Ref.769301 Data Over Coax Gateway Application Notes Vlan Support

Ref.769301 Data Over Coax Gateway Application Notes Vlan Support
Ref.769301
Data Over Coax Gateway
Application Notes
Vlan Support
Content Index
About this Application Note............................................................................................3
Functional Description of Router.....................................................................................3
System Interfaces description.....................................................................................3
Operation Modes.......................................................................................................3
Creating VLANs on the device.........................................................................................4
Creating VLANs on the device's Switch............................................................................5
Creating Bridge interfaces on the device..........................................................................7
Behavior of the Default Bridge (br0)..........................................................................10
WAN configuration to support VLAN...............................................................................11
LAN configuration to support VLAN................................................................................11
Application Examples..................................................................................................12
Configuring a DHCP Client with VLAN 10....................................................................12
Configuring a PPPoE Client with VLAN 10....................................................................13
Configuring a VAP SSID with VLAN............................................................................14
Configuring VLAN 100 for ATA telephone adapter (Ethernet).........................................15
Configuring switch ports for Internet access...............................................................17
Configuring multiple devices ....................................................................................20
CoaxData Application Notes
3
About this Application Note
•
VLAN creation over Coax, wireless and Ethernet interfaces.
•
Bridge connection (Bridges) between physical interfaces (Ethernet, Coaxial or Wifi) and
VLAN interfaces
•
PPPoE with VLAN: Support for packet routing through a PPPoE link over VLAN interface
•
DHCP Client with VLAN: Support for packet routing through a VLAN interface configured
with a DHCP client.
The features described in this application note are supported by
firmware versions ≥v1.00.0050
Functional Description of Router
System Interfaces description
Ref.769301 has four interfaces:
•
Coaxial interface eth0: This interface is connected to the coaxial network. Internally this
interface is called eth0 and is the interface connected to the CoaxData master device.
•
Ethernet LAN Interface eth1: This interface represents the device's Ethernet LAN ports.
This interface is connected internally to an internal switch that provides access to the three
Ethernet ports on the device.
•
Wireless interface ath0: This interface represents the device's wireless access point.
There is typically a single VAP CoaxData-DoC-Wifi (ath0) in AP mode. The device would
accept the configuration of more VAPs, that internally would be named ath0, ath1, etc.
•
Default Bridge br0: This bridge is created in the device between the Ethernet (eth1) and
Wireless (ath0) interfaces to provide ethernet bridge between the Ethernet and Wireless.
The IP configuration of the LAN (172.16.0.1) and the DHCP server operates on this
interface.
Operation Modes
ref.769301 has two modes of operation
Router Mode
In this mode there are two
networks. WAN (eth0) network is
connected to the Coaxial network
and
LAN
(br0)
network
is
connected to the Wireless (ath0)
and Ethernet (eth1) interfaces. In
this mode the device acts as a
router, routing packets from the
internal network (LAN) to the
external WAN.
www.televes.es
ENGLISH
This application note describes how to configure ref.769301 for creating VLANs. The following
features are supported:
Vlan Support – ref.769301
4
Creating VLANs on the device
In order to operate with VLAN tags in the device, it needs to have virtual interfaces configured,
that will receive traffic from an interface that incorporates an specific tag and transmit the traffic
adding the VLAN tag to it. To do this, it must be specified the VLAN tag that will be incorporated in
the packets, called VLANID.
To create Vlan interfaces, go to Network > Vlan Settings on ref.769301 Web Interface:
•
Interface: Represents the interface on which the VLAN will operate, that is, indicate
whether the VLAN tag will apply to Coaxial (eth0), Ethernet (eth1) or Wireless (ath0).
•
VlanID: Represents the VLAN tag to be incorporated into the packages, known as VLAN ID.
This value must be between [0..4094].
Once an interface is created using the Add Vlan option, a VLAN interfaces list configured in the
device will be displayed.
A standard notation is used on this document to identify the interface and packets with VLAN tags
transmited over that interface, consisting on the interface name followed by the corresponding
VLANID. For example, packets with VLANID tag 10 on the Coaxial eth0 interface will be marked
with eth0.10.
