in these
modes an error in the oscillator frequency will cause an
identical error in the measurement. For instance, an oscillator
temperature coefficient of 20 PPM will cause a measurement
------------------o
error of 20 PPM
C
------------------o
C
Page 11 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
In addition, there is a quantization error inherent in any digital
measurement of 1 count. Clearly this error is reduced by
displaying more digits. In the frequency mode the maximum
accuracy is obtained with high frequency inputs and in period
mode maximum accuracy is obtained with low frequency inputs
(as can be seen in Figure 11). In time interval measurements
there can be an error of 1 count per interval. As a result there is
the same inherent accuracy in all ranges as shown in Figure 12.
In frequency ratio measurement can be more accurately
obtained by averaging over more cycles of INPUT B as shown in
Figure 13.
0
0
FREQUENCY MEASURE
2
4
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
1
0.01s
0.1s
1s
10s
1 CYCLE
10 CYCLES
102 CYCLES
103 CYCLES
6
1
10
103
FREQUENCY (Hz)
MAXIMUM TIME INTERVAL
FOR 103 INTERVALS
3
4
MAXIMUM TIME
INTERVAL FOR
102 INTERVALS
5
6
MAXIMUM TIME INTERVAL
FOR 10 INTERVALS
7
PERIOD MEASURE
fOSC = 10MHz
8
2
8
105
1
107
102
10
103
104
105
106
107
108
TIME INTERVAL (s)
FIGURE 11. MAXIMUM ACCURACY OF FREQUENCY AND
PERIOD MEASUREMENTS DUE TO LIMITATIONS
OF QUANTIZATION ERRORS
FIGURE 12. MAXIMUM ACCURACY OF TIME INTERVAL
MEASUREMENT DUE TO LIMITATIONS OF
QUANTIZATION ERRORS
0
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
1
RANGE
2
3
1 CYCLE
10 CYCLES
102 CYCLES
103 CYCLES
4
5
6
7
8
1
10
102
103
104
fA /fB
105
106
107
108
FIGURE 13. MAXIMUM ACCURACY FOR FREQUENCY RATIO MEASUREMENT DUE TO LIMITATION OF QUANTIZATION ERRORS
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 12 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Test Circuit
VDD
VDD
INPUT A
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
VDD
DISPLAY DISPLAY
BLANK
TEST 1MHz
F
P
D8
FR
D2
TI.
D5
U.C.
O.F.
10K
D1
2
27
3
26
DP
4
25
e
g
5
24
6
23
a
7
8
D4
D3
D4
28
1
INPUT B
ICM7216A
22M
D2
21
D3
d
9
20
D4
b
10
19
D5
c
11
18
f
12
17
D6
13
16
D7
14
15
D8
RESET
D1
D5
EXT
OSC
INPUT
TYPICAL CRYSTAL SPECS:
F = 10MHz PARALLEL RESONANCE
CL = 22pF
RS = <35
VDD
RANGE
D1
8
LED
OVERFLOW
INDICATOR
D2
1N914s
8
10k
6
D8
10MHz
CRYSTAL
D1
22
TEST
39pF
TYP
39pF
10k
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
FUNCTION
10k
HOLD
100pF
EXT
OSC
D2
D3
D4
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
.01/1
4
.1/10
1/100
10/1K
8
DP
D8
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
FIGURE 14. TEST CIRCUIT (ICM7216A SHOWN, OTHERS SIMILAR)
Typical Applications
The lCM7216 has been designed for use in a wide range of
Universal and Frequency counters. In many cases, prescalers will
be required to reduce the input frequencies to under 10MHz.
Because INPUT A and INPUT B are digital inputs, additional
circuitry is often required for input buffering, amplification,
hysteresis, and level shifting to obtain a good digital signal.
The lCM7216B can be used as a minimum component
complete Universal Counter as shown in Figure 15. This circuit
can use input frequencies up to 10MHz at INPUT A and 2MHz
at INPUT B. If the signal at INPUT A has a very low duty cycle
it may be necessary to use a 74LS121 monostable
multivibrator or similar circuit to stretch the input pulse width to
be able to guarantee that it is at least 50ns in duration.
