The Registered Master Joiners` Health and Safety Guide

The Registered Master Joiners` Health and Safety Guide
in
The Registered Master Joiners’
Health and Safety Guide
The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Contents
Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................3
Preface, Scope and Guide Overview ..............................................................................................4
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................5
A Typical Safety System..................................................................................................................6
Part One - The Registered Master Joiners Health and Safety System ........ 8
Contents ...........................................................................................................................................8
SECTION 1 - POLICY and PLANNING ..........................................................................................9
SECTION 2 - TRAINING and SUPERVISION ..............................................................................10
SECTION 3 - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION and RISK MANAGEMENT .......................................11
SECTION 4 - INCIDENT RECORDING, REPORTING and INVESTIGATION............................24
SECTION 5 - PURCHASING, PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CONTRACTOR
CONTROL ............................................................................................................................25
SECTION 6 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ....................................................................................26
SECTION 7 - EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS ..........................................................................27
SECTION 8 - COMMUNICATION .................................................................................................28
Part Two - Machine and Hand Tool Safety................................................. 30
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................30
Contents .........................................................................................................................................30
SECTION 1 - WOODWORKING MACHINERY – GENERAL INTRODUCTION .........................31
SECTION 2 - CABINET MAKING .................................................................................................33
SECTION 3 - BAND SAWS...........................................................................................................39
SECTION 4 - JOINTERS, STET AND PLANERS ........................................................................41
SECTION 5 - MITRE SAWS .........................................................................................................43
SECTION 6 - PUSH STICKS ........................................................................................................45
SECTION 7 - RADIAL ARM SAWS ..............................................................................................46
SECTION 8 - SANDERS ...............................................................................................................48
SECTION 9 - SHAPERS/ SPINDLE MOULDER ..........................................................................50
SECTION 10 - TABLE SAWS .......................................................................................................52
SECTION 11 - WOOD TURNING LATHES ..................................................................................54
SECTION 12 - THICKNESSERS ..................................................................................................56
SECTION 13 - POWERED HAND TOOLS – GENERAL INTRODUCTION ................................57
SECTION 14 - ERGONOMIC HAZARDS OF POWERED HAND TOOLS ..................................60
SECTION 15 - PORTABLE CIRCULAR SAWS............................................................................62
SECTION 16 - BELT SANDERS ...................................................................................................64
SECTION 17 - PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILLS ..........................................................................65
SECTION 18 - POWERED HAND SAWS, SABRE AND JIG SAWS...........................................66
SECTION 19 - PLANERS..............................................................................................................68
SECTION 20 - ROUTERS .............................................................................................................69
SECTION 21 - PNEUMATIC TOOLS............................................................................................71
APPENDIX 1 - MACHINERY GUARDING PRINCIPLES .............................................................74
APPENDIX 2 - PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ...........................................................77
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Foreword
As President of Registered Master Joiners Association, I am delighted to provide the Foreword for
this Guide and to have the opportunity to publicly congratulate Securo Ltd, who in conjunction with
and on behalf of the Master Joiners, has developed this Health and Safety guide.
The Registered Master Joiners have shown foresight and initiative in taking ownership for the
preparation of this publication. Considerable effort has gone into the development and
consultation process, which is now presented as a ‘best practice’ document.
By using the information contained in this Guide, Industry members can be confident that they are
taking all practicable steps to manage health and safety.
The Guide will make an important contribution to our commitment to reduce workplace injuries.
This publication is a significant step forward because it represents consensus by the Registered
Master Joiners on practical ways to reduce injuries and illness for our industry. It sets out the
minimum acceptable agreed standard for all parties.
The collaborative approach taken to develop the Guide is also consistent with the government's
health and safety legislation and framework that enables everyone to work together to reduce the
economic and social costs of workplace illness and injury.
There is no doubt hazard management is most effective when the issue is jointly owned and driven
by the people who know and understand the nature of the work and workplaces involved. The
Joinery trade has some significant hazards to deal with, such as:
• wood dust
• noise
• machine hazards
• manual handling
• occupational overuse syndrome
• spray painting
• slips trips and falls from dust covered floors
• glass handling
• stacking wood and materials.
Therefore, it is with great pleasure that I endorse this health and safety Guide on the management
of health and safety hazards in the Joinery Industry. I look forward to hearing about the influence
that it has on improving workplace health and safety.
Murray McIndoe
President
Registered Master Joiners Association
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Preface, Scope and Guide Overview
Preface
This Guide has been prepared by Securo Ltd in conjunction with the Registered Master Joiners
after consultation with other interested groups. The purpose of this Guide is to provide:
•
general information about the types of hazards found in the joinery industry
• suggestions
forHealth
managing
and controlling
those hazards
*Securo
Ltd. is a private
and Safety
Consultancy.
PO Box 6981 Wellesley St. Auckland
• a framework for each Registered Master Joiners member to implement a health and
Tel: 09 303 3477, Fax: 09 307 3360 Email [email protected]
safety system and more effectively manage their workplace hazards.
Scope
The Guide applies to all organisations involved in the joinery industry and similar operations. It
provides both general guidance and also solutions to managing specific hazards found in the
industry. The objective is to safeguard the health and safety of joinery industry employees, and
others who may be affected by their activities, from risks and hazards such as:
• Inhalation of wood dust and harmful vapours
• Slips, trips and falls from dust covered floors
• Wood dust explosion
• Collapse of stacked wood and materials
• Excessive noise
• Machine hazards
• Manual handling
• Exposure to chemicals
• Lacerations from Glass Handling
Guide Overview
This Guide is divided into two separate and distinct parts:
•
Part One - The Registered Master Joiners Health and Safety System
Part One describes the Registered Master Joiners Health and Safety System. It
addresses the concepts of safety management and key areas of health and safety that
need to be addressed to have a successful system that will protect employees and
others.
This part of the Guide contains both general and specific information regarding the
management of hazards and risk. For example, whilst Section 1 talks about the general
need for a Safety Policy and Planning, Section 3 deals with a number of specific joinery
workshop hazards such as wood dust and the safe stacking of materials.
• Part Two – Machine and hand tool safety
Part Two deals with the machinery and equipment utilised in the construction of Joinery
Industry items. It begins with a section on the general hazards associated with all items
of woodworking machinery and equipment. It should prove particularly useful for
inexperienced employees. It may also serve as a useful training aid.
This is followed by a general section on detailed section on the hazards encountered in
cabinet making and the necessary controls to reduce risk.
Finally, Part Two provides detailed instructions and guidance on the safe use of specific
types of powered hand tools such as belt sanders, circular saws, routers etc.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Introduction
All organisations are legally required to implement a documented health and safety System and
develop procedures to manage all significant hazards identified in the workplace. An effective
system will ensure compliance with the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992.
An integrated health and safety system requires a number of elements, with related procedures, to
succeed in achieving ‘Safe Systems of Work’. The elements of a Safety System interact and work
together, as illustrated in Figure 1 overleaf and the following pages.
A system only exists once all elements have been implemented. Once health and safety
procedures have been documented a system has to be implemented and maintained by attending
to issues such as regular training and workplace inspections. The system also needs to be
regularly monitored and reviewed to ensure that it is fully effective.
Implementing a health and safety System, as outlined in this Guide, will enable Registered Master
Joiners members to:
Implement and achieve:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A legally compliant health and safety system
An effective competency training program
Reduced risk from effective management of Hazards
Safer work practices for all tasks
An effective Emergency Response plan
Appropriate accident and investigation procedures
Better communication with employees, contractors and visitors
Control and minimise:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Non-compliance with health and safety legislation
Non-compliance with the Association’s own guideline procedures
Occupational injury and illness costs
ACC premiums and injury claims, rehabilitation and retraining costs
Property damage:
ο• Buildings
ο• Plant, machinery and equipment
ο• Vehicles and mobile plant
Fire and other Emergencies
Management System inadequacies.
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Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
A Typical Safety System
A Safety System typically consists of the elements listed under item numbers 1 to 8 below. The
way in which these different elements interact is illustrated in Figure 1. Each component is
explained more fully in the following pages. For a system to be fully effective, all elements must
be addressed. It is essential that such a system is regularly reviewed and monitored to ensure
that it is meeting its aims and objectives.
Once implemented, an effective Safety System will enable Registered Master Joiners members to
achieve legal compliance with health and safety legislation and should lead to ACC premium
discounts.
1. Policy and Planning
2. Training and Supervision
3. Hazard Identification and Risk Management
4. Accident Reporting and Investigation
5. Purchasing, Personal Protective Equipment, Contractor Control
6. Occupational Health
7. Emergency Preparedness
8. Communication
Figure 1.
2
Training &
Supervision
8
3
Hazard
Identification &
Risk Management
Communication
1
7
Policy & Planning
4
Emergency
preparedness
& Response
Management
Commitment
Accident
Reporting &
Analysis
6
Occupational
Health
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Purchasing &
Contractor
Control
6
The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Part One
The Registered Master Joiners’
Health and Safety System
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Part One - The Registered Master Joiners Health and Safety System
This part of the Guide describes the various system elements and procedures of the Registered
Master Joiners Safety System, as indicated below.
Contents
1
POLICY and PLANNING
2
TRAINING and SUPERVISION
3
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION and RISK MANAGEMENT
4
ACCIDENT REPORTING and INVESTIGATION
5
PURCHASING, PPE and CONTRACTOR CONTROL
6
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
7
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
8
COMMUNICATION
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 1 - POLICY and PLANNING
Introduction
Legislation requires employers to adopt a systematic approach to Health and Safety. To achieve
this, it is necessary to document the Health and Safety Policy of the organisation and describe the
actions and planning required for implementing and reviewing both the Policy and the company’s
Safety System.
Objectives:
1. To demonstrate an active commitment to consultation with employees on all matters of
health and safety management.
2. To demonstrate a systematic approach and a culture of continuous improvement by setting
and reviewing targets for all aspects of health and safety performance.
What should you do?
• Sign, issue and display the agreed health and safety Policy
•
Review Policy periodically and at least annually
•
Confirm appointment of a health and safety Coordinator with agreed responsibilities
•
Confirm health and safety Responsibilities and required competencies for all staff. Review
performance against responsibilities regularly
•
Establish a health and safety Committee and involve employees in setting health and
safety standards and the internal auditing of Workplace Safety Management Practices
•
Establish a health and safety reference library
•
Promote health and safety activities by signage, memos, and posters etc.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 2 - TRAINING and SUPERVISION
Introduction
Training and supervision of employees are key areas to ensure health and safety in the workplace
and are specifically required under the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. Therefore,
there is a need to identify and implement all training needs for workplace activities and tasks.
Objectives:
1. To ensure that all employees are sufficiently trained and supervised to enable them to
avoid all hazards and conduct all their work activities and tasks safely, without causing
harm to themselves or others
2. To ensure that all employees are informed of both their own and the management's
responsibilities for Health and safety in the workplace.
What should you do?
•
Develop and implement a health and safety training Policy. Within the Policy, senior
management should commit to work only being carried out by appropriately trained
personnel
•
Develop and implement a Program and Plan to identify and address the health and safety
training needs of all employees
•
Do not allocate tasks to part-time and temporary employees, volunteers and work
experience students unless full and suitable training for the task has been provided to them
i.e. treat them in the same way as full-time employees
•
Implement a health and safety induction process incorporating general and specific work
risks as well as site-specific hazards. Training should be conducted prior to exposure to
risk or commencement of any work activities and include regular contractors and
volunteers, utilising a checklist and health and safety induction handbook
•
Train all employees in the avoidance of hazards to which they are exposed through
workplace procedures, environment, plant, machinery, equipment, vehicles, materials and
substances
•
Ensure training procedures take into account differing levels of responsibility, individual
ability and competence, age and maturity, experience, and operational risk
•
Where it is needed, train all employees in the use of personal protective equipment
•
Ensure that training addresses both general risks and those specific to the individual
•
Appoint competent and experienced trainers to deliver the training and retain a list of
approved trainers. If internal trainers are used, they should have not only the technical
skills, but the ability to train others in a structured and appropriate way
•
Following training, trainees should be assessed to ensure that the training received was
both appropriate and understood and that they have gained the requisite knowledge, skill,
and understanding. Assessment should include subsequent
on-the-job supervision and
observation
•
Ensure adequate supervision at all times, especially for recent trainees
•
Maintain a detailed and dated record, signed by the employee, of all training provided
•
Maintain detailed and dated Competency, Licence, and Training Records for each
employee where appropriate (or contractor/volunteer) including issue and renewal or
refresher dates. Ensure that all such records are signed by the employee, contractor or
volunteer
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 3 - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION and RISK MANAGEMENT
Introduction
Like training, Hazard Identification and Management are crucially important if safety in the
workplace is to be achieved. Employers are legally required to identify all hazards, assess risks,
and implement appropriate Hazard Control Plans to eliminate, isolate, or minimise risks to the
lowest level possible.