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ENGLISH
AP Mode or Bridge Mode: In this
mode there is no WAN interface
and all interfaces (Coaxial: eth0,
Wifi: ath0 and Ethernet eth1) are
interconnected to the LAN (br0),
allowing a layer 2 communication
between all interfaces. In this mode
the device works as a transparent
switch, relaying packets between
the different interfaces.
CoaxData Application Notes
5
Creating VLANs on the device's Switch
Ref.769301 has an internal switch that provides three RJ45 interfaces. This option allows the
creation of VLANs on the switch and the configuration of the Ethernet ports as members or not of
the created VLANs.
•
VLANID: Identifies the VLAN to be created on the Switch. Only values in the range
[2..4094] are accepted. As Vlan1 is the default VLAN of the switch, it is reserved for
internal use.
•
CPU Port: Identifies the port of the Switch that is connected to the device processor.
•
Ports LAN / WAN, LAN1 and LAN2: Are the three RJ45 ports of the device for Ethernet
connection.
The following image shows a graphic representation of the switch operation:
To create a VLAN on the switch, the VLAN tag must be specified for the configuration of the
switch:
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ENGLISH
To do this, both VLANs and how each port interact with those VLANs needs to be configured:
Vlan Support – ref.769301
ENGLISH
6
And indicate how the switch ports operate in that VLAN
•
Off: The port is not a member of the VLAN. Traffic associated with the VLAN will not be
transmitted through this interface.
•
Untagged: All untagged traffic arriving to this interface will be considered a member of the
VLAN. Also, VLAN traffic will be transmitted over this port without any kind of Tag.
•
Tagged: All traffic with the specified tag will be assigned to this VLAN. This VLAN traffic will
be transmitted through this port with the specified Tag.
Once established a VLAN entry in the switch, it has several options
•
Change Vlan: Allows to change the port assignment to a particular VLAN.
•
Delete Vlan: Allows to delete a VLAN entry in the switch.
This configuration of the switch allows to assign certain ports to a specific VLAN. A series of checks
are included to ensure that the port settings are correct:
•
Each port can only be Untagged in one VLAN: A port can only be declared untagged in
a single VLAN. All traffic without tag arriving or departing from that interfacewill be
associated with that VLAN. This limitation comes from the fact that if a port is declared as
untagged in two different VLANs the device won't know to which VLAN associate the traffic.
•
VLAN 1: VLAN tag 1 is used internally by the switch as a default VLAN. If there is no entry
in the configuration, all ports are members of VLAN 1 as untagged, which guarantees that
initially all switch ports are able to communicate with each other. This VLAN can not be
used for creating VLAN entries on the switch.
•
CPU Port Tagged: When the CPU port is declared tagged in a VLAN, the device will
automatically create an interface in the system, therefore if an VLAN entry on the switch
(for example VLAN 100) configures the CPU Port as Tagged, eth1.100 interface is created
so it can be used and added to a particular bridge.
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CoaxData Application Notes
7
Creating Bridge interfaces on the device
In order to transmit or receive VLAN tags on the device, it is necessary to create a Bridge on the
device and then add the interfaces that operate in it. The function of the bridge is to allow
communication between different interfaces that have been added. This communication is at
Ethernet packet level, layer2.
To create a Bridge in the device, it's needed:
Bridge Name: This is a descriptive name of the Bridge, it will be used to identify it as an
interface.
•
Add New Bridge: Adds a new Bridge to the device
ENGLISH
•
Once the Bridge is created it will appear in the system's List of Bridges Interfaces.
•
Change Config: Changes the configuration of a Bridge. This configuration changes include
the IP Address assigned to the bridge and the Subnet Mask. This allows the operators to
connect to the device via the Bridge interface created. If no communication with the device
through VLAN is needed for maintenance operations, it is not necessary to specify any IP
address associated with the bridge.
•
Delete Bridge: Removes a bridge from device.
The newly created Bridge will be incorporated as an interface to the system.
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Vlan Support – ref.769301
8
•
System Interfaces: These are the Coaxial, Wireless and/or Ethernet interfaces. When one
of this interface is added, it indicates that the bridge will operate on packets with or without
tag arriving at the bridge from this interface, unless a specific VLAN interface is created
with a VLANID tag.
