Ref.769301 Data Over Coax Gateway Application Notes Vlan Support

Ref.769301 Data Over Coax Gateway Application Notes Vlan Support

Ref.769301

Data Over Coax Gateway

Application Notes

Vlan Support

Content Index

About this Application Note............................................................................................3

Functional Description of Router.....................................................................................3

System Interfaces description.....................................................................................3

Operation Modes.......................................................................................................3

Creating VLANs on the device.........................................................................................4

Creating VLANs on the device's Switch............................................................................5

Creating Bridge interfaces on the device..........................................................................7

Behavior of the Default Bridge (br0)..........................................................................10

WAN configuration to support VLAN...............................................................................11

LAN configuration to support VLAN................................................................................11

Application Examples..................................................................................................12

Configuring a DHCP Client with VLAN 10....................................................................12

Configuring a PPPoE Client with VLAN 10....................................................................13

Configuring a VAP SSID with VLAN............................................................................14

Configuring VLAN 100 for ATA telephone adapter (Ethernet).........................................15

Configuring switch ports for Internet access...............................................................17

Configuring multiple devices ....................................................................................20

CoaxData Application Notes

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About this Application Note

This application note describes how to configure ref.769301 for creating VLANs. The following features are supported:

VLAN creation

over Coax, wireless and Ethernet interfaces.

Bridge connection (Bridges)

between physical interfaces (Ethernet, Coaxial or Wifi) and

VLAN interfaces

PPPoE with VLAN

: Support for packet routing through a PPPoE link over VLAN interface

DHCP Client with VLAN

: Support for packet routing through a VLAN interface configured with a DHCP client.

The features described in this application note are supported by firmware versions ≥

v1.00.0050

Functional Description of Router

System Interfaces description

Ref.769301 has four interfaces:

Coaxial interface eth0

: This interface is connected to the coaxial network. Internally this interface is called eth0 and is the interface connected to the CoaxData master device.

Ethernet LAN Interface eth1

: This interface represents the device's Ethernet LAN ports.

This interface is connected internally to an internal switch that provides access to the three

Ethernet ports on the device.

Wireless interface ath0

: This interface represents the device's wireless access point.

There is typically a single VAP CoaxData-DoC-Wifi (ath0) in AP mode. The device would accept the configuration of more VAPs, that internally would be named ath0, ath1, etc.

Default Bridge br0

: This bridge is created in the device between the Ethernet (eth1) and

Wireless (ath0) interfaces to provide ethernet bridge between the Ethernet and Wireless.

The IP configuration of the LAN (172.16.0.1) and the DHCP server operates on this interface.

Operation Modes

ref.769301 has two modes of operation

Router Mode

In this mode there are two networks. WAN (eth0) network is connected to the Coaxial network and LAN (br0) network is connected to the Wireless (ath0) and Ethernet (eth1) interfaces. In this mode the device acts as a router, routing packets from the internal network (LAN) to the external WAN.

www.televes.es

Vlan Support – ref.769301

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AP Mode or Bridge Mode:

In this mode there is no WAN interface and all interfaces (Coaxial: eth0,

Wifi: ath0 and Ethernet eth1) are interconnected to the LAN (br0), allowing a layer 2 communication between all interfaces. In this mode the device works as a transparent switch, relaying packets between the different interfaces.

Creating VLANs on the device

In order to operate with VLAN tags in the device, it needs to have virtual interfaces configured, that will receive traffic from an interface that incorporates an specific tag and transmit the traffic adding the VLAN tag to it. To do this, it must be specified the VLAN tag that will be incorporated in the packets, called VLANID.

To create Vlan interfaces, go to Network > Vlan Settings on ref.769301 Web Interface:

Interface

: Represents the interface on which the VLAN will operate, that is, indicate whether the VLAN tag will apply to Coaxial (eth0), Ethernet (eth1) or Wireless (ath0).

VlanID

: Represents the VLAN tag to be incorporated into the packages, known as VLAN ID.

