1 3D PRINTING with BIOMATERIALS TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY AD VAN WIJK & IRIS VAN WIJK 2 3D PRINTING WITH BIOMATERIALS TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY Ad van Wijk & Iris van Wijk COLOPHON AUTHORS Ad van Wijk & Iris van Wijk ILLUSTRATIONS Snoei vormgeving DESIGN & LAYOUT Jilles Sloos, Bureau Visueel DELFT 2015© THE AUTHORS AND IOS PRESS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. ISBN 978-1-61499-485-5 (print) ISBN 978-1-61499-486-2 (online) DOI 10.3233/978-1-61499-486-2-i PUBLISHER Published by IOS Press under the imprint Delft University Press IOS PRESS BV Nieuwe Hemweg 6b 1013 BG Amsterdam The Netherlands +31 (0)20 688 3355 [email protected] www.iospress.nl PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS LEGAL NOTICE The publisher is not responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. www.thegreenvillage.org [email protected] Follow @thegrnvillage on Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and LinkedIn 6 CONTENTS THE VISION 7 3D PRINTING HOW DOES IT WORK? DIGITAL DESIGN 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES EXTRUSION DIRECT ENERGY DEPOSITION SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDER PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION SHEET LAMINATION TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 3D PRINTING MATERIALS WHAT CAN BE MANUFACTURED? EVERYTHING CAN BE 3D PRINTED 3D PRINT YOUR HOUSE WHAT DOES THE FUTURE BRING? HISTORY OF 3D PRINTING HOW DOES IT CHANGE THE WORLD? THE 3D PRINTING MARKET 11 11 11 12 12 13 14 15 17 18 20 20 20 22 25 25 27 32 BIOMATERIALS RESOURCES AND MATERIALS PLASTICS HISTORY OF PLASTIC PLASTIC MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS BIO-BASED PLASTICS FROM CROPS TO BIO-BASED PLASTICS BIO-BASED≠BIODEGRADABLE 35 36 36 38 39 41 43 45 7 APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS BIO-BASED PLASTICS FOR 3D PRINTING PLA ABS VERSUS PLA FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMATERIALS FOR 3D PRINTING 48 49 50 51 52 TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY HOW DOES 3D PRINTING FIT WITH A CIRCULAR ECONOMY? IS 3D PRINTING SUSTAINABLE? PRINT YOUR HOUSE SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR? 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, MATERIAL USE 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, ELECTRICITY USE 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, LAND USE 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, EMBODIED ENERGY AND CO2 EMISSIONS 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, TOWARDS CIRCULARITY 57 3D PRINTING 71 3D PRINTING WITH BIOMATERIALS 73 REFERENCES 75 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 78 THE GREEN VILLAGE 81 BIOBASED ECONOMY 82 URBAN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM 84 57 60 61 62 62 64 64 66 8 9 THE VISION 3D Printing with v, towards a sustainable and circular economy JIP, my robotic assistant, wakes me up. While we discuss the day ahead, the 3D-printer is printing my breakfast, adding an integrated supplement of potassium and calcium - apparently my values are too low. Nowadays, we are living a fully sustainable and circular life thanks to excellent resource management, a sustainable energy supply for everyone and the use of Additive Manufacturing Facilities (AMF). JIP informs me he had a new camera printed for my glasses. As he hands it to me, I see the lens had been broken: good timing! Isn’t it great to have it repaired without any outside intervention, just by design? The old camera is directly disposed in the material-digester to be broken down for complete re-use on a molecular level. From my window I enjoy the view of our urban landscape: a vast, intelligent, fully automatic megacity of 28,679,936 inhabitants; projected in my glasses the number counts up as new habitants are registered. It all may seem overwhelmingly complex, but thanks to the food revolution and AMFs the logistics are actually quite simple. 10 Our car is on its way from the Car Park Power Plant. It notifies me that a new door panel from bio-plastic, reinforced with natural fibers, was printed overnight and replaced by the AMF at the Car Park Power Plant. While 30% lighter, it is even slightly stronger than the previous one! My wife and I have a safe trip to the clinic – we are expecting our first baby shortly. We refused to have a prenatal model of our baby printed in 3D, which is a very unusual choice – and a disappointment to my parents and grandparents. But I think that some things are meant to remain a blissful surprise, just like the future! Thisviewintothefutureisnotsciencefiction–itwillbecome realityduetothedevelopmentsin3Dprinting.3Dprinting–or AdditiveManufacturing–isagroupofmanufacturingtechniques definedastheprocessofjoiningmaterialslayeruponlayerto make objects from 3D-model data. It is a rapidly developing manufacturing technology which makes it possible to produce, repair or replace products everywhere; in a shop, in the hospital, attheoffice,atschoolorevenathome.Aproductdesignis simply downloaded and then printed. One may copy, modify or personalize the product before it is printed. It will also be possible to make a 3D scan of something existing - and then print it. This will fundamentally change our world. We can create, design and manufacture whatever we want, wherever we want. Additive Manufacturing will create a revolution in manufacturing; a paradigm change already called the third industrial revolution. The advantages of 3D printing are design freedom, faster product development cycles, low startup costs for production, local productionandon-demandmanufacturing.Itoffersthepromise ofasimple,efficientandlow-costsupplychain,withnoneed for mass production in factories, nor for global logistics of both 11 rawmaterialsandproducts.Onlyrequiringlocal logistics of raw materials (preferably locally produced) and 3D printers in your neighborhood or at home. 3Dprintingoffersthepromiseofmanufacturingwithlesswaste and less energy. We can print metals, ceramics, sand, food, plastics and even living organic cells. But what is the environmental impact of these input materials for 3D printing? Production of plastics for instance is based on fossil fuels, which has a serious impact on the environment, especially greenhouse gas emissions. But here too a paradigm change is occurring. Instead of using fossil fuels, plastics can be produced from renewable resources suchasbiomass.Andsomebiomaterialsseemtoofferunique material characteristics in combination with 3D printing! A wealth of new and innovate products are emerging when these two paradigm changes are being combined: 3D printing with biomaterials. The combination of 3D printing with biomaterials provides the opportunity to realize a truly sustainable and circular economy. SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR PROMISES 3D PRINTING OR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Design freedom Cloud- and community-based personalized design Faster product development cycle Low startup costs for production On-demand production Less transport and logistics BIOMATERIALS Material from biological origin instead of fossil fuels No CO2 (short cycle) emissions Feedstock can grow everywhere Every plastic can be produced Specificanduniquematerialcharacteristicsfor3Dprinting 3D PRINTING WITH BIOMATERIALS Local production of both biomaterials and products Zero greenhouse gas emissions Unique,innovative,newandsustainableproducts The realization of a sustainable and circular economy 12 13 3D PRINTING 3D Printing manufacturing will drastically change our production system. It is also called the third industrial revolution. But how does it work, what products may be printed and how will it change the world? HOW DOES IT WORK? In essence, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing (the industrial term)isacomputer-controlledproductiontechniquethatbuilds aproductlayerbylayer.Althoughtherearedifferenttechniques available,thethreebasicrequirementsare:thedigitaldesign,the 3D print technology and the material used. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) DIGITAL DESIGN The 3D printer needs an instruction on what to print. This instruction is created by a 3D modeling program and is called a Computer Aided Design(CAD)file.Suchafilecanbedesignedfromscratch,froman existingfileoritcanbecreatedbya3Dscanner.Thedesignofan object is sliced in thousands of horizontal layers and then sent to the 3Dprinterviaacommandfilethatdirectstheprintingprocess. 14 The product design will increasingly be community- and cloudbased. Community members will upload their designs for others to use, improve, change or integrate in their own product design. Foraspecificproduct,onecanpickadesign,personalizeit and print it. (6) (7) Communities in the cloud are able to develop, improve and share new product designs very rapidly and anyone can be involved in it. Intellectual property and design protection (initscurrentform)maybecomeobsolete,certainlyaffectingthe design world. 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES Additive Manufacturing, or 3D printing in popular terms, is not just one technology. Currently there are several technologies (and -variations) that cover the term 3D printing. It is called additive manufacturing because new material is continually added to the object. Material is only added where it is wanted, layer by layer,whichisverymaterial-efficient.Therearemanytypesof3D printers, but no matter the technology involved, all are additive and build the object layer by layer. The additive manufacturing or 3D printing technologies can be divided in several classes and withintheseclassestherearedifferentvariations:(5) (1) (2) (8) (9) (3) » Extrusion, extrusion of molten material; » Direct energy deposition, melting with high energy power source; » Solidification of powder, fusion or joining of particles; » Photopolymerization, solidificationofaliquidpolymer; » Sheet lamination, bonding of sheets. EXTRUSION A molten material - plastic, clay, cement, silicone, ink, or even chocolate or cheese - is extruded and becomes solid after it emerges from the printer head. Designs are built up layer by layer 15 untilthefinalproductiscomplete.Thereareseveralvariations within this technology. FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING One of these technologies based on extrusion principle is Fused FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING Deposition Modeling. With Fused Deposition Modeling, thermoplastic material is extruded. The molten material is printed layer by layer, on top of the previous layer and fuses when the material hardens, almost instantly after leaving the printing nozzle. Every time a layer is fully printed, the printer platform is lowered a fraction.Asupportingmaterialcanbeprintedbyadifferentprinting nozzle. The FDM method is one of the cheapest 3D printing methods and most often used in 3D printers at home. At present the most common materials used are ABS (common plastic, oil based plastic) and PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based plastic). (1) (2) (3) (5) (8) DIRECT ENERGY DEPOSITION Direct Energy Deposition is a process that melts metal wire or powder to form an object layer by layer, using a high energy power source such as an electron beam, a plasma welding torch oralaser.This3Dprintingtechnologyisspecificallyusedto produce metal objects. 