•
VLAN Interfaces: These interfaces correspond to the tagged packets on the corresponding
system interface. This would be Coaxial, Ethernet or Wifi interface, configured with an
specific VLAN ID tag.
When an interface is added to a bridge, it will not be available for other bridges of the system,
since an interface can be added only to one Bridge.
•
Add: Adds an interface to a Bridge
•
Remove: Removes the interface from a Bridge.
The above VLAN interface has been added to bridge created, br-vlan10, so traffic with VlanID 10
tag coming from the coaxial, eth0.10, it will be handled by this bridge.
The following Picture graphically displays the system configuration
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ENGLISH
Next step is adding to the Bridge the interfaces that we want it to operate with. These interfaces
might be:
CoaxData Application Notes
9
VLAN10 tag coming from the Ethernet interface, we can create the corresponding VLAN interface
ENGLISH
and add the new interface to the bridge, br-vlan10 in this example
According to this configuration:
Router: All untagged packets will
be routed normally.
br-vlan10: A bridge is create
between Coaxial interface
(eth0.10) and Ethernet interface
(eth1.10) which allows packets
with tag VLAN 10 to pass directly
from the Coaxial to Ethernet and
vice versa.
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Vlan Support – ref.769301
10
Behavior of the Default Bridge (br0)
ENGLISH
The system default setting is shown again in the following picture.
This section explains how the interfaces that are connected to the default Bridge (br0) behave:
•
If any interface included in the default bridge (br0) is added to a bridge configured on the
system (br-vlan10, in the previous example), this interface will be automatically disconnect
from br0 bridge and be added to the bridge indicated (br-vlan10). If this interface is
removed from that bridge (br-vlan10 in the example), is automatically reassigned to the
default system Bridge (br0).
•
This is the reason why eth1 and ath0 interfaces, even when by default they are already
attached to the bridge br0, they are available to be added to a new bridged created in the
device; it is an exception to the rule that if an interface belongs to a bridge, it can not be
added to another.
Following our previous example, if we want
to configure the bridge br-vlan10 so the
traffic from the wireless interface (ath0)
comes out the Coaxial and Ethernet
interfaces with VLAN10 tag, we only need to
add that interface to br-vlan10.
Picture shows how the system would be set
up
Traffic coming from the Coaxial will normally
be routed through the WAN connection. This
traffic will come out through the Coaxial and
the Ethernet interfaces with VLAN10 tag.
What is actually happening is that wireless
packets are tagged with VLAN10 before
being transmitted through the Coaxial or
Ethernet. As can be seen in the picture, the
wireless interface (ath0) has been removed
from the default interface (br0)
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CoaxData Application Notes
11
WAN configuration to support VLAN
Another application is tagging WAN traffic with VLAN tag. Typical applications for this case are
PPPoE client or DHCP client with VLAN.
o configure the WAN interface to support VLAN, the desired VLAN interface (must be previously
configured) should they be selected so WAN services will run through it. It can be configured in
Network> Network Settings, selecting the interface on which the services will operate:
Coaxial eth0: This is the default interface, Coaxial interface
•
Any of the bridges created in the system. In the example, br-vlan10.
ENGLISH
•
LAN configuration to support VLAN
Like the WAN connection, LAN connection can be configured to use VLAN, although is unusual to
use this configuration. The LAN connection offers a number of services such as DHCP Server that
can be configured to run on any bridge configured on the system.
This option can be configured in Network> LAN Settings, selecting the bridge in which you want
the LAN to run
•
Bridge br0: This is the default bridge where the device is running the LAN services.
•
Any of the bridges created in the system. Br-lan in the example.
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Vlan Support – ref.769301
12
Application Examples
Configuring a DHCP Client with VLAN 10
The following case shows a configuration where
•
We want no tags on the LAN and all traffic is routed to the Coaxial.
•
We want the traffic coming out the coaxial with tag VLAN 10.
ENGLISH
To solve this scenario:
Create interface VLAN10 on
Coaxial: eth0.10
Create a bridge that includes
VLAN10 on Coaxial: br-vlan10
configure the WAN interface to
use the bridge that we just
created, and we configure it for
DHCP
Following picture shows the default configuration of the system, and the result after we apply the
mentioned configuration.