This value must be between [0..4094].

Once an interface is created using the

Add Vlan

option, a VLAN interfaces list configured in the device will be displayed.

A standard notation is used on this document to identify the interface and packets with VLAN tags transmited over that interface, consisting on the interface name followed by the corresponding

VLANID. For example, packets with VLANID tag 10 on the Coaxial eth0 interface will be marked with eth0.10.

www.televes.es

CoaxData Application Notes

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Creating VLANs on the device's Switch

Ref.769301 has an internal switch that provides three RJ45 interfaces. This option allows the creation of VLANs on the switch and the configuration of the Ethernet ports as members or not of the created VLANs.

To do this, both VLANs and how each port interact with those VLANs needs to be configured:

VLANID

: Identifies the VLAN to be created on the Switch. Only values in the range

[2..4094] are accepted. As Vlan1 is the default VLAN of the switch, it is reserved for internal use.

CPU Port

: Identifies the port of the Switch that is connected to the device processor.

Ports LAN / WAN, LAN1 and LAN2:

Are the three RJ45 ports of the device for Ethernet connection.

The following image shows a graphic representation of the switch operation:

To create a VLAN on the switch, the VLAN tag must be specified for the configuration of the switch: www.televes.es

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And indicate how the switch ports operate in that VLAN

Off

: The port is not a member of the VLAN. Traffic associated with the VLAN will not be transmitted through this interface.

Untagged

: All untagged traffic arriving to this interface will be considered a member of the

VLAN. Also, VLAN traffic will be transmitted over this port without any kind of Tag.

Tagged

: All traffic with the specified tag will be assigned to this VLAN. This VLAN traffic will be transmitted through this port with the specified Tag.

Once established a VLAN entry in the switch, it has several options

Change Vlan

: Allows to change the port assignment to a particular VLAN.

Delete Vlan

: Allows to delete a VLAN entry in the switch.

This configuration of the switch allows to assign certain ports to a specific VLAN. A series of checks are included to ensure that the port settings are correct:

Each port can only be Untagged in one VLAN

: A port can only be declared untagged in a single VLAN. All traffic without tag arriving or departing from that interfacewill be associated with that VLAN. This limitation comes from the fact that if a port is declared as untagged in two different VLANs the device won't know to which VLAN associate the traffic.

VLAN 1

: VLAN tag 1 is used internally by the switch as a default VLAN. If there is no entry in the configuration, all ports are members of VLAN 1 as untagged, which guarantees that initially all switch ports are able to communicate with each other. This VLAN can not be used for creating VLAN entries on the switch.

CPU Port Tagged

: When the CPU port is declared tagged in a VLAN, the device will automatically create an interface in the system, therefore if an VLAN entry on the switch

(for example VLAN 100) configures the CPU Port as Tagged, eth1.100 interface is created so it can be used and added to a particular bridge. www.televes.es

CoaxData Application Notes

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Creating Bridge interfaces on the device

In order to transmit or receive VLAN tags on the device, it is necessary to create a Bridge on the device and then add the interfaces that operate in it. The function of the bridge is to allow communication between different interfaces that have been added. This communication is at

Ethernet packet level, layer2.

To create a Bridge in the device, it's needed:

Bridge Name

: This is a descriptive name of the Bridge, it will be used to identify it as an interface.

Add New Bridge

: Adds a new Bridge to the device

Once the Bridge is created it will appear in the system's List of Bridges Interfaces.

Change Config

: Changes the configuration of a Bridge. This configuration changes include the IP Address assigned to the bridge and the Subnet Mask. This allows the operators to connect to the device via the Bridge interface created. If no communication with the device through VLAN is needed for maintenance operations, it is not necessary to specify any IP address associated with the bridge.

Delete Bridge:

Removes a bridge from device.

The newly created Bridge will be incorporated as an interface to the system.