16 ELECTRON BEAM DIRECT MANUFACTURING Electron Beam Direct Manufacturing (EDBM) is one of these ELECTRON BEAM techniques.Anelectronbeamgunprovidestheenergysourcefor DIRECT MANUFACTURING melting metal, typically a metal wire. Using electromagnetic coils, thiselectronbeamcanbebothpreciselyfocusedordeflected. A computer controls the electron beam and the movable table, to build up the object layer by layer. The process is conducted in a high-vacuum environment, preventing contaminations. EBDM can produceverylargeobjectsratherquickly. (1) (2) (3) (5) (8) SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDER Powder-based3Dprinttechniquesarebasedonfusingorhardening (sintering)ofpowders.Themostimportantsolidificationofpowder techniquesareSelectiveLaserSintering(SLS)and3DPrinting(3DP). Selective Laser Sintering isapowder-based3Dprinttechnique. The powder of a thermoplastic polymer, metal or ceramic is hardened (sintered) with a CO2 laser. The platform lowers and another layer of powder is applied and sintered. This process isrepeateduntiltheobjectisfinished.Theun-sinteredpowder functions as a support structure for the product. This powder can be re-used for the next printing, so there is no residual waste. Resolution restraints are caused by the minimum size of the powderparticlesofaround100μm.Powderedmaterialssuchas 17 polystyrene, ceramics, glass, nylon, and metals including steel, titanium, aluminum, and silver can be used in SLS. SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING 3D Printingisatechniquetobondpowderbyabindingmaterial, SELECTIVE distributed by a movable inkjet unit. The platform lowers and LASER SINTERING another layer of powder is applied and sintered the same way. Also in this case, the un-sintered powder functions as a support structure for the product, and can be re-used for the next printing. (1) (2) (3) (5) (8) 3D PRINTING PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION 3D PRINTING Photo-polymerization-based3Dprintingtechniquesarebasedon layerbylayerhardeningofliquidphoto-curableresinsbyUV-light. Themostimportantphoto-polymerizationtechniquesareStereoLithography (SLA) and the PolyJet process. 18 STEREOLITHOGRAPHY A stereolithographysystem(SLA)containsavatorcontainerfilled STEREO withaliquidphotopolymerizableresin.Theplatformlowersanda LITHOGRAPHY sweeper evenly distributes a layer of the photopolymerizable resin. The resin is hardened with UV-lasers. This process is repeated until the object is created. Thefirstcommerciallyavailable3Dprinter(not called a 3D printer at that time) used the stereolithography (SLA) method. When the UV-light is applied for the whole layer at once via a Digital Light Processing projector, this is called the Digital Light Processing(DLP)technique.TheprojectorbeamstheUV-lightthrough a mask, which will expose the whole layer with UV-light at once. POLYJET PROCESS POLYJET The photopolymerization group PROCESS also comprises the polyjet process because this process contains the hardening of a low viscous photopolymerizable resin. Instead of a vat with resin, the resin is dropped 19 by a multi-nozzle ink-jet head and instantly hardened by UV-light that is integrated in the ink-jet head. The building platform lowers and the process will be repeated. The supporting material is a gel, thatgetsflushedawaywhentheobjectisfinished.(1) (2) (3) (5) (8) SHEET LAMINATION SHEET SHEET LAMINATION LAMINATION This3Dprintingtechniquebuildsobjectsbytrimmingsheetsof material and binding them together layer by layer. Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) is one of these sheet lamination techniques.Layersofadhesive-coatedpaper,plastic,ormetal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter. (1) (2) (3) (5) (10) 20 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW Therearemanydifferentadditivemanufacturingor3Dprinting technologies.Anddifferentclassificationsofthesetechnologiesare inuse.Wehavedividedthetechnologiesinfiveprocesscategories and described a few technology examples. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (11) (9) have divided the additive manufacturing technologies in 7 process categories, which are shown in the table between brackets. 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES PROCESSES (3) (9) (12) PROCESS (ASTM PROCESS) TECHNOLOGY (SOME EXAMPLES) EXTRUSION Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) (MATERIAL EXTRUSION) A material is melted and extruded in layers, one upon the other (This technique is normally used in 3D printers at home) DIRECT ENERGY DEPOSITION Electron Beam Direct Manufacturing (EBDM) (DIRECT ENERGY DEPOSITION) An electron beam melts a metal wire to form an object layer by layer SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDER Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) (POWDER BED FUSION) A bed of powder material is “sintered” (hardened) by a laser, layer upon layer until a model is pulled out of it SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDER 3D Printing (BINDER JETTING) Powder is bond by a binding material distributed by a movable inkjet unit layer by layer PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION Stereolithography (SLA) (VAT PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION) Concentrating a beam of ultraviolet light focused onto the surface of a vat filledwithliquidphotocurableresin.TheUVlaserbeamhardeningslice by slice as the light hits the resin. When a projector beams the UV-light through a mask onto the resin it is called Digital light processing (DLP) PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION Polyjet Process (MATERIAL JETTING) Aphotopolymerliquidispreciselyjettedoutandthenhardenedwitha UV light. The layers are stacked successively SHEET LAMINATION Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) (SHEET LAMINATION) Layers of adhesive-coated paper, plastic, or metal laminates are glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter 21 3D PRINTING 3D PRINTING DESIGN FILE 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES EXTRUSION OF MOLTEN MATERIALS DIRECT ENERGY DEPOSITION MELTS METAL WITH A HIGH ENERGY POWER SOURCE SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDER FUSION OR JOINING OF PARTICLES PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION SHEET LAMINATION SOLIDIFICATION OF A LIQUID POLYMER BONDING OF SHEETS POLYMERS PHOTOCURABLE RESINS HYBRIDS, PAPER, METALS CERAMICS MATERIALS POLYMERS BIOBASED PLASTICS PLA, PLL, PLGA, TPC, TPS, PA-11,... METALS METALS, CERAMICS POLYMERS BIOBASED PLASTICS PA-11, PLA, PLGA, PHBV,... 22 3D PRINTING MATERIALS In principle, all kind of materials can be used for manufacturing with3Dprintingtechniques;fromsandtometals,ceramics,food, living cells and plastics. Especially plastics are used in the 3D printers at home (extrusion process) and may have their origin from either a fossil fuel or a bio-based feedstock (see next chapter for an overview). In relation to 3D printing a whole range of (bio) plastics is under development combined with (bio) additives to create special properties. For 3D printing, the main characteristics of interest are melting temperatures, melting viscosity and coagulation time. WHAT CAN BE MANUFACTURED? EVERYTHING CAN BE 3D PRINTED “Additivemanufacturingtechniquescanproduceessentially everything”, explains Siert Wijnia (5); from clothes to houses and bridges, from tea cups to bikes and cars, from medical prostheses to living tissues and organs, from jewelry to food. Currently, additive manufacturing technologies are used for rapid prototyping, for tooling and for manufacturing parts of a product. Industrial designersandarchitectsmakeuseof3Dprintingtechniquesto produce prototypes, to make a model of a building or to preview the design. Additive manufacturing is used to test newly designed parts or products before they are mass-produced. For example, injection molding with 3D printing is used to produce the molds much faster and cheaper (13) (14). And 3D printing is already used for the production of spare parts, personalized products and complex devices. At present, the main manufacturing applications of additive manufacturing are the production of product parts or special-design 23 products. In the dental sector, 3D printing is used to make dental bridgesandcrownsthatareuniquelydesignedforone’sjaw.The fashion industry uses 3D printing to make jewelry or extravagant dresses. Additive manufacturing is applied industrially to produce engine parts for aircrafts, to reproduce parts of old-timers that are not manufactured anymore or to make spare parts locally. Top restaurants apply 3D printing to create a nice looking desert or even a complete meal. It may well be possible to manufacture complete complex products in the future, such as bikes, cars, washing machines or evenhouses.Thefirst3Dprintedexamplesofthesecomplex products are already being manufactured by researchers, artist and hobbyists. These products get a lot of attention in the news, suchasthefirst3Dprintedbike,gunorhamburger.Theadditive manufacturingtechniquespromisefast,uniqueandpersonalized manufacturing of all kinds of products. Even products that cannot be imagined now. Certainly in the near future, products with the following features will by manufactured by 3D printing; » Productsproducedinsmallquantities » Products that need to be produced fast » Products with a large market-volume uncertainty » Products with a short life cycle » Products with many variations, sizes and colors » Complex and customized products. A brief overview of present and future applications is given in the table below. For future applications this list is certainly not limitative.One’simaginationsanddreamsmayberealizedone daybyusing3Dprintingtechniques. 24 3D PRINTING APPLICATIONS SECTOR PRESENT APPLICATIONS FUTURE APPLICATIONS INDUSTRY Product components, spare parts, reproduction of parts Complete and complex products, washing machines, mobile phones, guns, drones HEALTH Dental bridges and crowns, prostheses Living tissues and organs, bionic ears, eyes FASHION Jewelry, special designed clothes Clothes, shoes, accessories personalized for your posture and taste FOOD Nice looking deserts, appetizers Producing food (hamburgers, potatoes) personalized to your diet, calories and taste. BUILDING No applications yet Building parts and complete buildings with a high degree of freedom of design and future changes AT HOME Special designed gadgets, simple products Order products and print at home, repair products, design and produce personalized products OTHERS Building in space Chemistry: building molecules Pharmacy: building personalized medicine 3D PRINT YOUR HOUSE The process of manufacturing buildings has not changed a lot over the past decades. First a design is made, the construction and installations are engineered and then the building is manufactured onsite.Webuildourhouses,schools,officesfromwood,concrete, steel, glass, bricks, clay and all kind of other materials. However, thebuildingprocessisrathercomplex,inmanycasesuniqueand therefore labor intensive with a high probability of mistakes. 3DPrintingtechnologypotentiallyofferssomeinterestingbenefitsinmanufacturingproductsthatarecomplex,uniqueormade in small series. Especially buildings have these characteristics. 3D Printingmakesitpossibletocreateuniqueshapes,adaptthebuilding to the personal preferences without additional cost and with a low probability to make mistakes. 3D Printing has the potential to 25 reduce material use (especially concrete) and to avoid building and demolition waste, thus lowering environmental emissions during construction. Additional to these advantages, it creates new possibilities, new architecture, new building-physics engineering, new day lighting options and other things not even yet imagined. (15) (16) (14) In the past decade, a couple of pioneers have tried to develop abuildingprocessbasedon3Dprintingtechniques.Enrico Dinidevelopeda3Dprintingtechniquetocreatebuildingsand structures through sintering of sand (17). At the University of Southern California, Behrokh Khoshnevis is developing a 3D printingtechnique,calledcontourcrafting,toprintwallsand structureswithacarbonfibercementmixture(18). Neri Oxman, architect and artist at the mediated matter group at MIT, demonstrates the design freedom for large objects of 3D printing withdifferentmaterialsandtechniques(19). DUS architects are creating a 3D printed canal house in Amsterdam using the “Kamermaker”, a large-scale home printer. They print each room separately and build it together as large Lego-type blocks. The rooms are connected to the outside façade, which is printed in one piece. The envelope of a wall in particular is 3D printed from plastics, leaving space for infrastructure. (20) Many architects, designers and researchers around the world are developing new technologies and processes to manufacture buildings with 3D printing technologies. The general concept is to print the envelope and internal structure of the walls using plastics.Thestructureisfilledwithweight(sand,concrete), isolation material and the infrastructure and other elements are also integrated into this structure. Such designs are built with less materialuse,andamplefreedominformandflexibility.3DPrinters and robots are used on site to print and assemble the building. 