Lighting control

Lighting control
E
Guide
Lighting control
Building
Management
System
BACnet
Lighting controls Module
DALI
DMX
LON
KNX
Ethernet
Lighting controls Module
Luminaires
Controlling the light
Control systems
Devices
Lighting control not only enables
the lighting to be adjusted to suit
the visual requirements but also
allows it to shape and interpret
the architecture. Light scenes are
easily set up using the appropriate software and can be recalled
via an interface. The inclusion of
light colours and the time dimension opens up a room for scenographic lighting with dynamic
effects. Lighting control systems
with sensors or time programs
also help adjust the power consumption in a room to its usage
and thus optimise the economic
efficiency of a lighting system.
Design examples
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Lighting control
Controlling the light
Functions
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The atmosphere in a room can be
changed by controlling a number
of variables. These include basic
functions such as switching
circuits on and off through to
automatically timed colour progressions. Programming the light
scenes means that the settings
are saved but can be redefined
and adjusted to suit changing
requirements.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light
Functions
Switching
Dimming
Light colour
Scene
Cross-Fading
Dynamic colour
­progression
Sequence
Timer
Sensor
Edition: 03/01/2010 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Switching and dimming are two
basic functions of a lighting
control system that can be used
to produce different lighting
situations. Luminaires with variable light colours also include a
colour setting mode. Features
such as cross-fading and dynamic
colour progression are crucial for
dynamic lighting designs. Lighting changes can be initiated and
regulated automatically via time
and sensor control.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Switching
The easiest situation is to turn
the light on and off with a switch
or a push-button. For a variety of
light scenes different circuits with
separate switches are required.
Suitably positioned switches
result in easier usage. Most lamps
produce full light output immediately. High-pressure discharge
lamps, however, usually have a
run-up time of several minutes
and an even longer cooling-down
period before re-ignition.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Dimming
Dimming is the infinitely variable
adjustment of the light output
of a light source. It enables the
creation of different light scenes,
increases the visual comfort and
optimises the power consumption. Dimming also prolongs
the life of incandescent lamps.
­Thermal radiators such as tungsten halogen lamps are easily
dimmed. Fluorescent lamps and
LEDs require special dimmable
control gear.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Light colour
The light colour of luminaires
with variable colours of light
can be defined by hue, saturation and brightness. The possible
colours depend on the lamp and
the lighting technology used.
Coloured light can change the
atmosphere of a room and highlight individual objects. RGB colour mixing technology controls
the individual primary colours
red, green and blue to produce
the required light colour.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Scene
A scene is a static lighting situation. It defines the state of all
lighting components such as
luminaires, light ceilings and light
objects with their different switch
and dimmer settings. The scenes
can be saved in lighting control
systems. The user can preset
complex luminaire settings and
conveniently recall them either
manually or automatically.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Cross-Fading
In regard to lighting, cross-­
fading refers to the transition
from one light scene to another.
The cross-fading time is the
period required for the scene
change. It varies between instant
change and a transition of several
hours. High-contrast scenes with
a short cross-fading time generate considerable attention. Subtle
transitions with lengthy crossfading times, on the other hand,
are hardly noticeable. The scene
change can be initiated by the
user, a sensor, or a timer.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Dynamic colour progression
Dynamic colour progression
refers to the chronology of colour
changes. Within a defined total
running time, specific colours are
triggered at specified times. There
are different options available to
repeat this progression, including
infinite loop and “forward and
back“.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Sequence
A sequence refers to a progression
of successive light scenes. The
definition of a sequence requires
both individual scenes and infor­
mation on their transition. A
sequence can automatically be
repeated once completed or,
alternatively, end.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Timer
A timer allows light scenes to be
recalled at predefined times. Time
and calendar functions provide
great flexibility for the automation of scenographic lighting.
Specified start and end times,
for example, set the lighting to
specific shop-opening times or
licensing hours.
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Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Sensor
Sensors monitor properties
such as brightness or motion
and allow an automatic adjustment of the lighting to changing
ambient conditions. A brightness
sensor can be used for daylightdependent lighting control.