Objectives:
To ensure that there is an active method that systematically identifies, assesses, and manages
both the actual and potential hazards in the workplace.
What should you do?
• Identify all Significant Hazards relating to:
•
•
Specific work processes, tasks, vehicles, plant and equipment
•
Specific hazard categories e.g. electrical, chemical, mechanical etc.
•
New or modified equipment, processes or tasks
•
The general work environment
•
Site-specific risks e.g. overhead cables
•
Off-site external locations where work is carried out
Take all practicable steps to Eliminate, Isolate or Minimise Hazards. A hazard is
something with the potential to cause harm e.g. electricity, work at height, machinery etc.
Ways in which this can be best achieved are not always immediately apparent and
reducing the risk to its lowest level to protect employees and others, often needs careful
thought.
As an example, noisy environments are known to have an adverse effect not only on
hearing, but also on safety generally. Utilising this hierarchy of controls, the following
potential actions (which are by no means exhaustive) might be considered :
•
•
•
Eliminate: replace a noisy work process with a quiet one if possible
Isolate: enclose the process so that most employees are not affected
Minimise: after enclosing process, provide operatives with ear defenders
Additionally, hazards are not always as obvious as large items of equipment, untrained
employees or recognised hazardous tasks, but are often ‘hidden’ e.g.
•
Work Method – inherently unsafe methods of work are allowed
•
Work Organisation – repetitive actions, shift work, long hours
•
Workplace Culture – poor safety practices tolerated by management
•
Workplace Environment – hot, noisy, poor lighting, poor surfaces etc.
•
Enter all Significant Hazards on Hazard Control Plan and place in Register.
•
Regularly Review Hazard Control Plans (at least annually) and following any incident or
accident, whether minor or serious, to ascertain if improvements to the plans are
necessary.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Typical Joinery workplace hazards
In the following sections 3.2 to 3.11, some detailed information on typical hazards at Joinery
Workplaces is provided. This is a guide only and is not exhaustive. To fully address and control
identified hazards, it will frequently be necessary to supplement this information with more specific
and detailed guides from sources such as the Dept. of Labour and ACC.
Section
Page
3.2
Working Environment
13
3.3
Wood Working Machinery Safety
14
3.4
Wood Dust
15 - 16
3.5
Chemicals
17
3.6
Manual Handling
18
3.7
Safe Stacking
19
3.8
Noise
20 - 21
3.9
Hand-Arm Vibration
22
3.10
Glass Handling
23
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.2 WORKING ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
The working environment includes the atmosphere, temperature and comfort, lighting, air quality,
noise and the general surroundings.
It needs to be recognised that these are not simply issues of comfort or convenience that can be
lightly dismissed. When any one of these working conditions is sub-standard they can adversely
affect health and safety.
Below is a brief overview of the hazards relating to lighting, temperature, and comfort
Lighting
There must be levels of lighting sufficient for the work areas and tasks being performed.
Too much and too little light can lead to:
• Eye strain
• Headaches
• Blurred vision.
The principal Standard AS/NZS 1680.2 Interior Lighting Part 1: General Principles and
Recommendations, gives detailed aspects of good lighting and the level of illumination required for
different types of work. For example, lighting for routine office work does not need to be as high
as lighting for cabinet-making inspection.
Temperature and Comfort
Uncomfortably warm or cold work environments can affect the comfort, concentration, and safety
of employees. Productivity can also be adversely affected.
Temperature controls can range from fans and blowers to air conditioning and heating systems.
Optimal temperature is between 21 to 24 degrees Celsius. Environments that have extreme
temperatures can be detrimental to health and safety generally and should be assessed so that
adequate controls can be determined.
Factors which contribute to comfort and need to be considered include:
• Humidity (many parts of New Zealand suffer high humidity)
• Air movement
• Level of activity
• Clothing.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.3 WOODWORKING MACHINERY SAFETY
Introduction
Even where machine guarding is in place, the risk of injury in using woodworking machinery is not
eliminated. Guarding is very important, but there are many other aspects to machinery safety that
must be considered and some are highlighted below.
Common accidents include:
• Lacerations to hands while planing and moulding
•
Wood kicking back or flinging upwards, striking the machinist
•
Wood of a jig breaking and injuring the machinist
•
Injuries from clearing wood or sawdust while the machine is running.
Guarding
As a minimum, all machines should be guarded to the level specified in Schedule 1 of the Health
and Safety in Employment Regulations 1995, the Department of Labour ‘Guidelines for the Safe
Use of Woodworking Machinery’, and current Australia/New Zealand Standards for Woodworking
Machines.
General Safety Precautions
The risks associated with operating woodworking machines can be reduced by the following safe
work practices:
Machines
• Use mechanical feeding wherever possible
•
Maintain machines and guards on a regular basis, not just when there is a problem
•
Ensure adequate lighting
•
Ensure that emergency stop buttons are clearly identified and signed
•
Ensure that machines are switched off and isolated when not in use
•
Ensure that machines are switched off and isolated when being maintained or cleaned to
prevent accidental or deliberate operation of the machine by the operator or another person
•
Ensure that unauthorised persons cannot access machine areas.
Operators
• Only properly trained, authorised and competent staff may operate machinery
•
Wear clothing that will not become caught in machinery
•
Keep a list of Operator competency reviews for each machine. Review operators'
competency to operate the machine annually and record date of review
•
Ensure that eye protection is worn where necessary
•
Ensure operators' conduct daily pre-use Inspections of their machines checking critical
parts. For example, checking saw settings, condition of guards, blades, bolt heads, spindle
nuts correctly tightened
•
Practice good housekeeping
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.4 WOOD DUST
Introduction
Wood dust produced by machining or sanding may contain naturally occurring chemicals, irritating
to the eyes, respiratory system, and skin. It can cause sensitisation by inhalation and skin contact
in some people; for example, in the form of dermatitis and asthma.
Prolonged exposure to wood dust may cause nasal and nasal cavity cancer by inhalation.
Particular care should be taken when machining preservative-treated wood because of possible
health effects from the added chemicals.
In 1995 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is an agency of the World
Health Organisation, evaluated the cancer risks associated with workplace exposures in a variety
of wood industries. The IARC classified wood dust as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. This
classification is the result of a marked increase in the occurrence of cancer of the nasal cavities
and paranasal sinuses among workers exposed to many types of wood dust.
Extracting wood dust
Airborne wood dust is a significant hazard in joinery operations. In addition, the dust accumulates
in the workshop, making the work environment unpleasant and hazardous.
The best way to control dust inhalation is by the use of properly designed and maintained dust
extraction systems. In addition to dust extraction equipment, work areas should be well ventilated.
In the absence of effective dust extraction, an approved dust mask in conformance with the
requirements of Standards AS/NZS 1715 and AS/NZS 1716 should be used. At all times eye
protection meeting the requirements of AS/NZS Standard 1337 should be worn.
The wood dust produced when machining MDF and hardboard is finer and more readily dispersed
into the surrounding air than the dust from most solid wood, plywood, or particleboard. In this
respect, these dusts are similar to the wood dust produced when sanding finely textured
hardwoods, with both requiring a higher level of extraction efficiency.
For wood dust from pine timber particleboard, dust extraction systems require a minimum capture
velocity of 10 to 20m/sec, compared with 20 to 30 m/sec for wood dust from MDF, hardboard and
some hardwoods.
The higher capture velocity required for these finer wood dusts can often be met by simple
modifications to existing equipment. For example:
•
By reducing the size of the collector hood openings and placing them as close as
practicable to the point of dust collection will assist in raising capture velocities
•
By closing off ducts connected to machines which are not in use, subject to maintaining the
recommended minimum air velocity in the remaining ducting. For fine wood dusts, such as
that from MDF, the air velocity in the ducting needs to be 15 to 20 m/sec to prevent an
accumulation of dust (plugging), which could cause a fire risk.
High concentrations of wood dust, particularly from sanding, can form explosive mixtures with air.
It is recommended that ducting should be fitted with explosion vents, which should be located
externally wherever possible.
Do not use PVC piping (without bonding) for ducting as there can be a high static build-up and the
discharge may cause an explosion.
For large extraction systems, the fitting of spark detectors and automatic extinguishing equipment
is advisable. In addition, electric motors should be spark proof.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Wood dust which gathers on the floor, ledges, and in machinery pits, etc. should be removed by
suction devices or wet sweeping. Use of compressed air should be avoided in order to prevent
creating a potentially explosive atmosphere.
If it is used, the person using the compressed air should wear a suitable dust mask or respirator in
conformance with the requirements of Standards AS/NZS 1715 and AS/NZS 1716.
Protective clothing
In particular, long shirtsleeves and gloves, should be worn at all times to avoid skin contact.
Soiled clothing should be washed without shaking off the dust.
See Appendix 2 for more details on appropriate usage of Personal Protective Equipment.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.5 CHEMICALS
Introduction
Many of the finishes applied to wood and wood products, such as paints, lacquers and varnishes,
contain solvents, bacteriocides, and other chemicals, which potentially, may have adverse health
effects. These effects include irritation to the:
• Eyes
•
Nose
•
Mouth and throat
•
Nasal passages
•
Lungs
It is important that all such substances are assessed prior to use to ensure that the risks
associated with them are fully understood and safe usage procedures are implemented by:
• Firstly, obtaining a Material Safety Data Sheet from the supplier or manufacturer prior to
purchase
•
Secondly, reading the labels on the containers for information about possible health effects
and how to avoid them.
The above precautions apply not only to paints, lacquers, or varnishes, but equally to adhesives
and other chemicals used in the industrial environment. Documentation such as labels and
Material Safety Data Sheets are designed to ensure that any potential hazards associated with the
material are known and the handling procedures for safe use are detailed.
For additional information regarding control measures, storage, use and environmental monitoring
of hazardous substances, refer to www.hsno.govt.nz or HSNO Act 1996. The Act is administered
by ERMA. Also refer to DoL “A Guide to the Spray Coating Regulations 1962”.
Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde is a colourless liquid or gas with a pungent odour. It has now been declared to be a
proven human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. [IARC]
As an atmospheric contaminant it can be an irritant to eyes, nose, mouth and throat and may
cause burning to the nasal and/or bronchial passages at levels above the Workplace Exposure
Standard (WES) of 1 part per million [ppm]. Asthmatics are particularly vulnerable.
Wood panels such as particleboard, medium density fibreboard and plywood, laminated veneer
lumber and laminated beams, which utilise formaldehyde-based adhesives, may emit small
amounts of formaldehyde into the air. Research has indicated that, generally, the amounts of
formaldehyde emitted are well below the New Zealand Workplace Exposure Standard (WES) for
formaldehyde of 1 ppm or 1.2 mg/m/3 as a dust.
However, unacceptable exposure levels could occur when large quantities of product are stored in
a confined, poorly ventilated space or when plastic wrapping is removed from newly manufactured
material. The solution is to improve air circulation and ventilation to the affected area or wear a
respirator if levels of dust are high during peak workflows. Remove all dust from MDF cutting and
sawing operations as soon as possible.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.6 MANUAL HANDLING
Introduction
Manual Handling is not, as many people think, simply lifting an item but includes any activity that
involves the following when handling items or materials:
• Lifting
• Throwing
• Carrying
• Holding
• Supporting
• Pushing
• Pulling
What injuries can occur?
Strain injuries of the muscles and ligaments through overexertion or continuous overuse. Injuries
can be sudden or occur over a long period of time.
Why should you do something about it?
• Back, neck injuries and hernias are serious injuries. They are often debilitating and can
seriously affect an individual’s general lifestyle as well as their working life, leading to
permanent restricted movement and pain
•
These injuries often take a long time to heal and frequently require time off work
•
Unplanned time off work can cause disruption to your business' productivity
•
Accident compensation for these types of injuries is usually high.
What are your legal obligations?
Manual Handling activities should be treated like All other workplace hazards. The Dept. of
Labour Manual Handling Code of Practice provides practical guidance on the identification,
assessment, and control of risks arising from manual handling activities.
The prevention of manual handling injuries requires:
• The identification, assessment and control of all Manual Handling activities
•
Avoiding risks in the first place by eliminating the need to physically handle items e.g.
utilising mechanical lifting aids, delivery of regularly used materials in lighter, smaller boxes
or bags etc.
•
Providing general and job-specific manual Handling training for employees
What should you do?
• Obtain the Dept. of Labour Manual Handling Code of Practice and conduct detailed Manual
Handling Risk Assessments
•
Identify all jobs and tasks where significant manual handling activities are carried out
•
Identify all persons whose tasks include specific lifting activities and who are therefore at
greater risk
•
Identify any particularly vulnerable individuals e.g. pregnant women and people with
medical conditions and restrict their lifting activities accordingly
•
Provide training in conducting a Manual Handling Hazard Assessments
•
Train all employees in manual handling activities to the level their job requires.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.7 SAFE STACKING
Introduction
There have been numerous fatalities due to unsafe stacking practices, leading to stacks of timber
sheets falling and crushing the victims. This type of accident is easily preventable by good
management and the implementation of simple systems and procedures. In some cases there
may be a need to re-design work areas which are inherently unsuitable.