To measure frequencies up to 40MHz the circuit of Figure 16
can be used. To obtain the correct measured value, it is
necessary to divide the oscillator frequency by four as well as
the input frequency. In doing this the time between
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
measurements is also lengthened to 800ms and the display
multiplex rate is decreased to 125Hz.
If the input frequency is prescaled by ten, then the oscillator
can remain at 10MHz or 1MHz, but the decimal point must be
moved one digit to the right. Figure 17 shows a frequency
counter with a 10 prescaler and an lCM7216A. Since there is
no external decimal point control with the lCM7216B, the
decimal point may be controlled externally with additional
drivers as shown in Figure 17. Alternatively, if separate anodes
are available for the decimal points, they can be wired up to the
adjacent digit anodes. Note that there can be one zero to the
left of the decimal point since the internal leading zero blanking
cannot be changed. In Figure 18 additional logic has been
added to count the input directly in period mode for maximum
accuracy. In Figures 17 and 18, INPUT A comes from QC of
the prescaler rather than QD to obtain an input duty cycle of
40%.
Page 13 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
VDD
EXT
DISPLAY DISPLAY
OSC
BLANK
TEST ENABLE
VDD
INPUT A
10k
39pF
TYP
100pF
HOLD
CONTROL
SWITCHES
22M
1
28
2
27
3
26
D1
4
25
D3
5
24
D2
6
23
DP
D4
7
22
g
INPUT B
10k
D1
F
P
D8
D2
F.R.
T.I.
D5
U.C.
8
D4
O.F.
D3
FUNCTION
6
0.1F
ICM7216B
100k
21
e
9
20
a
10
19
d
D7
11
18
D8
12
17
b
13
16
c
14
15
RANGE
D1
D2
10k
D3
D6
D5
EXT
OSC
INPUT
D4
SEC
CYCLES
D1
0.01
1.0
D2
0.1
10.0
D3
1.0
100.0
D4
10.0
1K
VDD
8
SEGMENT DRIVERS
f
8
D4
D3
8
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
DP
DIGIT
DRIVERS
D7
3
4
COMMON CATHODE LED DISPLAY
D8
D1
1N914s
VDD
D6
8
D8
39pF
D5
RESET
D4
10MHz
CRYSTAL
D2
D1
D8
LED
OVERFLOW
INDICATOR
FIGURE 15. 10MHz UNIVERSAL COUNTER
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 14 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
INPUT A
J 3
P
1
CL
K 2
C
1/ 74LS112
2
4
Q 6
Q 5
K 12
10
13 CL
J 11
14
3k
Q 9
Q 7
EXT
OSC DISPLAY DISPLAY
ENABLE
OFF
TEST
VDD
10k
100pF
39pF
39pF
HOLD
100k
D1
28
1
2
27
D1
3
26
D3
4
25
D2
5
24
D4
6
23
22M
DP
g
e
9
20
a
D7
10
19
d
D8
11
18
12
17
b
13
16
c
14
15
f
D5
8
D6
RESET
8
ICM7216D
LED
OVERFLOW
INDICATOR
22
8
VDD
RANGE
D1
D2
4
D3
COMMON CATHODE LED DISPLAY
D4
D6
D2
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
DP
DP
D8
D8
D7
D8
3
EXT
OSC
INPUT
10k
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
D4
1N914s
2.5MHz
CRYSTAL
21
7
0.1F
VDD
VDD
C
1/ 74LS112
2
P
V+
15
D5
D4
D3
D1
8
OVERFLOW
INDICATOR
FIGURE 16. 40MHz FREQUENCY COUNTER
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 15 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
VDD
VDD
INPUT B
INPUT A
CK1 CK2
QA
QA
QC
VDD
3k
10k
QC
30pF
TYP
39pF
HOLD
11C90
DP
1
28
2
27
3
26
4
25
e
g
5
24
6
23
a
7
8
0.1F
D8
F.R.