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CoaxData Application Notes
13
Configuring a PPPoE Client with VLAN 10
The following case shows a configuration where
•
We want no tags on the LAN and all traffic is routed to the Coaxial.
• We want the traffic coming out the coaxial with tag VLAN 10 on a PPPoE link.
To solve this scenario:
ENGLISH
Create interface VLAN10 on
Coaxial: eth0.10
Create a bridge that includes
VLAN10 on Coaxial: br-vlan10
Configure the WAN interface to
use the bridge that we just
created, and to use the PPPoE,
setting the username and
password.
Following picture shows the default configuration of the system, and the result after we apply the
mentioned configuration.
www.televes.es
Vlan Support – ref.769301
14
Configuring a VAP SSID with VLAN
One of the most popular application corresponds to the following scenario
•
Creating a VAP with SSID CoaxData-doc-Wifi (ath0), where packets are transmitted
through the Coaxial with VLAN tag 100
•
Creating of a second VAP with SSID CoaxData-doc-Wifi-2 (ath1), where packets are
transmitted through the Coaxial with VLAN tag 200
•
Ethernet packets are routed normally.
ENGLISH
To solve this situation
Create two SSIDs
CoaxData-DoC-Wifi
CoaxData-DoC-Wifi-2
where each one can have its
own security settings: WPA /
WPA2, etc ..
Create interfaces with tag
Vlan100 and Vlan200 in
Coaxial (eth0.100 and
eth0.200)
Create a bridge br-vlan100
and add the coaxial interface
with tag VLAN100 (eth0.100)
and with SSID CoaxData-docWifi (ath0)
Create a bridge br-vlan200
and add the Coaxial interface
with tag VLAN200 (eth0.200)
and the interface with SSID
CoaxData-doc-Wifi-2 (ath1)
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CoaxData Application Notes
ENGLISH
15
Configuring VLAN 100 for ATA telephone adapter (Ethernet)
The following application example implements the following scenario
•
Wifi and Ethernet traffic without tag will be routed as normal through the WAN (Coaxial)
•
VoIP network operates on the VLAN100. In one of the Ethernet ports, a VoIP adapter (ATA)
that is configured to work with VLAN100 is connected.
Create interfaces with VLAN100 tag in
both Ethernet and Coaxial
Create a bridge Br-vlan100 and add the
Coaxial interface with VLAN100 tag
(ath0.100) and the Ethernet interface
with VLAN100 tag (eth1.100).
VoIP data generated with VLAN100 tag
by the ATA adapter shall be forwarded
directly through the Coaxial with tag
VLAN100
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Vlan Support – ref.769301
ENGLISH
16
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CoaxData Application Notes
17
Configuring switch ports for Internet access
VLAN support on the switch allows the configuration of specific, different functions for each of the
switch ports. This means that we can assign a particular function on the router to each of the
switch ports .
•
WAN: The LAN/WAN interface to act as WAN in a Router connected to Internet through an
Ethernet port. To do this, we need to create a br-wan bridge, which will only include the
Ethernet LAN/WAN port.
•
LAN: That Coaxial, Wifi, LAN 1 and LAN 2 ports behave as in a LAN interface, with a DHCP
server. To do this, we need to create a br-lan bridge, that incorporates all these interfaces.
Creating a connection configuration
VLAN creation and bridges configuration on the device can result on a loss of connectivity when
the interfaces involved are used for that configuration, so our first step should be to communicate
with the device through a wireless connection that will not be affected on this process. We will use
the Wifi with a VAP specifically created for system configuration.
Create a VAP connection, DoC-WifiCoaxData-Gestion (ath1).
Create a bridge named br-config,
with a known address (10.0.0.1),
that includes this vap
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ENGLISH
As an example, below it's shown a configuration where the Router is configured to operate NOT
through the Coaxial interface (eth0), but through the LAN / WAN port.
PTo achieve this configuration, we would like:
Vlan Support – ref.769301
18
ENGLISH
Connect a PC with address 10.0.0.2
through that VAP via Wifi
This VAP will be used only to
establish the VLAN and bridge
configuration, without the fear of
losing connectivity with the device; in
this example, our configuration
affects ethernet ports LAN1, LAN2
and LAN/WAN, as well as coaxial and
wireless interfaces.
