AxioVision
Microscopy from Carl Zeiss
AxioVision
Perform to Perfection
The Microscope Software for Life Sciences
– from Image Acqusition Through to Image Analysis,
It’s in a Dimension of Its Own.
1
Zei1438_AxioVision_Bio_en_rz.indd 1
05.03.2010 12:27:42 Uhr
A New Way of Thinking
The requirements of biomedical sciences such as histology, pathology, neurosciences, cell biology and pharmacology are growing ever
more complex, thus making the application of digital microscope
software increasingly valuable. Carl Zeiss is facing up to these challenges with new solutions that are continually setting new standards. A major component is AxioVision, the microscope software designed by the microscope specialists. Thanks to its unique modular
architecture, this software is equally suited to both newcomers and
high content microscopy. The AxioVision philosophy is uncompromising: the highest possible performance, easy operation, extreme
flexibility, and seamless integration into Carl Zeiss microscope and
camera systems. A homogeneous solution with functions that are
100% effective – right from the start.
2
Contents
An Easy Decision
4
An Overview of All Modules
6
Basic Program
Image Acquisition Modules
12-16
Image Processing Modules
17-19
Image Analysis Modules
20-25
Archiving Module
26
Configuration Modules
27
Overview
3
8-11
28-41
An Easy Decision
Developed in close collaboration with users, AxioVision microscope software impresses
through its practical relevance. Highly functional even in the entry-level version, it can be
extended by modules available for sophisticated applications, thus satisfying in every
detail.
Easy start
AxioVision allows you to achieve outstanding results in
digital microscopy and documentation. From image acquisition to processing, measuring, and annotating, to archiving and reporting, you can follow the process from beginning to end.
Easy to use
AxioVision‘s thoroughly intuitive operating concept effortlessly impresses – from the basic functions to the highly
specialized analysis modules. My AxioVision allows you to
adapt user interfaces and functions to your individual
needs, configure your own toolbars and combine frequently recurring work steps in new dialogs. AxioVision
transforms functional diversity and complexity into something quite simple for the user.
4
Easy ZVI
ZVI is the name of the image format that stores your image
data together with image number, acquisition date, microscope settings, exposure data, size and scale data, contrasting techniques used, etc. The advantages are obvious
– the image information is available at any time. No
annotations are lost and nothing is forgotten. A crucial
point to note is that the annotations are not permanently
burned into the image, but are stored in a file together
with the image data. The image can be reproduced even
years later under identical conditions.
Easy economy
Offering the entire performance spectrum for contemporary digital microscopy at an outstanding price-performance ratio, AxioVision also excels from an economic standpoint. The fact that you can expand the system module by
module in line with your own requirements means that
you only invest in the functions that you really need, whilst
enjoying the security of being at the forefront of technological developments. With AxioVision LE, you even have a
universal image viewer at your disposal free of charge for
simple image analysis tasks.
5
An Overview of All Modules
Fast MosaiX
Rapid scanning of large
surfaces
Dual Camera
HDR Imaging
Synchronized image
acquisition
Expansion of the acquired
dynamic range
Widefield
Multichannel
Unmixing
Removal of crosstalk in
multichannel fluorescence
images
Digital High Speed
Recorder
Fastest possible acquisition
of time lapse images
Imaging Plus
ASSAYbuilder
ELISPOT
Activation of fast
acquisition properties of
other acquisition modules
Image enhancement,
Gray morphology,
Image transformation
High Content Analysis (HCA)
of multichannel images
Accurate measurement
of immune reaction
Panorama
Mark&Find
ApoTome
3D Measure
TMA
Formation of overview
images
Recording and relocation
of positions
Generation of optical
sections
Volumetric measurement
Acquisition and analysis of
tissue microarrays
MosaiX
Time Lapse
3D Deconvolution
QuantiFISH
Ratio
Automatic scanning of
large surfaces
Flexible acquisition of
image series over time
Restoration of Z-stack
images
Quantitative evaluation of
FISH signals
Ratiometic analysis of ion
fluctuations in living cells
Extended Focus
Z-Stack
2D Deconvolution
AutoMeasure
AutoMeasure Plus
Calculation of a sharp
image from several
focus planes
Acquisition of image
series from different
focus planes
Restoration of
two-dimensional
images
Creation of easy
measurement programs
with measurement wizard
Segmentation,
Binary image processing,
Automatic measurement
Autofocus
Multichannel
Fluorescence
Inside4D
Visualization in 3D
Interactive
Measurement
Online
Measurement
Expanded interactive
measurement techniques
Interactive measurements
in live image
Automatic
focusing
6
Fast Acquisition
Image acquisition in several
fluorescence channels
Image Acquisition
Image Processing
Image Analysis
Imaging with video and digital cameras,
microscope control
Text and graphics,
plus filter techniques
and sharpness
Interactive measurement with
standard parameters
Growing possibilities
The world of life sciences is constantly changing and evolving, which means it requires a software package that can
change and evolve with it. AxioVision is very flexible in its
design. Because with every update and every expansion,
Carl Zeiss is at the cutting edge of innovative software developments. In addition, the user interface is customizable.
This gives users the ability to make it easy to understand
and use for their specific applications. The functions of the
basic program – imaging, processing, annotations, archiving, reporting, and microscope control – can be quickly
expanded to meet your growing needs by adding further
modules. Moreover, new solutions for specific applications
are continually being developed. They include additional
functions for image processing, interactive measuring, and
automated image analysis as well as control modules for
filter wheels, shutters and motorized stages.
SFM
Cell-based morphometric
and densitometric
data analysis
Tracking
Analysis of movement
of cells and particles
Colocalization
VBA
Quantitative analysis of
colocalization in two
fluorescence channels
Integrated development
environment
Physiology
Asset Archive
Commander
Online ratiometric analysis
of ion fluctuations in
living cells
Cataloguing and archiving
of images, data sets, etc.
Recording/automatic
execution of AxioVision
commands
Documentation
Configuration
Image archiving and
reporting
Customization of
user interface
The decision for the basic AxioVision program is a sound investment in Digital Imaging. For a 100% compatible system solution
that can be adapted at any time to your changing requirements and
demands. A decision that not only protects your investment but
guarantees you enormous flexibility.
7
Basic Program
Impressive Range of Functions
You’ll be amazed at the wealth of functions offered by Carl Zeiss’ entry-level
microscope software. Even the basic version delivers a powerful image processing
and analysis system, and meets all the key requirements of contemporary digital
microscopy.
Efficient microscope control
AxioVision allows you to control all motorized microscopes
from Carl Zeiss – both automatically and interactively. Of
course you can use manual standard microscopes as well.
One of the advantages of software control is that you can
store desired microscope parameters quickly and easily,
Microscope control
8
ensuring repeatability from sample to sample. In addition,
scaling factors and complex workflows like time lapse can
be recalled during analysis, greatly increasing the speed at
which measurements can be performed.
Digital camera
Simple, clearly presented user interface for camera control and image acquisition
Flexible camera operation
Thanks to its interfaces for standard technologies, AxioVision
allows you to use all types of camera, from digital consumer
cameras up to scientific microscope cameras. This includes
the AxioCam family of cameras from Carl Zeiss. The seamless
integration of cameras into AxioVision software allows you to
generate multidimensional images at the click of a mouse,
like capturing image stacks from different focus planes.
AxioCam
Image acquisition
The AxioCams from Carl Zeiss can also provide significant advantages in the areas of speed and resolution, optimized live
image, automatic exposure settings and image acquisition. All
cameras in the AxioCam family are controlled by the same
operational elements.
Microscope (manual or motorized)
9
Basic Program
Impressive Range of Functions
Rapid image processing
AxioVision offers you all the tools for:
•
•
•
•
Contrast, brightness, and color control
Noise suppression, smoothing, and contour enhancement
Enhanced sharpness and detail emphasis
Correction of illumination conditions and white balance
control
Integration of text and graphic elements
From scale bars and color markings to text and graphic
elements – with AxioVision you can add all important annotations to your images using just one program. The corresponding scale is stored with each image, and scale bars
can be automatically added at any time.
10
Image processing: contrast optimization by means of
histogram normalization (left: sub-optimal contrast,
right: brightened, contrast-enhanced image)
Text and graphic elements: image of a green alga,
labeled with sample number and name
Image measurement: length measurement of diatoms
Reports: presentation of measured image, measurement
data statistics and histogram
Precise image measurement
With the entry-level program, you can easily perform interactive measurements, such as length, area, and angles. The
measurement data are available in a list, which can be
easily exported to most spreadsheet programs, such as
Microsoft® Excel.
Perfect report generation
Whether using individually formatted or pre-defined layouts, AxioVision gives you all the options you need to generate effective reports or presentations:
• pre-defined layouts for combining image and comments
in various formats
• layout functions
Besides images and image information, such as comments etc., tables of measured values and graphs (e.g.
histograms) can also be displayed in the reports.
11
Image Acquisition Modules
Enhanced Performance in Live Cell Imaging
The results of your analyses are only as good as the quality of your acquired images –
particularly when it comes to Live Cell Imaging. AxioVision offers you the perfect basis
for achieving the required quality with high-performance additional modules, from Multichannel Fluorescence and Mark&Find through to MosaiX and Dual Camera. Modules
that secure the additional information in your images that is so often crucial.