26 Bram van den Haspel (16) has presented a step-by-step scenario towards3Dprintedbuildingsthatrequireoneprintingrunon location,usingdifferentmaterials.Thefirststepisbasedon printing small building blocks in plastic. The second step allows printing complex molds to make certain bigger parts of a building with a certain level of integrated functionalities. In the third step, complex building parts with integrated isolation, ventilation and tubes are being printed. Followed by printing the whole building inpartsatthemanufacturingsite.Thefinalstepisprintingthe total building in one printing run on location or in a nearby production facility. How soon a building can be realized with 3D printing on location, depends on the development of the 3D printing technology, robot technology, construction design for 3D printing and material development. With present 3D printing technology it would cost about a year to print a simple town house with 20 printers (one printer head each). But if speed, precision and design of 3D printer technology develops as fast as the 2D printer technology, a simple town house may be printed in less than a day within 10 years from now. According to Oxman, 3D printing of houses will happen in the near future already. In the far future, buildings may be constructed by swarms of tiny robots that use a combination of printing and weavingtechniques.Today’smateriallimitationscanbeovercome by printing with responsive materials. Gantry limitations can be overcome by printing with multiple interactive robot-printers. Process limitations can be overcome by moving from layering to weaving in 3D space, using a robotic arm. (21) 27 WHAT DOES THE FUTURE BRING? HISTORY OF 3D PRINTING Although it was already proposed in the 19th century to producetopographicalmapslayerbylayer,thefirstrealattempts toproduceobjectsthatwayweremadeinthe1980’s.In1981 Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute publishedthefirstaccountofaworkingphotopolymerrapid prototyping system. Charles (Chuck) Hull, one of the co-founders of3DSystems,developedthefirstworking3Dprinterbasedon the StereoLitographic process (SLA) in 1984. In 1992 3D Systems deliveredthefirstSLA3Dprintermachine. Stratasysmadetheworld’sfirstFusedDepositionModelling (FDM) machinein1991.Thistechnologyusesplasticandan extruder to deposit layers on a print bed. It is the predecessor of the 3D home printing machines that we can buy today. Manynew3Dprintingtechniquesweredevelopedatthattime, such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) by DTM in 1992. This machine technology is similar to SLA but uses a powder (and laser) insteadofaliquid.ModelMaker’swaxprinterwasreleasedin 1994 and in 1997 Aeromet invented laser additive manufacturing. In2000,ObjectGeometriesproducedthefirst3Dinkjetprinter andthefirstmulticolor3DprinterwasmadebyZCorp,nowpart ofStratasys.Thefirstdesktop3DprinterwasmadebySolidimension in 2001. And nowadays one can buy 3D home printers from over 100 companies. The objects, products and things that can be produced with 3Dprintingtechniquesgrewaccordingly.Itstartedwithsimple products, prototypes and complicated structures. But nowadays almost any complex product can be made. 28 3DPrintingtechniquesarealsobeingusedformedicalapplications.In1999,scientistsmanagedtogroworgansfrompatient’s cellswhileusinga3Dprintedscaffoldtosupportthem.Aminiaturekidneywas3Dprintedin2002already.Thefirst3Dartificial leg was produced in 2008, with all parts (knee, foot, socket, etc.) printed in one complex structure without assembly. Bioprinting companyOrganovoproducedthefirst3Dprintedbloodvessel in 2009. In 2012, the infected jawbone of a 83 year old woman wassuccessfullyreplacedwithanartificial3Dprintedtitanium replacement, fabricated by LayerWise. And in the Netherlands in 2014, a complete new skull for a woman was 3D printed and implemented successfully. Complex products have been produced by 3D printing techniquesinotherindustrialsectors.In2011theworld’sfirst3D printed robotic aircraft was made by engineers at the University ofSouthampton,in7days.In2011alsothefirst3Dprintedcar was produced: the Urbee by Kor Ecologic. And Cody Wilson of Defense Distributed released his designs for 3D printing a gun in 2013. And in 2014 DUS architects started to 3D print a canal house in Amsterdam. (22) Art has already changed forever due to 3D printing. Digital artists arecreatingmagnificentpiecesofjewelry,clothesandsculptures that would have been seemingly impossible to make with traditional methods.Beautifulobjects,fromsculpturestolightfixtures,nolonger need to be handcrafted but just only designed on a computer. The next step in the development of 3D printing was open-source productionand-design.Itstartedin2005whenthe Reprapprojectwas founded by Dr Adrian Bowyer at the University of Bath. The project was intended as a democratization of 3D printing technology. 29 The Reprap Darwin 3D Printer (2008) can produce many of its own parts. In the same year Shapeways launched a website market for 3DmodelsandMakerbot’s Thingiverse(7) launched a website for freefilesharingof3D(andother)models.In2009Makerbotintroduced a Do-It-Yourself kit, based on Reprap, which allows buyers to make their own 3D printers and products. With 3D laser scanners today we can copy, change and create every digitized design, upload it to an open-source 3D printing community and 3D print our owndesignsorsomeoneelse’s.(23) (24) (12) (25) HOW DOES IT CHANGE THE WORLD? 3D Printing is claimed to trigger a third industrial revolution because the technology presents new and expanding technical, economic and social impact (26) (27) (12).Itwilldrasticallyaffectexistingmanufacturing processes, like relocating manufacturing to the location of demand. It will not be based on a small number of centralized manufacturing sites with high investment costs, but rather on a large number of small investments in distributed manufacturing locations. Distributed3Dprintingmanufacturingoffersalsothepromiseof lower working capital, eliminating the need for large stocks of raw materials, semi-manufactured parts and labor costs. Manufacturing near the point of demand makes the supply chain and logistics verysimpleandmuchmoreefficient.Onlyrawmaterialsneedto betransported.Therequiredamountoffeedstockmaterialwill be less, because there is virtually no production waste and we only produce what we need. In many cases, the development and design of a product will become an open-source process to which manypeoplecancontribute.Thefinaldesignwillbeavailableon the Internet and can be reproduced everywhere in the world. Ton Runneboom presented an overview on how manufacturing has changed over time. He concluded that although such a paradigm 30 shift in manufacturing will take some time, it will inevitably occur in the end because it will be cheaper. (28) MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENTS IN TIME (28) MATERIAL COST < 1970 1970 1980 > 1980 Some manufacturing moves to raw-material locations Low material cost, low yields compensated by low material cost Geopolitics and resource limits become important, high raw material cost (oil) Yield improvement becomes important to reduce material cost 3D PRINTING FUTURE EFFICIENT MATERIAL USE AND RE-USE POSSIBLE FIXED INVESTMENT 1970 1980 > 1980 Largefixedinvestmentcostformanufacturinginstallations Some cheap labor countries have also cheap investment money More and more industry cluster investments 3D PRINTING FUTURE MANY SMALL AND INDIVIDUAL FIXED INVESTMENTS LABOR < 1970 1980 > 1990 Labor goes to manufacturing sites Low material cost, low yields compensated by low material cost Automationsignificantlyreduceslabortime 3D PRINTING FUTURE HARDLY ANY LABOR TIME WORKING CAPITAL 1980 1990 > 2000 High working capital needed to produce on stock Increase of working capital because of larger production sites Financial crisis has reduced working capital 3D PRINTING FUTURE WORKING CAPITAL NEED IS LOW LOGISTICS 1970 1980 > 1990 Larger airplanes make larger markets possible Containerization makes transport of goods cheaper Larger ships make transport of goods and raw materials cheaper and cheaper 3D PRINTING FUTURE ONLY RAW MATERIALS TRANSPORT NECESSARY SUPPLY CHAIN 1980 1990 > 2000 First supply chain concepts and -systems come to market Fully developed supply chain management Automation and ICT makes just in time delivery possible 3D PRINTING FUTURE SUPPLY CHAIN WILL BECOME VIRTUAL AND FULLY DIGITAL MANUFACTURING < 1970 1970 1980 > 1990 Manufacturing close to market or resource Manufacturing moves to raw material resource locations Manufacturing moves to low labor cost countries Automation, moving some manufacturing back to market 3D PRINTING FUTURE MANUFACTURING BACK TO LOCAL MARKETS 31 IN TIME MANUFACTURING IN TIME 1980 <1970 Part of production goes to source Manufacturing on point of sale Local markets Forest, oilfields 1990 Manufacturing where labour cost is cheap China, India etc. 2000 Automation, less labour Part goes back to local markets 3D FUTURE 3D printing manufacturing at home Personalized 32 Additional to a drastic change of the manufacturing process, 3Dprintingholdsthepromiseofuniquecustomizationofour products.Beforetheindustrialrevolution,productswereunique and custom-made. Furniture, clothes, houses and machines were tailor-designed and made by skilled crafts people. It took a long time to manufacture these products. Since the rise of mass production in the early 20thcentury,consumers’demandshavebeen metbyproducinglargequantitiesofgoodsinsignificantlyless time. Products have become cheaper and available for everybody. 3DPrintinghoweverofferscustomersoptionsagaintopersonalize the products and goods they are purchasing or producing. Therefore 3D printing does not only hold the promise of cheap manufacturing, but also the promise of mass customization. (12) Thefirstbigimplicationofincreasingapplicationsandpricedrops of 3D printing, is that more products will be manufactured at or close to their location of purchase or consumption. This might even mean production of products or replacement of parts on householdlevel.Manyproductsthathavereliedontheefficiencies of large-scale, will be produced locally with centralized manufacturing. Even if the per-unit production cost is higher, it willbemorethanoffsetbytheeliminationofshippingandbuffer inventories. For example, whereas just a few hundred factories around the world make cars today, they might one day be made in every metropolitan area. Parts could be made at dealerships and repair shops, and assembly plants could eliminate the need for supply chain management by making components when needed. So 3D printing holds the promise to produce locally. (29) Finally, 3D printing will create a new way to develop and design existing and revolutionary new products. It starts at the design process. Products may be developed in open-source co-creation 33 communitiesontheInternet.Theresultingdigitaldesignfiles can directly control 3D printers to produce the products. A digital design can also be made by 3D scanning of a model or an existing object or product. After such a 3D digital scan the design can be adjustedandchangeddigitallytogettherequired(customized) product. Next to this new way of designing existing products, 3D printingoffersthepromisetocreatecompletelynewproducts. There is much more freedom in creating complex structures and shapes. The material properties can be adjusted on a very small scale, which gives the opportunity to create products with new characteristics and functions that are currently unimaginable. Additionally, even living tissue and organisms can be 3D printed, which opens a range of new personalized medicines, surgery and regenerative medicine. 