Motion sensors register movement in the room and control
the light depending on activity
to reduce power consumption.
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Lighting control
Control systems
Building
Management
System
BACnet
Lighting controls Module
DALI
DMX
LON
KNX
Ethernet
Lighting controls Module
Luminaires
Lighting control
­systems
Edition: 03/01/2010 | Updated version at www.erco.com
General control
­systems
Programming the
lighting
Buildings increasingly use
automatic control systems. The
lighting is only one component,
operation of solar screen equipment, air-conditioning and security systems are others. Special
lighting control systems have
the advantage that they can be
designed to suit the requirements
of a lighting design and are less
complex than more extensive
building control systems.
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Lighting control | Control systems
Lighting control systems
Complexity
EIB, LON
DALI,
DMX
1-10V
Price
Lighting control systems
Switch
Relay contact
Circuit
Neutral conductor
Potentiometer
or extern
control system
Luminaire 1
ECG
1V-10 V
Other luminaires
Switch
Relay contact
Circuit
Neutral conductor
DMX line
Luminaire 1
1
2
DMX Console
DMX
Dimmer
Other luminaires
Switch
Relay contact
Circuit
Neutral conductor
DALI Line
DALI Controller
1
2
Terminator
1V-10V
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DMX
DALI
Luminaire 1
Transformer,
ECG,
Dimmer,
Actuator
Other luminaires
Lighting control systems switch
and dim luminaires, set up light
scenes and manage them in space
and time. The decision to select
a specific system depends on the
size of the lighting system, the
requirements in regard to controllability, user-friendliness
and economic considerations.
Digital systems that allow luminaires to be addressed individually provide great flexibility. Their
user-friendly features include
easy programming and operation
along with a simple installation
process. Lighting control systems
can be integrated as a subsystem
into a building management
system.
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Lighting control | Control systems | Lighting control systems
Switch
Relay contact
Luminaire 1
Circuit
Neutral conductor
ECG
1V-10 V
Potentiometer
or extern
control system
Other luminaires
Switch
Relay contact
Circuit
Neutral conductor
DMX line
Luminaire 1
DMX
Dimmer
1
2
DMX Console
Other luminaires
1
2
Terminator
Switch
Relay contact
Luminaire 1
Circuit
Neutral conductor
DALI Line
DALI Controller
Transformer,
ECG,
Dimmer,
Actuator
Other luminaires
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1V-10V
Electronic Control Gear (ECG) is
controlled by analogue 1V-10V
signals. This technology is widely
used in low-complexity lighting
systems. The dimmer setting is
transmitted via a separate control
line. The control gear regulates
the output of light from the
luminaire. Since this type of ECG
cannot be addressed, the control
circuit for the control line must
be carefully planned, because its
allocation cannot be changed.
The grouping of the luminaires
is determined by the circuits in
the electrical installation. Any
change of use requires a new
arrangement of the connection
and control lines. Feedback on
lamp failure, etc., is not possible
with the 1V-10V technology.
DMX
The DMX (Digital Multiplexed)
digital control protocol is predominantly used for stage lighting. In architectural lighting, this
protocol is used for features such
as media facades or stage-like
room lighting effects. The data
is transmitted via a dedicated
5-core cable at a transfer rate of
250 Kbits/s which can control up
to 512 channels. Each luminaire
must have a bus address. When
using multi-channel devices with
colour control and other adjustable features, each function
requires a separate address. For a
long time, the data transfer was
unidirectional and only enabled
the control of devices. It did not
provide feedback on aspects such
as lamp failure. The DMX 512-A
version now allows for bidirectional communication.
DALI
provide both economical light
Digital Addressable Lighting
management and scenographic
Interface (DALI) is a control prolighting.
tocol that makes it possible to
control luminaires which have
DALI control gear individually. The
system allows user-friendly light
management in architecture and
can be integrated as a subsystem
into modern building control sys­
tems. The two-wire control line
with a transfer rate of 1.2 Kbits/s
can be run together with the
mains supply cable in a 5-core
cable. The bidirectional system
allows feedback from the luminaires on different aspects such
as lamp failure. The DALI protocol
limits the number of devices to
64. The standard version stores
the settings for a maximum of
16 luminaire groups and 16 light
scenes within the control gear.