The positions on a 96-well plate at which one or more images are to be
acquired can be selected by clicking on them.
Mark&Find
This module is used to record, store, and automatically retrieve different positions on your slides, plates or in culture
dishes. It requires the use of motorized x/y stages. The
positions on the sample are stored together with the recorded image and can be used to reposition the sample
at a later stage. And it allows the easy scanning of multiwell plates, too. Lists of positions can also be imported.
Your advantage: time saving, reliable documentation of
the sample, while keeping statistical accuracy. Multiple
datasets can be extracted from the same sample.
MosaiX and Fast MosaiX
Developed for analyzing large surfaces, MosaiX scans the
area of your specimens in just one process. A virtual overall
image is then generated from individual tiles, which serves
perfectly as an overview image for navigation around the
sample or as a basis for further analyses. Measurements
can be performed on the MosaiX image across the boundaries of the different frames – the tiles do not pose any
restriction. The Fast MosaiX module offers a distinct advantage in terms of acquisition speed. If you use selected
motorized stages and hardware components, the stage
travels on continuously at every tile position without stopping. This speeds up the acquisition of your MosaiX image
considerably.
Autofocus
The Autofocus module calculates the optimal focal position for a sample in reflected-light, transmitted-light and
fluorescence. The system is calibrated for each objective so
that the software focuses accurately every time. In addition, with images that are recorded as time lapse or at
different positions, the system automatically refocuses. The
Autofocus module works with all cameras that are directly
controlled by AxioVision, providing that a microscope with
motorized focus drive is used.
Sagittal section of a young mouse. The overview makes simple navigation possible without having to sacrifice highly resolved details.
12
Panorama
This module is ideal for specimens which do not fit into
the image frame. High-resolution panorama or overview
images can be formed with pixel accuracy from individual
images. Even shifted images can be combined so precisely
that all the important details of your specimen are recorded in a single image.
Extended Focus
A microscope‘s depth of field is often not sufficient to obtain a single image which is sharp over the whole field. The
software solution to this problem is the Extended Focus
module. The principle is simple – while focusing through
the sample, you record a number of images at different
focus positions or use your Z-stack images as input data.
In both cases the sharp details from each individual image
are extracted and a final image is calculated on the basis of
state-of-the-art algorithms. The result is an image of firstclass quality that is rich and sharp in every detail.
Single images from different focus planes of a sea urchin larva (pluteus
stage, autofluorescence, FITC filter set, Plan-NEOFLUAR 10x objective,
AxioCam MRm). With Extended Focus, users can achieve an image that
is sharp over the whole thickness of the sample.
13
Image Acquisition Modules
Enhanced Performance in Live Cell Imaging
Z-Stack
To enable the automatic generation of Z-stack images, the
software controls the z-drive of a motorized microscope in
precise steps, synchronizing it with the image acquisition.
You can either determine the focusing interval yourself or
have it automatically computed for highest sample accuracy.
The advantage of this module is the optimal detection of
information in the third dimension. In addition, with the Cut
View function, even the entry-level version of AxioVision
provides you with a highly effective technique for Z-stack
analysis.
6-channel FISH image: display of each channel individually and in color overlay mode,
using the powerful gallery view
Image: Dr. Michael Speicher, Medical University of Graz, Austria
Multichannel Fluorescence
This module enables you to generate images with up to 32
channels. Various fluorescence channels can be freely combined with transmitted-light images (e.g. Phase Contrast).
A channel with optimal exposure time is acquired for every
excitation wavelength. The ReUse function allows acquisition
parameters to be extracted from a multichannel image that
has been saved. This enables further image acquisition under
identical conditions – as a result of which your data are more
reliable. The advantage of this module is its unparalleled flexibility in presenting complex connections in biological specimens.
14
Different development stages of a fertilized sea urchin egg cell (blastula, 8 to 256 cells).
The red channel (Rhodamine) marks the vegetal pole of the blastula acquired in
Differential Interference Contrast (DIC).
Time Lapse
Observing living specimens, investigating changes over
time, documenting results clearly – with the Time Lapse
module, you can precisely control both camera and microscope over time. Fast light control prevents damage to
the specimen. The Smart Experiments function gives you
complete freedom to configure flexible experimental procedures and a graphical editor allows you to define time
lapse images with different combinations of dimensions,
such as the number of channels, single or Z-stack image.
For example, in the first segment, acquisition is set to take
place every 10 minutes in phase contrast for one hour, followed by a further segment with a single time point in
phase contrast and fluorescence. The result of repeating
this Smart Experiment is a time lapse experiment in which
the samples are only exposed to fluorescence illumination once an hour but the cells are nevertheless frequently
observed.
Combinations
Mark&Find, Autofocus, MosaiX, Multichannel Fluorescence,
Z-Stack, Time Lapse, ApoTome – all these modules can be
freely combined with each other, creating system solutions
capable of precisely meeting a wide range of demands.
The result is the cost-effective adaptation of individual
solutions to a specific application – with no unnecessary
investments.
Fast Acquisition
The Fast Acquisition module unlocks the speed potential
of your Z-Stack, Multichannel Fluorescence or Time Lapse
modules. With this module images are written directly to
your hard drive using streaming technology. The decisive
advantage of this module is that it allows the maximum
speed of the components used, such as the camera, light
source or piezo focusing unit, to be fully exploited. The
number of images that can be acquired and the level of
the resolution are limited only by the capacity of your hard
drive.
15
Cutter for editing rapid time lapse images. Blood flow in the capillaries of a hamster
Institute for Experimental Surgery, Großhadern Clinic, Germany
Cell Observer® HS with AxioCam HRm, Incubator XL S1 and scanning stage with piezo focus
insert. The Live Cell Imaging system makes it possible both to acquire images of extremely rapid
processes, e.g. Calcium Imaging, as well as to perform long-period imaging over several days.
16
Digital High Speed Recorder
This module allows you to perform simple and fast time
lapse acquisition without the need for any other module
or hardware besides the camera and computer. Digital
High Speed Recorder saves your time lapse images directly
to your hard drive during acquisition with a speed only
limited by the maximum read-out speed of your camera.
The duration of the acquisition process is limited only by
the capacity of your hard drive. Intervals between the individual images can be set precisely and provide the basis
for exact movement analyses. Interesting image sequences
can simply be cut out using the editing function and the
raw data of interesting image sequences can be converted
into AxioVision ZVI image format, processed further and
analyzed.
Dual Camera
The Dual Camera option enhances the functions of the
Fast Acquisition or Physiology module to incorporate
the possibility of using two cameras simultaneously. This
makes it possible to acquire simultaneously in two channels guaranteeing synchronicity. In this way even extremely rapid processes can be recorded, in two channels and
without time shift. Dual Camera is required for efficient
Emission Ratio Imaging and rapid FRET imaging.
Image Processing Modules
Get More from Your images
All the important digital image processing techniques in a single module – Imaging
Plus allows you to process your images for maximum information content and the
best analysis results.
Imaging Plus
• Image Enhancement
In addition to improving contrast, brightness, and color,
this function compensates lighting deficiencies and shading. Filters for smoothing, sharpening, and edge detection are included as well as user-definable filter operators.
• Gray Morphology
A number of functions enable the precise separation of
joined structures such as individual cells in a cell agglomeration.
• Image Arithmetics
The process of calculating a new image from existing
images pixel-by-pixel: AxioVision Imaging Plus allows the
quantitative combination and comparison of images.
• Geometric Corrections
This function automatically aligns the individual channels
of a multichannel image and, therefore, corrects the pixel
shift.
• Elastic Registration
The solution for achieving congruence between two images with the same content that cannot be corrected
simply by shifting, rotating or adjusting the size of the
images.
Morphology functions permit the exact reconstruction
of cell borders, thus preparing the cells for automatic
measurement.
Subpixel-precise correction of pixel shift,
4 µm TetraSpeck Microspheres (Invitrogen)
17
Zei1438_AxioVision_Bio_en_rz.indd 17
19.02.2010 17:14:57 Uhr
Image Processing Modules
Precision in All Dimensions of Fluorescence
Because it is almost impossible to achieve reliable results without image-optimizing
techniques, especially in fluorescence microscopy, AxioVision provides you with the
powerful tools you need to produce high-contrast, deblurred results in 3D or 4D.
2D and 3D Deconvolution
The quality of optical sections is frequently diminished by
light scattered from areas above and below the focal
plane, resulting in distortion of the image. Consequently,
3D fluorescence imaging and analysis are not possible
without the support of image-optimizing systems. The
3D Deconvolution module from Carl Zeiss provides this
support. Using the point spread function (PSF), this established mathematical technique restores the 3D image stack:
light from above and below the focal plane is calculated
back to its plane of origin to create a sharp image. The
AxioVision 2D Deconvolution module allows you to enhance both two-dimensional fluorescence images and
process Z-stack images in two dimensions. 2D Deconvolution can also be used on Z-stacks in the axial direction (xz),
offering much greater enhancement than is the case with
lateral (xy) processing.