3D printing holds the promise to (co-)create revolutionary new products, systems and applications. (26) (30) (12) HOW DOES IT CHANGE THE WORLD? CHEAPER MANUFACTURING Relocate manufacturing to the point of need (market) Large number of small investments instead of small number of large investments in manufacturing capacity Lower working capital, less stock, semi-manufactured products and labor Supplychainandlogisticswillbesimpleandmoreefficient Lessrawmaterialrequired,producewhatisneeded,nowaste MASS CUSTOMIZATION Every product can be adjusted to personal preferences; colors, size, design Clothes can be adjusted to personal size, shapes and preferences Furniture can be adjusted to size, number, personal style Teeth, prosthesis, medicines, etc. can be adjusted to personal conditions LOCAL PRODUCTION Production can take place near demand, at home or in local 3D print shops Unitproductioncostcanbehigher,willbeoffsetbylessshippingcost Spare parts and replacements parts can be produced locally Materials can be recycled and used for production locally NEW PRODUCTS, SYSTEMS, APPLICATIONS 3D Printing technology development towards faster, more detailed and complex manufacturing Develop products in open-source co-creating communities 3D scanning of objects and adjustment of design More freedom in creating complex structures and shapes Possibility to adjust material properties on a very small scale Living tissues and organism can be 3D printed 34 THE 3D PRINTING MARKET The market for 3D printing is growing rapidly. Many business analysts,consultancycompaniesandfinancialinstituteshave discovered the 3D printing industry and market. They follow and analyze this market and make forecasts (31) (27) (12) (32) (31) (33). Politicians have also recognized the potential of 3D printing. In his State of the Union 2013, president Obama highlighted 3D printing as something that could generate new high-tech jobs in the United States. There is a fast-growing market for 3D printed products that drives theso-calledprimarymarket,whichincludesequipment,materials, software, design and services. In 2012 the primary market for 3D printing was about 2.2 billion dollar, an increase of 29% from 2011. Market growth in the past 3 to 4 years was around 30% per year. Projected growth of this primary 3D printer market for the next couple of years is estimated at 40% to 50% per year. (34) (27) (26) According to Deloitte (27), most of the revenue in the 3D printing sectorwillbegeneratedbycommercialusers,asequipment makers experience continued price pressure and 3D printers becomemoreaffordable.Inthepast,onlylargeorganizations suchas3M,FordandMicrosofthadsufficientcapitaltoinvest in 3D printers and explore new business models or product lifecycles. Smaller organizations are now increasingly joining in the explorationofapplications,thankstomoreaffordablecosts.Some areevenpurchasing3Dprinterswithoutapre-defineduseand settingupsmalllabstoexploreopportunitiesforefficienciesor new business. Another key driver to growth is the increasing number of available materialsfor3Dprinting.Materialsareequallyimportantasthe 35 3D printers themselves: feedstock materials account for 40% of revenue for the 3D printing sector and are expected to increase further (35). Even though polymers are the most commonly used materials, other materials such as metals, paper and even organic tissue are becoming available. The development of new composites and smart materials could allow the industry to explore new product development in new sectors such as electronics:fromsimplemotherboardstorobotsorLED’s. And obviously, the product-design process is being transformed by the rise of 3D printing. It allows companies to market and test newproducts,whilemakingnecessarymodificationsbasedon customer feedback. Printing small batches of a product, testing differentversionsandonlytakingthemostsuccessfulone(s)into production. Instead of mass-producing one product, based on limited feedback from focus group participants, companies can nowintroducefiveproductsandsellthemdirectlytoconsumers, letting the market decide which one is successful enough for mass production. Prototyping, customized products and small production runs will keep driving the commercial usage of 3D printers in the short term while new niches develop. The range of enterprise applications for 3D printing varies between sectors, but three industries are already testing or applying 3D printing. These sectors, expecting the biggest gains, are the aerospace, biomedical and consumer product industries. (12) 36 37 BIOMATERIALS Considerable amounts of raw materials are used for the production of houses, cars and goods. In 2050, around 9 billion people will be living on earth (36) .If we do not change our production and consumption patterns, this will lead to a steady growth in demand for resources and raw materials (37) . Theearthprovidesuswithresourcesindifferentways.Crops, plants and trees (i.e. biomass) grow on the earth. Sand, stones and clay are around us on the earth. Iron, aluminum, copper and other metals are found in the earth. And fossil fuels, which where crops, plants and trees many years ago, are also extracted from the earth. However,manyoftheseresourcesaren’tinfinitelyavailableon our planet. Especially what we delve from the earth are limited resources, like metals and fossil fuels. In contrast, biomass is a renewableresource.Soifwewanttofulfilltheneedsoffuture generations, we need to change to a bio-based economy. 38 From an economy that runs on fossil fuels to an economy that runs on biomass feedstock. RESOURCES AND MATERIALS Bulk materials such as bricks and tiles, steel, cement, aluminum, glass, plastics, wood, paper and boards, account for approximately 920 million ton per year in EU-27. Cement represents 25% of the bulk material use in Europe and is responsible for the highest CO2 emissions. Crude steel is the second largest with 22% of material use, followed by bricks and tiles with a share of 21%. Paper/board and wood account for respectively 11% and 10%. This is followed by plastics with 6%, which is followed by glass that has a share of 4%. Aluminum accounts for 1% of the bulk material use in the EU-27. (38) In Europe, plastics represent 6% of the material use, which is around 60 million ton per year. It is used in the packaging, building and construction and automotive sectors and also applied in electronics and consumer goods. However, packaging is by far the largest application for plastics with a share of 39.4% of the total European demand in 2012. The second largest is the building and construction sector with 20.3%. The third largest is the automotive sector, accounting for 8.2% of the European plastic demand. Electrical and electronic applications and agricultural applications are responsible for 5.5% and 4.2% respectively. Other applications, such as appliances, consumer products, furniture and medical products, account for 22.4% of the European plastic demand. (38) (39) PLASTICS Everywhere around us, a wide variety of plastics is used. From the beginning of the 20th century, plastics have changed the world and 39 MARKET SHARES OF BULK MATERIALS AND PLASTICS APPLICATIONS MATERIAL USE 4% 25% BRICKS & TILES 1% 6% CRUDE STEEL CEMENT ALUMINIUM GLASS PLASTICS WOOD 10% PAPER & BOARD 22% 11% 21% PLASTICS OTHER AGRICULTURE 20.3% 39.4% 22.4% ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS AUTOMOTIVE BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION PACKAGING 8.2% 4.2 % 5.5% 40 enabledamodernlifestyle–beingappliedintelephones,tablets, sporting goods, etcetera. There are even plastics with a wood, metal or leather look and plastics that function as carriers for a vaccine.Theword‘plastics’comesfromtheGreekwordplastikós, whichmeans‘tomold’.Thisisbecauseallplasticsaresoftand moldable during production, which allows for almost any object to be made out of a plastic. (40) (41) Plastics are synthetic materials, made out of chemical building blocks. These building blocks are small organic molecules, also known as monomers, which largely contain carbon amongst other materials. During chemical reactions, long chains of monomers can form polymers. Most polymers nowadays are fossil-based; on oil derivatives such as naphtha. Alternatively, they can originate from organic materials such as corn, sugar cane and even banana peels–thenbeingcalledbio-basedplastics.(42) HISTORY OF PLASTIC Plasticshaven’talwaysbeenmadefromoil.Thefirstplastics were actually bio-based, and were alternatives for the valuable and scarce raw materials such as ivory, horn, lapis lazuli, ebony, amber, pearls and coral. Celluloid is considered to be the very firstplasticandwasdiscoveredin1855bytheEnglishman Alexander Parkes. Celluloid is made of cellulose acetate and camphor.In1869thefirstfactoryfortheproductionofthermoplastic celluloid opened its doors. Celluloid was used for all kinds ofapplications,frombilliardballstopicturegraphicfilmsand all kinds of decorative goods, such as dolls, hairpins and combs. Also the famous LEGO bricks were initially made of cellulose acetate. So celluloid exploded economically, but sometimes also literally:itwaseasilycombustible,especiallyinfilmmaterial when the moisture content decreased over time. 41 In 1923 mass production of cellophane (cellulose hydrate) started, whichwestillknowasatransparentcrispyfilmtowraparound flowers.Atthattimecellophanewasthefirstplasticthatcame into direct contact with food, but it was gradually replaced with cellulose acetate in a lot of applications. (42) Phenol formaldehyde, known as Bakelite, is a hard moldable material.Itwasthefirstsyntheticplasticandagoodeconomicalalternative for celluloid. Discovered in 1907 by the Flemish chemist Leo Hendrik Arthur Baekeland during his work in New York, and was patented in 1909. Ten years later in 1919, he founded the General Bakelite Company.Becauseofitsconstantqualityinmassproduction,non-conductivity and excellent heat resistance properties, Bakelite conqueredtheworld.Itwasforinstanceusedfortelephoneandradio casings and in cars and planes. Bakelite became a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society in 1993. (41) In the period between 1930-1950 the polyamides became popular, suchaspolystyrene,PTFEknownasTeflon® and PA6.6 known as Nylon®,whichwastheworld’sfirstdurablesyntheticfiber.From1956 onwardstheywerefollowedbytoday’shighestvolumemass-produced plastics: polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). (42) PLASTIC MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS From 1950-2012 the plastic industry experienced an average annual growth of 8.7%. In 2012 it was producing around 290 million tons of plastics worldwide. China is the leading plastics producerwithashareof23.9%oftheworld’stotalplastic production. The rest of the production in Asia including Japan accounts for an additional 20.7%. The European production (EU27+2) represents 20.4% of the total production of plastics in the world, followed by North America with a share of 19.9%. (39) 42 GLOBAL PLASTIC PRODUCTION SHARE IN 2012 (39) REGIONS SHARE CHINA 23.9% REST OF ASIA INCLUDING JAPAN 20.7% EUROPE 20.4% NORTH AMERICA 19.9% MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 7.2% LATIN AMERICA 4.9% FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIS 3.0% In 2012, there were more than 62,000 companies in the plastic industry in the 27 members states of the European Union. These include plastic producers, converters and the plastic machinery sector. Together they account for 1.4 million jobs, with a turnover of 300 billion euro. (39) Differentplasticsfeaturedifferentpropertiesandthereforehavedifferent applications. In Europe (EU-27+2) most plastic demand is for polypropylene(PP),withashareof18.8%.PPcanbeusedforflowerpotsto car bumpers. Second comes polyethylene (PE), which is separated into low density (LD) and high density (HD) PE and represents respectively 17.5% and 12% of the European demand. This is followed by 10.7% for PVC, 7.4% for PS, 7.3% for PUR and 6.5% for PET, which is known from the soda and water bottles. Plastics like ABS, PTFE and others, account for the remaining 19.4% of the European plastic demand. (39) PLASTIC SHARE