General information on DALI:
www.dali-ag.org
The ERCO Light System DALI,
saves settings in a central
controller with a greater storage capacity. This allows more
luminaire groups, light scenes and
fading times along with the coding of the control gear memory
for other features. The system
is compatible with other DALI
devices. Light System DALI can
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1V-10V
26666661
Switch
Relay contact
Circuit
Neutral conductor
Luminaire 1
ECG
1V-10 V
Switch
Relay contact
Circuit
Neutral conductor
KNX, LON
266666666666666666666661
DMX, DALI
6666666666666661
Lighting control | Control systems
General control systems
BMS
Floors or
Building Parts
Single Rooms
Luminaire 1
ECG
1V-10 V
Actuator 1V-10 V
Other luminaires
Other luminaires
D/A-Converter
Bus
KNX
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Bus
LON
Building management systems
are used to control different
building systems such as the
heating, solar screening equipment, and the lighting. They
are more complex than systems
that solely control the lighting
and thus are more involved in
terms of planning, installation
and operation. An established
protocol ensures communication between the systems over
a flexible network. The control
systems form the basis for building automation, to simplify and
automate the different functions in a building. The building
automation is divided into three
levels: the management level
for user-friendly visualisation,
the automation level for data
exchange, and the local level with
sensors and actuators. There are
no integrated receiving devices
in the luminaires (interfaces) for
decoding control signals; lighting
control is achieved by wiring individual circuits.
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Lighting control | Control systems | General control systems
Switch
Relay contact
Luminaire 1
Circuit
Neutral conductor
ECG
1V-10 V
Actuator 1V-10 V
Other luminaires
Bus
Switch
Relay contact
Luminaire 1
Circuit
Neutral conductor
ECG
1V-10 V
Other luminaires
D/A-Converter
Bus
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KNX
Konnex (KNX), known through
the European Installation Bus
(EIB), is a standardised digital
control system which controls
not only the lighting but also
other systems such as heating,
ventilation and solar screening
equipment. KNX is suitable as a
network of electronic installations for building automation.
Remote monitoring and control
make it easy to use. The data is
transmitted over a separate 24V
control line-twisted pair wire at
a rate of 9.6 Kbits/s. The decentralised communication is bidirectional so that the receiver can
also provide feedback. Each bus
device can transmit independ-
ently. An allocation of priorities
ensures proper communication
and prevents data collisions. Due
to the individual addresses of the
sensors and actuators, this allocation is flexible and can easily be
changed. KNX is used in domestic
buildings and in large installations such as offices or airports.
LON
Local Operating Network (LON) is
a standardised digital control protocol which controls building systems and is also used in industrial
and process automation. Via TCP/
IP, LON networks can be combined
to form cross-region networks and
be remote-controlled. LON is based
on intelligent sensors and actuators. The microprocessor of each
LON node, called a ”neuron”, can
be programmed and configured.
The data transfer for up to 32,000
nodes is over a twisted pair wire,
as a separate control line, at a rate
of up to 1.25 Mbit/s.
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Lighting control | Control systems
Programming the lighting
Lighting systems can be programmed with software to provide great flexibility and allow an
adjustment of the lighting to individual requirements. This results
in complex lighting systems with
sensors and interfaces that often
require professional installation
and maintenance. Users require
simple day-to-day operation that
allows them to make changes
themselves.
Non-standard systems can include
a great deal of complexity to cater
for special building requirements.
Problems or changes, however,
may require the support of a pro­fessional programmer. So, standardised lighting systems that
allow certain parameters to be
changed are easier to operate and
enable lighting designers or users
to make the necessary changes.
The decision on the type of lighting control system and software
depends on technical aspects such
as the size of the lighting system,
its integration with AV technology
or building control systems, and
the complexity of the installation.
Further criteria for the user to
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consider are ergonomics, flexi­
bility, and maintenance. A simple
installation process, rapid familiarisation and easy to use software aid setup and operation.