Prevention of stacking-related Injuries:
• All sheet timber products should be stored in a proper racking system
•
All other items should be stored where they can be easily and safely retrieved without the
risk of
o
manual handling injuries due to awkward manoeuvring or heavy items being stored
at inappropriate height
o
removal of items leading to the potential collapse of other materials
•
Train all employees on the hazards associated with stacked materials and safe procedures
for removal of items from stacks
•
Ensure that all stacking/storage areas are structurally sound.
•
Ensure that appropriate means of access to racking is provided and employees are
forbidden to climb upon racking/storage structures
•
Ensure that racking is never overloaded
•
Stack materials/equipment so that they cannot slip or fall, by interlocking or some other
safe recognised method.
•
Arrange stacks in clearly defined lines with working aisles/passages between them.
•
Restrict the height of stacks to ensure the material below can withstand the weight
•
Avoid stacking rounded objects such as drums and poles on their sides if possible
•
Implement safe unloading and transport procedures for unloading stacked materials and
items from delivery vehicles.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.8 NOISE
Introduction
Noise is measured in decibels (dB). The maximum permitted workplace noise exposure level to
which a person can be subjected is 85 dB(A) for eight hours and a peak noise of 140dB.
As a general ‘rule of thumb’, if normal conversation is difficult at 1 metre distance, the noise level is
probably too high and approaching or exceeding the maximum level allowed for an 8-hour working
day.
What should you do?
Even if the level of noise is below that which might damage hearing, it can contribute to other
dangers by masking warning signals and hindering communication. Excessive noise can:
• affect concentration
•
cause mental confusion
•
lead to operator fatigue
•
cause frustration
•
result in undue levels of stress
Unfortunately, the actual need to wear hearing protection can also create some of these problems.
Consequently, noise reduction techniques are preferable to simply masking existing noise levels
by the use of hearing protection.
Additionally, by eliminating, isolating, or minimising noise levels, all employees are protected
rather than just those closest to the source of the noise. Therefore, wherever possible, excessive
noise levels should be reduced by engineering controls such as:
•
Modifying existing noisy machinery through design changes.
•
Replacing noisy machinery by installing newer equipment designed for operating at lower
noise levels.
•
Isolating the source of the excessive noise from all persons not involved with the operation
of the equipment
•
Planned maintenance of machinery (frequently, excessive noise levels emanate from
poorly maintained tools, plant and equipment).
After such controls have been implemented, any person still subjected to excessive noise levels
should wear personal hearing protection in the form of earmuffs or earplugs which conform to
AS/NZS 1270:2002 Acoustics - Hearing Protectors. Reference should also be made to AS/NZS
1269:3.1998 - Hearing Protector Program.
Nine reasons why machines of all types get noisier with use
1. Worn or chipped gear teeth: worn or chipped teeth will not properly engage. Shiny wear marks
may not be visible on the teeth but they raise noise levels.
2. Worn bearings: bearing wear will show up as vibration and noise, as flat spots or cracks appear
in the balls.
3. Slackness between worn or loose parts: this noise (squealing from slack drive belts, "pistons
etc.) leaks.
4. Poor lubrication: this appears as squeaking noises due to friction or excess impact noise in dry
and worn gears or bearings.
5. Imbalance in rotating parts: just like car wheels, any imbalance in a fan impeller or motor shaft
will show up as excess vibration.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
6. Obstructed airways: a build-up of dirt or a bent/damaged piece of metal in an airway or near a
moving part, e.g. a bent fan guard, can cause whistling or other "air" type noise.
7. Blunt blades or cutting faces: blunt or chipped saw teeth, drill bits muter bits etc, usually make
the job noisier as well as slower.
8. Damaged silencers: silencers for air-driven machines or mufflers for engines may become
dogged with dirt, rusted out or damaged, losing their ability to absorb noise.
9. Removal of a noise-reducing attachment: mufflers, silencers, covers, guards, vibration isolators
etc.
Reference Materials and Resources
AS/NZS 1473 Series - Guarding of Woodworking Machinery (currently being drafted into three
parts for relevant industry sectors)
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.9 HAND-ARM VIBRATION
Introduction
Any tool, plant, or machine which vibrates, especially where the operator is directly affected by
vibration on a regular basis, can potentially cause severe and permanent nerve and tissue
damage. This may have a life-altering effect for the victim. In severe cases, the inability to use
several fingers or an entire hand can occur, resulting in simple tasks, such as holding a cup of
coffee, becoming impossible.
Any one (or a combination) of a group of conditions can result from exposure to vibrating
equipment. For some people, symptoms may be experienced after only a few months exposure,
but for others the period might be several years. Collectively, this group of conditions is known as
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS).
HAVS is a cause for serious concern and some countries, such as the UK, have introduced
specific legislation, imposing certain requirements on employers to address this hazard.
Hand-Arm Vibration symptoms may include:
• Severe and temporary or permanent loss of grip
•
Reduced grip strength, resulting in inability to do a job safely
•
Numbness and/or tingling sensation
•
Severe pain in wrist/hand/arm
•
Sensory Nerve Damage
•
Sleep disturbance
What should you do?
• Familiarise yourself with the hazards and risks associated with vibration
•
Identify all tasks and items of equipment where vibration may be a risk
•
Conduct hazard assessments on the tasks and equipment
•
Inform your employees of the hazards and how to avoid them
•
Inform employees on how to recognise and report signs of injury
•
Implement a Planned Maintenance policy
•
Replace high-risk equipment where possible
•
Ask the manufacturer to add anti-vibration mounts to equipment where possible
•
Look for alternative ways of working which eliminate the vibrating equipment
•
Mechanise or automate the work or change the way of working
•
Make sure your employees use the most appropriate equipment for each job
•
Introduce a ‘low-vibration performance’ purchasing policy for new equipment
•
Consider job rotation to minimise the time individuals use the equipment
•
Design the job so that poor posture is avoided
•
Introduce health monitoring for employees known to be at risk.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
3.10 GLASS HANDLING
Introduction
Joinery involves the fitting of glass to cabinets, doors etc and requires the careful handling of
sheets of glass on arrival, during construction of cabinets and at the customer’s work site.
The risk of cuts and serious lacerations is ever present with any operation that involves glass
handling. It is therefore important to ensure that appropriate safety measures are in place where
work of this type is undertaken.
What should you do?
• Train employees in safe Glass handling techniques
•
Reduce unnecessary glass handling to a minimum
•
Ensure that glass is safely stored in suitable racking
•
Provide racking for stored glass that anyone passing by cannot fall onto it
•
Provide a suitable table with cushion padding for cutting glass
•
Provide and ensure that suitable gloves are worn when handling glass
•
Implement procedures for carrying large sheet glass in windy or confined spaces
•
Dispose of all off-cuts into a suitable storage bin for re-cycling
•
Implement glass breakage procedures for speedy removal of broken glass
•
Provide first aid facilities and ensure that first aiders are well versed in treatment for minor
and serious cuts
•
Inform all employees of the need to have even minor cuts cleaned and covered to protect
both themselves and others from the risk of cross-infection
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 4 - INCIDENT RECORDING, REPORTING and INVESTIGATION
Introduction
Recording and reporting incidents and accidents is a legal obligation. This section provides an
overview of incident reporting and recording requirements for companies, and the procedure for
incident/accident investigation.
Company procedures should specify who does the recording, reporting, and investigating of all
incidents, what forms must be completed and what records kept.
Objectives:
• To ensure that there is an active reporting, recording and investigation system for all workrelated illnesses, incidents, and accidents
•
The investigation to ensure causation of all incidents and accidents followed by corrective
and preventive action
•
To implement and record changes in the health and safety
investigations and corrective and preventive action.
System resulting from
What should you do?
•
Maintain use an Accident Register
•
Implement Incident Reporting Procedures
•
Train all relevant employees in incident/accident investigation techniques
•
Record all ‘near miss’ incidents where someone could have been harmed
•
Report all Serious Harm incidents to the Dept. of Labour immediately and within seven
days provide details of how the accident occurred.
•
Document the following:
o
How investigations are carried out when incidents occur
o
Who is responsible for investigations and taking Corrective Action
o
Review of all incidents or accidents to ensure Hazard Assessments and Emergency
Response Procedures accurately identify all hazards and controls
o
Process for ensuring that accident causation is communicated
o
to all employees, contractors and volunteers as relevant
o
All meetings with staff to minute discussions and action(s) on Accident reporting,
recording and investigation.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 5 - PURCHASING, PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CONTRACTOR
CONTROL
Introduction
This section describes company purchasing requirements as they relate to the health and safety of
employees. Organisations need to decide how health and safety may be affected when services,
materials, or equipment is purchased so that risks to health and safety are not, unknowingly,
introduced.
The latter category should also take into account design issues. Numerous serious accidents
have arisen due to purchasers giving inadequate consideration to the safety aspects of the
equipment design.
Objectives:
To ensure that there is an active Purchasing Process including:
• A review of workplace design, work processes, materials, plant and equipment
• A review of the fabrication, installation, commissioning, handling and disposal of materials,
plant and equipment
• The purchasing of goods and services
• The selection, issue and control of Personal Protective Equipment*
• The contracting and sub-contracting of plant, equipment and services
• The inspection, maintenance, testing, repair, and replacement of plant and equipment.
What should you do?
Implement Purchasing Policy and guidelines for all purchases which may have an impact upon
health and safety. Purchasing Controls need to include:
Plant, Machinery and Equipment Reviews
o Checking all purchases against both Legal and AS/NZ Standard requirements for items
such as machine guarding, ergonomics, electrical safety, suitable lighting
o
The design of workplaces, work processes, materials, plant and equipment
Hazardous Substances
o Obtaining the Material Safety Data Sheet for the substance prior to use
o
Ascertaining whether a less hazardous substance can be used
Personal Protective Equipment [PPE]
o Purchasing PPE that complies with relevant AS/NZ Standards
o
Ensuring that PPE not only meets standards but is fit for the purpose
o
Training provisions by the supplier, where appropriate
Contractor Controls
o Checking of Contractors health and safety policies, practices and procedures
o
Use of a written contract requiring details of qualifications and experience
o
Competency of the Contractors for the specific work they will undertake
o
Registering Contractors on and off site, and informing them of hazards that may affect
them in the course of their work
o
Monitoring of all work carried out by Contractors to ensure that they do not introduce any
new avoidable hazards, either temporarily or permanently.
Note: For further information regarding PPE, see Appendix 2 or refer to the HSE Act 1992Part 2, Section 18A- “Duties of persons selling or supplying plant for use in place of work”.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 6 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
Introduction
This section outlines the Occupational Health procedures and monitoring requirements for joinery
companies, based on legislative requirements. Occupational illness is any condition that may
cause sickness, impaired health and well being, or significant discomfort and inefficiency.
Objectives
To ensure the organisation will undertake any recommended health surveillance for noise,
chemical hazards, and dust exposure.
What should you do?
•
Pre-employment checks to determine that each individual is capable of carrying out their
tasks they will be asked to perform, both physically and mentally. ‘Capability’ should take
into account physical fitness, strength, pre-existing conditions, eyesight, hearing, asthma,
epilepsy and any other condition that might is relevant. This may require a medical
examination by a GP.
•
Complete your Hazard Register, identifying specific health Hazards
•
Implement a health surveillance program to monitor exposure to noise, vibration,
hazardous substances etc. The program should be individual and environmental
•
Include the Monitoring Program on the agenda of health and safety meetings
•
Ensure that all employees are informed of health hazards and their individual health
monitoring results
•
Ensure that the First-Aid and Emergency Response Procedures reflect the specific health
risks of the workplace
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 7 - EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Introduction
To ensure that the company has an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) and directions, which will
prevent injury to employees, visitors, and neighbouring people/premises in the event of any
emergency. The ERP also aims to minimise damage to company Plant, Equipment, Materials,
and the general Environment.
Objectives:
To ensure that there is an effective general Emergency Response Plan, complying with health and
safety legislation, to enable the company to manage any type of emergency likely to occur within
the business.
What should you do?