BY RESIN TYPE IN EUROPE 2012 (39) RESIN TYPE SHARE APPLICATIONS PP 18.8% PPflowerpots,PPcarbumpers PE-LD & PE-LLD 17.5% PE-LD bags, PE-LLD wire cables PE-HD 12.0% PE-HD containers, PE-HD caps PVC 10.7% PVC windows, PVC rain boots PS & PS-E 7.4% PS yoghurt pots, PS glasses frame PUR 7.3% PUR sponge, PUR insulation panels PET 6.5% PET bottles OTHERS 19.8% ABSLEGObricks,PTFE(Teflon)pan 43 BIO-BASED PLASTICS Theworld’sfirstplastic,celluloid,wasabio-basedplasticsandwas used for the production of billiard balls instead of valuable ivory. More bio-based plastics followed such as cellulose acetate, which was used for the famous LEGO building bricks. Nevertheless these bio-basedplasticswerequicklyabandonedintheeraofcheap and abundant oil. Therefore most polymers are fossil-based nowadays; based on oil derivatives such as naphtha. (42) Today, bio-based plastics represent less than 1% of about 290 million tons of plastics produced globally. The global production capacity of bio-based plastics was around 1.4 million tons in 2012 (39). Nevertheless, bio-based plastics are becoming important again. Their revival started around 1980 with plastics based on starch, caused by a relatively low price and steady availabilityofcropsanditsuniquefunctionalityofrapidbiodegradability. At that time, especially the biodegradable and compostable functionalities were the focus of research and development (42). But in later years the main interest shifted towards the renewable resource aspect of the bio-based plastics, essential for a bio-based economy. (43) In a bio-based economy, biomass is used for a variety of applications, such as pharmaceuticals, food, chemicals, materials, fuels and electricity. Biomass is preferably used firstlyforhigh-valueapplicationssuchaspharmaceuticals, food and bio-based materials, and secondly for lower-value applications, such as biofuels or electricity production (44). The value pyramid of biomass shows this hierarchy in biomass use. Low volumes with high value for pharmaceutical products at the top, and high volumes with low value for energy applications at the bottom. (45) (43) 44 BIOMASS VALUE PYRAMID Farma Fragrances Flavours Flowers Health Fruits Fresh vegetables Food crops Fodder Nutrition Functional molecules Fermentation products Fibers Chemicals & Materials Fuel Energy 45 FROM CROPS TO BIO-BASED PLASTICS To produce a high-value application such as biomaterials, numerous types of crops can be used to extract sugars, starches, oils or lignocelluloses, ranging from sugar beet, maize, rapeseed, perennial grasses to crop residues. These crops can be converted into bio-based bulk chemicalsthroughdifferentconversiontechniques: 1. Gasification,resultinginsyngasormethanol,andsubsequent conversion into materials 2. Pyrolysis,resultinginbio-oil,andsubsequentconversioninto materials 3. Catalytic conversion of biomass into materials e.g. furanics 4. Pulping, resulting in paper and possible lignin derivatives (cellulose) 5. Other physico-chemical synthesis of materials 6. Fermentation using micro-organisms, resulting in chemicals and intermediates (starch) 7. Enzymatic conversion, resulting in chemicals and intermediates 8. Extraction of feedstock from traditional crops, resulting in e.g. vegetable oil for lubricants 9. Extraction of materials that were produced in planta, such as PHAs The bio-based bulk chemicals are often intermediate products and can be converted into a wide range of bio-based plastics. (37) 46 CROPS TO BIO-BASED PLASTICS CROPS maize sugar beet soybeans crop residue sugarcane potatoe perennial grass wheat sun owerseeds rapeseed CONVERSION Gasification resulting in syngas or methanol, and subsequent conversion into materials Pyrolysis Catalytic resulting in bio-oil and subsequent conversion into materials Fermentation using micro-organisms, resulting in e.g. vegetable oil for lubricants conversion of biomass into materials e.g. furanics Enzymatic resulting in chemicals and intermediates Pulping resulting in paper and possibly ligning derivatives Extraction of feedstock from traditional crops, resulting in e.g. vegetable oil for lubricants BIOMATERIALS BIOBASED PLASTICS PLA, PHA, Bio-PE, Bio-PP, Bio-PET, TPS, etc Other physico-chemical synthesis of materials Extraction of materials that were produced in planta such as PHAs 47 BIO-BASED ≠ BIODEGRADABLE Bio-based plastics can be biodegradable or non-biodegradable but are always based on renewable resources. Biodegradable materials like bio-based plastics can be broken down by microorganisms into naturally occurring gasses such as CO2 and/or CH4,waterandbiomass.Thereisadifferencebetweenhome compostable or industrial compostable. With home composting, total biodegradability is possible with a compost heap in a garden.Bio-basedplasticsthatrequireindustrialcompostingdo not biodegrade completely in natural environments; they need specificconditionssuchashighertemperaturesandhumidity levels to accommodate an optimum for micro-organisms. (46) (42) It has become clear over time that biodegradability and compostability are only interesting functionalities when there is some additional value over waste disposal. Therefore the focus of research and development has shifted from biodegradability towards the bio-based content–likeproductionofnon-foodrawmaterialsandbio-based plasticsfromplantresidues–andtowardstheimprovementofthe technicalperformanceofdifferentbio-basedplastics.(42) Soplasticsbasedoncellulosewerethefirstbio-basedplastics. The revival of the bio-based plastics was based on starch, and was caused by the relatively low price, steady availability of crops and its uniquerapidbiodegradability.Byhydrolyticcracking,starchcanalso be converted into glucose, which again is used as a raw material in the fermentation process to produce other bio-based plastics such as PLA (Polylactic acid) and PHA (Polyhydroxy alkanoate). Sugars are also used for a lot of bio-based plastics ranging from bio-PE (Polyethylene), bio-PP (Polypropylene) and PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) to partially bio-based plastics such as PET (Polyethylene terephthalate). These latter bio-based plastics are not biodegradable 48 while identical to their fossil-based counterparts. Because they are substitutable, these bio-based plastics are called “drop-ins” (46) (42). A mixture between fossil-based and bio-based plastics is also possible, and can range from biodegradable to non-biodegradable. It is possible to blend bio-based plastics with other bio-based plastics, such as TPS with PLA. But it is also common to blend bio-based plastics with fossil-based plastics, for example PLA with PBAT. This blend still has its biodegradable functionality, as both the bio-based PLA and the fossil-based PBAT are compostable. However when PLA is blended with a non-biodegradable fossil-based plastic, this functionality is lost. Like adding additives, blending is another way of tweaking the mechanical, thermal and other properties (a.o. biodegradability) and is applied tailor-made for a wide range of applications. (47) (42) BIO-BASED PLASTICS PROCESSING, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES (48) (47) MATERIAL PROCESSING ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CELLULOSE DERIVATIVES PROCESSING TEMPERATURE Good mechanical properties. Good thermal resistance. Glossy transparent appearance. Thermal degradation possible Good mechanical properties Excellent gas barrier properties Anti-static Fast biodegradable Humidity dependent Not completely transparent Good mechanical properties Transparent Only compostable in industrial facilities Water sensitivity during processing Low melt strength Mechanical properties can be varied Hydrophobic Fast biodegradable Low melt strength 190-240⁰C SUITABLE FOR injection molding, sheet extrusion (thermoforming),fiberextrusion STARCH BASED PLASTICS PROCESSING TEMPERATURE 120-180⁰C No drying needed SUITABLE FOR 3Dprinting,filmblowing,injection molding, sheet extrusion (thermo forming), foam extrusion POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) PROCESSING TEMPERATURE POLYHYDROXY ALKANOATES (PHA’S) Harvested from micro organisms 170-210⁰C SUITABLE FOR 3Dprinting,filmextrusion, thermo-forming, blow molding, injectionmolding,fiberextrusion 49 BIO-BASED AND BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES BIODEGRADABLE/ COMPOSTABLE PLA,PHA’S(PHB)TPS, CELLULOSEREGENERATES. PARTIALLY BIOBASED PBSL, PBSA, PBAT, PBST BIO-PE, BIO PP, BIO-PA CELLULOSE-ACETATE S IC PARTIALLY BIOBASED BIO-PET, BIO-PTT, BIO-PBT D SE PL A OB BI T AS PBS, PCL, PBSA, PBAT, PTMAT, PBST PE, PP, PS, PVC, PET, PUR, PBT NOT DEGRADABLE FROM FOSSIL RAW MATERIALS 50 APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS Overall the bio-based plastic market is emerging rapidly. New partnerships,pilotplantsandproductionfacilitiesarefrequently being announced or launched. According to the European Bio-based plastics association, the worldwide bio-based plastics production capacities in 2012 were 1,4 million ton. Forecasted is that by 2017 this number will gave grown to more than 6 million ton. (39) GLOBAL BIO-BASED PLASTIC MARKETS (39) MARKET 2012 TONS 2017 PROGNOSIS TONS CONSTRUCTION 2,500 12,000 PHARMACEUTICAL & MEDICAL 7,000 23,000 CONSUMER PRODUCTS 81,000 151,000 HORTICULTURE & AGRICULTURE 84,000 121,000 CATERING 101,000 181,000 TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS INCL. AUTOMOTIVE 130,000 663,000 BOTTLES 450,000 3,817,000 OTHER PACKAGING INCL. CARRIER BAGS 510,000 1,152,000 OTHERS 30,000 66,000 TOTAL 1,395,000 6,185,000 Currently, the main market for bio-based plastics is packaging: bioPET bottles, starch or PLA based bags, foamed PLA trays and PLA pots, containers, nets, cups or bottles (39). Nevertheless the market for bio-based plastics in other applications is also increasing for numerous applications; for instance in textile (shoes, t-shirts, rugs), in agriculture and horticulture (pots, clips, ties) in consumer goods (mobile telephone housing, computer keyboards) and even in biodegradablefilms.Aswellasinvarioussportinggoodsrangingfrom ski boots to sunglasses, for seat covers, gear shifts, fuel connectors, accelerator pedals in the automotive industry and much more. (48) (46) 51 Theexplosivegrowthinbio-basedplasticsisfirstofallduetoan increased production of bio-based “drop-ins” such as bio-based PET made from sugars out of corn (in US) and bio-based PE from sugars out of sugarcane (in Brazil). These plastics have exactly the same chemical composition as their fossil based counterparts and are thereforeperfectone-to-onesubstitutes.Theydon’thaveimproved performance characteristics, and therefore compete on price, and willbenefitofeconomiesofscale.Alsohighgrowthratesarebooked bybio-basedplasticsthathavedifferentcharacteristicsandare therefore no substitutes for fossil-based plastics, such as PLA and PHA. Overall, the shift from biodegradable to non-biodegradable productionofbio-basedplasticsissignificantandmeansanincrease of bio-based plastics in durable applications. (47) (42) BIO-BASED PLASTICS FOR 3D PRINTING There are many materials that are used for 3D printing, such as metals, ceramicsandpolymers.Differentapplicationsand3Dprintingtechniquesrequiredifferentmaterials.Thermoplasticsareusedforextrusion and commonly used in the 3D printing process. The two dominant thermoplastics are acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactid acid (PLA). ABS is a fossil-based plastic and PLA a bio-based plastic. (49) GLOBAL BIO-BASED PLASTIC MARKETS (39) PROCESS MATERIALS FOSSIL BASED BIO-BASED EXTRUSION Polymers (thermoplastics) ABS, ABSi, ABS-M30, ABS-M30i, ABS-plus, ABSESD7, PC, PC-ISO, PA, PPSF/PPSU, ULTEM-9085 PLA, PLLA, PLGA, TPC, TPS, PA-11 DIRECT ENERGY DEPOSITION Metals SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDER Metals, ceramics, polymers (thermoplastics) PC, PS, PMMA, PA-12, HDPE, POM, PCL, PEEK, HIPS, SAN PA-11, PLA, PLGA, PHBV PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION Photo-polymers (photocurable resins) Epoxy/Acryl SHEET LAMINATION Hybrids; paper, metal, ceramics 52 PLA According to Ady Jager, PLA is considered to be the most important of all bio-based