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Next step is adding to the Bridge the interfaces that we want it to operate with. These interfaces might be:

System Interfaces:

These are the Coaxial, Wireless and/or Ethernet interfaces. When one of this interface is added, it indicates that the bridge will operate on packets with or without tag arriving at the bridge from this interface, unless a specific VLAN interface is created with a VLANID tag.

VLAN Interfaces:

These interfaces correspond to the tagged packets on the corresponding system interface. This would be Coaxial, Ethernet or Wifi interface, configured with an specific VLAN ID tag.

When an interface is added to a bridge, it will not be available for other bridges of the system, since an interface can be added only

to one Bridge.

Add

: Adds an interface to a Bridge

Remove

: Removes the interface from a Bridge.

The above VLAN interface has been added to bridge created, br-vlan10, so traffic with VlanID 10 tag coming from the coaxial, eth0.10, it will be handled by this bridge.

The following Picture graphically displays the system configuration www.televes.es

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VLAN10 tag coming from the Ethernet interface, we can create the corresponding VLAN interface and add the new interface to the bridge, br-vlan10 in this example

According to this configuration:

Router

: All untagged packets will be routed normally.

br-vlan10

: A bridge is create between Coaxial interface

(eth0.10) and Ethernet interface

(eth1.10) which allows packets with tag VLAN 10 to pass directly from the Coaxial to Ethernet and vice versa.

www.televes.es

Behavior of the Default Bridge (br0)

The system default setting is shown again in the following picture.

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This section explains how the interfaces that are connected to the default Bridge (br0) behave:

If any interface included in the default bridge (br0) is added to a bridge configured on the system (br-vlan10, in the previous example), this interface will be automatically disconnect from br0 bridge and be added to the bridge indicated (br-vlan10). If this interface is removed from that bridge (br-vlan10 in the example), is automatically reassigned to the default system Bridge (br0).

This is the reason why eth1 and ath0 interfaces, even when by default they are already attached to the bridge br0, they are available to be added to a new bridged created in the device; it is an exception to the rule that if an interface belongs to a bridge, it can not be added to another.

Following our previous example, if we want to configure the bridge br-vlan10 so the traffic from the wireless interface (ath0) comes out the Coaxial and Ethernet interfaces with VLAN10 tag, we only need to add that interface to br-vlan10.

Picture shows how the system would be set up

Traffic coming from the Coaxial will normally be routed through the WAN connection. This traffic will come out through the Coaxial and the Ethernet interfaces with VLAN10 tag.

What is actually happening is that wireless packets are tagged with VLAN10 before being transmitted through the Coaxial or

Ethernet. As can be seen in the picture, the wireless interface (ath0) has been removed from the default interface (br0) www.televes.es

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WAN configuration to support VLAN

Another application is tagging WAN traffic with VLAN tag. Typical applications for this case are

PPPoE client or DHCP client with VLAN.

o configure the WAN interface to support VLAN, the desired VLAN interface (must be previously configured) should they be selected so WAN services will run through it. It can be configured in

Network> Network Settings, selecting the interface on which the services will operate:

Coaxial eth0: This is the default interface, Coaxial interface

Any of the bridges created in the system. In the example, br-vlan10.

LAN configuration to support VLAN

Like the WAN connection, LAN connection can be configured to use VLAN, although is unusual to use this configuration. The LAN connection offers a number of services such as DHCP Server that can be configured to run on any bridge configured on the system.

This option can be configured in Network> LAN Settings, selecting the bridge in which you want the LAN to run

Bridge br0: This is the default bridge where the device is running the LAN services.

Any of the bridges created in the system. Br-lan in the example.

www.televes.es

Vlan Support – ref.769301

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Application Examples

Configuring a DHCP Client with VLAN 10

The following case shows a configuration where

We want no tags on the LAN and all traffic is routed to the Coaxial.

We want the traffic coming out the coaxial with tag VLAN 10.

To solve this scenario:

Create interface VLAN10 on

Coaxial: eth0.10

Create a bridge that includes

VLAN10 on Coaxial: br-vlan10 configure the WAN interface to use the bridge that we just created, and we configure it for

DHCP

Following picture shows the default configuration of the system, and the result after we apply the mentioned configuration.

www.televes.es

CoaxData Application Notes

Configuring a PPPoE Client with VLAN 10

The following case shows a configuration where

We want no tags on the LAN and all traffic is routed to the Coaxial.

We want the traffic coming out the coaxial with tag VLAN 10 on a PPPoE link.

To solve this scenario:

Create interface VLAN10 on

Coaxial: eth0.10

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Create a bridge that includes

VLAN10 on Coaxial: br-vlan10

Configure the WAN interface to use the bridge that we just created, and to use the PPPoE, setting the username and password.

Following picture shows the default configuration of the system, and the result after we apply the mentioned configuration.

www.televes.es

Vlan Support – ref.769301

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Configuring a VAP SSID with VLAN

One of the most popular application corresponds to the following scenario

Creating a VAP with SSID CoaxData-doc-Wifi (ath0), where packets are transmitted through the Coaxial with VLAN tag 100

Creating of a second VAP with SSID CoaxData-doc-Wifi-2 (ath1), where packets are transmitted through the Coaxial with VLAN tag 200

Ethernet packets are routed normally.

To solve this situation

Create two SSIDs

CoaxData-DoC-Wifi

CoaxData-DoC-Wifi-2

where each one can have its own security settings: WPA /

WPA2, etc ..

Create interfaces with tag

Vlan100 and Vlan200 in

Coaxial (eth0.100 and eth0.200)

Create a bridge br-vlan100 and add the coaxial interface with tag VLAN100 (eth0.100) and with SSID CoaxData-doc-

Wifi (ath0)

Create a bridge br-vlan200 and add the Coaxial interface with tag VLAN200 (eth0.200) and the interface with SSID

CoaxData-doc-Wifi-2 (ath1) www.televes.es

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Configuring VLAN 100 for ATA telephone adapter (Ethernet)

The following application example implements the following scenario

Wifi and Ethernet traffic without tag will be routed as normal through the WAN (Coaxial)

VoIP network operates on the VLAN100. In one of the Ethernet ports, a VoIP adapter (ATA) that is configured to work with VLAN100 is connected.

Create interfaces with VLAN100 tag in both Ethernet and Coaxial

Create a bridge Br-vlan100 and add the

Coaxial interface with VLAN100 tag

(ath0.100) and the Ethernet interface with VLAN100 tag (eth1.100).

VoIP data generated with VLAN100 tag by the ATA adapter shall be forwarded directly through the Coaxial with tag

VLAN100 www.televes.es

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www.televes.es

CoaxData Application Notes

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Configuring switch ports for Internet access

VLAN support on the switch allows the configuration of specific, different functions for each of the switch ports. This means that we can assign a particular function on the router to each of the switch ports .

As an example, below it's shown a configuration where the Router is configured to operate NOT through the Coaxial interface (eth0), but through the LAN / WAN port.

PTo achieve this configuration, we would like:

WAN

: The LAN/WAN interface to act as WAN in a Router connected to Internet through an

Ethernet port. To do this, we need to create a br-wan bridge, which will only include the

Ethernet LAN/WAN port.

LAN

: That Coaxial, Wifi, LAN 1 and LAN 2 ports behave as in a LAN interface, with a DHCP server. To do this, we need to create a br-lan bridge, that incorporates all these interfaces.

Creating a connection configuration

VLAN creation and bridges configuration on the device can result on a loss of connectivity when the interfaces involved are used for that configuration, so our first step should be to communicate with the device through a wireless connection that will not be affected on this process. We will use the Wifi with a VAP specifically created for system configuration.

Create a VAP connection, DoC-Wifi-

CoaxData-Gestion (ath1).

Create a bridge named br-config, with a known address (10.0.0.1), that includes this vap www.televes.es

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Connect a PC with address 10.0.0.2 through that VAP via Wifi

This VAP will be used only to establish the VLAN and bridge configuration, without the fear of losing connectivity with the device; in this example, our configuration affects ethernet ports LAN1, LAN2 and LAN/WAN, as well as coaxial and wireless interfaces.