18
ApoTome
Tissues and other thick specimens are of particular challenge for fluorescence microscopy. Developed to provide
deblurred optical sections, ApoTome offers considerably
higher image quality, sharpness, contrast and optical resolution in the axial direction. In addition, it has further essential advantages for 3D fluorescence microscopy: greater
speed, higher throughput, extensive flexibility in the use of
fluorescent dyes, and easy handling. ApoTome is a slider
for the plane of the field diaphragm of fluorescence illumination and is combined with special software.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Comparisons of the four different deconvolution algorithms: 1) Original, 2) Nearest Neighbour, 3) Regularized Inverse Filter, 4) Fast Iterative,
5) Constrained Iterative, 6) The same cell after acquisition using the ApoTome. Image: center plane of Z-stack image of PC12 cells: nuclear staining DAPI (blue), immune staining against tubulin with Alexa-488, against nucleoporin with Alexa-568.
Campbell, Cold Spring Harbor, USA
1
2
1) 3D distance measurement from the surface of one yeast particle
to the surface of the next. Additional measurement of the diameter
of both particles. Sectional view resulting from the introduction
of a section plane (indicated by green frame). Cells: RAW 264.7
macrophages with nuclear staining (blue) and zymosan yeast
particles (green)
Sample: Dr. Birgit Kraus, University of Regensburg, Germany
2) 3D distance measurement from the surface of one yeast particle
to the surface of the next. Cells: RAW 264.7 macrophages with
nuclear staining (blue), actin staining (red) and zymosan yeast
particles (green)
Sample: Dr. Birgit Kraus, University of Regensburg, Germany
Inside4D
Visualize, animate, and scale microscope images in 3D –
the AxioVision Inside4D software module from Carl Zeiss
opens the door to space and time, more simply, quickly
and directly than ever before. Integrated into the user-oriented system concept from Carl Zeiss, AxioVision Inside4D
offers you immediate access to your Z-stack images from
Cell Observer® or 3D Deconvolution – with a single click
of the mouse. One particularly interesting functional advantage of this module is the opportunity it provides for
performing interactive measurements in 3D, using a range
of tools for measuring angles or distances. Select and highlight interesting objects simply using the mouse and all the
measurement data relating to your 3D reconstruction are
instantly displayed in the image. AxioVision Inside4D is the
module which enables you to detect new correlations – in
realistic 3D animations and time lapse movies. For presentations that impress and inspire.
Widefield Multichannel Unmixing
Crosstalk occurs whenever fluorescent dyes or proteins
are excited to fluoresce by more than one filter combination. This is a serious problem in quantitative microscopy.
Multichannel Unmixing resolves this problem without additional hardware. This module reliably removes crosstalk
between different dyes in the channels and saves you the
time-consuming task of looking for suitable dye combinations, quite simply by calibrating your system with pure
dyes or alternatively by means of Automatic Component
Extraction from Carl Zeiss. Even color combinations of
closely overlapping dyes, such as CFP and GFP or YFP and
DsRed, within a specimen therefore yield outstanding results without crosstalk. In addition, (auto)fluorescence in
your sample that is typical for certain cells or tissues, or
caused by certain substances, can be simply removed.
Advantage of unmixing when using two spectrally similar fluorescent proteins. Although generated using appropriate filter sets, crosstalk from the
green fluorescent protein (GFP) that has entered the channel of the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) can be clearly detected in the unprocessed
image at the top. It is only possible to detect the cyan fluorescent cell in the image at the bottom once the crosstalk resulting from the GFP has
been removed using Multichannel Unmixing. The overlaying of the CFP and GFP channel is shown on the far right.
19
Image Analysis Modules
Uncompromising Precision
Utilizing all the information of an image: AxioVision offers you a powerful spectrum of
additional modules for image analysis. For greatly simplified processes, faster results,
uncompromising reliability and maximum reproducibility.
Interactive Measurement
With this module, parameters describing the specimen can be
determined interactively (e.g. size). A measurement program
wizard allows users to exactly determine which measurements shall be taken. All parameters are then executed in
the specified order. As a result, geometric and densitometric
parameters are presented in a straightforward measurement
list, to be stored with the image in the archive. You can retrieve
this information later at any time. In addition, all requested
measurement values can be exported (e.g. into Excel).
Online Measurement
Measure samples live and direct on the monitor, without
the need to acquire images. With this module you can
analyze structures interactively, directly in online images,
meaning that visual inspections can now be carried out
quickly and conveniently on screen. All the measurement
tools that you employ for your acquired images can also
be used here. You select the desired parameters from a
choice of up to 90 options. Eyepiece reticles are therefore
no longer required.
Interactive measurement of lichen apothecia
(Xanthoria parietina)
Measurement parameters – list of options
AutoMeasure
If you need to create automatic measuring routines yourself: with the AutoMeasure module you can rapidly obtain
precise results – without any complicated programming.
With the help of a measurement wizard, AutoMeasure enables you to carry out complicated measurements within
a few minutes. Simply define the programs that you need
and you can measure an unlimited number of images –
while completely controlling the measuring process. You
can determine which steps to be conducted. Even automated processes can be interrupted at any time and all
parameters individually adjusted with the function dialog.
20
Measurement tables can be stored in Microsoft®
Excel.
Automatic analysis of a histological specimen with brown-stained nuclei: original image, with contrast enhancement, binary image with removed artifacts and
separated nuclei. The result was overlaid in color on the original.
AutoMeasure Plus
Recording the entire structure of the image completely
automatically – now possible in a single measurement step
with this module. The result: fast, precise and reproducible
quantitative analyses. Further advantages: the direct access
to all functions via the menu and the option to combine
with the automatic processing module Commander. It
enables you to merge the results of repetitive work steps
in a single command – ideal for the automatic processing
and reproduction of standard lab assignments. This module consists of three functionality groups:
• AutoMeasure Plus – Segmentation
This function offers threshold operators for monochrome
and color images that are necessary to identify your objects. The objects can also be identified with the click of
a mouse using „Region Growing“. These two methods
are supplemented by complex methods for segmentation, including dynamic and automatically generated
threshold values as well as edge detection. The result is a
binary image in which all specimen pixels are white and
all background pixels black.
• AutoMeasure Plus – Binary image processing
Functions for linking, masking, and filling holes ensure
that the binary image is optimally prepared for measurement. Artifacts are removed and contours smoothed.
3D display of all identified objects with circumscribing cuboid
• AutoMeasure Plus – Automatic Measurement
This function makes it possible to determine morphometric measurement parameters from the contour of the
specimen. The binary image is used as a mask to calculate geometric and densitometric parameters from the
original image. Results can be imported into Microsoft®
Excel – ideal for generating statistical information about
specimen details.
3D Measurement
This module offers you a range of possibilities for the measurement of three-dimensional objects. The image stacks
are presented as a 3D volume model, which allows the
user to define the surfaces of interesting objects interactively. A segmented data set is then generated from these
settings. Using the binary image processing function you
can further process the objects obtained, e.g. by means of
interactive object separation. The measurement of the 3D
objects then takes place automatically for the entire image stack or interactively by clicking on individual objects in
the 3D view. The function calculates morphometric parameters (e.g. coordinate of the center of gravity in x, y and z,
volume or surface content) and densitometric parameters
(such as mean density of the object or standard deviation
of mean density of gray values) for all objects. In addition,
field-specific parameters can be calculated for the entire
3D image, e.g. number of 3D objects in the image, total
volume of all 3D objects or sum of the surfaces of all 3D
objects.
Measurement results for the four largest objects
21
Image Analysis Modules
Uncompromising Precision
Physiology
Developed to examine changes in fluorescence intensities
in cells, this module will expand the options available for
time lapse images to include quantitative measurement
functions. Changes in intensity can either be measured
directly or their ratios can be analyzed. Measurements can
be done already during acquisition or offline. Physiology
offers you a wealth of functions for performing such tasks:
Calcium measurement of Fura-2-stained neuroblastoma cells displayed as a ratio image using
the Physiology module. This module obtains data from the measurement regions even during
acquisition and, therefore, makes it possible to actively control the experiment.
Cells: Dr. Roberto Levi and Dr. Randi Silver, Weill-Cornell University, New York, USA
• Ratio measurement of ion concentration and changes
in pH-value
• Use of one-channel dyes (such as Fluo-4) or twochannel dyes (such as Fura-2 or Indo-1)
• Possibility of freely drawing in up to 100 ROIs
• Online measurement with simultaneous display of
measurement diagrams to allow exact control of the
experiment
• Display of upper and lower ratio thresholds as well as a
color scale as an annotation
• Acquisition of time lapse images with maximum speed
using the streaming technology
• Cutting-out of interesting image sequences using the
editing function (cutter)
• Conversion into AxioVision ZVI image format
• Offline analysis of any ZVI time lapse images
In order to use Physiology you will require the Fast Acquisition, Time Lapse and Multichannel Fluorescence modules
and a suitable light source (e.g. Colibri).
Quantitative colocalization: fluorescence information from two channels is displayed in a
scatter diagram; various colocalization parameters can be determined.
22
Colocalization
The three-dimensional relationship between structures
stained using different dyes is often analyzed by performing a purely visual assessment of an overlaid color image
of two channels. In many cases the results cannot be confirmed objectively, as various factors, such as gamma or
color temperature settings, influence the brightness of the
mixed color. Colocalization allows to analyze the spatial
relationship between these differently stained structures
objectively, independently of the mixed-color display. This
practical module automatically records up to 17 measurement parameters for you in all image dimensions and
presents the result clearly as scatterplot, mask overlay in
the image and as data table.