polyesters on the market. PLA is generally produced from sugar (sugar beets, sugarcanes, corn). Through fermentation, with the help of micro-organisms, lactic acidisproduced.Thisisahighlyefficientprocess.Persugar molecule, two molecules of lactic acid are produced, without any residual products. According to Frans Kappen, producing PLA directly from the lactic acid would result in PLA with low molecular weight and therefore bad properties. PLA with better properties is being produced from lactides. Lactic acid has two isomers; D (-) lactic acid and L (+) lactic acid, and they are each other’smirrorimage.Twolacticacidmoleculescanformone lactide molecule; a D-D-lactide, a L-L-lactide or a D-L-lactide. In the polymerization process these lactides can be mixed in order toobtaintherequiredcharacteristics(47) (50). Pure poly L-lactic acid(PLLA)orpurepolyD-lacticacid(PDLA)isahardandstiff material because of high crystallinity and high melting point. Most commercially PLA grades consist of poly L-lactic acid with a small amount of D-lactic acid. When the amount of D-lactic acid increases, the material becomes less crystalline, it crystallizes slower and the melting temperature decreases. PLA that consist out of 10% D-lactic acid or more is amorphous. (48) (47) Jan Jager added that the PLA polymer has to be adapted for specificapplications.SothePLApolymercanbeconverted intoaspecificproductbycompounding,copolymerizationor by blending with other bio-based or fossil-based plastics. With compounding, additives are added, such as color pigments, UVstabilizers,impactresistancemodifiers,flameretardants, plasticizers, chain extenders, nucleating agents, etc., to optimize the properties for the planned application. (51) (47) 53 MODIFICATION PLA-PROPERTIES (48) (47) CHAIN EXTENDERS FOR PLA Increase melt strength Allow recycling Allow‘novel’processes PLASTICIZERS FOR PLA Efficiency/compatibility Volatility Safety NUCLEATING AGENTS FOR PLA Increase Heat Deformation Temperature Crystallization speed PLA COMPOSITES Naturalfibers Mechanical properties Processing Degradability IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR PLA Injection molding Toughnessinfilm FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PLA More‘green’additives For PLA new additives become increasingly available and can improvepropertiesofPLA–therebyopeningnewapplications. Howevertheeffectsoftheadditivesarealsodependingonthe PLA grade and the processing conditions. In addition, a careful selectionisnecessaryasadditivesalsohaveaninfluenceonthe clarity, the biodegradability/compost ability and the % of renewable resources in the product. (51) (47) ABS VERSUS PLA Both ABS and PLA are known as thermoplastics: they become soft and moldable when heated and return to a solid when cooled. This process can be repeated again and again. But how do these two compare in their performance for 3D printing? In the table below youcanfindasummaryofthecharacteristicsforABSandPLA. OverallABSispreferredforitsstrength,flexibility,machinability and higher temperature resistance. The hot plastic smell and the factthatit’sfossilfuelbasedarenegativequalities.Theadditional requirementofaheatedprintbedmeansthatsomeprinters 54 are simply incapable of printing ABS with any reliability. PLA is preferred for its wide range of available colors and translucencies and glossy feel. It is often used for art works and small household products. Many appreciate the bio-based origin and prefer the semi-sweet smell of PLA over ABS. When properly cooled, PLA seems to have higher detail in 3D printing. Combined with low warping of parts, this makes PLA a popular plastic for home printers, hobbyists, and schools. (52) (54) (55) (53) (49) FOSSIL ABS VERSUS BIO PLA (48) (47) ABS PLA MELTING TEMP. 225 - 250 degree Celsius 190-240 degree Celsius MOISTURE ABS with moisture will bubble and sputter when printed, but easy to dry PLA with moisture will bubble and sputter when printed Not easy to dry, can react with water and at high temperatures will de-polymerize HEAT Less deformation due to heating Product can deform because of heat SMELL Plastic styrene smell Corn like sweet smell COLOR Less color brightness Bright, shiny colors and smooth appearance HARDNESS Very sturdy and hard Less sturdy than ABS FUMES Hazardous fumes Non-hazardous fumes DETAIL Higher layer height, less sharper printer corners, needs a heated printer bed for less warping Higher max printer speed, lower layer height, sharper printed corners, less part warping LIFETIME Longer lifetime products ENVIRONMENT Non-biodegradable Made from oil Biodegradable Made from sugar, corn, soybeans or maize FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMATERIALS FOR 3D PRINTING The 3D printing industry is developing rapidly. Not only in the 3D printing technology but also in the materials that can be used in 3D printers. Existing (bio) plastics can be tweaked and adjusted to create the desired properties. at m l ia er B a len d d d i it n iv g e s g n si es oc Pr A PL P LA n o ti za o n ti la o cu In n o ti la o ri Is id ac e C o o n f d su it b ion st i ra n te g s on ti ta m en ic ct La is es th n Sy e id ct La ly rm Fe r, ga h c Su ar St - s ro ic sm M ni a rg o P o 55 PLA PRODUCTION PLA PRODUCTION PROCESS ct u od Pr 56 Frans Kappen has pointed at the ongoing research to mutually tune the 3D printing process and biomaterials. This will improve the range of applications; more detailed products and higher qualityandstabilityoftheproducts. Developmentsin(bio-based)‘smart’materialsarealsoongoing. Smart materials have one or more properties that can change by externalstimuli,suchaspressure,temperature,light, pH, electric or magnetic fields.Forexamplepolymersthatcanchangecoloror shape when the temperature increases or decreases. Or polymers that are self-healing. These smart features will lead to a whole range of new applications and products. But especially there is a wealth of research and development into new and blended biomaterials for 3D printing. It opens up possibilities to make new, more detailed and complex products, with changing properties and a new look and feel. 57 (FUTURE) BIOMATERIALS FOR 3D PRINTING PRODUCT MATERIAL FEATURES THERMO CHROME PLA RegularPLAfilamentwiththermo chrome feature Changes color in response to temperature changes FLEX PLA OR SOFT PLA (59) RegularPLAfilamentmixedwith unknown chemical to make it soft, though and rubbery SimilartoregularPLAfilament, onlymoreflexible NYLON 11 (59) Polyamide 11 (PA11) or Nylon 11 from vegetable oil from castor beans Flexible, strong and self-lubricating BIO RUBBER (56) TPE; thermoplastic elastomer from Rapeseed Oil Strong, UV resistant, chemicals and temperature resistant ARNITEL® ECO (57) TPC; thermoplastic co-polyester made partially of rapeseed oil Flexible,strong,C2Ccertified BIOME3D (58) Thermoplastic from plant starches Biodegradable STRAW BASED (59) Straw based plastic made from rice and wheat stalks mixed with plastic and additives Low cost material BAMBOO BASED (60) Filamentmadeoffinelyground bamboo Low cost material LAYBRICK (61) Filamentmadeoffinelyground chalk with a polymer binder Feel like sandstone when printed, no layered look LAYWOOD (59) Filament made of 40% recycled wood with a binding polymer Wooden look and smell, can also be handled like wood 58 59 TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY The promise of 3D printing with biomaterials is that it can create a fully sustainable and circular manufacturing process. 3D Printers will manufacture our personalized products locally and only when we need it. The printers re-use existing materials or use new biomaterials as feedstock, while running on renewable electricity. HOW DOES 3D PRINTING FIT WITH A CIRCULAR ECONOMY? ‘The circulareconomy isagenerictermforanindustrialeconomy that is, by design or intention, restorative and in which material 60 flowsareoftwotypes,biologicalnutrients,designedtore-enter the biosphere safely,andtechnicalnutrients,whicharedesigned tocirculateathighqualitywithoutenteringthebiosphere’. (62) Oneoftheinfluentialinstitutionsthatdeveloptheconceptofthe circular economy into business practice is the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (63). ‘A circular economy seeks to rebuild capital, whether thisisfinancial,manufactured,human,socialornatural.Thisensures enhancedflowsofgoodsandservices’.Theyhavedevelopeda circular economy system diagram, which illustrates the continuous flowoftechnicalandbiologicalmaterialsthroughthe‘valuecircle’.(63) 3DPrintingcanfitwellintheconceptofacirculareconomy.The 3Dprintingmanufacturingprocessitselfcanleadtosignificant material savings. But 3D printing can contribute also in other parts of the circular economy system: especially in maintenance, re-use, re-manufacturing and re-cycling of products and goods. In the table below we have indicated how 3D printing could contribute to these elements in the circular economy. (64) (65) (66) CIRCULAR ECONOMY AND 3D PRINTING MANUFACTURING No or less waste in manufacturing processes Less material use in products designed for 3D printing Production on demand, not for demand Productionislocal,requiringlesstransportandlogistics Personalizedproductsthatfityoursize,preferenceorstyle MAINTENANCE Print broken parts on demand, no spare parts necessary Print broken parts in situ, problem is solved immediately Print broken parts of any (old) product, lifetime of products is extended Repair can be done by yourself, any time you want, faster and cheaper RE-USE & RE-MANUFACTURE Products can have a second, third, etc. life by upgrading parts, replacement of old parts and/or re-design or re-styling Clothes can be adjusted to personal changes like size, shapes, preferences Furniture can be adjusted to personal circumstances, shapes, preferences Special elements could be added to the product afterwards RE-CYCLE Re-cycled materials can be easily used as resource for 3D printing Re-cycling can be done locally or even in situ and be used locally, less transport and logistics Plastics can be re-melted at home and directly used again in a 3D printer, no transport and logistics 61 CIRCULAR ECONOMY BIOLOGICAL FARMING MATERIALS COLLECTION TECHNICAL MATERIALS MINING/MATERIALS MANUFACTURING 3D PRINTER 3D SOIL RESTORATION BIOSFEER 3D MATERIALS/PARTS PRODUCT 3D MANUFACTURER 3D MANUFACTURER RECYCLE 3D RETAIL SERVICE PROVIDER CONSUMER BIOGAS ANAEROBIC DIGESTION/ COMPOSTING USER REFURBISH/ REMANUFACTURE 3D REUSE/ REDISTRIBUTE COLLECTION COLLECTION MAINTAIN EXTRACTION OF BIOCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCK ENERGY RECOVERY LEAKAGE (TO BE MINIMISED) LANDFILL 62 IS 3D PRINTING SUSTAINABLE? Although3Dprintingcouldpossiblycontributesignificantlytoa circular economy, there are still two main aspects to cover. Firstly, plastics and other printing materials are largely produced from fossil fuels today and the production of plastics also costs energy. Secondly, current 3D printers run on electricity that is mainly produced by fossil fueled power plants. SeveralLifeCycleAnalyses(LCA’s)havebeenconductedthat compare the environmental impact of traditional manufacturing and additive manufacturing or 3D printing. Krieger and Pearce have performed an environmental life cycle analysis on three plastic products. The embodied energy and emissions from conventional large-scale production in, and shipping from, lowwage countries are compared to experimental measurements on a RepRap 3D printer fabricating products with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA), with and without solar photovoltaic (PV) power. The results for distributed manufacturing with existing low-cost open-source 3D printers using<25%fillPLA,indicatethatthecumulativeenergydemand ofmanufacturingpolymerproductscanbereducedby41–64% (55–74%withPV),withconcomitantemissionreductions.Less pronounced positive environmental results are observed with ABS, which demands higher temperatures for the print bed and extruder. Overall, their results indicate that distributed manufacturing using open-source 3D printers with PLA has the potential to have a lower environmental impact than conventional manufacturing for a variety of products. (67) 3D Printing is not always as promising as expected. Faludi pointed outthatnotall3Dprintingtechniquesproducewithoutwaste. FDM printers indeed do not produce waste, but others do: those 63 that use material as a support structure or hardening parts of a vat with resins. There is another important aspect aside from waste. One mass-production machine can manufacture millions identical products. Many 3D printers are needed to produce the same amount of this product. So what about all the material and energyrequiredtoproducethese3Dprinters?Towhatextent can material and energy needed to produce these 3D printers be divided among the thousands of products (68) they will be used for?Differentmanufacturingprocessesareindeeddifficultto compare. But 3D printing has the promise to become the clear winner and can be an important factor in realizing a sustainable and circular economy. PRINT YOUR HOUSE SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR? Bram van den Haspel presented a scenario towards 3D printing a house in one printing run on location. Many technological issues stillhavetobesolvedbeforethisbecomesareality.Butlet’shave a look into this example to 3D print a house, just to see how 3D printing can contribute to a sustainable and circular economy. 