D2
22M
22
D2
21
D3
9
20
D4
10
19
D5
c
11
18
f
12
17
D6
13
16
D7
14
15
D8
8
8
4
VSS
4
VDD
10k
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
10MHz
CRYSTAL
D1
b
10k
D1
ICM7216A
1N914 D7
d
RESET
P
10k
100pF
3k
F
DISPLAY
TEST
VDD
CK1 CK2
74LS90 OR
11C90
VDD
COMMON ANODE LED DISPLAY
1k
DP
RANGE
D1
D2
D2
D3
D3
D4
D1
1k
2N2222
D4
40
DP
D8
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
8
LED
OVERFLOW
INDICATOR
FIGURE 17. 100MHz MULTIFUNCTION COUNTER
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 16 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
INPUT A
11C90
CK1
CK2 QA OC
3k
74LS00
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
3k
VDD
10k
10k
100pF
100k
10k
VDD
1
28
2
27
3
26
4
25
e
5
24
g
6
23
a
7
V+
DP
8
0.1F
10k
D1
13
CD4016
4
CONT
22
D2
21
D3
9
20
D4
b
10
19
D5
c
11
18
f
12
17
D6
13
16
D7
14
15
D8
8
1
CONT
ICM7216A
D8
5
D1
D3
10MHz
CRYSTAL
8
4
1k
4
2N2222
VDD
10k
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
10k
2N2222
22M
d
RESET
3
39pF
HOLD
FUNCTION SWITCH
OPEN: FREQ.
CLOSED: PERIOD
2
39pF
TYP
COMMON ANODE LED DISPLAY
VSS
RANGE
D1
DP
D2
D2
D3
D3
D4
D1
VSS
1k
1k
2N2222
D4
40
LED
OVERFLOW
D8 INDICATOR
DP
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
8
FIGURE 18. 100MHz FREQUENCY, 2MHz PERIOD COUNTER
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 17 of 18
ICM7216B, ICM7216D
Dual-In-Line Plastic Packages (PDIP)
E28.6 (JEDEC MS-011-AB ISSUE B)
N
28 LEAD DUAL-IN-LINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
E1
INDEX
AREA
1 2 3
INCHES
N/2
SYMBOL
-B-
-C-
SEATING
PLANE
A2
e
B1
D1
A1
eC
B
0.010 (0.25) M
C A B S
MAX
NOTES
-
0.250
-
6.35
4
0.015
-
0.39
-
4
A2
0.125
0.195
3.18
4.95
-
B
0.014
0.022
0.356
0.558
-
C
L
B1
0.030
0.070
0.77
1.77
8
eA
C
0.008
0.015
0.204
0.381
-
D
1.380
1.565
D1
0.005
-
A
L
D1
MIN
A
E
BASE
PLANE
MAX
A1
-AD
MILLIMETERS
MIN
C
eB
NOTES:
1. Controlling Dimensions: INCH. In case of conflict between English and
Metric dimensions, the inch dimensions control.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
35.1
39.7
5
-
5
0.13
E
0.600
0.625
15.24
15.87
6
E1
0.485
0.580
12.32
14.73
5
e
0.100 BSC
2.54 BSC
-
eA
0.600 BSC
15.24 BSC
6
3. Symbols are defined in the “MO Series Symbol List” in Section 2.2 of
Publication No. 95.
eB
-
0.700
-
17.78
7
L
0.115
0.200
2.93
5.08
4
4. Dimensions A, A1 and L are measured with the package seated in
JEDEC seating plane gauge GS-3.
N
28
5. D, D1, and E1 dimensions do not include mold flash or protrusions.
Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
6. E and eA are measured with the leads constrained to be perpendicular to datum -C- .
28
9
Rev. 1 12/00
7. eB and eC are measured at the lead tips with the leads unconstrained.
eC must be zero or greater.
8. B1 maximum dimensions do not include dambar protrusions. Dambar
protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch (0.25mm).
9. N is the maximum number of terminal positions.
10. Corner leads (1, N, N/2 and N/2 + 1) for E8.3, E16.3, E18.3, E28.3,
E42.6 will have a B1 dimension of 0.030 - 0.045 inch (0.76 - 1.14mm).
© Copyright Intersil Americas LLC 2001-2004. All Rights Reserved.
All trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
For additional products, see www.intersil.com/en/products.html
Intersil products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9001 quality systems as noted
in the quality certifications found at www.intersil.com/en/support/qualandreliability.html
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil may modify the circuit design and/or specifications of products at any time without notice, provided that such
modification does not, in Intersil's sole judgment, affect the form, fit or function of the product. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that datasheets are
current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its
subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or
otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
FN3166 Rev.4.00
Jan 7, 2004
Page 18 of 18
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