Left: Start position of a particle. Center: End position of the particle. Right: Marking and numbering of the particle’s movement path over time.
Mouse hippocampus cultures in Differential Interference Contrast: axonal transport processes analyzed using the Tracking module
Samples: Prof. Okabe, Tokyo Medical University, Dept. f. Cell Biology, Japan
Tracking
Analyzing the movement of cells, cell organelles or other
moving objects – tracking – is of particular interest in the
fields of tumor research, neurobiology, developmental biology and immunology. To do this, it is necessary to visualize
cell movements over time (AxioVision Time Lapse module).
Thanks to reference markings on the slide, you can also relocate tissue samples in a targeted manner if the slide has
been removed from the microscope stage. The AxioVision
functions offer you a wide range of options for multidimensional image acquisition or analysis, e.g. counting cells,
quantifying staining intensity, determining percent positive
and other parameters.
With an automatic and interactive tracking method, the
Tracking module offers you the necessary tools for tracking these cell movements. Parameters such as distance,
speed, and direction, but also the reconstruction of the
path traveled, are analyzed in the image. The movement is
marked in the image by a colored line. The color used for
the marking can be freely selected, in order to distinguish
between different cell types, for example. In addition, the
associated tracking measurement values are displayed
directly in the user dialog in the form of a data list.
Numbering of the individual tracks ensures that the colored cells in the image can be assigned unambiguously to
the measurement values in the data list.
TMA
Tissue Microarray (TMA) applications are used, for example, in the areas of drug discovery, gene expression and
therapeutic antibodies. Overview images for brightfield
or fluorescence illumination can be generated quickly and
easily.
In addition, templates for various microarray layouts can
be loaded and saved. Tissue samples are automatically
detected in the overview image, their coordinates saved
in position lists and missing or deformed tissue samples
identified.
Automatic detection of samples in the overview
image and subsequent analysis in images with
high magnification
23
Image Analysis Modules
Uncompromising Precision
QuantiFISH
Fluorescence-In-Situ-Hybridization (FISH) is a highly sensitive analysis technique with many areas of application in
diagnostics and research. The visualization and evaluation
of FISH signals using image analysis techniques requires
perfect interplay between microscope and software components. The QuantiFISH module makes it possible to analyze FISH signals quantitatively for each nucleus and fluorescence channel in DAPI-stained interphase cell nuclei.
Detection takes place automatically, or can be guided by
the user, in single images or using batch processing techniques. A significant advantage of the AxioVision module,
compared with the time-consuming, conventional evaluation of the different focal planes of a Z-stack, lies in the
conversion of the Z-stack into an image with enhanced
depth of field in which all the cell nuclei and signals on
a plane are detected and measured, precisely and automatically. Interactive correction options are available for
the measurement of cell agglomerations or the removal
of artifacts. The measurement results are presented and
saved in data lists. The original image, image with enhanced depth of field and signal image are arranged next
to each other at the end of the FISH analysis procedure
and can be compared with one another using a navigator.
Multichannel fluorescence Z-stack images generated using
the Multichannel Fluorescence and Z-Stack modules are a
prerequisite for using QuantiFISH.
Ratio
From the calculation of images and marking of areas to
be measured through to the presentation of measurement
results, Ratio is the entry level AxioVision module for the
quantification of changes in concentrations (ions, pH-value)
in intracellular processes after acquisition (offline). The
ratio image is produced as a quotient from the two fluorescent dyes used (measurement signal, reference signal)
and displays a pseudo-color coding of the fluorescence
ratios. The fluorescence intensities of individual cells can
be measured simply by outlining them with the mouse. In
order to distinguish between different cell types, the marking color and the description can be chosen freely. The
simultaneous display of raw data, intensity diagram and
ratio image allows direct comparison of the marked cells
and associated measurement data.
24
MaxDens_ch3 [Grey]
65520
56000
46000
36000
26000
16000
6592
4640
15000
25000
35000
45000
55000
65520
MaxDens_ch2 [Grey]
SFM analysis of CD45-CK cells (marked using Hoechst, FITC, Texas
Red, Plan-NEOFLUAR 20x objective, AxioCam MRm).
Top: the cells corresponding to the marked dots are displayed in a gallery with color coding that matches the colors of the windows.
Bottom: maximum density in the FITC channel (ch-2) plotted against
the Texas Red channel (ch-3). Three regions have been gated using
windows.
SFM
For the detection of rare cells, SFM – Scanning Fluorescence
Microscopy – offers a reliable alternative to Laser Scanning
Cytometry (LSC) or Flow Cytometry (FCM). The AxioVision
SFM module brings together the measurement results for all
examined cells, which have been previously documented
in tables, with the multichannel original image. Rare events
are filtered out from these data. These rare events remaining after the filter processes can be displayed as images
Left: analysis of AP-stained IFN-g spots during measurement in the plate.
Right: exact immune response measurement also of fluorescence-marked
spots – IFN-g green (FITC), IL-5 red (Rhodamine), double marking
yellow
in a gallery with adjustable sizes and zoom levels, or a
delimited data table can be generated. Using a calibrated
microscope, you can relocate the interesting cells at any
time by means of the object coordinates.
ASSAYbuilder
Developed specifically for sophisticated High Content
Analysis research (HCA), the AxioVision ASSAYbuilder
module analyzes your images acquired using AxioVision.
Objective, biologically relevant data which can be used, for
example, as a basis for decisions for planning further experiments are obtained quickly from a range of key imagedescribing parameters. Support is provided in the form of
five analyst functions, each offering solutions tailored specifically to different biological problems. These functions
are: Physiology Analyst, for quantifying macromolecule
intensities in cellular compartments; Morphology Analyst,
for morphological issues such as the intracellular localization, alignment and structure of cellular components, etc.;
Membrane Analyst, for analyzing the translocation of signals in the cell from cytoplasm to cell membrane or vice
versa; Cell Cycle Analyst, for determining the phase of the
cell cycle that individual cells are currently in; and, finally,
Motility Analyst, for analyzing cell motility as well as fundamental cell morphology parameters.
ELISPOT
ELISPOT performs tests quickly and conveniently for examining immunotherapies and developing vaccines. Immunologists, oncologists, and pharmacologists carrying out
research relating to tumors, AIDS, and vaccines will benefit
in particular from the specific properties of the software.
Your samples are analyzed on an Axio Imager microscope
with motorized stage. If only one image per well is used, it
is possible to achieve extremely fast analysis times of less
than 5 minutes. The high-resolution digital AxioCam MRc
color camera also guarantees the reliable detection of
even small spots. It is possible to identify the production
of several cytokines through the simultaneous use of two
dyes. You can achieve optimal identification by using two
different fluorochromes (FITC – green spots, Rhodamine
– red spots, double marking – yellow spots). The simple
operation of the system is also important to note. Using
the unique “Teach Mode”, you can adjust all parameters to
the desired spots – with a single click of the mouse.
High Content Analysis process in schematic form: cells and intracellular structures in the acquired image (left) are detected automatically by
means of the image analysis functions of ASSAYbuilder (middle). The data obtained as a result is presented in graphs or tables (right). The
selected cell is highlighted in yellow.
Assaybild
25
Archiving Module
Well-conceived Data Management
Maintain an overview of your images, measurement results, and reports – AxioVision
allows you to manage all your data simply, transparently, and completely.
Asset Archive
In addition to just images, the high-performance AxioVision
Asset Archive module for the cataloguing and archiving
of assets also allows you to archive microscope parameters such as objective settings, filter positions, annotations,
and comments directly in the image. All associated image
data, measurement results, and reports relating to your investigations can, therefore, be stored quite simply under
a project number. This makes the process of finding your
way around a large number of data sets significantly easier
and quicker. The up-to-date image management software
offers a range of benefits:
• Fast, flexible search functions: search by projects carried
out for a certain customer/client, by projects carried out
in the last week/month, by image or sample name, by
date, labels, etc.
• Clear display of all key data acquired with the image
• Logically organized, hierarchical structure:
Customer/client
Project/assignment
Asset
• Management of customer data/contacts/projects
Asset Archive: structured storage of related images, measurement results and reports in one project
26
Confi guration Modules
Automatically faster
With My AxioVision, even the entry-level version of AxioVision offers you all kinds
of scope for creating individual operating windows. Possibilities that, with the help
of two additional modules, can be expanded almost infinitely – right through to the
development of your own programs within AxioVision.
Commander
The Commander module allows you to record subsequent
steps of your workflow, edit and refine these steps, set
parameters, and make all this available under a single
command. The benefits are impressive: automatic processing of typical lab assignments and complete reproducibility
of the results, in addition to fast adaptation to new requirements.
VBA
Perhaps you need more functions than the wide range
that AxioVision provides. In this case, it is possible to increase and extend the performance of Carl Zeiss software,
and adapt it to your needs, with VBA (Visual Basic® for
Applications), the programming language Carl Zeiss uses for
AxioVision functions. VBA provides a completely integrated
development environment that is familiar to programmers.
Since VBA is directly integrated into the host application, it
offers the advantages of fast internal cooperation as well
as the opportunity to develop solutions without additional
programs. The results look and act just like AxioVision. The
big advantage of this module is that a minimum of training
time is required for the users of your individually developed software.