•
Carry out an assessment of all possible Emergency Scenarios
•
Prepare an Emergency Response Plan, which should include:
o
Appointment of an Emergency Co-ordinator and Fire Wardens
o
Agreement on the duties of all Emergency Response personnel
o
Training procedures for designated personnel
o
Approved Emergency Equipment and Personal Protective Equipment
o Evacuation procedures with registers for employees, contractors and visitors
o
Identified Energy Controls required, with shut-down procedures
o
Damage control procedures for Plant/Buildings and Environmental Protection
o
Vital records checklist completed
o
Regular testing at least twice yearly
o
Records kept of all activities, training, drills etc
o
Involvement of the Fire Service in Training Drills
o
Agreed post-emergency actions for clean-up, Investigation etc.
o
Effective Signage for Emergency Procedures in all work areas
o
Post-Emergency review after all incidents/drills to improve your response
o
An annual review of your plan.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 8 - COMMUNICATION
Introduction
There must be documented procedures, agreed by employees, for employee participation
involvement and consultation on how the company will communicate with employees regarding
health and safety issues.
Objectives:
To ensure that there is an effective process for employees to have the opportunity to be fully
involved in the development of workplace safety practices. This includes the 'right to know' about
the risks of all workplace hazards.
What should you do?
•
Establish a forum to enable employees to communicate to management about issues of
interest and concern related to health and safety
•
Establish an agreed process with employees to support employee consultation and
representation
•
Involve employees in the development of hazard management and emergency procedures to
be used in the workplace
•
Provide all employees with information on the hazards to which they are exposed, or which
they may create, to enable them to avoid and minimise the risk wherever possible
•
Encourage employees to report potential hazards
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Part Two
Machine
and
Hand Tool Safety
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Part Two - Machine and Hand Tool Safety
Introduction
This part of the Guide is designed to be used by all employees, but particularly ‘new starters’ and
those who do not have the background of more experienced staff. It should also serve as a useful
refresher for more experienced employees, especially if they have had limited exposure to some of
the many items of equipment listed. The information given may also be useful for basic training
purposes.
Section 1 commences with an overview and guidance on the general hazards associated with all
woodworking machinery and necessary safety precautions. Section 2 addresses the work of
cabinet making in a similar manner.
Sections 3 to 11 deal with the many potential hazards associated with the use of specific types of
fixed woodworking machinery. Section 12 begins with a general overview of the hazards
associated with powered hand tools before moving onto specific types of such tools in Sections 13
to 20.
This information is not exhaustive but does provide both general and specific guidance and
solutions to typical hazards encountered by the joinery Industry.
Contents
1WOODWORKING MACHINERY – GENERAL INTRODUCTION
2CABINET MAKING
3BAND SAWS
4JOINTERS AND PLANERS
5MITRE SAWS
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
PUSH STICKS
RADIAL ARM SAWS
SANDERS
SHAPERS
TABLE SAWS
WOOD TURNING LATHES
THICKNESSERS
POWERED HAND TOOLS – GENERAL INTRODUCTION
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS OF POWERED HAND TOOLS
CIRCULAR SAWS
BELT SANDERS
PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILLS
POWERED HAND SAWS
PLANERS
ROUTERS
PNEUMATIC TOOLS
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SECTION 1 - WOODWORKING MACHINERY – GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Introduction
This section provides a general introduction to the hazards and risks associated with all types of
woodworking equipment. These hazards can be substantially reduced by ensuring:
• Only properly trained, authorised and competent staff operate machinery
• All Guards, Interlocks and other safety devices are operational at all times*
• Operators carry basic safety checks to ensure the machine is functioning correctly
• Defective machinery, equipment or tools are taken out of use immediately
• Machines, equipment and tools are only used for their intended function
• Machines and work areas are kept clean and free of obstacles
• Machines are maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions
• Machines are serviced regularly
• All signs concerning safety are clearly posted and complied with
• Operators are supplied with and wear appropriate PPE and safety equipment.
Do’s and Don’ts
Machine operators can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this practical
advice:
Do:
Wear safety glasses or face shield where appropriate
•
•
Wear dust masks when required
•
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you are
exposed to in the woodworking area. If you cannot properly hear someone speak at
normal level from 1 metre away, the noise level from the machine is probably too high.
Without protection, damage to your hearing may occur over time
•
Use gloves to protect hands from splinters when handling wood but do not wear them near
rotating blades and other machinery parts where the gloves can catch
•
Make sure all guards are in position, in good working condition and offer you adequate
protection before operating any equipment or machine. Check and adjust all other safety
devices
•
Make sure the equipment is properly earthed before being used for the first time
•
Check that keys and adjusting wrenches are removed from the machine before turning on
the power
•
Inspect stock for nails or other materials before cutting, planing, routing or carrying out
similar activities
•
Make sure that all machines have start and stop buttons within easy and convenient reach
of an operator. Start buttons should be protected so that accidental contact will not start
the machine. A collar around the button 3 to 6 mm above the button is recommended
•
Ensure that all cutting tools and blades are clean, sharp, and in good working order so that
they will cut freely, not forced
•
Turn the power off and unplug the power cord (or lock out the power source) before
inspecting, changing, cleaning, adjusting or repairing a blade or a machine
•
Turn the power off when discussing the work
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Use a "push stick" to move material into the cutting area. Jigs are also useful in keeping
hands safe during cutting procedures. Keep hands out of the line of the cutting blade
•
Clamp down and secure all work pieces being worked on
•
Use good lighting so that the work piece, cutting blades, and machine controls can be seen
clearly. Position or shade lighting sources so they do not shine in the operator's eyes or
cause any glare and reflections
•
Ensure that the floor space around you is sufficient for you to machine the work piece
being processed safely without bumping into other workers or equipment
•
Where fitted, ensure local exhaust ventilation systems are operating correctly to fully
remove all sawdust or chips that are produced
•
Keep electric power cords above head level or in the floor and ensure that they are not
tripping hazards
•
Keep the work area free of clutter, clean, well swept, and well lit
•
Clean up any spillages immediately.
Do Not:
Do not wear loose clothing, work gloves, neckties, rings, bracelets or other jewellery that
can become entangled with moving parts
•
•
Do not carry out awkward operations and hand positions where a sudden slip could cause
your hand to move into the cutting tool or blade
•
Do not remove sawdust or cuttings from the cutting head by hand while a machine is
running. Use a stick or brush when the machine has stopped moving
•
Do not use compressed air to remove sawdust, turnings, etc. from machines or clothing.
This causes potentially serious health problems from dust inhalation and can create an
explosive dust atmosphere
•
Do not leave machines running unattended, unless they are designed and intended to be
operated in this way
•
Do not leave a machine until the power is turned off and the machine comes to a complete
stop
•
Do not try to free a stalled blade before isolating the power supply and ensuring that there
is no residual power or mechanical action that could cause the machine to continue its
cycle whilst you are in the danger zone
•
Do not distract or startle an operator while they are using woodworking equipment
•
Do not become involved in ‘horseplay’, games, or pranks. Serious injuries and fatalities
have resulted from this type of behaviour.
* For further information about machinery guarding, see Appendix 1.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 2 - CABINET MAKING
Introduction
The manufacture of kitchen cabinets and other furniture is a complex process requiring the
management of many hazards and using a variety of skills. Three common tasks are:
•
Shaping: involving numerous operations of the machinery
•
Sanding: involving repetitive tasks and excessive bodily motions
•
Assembling: involving tasks using different tools in a variety of work positions.
Shaping Tasks
The shaping operation consists of modelling pieces of wood with a shaper according to the style of
kitchen cabinet being made (Figure 1).
To complete a task a worker has to:
•
pick up pieces of wood
•
place wood on the shaper
•
press and push the wood sideways on the
shaper
•
pile pieces of wood for further processing
The task lasts approximately 3 seconds and is
done while standing on a concrete floor.
Figure 1
Wood shaping
Shaping Risk factors
•
Highly repetitious movements
•
Excessive force while pressing work objects on the shaper
•
Exposure to vibration
These factors put the workers at risk for Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS). The wrists,
neck, and shoulders are at the highest risk. In addition, prolonged standing in a stooped position
and repetitious side motions can contribute to low back injuries. OOS refers to a series of
musculo-skeletal disorders associated with:
•
work postures and movements
•
repetitiveness and pace of work,
•
force of movements,
•
vibration, and
•
temperature.
Certain workplace conditions such as the layout of the workstation, the speed of work and the
weight of the objects being handled influence these factors.
Prolonged standing on a concrete floor can contribute to lower leg and back discomfort that, over
time, can develop into injuries.
All of these factors have a compounding effect. In other words, each of them increases the effects
of the others.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Sanding Tasks
The sanding operation consists of smoothing the
surface of wooden sheets by using a handoperated power sander
(Figure 2).
The worker uses both hands to carry out this
task. The dominant hand is used to operate the
sander while the other hand is used to hold the
sheet of wood (Figure 3).
To complete a task a worker has to:
• pick up sheets
•
place the sheets on work bench
•
sand the sheets
•
pile the sheets for further processing
Figure 2
Sanding
Sanding requires excessive movements such as
bending and reaching while keeping the elbow
above the shoulder level.
Forceful movements are used to hold both the
sander and the sheet of wood. Sanding is done
in a standing position.
Figure 3
Sanding
Sanding Risk Factors
Sanding exposes workers to:
•
high risk from repetitive motion injuries affecting the hands, neck and shoulders
•
high mechanical stress due to
o
repetitive and forceful movements while operating the sander and
o
the sustained muscular effort to hold work objects
•
exposure to vibration particularly affecting the elbow and wrist of the operating hand
•
prolonged stooped standing position and excessive and forceful bending which creates a risk
for low back injury
•
high risk of respiratory issues from prolonged exposure to dust from sanding without protective
equipment.
Assembling Tasks
Assembling all the components that will form a kitchen
cabinet involves the use of various tools such as staplers,
screwdrivers, and hammers.
Assembling kitchen cabinets is a manual operation
requiring many steps and skills. While assembling,
workers use a variety of body positions such as bending,
twisting, and reaching (Figures 4 – 8).
They also have to stoop and crouch while working
(Figure 9).
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Figure 4
Assembling kitchen cabinets
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Figures 5 and 6
Bending while assembling kitchen cabinets
Figures 7 and 8
Reaching while assembling kitchen cabinets
Assembling Risk Factors
The assembly tasks at a kitchen cabinet manufacturing
plant create the conditions that favour the development of
OOS, as well as low back problems.
Operating heavy tools in very awkward body positions
(Figures 9 - 11) and exerting forces in an "off line" direction
are extremely hazardous for the upper limbs.
The neck and shoulders are also at risk for OOS.
Whole body motions and lifting, while handling assembled
cabinets, put workers at risk for back injuries.
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Figure 9
Awkward body position used
while assembling kitchen
cabinets
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Continuous standing on a concrete
floor can cause lower leg and back
discomfort that, over time, can develop
into injuries.
All these factors have a compound
effect. Each of them increases the
effects of the others.
Figures 10 and 11 - Using heavy tools
in very awkward body position
Figure 10
Figure 11
Reducing the OOS risk factors for Shaping, Sanding and Assembly
The three tasks that were selected for examination in the kitchen cabinet manufacturing plant pose
similar risks for repetitive motion injuries. However, each one requires a different approach for
controlling the risk for OOS.
Shaping
The working position is the major hazard for OOS while shaping.
This can be improved by providing:
•
More leg clearance - Allow the worker to get closer
to the work area, thereby reducing bending (Figure
12)
•
Sit/stand stools and foot rests - These increase the
flexibility of the work position and reduce stress on
the lower back and legs
•
Anti-vibration gloves. However, thick or heavy
gloves are not appropriate if operating the tool
requires precise movements
•
Anti-fatigue matting - This reduces lower leg and
back discomfort from prolonged standing
•
A full-scale rotation of tasks
Figure 12
Working in a standing position
with adequate leg clearance and
sit/stand stool
Sanding
Awkward body positions and forceful movements are the major risk factors for OOS. Prolonged
standing creates lower leg and back discomfort. These conditions can be improved by :
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Providing Sanders with tilted work surfaces,
equipped with easy-to-operate devices
(Figure 13)
•
Using jigs (Figure 14) would reduce substantially
the effort of holding work objects; bending would
also be reduced
•
Providing workers with foot rests to further
improve working posture
•
Using anti-fatigue matting to reduce the
discomfort of prolonged standing
•
Providing anti-vibration gloves. However, thick or
heavy gloves are not appropriate if operating the
tool requires precise movements
•
Select low vibration sanders to further reduce the
effects of vibration.
The physical effort required while sanding can be rather
strenuous and repetitive. Improvements can be achieved
by re-designing the task and by introducing task rotation,
or enrichment and enlargement of the task.
Figure 13 –
A tilted work surface
Figure 14 - A jig to hold the
work object
Assembling
In the assembly operation, awkward postures, and forceful movements are the major risk factors
for OOS. Vibration and stress due to prolonged standing also contribute to the development of
OOS.
To reduce awkward body positions, use jigs and fixtures to hold the work object (Figure 15). A
fixture that allows the worker to rotate the kitchen cabinet reduces over-reaching and also reduces
the manual handling of the kitchen cabinet.