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE; HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS (16) HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS Townhousewithflatroof 100 m2floorspace 110 m2 facades + roof surface, 60 m2indoorwalls+floor TRADITIONAL BUILDING METHOD 50 m3 concrete 3D PRINTING BUILDING METHOD 3 layers of 5 mm PLA in facades and roof 2layersof5mmPLAinindoorwallsandfloor 2.25 m3 PLA needed for layers, 2.25 m3 PLA for internal strength 4.5 m3 PLA needed in total SpecificweightPLAis1,200kg/m3 5,400 kg PLA needed in total + 15 m3concreteforweightandfilling + 15 m3sandforweightandfilling 64 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, MATERIAL USE Van den Haspel proposed to build a normal town house with a 3D printer. The characteristics of such a town house are a 100 m2 floorspace,flatroof,whichusuallyneeds50m3 of concrete to build it. For his 3D printed house, he proposes to print layers of 5mm PLA with insulation material and concrete/sand in between. The facades and roof are printed with 3 layers PLA of 5 mm; an outside layer PLA, insulation material, layer of PLA, concrete/sand andaninsidelayerofPLA.Thefloorandindoorwallsareprinted with 2 layers 5mm PLA; a layer of PLA, insulation material and a layer of PLA. Connections for internal strength between the layers are also printed using PLA, using the same amount of PLA as in thelayers.Overall5,400kgPLAisrequired,buttheamountof concrete is reduced considerably. A rough assumption is that only 15 m3 concrete and 15 m3 sand are needed. (16) 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, ELECTRICITY USE The3Dprinter’simpactwillcomemostlyfromtheelectricityuse of the printer itself. So let us have a look at the electricity use of a normal 3D printer, a Fused Deposition printer (FDM). The 3D printermeltsaplasticfilamentandextrudesitinlayers,oneupon the other. It comprises of four main components (69): » Electronics, computer control and cooling fans » A heating element to melt the plastic » Stepper motors to move the printer head » A heated build platform to prevent curling Clearly the heating element that has to heat up and melt the plastic will consume most of the power. The energy consumption depends on the temperaturerise(about180-200degreeCelsius),thespecificheatand themeltingenergyofthechosenplastic.ForPLAthespecificheatis between 1.5 and 2.0 KJ/kg for the temperature range between 50 and 65 200 degree Celsius. The melting energy for PLA is 72 kJ/kg PLA. (70) Heating and melting the PLA accounts for about 66-75% of the total electricity consumption. Especially when large volumes are printed and the printer-building platform does not have to be heated up so much. The other elements of the 3D printer will consume about 25% of the total electricity consumption. (71) Insummary,heatingup1kiloPLArequires0.105kWh,melting1 kilo PLA needs 0.02 kWh and in total the electricity consumption to print 1 kilo PLA is about 0.17 kWh with present 3D printers. Energy savings however are possible when the energy for heating up and melting is re-used for heating up and melting the next part of plastic. To build a town house that needs 5,400 kg PLA to be printed thereforerequires920kWh.Thisamountofelectricityisproducedyearly by a 1 kWp solar system, size 8 m2, installed in the Netherlands. 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, ELECTRICITY USE (69) (70) (71) 3D PRINTER COMPONENTS THAT USE ELECTRICITY Electronics and cooling fans A heating element to melt the plastic Stepper motors to move the printer head A heated build platform to prevent curling PLA CHARACTERISTICS C6H12O6 sugar -> C6H13O5 PLA molecular weight ratio sugar/PLA = 182/165 SpecificWeight:1.2kg/m3 Specificheat:1.5-2.0KJ/kginTrange50-200⁰C Melting energy: 72 KJ/kg ELECTRICITY USE PLA PRINTING Heatingup1kg200⁰C= 200 * 1.9/3.6 = 0.105 kWh/kg Melting 1 kg = 72/3.6 = 0.020 kWh/kg Heating and melting 1 kg PLA is 0.125 kWh Heating and melting accounts for ¾ of total electricity use Electricity use to print 1 kg PLA is 0.17 kWh/kg ELECTRICITY USE TO PRINT A TOWN HOUSE 5,400 kg PLA needed Total electricity use 920 kWh = 1 year production of 1 kWp solar panels in the Netherlands 66 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, LAND USE PLA can be produced from maize, corn, soy beans or sugar. Or fromsugarbeets,whichisanefficientagriculturalsectorinthe Netherlands. The land use to produce the amount of PLA to print your own town house can be calculated. In the Netherlands, a hectare land produces on average 73 ton sugar beets (2013). Some areas even produce as much as 100 ton per hectare. The Dutch sugar beets contain on average in 2013 16.88% sugar, which leads to an average sugar production of 12.3 ton per hectare (72). Overall you need about 1.25 kg of sugar to produce 1 kg PLA. On average one hectare of Dutch sugar beets may provide for 10 ton PLA, or in other units 1 kg PLA per m2. Alittleover½ahectareoflandforoneyearisrequired,toprint your town house with PLA made from sugar beet. 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, LAND USE (72) DUTCH SUGAR PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR BEETS Average Dutch sugar beet production 73 ton/ha (2013) Best locations can produce sugar beet up to 100 ton/ha Average Dutch sugar % in sugar beet is 16.88% (2013) Average Dutch sugar production per ha is 12.3 ton PLA PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR C6H12O6 sugar -> C6H13O5 PLA molecular weight ratio sugar/PLA = 182/165 85% yield to produce PLA from sugar Overall 1.25 kg sugar needed to produce 1 kg PLA Average Dutch PLA production per ha is 9.9 ton/ha LAND USE TO PRINT A TOWN HOUSE 5,400 kg PLA needed Total land use 1 year 0.55 hectare = 5,500 m2 PLA produced from sugar beets grown in the Netherlands 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, EMBODIED ENERGY AND CO2 EMISSIONS Thenextstepistoassesstheenvironmentalbenefitof3Dprinting atownhouse.Scientifically,thiswouldrequireaLifeCycleAnalysis 67 on both the traditional build town house and the 3D printed town house.Inasimplifiedwayhoweverwemaycompareenergyuse and CO2 emissions to produce the concrete for a traditional town house with those for concrete and PLA for the 3D printed town house. Further assumption is that for building a traditional or a 3D printed town house all energy and material use are the same. And we assume that the 3D printed town house will use electricity for printing from a solar system, which has no direct CO2 emissions. We compare the so-called embodied energy that is needed to producethematerialsfromcradletofactorygate.Thefiguresfor concrete are taken from a database by Hammond et all (73). The figuresforPLAarefromastudybyVinketall(50). The results are interesting. In a traditional town house considerably more concrete is used than in the 3D printed town house. While in the 3D printed town house we need PLA to print the envelop ofthewalls,roofandfloor.Oursimplecalculationsshowthat the3Dprintedtownhouse‘consumes’moreembodiedenergy than the traditional town house. However, the CO2 emissions are considerable lower for the 3D printed town house. This is due to the production process of concrete that is, by its nature, emitting carbon dioxide. And for PLA only CO2 emissions of the production process count, not those of the crops that are used to produce PLA. In our simple calculations the embodied energy in the traditional town house is 133 GJ, while for the 3D printed town house it is 186 GJ. The CO2 emissions in the traditional town house are 19.2 ton of CO2 and in the 3D printed town house it is only 7.3 ton of CO2. 68 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, ENERGY AND CO2 (73) (50) CONCRETE PLA 1,200 kg/m3 SPECIFIC WEIGHT 2,400 kg/m3 EMBODIED ENERGY 1.11 MJ/kg 27.2 MJ/kg CO2 EMISSION 0.159 kg CO2/kg 0.27 kg CO2/kg TRADITIONAL BUILD TOWN HOUSE 3D PRINTED TOWN HOUSE 50 m3 concrete = 120 ton concrete 5.4 ton PLA 15 m3 concrete = 36 ton 15 m3 sand MATERIAL USE EMBODIED ENERGY 133 GJ 186 GJ CO2 EMISSION 19.2 ton CO2 7.3 ton CO2 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, TOWARDS CIRCULARITY This example to 3D print a town house, shows that you need about ½ ha of sugar beet production and 1 kWp solar system to produce the PLA and electricity for 3D printing. The result is a considerable saving on CO2 emissions in the building process. 3D Printing your own house is obviously not the holy grail of sustainability and circular economy. The example to print a town housewithlayersofPLAandfillingitwithconcreteandsand showsthatwestillneedconcretetofillthestructurewithweight. PLA consumes a lot of energy in the harvesting, logistics and production process. And we need electricity for 3D printing and land to grow sugar beets or corn for the production of PLA. Maybe PLA is not the appropriate biomaterial to use, because of temperature and moisture degradation. Apart from this simple comparison there is much more to explore about3Dprinting.Isitfeasibleandbeneficialto3Dprintthetotal building infrastructure: cables, low temperature heating, sewer, the other building structures; frames, doors, windows, isolation or 69 3D PRINTING A HOUSE 3D PRINTING A HOUSE Isolation Concrete PLA 3DPrinter Isolation PLA 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 70 installations; heat pump, solar system, ventilation, etc.? And how can 3D printing improve the building process, building logistics, building costs or maintenance? 3DPrintingabuildingisverypromisingforarchitects,offering more design freedom. What you can draw, you can 3D print. It also looks promising for the reduction of costs for building and maintenance. And last but not least, it can lead to a more sustainable and circular economy. But we have a long way to go! Many technological, organizational, social and other issues have to be addressed and solved, before we achieve a sustainable and circular building process with 3D printing. 3D PRINTING YOUR HOUSE, TOWARDS CIRCULARITY TRADITIONAL BUILD TOWN HOUSE 3D PRINTED TOWN HOUSE FLOOR SPACE 100 m 100 m2 MATERIAL USE 50 m3 concrete 5.4 ton PLA+15 m3 concrete + 15 m3 sand 2 ELECTRICITY USE FOR 3D PRINTING 920 kWh LAND USE FOR PLA 0.55 ha = 5,500 m2 (Sugar beet in the Netherlands) EMBODIED ENERGY 133 GJ 186 GJ CO2 EMISSIONS 19.2 ton CO2 7.3 ton CO2 71 72 73 3D PRINTING It will happen! 