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Lighting control
Devices
Sensors
Control panels
Interfaces
Software
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Output devices
Lighting control systems are composed of different components:
sensors register changes in the
surroundings, control panels
enable light scenes to be recalled
or new lighting parameters to be
programmed. The output devices
translate the control circuit signals into actions. The connection
to the computer allows for easy
operation of the lighting control
system through software, while
gateways facilitate the combination of different control systems.
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Lighting control | Devices
Sensors
Light sensor
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Motion sensor
Sensors are measuring devices
that register ambient conditions
such as brightness or motion.
The lighting is adjusted when the
lighting control system receives
an impulse or a value above or
below a predetermined level.
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Lighting control | Devices | Sensors
Light sensor
A light sensor monitors light
levels and enables the automatic
control of light scenes depending on available daylight. Using
a lighting system in combination
with changing daylight levels in
rooms ensures a controlled illuminance, which is useful, for example, in order to maintain minimum values for workplaces or to
reduce the radiation exposure on
exhibits in museums. A daylight
sensor on the roof (external sensor) measures the illuminance
of the daylight and controls the
lighting inside. If the light sensor
is in the room (internal sensor),
it measures the total illuminance
of the incident daylight and the
lighting in the room in order to
Motion sensor
Motion sensors register movement
in the room and can be used, for
example, in vacant offices to dim
or switch off the light automatically in order to save power. In
museums, the lighting on sensitive exhibits can be reduced when
there are no visitors. Installed outdoors, motion sensors can reduce
power consumption at night as
lighting is switched on only when
and where required. The switching
thresholds must be set to suit the
situation.
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control the light level depending
on the daylight. The first process
is referred to as open loop control, the second as closed loop
control.
In combination with scene control, light scenes can be controlled depending on the daylight,
for example, by using a twilight
switch. In the same manner, the
sensor control can be used to
operate solar screening equipment.
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Lighting control | Devices
Control panels
Push-button
Switch
Remote control
Simple applications only require a
push-button to operate the lighting control system. Control panels
with displays are recommended
for sophisticated applications and
can also be used to program the
lighting system. A remote control
device allows light scenes to be
recalled from anywhere in the
room.
GUI
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Lighting control | Devices | Control panels
Push-button
A push-button closes or opens
a circuit to switch a luminaire
group or light scene on or off. To
use different functions, a system
requires several push-buttons.
The functions are determined
when the lighting control system
is installed.
Switch
A switch opens and closes a circuit. It locks into position and
does not require continuous
pressing as does a push-button.
A light switch controls the lighting by switching it on or off.
Remote control
A remote control is used to control the light separately from
wall-mounted control panels.
In conference rooms, a remote
control is a convenient device to
recall different light scenes from
anywhere in the room. An infrared remote control requires an IR
receiver to recall any functions.
GUI
Graphical User Interface (GUI) is
the familiar way of interaction
with software on computers or
control panels based on graphical
images. Simple user interfaces
prevent users having to learn
complex command languages
and simplify the operation. A GUI
can be combined with a touch
screen so that interaction takes
place directly on the screen.
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Lighting control | Devices
Output devices
Relay
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Dimmer
Controller
Output devices are actuators or
controllers that translate the
signals in a control circuit into
an action. Actuators (e.g. relays)
or dimmers operate or control
the light output through voltage
changes. Controllers have their
own processors and send signals
to the control gear.
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Lighting control | Devices | Output devices
Relay
A relay is a switch that is activated by electric current. When
operating metal halide lamps, a
run-up time of several minutes
and a longer cooling-down phase
before re-ignition must be taken
into account.
Dimmer
The dimmer is used for the infinitely variable regulation of the
output from a light source. Leading edge control is applied to
incandescent lamps. Low-voltage
halogen lamps with electronic
transformer are dimmed using
trailing edge technology. Thermal radiators such as tungsten
halogen lamps are easy to dim.
Fluorescent lamps require special control gear, while compact
fluorescent lamps require special
electronic control gear units.
Conventional compact fluorescent lamps cannot be dimmed.
LEDs can easily be dimmed with
the appropriate control gear.