It is also important to select the proper tool for the task. Matching the tool to the task reduces
awkward postures of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder (Figure 16).
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Figure 15
Figure 16
A fixture holding
the work object
Selecting the
right tool for
the task
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Using tool balancers reduces the amount of force necessary
to hold and operate the tool (Figure 17).
To reduce stress on the legs and back from prolonged
standing, workers should use anti-fatigue matting.
Figure 17 - Using a tool
balancer for a heavy tool
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 3 - BAND SAWS
Introduction
If not used correctly a band saw, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of Band Saws can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
• Securely anchor the band saw to the floor (or workbench) to reduce vibration
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Wear hearing protection for the level and frequency of the noise you are exposed to
•
Make sure all guards are in place and properly adjusted
•
Ensure all band wheels are enclosed.
•
Adjust blade guard height to about 12 mm maximum above the top of the material being cut
•
Ensure the blade is tracking correctly and runs freely in and against the upper and lower guide
rollers
•
Ensure the blade is under proper tension
•
Use band saw blades that are sharp, properly set and suitable for the job e.g. the right tooth
pitch, tooth form and blade width
•
Hold stock firmly and flat on the table to prevent the stock from turning and drawing your
fingers against the blade. Keep hands braced against the table
•
Use a push stick when you remove cut pieces from between the fence and saw blade or when
your hands are close to the blade. Keep your hands on either side of the blade - not in line
with the cutting line and the blade
•
Make relief cuts before tight curves when
doing intricate scroll-type work
•
Keep the floor around a band saw clean and
free of obstructions or clutter
•
Keep the machine properly oiled and
serviced
•
Provide adequate lighting at the machine
table. A light fixture with a flexible
connection can provide essential lighting.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Do not:
•
Do not use excessive force when pushing the wood past the blade
•
Do not back the stock away from the blade while the saw is in motion if the work piece
binds or pinches on the blade
•
Do not stop a band saw by thrusting stock against the cutting edge or the side of a blade
immediately after the power has been shut off
•
Do not remove sawdust or cuttings from the table by hand or with compressed air Instead,
use a stick or brush
•
Do not leave a saw running unattended. Turn off the power and make sure the machine
has stopped running before leaving the area.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 4 - JOINTERS, AND PLANERS
Introduction
If not used correctly jointers and planers, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction and Department
of Labour – Safety Rules for Operators of Overhand Planers.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of jointers and planers can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by
following this practical advice:
Do:
•
Check that the knives set for the proper clearance and depth of cut
•
Check that the knives are sharp, balanced, and fastened securely when installing new
cutters
•
Ensure the fence is anchored in the proper position
•
Ensure the bridge guard is adjusted correctly
•
Ensure that any exposed knives behind the fence are guarded
•
Check that the equipment is properly lubricated
•
Ensure that the parts or accessories are in proper working condition
•
Wear safety glasses where appropriate
•
Wear hearing protection when necessary that is suitable for the level and frequency of the
noise you are exposed to in the woodworking area
•
Allow only experienced and trained personnel to operate jointers and planers
•
Replace old square cutting heads with roundheads, which are much safer – required by
HSE Regulations 1995
•
Ensure start and stop buttons are within easy and convenient reach of the operator
•
Remove all wrenches and tools used in the set up from the table
•
Provide a minimum clearance of at least 1 metre greater than the length of the longest
stock being worked
•
Construct hold-down push blocks to do bevelling and surface operations
•
Use hold-down (double handed) push blocks. These keep hands well away from the
cutting head
•
Maintain an adequate amount of downward and forward force with push blocks as the knife
blades on a revolving cutting head can take the stock from an operator’s hands.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Do Not:
• Do not leave the machine running unattended. Shut off the power and make sure that the
cutting head has stopped revolving
•
Do not make cuts deeper than 3 mm in one pass
•
Do not join (edge) stock of pieces less than 300 mm long, 20 mm wide and less than 60
mm thick
•
Do not use surface stock less than 300 mm long, 20 mm wide or more than 150 mm wide
or less than 15 mm thick
•
Do not pass hands over the cutters
•
Do not remove dust or particles of wood from a table by hand or with compressed air.
Instead, use a stick or brush.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 5 - MITRE SAWS
Introduction
If not used correctly a mitre saw, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of mitre saws can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate. If work is dusty, use a respirator
or dust mask
•
Wear appropriate hearing protection
•
Attach the saw firmly on a workbench or other rigid frame and operate saw at waist height.
The saw can also be taken to remote locations by mounting it on a piece of plywood 13 mm
or thicker. This must be clamped to a waist high work surface on the job site with large "G"
clamps, (avoid “F” clamps which can vibrate loose).
•
Keep one hand on the trigger switch and handle and use the other hand to hold the stock
against the fence
•
Keep hands out of the path of the blade
•
Keep guards in place and in working order
•
Remove adjusting keys and wrenches
•
Use a crosscut or combination blade
•
Ensure that the blade rotates in the correct direction
•
Ensure that the blade and arbor collars are secure and clean. Recessed sides of collars
should be against blade
•
Keep blade tight, clean, sharp and properly set so that it cuts freely and easily
•
Allow motor to reach full speed before cutting
•
Follow instructions for lubricating and changing accessories
•
Keep the work area clean. Cluttered areas and benches invite accidents
•
Keep the work area well lit
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Reduce the risk of unintentional start-up by ensuring the saw switch is in the ‘off’ position
before plugging in
•
Unplug tools before servicing and when not in use
•
Check and take damaged items out of service immediately or repair at once
•
Keep motor air slots clean and free of chips
•
Use only the accessories designed for the specific saw and job.
Do Not:
•
Do not operate the saw on the ground
•
Do not cut pieces smaller than 200 mm in length
•
Do not cut "free hand." The stock should lie solidly on the table against the fence
•
Do not reach around or behind the saw blade
•
Do not take your hand away from the trigger switch and handle until the blade is fully
covered by the lower blade guard
•
Do not over-reach. Keep proper footing and balance at all times
•
Do not force the saw, which cuts better and more safely at its design speed
•
Do not leave the saw until it has stopped completely. Turn the power off and unplug the
saw
•
Do not use electric tools in damp or wet locations
•
Do not operate electric tools near flammable liquids or in gaseous or explosive
atmospheres, as sparks may ignite fumes.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 6 - PUSH STICKS
Introduction
Push sticks or push blocks should be used whenever operating standard woodworking machinery,
including table saws, band saws, radial arm saws, jointer/planers, and shapers.
These sticks protect the hand while allowing good hand control of the stock as it is pushed through
the cutting head or blade. Push blocks for Jointer/Planers should be constructed for two-handed
positioning.
Hold-down push blocks should:
• be rigid
•
enable the operator to protect both hands
•
allow the operator to exert a firm and steady pressure on the work piece.
Sample push sticks and blocks
Simple push sticks are useful on a table saw when distance between the blade and fence is
narrow.
Simple push stick
Useful on
table saw when distance between the blade and
Double-handled hold-down push block
fence is narrow.
Frontal Push Block
Side Push Block
Use of two push blocks
single application
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 7 - RADIAL ARM SAWS
Introduction
If not used correctly a radial arm saw, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of radial arm saws can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following
this practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you are
exposed to in the woodworking area
•
Set the Stroke Limiter to prevent the saw blade from extending beyond near side of the
bench or work table or extend the bench
•
Ensure that the Saw is in correct working order
•
Ensure that all Guards, Interlocking brakes and other Safety Devices operational
•
Feed stock against the direction of the blade - the blade should move downward when
viewed by the operator
•
Ensure that you only use accessories designed for that specific saw and application
•
Ensure that you only use saw blades rated at or above the speed of the saw arbor (the
attachment from the motor to the blade)
•
Ensure the guard consists of two parts:
o Upper hood type that covers arbor
o These guards are not typical on radial arm saws. Most have an
adjustable front guard that must be adjusted to approximately 6mm of
the timber being cut
•
Stand on the handle side when cross cutting. Pull the cutting head with the hand nearest
the handle and manoeuvre the stock with the other hand
•
Make sure that the hand holding the stock is never in line with the blade
•
Return the cutting head completely to the back of the saw table after each cut. The saw
should be designed so that the blade will not move forward under its own weight or if the
machine is vibrating
•
Clamp stock to the table on one side of the saw blade, when making mitre, bevel or
compound mitre cuts. Clamping prevents the wood from sliding along the fence during the
cut.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Turn off the saw when making any
adjustments or changes in the set up.
•
Make measurements by placing the wood
to be cut against the stop gauge. When
measuring with a tape measure or ruler is
necessary, turn off the saw until the
measuring is complete.
Do Not:
• Do not use radial arm saws for ripping
•
Do not take your hand away from the operating handle unless the cutting head is behind
the fence
•
Do not remove the stock from a saw table until the blade has been returned to its "resting"
position at the back of the saw table. Use a stick or brush to remove scrap from the saw
table
•
Do not cut "free hand". Use the back guide or fence, or other device to keep the work
piece from moving
•
Do not use cracked or dull blades
•
Do not leave a running saw unattended - leave only after the saw has been turned off and
it has come to a complete stop.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 8 - SANDERS
Introduction
If not used correctly a sander, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of sanders can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses where appropriate
•
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you are
exposed to in the woodworking area
•
Use sanders with the local exhaust ventilation (LEV) turned on. The LEV should be
designed for the sander and well maintained to work effectively
•
Wear respiratory protection (e.g., dust masks) where required, during sanding operations
and clean up
•
Keep hands away from the abrasive surface
•
Hold small or thin pieces of stock in a jig or holding device to prevent injuries to the fingers
or hands
•
Inspect abrasive belts before using them.
Replace belts that are worn, or excessively
worn in spots, and frayed
•
Sand on the downward side of a disc
sander so that the wood is driven onto the
table by the machine's rotation
•
Enclose all drums, disc or belt sanding
machines with an exhaust dust hood that
covers all portions of the machine but the
portion designed for the work feed
•
Adjust work rests on all manually fed sanders to provide minimum clearance between the
belt and the rest. The work rest should be secured properly
•
Install abrasive belts that are the same width as the pulley drum
•
Adjust abrasive belt tension to keep the belt running the same speed as the pulley-drum
when the wood is in contact with the belt.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Guard feed rollers, to allow boards to
pass, but keep operators' fingers and
arms out
•
Install guards to prevent contacts at:
o in-running nip points
o power transmission
o feed roll parts
o the unused portion of the abrasion
belt on the operator's side of the
machine.
Do Not:
• Do not wear
o
loose clothing or jewellery while using revolving power tools
o
long hair down unless it is tied back or appropriate hair protection is worn
These measures will prevent hair, clothing, or jewellery (like dangling neck chains)
from being caught and pulled by sander belts and pulleys that are in motion
•
Do not sand small or thin hand-held work pieces
•
Do not use sanders without the exhaust system operating
•
Do not operate sanders unless they are adequately guarded
•
Do not operate sanders unless the work rest is properly adjusted.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 9 - SHAPERS/ SPINDLE MOULDERs
Introduction
If not used correctly a shaper, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction. Also refer to DoL “Safety
Rules for Operation of Spindle Moulders”.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of shapers can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Make sure all guards are in the proper position
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you are
exposed to in the woodworking area
•
Use the cutter and spindle speed suited for the job
•
Ensure that cutters are always sharp and clean
•
Remove all wrenches and tools used in the set-up from the table
•
Check moving parts of the shaper periodically, such as belts and pulleys for signs of wear
and the spindle for burrs or for excessive run out
•
Check that the spindle is perpendicular with the shaper table before using ; that the spindle
top and knives are correctly adjusted and securely fastened; and that the spindle is free
before turning on the power
•
Use suitable jigs to hold material
•
Use jig fixtures, holders, and hold-down push
blocks. Fasten the work securely in a jig. When a
table guide pin is used, make sure it is adjusted
and will not slip
•
Cut with the grain rather than against it
•
Remove all other blades when one blade is
removed from the shaper spindle. This will prevent
the other blades from being hurled from the spindle
if the machine is started.
•
Turn off the power and lock out a machine when doing set-ups or any other operation on or
about the spindle
•
Shape only one piece of stock at a time
•
Use extra care in machining stock that contains cross grains or knots. These may pull the
operator's hands into the knives or may cause kickbacks
•
Support long pieces of wood with extension tables or roller supports
Do Not:
• Do not shape stock less than 25 cm in length
•
Do not leave a shaper machine running. Make sure that the power is shut off and that the
cutter head has stopped revolving before leaving the area
•
Do not rest your hands near the edge of the stock being cut
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Do not tamper with or disable the guards or make them inoperative in any way. Many
serious injuries have been caused by such practices
•
Do not back material away – lift it up and restart operation. (Check to see that the direction
of rotation is as expected). Always feed against rotation of the cutter
•
Do not make deep cuts or feed the stock too rapidly
•
Do not distract or startle an operator during a shaping operation
•
Do not remove sawdust or cuttings around knives by hand or with compressed air. Use a
stick or brush
•
Do not clear the table while the cutter is rotating
•
Do not accumulate stock or finished work on the table
•
Do not stand in line with the stock being fed.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 10 - TABLE SAWS
Introduction
If not used correctly a table saw, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of table saws can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you are
exposed to in the woodworking area
•
Pay particular attention to the manufacturer's instructions on reducing the risk of kickback,
which allows the wood to be violently thrown toward the operator
•
Choose proper blades for the type of work being done
•
Keep blades clean, sharp, and properly set so that they will cut freely without having to
force the work piece against the blade
•
Use the guards provided with the saw or ones designed for use with the saw that you are
using. Keep them in place and in good working condition.