1
2
3
1) User-defined dialog for operating the microscope and camera, 2) Commander window for recording work steps for automatic procedures,
3) user-defined toolbar with daily workflow
27
Overview
Functions
Basic program
Image Acquisition
Image Formats:
Camera Control:
Function
Contents/Description
• Image Import
zvi, bmp, tif, jpg, j2k, jp2, gif, tga, png, psd, cmp, pct, ras, eps, wmf, mac, msp, img, czi, lsm, vgi, rek,
raw, avi, zvhi
• Image Export
avi, bmp, j2k, jp2, jpg, lsm, mov. pct, pcx, png, psd, tga, tif, wmf
• Exposure Time Adjustment
Manual adjustment, exposure time measurement, automatic mode
• Automatic Exposure Time
Adjustment of exposure time in live image
• Target Value for Exposure Time
Definition of the sensitivity level of the sensor during an exposure measurement
• Focus/Exposure Frame
Optional measurement frame as a focus aid and for spot measurement of the exposure time
• Live Image Frame Rate
Selection: fast/medium/slow for best possible display of the live image
• Resolution
Selection of Microscanning resolution modes (AxioCam HR)
• Binning
Increased camera sensitivity by combining the signals of adjacent pixels
• Color Adjustment
Manual adjustment of the color balance
• Color Saturation
Adjustment of the level of color saturation
• Frame
Interactive selection of an image sensor sub frame
• White Balance
Interactive or automatic adjustment of optimum neutral balance of the color channels
• 3200K
Default value for white balance, optimized for halogen light source at 3200K
• Gray Value Scaling
Adjustment of dynamic range (retain original, convert to 8 bit, convert to 16 bit)
• Histogram
Intensity distribution histogram for all three color channels
• Black Reference
Generation of correction image for long exposure times (dark current compensation)
• Shading Correction
Generation of correction image to compensate for optical inhomogeneities
• Image Orientation
Rotation and mirroring of image orientation for optimum image display
• B/W or Color Mode
Conversion of color images into monochrome images during acquisition
• Digital Gain
Adjustment of digital signal amplification
• Analog Gain
Analog signal amplification prior to digitization
• NIR Mode for B/W Cameras
Mode for further increased sensitivity in near IR for monochrome AxioCam cameras
• EMCCD Gain
Adjustment of signal amplification for cameras with EMCCD sensor
• CCD Port
Selection of amplifier port for cameras with several read-out amplifiers
• Offset
Adjustment of basic brightness value
• Mode
Selection of different, manufacturer-dependent special modes
• Unsharp Masking
Sharpening of images immediately during acquisition
• Trigger Input
Triggering of acquisition by means of TTL signal
• Trigger Output
Triggering of a trigger signal, e.g. to control an external shutter
Annotate:
• Annotation
Addition of text, marking of elements (arrows, scale bars, etc.)
Adjust:
• Brightness/Contrast/Gamma
Adjustment of brightness, contrast and gamma
• Color Balance
Manual adjustment and readjustment of color rendition
• Hue/Lightness/Saturation
Adjustment of hue and saturation
• Shading Correction
Correction of uneven illumination
Image Processing
28
• Z-stack Correction
Correction of bleaching effects in Z-stack fluorescence images
• Transfer display attributes
Transfer of display settings (brightness, contrast, gamma) to other images
• Adjust display attributes
Adjustment of display settings (brightness, contrast, gamma) to pre-defined values
• White Balance
Change of white balance in a color image
Overview
Functions
Geometric
Transformation:
• Shift
xyz shift of images
• Rotate 90
Rotation of an image by 90°
• Z-Stack Alignment
Alignment of the individual planes of a Z-stack image which has been acquired, for example,
using a stereomicroscope
• OrthoView
Generation of projections along orthogonal axes in 3D images
Image Smoothing:
• Gauss, Sigma
Image smoothing using Gauss or Sigma filter
Image Sharpening:
• Enhance Contour
Enhancement of image sharpness through the intensification of contours
Utilities:
• Unsharp Masking
Intensification of image sharpness through the enhancement of contrast for small structures and edges
• Resample
Reduce/enlarge the size of an image
• Copy Image
Copy an image and image information that can be selected
• Load Look-up table
Load a pseudo-color table
• Export Image
Export image into other formats
• Convert Pixel Format
Change the pixel format of an image
• Create Image Subset
Generate a subset from a multidimensional image
• Add Channels
Combine images with the same dimensions (Z-stack, time lapse) into multichannel images
• Magnetic cursor
The cursor detects edges, making it easier to find them, e.g. when measuring lengths
• Scalings
Scaling in geometric units
• Automatic Scaling
Automatic detection of pixel size
Image Analysis
Interactive
Measurement Tools
and Parameters:
• Create/Append Table
Generation/attachment of a data table based on the measurement tools drawn in
• Length
Distance between 2 points
• Outline/Outline (Spline)
Measurement of diameter, area, perimeter, length and width of the circumscribing rectangle, radius,
center of gravity, mean density, standard deviation of mean density of gray value
• Angle 3, Angle 4
Definition through 3 or 4 points
• Circle
Measurement of diameter, area, perimeter, length and width of the circumscribing rectangle, radius,
center of gravity, mean density, standard deviation of mean density of gray value
• Events
Counting of events
• Profile
Gray value profile along a line
• Evaluate
Functions for the processing and statistical analysis of data tables
• Gallery
Clear presentation of loaded images as thumbnails
• Info View
Display of all information on the image
Documentation
• Cut View
Display of Z-stack images in 3 orthogonal section views (x, y - x, z - y, z)
• Gallery View
Clear presentation of multidimensional images
• Splitter Display
Comparison of up to 12 images, also multidimensional;
generation of comparison as new image document for presentation purposes
• Printing of Images/Data
Print of images
• Reports
Creation of user-definable reports
• Toolbars/Dialogs/Workflows
Creation of individual toolbars, dialogs and workflows
• Shortcuts
Allocation of AxioVision functions to keyboard combinations
My AxioVision
• Icons
Allocation of symbols to AxioVision functions
• Microscope
Allocation of AxioVision functions to up to 10 microscope softkeys
29
Overview
Functions
Image Acquisition Modules
Multichannel
Fluorescence
Z-Stack
Time Lapse
Image acquisition in several fluorescence channels
• 32 Channels
Simultaneous acquisition of up to 32 channels per image
• Channel Configuration
Adjustment of exposure time and microscope components for each channel
• Optimal Display
Channel display as pseudo-colored merge image or monochrome display of every single channel
• Color Coding
Free assignment of pseudo colors to channels with easy choice from list
• Extended Parameters
List of all channels in a spreadsheet format with extended parameter settings
• Dye Selection
Choice of most commonly used fluorescent dyes from list
• Focus Position
Assignment of different focus positions to individual channels with correct aberrations
• Pixel Shift
Definition of a fixed offset for automatic pixel-shift correction when using filters that are not shift-free
• Channel Pool
Storing of channel configurations in a channel pool for easy recombination into other experiments
• Image Information
Display of channel-specific information as annotations
• Experiment
Saving of channel configurations as experiment for exact reproduction of experimental set up
• ReUse
Extraction of experiment parameters from previously acquired images for the exact reproduction of
an experimental set up
Acquisition of image series from different focus positions
• Focus Control
Automatic adjustment of the minimum possible step size according to microscope type
• Z-stack Configuration
Definition of start and stop position (or center position) and desired interval between individual z-planes
• Nyquist Criterion
Automatic calculation of the optimal z-interval for 3D Deconvolution or ApoTome
• Navigation
Precise stepwise navigation through defined Z-stack or to the start, stop or center position
• Experiment
Saving of Z-stack definitions as experiment for exact reproduction of an experimental set up
• ReUse
Extraction of Z-stack definitions from previously acquired images for the exact reproduction of an
experimental set up
Flexible acquisition of image series over time
• Time Configuration
Definition of interval as well as number of cycles or total time
• Exposure Time
Automatic measurement of the correct exposure time for the first time point
• Image Information
Acquisition time point as annotation in image
• Autosave
High data security during long time lapse acquisitions thanks to Autosave function
• Image Size
Acquisition of images as large as required depending on experimental conditions (> 2 GB)
• Time Lapse Processing
30
- Gliding Average
Calculation of average values from time lapse images
- Time Differential
Calculation of first and second derivative from time lapse images
- Time Concatenate
Combination of two time lapse images to form a new time lapse image
- Image Ratio
Division of two time lapse images
- Time Lapse Alignment
Alignment of the individual time points of a time lapse image
- Time Stitching
Stitching of heterogeneous ZVI time lapse images to generate one contiguous sequence to enable
movie creation from Smart Experiment results
• Experiment
Saving of time lapse configurations as experiment for exact reproduction of an experimental set up