In analogue 1V-10V technology,
dimming is possible by using a
special ECG with input for the
1V-10V control voltage and
a potentiometer or a control
system supply­ing analogue 1V10V control voltage, such as the
Controller
Controllers are electronic units
for process control. A lighting
control system such as the Light
System DALI saves light scenes
and controls the luminaires.
The amount of data which can
be used to store the settings is
limited by the storage capacity
of the controller. The user operates the controller via software
or a control panel. A control line
establishes a connection to the
luminaires and transmits the signals to the control gear.
In a LON system, D/A modules
are used to save and recall light
scenes. As output devices, they
allow the connection of external
dimmers or direct control of dimmable ECGs or transformers.
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ERCO Area Net or KNX actuators.
The dimmers are often installed
in switch cabinets. The control
lines are permanently connected
to luminaires or groups of luminaires. The digital control pro­
to­col, DALI, on the other hand,
allows for the individual control
of the dimmable ECGs for all the
connected luminaires.
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Lighting control | Devices
Interfaces
Interfaces or ‚Gateways‘ enable
the exchange of signals and data
between different data networks
or bus systems. Where several
control systems are used in a
building, the data needs to be
transferred between these systems. Lighting control systems
can be integrated as subsystems
into a building management sys­
tem by means of a gateway. In
the same manner, gateways can
be used, for example, for DALI
lighting control systems to activate 1V-10V controllers for the
sun screening equipment.
Software
Lighting control software turns
any PC connected to a lighting
control system into a control
panel and programming device
for the lighting system. The PC
can be connected to the lighting
control system using interfacing standards such as USB. The
brightness and light colour
settings are combined in light
scenes. The light scenes are programmed using the software
and recalled via control panels.
The software can provide many
additional functions, such as
spatial and timed control. A
timer program ensures lighting
control according to predefined
sequences or calendar settings.
With sequential control, the light
scenes are repeated in cycles.
The calendar function recalls the
light scenes according to predetermined times or days. The DALI
system with individually addressable luminaires allows flexible
allocations and regrouping.
The firmware is the software
required for the operation of
devices and is saved in a flash
memory. The PC software is used
to operate the lighting control
system on the computer and is
saved on the hard drive.
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Lighting control
Design examples
Museum
Office
Restaurant
Multifunctional room
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Showroom
The application area for a lighting
control consists of the functional
adaptation of the individual light­
ing requirement, the optimisation
of the use of energy and the differentiated design of architecture,
exhibition and presentation.
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Lighting control | Design examples
Museum
Observation
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Room of museum for presentation of paintings and sculptures.
Requirements: The illuminance
level is kept low as long as no
visitors are in the room. When
someone enters the room the
optimum exhibition lighting is
switched on.
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Lighting control | Design examples
Museum
Planning
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Lighting control | Design examples
Office
Observation
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Requirements: Several illuminance levels can be set; they are
controlled dependent on the
daylight.
It is operated via push-buttons
on the door. A maximum of four
different lighting levels can be
selected via the push-buttons.
The light scenes are defined for
different uses according to the
illuminances. The actual regulation to the set value within the
light scene is performed via the
daylight regulation.
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Lighting control | Design examples
Office
Observation
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Lighting control | Design examples
Office
Planning
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Lighting control | Design examples
Showroom
Observation
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Requirements: The lighting program is made up of differentiated
light scenes. It is operated via a
Preset at the reception. A daylight
control optimises the power consumption.
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Lighting control | Design examples
Showroom
Observation
Planning
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Lighting control | Design examples
Restaurant
Observation
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Requirement: different light
scenes can be recalled at breakfast, lunch and dinner times.
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Lighting control | Design examples
Restaurant
Observation
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Lighting control | Design examples
Restaurant
Planning
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Lighting control | Design examples
Multifunctional room
Observation
Large room
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Requirement: Various light scenes
for different purposes with different room allocation:
- training/seminar, large room
- meeting, large room
- training, small room
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Lighting control | Design examples
Multifunctional room
Observation
Large room
Planning
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Lighting control | Design examples
Multifunctional room
Observation
Small room
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