•
Use a guard high enough to cover the part of the blade rising above the stock and wide
enough to cover the blade when it is tilted. The blade height should be set so it does not
extend more than about 13 mm above the height of the piece being cut.
•
Ensure that the fence is locked in position after the desired width has been set
•
Hold the work piece firmly down on the
table and against the fence when
pushing the wood through
•
Ensure that there is adequate support to
hold a work piece; use extension tables
or roller supports at the side or back for
larger pieces.
If an assistant is at the back (outfeed)
end of the saw, an extension table
should be in place so the back edge is
about 1.2 m from the saw blade.
•
•
The assistant should wait for the work
piece to reach the edge of the extension
table and should not reach toward the Note:
The riving knife is not shown in this
saw blade
diagram for simplicity, but a riving knife
Feed stock into the blade against the
must be installed.
direction of its rotation
Move the rip-fence out of the way when cross cutting. Never use it as a cut-off gauge
without a spacer unless the fence does not extend forward past the front of the blade
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Use a push stick when ripping narrow or short stock (e.g., when the fence is set less than
about 15 cm from the blade; when the piece is less than 30 cm long or when the last 30 cm
of a longer piece is being cut). Refer to ripping applications in the manufacturer's
instruction manual. See Section 6 - Push Sticks, for more information on push stick design
•
Keep hands out of the line of a saw blade
•
Use guard with a spreader (riving knife) and anti-kickback fingers for all ripping or cross
cutting operations
•
Keep the body and face to one side of the saw blade out of the line of a possible kickback
•
Provide adequate support to the rear and sides of a saw table for wide or long stock
•
Be careful when waxing, cleaning, or servicing the table. Shut off and unplug (or lock out)
a saw before doing any work on it
•
Keep area clean and clutter-free, and operate the saw in a non-congested, well-lit area
•
Use the proper sawdust exhaust systems as required by operation
Do Not:
• Do not saw freehand. Always hold the stock firmly against the mitre gauge or a rip fence to
position and guide the cut
•
Do not reach around and over moving blades
•
Do not feed the work piece faster than the saw can accept it
•
Do not leave a saw running unattended. Turn off the power and make sure the machine
has stopped running before leaving the area.
Note:
Refer to the OSH/DoL Woodworking Machinery Guidelines for hood guard/ riving knife
requirements. Hood guards may not be often used but they should be.
There is no specific reference to anti-kickback guards but must have a riving knife for ripping. We
have not required riving knives when cutting composite material e.g. MDF etc.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 11 - WOOD TURNING LATHES
Introduction
If not used correctly a lathe, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of lathes can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate to protect yourself from flying chips
•
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you are
exposed to in the woodworking area
•
Wear a dusk mask when dust is generated e.g. during sanding operations
•
Work in a well-lighted area
•
Ensure that all clamps and fittings are secure and that the work piece is free to turn, before
the lathe is switched on
•
Use stock that is free of defects
•
Use appropriately designed or approved tools
•
Use sharp, well-maintained chisels and gouges
•
Select a speed that is appropriate for the job. Operate the lathe at a low speed and use a
moderate cut depth to prevent splinters from flying out during roughing operations. The
actual speed of the lathe depends on type of wood, diameter of stock, nature of work being
done and the type of tool used
•
Hold the stock securely on the faceplate or between the centres
•
Hold tools firmly with both hands and against the tool rest
•
Adjust tool rests so that they are parallel and as close as possible to the stock. They
should be set high enough so that tools will cut into the wood slightly above the centre of
the work being turned
•
Remove the tool rest when sanding or polishing
•
Hold the sandpaper in your fingers and
press lightly against a small area at the
top of the rotating shaft when hand
sanding. This method will keep the
sandpaper from catching and pulling your
hand around the stock
•
To make a faceplate turning, the one
hand steadies the tip of the chisel, which
holds the edge against the tool rest while
the other hand guides the tool. Keep the
tip of the chisel held higher than the
handle
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
Do Not:
• Do not wear
o
loose clothing or jewellery
o
long hair down unless it is tied back or appropriate hair protection is worn
These measures will prevent hair, clothing, or jewellery (like dangling neck chains)
from being caught and pulled by belts and pulleys that are in motion
•
Do not leave a running lathe unattended. Leave only after the lathe has been turned off
and it has come to a complete stop
•
Do not use makeshift tools
•
Do not use stock containing splits, cracks, or knots
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 12 - THICKNESSERS
Introduction
If not used correctly, a thicknesser, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in section 1 – Woodworking Machinery – General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of thicknessers can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Ensure that the anti-kickback devices are fitted and operating
•
Ensure that the blades are regularly sharpened and well maintained and mounted
•
Use the guards and safety devices provided and keep them in proper adjustment.
Wherever possible use the power feed units.
•
Keep the machines clean
•
Ensure the extraction system is operating before any work piece is placed in the machine
•
Wear suitable ear defenders
•
Ensure that no other person is passing behind the work piece whilst it is being passed
through the thicknesser
•
Follow the safe work methods as laid down in the safety manual.
Do Not:
•
Do not operate the machine unless you are trained to do so or are supervised by a trained
operator
•
Do not use the machine without the extraction system being activated
•
Do not turn the extraction system off for at least 60 seconds after the last work piece has
been passed through the device
•
Do not try to take excessive cuts in any one single pass. Set the machine so the cutter
blades are not being overworked
•
Never stand behind the work piece when feeding wood into the machine.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
SECTION 13 - POWERED HAND TOOLS – GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Introduction
If not used correctly powered hand tools, like all equipment and machinery, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section provides general information and guidance on the hazards associated
with all types of powered hand tools.
Inspecting powered hand tools
• Inspect tools for any damage prior to each use
•
Check the handle and body casing of the tool for cracks or other damage
•
If the tool has auxiliary or double handles, check to see that they installed securely
•
Inspect cords for defects: check the power cord for cracking, fraying, and other signs of
wear or faults in the cord insulation
•
Check for damaged switches and ones with faulty trigger locks
•
Inspect the plug for cracks and for missing, loose, or faulty prongs.
Defective or damaged tools
•
Remove from service immediately and tag clearly "Out of service for repair"
•
Replace damaged equipment immediately - do not use defective tools "temporarily"
•
Have tools repaired by a qualified person - do not attempt “field” repairs.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of powered hand tools can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by
following this practical advice:
Do:
•
Comply with Regulation 69 (1) of the Integrated Electricity Regulations 1997, which
requires that all electrical equipment, installations, fittings, and appliances are electrically
safe. Compliance with this requirement will be met if such items have been tested,
inspected and tagged in accordance with AS/NZS 3760:2003 (In-service safety inspection
and testing of electrical equipment). Other methods of ensuring electrical safety are
acceptable only if they are valid and effective
•
Ensure that you have been properly trained to use the tool safely. Read the operator's
manual before using the tool and operate the tool according to the manufacturer's
instructions
•
Ensure that the power tool has the correct guard, shield or other attachment that the
manufacturer recommends
•
Prevent electric shocks. Ensure that the tools are properly earthed using a three-prong
plug, are double-insulated (and are labelled as such), or are powered by a low-voltage
isolation transformer, which will protect users from an electrical shock
•
Check electric tools to ensure that a tool with a 3-prong plug has an approved 3-wire cord
and is earthed. The three-prong plug should be plugged in a properly earthed 3-pole outlet
•
If an adapter must be used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must
be attached to a known, functioning ground. Never remove the third, grounding prong from
a plug
•
Replace open front plugs where possible, with sealed front plugs, which present less
danger of electric shock or short circuit
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
•
Use only the battery that the tool manufacturer specifies for battery-powered tools
•
Recharge a battery-powered tool only with the specific battery charger for that tool
•
Remove the battery from the tool or ensure that the tool is switched off or locked off before
changing accessories, making adjustments, or storing the tool
•
Store a battery pack safely so that no metal parts, nails, screws, wrenches etc. can come
in contact with the battery terminals, which could result in shorting the battery and possibly
cause sparks, fires or burns
•
Wear or use personal protective equipment (PPE) or clothing that is appropriate for the
work you are doing; this may include items such as safety glasses, hearing protection, dust
mask, gloves, safety boots or shoes, or rubber boots
•
Switch off tools before connecting them to a power supply
•
If a power cord feels more than comfortably warm or if a tool is sparking excessively, have
it checked by an electrician or other qualified person
•
Disconnect the power supply before making adjustments or changing accessories
•
Remove any wrenches and adjusting tools before turning on a tool
•
During use, keep power cords clear of tools and the path that the tool will take
•
Use clamps, a vice, or other devices to hold and support the piece being worked on, when
practical to do so. This will allow you to use both hands for better control of the tool and
will help prevent injuries if a tool jams or binds in a work piece
•
Use only approved extension cords that have the proper wire size for the length of cord
and power requirements of the electric tool that you are using. This will prevent the cord
from overheating
•
For outdoor work, use high quality outdoor extension leads with sealed plugs and shock
protection
•
Suspend power cords over aisles or work areas to eliminate tripping hazards
•
Eliminate ‘octopus’ connections. If more than one receptacle plug is needed, use a power
bar or power distribution strip that has an integral power cord and a built-in over-current
protection
•
Pull the plug, not the cord when unplugging a tool. Pulling the cord causes wear and may
affect the wiring to the plug potentially resulting in an electric shock
•
Follow good housekeeping procedures. Keep the work area free of clutter and debris that
could be tripping or slipping hazards
•
Keep power cords away from heat, water, oil, sharp edges and moving parts as they can
damage the insulation and potentially cause an electric shock
•
Ensure that cutting tools, drill bits, etc. are kept sharp, clean and well maintained
•
Store tools in a dry, secure location when they are not being used
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Do Not:
•
Do not wear gloves, loose clothing, or jewellery while using revolving power tools. Tie back
long hair or wear appropriate hair protection to prevent hair from getting caught in moving
parts of equipment
•
Do not use a tool unless you have been trained to use it safely and know its limitations
•
Do walk around with a plugged-in tool with your finger touching the switch
•
Do not bypass the on/off switch
•
Do not disconnect the power supply of the tool by pulling or jerking the cord from the outlet
•
Do not leave a running tool unattended. Do not leave it until it has been turned off, has
stopped running completely, and has been unplugged
•
Do not use electric tools in wet conditions or damp locations unless tool is connected to a
Residual Current Device or transformer
•
Do not expose electric power tools to rain or wet
•
Do not make body contact with earthed surfaces like refrigerators, pipes and radiators
when using electric powered tools, as this will increase the likelihood of shock if the
operator's body is earthed
•
Do not plug several power cords into one outlet by using single-to-multiple outlet adapters
or converters ("cube taps")
•
Do not use light duty power cords
•
Do not connect or splice extension cords
together to make a longer connection.
The resulting extension cord may be
unable to provide sufficient current or
power safely
•
Do not carry electrical tools by the power
cord
•
Do not tie power cords in knots. Knots
can cause short circuits and shocks.
Loop the cords or use a twist lock plug
•
Never break off the third prong on a plug. Replace broken 3-prong plugs and make sure
the third prong is properly earthed
•
Never use extension cords as permanent wiring: use only as a temporary power supply to
an area that does not have a power outlet
•
Do not walk on or allow vehicles or other moving equipment to pass over unprotected
power cords, as this could cause damage, which makes them dangerous. Cords should be
put in conduits or protected by placing planks on each side of them
•
Do not brush away sawdust, shavings, or turnings while the tool is running. Never use
compressed air for cleaning surfaces or removing sawdust, metal turnings, etc.
•
Do not operate tools in an area containing explosive vapours or gases (including very dusty
atmospheres), as sparks from the tool could cause an explosion
•
Do not clean tools with flammable or toxic solvents
•
Do not touch or startle anyone who is operating a tool, as this could lead to injury
•
Do not coil a lead with the power on.
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SECTION 14 - ERGONOMIC HAZARDS OF POWERED HAND TOOLS
Introduction
Ergonomics is the practice of fitting the task and tools to the individual, to ensure both maximum
safety and freedom from health risks such as hand, arm, and back strain. Such an approach takes
into account the person’s individual limitations, rather than the old method of trying to somehow fit
the individual to the task irrespective of the problems presented.