• ReUse
Extraction of time lapse settings from previously acquired images for the exact reproduction of an
experimental set up
• Smart Experiments
Free combination of different types of experiment to create a Smart Experiment which can be used to
acquire heterogeneous multidimensional images
Overview
Functions
Mark&Find
MosaiX
Fast MosaiX
Acquisition
Fast Acquisition
ApoTome
Extended
Focus
Recording and relocating positions
• Database
Management of projects involving different types of slide in a database (slides, multiple specimen
holders, Petri dishes, multiwell plates)
• Mark Interactively
Color assignment of sample positions in the database
• Classify
Assignment of colors and allocation of names for object positions
• Select
Activation/deactivation of individual positions
• Visualize
Visualization of the selected points on a graphic slide. Relocation by clicking on the colored marker
• Focus Position
Repositioning with optional use of stored focus position
• Import/Export
Import and export of position lists in a file format compatible with Microsoft® Excel
• Calibrate
Calibration using a “Home slide“
Automatic scanning of large surfaces
• Execute
Scanning of the entire surface of a specimen (motorized stage required)
• Focus correction
Correction of the focus position in the case of uneven specimens
• Stitching
Correct alignment of tiles to each other
• Convert
Conversion of tile images into a composite image
• Combinability
MosaiX can be freely combined with all multidimensional image acquisition modules
Fastest possible scanning of large surfaces
• Execute
Scanning of the entire surface of a specimen in a continuous movement
(selected motorized stages and special hardware for synchronization required)
• Focus Correction
Correction of the focus position in the case of uneven specimens
• Stitching
Correct alignment of tiles to each other
• Convert
Conversion of tile images into a composite image
Fastest possible acquisition of multidimensional images (time lapse, Z-stack, multichannel fluorescence)
• Acquisition
Control of the acquisition process (start, stop, pause, resume)
• Cutter
Conversion of streaming data into ZVI images, definition of starting and finishing points
• Information
Summary of information about the acquired image
Generation of optical sections
• Image Acquisition
Automated acquisition of three temporary images followed by online processing to an optical section
• Scanner Control
Automatic and precise shift of grid pattern in the object plane
• Grid Focus Calibration
Calibration of grid focus for correct acquisition of varying fluorescence wavelengths
• Phase Calibration
Calibration of grid frequency using an easy-to-operate software wizard
• Correction Algorithms
Automatic correction of fluctuations in illumination as well as signal degradation due to bleaching
• Grid Positions
Increase in the number of grid positions acquired to improve resolution
• Acquisition Modes
Provision of three acquisition modes (processed, widefield, and raw data mode)
Calculation of sharp images from several focus positions
• Acquisition/Computation from Z-stack
Generation, directly by the camera or from an acquired Z-stack, of an image with extended depth of
focus from single images acquired from different focus positions
• Alignment
Correction of the alignment of single images during acquisition with a stereomicroscope
31
Overview
Functions
Autofocus
Panorama
Digital High Speed
Recorder
Dual Camera
Automatic focusing
• Methods
Choice between autofocus with calibration and parameter options and autofocus that is always
calibrated and does not require parameterization
• Calibrate
Calibration by specifying the optimum focus position using the current microscope setting with
motorized microscopes
• Focus
Automatic calculation of the optimum focus plane at the touch of a button. Suitable for transmittedlight, reflected-light as well as brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence
Formation of overview images
• Acquisition
Generation from individually acquired camera images
• Import from Files
Generation from images that have been saved previously
• Stitching
Correct alignment of tiles to each other
• Convert
Conversion of tile images into a composite image
Fastest possible acquisition of time lapse images
• Recording
Control of the acquisition process (start, stop, pause, resume)
• Cutter
Conversion of streaming data into ZVI images, definition of start and end points
• Information
Summary of information about the acquired image
Simultaneous image acquisition by two cameras
• Dual Camera – Live Image
HDR Imaging
(High Dynamic Range)
Displays a live image from each camera as well as an merged live image from both cameras for
adjusting the two cameras. A mathematically calculated image is also displayed in which the differences
between the two camera images are made visible
• Automatic Pixel Shift Correction
Fully automated elimination of lateral pixel shift between the two camera images
• Synchronized Acquisition
Images are acquired by both cameras at the same time, which increases the acquisition speed.
As a result, speed-related image shift can be avoided when acquiring extremely rapid processes in
two channels.
• Enhanced Fast Acquisition
Increase in speed when acquiring in two channels
• Enhanced Physiology
Increase in speed and prerequisite for Emission Ratio Imaging (e.g. Indo-1, FRET)
Acquisition method for extending the available dynamic range of digital cameras
• HDR Snap
Generation and processing of an HDR image using pre-set parameters
• HDR Series
Generation of an HDR raw data image using different exposure times
• HDR Merge
Processing of an HDR raw data image to create an HDR image with offset correction
• HDR Setup
Basic setting for activating HDR acquisition for all imaging techniques
Image processing modules
3D Deconvolution
Restoration of Z-stack images
• Theoretical PSF Calculation
32
Automatic read-out of all necessary microscope parameters from the ZVI image for calculation of an
optimized theoretical Point Spread Function (PSF)
• PSF Generation
Calculation of a measured PSF from an experimentally acquired z-stack of an object of known size
• Nearest Neighbor
Method for rapid contrast improvement and blur removal from all z-stack images
• Regularized Inverse Filter
Regularized, non-iterative method for rapid 3D restoration of z-stacks
• Fast Iterative
Extremely fast iterative method according to Meinel for 3D restoration of z-stacks, non-regularized
• Constrained Iterative
Best method for accelerated, regularized, quantitative 3D restoration of z-stacks, with autostop
when an objectively measured quality criterion has been achieved
• Preview Function
Deconvolution within a user-definable small region of interest for fast preview
Overview
Functions
2D Deconvolution
• Optimal Noise Treatment
Automatic calculation of the optimal strength of restoration by determination of image noise levels
through “General Cross Validation“
• Auto-Stop
Iterations stop automatically upon reaching optimal image improvement
• Display
Three normalization methods for individual adaptation of result images (Clip, AutoLinear, MatchInput)
• Corrections
Method for performing background and bleaching correction, plus lamp-flicker correction
Restoration of two-dimensional images
• Automatic PSF Calculation
Inside4D
• Regularized Inverse Filter
Method for rapid 2D restoration
• Fast Iterative
Extremely fast iterative method according to Meinel for 2D restoration, non-regularized
• Constrained Iterative
Method for quantitative 2D restoration
• Calculation Direction
Option to perform calculation in lateral (x, y-) or axial (x, z-) direction
• Preview Function
Deconvolution within a user-definable small region of interest for fast preview
• Auto-Stop
Iterations stop automatically upon reaching optimal image improvement
• Corrections
Method for performing background and bleaching correction, plus correction of fluctuations in
brightness due to lamp flicker
Visualization in 3D
• Volume Display
Widefield Multichannel
Unmixing
Automatic read-out of all necessary microscope parameters from the ZVI image for calculation of
an optimized Point Spread Function (PSF)
Volume display of Z-stack images with up to 8 channels with selective switching between different
channels or view in merged pseudo-color mode
• Shadow Projection
Creation of animations with strong sense for spatial conditions
• Transparency Rendering
Presentation of transparent tissues or cultures
• Surface Rendering
Enhancement of individual structures
• Maximum Projection
Ideal for prints and publication
• Mixed Mode
Simultaneous display of surface and transparency-rendered data. Simplifies display of small objects
within the context of larger structures
• Spatial Interaction
Free positioning of the 3D volume in space (with free choice of angles for x, y and z; lateral position
and zoom factor)
• 3D Inside View
Orientation within a volume
• Annotations
Optional display of volume edges, color coding and scaling of axes
• Animations
Generation of animations as rendered image series with export options in popular video formats (AVI,
QuickTime)
• Maximum Rendering Speed
Acceleration of rendering methods through modern graphic boards (support of OpenGL-standard)
• Clipping Planes
Exposure of interesting structures by means of up to three freely movable and configurable
clipping planes
Removal of crosstalk between the channels of a multichannel fluorescence image
• Automatic Component Extraction (ACE)
ACE enables direct unmixing of multichannel images without the need to measure reference samples.