10.0.0.2 a través de dicho VAP via

Wifi

After this, we can connect to the Web interface http://10.0.0.2, without fear of losing connectivity with the device.

Creating interfaces on the switch

First step is to define two VLANs on the switch.

Vlan 2:

The first VLAN will be untagged, and will include LAN1, LAN2 Ethernet Ports and

CPU Port. All port willl be configured as untagged. With this configuration, the traffic that does not incorporate tags into LAN1 and LAN2 will be transmitted without tags to the system.

Vlan 3:

The second VLAN will declare LAN /WAN port as as untagged and CPU Port as tagged.With this configuration, al untagged packages that arrives to the LAN/WAN interface will be transmitted with tag VLAN 3 to the system's port.

The fact of using specific tags (VLANID 2 to VLANID 3) is a mere artifice, as we are only making use VLAN tags internally, in this case. We use the VLAN tag to separate the traffic coming from the different switch's ports.

Therefore, in the processor's Coaxial interface (eth1)

Ethernet traffic without tag comes from LAN1 and LAN2 interfaces

Ethernet traffic with VLAN tag 3 comes from the LAN / WAN interface.

Following screenshot shows the configuration on the switch.

If you are connected to the device via Ethernet, to set this configuration; follow the proposed example and connect through a wireless VAP exclusive for management. www.televes.es

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Creating bridges in the system

Once we can distinguish the Ethernet interfaces, we create the bridges depending on the desired configuration.

br-wan:

traffic from LAN / WAN port. This traffic is transmitted to the system interface with

VLAN3, so wan bridge will include the ethernet interface wit VLAN tag 3; this is eth1.3 interface. NOTE: When a VLAN is created including the CPU port as tagged, it automatically creates the corresponding VLAN, eth1.3, in the VLAN interfaces, without the need of doing it manually.

br-lan

: This bridge includes Wifi, Coaxial, LAN1 and LAN2 ports.

Assigning bridges to LAN and WAN

To do this, we establish the WAN interface as br-wan in Network> Network Settings

WAN is connected to the router through the bridge br-wan and will be configured via DHCP client.

And set LAN interface as br-lan in

Network> LAN settings

LAN will have a DHCP server, so the devices connected will obtain the IP automatically.

Setting MxU Master mode

As the Router is now using the Ethernet

LAN / WAN port to establish the WAN connection, the Coaxial port can be used to create a LAN through Coaxial cable.

This requires changing the operating mode of the Router from Slave mode

(slave) to Master mode (master). This configuration must be done with an additional tool called CoaxManager, that configures the Coaxial modem, and can be used to connect the modem remotely via Coaxial or locally in the br-lan ports:

LAN1, LAN2 (eth1) or via the wireless

(ath0); www.televes.es

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Configuring multiple devices

Many of the examples given may cause a loss of connectivity because the interface used during configuration may also be included in the VLAN interfaces or bridges created. To avoid this problem as much as possible, we recommend these two mechanisms

Create an interface for configuration

Whenever possible, create an interface exclusive for system configuration. This configuration interface (eg br-config) can be created as a Wifi VAP, specific VLAN over coaxial or Ethernet trafic or even a VLAN that only affects one or some of the switch's ports. Usually the purpose of these interfaces is temporary and can be removed once achieved the desired configuration.

Example I

VAP Wireless for system configuration

Example II

Vlan specified for configuration

(VLAN10) with IP

Address: 10.0.0.1

Example III

Specific switch port

(LAN2) used exclusively for configuration in

VLAN10

Load configuration on device (RECOMMENDED)

The device can also be configured by loading the configuration already generated in other device.

This implies that it is not necessary to create the configuration bridge. For this purpose, the options Save Config and Load Config are available in Management> Device Management.

Save Settings

Load Settings www.televes.es

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