Ergonomics should not be dismissed lightly. Studies in many countries have shown that both
health and safety can be substantially improved by addressing ergonomic hazards. Additionally,
poor ergonomics have played a significant role in some major incidents such as the release of
radioactivity into the atmosphere at Three Mile Island in the USA.
Ergonomic considerations when selecting powered hand tools
•
Select tools that can be used without bending the wrist. Hand tools should allow the
operator to grasp, hold, and use the tool with the wrist held straight
•
Select the tool with the workplace layout and job design in mind. Sometimes a tool is
correct for one operation and incorrect for another
•
Use the right tool for the job. Ensure it is the right size and has sufficient power to do the
job safely. When there is a choice, select a tool of a low weight
•
Select low-vibration tools
•
Choose tools with vibration-absorbing handles, like those
covered with cork, rubber, plastic or plastic bonded to steel,
to reduce hand-arm vibration
•
Choose hand tools that have the centre of gravity within or
close to the handle
•
Select tools with rounded and smooth handles that you can
grip easily
•
choose tools with double handles to permit easier holding
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•
Select tools with a trigger strip, rather than a trigger
button. This strip will allow you to exert more force
over a greater area of the hand that, in turn, will
reduce muscle fatigue
•
Ensure that the trigger works easily to reduce the
effort needed to operate it
Reducing the ergonomic hazards
•
Ensure that all tools are well maintained and in good repair
•
Frequently-used tools that weigh more than 0.5 kg should be counter-balanced
•
Hold the tool close to the body. Do not over-reach
•
Keep good balance and proper footing at all times. This will help operators to control the
tool better, especially in response to unexpected situations
•
Rest your hands by putting the tool down when you are not using it
•
Reduce power to the lowest setting that can complete the job safely. This action reduces
tool vibration at the source
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
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SECTION 15 - PORTABLE CIRCULAR SAWS
Introduction
If not used correctly a circular saw, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of circular saws can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Wear an approved respirator or dust mask when exposed to harmful or nuisance dusts
•
Use appropriate hearing protection equipment in noisy areas
•
Check the retracting lower blade guard to make certain it works freely
•
Ensure that the blade that you have selected is sharp enough to do the job. Sharp blades
work better and are safer
•
Check the saw for proper blade rotation
•
Set the depth of the blade, while the saw is unplugged, and lock it at a depth so that the
lowest tooth does not extend more than about 13 mm beneath the wood
•
Keep all cords clear of cutting area
•
Circular saws are designed for right-hand operation; left-handed operation will demand
more care to operate safely.
•
Check the retracting lower blade guard frequently to make certain it moves freely. It should
enclose the teeth as completely as possible, and cover the unused portion of the blade
when cutting.
•
Check that the retracting lower blade guard has returned to its starting position before
laying down the saw
•
Keep the upper and retracting lower blade guard clean and free of sawdust
•
Disconnect the power supply before adjusting or changing the blade
•
Allow the saw to reach full speed before starting to cut
•
Use two hands to operate saws; one on a trigger switch and the other on front knob handle
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•
Keep a motor free from accumulation of dust and chips
•
Select the correct blade for stock being cut and allow it to cut steadily. Do not force it
•
Secure work being cut to avoid movement
•
Ensure that any off-cuts can have a clear fall so that they do not jam on the blade
Do Not:
• Do not hold or force the retracting lower guard in the open position
•
Do not place a hand under the shoe or guard of the saw
•
Do not over tighten the blade-locking nut
•
Do not twist the saw to change, cut or check
alignment
•
Do not use a saw that vibrates or appears
unsafe in any way
•
Do not force the saw during cutting
•
Do not cut materials without first checking for
obstructions or other objects e.g. nails
•
Do not carry the saw with a finger on the trigger
switch
•
Do not over-reach. Keep proper footing and
balance at all times
•
Do not rip stock without using a wedge or guide
clamped or nailed to the stock.
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SECTION 16 - BELT SANDERS
Introduction
If not used correctly a belt sander, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of belt sanders can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Wear a dust respirator for dusty operations
•
Make sure the sander is switched off before connecting the power supply
•
Disconnect the power supply before changing a sanding belt, making adjustments, or
emptying dust collector
•
Inspect sanding belts before using them. Replace worn or frayed belts
•
Install sanding belts that are the same widths as the pulley drum
•
Adjust sanding belt tension to keep it running true and at the same speed as pulley drum
•
Secure the sanding belt in the direction shown on the belt and the machine
•
Keep hands away from a sanding belt
•
Use two hands to operate sanders; one on trigger switch and the other on front handle
•
Keep all cords clear of the sanding area during use
•
Clean dust from the motor and vents at regular intervals.
Do Not:
• Do not use a sander without an exhaust system or a dust collector present that is in good
working order. Empty the collector when 1/4 full. The dust created when sanding can be
an inhalation, fire and explosion hazard. Proper ventilation is essential.
•
Do not exert excessive pressure on a moving sander. The weight of the sander supplies
adequate pressure for the job
•
Do not work on unsecured stock unless it is heavy enough to stay in place. Clamp the
stock into place or use a "stop block" to prevent movement
•
Do not over-reach. Always keep a proper footing and balance
•
Do not cover the air vents of the sander.
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SECTION 17 - PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILLS
Introduction
If not used correctly an electric drill, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of electric drills can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Follow the manufacturers' instructions when
selecting and using a bit or attachment,
especially with unfamiliar drills or work
•
Select the bit or attachment suitable for the
size of the drill and the work being done
•
Ensure that the bit or attachments are
properly seated and tightened in the chuck
•
Use only bits and attachments that turn true
•
Use the auxiliary (second) handle for larger
work or continuous operation.
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where
appropriate
•
Keep drill air vents clear to maintain adequate
ventilation
•
Keep drill bits sharp at all times
•
Keep all cords clear of the cutting area during
use and inspect for damage
•
Disconnect the power supply before
changing/adjusting the bit or attachments
•
Remove the chuck key before drilling
•
Secure the work piece being drilled to prevent
movement
•
Clamp small stock so work will not twist or spin.
Do Not:
•
Do not drill with one hand while holding the material with the other
•
Do not use a bent or dull drill bit
•
Do not exceed the manufacturer's recommended maximum drilling capacities
•
Do not use a hole saw cutter without the pilot drill
•
Do not attempt to free a jammed bit by starting and stopping the drill
•
Do not reach under or around stock being drilled
•
Do not raise or lower the drill by its power cord.
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
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SECTION 18 - POWERED HAND SAWS, SABRE AND JIG SAWS
Introduction
If not used correctly a powered handsaw, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily
hazardous. This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and
guidance provided in Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of powered handsaws can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by
following this practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate
•
Disconnect the power supply before changing or adjusting blades
•
Keep blades sharp and clean. Clean and sharp blades operate best
•
Use lubricants when cutting metals
•
Keep all cords clear of cutting area
•
Position the saw beside the material before cutting and avoid entering the cut with a
moving blade
•
Make sure any guards are installed and are working properly
•
Remember that sabre saws cut on the up stroke
•
Secure and support stock as close as possible to the cutting line to avoid vibration
•
Keep the base or shoe of the saw in firm contact with the stock being cut
•
Select the correct blade for the material being cut and allow it to cut steadily without forcing
•
Maintain proper control of the saw at all times.
Do Not:
•
Do not start cutting until the saw reaches its full power
•
Do not force a saw along or around a curve. Allow the machine to turn with ease
•
Do not insert a blade into or withdraw a blade from a cut or lead hole while the blade is
moving
•
Do not put down a saw until the motor has stopped
•
Do not reach under or around the stock being cut
•
Do not cut shoulder height or above unless absolutely unavoidable and then only after a
full hazard assessment of the task has been done and extra safety precautions put in place
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How should you start an external cut?
•
Place the front of the shoe on the stock
•
Make sure that the blade is not in
contact with the material or the saw will
stall when the motor starts
•
Hold the saw firmly down against the
material and switch the saw on
•
Feed the blade slowly into the stock
maintaining an even forward pressure
How should you start an inside cut?
•
Drill a lead hole slightly larger than the
saw blade. With the saw switched off,
insert the blade in the hole until the shoe
rests firmly on the stock
•
Do not let the blade touch the stock until
the saw has been switched on.
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SECTION 19 - PLANERS
Introduction
If not used correctly a planer, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily hazardous. This
section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance provided
in Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of planers can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate and use the appropriate hearing
protection
•
Use blades of the same weight and set at the
same height
•
Ensure that the blade-locking screws are tight
after new blade is fitted
•
Remove adjusting keys and wrenches before
turning on power
•
Check depth of cut before starting the machine
•
Support the material (stock) in a comfortable
position that will allow the job to be done safely
and accurately. Check stock thoroughly for
staples, nails, screws, or other foreign objects
before using a planer.
•
Disconnect the planer from the power supply before making any adjustments to the cutter
head or blades
•
Start a cut with the infeed table (front shoe) resting firmly on the stock and with the cutter
head slightly behind the edge of the stock
•
Use two hands to operate a planer - one hand on the trigger switch and the other on a front
handle
•
Keep all cords clear of cutting area.
Do Not:
•
Do not put your finger or any object in a deflector to clean out chips while a planer is
running
•
Do not set a planer down until blades have stopped turning
•
Do not over-reach. Keep a proper footing and balance at all times.
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SECTION 20 - ROUTERS
Introduction
If not used correctly routers, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily hazardous. This
section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance provided in
Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of routers can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Wear eye protection or a face shield where appropriate and appropriate hearing protection
when required
•
Disconnect the power supply before making any adjustments or changing bits
•
Ensure that the bit is securely mounted in the chuck and the base is tight
•
Put the base of the router on the work, template, or guide. Make sure that the bit can
rotate freely before switching on the motor
•
Secure stock. Never rely on yourself or a second person to support or hold the material.
Sudden torque or kickback from the router can cause injury
•
Before using a router, check stock thoroughly for staples, nails and other foreign objects
•
Keep all cords clear of the cutting area.
•
Hold both hands on router handles until the motor has stopped. Do not set the router down
until the exposed router bit has stopped turning
•
Keep a proper footing and balance at all times
•
Start the motor with the bit above the stock when inside routing
•
Guide the router counter clockwise around the work when routing outside edges
•
Ensure, when routing bevels, mouldings and other edge work, that the router bit is in
contact with the stock to the left of a starting point and is pointed in the correct cutting
direction
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•
Feed the router bit into the material at a firm, controlled speed
•
The sound of the motor can indicate safe cutting speeds. When the router is fed into the
material too slowly, the motor makes a high-pitched whine. When the router is pushed too
hard, the motor makes a low growling noise
•
When the type of wood or size of the bit requires going slow, make two or more passes to
prevent the router from burning out or kicking back
•
To decide the depth of cut and how many passes to make, test the router on scrap lumber
similar to the work.
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SECTION 21 - PNEUMATIC TOOLS
Introduction
Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air. Common types of these air-powered hand tools
that are used in industry include buffers, nailing and stapling guns, grinders, drills, jack hammers,
chipping hammers, riveting guns, sanders and wrenches
If not used correctly pneumatic tools, like all powered hand tools, can be unnecessarily hazardous.
This section is specific and should be read in conjunction with the information and guidance
provided in Section 12 - Powered Hand Tools - General Introduction.
Do’s and Don’ts
Operators of planers can reduce the risk of injury to themselves and others by following this
practical advice:
Do:
•
Ensure that the compressed air supplied to the
tool is clean and dry. Dust, moisture, and
corrosive fumes can damage a tool. An in-line
regulator filter and lubricator increases tool life
•
Keep tools clean and lubricated, and maintain
them according to the manufacturers' instructions
•
Use only the attachments that the manufacturer
recommends for the tools you are using
•
Be careful to prevent hands, feet, or body from
injury in case the machine slips or the tool breaks
•
Reduce physical fatigue by supporting heavy tools
with a counter-balance wherever possible
•
Review the manufacturer's instruction before using a tool
•
Wear safety glasses or a face shield where appropriate and, where necessary, safety
shoes or boots and hearing protection
•
Post warning signs where pneumatic tools are used. Set up screens or shields in areas
where nearby workers may be exposed to flying fragments, dust, and excessive noise
•
Use the proper hose and fittings of the correct diameter
•
Use hoses specifically designed to resist abrasion, cutting, crushing and failure from
continuous flexing
•
Choose air-supply hoses that have a minimum working pressure rating of 1035 kpa (150
psi) or 150% of the maximum pressure produced in the system, whichever is higher
•
Check hoses regularly for cuts, bulges, and abrasions. Tag and replace, if defective
•
Blow out the airline before connecting a tool. Hold hose firmly and blow away from yourself
and others
•
Make sure that hose connections fit properly and are equipped with a mechanical means of
securing the connection (e.g., chain, wire, or positive locking device)
•
Install quick disconnects of a pressure-release type rather than a disengagement type.