Display of regions in the image identified by ACE that only include one of the dyes concerned
• Measurement of Reference Samples
Direct crosstalk measurement using reference samples which only contain one dye
• Software Wizard
Reference measurement functionality available in an easy to use software wizard
• Unmixing Matrix
Generation of an unmixing matrix for images with up to 32 fluorescence channels
• Multidimensional Images
Multichannel fluorescence images with additional dimensions, such as Z-stack or time lapse images,
can also be processed (acquisition of such images requires the appropriate modules)
• Automatic Channel Selection
Channels that do not contain any fluorescence information are automatically excluded from the
processing
33
Overview
Functions
Imaging Plus
Processing, Gray Morphology, Fourier Transformation, Color Transformation
• Adjust
- Contrast
Contrast enhancement using interactive/automatic histogram adaptation
- Negative
Calculation of inverted image (negative)
- Gray Transformation
Adjustment of gray values using transformation tables
• Geometric Transformations
- Align Channels
Alignment of the individual channels of a multichannel image
- Rotate
Rotation around an axis
- Mirror
Mirror along horizontal or vertical axis
- Alignment
Affine transformation
- Elastic Alignment
Alignment using a reference image
• Smoothing
- Denoising
Denoising using wavelet transformation
- Lowpass
Lowpass filter (gliding average)
- Median
Median filter (non-linear method)
- Rank
General rank operator
- Gauss Anisotropic
Anisotropic Gauss filter with selectable Sigma values
• Sharpening
- Edge Enhancement
Enhancement of edges
• Edges
- Sobel
Edge detection using Sobel filter
- Laplace
Laplace filter
- Highpass
Highpass filter
• Morphology
- Gray Erode, Gray Dilate
Erosion or dilation of objects
- Gray Open, Gray Close
Erosion followed by dilation or dilation followed by erosion
- Tophat White
Removal of bright regions
- Tophat Black
Accentuation of dark regions
- Gray Gradient
Morphological gradient to detect contours
- Watersheds
Watersheds-algorithm for separation/reconstruction
• Arithmetics
- Add, Subtract
Addition or subtraction of two images
- Add Constant
Addition of a constant value
- Multiply, Divide
Multiplication or division of two images
- Multiply Constant
Multiplication with a constant value
- Average
Average of two images
- Maximum, Minimum
Maximum or minimum of two images
- Square, SquareRoot
Square or square root of an image
- Logarithm, Exponential
Logarithm or exponent of an image
- Combine
Linear combination of two images
• FFT
- Transform
34
Fourier transformation on an image
- Spectrum
Calculation of power or phase spectrum
- Filter
Filtering in the frequency domain using a defined filter
- Inverse
Inverse Fourier transformation
Overview
Functions
• Utilities
- Copy Region
Copying of image regions
- Color Model
Transformation of RGB color space into HLS color space and vice versa
- Split RGB Extractions
Splitting of RGB image into single color channels
- Combine RGB Extractions
Combination of single color channels to form a color image
- User Filter
Filtering of an image with user-defined filter matrix
• Time Lapse Processing
- Gliding Average
Calculation of average values from time lapse images
- Time Differential
Calculation of first and second derivative from time lapse images
- Time Concatenate
Combination of two time lapse images to create a new time lapse image
- Image Ratio
Division of two time lapse images
- Time Lapse Alignment
Alignment of the individual time points of a time lapse image
- Time Stitching
Stitching of heterogeneous ZVI time lapse images to generate one contiguous sequence to enable
movie creation from Smart Experiment results
Image Analysis Modules
Interactive Measurement
Online Measurement
Expanded interactive measurement techniques
• Distance, Line, Calipers
Measurement of length
• Multiple Calipers/Distance
Measurement of the length of multiple lines, perpendicular to a base line
• Curve, Curve (Spline)
Measurement of length of the drawn curve
• Aligned rectangle or free orientation,
Outline (Spline), Circle
Measurement of geometric and densitometric object features
• Circle (Radius), Circle (Points)
Drawing of a radius to the center, clicking on contour points
• Marker
x and y coordinates of a point
• Points, Relative Points
x and y coordinates of one or more points with free definition of the coordinate system
• Interactive Measurement Program Wizard
Guided generation of a program for interactive measurement
• Interactive Measurement Programs
Loading and execution of interactive measurement programs
Interactive measurements in online images
• Activate Online Measurement
Execution of interactive measurements in an online image
• Layer
Pre-defined and individual grids can be displayed in the online image
AutoMeasure
Creation of easy measurement programs with a measurement wizard
Creation of
Measurement
Programs
• Automatic Measurement Program Wizard
Guided generation of a program for automatic measurement
• Image Enhancement
Contrast, brightness, Gamma, noise reduction (Sigma), shading correction, improvement of edges
• Segmentation
Global or local definition by clicking or circumscribing objects, specification of thresholds using the
image histogram, definition of several phases
• Binary Image Clean-up
Deletion of artifacts, filling of holes
• Automatic Object Separation
Erosion and dilation, watersheds
• Editing of the Measurement Mask
Drawing of separation lines, deletion of objects, addition of objects
• Selection of Measurement Parameters
Region-specific, field-specific, geometric and annotation parameters, user-defined parameters
• Definition of Measurement Conditions
(“objectfilter”)
Logical concatenation (and,or) of region-specific parameters, definition by simple clicking of reference
objects
• Definition of a Measurement Frame
Rectangle, circle, freehand
• Measurement
Measurement of geometric and densitometric features for single objects or the entire image
• Documentation
Marking of measured objects and display of freely selectable measurement parameters in the graphics plane
• Data Storage
Saving of measurement data in a Microsoft® Excel-compatible file format (CSV, XML)
35
Overview
Functions
Execution of
Measurement Programs
AutoMeasure Plus
• Image Acquisition
Image acquisition via camera, all images of a folder, all loaded images
• Control of Program
Activation/deactivation as well as the changing of functional parameters during execution of the
program
• Program Information
List of executed functions with parameter settings
Segmentation, binary image processing, automatic measurement
• Segmentation
- Thresholds
Interactive adjustment of thresholds with histogram support and specification of fixed values
- Region Growing
Detection of associated regions (gray values within user-defined tolerance range)
- Multiphase
Adjustment of thresholds for several phases of an image with histogram support
- Automatic
Automatic determination of thresholds using a histogram
- Dynamic
Technique for threshold detection using size information
- Valleys
Detection of dark lines (valleys) in images with bright background
- Canny
Edge detection considering „steepness“ of edges
- Marr
Detection of edges and associated regions
• Binary Functions
- Erode, Dilate
Erosion or dilation of binary objects
- Ultimate Erode
Erosion of binary objects while keeping the smallest structures
- Open, Close
Erosion followed by dilation or dilation followed by erosion
- Fill Holes
Filling of holes
- Clean Up Binary Image
Filling of holes, removal of artifacts
- Mark regions
Marking of regions using a mask image
- Object Separation
Automatic separation of touching regions
- Binary Image Editor
Interactive subsequent editing (separating, combining) of binary images
- AND, OR, XOR, NOT
Bit-by-bit “logic” operations
- Distance Transformation
Generation of a “distance map“, indicating the distance of each pixel to the object border
• Skeletonizing of Binary Images
3D Measurement
36
- Thinning
Thinning of binary objects to lines 1 pixel wide (“skeleton”)
- Skeleton
Skeletonization of the image background
• Selection of Measurement Parameters
Region-specific, field-specific, geometric and annotation parameters, user-defined parameters
• Definition of Measurement Conditions
(“objectfilter”)
Logical concatenation (AND, OR) of region-specific parameters, definition by simple clicking of
reference objects
• Definition of a Measurement Frame
Rectangle, circle, freehand
• Measurement
Automatic measurement of geometric and densitometric object features, drawing in of measurement
values into the graphics plane of the image
Measurement of three-dimensional structures and parameters
• Interactive Measurement in 3D Space
Drawing in of lines, angles, markers and curves in rendered 3D views
• Segmentation
Interactive adjustment of thresholds in rendered 3D view and with specification of fixed values
• Binary Image Editor
Interactive subsequent editing (separating, combining) of 3D binary images
• Measurement
Automatic measurement of geometric and densitometric object features
Overview
Functions
Colocalization
Physiology
ASSAYbuilder
Generation of
HCA
Measurement
Procedures
Execution of HCA
Measurement
Procedures
Ratio
Quantitative analysis of the colocalization of two fluorescence channels
• Quantitative Analysis
Quantification of the extent of the colocalization of signals in two channels, irrespective of monitor
display such as contrast or brightness
• Scatter Diagram
Representation of pixel intensities of channel 1 against channel 2. The scatter diagram generated is
divided into four quadrants and provides the basis for the colocalization analysis
• Masking
Pixel values can be masked according to their affiliation to one of the four colocalization quadrants.
Masked pixels can be extracted as a new image
• ROI
Drawing in of regions of interest, both in the image and in a scatterplot
• Measurement Parameters
Correlation coefficients according to Pearson and Manders and a further 15 measurement values can
be presented in the form of tables
• Output Documents
Table of measurement values, images extracted as a result of masking, scatterplot, in several dimensions
such as time and Z-stack
• Auto Threshold
Automatic threshold definition according to Costes
Analysis of ion concentrations in living cells
• Image Acquisition
Fast acquisition of up to 4 fluorescence channels
• Reproducibility
Equidistant and precise hardware control guarantees maximum reproducibility of experiments
• Online Diagrams
Calculation of a ratio image and representation of course of intensity changes as diagrams over the
period of acquisition (online)
• Measurement Modes
Excitation ratio (e.g. Fura-2), single-channel measurement (e.g. GFP), single-channel pseudo-ratio
(Fluo-4), Emission Ratio (e.g. Indo-1, in combination with dual camera option), FRET
• ROI
Up to 100 free measurement regions (ROIs)
• Speed Marker
Influencing of execution of experiment by setting freely definable speed markers
• Event Marker
Recording of changes in experiment by setting freely definable event markers
• Cutter
Free selection of which areas/image region of the acquired raw data should be converted into ZVI
images, as a result of which considerable space can be saved
• Analysis
Flexible single-channel, ratiometric or FRET analysis of ZVI images with any choice of channel
High Content Analysis (HCA) of multichannel images
• Identify Objects
Graphical user interface and guided workflows for the generation and optimization of procedures
• Select Parameters
Application-oriented and comprehensive range of biologically relevant measurement parameters
• Visualize
Measurement data are displayed in tables, plots or histograms and linked interactively with the
image data
• Analyze
Single images or image directories are analyzed using available HCA procedures
• Visualize
Measurement data are displayed in tables, plots or histograms and linked interactively with the
image data
• Export
Measurement data can be exported for use in other analysis packages
Simple ratiometric offline analysis of ion concentrations
• Methods
Ratiometric processing of one or two fluorescence channels in multichannel time lapse images
• Generate Ratio Channel
Generation of a ratio image as a pseudo-color or gray image
• Measurement
Measurement of fluorescence intensities over time in freely definable regions
37
Overview
Functions
SFM
Cell-based morphometric and densitometric data analysis
• Acquisition Mode
Acquisition of multichannel MosaiX images
• Analysis Mode
Measurement of geometric data
Measurement of densitometric data
Measurement of cell coordinates
• Displays
Histogram with windows
Scattergram with windows
Cutting out of component images of cells and display in rare events gallery
Positioning of gallery images in original image
QuantiFISH
Quantitative analysis of FISH signals
• Detect FISH Signals
TMA
Tracking
ELISPOT
Automatic detection of FISH signals in multichannel Z-stack images
• Nucleus Boundaries and FISH Signals
Correction options for the removal of artifacts and separation of cell nucleus agglomerations
• Measure FISH Signals
Determination of number of FISH signals in individual cell nuclei per fluorescence channel
Acquisition and analysis of tissue microarrays
• Make Map
Generation of an overview image for bright field or fluorescence samples
• Detect Cores
Automatic detection and identification of tissue samples
• Export List
Storage of coordinates in a Mark&Find position list
Analysis of cell movement
• Track Objects
Automatic and interactive tracking of moving objects in time lapse sequences
• Measure Tracks
Determination of specific tracking parameters (distance, speed, direction, etc.)