10.0.0.2 a través de dicho VAP via
Wifi
After this, we can connect to the Web interface http://10.0.0.2, without fear of losing connectivity
with the device.
Creating interfaces on the switch
First step is to define two VLANs on the switch.
•
Vlan 2: The first VLAN will be untagged, and will include LAN1, LAN2 Ethernet Ports and
CPU Port. All port willl be configured as untagged. With this configuration, the traffic that
does not incorporate tags into LAN1 and LAN2 will be transmitted without tags to the
system.
•
Vlan 3: The second VLAN will declare LAN /WAN port as as untagged and CPU Port as
tagged.With this configuration, al untagged packages that arrives to the LAN/WAN interface
will be transmitted with tag VLAN 3 to the system's port.
The fact of using specific tags (VLANID 2 to VLANID 3) is a mere artifice, as we are only
making use VLAN tags internally, in this case. We use the VLAN tag to separate the traffic
coming from the different switch's ports.
Therefore, in the processor's Coaxial interface (eth1)
•
•
Ethernet traffic without tag comes from LAN1 and LAN2 interfaces
•
Ethernet traffic with VLAN tag 3 comes from the LAN / WAN interface.
Following screenshot shows the configuration on the switch.
If you are connected to the device via Ethernet, to set this
configuration; follow the proposed example and connect through a
wireless VAP exclusive for management.
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CoaxData Application Notes
19
Creating bridges in the system
Once we can distinguish the Ethernet interfaces, we create the bridges depending on the desired
configuration.
br-wan: traffic from LAN / WAN port. This traffic is transmitted to the system interface with
VLAN3, so wan bridge will include the ethernet interface wit VLAN tag 3; this is eth1.3
interface. NOTE: When a VLAN is created including the CPU port as tagged, it automatically
creates the corresponding VLAN, eth1.3, in the VLAN interfaces, without the need of doing
it manually.
•
br-lan: This bridge includes Wifi, Coaxial, LAN1 and LAN2 ports.
ENGLISH
•
Assigning bridges to LAN and WAN
To do this, we establish the WAN interface
as br-wan in Network> Network Settings
•
WAN is connected to the router
through the bridge br-wan and will
be configured via DHCP client.
And set LAN interface as br-lan in
Network> LAN settings
•
LAN will have a DHCP server, so the
devices connected will obtain the IP
automatically.
Setting MxU Master mode
As the Router is now using the Ethernet
LAN / WAN port to establish the WAN
connection, the Coaxial port can be used
to create a LAN through Coaxial cable.
This requires changing the operating
mode of the Router from Slave mode
(slave) to Master mode (master). This
configuration must be done with an
additional tool called CoaxManager, that
configures the Coaxial modem, and can
be used to connect the modem remotely
via Coaxial or locally in the br-lan ports:
LAN1, LAN2 (eth1) or via the wireless
(ath0);
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Vlan Support – ref.769301
20
Configuring multiple devices
Many of the examples given may cause a loss of connectivity because the interface used during
configuration may also be included in the VLAN interfaces or bridges created. To avoid this
problem as much as possible, we recommend these two mechanisms
Create an interface for configuration
ENGLISH
Whenever possible, create an interface exclusive for system configuration. This configuration
interface (eg br-config) can be created as a Wifi VAP, specific VLAN over coaxial or Ethernet trafic
or even a VLAN that only affects one or some of the switch's ports. Usually the purpose of these
interfaces is temporary and can be removed once achieved the desired configuration.
Example I
VAP Wireless for
system configuration
Example II
Vlan specified for
configuration
(VLAN10) with IP
Address: 10.0.0.1
Example III
Specific switch port
(LAN2) used
exclusively for
configuration in
VLAN10
Load configuration on device (RECOMMENDED)
The device can also be configured by loading the configuration already generated in other device.
This implies that it is not necessary to create the configuration bridge. For this purpose, the
options Save Config and Load Config are available in Management> Device Management.
Save Settings
Load Settings
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