3D Printing or additive manufacturing will emerge inevitably. It is a paradigm-changing technology that will change the way we manufacture and use our products and systems. Not only the 3D printing technology is revolutionary, but it comes together with the internet of things, cloud computing, automated driving, solar cells, fuel cells, etc. The characteristics of all these new technologies are that we can produce, manufacture and control products and systems by ourselves. Also 3D printing holds these promises. We can manufacture our own personalized products, when and where we needit.Itdoesnotrequirehighupfrontinvestments,development time,skillsandknowledge.Simplydownloadafileormakea photo, adjust it to your preferences and 3D print it. Therefore 3D printing will happen. Will it also lead to a sustainable and circular economy? It certainly holds the promise. But to realize these promises we have to develop the right type of materials for 3D printing. In particular, several kinds of biomaterials and bio-plastics need to be developed or adjusted for 3D printer use. Furthermore, in a circular economy, re-use and re-cyclingofthesebiomaterialsonalocalscaleisequallyimportant. And the electricity that is used for 3D printing must be produced by renewable energy sources, preferably locally. The development of 3D printing, biomaterials and renewable energy goes hand in hand. Ifthiscanbedoneforthebenefitofthepeopleandourplanet,we certainly will realize a more sustainable and circular economy. 74 75 3D PRINTING BIOMATERIALS WITH Workshop 16-12-2013 The content of this book is based on the presentations given during the workshop ‘3D printing with biomaterials’ held on 16 December 2013 at the TU Delft, organized by The Green Village - TU Delft, The BioBased Economy and the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (HvA) - research program Urban Technology. The authors have used this material, the discussions, and added relevant and related information presented in this readable book. The speakers during this workshop deserve the credits for providing their knowledge, insights, information and overview. The workshop speakers are presented below. Lectures can be watched on the webiste: www.thegreenvillage.org. The Green Village and 3D printing PLA new product development Professor Future Energy Systems, TU Delft Business Development Manager Natureworks Ad van Wijk 3D Printing; towards sustainability Ady Jager 3D printing building Ton Runneboom Bram van den Haspel Chairman Biorenewables Business Platform BRAMVANDENHASPEL innovation & design 3D printing; how does it work Bio-based plastics and processing Co-founder Ultimaker Wageningen UR and Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences Siert Wijnia 3D printing with bio-based plastics Jan Jager Lector Stenden PRE (Polymer Research and Education) and Director R&D API Institute Frans Kappen 76 77 REFERENCES 1. www.livescience.com/37513-how-3d-printers-work-infographic.html 2. www.3dprinter.net/reference/what-is-3d-printing 3. 3D printing with biobased plastics. Berkhout, Mara. Amsterdam: Cleantech researchprogram Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, 2013. 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Endres, H.-J.; Siebert-Raths, A.s.l. :CarlHanserVerslag,2011 80 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Iris van Wijk is lecturer at the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. Innovation and sustainability are ever returning themes in the personal and professional life of Iris. After her International Business and Management study, she worked as a consultant for OneCarbon in Chili. As of the summer of 2010, Iris started the master ‘Environment andResourceManagement’attheVrijeUniversiteitAmsterdam. Shefinishedthiswitharesearchonthesystemicobstaclesto eco-innovations in the bio-based plastics sector. It was because of her research project that Iris came into contact with the bio-based plastics sector and was immediately intrigued by it. Iris continued to work on this subject for the research program Urban Technology of the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (HvA). She applied for a two-year subsidy that was granted for the research project‘DesignChallengeswithBio-basedPlastics’.Shealsoinitiated an ongoing joint research project with the University of Amsterdam (UvA) about the applicability of a new biomaterial into products. In2014sheobtainedherdegreeofcertifiedlecturerinhigher education, and designed and lectured courses in sustainability and research methods. 81 Ad van Wijk is sustainable energy entrepreneur and Professor Future Energy Systems at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands.VanWijkstartedhiscareerasscientificresearcherin sustainable energy at Utrecht University. In 1984, van Wijk founded the company Ecofys, which eventually grew into Econcern. Econcern developed many new sustainable energy products, services and projects. Examples include the 120 MWoffshorewindfarmPrincessAmaliaintheNorthSea,several multi-MW solar farms in Spain and a bio-methanol plant in the Netherlands, which is the largest second-generation biomass plant in the world. Van Wijk achieved many important prizes for excellent entrepreneurship. Amongst others he was Dutch entrepreneur of the year in 2007 and Dutch top-executive in 2008. At TU Delft, Van Wijk will focus on the energy systems of the future such as the car as power plant. He will do research and at the same time he will realize The Green Village, where these future energy systems will be implemented, tested and researched in ‘Futurelabs’. Follow Ad van Wijk at twitter @advanwijk or via his website www.profadvanwijk.com Other books by Ad Van Wijk » ‘Howtoboilanegg’ISBN:978-1-60750-989-9 » ‘WelcometotheGreenVillage’ISBN:978-1-61499-283-7(print) » ‘WelcometotheGreenVillage’ISBN978-1-61499-284-4(online) » ‘OurCarasPowerPlant’ISBN978-1-61499-376-6(print) » ‘OurCarasPowerPlant’ISBN978-1-61499-377-3(online) 82 83 THE GREEN VILLAGE TU Delft A sustainable world can only be achieved by an open collaboration between science, business and the public. That is why we create The Green Village at the TU Delft campus in the Netherlands: an innovative, lively, interactive and challenging environment where entrepreneurs, innovators, companies, artists, teachers and visitors can meet, work and play to develop, apply and experience innovative sustainable products and solutions. InTheGreenVillageyouwillfindFutureLabsforparadigm-shifting system research, resulting in icon projects such as the Car Park Power Plant, the Harp and the Energy Wall. The Green Village will besustainablepoweredbytheEngines,with‘heart’,‘veins’and ‘lungs’thatsupplyenergyandwater,treatwastewaterandsolid waste into useful new products and provide energy and transport fuels like electricity and hydrogen. It will also house the Store, an innovative co-making shop for LED, 3D printing, apps, crowd funding and more. And it will be the stage for many sustainability events: exhibitions, shows, contests, workshops, games, challenges, conferences, etc. The Green Village is located at the TU Delft campus, enabled by the Delft University of Technology and empowered by a lively community of scientists, entrepreneurs, companies, organizations. Its vision: ‘Creating a sustainable, lively and entrepreneurial environment where we discover, learn and show howtosolvesociety’surgentchallenges’. www.thegreenvillage.org [email protected] 84 BIOBASED ECONOMY BioBased Economy (BBE) is about the change in our economy, based on fossil feedstock today, to an economy based on biomass as feedstock; from fossil-based to bio-based economy. The bio-based economy meant the use of biomass for nonfood applications, such as chemicals, materials, transport fuels, electricity and heat. Biomass is, by its nature, suitable to replace fossil feedstock where carbon is essential, such as in chemicals, materialsandtransportfuels.Theuniquecharacterofbiomassin comparison with solar and wind is that you can produce materials such as plastics or chemicals for all kind of applications, relatively easy. Biomass and the bio-based economy is therefore not only about energy. The transition from an economy based on fossil fuels to a biobased economy is described as a complex system innovation in an unstable international environment. It is expected that biomass becomes increasingly important in the coming years, because of 85 many reasons such as economic opportunities, innovation, energy independence, energy security and reducing greenhouse gases. Especially the Netherlands has excellent conditions to make a success of the bio-based economy; excellent agricultural knowledge, good logistics and a leading chemical industry. ThereforetheMinistryofEconomicAffairsintheNetherlands has established the BioBased Economy community to stimulate this bio-based economy. The website features an interactive infographicthatprovidesinsightinthedifferentbiomass-tobiomaterial conversion routes. One of the platforms within the BioBased Economy is the Biorenewables Business Platform (BBP). The Biorenewables Business Platform is to create business opportunities and to promote the sustainable development of the BioBased Economy in the Netherlands. Read more about it on www.biobasedeconomy.nl 86 URBAN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (HvA) Urban Technology is a research program of the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (HvA), it focusses on technological solutions for a sustainable, liveable and connected city. The Urban Technology research areas of expertise are: Smart Energy Systems, Smart Urban Design, Smart Mobility and Logistics and Circular Design and Smart Production which are themes that also play an important role in the Amsterdam metropole region. Urban Technology is part of the clusters Engineering, Logistics and Built Environment of the HvA School of Technology. It created a place where students, lecturers and companies work closely together to apply smart technologies and develop innovative and sustainable products, urban designs, logistical concepts and business models. The research projects are demand driven and resulted in a variety of successful projects. For example the 87 e-mobility charge infrastructure database, the yearly CleanMobility competitionsandthedesignRAAKproject‘WaterintheCity’.Also founded by Urban Technology and situated at the HvA, is the SoftwareEnergyFootprintLab(SEFLab),whichisauniquelabwere theinfluenceofsoftwareontheenergyconsumptionismeasured precisely. Within the Circular Design and Smart Production theme, the two-year ongoing project Design Challenges with Biobased Plastics is contributing to removing obstacles for the adaptation of biobased plastics in higher value goods. Urban Technology is determined to speed up the application and market introduction of smart, sustainable and innovative technologies and products, and to create new tools for the urban specialists. And by doing so, at the same time, strengthening the foundational knowledge of our future engineers, logisticians and builders! www.thegreenvillage.org [email protected] 90 3D PRINTING WITH BIOMATERIALS TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY Additive manufacturing or 3D printing, manufacturing a productlayerbylayer,offerslargedesignfreedomand faster product development cycles, as well as low startup cost of production, on-demand production and local production. In principle, any product could be made by additive manufacturing. Even food and living organic cells can be printed. We can create, design and manufacture what we want at the location we want. 3D Printing will create a revolution in manufacturing, a real paradigm change. 3D Printing holds the promise to manufacture with less waste and energy. We can print metals, ceramics, sand, synthetic materials such as plastics, food or living cells. However, the production of plastics is nowadays based on fossilfuels.Andthat’swherewewitnessaparadigmchange too. The production of these synthetic materials can be based also on biomaterials with biomass as feedstock. A wealth of new and innovative products is emerging when we combine these two paradigm changes: 3D printing and biomaterials. Moreover, the combination of 3D printing with biomaterials holds the promise to realize a truly sustainable and circular economy. The content of this book is based on the presentations given during the workshop ‘3D printing with biomaterials’ 16 December 2013. The credits for providing their knowledge, insights and information therefore go to these speakers: Ton Runneboom, Siert Wijnia, Ady Jager, Bram van den Haspel, Frans Kappen and Jan Jager.
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