Attach the male end of the connector to the tool, NOT the hose
•
Turn off the air pressure to hose when not in use or when changing power tools
•
Avoid creating trip hazards caused by hoses laid across walkways or curled underfoot
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Do Not:
• Do not carry a pneumatic tool by its hose
•
Do not use compressed air to blow debris or to clean dirt from clothes. Do not use the
compressed air for cleaning. Compressed air may be used only if no alternate method of
cleaning is available. The nozzle pressure must remain below 207 kpa (30 psi) and
Personal protective equipment and effective chip guarding techniques must be used. Two
acceptable methods of meeting the "below 30 psi" requirement are illustrated below.
General safety principles for using pneumatic nailing and stapling tools?
• Permit only experienced and trained persons to operate
•
Wear safety glasses or face a shield where appropriate and, where necessary, use hearing
protection
•
Inspect a tool before connecting it to air supply:
o
o
Check tool safety mechanisms if applicable
Tighten securely all screws and cylinder caps
•
Check correct air supply and pressure
before connecting a tool
•
Check that the tool is correctly and
securely connected to the air supply hose
and that it is in good working order, with
the safety mechanism operative, before
using
•
Always handle a tool as if it is loaded with
fasteners (nails, staples, etc.)
•
Equip tools with a work-contacting
element that limits the contact area to one
that is as small as practical
•
Make sure that the mechanical linkage
between work-contacting element and
trigger is enclosed
•
Disconnect a tool from air supply when the tool is unattended and during cleaning or
adjustment. Before clearing a blockage, be sure that depressing the trigger exhausts all air
from the tool
•
Use only fasteners recommended by the manufacturer
•
Permit only properly trained people to carry out tool maintenance
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•
Do not point the tool toward yourself or anyone else
whether it contains fasteners or not
•
Do not operate at a pressure above the
manufacturers' rating
•
Do not depress the trigger unless the nosepiece of
tool is directed onto a safe work surface
•
Do not carry a tool with the trigger depressed
•
Do not load a tool with fasteners while the trigger is
depressed
•
Do not overreach. Keep proper footing and balance
•
Do not use compressed air to blow debris or to clean
dirt from clothes unless at low pressure.
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APPENDIX 1 - MACHINERY GUARDING PRINCIPLES
Introduction
Machinery accidents cause serious and permanently disabling injuries.
•
Machinery is involved in 80% of fatal workplace accidents
•
Machinery is involved in 25% of non-fatal workplace accidents
•
There are approximately 10,000 injury compensation claims in New Zealand each year
from accidents involving Machinery.
Many of these accidents happen when:
•
Machinery is unguarded or inadequately guarded
•
Operators try to remove an item which has become caught in a machine
•
Operators try to clean hazardous areas whilst machine is in motion
•
Maintenance staff try to repair or service a machine which is still energised
It is the Policy of the Registered Master Joiners to reduce the risks of injury that may occur when
operating machinery. The Hazard Management procedure is as follows:
1. Identify the Hazard
2. Eliminate, Isolate or minimise the hazard by a design improvement
3. The use of various safeguards e.g. fixed guards, interlocks, and light beams etc.
4. Following the Safe Working Practices outlined in this Guide.
Machinery accident types
Movement of machinery parts consists mainly of rotary, sliding or reciprocating motion or
combination of these. There are five typical ways that people can be injured when working with
machines:
1. Being struck by an object
2. Striking against an object
3. Coming into contact with a harmful energy source e.g. electricity or heat
4. Becoming entangled on a stationary or moving object
5. Becoming caught between (e.g. pinched or crushed), either between a moving object and a
stationary object or between two moving objects.
Most injuries from working with machines are caused by Mechanical Hazards. Always make sure
you understand your work instructions before attempting to use any tool or machine and learn the
applications and limitations before use.
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Machine high-risk hazards include:
•
Shearing and Cutting actions
•
Entanglement actions
•
In-running Nip actions [see diagram above]
•
Impact actions
•
Flying particles
•
Crushing actions
•
Pressing and Forming actions
•
Stabbing actions
•
Drilling actions
Machine high hazard areas must be guarded, to prevent any part of the body gaining access to
those risk areas whilst the machine is switched on or in motion.
Machine high hazard areas, that must be accessed for machine setting or maintenance must be
shut-off from all sources of energy and locked-off and/or tagged out before guards are removed to
gain access.
MACHINE GUARD TYPES
There are a number of different types of Machine Guards in use, some of which are described
below. Except for planned maintenance and repairs, guards of any type should never (under any
circumstances and for whatever reason) be tampered with. Failure to adhere to this ‘golden rule’
has led to many serious injuries and a number of fatalities.
Fixed Guard. A fixed guard has no moving parts and stops contact between moving machinery
parts and any part of the body. It protects people only if they are correctly fixed in position. Fixed
guards must only be able to be opened or removed by a special tool. Removal of any guard is a
serious matter and must only be carried out by authorised and competent staff.
Interlocking Guard. This type of guard does not allow a person to access the high-risk areas of
the machine during the working stroke. It is typically electrically or mechanically operated by the
drive mechanism of the machine. When a gate, guard, or door is opened, the interlocking switch
isolates the power supply.
Automatic Guard. This type of guard automatically moves into position as the machine, or cycle,
starts. It is also known as a ‘push-away’ or ‘sweep-away’ guard. It is only suitable on slow
Machines.
Distance Guard. A distance guard is a barrier, such as a fence, to prevent any person from
getting access to the high-risk areas of the machine.
Trip Guard. A trip guard senses the presence of an object usually via some type of beam or ray
and stops the machine when an operator gets into a position where they could be injured. A
photoelectric light curtain, which uses infra red light is an example of this type of guard.
Isolation Guarding. This is not a physical guard. People are protected from injury by the
separation between them and the hazardous parts of the machine i.e. they are ‘isolated’ from the
hazard, unless they deliberately enter the hazardous area.
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LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
All Guards and Safety Devices must have certain features. They must:
•
‘Fail to Safe’ under all conditions i.e. if they fail, stop working, or are opened, the machine
will automatically stop
•
Prevent access to the Danger Zone(s) while the machine is operating
•
Preferably be fixed or move into place automatically
•
Be designed specifically for the machine and its hazards
•
Not restrict, annoy, or create undue difficulties for the operator
•
Not need delicate adjustment for effective guarding
•
Not be easily moved out of place
•
Not create a hazard themselves
•
Require a tool for opening or removal rather than being able to be opened by hand.
Know where the Emergency Stop(s)
are located.
SAFE OPERATION OF MACHINES
Guarding Audits
Regular audits of all Machines must be undertaken to ensure that all guards are in place and
working effectively. These Audits should also check staff compliance with Machine Safety Rules
and Procedures. e.g. Lockout/Tag out Procedures and Guard Removal Procedures and related
records.
MACHINE MAINTENANCE
Ensure that all machines are cleaned and maintained in accordance with a maintenance schedule
When any employee needs to access high Risk Areas/Parts of any Machine, to carry out servicing
and/or maintenance, the Machine must be isolated from its motive power – e.g. Electricity, Air, or
Hydraulics.
Maintenance personnel must be aware of the hazard of ‘stored energy’, which could allow the
machine to operate unexpectedly during maintenance operations.
All organisations should have a simple Lockout System which is rigorously enforced.
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APPENDIX 2 - PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
What is Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)?
PPE is equipment worn by a worker to minimize exposure to specific occupational hazards.
Examples of PPE include respirators, gloves, aprons, fall protection, and full body overall, as well
as head, eye and foot protection.
PPE Limitations
PPE does not reduce the hazard itself nor does it guarantee permanent or total protection. Using
PPE is only one element in a safety program that should incorporate a variety of strategies to
maintain a safe and healthy occupational environment.
It is critically important to realise that PPE has its limitations:
•
It only protects the wearer. Other employees who may also be affected by the hazard to a
lesser extent are not protected.
• It relies on the employee accepting it and agreeing to wear it at all appropriate times. Even in
these circumstances, the individual may genuinely forget to wear the item at a vital time when it
is needed
• In order to provide appropriate protection, it relies on the employee wearing it correctly
• Damaged PPE does not offer full protection, but it is frequently worn by employees
• Most items of PPE have a limited life span and will not offer the appropriate level of protection
once the expiry date has been reached. Regrettably, this is frequently overlooked and many
employees continue to wear old PPE in the mistaken believe that it will provide adequate
protection in the event of an accident.
For these reasons, providing PPE should always be regarded as a last resort, to be used only
when all other options to eliminate or isolate the hazard have been exhausted, but there still
remains an unacceptable residual risk.
Personal Protective Equipment Standards
Ensure that all Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) purchased conforms to relevant NZ
Standards. If PPE is misused, it may fail sooner than intended and may also lead to users not
being properly protected.
Worn out or damaged PPE will not protect employees as intended. Any worn or damaged PPE
must be repaired or replaced immediately. Many injuries have occurred when worn out or
damaged PPE failed to protect the victim. Users must always wear PPE in the prescribed manner.
EAR MUFFS
Hearing protection is now divided into 5 classes of protection. For noise levels above 85 dBA for
an 8-hour day, Ear Plugs or Muffs must be supplied. Ear Plugs are now available up to Class 5.
When not in use, Muffs must be kept clean and stored in hygienic conditions. The ear seals must
be springy and soft to touch as when they are new. Once the seals have been compressed over a
long period of time, the seals must be replaced. If the Muffs become soiled by any foreign matter,
then they should be cleaned with warm soapy water. They can be taken apart and re-assembled
easily.
Muffs must be worn at all times when in a “Noise Hazard Area” as signed. Hearing damage can
occur if working for prolonged periods in an area which is above 90 dBA and this is common in
most joinery shops. The NZ standard for an 8-hour day is no louder than an average of 85 dBA.
© Securo Ltd.
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The Registered Master Joiners’ Health and Safety Guide
RESPIRATORS
For all contact with nuisance and hazardous particulates, (e.g. occasional airborne wood dust,
paint, solvent vapours and aerosols) an approved respirator or appropriate dust mask should be
worn as required.
In order to be effective, respirators must be properly sealed to the face. They must form a close fit
over the mouth and nose and achieve an airtight seal with the skin. Any hair from a moustache or
beard will almost certainly mean that a seal test will fail so special consideration is required for the
individual in these circumstances.
Any leak will let in the very small particulates that protection against is required. Most problems
with harmful dust are caused by particulates of less than 5 microns, which pass easily through the
human respiratory defence system and lodge themselves in the lung.
When spraying paint, lacquer, or varnish, employees are required to wear a respirator.
All wearers must be instructed in how to fit and wear a respirator correctly. When not being worn,
respirators must be stored in a sealed container or bag. If left in a polluted atmosphere, the filters
will continue to absorb the noxious dust or any fumes and will need to be replaced more
frequently.
The respirator should be cleaned at the end of a shift or on completion of a task. All the
components of the respirator can be renewed. A sure sign that a filter cartridge needs replacing is
when the operator finds it more difficult to breath. Always use the correct replacement filter. To
ensure adequate hygiene, each user should have their own respirator for hygiene purposes.
SAFETY GLASSES
Safety Glasses are designed to be worn when performing any task where there is a possibility of
an impact from any flying objects. Joinery operations will require the issue of AS/NZS Standard
1337 Eye Protection (Usually with Polycarbonate lens) for all employees exposed to this risk.
Most glasses have an adjustable side arm, to allow for individual differences. They need to be
properly adjusted and the lenses kept clean and scratch-free to ensure appropriate safety.
SAFETY FOOTWEAR
Steel capped safety Footwear complying with AS/NZS standard 2210.3 should be issued to all
employees engaged in manual handling and other tasks where a foot injury may occur.
Footwear must always be laced up to avoid trailing laces which present a tripping hazard. Lacing
should be in parallel style, which will facilitate easy cutting and removal in the event of an accident.
GLOVES
A wide variety of gloves for different tasks are now available to minimise hand injuries. The
correct selection of appropriate gloves for the task is important to provide a suitable level of
protection. This is not as straightforward as it appears and careful selection is needed for many
applications. If in doubt, you should contact a specialist provider.
As with all other PPE, gloves must be kept in good condition and discarded when damaged or
worn. Gloves should be cleaned regularly and suitably stored when not in use to avoid damage
and premature degradation.
© Securo Ltd.
78
The Registered Master Joiners’
Health and Safety Guide
If you need further guidance regarding the information provided in this document, please
contact the Registered Master Joiners or Securo Ltd.
Securo Ltd. is a private Health and Safety Consultancy.
PO Box 6981 Wellesley St. Auckland
Tel: 09 303 3477, Fax: 09 307 3360, Email [email protected]
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