Exact immune response measurement
• User Modes
Administrator mode – to set up the system
User mode – for routine measurements
• Direct Evaluation of Wells
Definition of the wells to be evaluated on the motorized stage
Selection of a configuration file for evaluation
Start of image acquisition including measurements
Storage of raw data
• Evaluation of Stored Images
Definition of the image folder
Definition of the wells to be evaluated in the plate field
Selection of a configuration file for evaluation
Start of evaluation
Storage of raw data
38
• Display
Presentation of results in internal RTF format
• Spot Teaching
Training the system using the universal “Teach mode“
• Report
Presentation of results as a Microsoft® Word document
Overview
Functions
Documentation and configuration modules
Asset Archive
Archiving of images, measurement data, and reports
Commander
• Structured Archiving of Assets
Allocation of assets to projects, contacts, and categories
• Search
Keyword search and freely definable search queries on the basis of field content
• Value Lists
Data entry using adaptable value lists
• Local Management of Archives
Single-user system, storage location for the database may be selected
Recording/execution of steps
VBA
• Record, Save
Recording of work steps and saving of scripts
• Start
Automatic execution of recorded scripts
• Edit
Subsequent editing of scripts
Integrated development environment
• Visual Basic Editor
VBA environment with full access to AxioVision functionalities
Overview
Region-specific Measurement Parameters
Region-specific parameters
X
X
Interactive
Measurement
AutoMeasure
3D Measure
Entry-level
• Geometric parameters
X
X
X
AcpX, AcpY
x and y coordinates of the first object point of a region
X
AcpZ
z coordinate of the first object point of a 3D region
X
X
Area
Area of the region in scaled and unscaled units
X
X
Area convex, Area filled
Area of the convex shell of the region and of the filled region
X
Area to area sum
Area of the region in relation to the total area of all regions
X
Area to frame area
Area of the region in relation to the area of the measurement frame
X
X
X
Surface, Surface filled
Surface content of the 3D region and of the filled 3D region
X
Volume
Volume of the 3D region in scaled and unscaled units
X
Volume filled
Volume of the filled 3D region
X
Volume to volume sum
Volume of the 3D region in relation to the total volume of all 3D regions
Volume of the 3D region in relation to the volume of the measurement frame
X
Volume to frame volume
X
X
Count of inner parts
Number of holes and regions within holes
X
X
CenterX, CenterY
x and y coordinates of the geometric center of gravity of the region
X
CenterZ
z coordinate of the geometric center of gravity of the 3D region
X
Ellipse major, Ellipse minor
Length of the main axis and the secondary axis of the ellipse with the same geometric moment of
inertia as the region/3D region
X
Ellipse Semi-Medial Axis
Length of the middle axis of the ellipse with the same geometric moment of inertia as the 3D region
X
39
Overview
Region-specific Measurement Parameters
Region-specific parameters
X
X
Interactive
Measurement
AutoMeasure
3D Measure
Entry-level
• Geometric parameters
X
X
X
Angle of the main axis of the ellipse with the same moment of inertia
X
X
Perimeter
Perimeter of the region
X
X
Perimeter convex
Perimeter of the convex shell of the region
X
X
Perimeter filled
Perimeter of the filled region
X
X
Perimeter Crofton, Perimeter Crofton filled
Perimeter of the region and perimeter of the filled region according to Crofton
X
X
Perimeter X, Perimeter Y
x and y projection of the perimeter
X
X
Perimeter XF, Perimeter YF
x and y projection of the perimeter of the filled region
X
X
Perimeter XY, Perimeter XYF
Diagonal projection of the perimeter and the perimeter of the filled region
X
X
X
Bound left, Bound top, Bound right,
Bound bottom
x and y coordinates of the bounding box/the bounding cuboid of a 3D region
X
Bound front, Bound back
z coordinates of the bounding cuboid of a 3D region
X
X
X
Bound width, Bound height
Width and height of the bounding box/the bounding cuboid of a 3D region
X
Bound depth
Depth of the bounding cuboid of a 3D region
Area Frame
Area of the measurement frame in scaled and unscaled units
X
Volume Frame
Volume of the measurement frame in scaled and unscaled units
X
Feret minimum, Feret maximum
Minimum and maximum feret of the region
Feret Min. Angle, Feret Max. Angle
Angle of the minimum and the maximum feret of the region
X
X
Ellipse angle
X
X
X
X
X
Feret Min. Azimut, Feret Max. Azimut
Horizontal orientation of the minimum and the maximum feret of the 3D region
X
Feret Min. Elevation, Feret max. Elevation
Vertical orientation of the minimum and the maximum feret of the 3D region
Ratio of the ferets (FeretMin/FeretMax)
X
X
X
Feretratio
X
X
X
Diameter, Radius
Diameter, radius of the circle with equivalent area/sphere with equivalent volume
X
X
X
Form circle, Form sphere
Circular shape factor of the region/spherical shape factor of the 3D region
X
X
Fibrelength
Length of a fiber-like thin region
X
X
Index/ID
Explicit characteristic of the region, of the squares
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Distance, Length
Distance between 2 points, length of a line
Distances Mean
Mean distance of multiple distances
Angle Measurement
Angle in °
• Densitometric parameters
X
X
X
Mean
Densitometric mean value of the region (gray and color values)
X
X
X
X
Standard Deviation
Standard deviation of the densitometric values of the region (gray and color values)
X
X
X
Minimum, Maximum
Minimum and maximum densitometric value (gray and color values)
X
X
X
Sum
Sum of the densitometric values of the region
X
Sum Square
Sum of the squares (gray and color values)
X
40
Overview
Field-specific Measurement Parameters
Field-specific parameters
3D Measure
AutoMeasure
Interactive
Measurement
Entry-level
• Geometric parameters
X
X
X
X
Area sum
Area of all regions in scaled and unscaled units
Area sum filled
Area of all filled regions
Area percent
Percentage area of all regions in the measurement frame
Number of regions
Number of the measured regions
Perimeter sum
Sum of all region perimeters
X
Surface sum
Surface content of all 3D regions
X
Volume sum
Volume of all 3D regions in scaled and unscaled units
X
Volume sum filled
Volume of all filled 3D regions
X
Volume percent
Percentage volume of all 3D regions in the measurement cuboid
X
• Densitometric parameters
X
X
Mean
Densitometric mean value of all regions (gray and color values)
X
X
Standard Deviation
Densitometric value standard deviation in all regions (gray and color values)
X
X
Minimum, Maximum
Minimum and maximum densitometric value in all regions (gray and color values)
Further parameters
X
X
X
X
Count
Number of objects clicked on
X
X
Marker
x and y coordinates of an object clicked on
Gray/Color Value Profiles
Gray value/color value along a profile line
User Parameter
Parameter that can be defined by the user
X
X
X
Image-specific parameters
X
X
X
X
Name
Name of the image
X
X
X
X
Acquisition Time
Time point at which the image was acquired
X
X
X
X
Exposure Time
Exposure time of the image
X
X
X
X
Focus Position
Focus position of the image
X
X
X
X
Microscope Magnification
Microscope magnification set during image acquisition
X
X
X
X
Date Saved
Date on which the acquired image was saved
X
X
X
X
Stage Position X, Y
x and y stage position at which the image was acquired
X
X
X
X
Channel Name
Name of the channel for multichannel images
X
X
X
X
Phase Name/Index
Phase name/index for multiphase images
X
X
X
X
Index/ID Channel
Index/ID of the channel of the multichannel image
X
X
X
X
Index/ID Z-plane
Z-index/ID for Z-stack images
X
X
X
X
Index/ID Time
Time index/ID for time lapse images
41
www.zeiss.de/axiovision
Zei1438_AxioVision_Bio_en_rz.indd 42
60-4-0002/e – printed 02.10
42
BioSciences | Göttingen Location
Phone : +49 551 5060 660
Telefax : +49 551 5060 464
E-Mail : [email protected]
Information subject to change. Printed
on environmentally friendly paper
bleached without cholorine.
Carl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH
07740 Jena, Germany
19.02.2010 17:14:58 Uhr
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement