English WEST SYSTEM User Manual 2010.indd

English WEST SYSTEM User Manual 2010.indd
Over Forty Years of Epoxy Technology and Innovation
User Manual and
Product Catalogue
Contents
USER MANUAL
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
1. User Manual Introduction
1
2. Handling Epoxy
2.1
Epoxy Safety
2.2
Clean Up
Epoxy Chemistry
2.3
2.4
Dispensing and Mixing
Adding Fillers and Additives
2.5
3
3
4
4
7
8
3. Basic Techniques
3.1
Surface Preparation
3.2
Bonding (Gluing)
Bonding with Fillets
3.3
3.4
Bonding Fasteners and Hardware
Laminating
3.5
Fairing
3.6
3.7
Applying Woven Cloth and Tape
Epoxy Barrier Coating
3.8
3.9
Barrier Coating for Osmosis Repair
Final Surface Preparation
3.10
Finish Coatings
3.11
10
10
13
15
16
20
21
22
26
27
28
29
4. Cold Temperature Bonding
4.1
Chemical Characteristics
4.2
Working Properties
Cold Weather Techniques
4.3
4.4
Cold Weather Storage
31
31
31
32
33
5. Product Selection and Estimating Guides
34
6. Problem Solver
36
7. The Products
39
PRODUCT GUIDE 8. Product Guide
8.1
WEST SYSTEM Resins and Hardeners
8.2
Epoxy Dispensers
8.3
Repair Packs and Resin Packs
8.4
Specialty Epoxies
8.5
WEST SYSTEM Packs
8.6
Fillers
8.7
Additives
8.8
Reinforcing Materials
8.9
Application Tools
8.10
Instructional Publications
8.11
Instructional Videos
8.12
Instructional DVD
40
40
42
44
44
46
46
48
49
51
54
56
56
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1. USER MANUAL INTRODUCTION
WEST SYSTEM epoxy is a versatile, high-quality, two-part epoxy that is easily
modified for a wide range of coating and adhesive applications. It is used for
construction and repairs requiring superior moisture resistance and high strength.
Originally developed by Gougeon Brothers Inc. over 40 years ago for the production
of wooden boats, WEST SYSTEM epoxy products are now recognised throughout
the marine industry and are in everyday use for the repair and construction of
fibreglass, wood, aluminium, steel, composite and ferrocement vessels. The
knowledge that the WEST SYSTEM epoxy is designed for the marine environment
- a particularly harsh and demanding requirement - promotes enormous confidence
in the product range and, in more recent years, WEST SYSTEM epoxy has been
used extensively in the construction industry, model making and the DIY market
for many applications.
(See Our Booklet – “Other Uses-Suggestions for Household Repair”).
This Manual is designed to help you become familiar with WEST SYSTEM products
and to use them effectively. It also provides information about safety, handling and
the basic techniques of epoxy use which will allow the WEST SYSTEM products
to be tailored to your exact repair and construction needs. These techniques are
used in a wide range of repair and building procedures such as those described in
detail in WEST SYSTEM instructional publications and DVD.
The Problem Solver will help you identify and prevent potential problems
associated with using epoxy.
The Product Guide gives a complete description of the WEST SYSTEM
products, including selection and coverage guides, to assist in choosing the most
appropriate products and package sizes for the job in hand.
WEST SYSTEM products are available from quality marine chandleries
throughout the world. For the name of your nearest chandlery or for additional
technical, product, or safety information, contact Wessex Resins and Adhesives
Limited or your local distributor.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Why WEST SYSTEM epoxy?
All epoxies are different. Epoxy brands
vary considerably in their formulations,
quality of raw materials and their
suitability for marine and other
extreme environments. It is not
difficult to market a general
purpose epoxy for the marine
industry or to formulate
a product having some
favourable
characteristics
whilst
sacrificing
other
important physical properties.
However, it is much more
difficult balancing all the physical
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User Manual 1
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
and mechanical properties necessary for a versatile, high quality marine epoxy.
Defining the required performance criteria and designing a formula to meet those
criteria requires good chemistry, rigorous test programmes, extensive field trials,
continuing contact with the industry and direct experience with today’s highperformance boat builders and other composite users.
Balanced epoxy performance
WEST SYSTEM epoxy is designed for boatbuilding and repair by experienced
epoxy formulators who know the engineering and the chemistry required for today’s
high-performance composite structures. With more than forty years of developing
marine epoxies, Gougeon Brothers Inc. and Wessex Resins & Adhesives Ltd. have
continued to formulate, test and improve WEST SYSTEM resin and hardeners to
create the most reliable and well balanced epoxy system available today.
Potential resin and hardener formulae, ingredients and combinations are tested to
compare fatigue strength, compression strength, glass transition temperature and
peak exotherm. Additionally, samples are tested for hardness, tensile strength,
tensile elongation, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, heat
deflection temperature, impact resistance and moisture exclusion effectiveness.
Such thorough testing ensures that any change in a formulation will improve at
least one characteristic of the product without diminishing the other properties.
Comprehensive testing
Continuing research and comprehensive testing are essential for the development
of both improved epoxy formulations and better construction and repair methods.
In addition, the material test laboratory also conducts extensive test programmes
to support builders, designers and industry on specific projects.
Standard BS EN ISO Test Procedures are normally used to evaluate the physical
properties of adhesives and composite laminates but, occasionally, the laboratory
is called upon to evaluate to a particular DIN or ASTM Standard.
The information provided by a comprehensive test programme and feedback
from customers contributes to a data base on epoxies and epoxy composites that
is continuously growing. This knowledge is invaluable for achieving the proper
balance of properties required for a versatile, high-quality marine epoxy and
ensures the information is up-to-date and reliable.
Technical support
To ensure that the ultimate characteristics and versatility of the WEST SYSTEM
epoxy are achieved, Wessex Resins provides one other important ingredient
– technical service. Whether the project in hand is large or small, WEST SYSTEM
technical publications and videos offered in this guide provide detailed procedures
and instructions for specific repair and construction applications. Further assistance
can be obtained by writing or contacting our technical staff either via our Technical
Support Helpline: +44 (0) 870 770 1030 or by email: [email protected]
– we are always interested in your projects whether it is a major repair on a boat,
replacing a rotting window sill at home or a simple DIY job in the garage.
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2. HANDLING EPOXY
This section explains the fundamentals of epoxy safety, curing and the steps for
proper dispensing, mixing and adding fillers to ensure that every batch cures to a
high strength solid.
2.1 Epoxy Safety
Epoxies are safe when handled properly but it is essential to understand the
hazards and take precautions to avoid them.
Hazards
The primary hazard associated with epoxy involves skin contact. WEST SYSTEM
Resin may cause moderate skin irritation; WEST SYSTEM Hardeners may cause
severe skin irritation. Resins and hardeners are also sensitisers and may cause an
allergic reaction but, from our experience, most people are not sensitive to WEST
SYSTEM Resin and Hardeners. These hazards decrease as resin/hardener mixes
reach full cure but it is important to appreciate that the hazards also apply to the
sanding dust from partially cured epoxy. Please refer to the Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) for specific product warnings and safety information.
Precautions
1.
Avoid contact with resin, hardeners, mixed epoxy and sanding dust. Wear
protective gloves and clothing when handling WEST SYSTEM materials. WEST
SYSTEM 831 Barrier Cream provides additional protection for sensitive skin and
allergies. DO NOT use solvents to remove epoxy from the skin. Immediately after
skin contact with resin, hardeners, sanding dust from epoxy and/or solvents, use
WEST SYSTEM 820 Resin Removing Cream for the initial clean-up, followed by a
wash with soap and warm water.
2.
Protect your eyes from contact with resin, hardeners, mixed epoxy, and
sanding dust by wearing appropriate eye protection. If contact occurs, immediately
flush the eyes with water for 15 minutes. If discomfort persists, seek medical
attention.
3.
Avoid breathing concentrated vapours and sanding dust. WEST SYSTEM
epoxy vapours can build up in unvented spaces and ample ventilation must be
provided when working with epoxy in confined areas such as boat interiors. When
adequate ventilation is not possible, wear an approved respirator.
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User Manual 3
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
If a skin rash develops while working with epoxy, stop using the product until
the rash completely disappears. If problems persist when work is resumed,
discontinue use and consult a doctor.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
4.
Avoid ingestion. Wash thoroughly after handling epoxy, especially before
eating. If epoxy is swallowed, drink large quantities of water - DO NOT induce
vomiting. Call a doctor immediately. Refer to First Aid procedures on the Material
Safety Data Sheet.
5.
KEEP RESINS, HARDENERS, FILLERS AND SOLVENTS OUT OF THE
REACH OF CHILDREN.
For additional safety information or data, write to: EPOXY SAFETY, Wessex
Resins & Adhesives Limited, Cupernham House, Cupernham Lane, Romsey,
Hampshire SO51 7LF
2.2 Clean Up
Contain spills with sand, clay or other inert absorbent materials and use a scraper
to collect as much material as possible. Follow up with absorbent towels.
DO NOT use either sawdust or other fine cellulose materials to absorb hardeners
and/or dispose of hardener in waste containing sawdust or other fine cellulose
materials—spontaneous combustion may occur.
Clean resin, or mixed epoxy residue or uncured epoxy with WEST SYSTEM 850
Cleaning Solvent. Clean hardener residue with warm soapy water.
Dispose of resin, hardener and empty containers safely in accord with local
disposal regulations.
DO NOT dispose of resin or hardener in a liquid state. Waste resin and hardener
should be mixed and cured (in small quantities) to a non-hazardous inert solid.
CAUTION! Large volumes of curing epoxy can become hot enough to
ignite surrounding combustible materials and produce hazardous fumes.
Place containers of mixed epoxy in a safe and ventilated area away from
workers and combustible materials. Dispose of the solid mass when the cure is
complete and the mass has cooled. Comply with the local disposal regulations
2.3 Epoxy Chemistry
Understanding cure time
• Cure time is shorter when the
epoxy is warmer.
• Cure time is longer when the
epoxy is cooler.
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Figure 1 As it cures,
mixed epoxy passes
from a liquid state,
through a gel state, to
a solid state.
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Open time and cure time determine the build and repair operations. Open time
dictates the time available for mixing, application, smoothing, shaping, assembly
and clamping. Cure time dictates the time before removing clamps, abrading or
proceeding to the next step in the project. Three factors determine the open time
and cure time of an epoxy mix – hardener cure speed, epoxy temperature and
volume of mix.
a) Hardener speed
Each hardener has an ideal temperature cure range. At any given temperature
each resin/hardener combination will go through the same cure stages but at
different rates. Select the hardener that gives adequate working time for the job in
hand at the temperature and conditions under which the work is to be completed.
The Product Guide describes hardener pot lives and cure times.
Pot life is a term used to compare the cure speeds of different hardeners. It is the
period of time a specific mass of mixed resin and hardener remains a liquid at a
particular temperature e.g. a 100g mass of an epoxy mix in a standard container at
25°C is a routine quality control test procedure.
Because pot life is a measure of the speed of cure of a specific mass (volume) of
epoxy rather than a thin film, the pot life of a resin/hardener mix is much shorter
than its open time.
b) Epoxy temperature
The warmer the temperature the faster an epoxy mix will cure (Figure 1). The
temperature at which epoxy cures is determined by the ambient temperature plus
the exothermic heat generated by the reaction.
Ambient temperature is the temperature of the air and/or the material in contact
with the epoxy. Epoxy cures faster when the ambient temperature is warmer.
Mixing resin and hardener together creates an exothermic (heat producing)
reaction. Always mix small batches of epoxy because the greater the quantity, the
more heat generated, the shorter the pot life and cure time. In a larger volume,
more heat is retained, causing a faster reaction and yet more heat e.g. a plastic
mixing cup containing, say, a 200g mix. can generate enough heat to melt the cup.
However, if the same quantity is spread into a thin layer, the exothermic heat is not
produced as quickly and the cure time of the epoxy is determined by the ambient
temperature.
Controlling cure time
In warm conditions use a slower hardener to increase the open time. Mix
smaller batches that can be used quickly or pour the epoxy mix into a container
with greater surface area e.g. a roller pan, thereby spreading out the epoxy into
a thin film and extending the open time. After thorough mixing, the sooner the
epoxy is transferred or applied, the more open time is available for coating, lay-up
or assembly.
In cool conditions use a faster hardener and employ a hot air gun, a heat lamp
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User Manual 5
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
c) The volume of mixed epoxy
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
or other dry heat source to warm the resin and hardener before mixing and/or after
the epoxy is applied. At room temperature, additional heat is useful when a quicker
cure is desired. NOTE! Unvented kerosene or propane heaters can inhibit the
cure of epoxy and contaminate epoxy surfaces with unburned hydrocarbons.
CAUTION! Warming a resin/hardener mix will lower its viscosity, allowing
the epoxy to run or sag more easily on vertical surfaces. In addition,
heating epoxy applied to a porous substrate (soft wood or low density
core material) may cause the substrate to “out-gas” and form bubbles in the epoxy
coating. To avoid out-gassing, wait until the epoxy coating has gelled before
warming it. Never heat mixed epoxy in a liquid state over 50°C.
Regardless of the steps taken to control the cure time, thorough planning of the
application and assembly will allow maximum use of the open time and cure time
of the epoxy mix.
Cure stages of epoxy
Mixing epoxy resin and hardener begins a chemical reaction that transforms the
combined liquid components into a solid. As it cures, the epoxy passes from the
liquid state , through a gel stage before it reaches a solid state. (Figure 1)
1.
Liquid – Open time
Open time (also working time) is the period, after mixing, that the resin/hardener
mix remains a liquid and is workable and suitable for application. All assembly
and clamping should take place during this period to ensure a dependable bond
is achieved.
2.
Gel – Initial cure phase
The mix passes into an initial cure phase (also known as the “Green Stage”) when
it begins to gel. The epoxy is no longer workable and will progress from a tacky gel
consistency to the firmness of hard rubber. An indent can be made with the thumb
nail and it is too soft to dry sand.
While the epoxy is tacky, a new application of epoxy will chemically link with it, so
the surface may be bonded or recoated without sanding. This ability diminishes
as the mix approaches the final cure phase.
3.
Solid – Final cure phase
The epoxy mix has cured to a solid state and can be dry sanded and shaped. It
is no longer possible to indent the surface with the thumb nail. At this stage, the
epoxy has reached 90% of its ultimate strength, so clamps can be removed. The
mix will continue to cure over the next few days at room temperature.
A new application of epoxy will no longer chemically link to it, so the surface must be
thoroughly washed and sanded before recoating to achieve a good mechanical,
secondary bond. See Surface Preparation – page 10.
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Post curing
You can improve epoxy’s thermal performance and reduce the potential for fabric
“print-through” by applying modest heat to the epoxy after it has cured to a solid
state. Contact Wessex Resins for more information about post curing epoxy.
2.4 Dispensing and Mixing
Careful measuring of resin and hardener and thorough mixing of the two
components are essential for a proper cure. Whether the resin/hardener mix is
applied as a coating or modified with fillers or additives, observing the following
procedures will ensure a controlled and thorough chemical transition to a high
strength epoxy solid.
Dispensing
Dispense the correct proportions of resin and hardener into a clean plastic, metal or
wax-free paper container (Figure 2). Do not use glass or foam containers because
of the potential hazard from exothermic heat build-up. DO NOT attempt to adjust
the cure time by altering the mix ratio. An accurate ratio is essential for a proper
cure and full development of physical properties.
Figure 2 Dispense the correct
proportions of resin and hardener.
Most problems related to the curing of epoxy can be traced to the wrong ratio of
resin and hardener. To simplify metering, use calibrated WEST SYSTEM Mini
Pumps to dispense the correct working ratio of resin and hardener. (For one
full pump stroke of resin use one full pump stroke of hardener.) Depress each
pump head fully and allow the head to return completely before beginning the next
stroke. Partial strokes will give an incorrect ratio. Read the pump instructions
before using the pumps and verify the correct ratio before using the first mix on a
project. Recheck the ratio whenever curing problems are experienced. One full
depression of each pump will give approximately 24g of mixed epoxy.
1 stroke
1 stroke
+
Resin
Hardener
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With Mini Pumps One full pump stroke
of resin for one
full pump stroke of
hardener will give the
correct ratio.
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WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Dispensing with Mini pumps
Dispensing without Mini Pumps—Weight/volume measure
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
To measure 105 Resin and 205 or 206 Hardener by weight, combine five parts
resin with one part hardener. Small quanities can be mixed by volume at the same
ratio. To measure 105 Resin and 207 or 209 Hardener by volume, combine three
parts resin with one part hardener (by weight, 3.5 parts resin : 1 part hardener).
First time users
If using WEST SYSTEM epoxy for the first time, begin with a small test batch to
get the feel for the mixing and curing process before applying a mix to the job in
hand. This will demonstrate the open time for the resin/hardener mix at the present
ambient temperature and give assurance that the mix ratio is correctly metered.
Mix small batches until confident of the handling characteristics of the epoxy.
Mixing
Thoroughly blend the two ingredients for 2 minutes - longer in cooler temperatures
(Figure 3). Scrape the sides and bottom of the pot when mixing. If using the mix
for coating, after mixing, quickly pour into a roller pan to extend the open time.
scrape corners
Figure 3 Stir resin and hardener
thoroughly together for 2 minutes,
longer in cooler temperatures.
WARNING! Curing epoxy generates heat. Do not fill or cast layers of
epoxy thicker than 10 to 12mm – thinner if enclosed by foam or other
insulating material. If left to stand for the full pot life in a plastic mixing
cup, the mixed epoxy will generate enough heat to melt the plastic. If a pot of mixed
epoxy begins to exotherm (heat up), quickly move it outdoors. Avoid breathing
the fumes. Do not dispose of the mixture until the reaction is complete and the
material has cooled.
2.5 Adding Fillers and Additives
Fillers
Throughout this booklet, reference to epoxy or resin/hardener mixes is defined
as mixed resin and hardener without fillers added; thickened mixes or thickened
epoxy will mean mixed resin and hardener with fillers added. Fillers are used to
thicken epoxy for specific applications such as bonding or fairing.
After selecting an appropriate filler for the job in hand (selection guide - page 34),
use it to thicken the epoxy to the desired consistency. The viscosity or thickness of
a mix required for a specific job is controlled by the amount of filler added. There
is no strict formula or measuring involved - visually judge the consistency which is
best suited for the task in hand. Figure 5 gives a general guide to the differences
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between unthickened epoxy and the three other consistencies referred to in this
manual.
Always add fillers in a two-step process:
1.
Mix the desired quantity of resin and hardener thoroughly before adding
fillers. Begin with a small batch - allow room for the filler.
2.
Blend in small quantities of the appropriate filler until the desired consistency
is reached (Figure 4). Ensure the filler is thoroughly blended before the mix is
applied.
Figure 4 Stir in small quantities of filler
until the desired consistency is reached.
For maximum strength, add only enough filler to completely bridge gaps between
surfaces without sagging or running out of the joint or gap. A small amount should
squeeze out of joints when clamped. When making fairing compounds, add as
much 407 or 410 as can be blended in smoothly - for easy sanding, the thicker the
viscosity, the better. Spread the mix into a thinner layer, either around the inside of
the mixing cup or onto a flat non-porous surface or palette, to extend the working
life.
CONSISTENCY
Unthickened
Slightly
thickened
Moderately
thickened
Maximum
thickness
“SYRUP”
“KETCHUP”
“MAYONNAISE”
“PEANUT
BUTTER”
CHARACTERISTICS
Drips off vertical
surfaces.
Sags down
vertical surfaces.
Clings to vertical
surfaces. Peaks
fall over.
Clings to
vertical
surfaces. Peaks
stand up.
USES
Coating, “wettingout” before
bonding, applying
fibreglass,
graphite and
other fabrics.
Laminating/
bonding flat
panels with large
surface areas,
injecting with
syringe.
General
bonding, filleting,
hardware
bonding.
Gap filling,
filleting, fairing,
bonding uneven
surfaces.
Figure 5 Epoxy can be thickened to the ideal consistency needed for a particular job. The
procedures in this manual refer to four common consistencies: syrup, ketchup, mayonnaise
and peanut butter.
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User Manual 9
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
GENERAL
APPEARANCE
Additives
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Although additives are blended with mixed epoxy in a similar two-step process,
they are not designed to thicken the epoxy. Additives give the epoxy additional
physical properties when used as a coating and pigments provide a colour base
for future overcoating with quality marine paint. Refer to the descriptions of the
additives on page 48.
3. BASIC TECHNIQUES
The following procedures are common to the majority of repair or building projects
– on the boat or in the home and regardless of the type of structure or material on
which work is being carried out.
3.1 Surface preparation
Whether bonding, fairing or applying fabrics, the success of the application depends
not only on the strength of the epoxy but also on how well the epoxy adheres to the
surface to which it is being applied. Unless bonding to partially cured epoxy, the
strength of the bond relies on the ability of the epoxy to mechanically “key” into the
surface. Thus, the following three steps of surface preparation are a critical part of
any secondary bonding operation.
For good adhesion, bonding surfaces must be:
1. Clean
Bonding surfaces must be free of any contaminants such as grease, oil, wax or
mould release. Clean contaminated surfaces with WEST SYSTEM 850 Solvent.
(Figure 6). Wipe the surface with fresh paper towels before the solvent dries.
Clean surfaces before sanding to avoid abrading the contaminant into the surface.
Follow all safety precautions when working with solvents.
2. Dry
All bonding surfaces must be as dry as possible for good adhesion. If necessary,
accelerate drying by warming the bonding surface with a hot air gun, hair dryer or
heat lamp (Figure 7). Use fans to move the air in confined or enclosed spaces. Be
careful of condensation when working outdoors or whenever the temperature of
the work environment changes.
3. Sanded
Thoroughly abrade hardwoods and non-porous surfaces with 80-grit aluminium
oxide paper to provide a good mechanical “key” for the epoxy (Figure 8). Ensure
the surface to be bonded is solid. Remove any flaking, chalking, blistering or old
coating before sanding. Remove all dust after sanding.
The importance of the three operations detailed above cannot be stressed too
strongly – for high strength, durable bonds, surfaces must be clean, dry and
thoroughly abraded after removing previous surface coatings.
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Figure 6 Clean the
surface. Use a solvent, if
necessary, to remove all
contaminates.
2
Figure 7 Dry the Surface.
Allow wet surfaces to dry
thoroughly or use heat or a
fan to speed the drying.
Primary/Secondary bonding
Primary bonding relies on chemical linking of
adhesive layers such as the wet lay-up of fibreglass
laminate in a mould. All the layers of adhesive cure
together in a single fused layer. Epoxy applied over
partially cured epoxy will chemically link with it to
form a primary bond. The ability to chemically link
diminishes as the previous layer of epoxy cures and
the bond becomes a secondary bond.
Secondary bonding requires a mechanical,
rather than chemical linking of an adhesive to a
material or cured epoxy surface. The adhesive
must “key” into pores or scratches in the surface
- a microscopic version of a dovetail joint. Correct
surface preparation provides a texture that will help
link the cured epoxy to the surface.
Special preparation for various
materials
Cured epoxy - Amine blush can appear as a wax
like film on cured epoxy surfaces. It is a by-product
of the curing process and is more noticeable in
cool, moist conditions. Amine blush can clog
sandpaper and inhibit subsequent bonding but it is
water soluble and can easily be removed. It is not
unreasonable to assume it has formed on any cured
epoxy surface.
To remove the blush, thoroughly wash the surface
with clean water and an abrasive pad. Dry the
surface with fresh paper towels to remove the
dissolved blush before it dries on the surface. Sand
any remaining glossy areas with 80-grit sandpaper
and clean.
Wet-sanding will also remove the amine blush. If a
release fabric (peel ply) is applied over the surface
of fresh epoxy, amine blush will be removed when
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3
Figure 8 Sand non-porous
surfaces. Provide a texture
for the epoxy to key into.
Removing epoxy
Removing uncured or noncuring epoxy.
Scrape as
much material as possible
from the surface using a stiff
metal or plastic scraper - warm
the epoxy to lower its viscosity.
Clean the residue with WEST
SYSTEM 850 Cleaning Solvent.
(Follow safety warnings on
solvents and provide adequate
ventilation).
Allow solvents
to dry before recoating. After
recoating wood surfaces with
epoxy, brush the wet epoxy
(in the direction of the grain)
with a wire brush to improve
adhesion.
Removing fibreglass cloth
applied with epoxy. Use a
heat gun to warm and soften
the epoxy. Begin in a small
area near a corner or edge.
Apply heat until a putty knife
or chisel can be slipped under
the cloth. Grab the edge with
a pair of pliers and slowly pull
up the cloth while heating just
ahead of the separation. On
large areas, use a utility knife
to score/cut the glass and
remove in narrower strips.
Resulting surface texture may
be coated or remaining epoxy
may be removed as follows.
Removing
cured
epoxy
coating. Use a heat gun to
soften the epoxy. Heat a small
area and use a paint or cabinet
scraper to remove the bulk of
the coating. Sand the surface
to remove the remaining
material. Provide ventilation
when heating epoxy.
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1
the release fabric is peeled from the cured epoxy and no additional sanding is
required.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Epoxy surfaces that are still tacky i.e. not fully cured, may be bonded to or coated
with epoxy without washing or sanding. Before applying coatings other than
epoxy (paints, bottom paints, varnishes, gelcoats, etc.), allow epoxy surfaces to cure
fully, then wash, sand, clean and follow coating manufacturer’s instructions.
Hardwoods - Thoroughly abrade with 80-grit paper and remove dust before
coating.
Teak/oily woods - Wipe the surface with WEST SYSTEM 850 solvent or pure
acetone and when the solvent has evaporated, abrade with 80-grit paper. Clean
the sanding dust away and then wipe the abraded surface with solvent – the
solvent dries the oil at the surface and allows the epoxy to penetrate. Ensure the
solvent has evaporated before coating but apply the epoxy within 15 minutes of
the solvent wipe.
Porous woods - No special preparation needed but it is advisable to abrade with
a medium grit paper to open pores. Remove dust.
Metals - Metals must have all previous surface pre-treatments and contaminants
e.g. rust removed, taking the surface back to the bare metal by thoroughly
degreasing then abrading with a coarse paper such as 80-grit or grit blasting and
then degreasing again. The use of an adhesion promoter is advised on non-ferrous
metal substrates. Given below is the preparation for the more common metals
used in boat building.
Mild Steel - Degrease and then thoroughly abrade (ideally, grit blast), removing
all contamination to expose bright metal. Apply epoxy as soon as possible and
certainly within 4 hours after surface has been prepared.
Stainless Steel - Degrease and then thoroughly abrade (ideally, grit blast),
removing all contamination and the stainless coating to expose bright metal. Apply
epoxy as soon as possible and certainly within 4 hours after surface has been
prepared. Then (wet) sand the epoxy into the surface. Recoat or bond after first
coat gels.
Aluminium - Non-anodised material must be degreased and either thoroughly
abraded or chemically etched, (sulphuric acid/sodium dichromate solution or
branded aluminium etch compound).
Anodised aluminium and anodised aluminium alloys - must be bonded
as quickly as possible after degreasing and abrading and certainly within 30
minutes.
Hard anodised aluminium alloy - must be stripped by abrasive blasting or by
etching in sulphuric acid/sodium dichromate solution or branded aluminium etch
compound. Unstripped metal is not suitable for bonding.
Polyester/GRP - Remove contamination with WEST SYSTEM 850 Solvent.
Thoroughly abrade with 80-grit paper to a dull finish and remove dust.
Ferrocement - Remove all previous paints and coatings by wet sand blasting - this
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is less aggressive than using dry sand and should not damage the sound surface.
If after blasting, laitance is visible on the surface or rust from the reinforcing wires
can be seen, then it is necessary to wash with dilute solution of hydrochloric acid
- this should be fresh water with a 4% to 5% addition of hydrochloric acid. Wash
thoroughly with water and allow to dry completely before coating.
Concrete - Remove all previous coatings and abrade with a stiff wire brush.
Remove all dust and debris before coating.
Plastic - Adhesion varies. If a plastic is impervious to solvents such as acetone,
epoxy generally will not bond to it. Soft, flexible plastics such as polyethylene,
polypropylene, nylon and Plexiglas fall into this category. Hard, rigid plastics such
as PVC, ABS, polycarbonate and styrene provide better adhesion with good
surface preparation and adequate bonding area. After sanding, flame oxidizing (by
quickly passing the flame of a propane torch over the surface without melting the
plastic) can improve bonding in some plastics.
It’s a good idea to conduct an adhesion test on any plastic (or any other material)
that you are uncertain about.
For best results when working with plastic use WEST SYSTEM G/flex epoxy see
Specialty Epoxies – page 44
3.2 Bonding (gluing)
This section refers to two types of structural bonding. Two step bonding is the
preferred method for most situations because it promotes maximum epoxy
penetration into the bonding surface and prevents resin starved joints. Single
step bonding is occasionally used when joints have minimal loads and excess
absorption into porous surfaces is not a problem. In both cases, to achieve the
ultimate bond strength, work the epoxy into the surface with a roller or brush.
Joint strength - the ability to adequately
transfer a load from one part to
another - depends on the combined
effects of three factors.
Adhesion
GLUE STRENGTH - Careful
metering and thorough mixing
will ensure the epoxy mixture
cures to full strength.
ADHESION - For the best
adhesion and load transfer,
the surface must be correctly
prepared.
JOINT AREA - The bonding or
adhesive area of the joint must be
adequate for the load on the joint.
Increased overlap, scarf joints, fillets
and reinforcing fibres across the joint
can be used to increase bonding area.
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WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Bonding
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Before mixing epoxy, ensure all parts to be bonded fit properly and that surface
preparation has been completed. (See surface preparation section 3.1 page 11).
Gather all clamps and tools necessary for the operation and cover any areas that
need protection from spills.
Two-step bonding
1.
Apply a resin/hardener mix to the surfaces to be joined (Figure 9). This
is called “wetting-out” or “priming” the bonding surfaces. The epoxy is applied
with a disposable brush in small or tight areas; wet-out larger areas with a foam
roller or by spreading the resin/hardener mix evenly over the surface with a plastic
squeegee/spreader. Proceed with step two immediately or any time before the
wet-out coat becomes tack free.
2.
Modify the resin/hardener mix by stirring in the appropriate filler until it
becomes thick enough to bridge any gaps between the mating surfaces and to
prevent “resin-starved” joints. Apply an even coat of the thickened epoxy to one of
the bonding surfaces, sufficient so that a small amount will squeeze out when the
surfaces are joined together (Figure 10).
Figure 9 Apply resin/hardener mixture to
the bonding surfaces.
Figure 10 Apply thickened epoxy to one of
the bonding surfaces.
As already stated, the thickened epoxy can be applied immediately over the wet out
surface or any time before the epoxy becomes tack free. For most small bonding
operations, add the filler to the resin/hardener mix remaining in the batch that was
used for the wet-out. Mix enough resin/hardener for both steps. Add the filler
quickly after the surface is wet out and allow for a shorter working life of the mix.
3.
Clamp components. Attach clamps as necessary to hold the components
in place. Use only enough clamping pressure to squeeze a small amount of the
thickened mix from the joint, indicating that the epoxy is making good contact with
both mating surfaces (Figure 11). Do not squeeze all the thickened mix from the
joint by using too much clamping pressure.
4.
Remove or shape excess adhesive that squeezes out of the joint as soon as
the joint is secured with clamps. A WEST SYSTEM 804 mixing stick with one end
sanded to a chisel edge is an ideal tool for removing the excess (Figure 12). Allow
to cure thoroughly before removing clamps.
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Figure 11 Clamp components in place
before the epoxy gels.
Figure 12 Remove or shape excess
epoxy that squeezes out of the joint.
Single-step bonding
Single-step bonding is applying a thickened epoxy mix directly to both bonding
surfaces without first wetting out the surfaces with a resin/hardener mix. However,
it is strongly recommended that the epoxy is thickened no more than is necessary
to bridge gaps in the joint (the thinner the mix, the more it can penetrate the surface)
and this method is not used for highly-loaded joints or for bonding either end grain
or other porous surfaces.
3.3 Bonding with fillets
A fillet is a cove-shaped application of thickened epoxy that bridges an inside
corner joint. It is an excellent technique for bonding components because the
surface area of the bond is increased and serves as a structural brace. All joints
that will be covered with glasscloth will require a fillet to support the cloth at the
inside corner of the joint.
1.
Bond components as described in Bonding (page 13).
2.
Shape and smooth the squeezed-out thickened epoxy into a fillet by drawing
a rounded filleting tool (a mixing stick is ideal) along the joint, dragging excess
material ahead of the tool and leaving a smooth cove-shaped fillet bordered on
each side by a clean margin. Some excess filleting material will remain outside
the margin (Figure 13) which can be used to refill any voids. Smooth the fillet until
you are satisfied with the appearance. A mixing stick will leave a fillet with about a
10mm radius. For larger fillets, an 808 Plastic Squeegee is recommended, cut to
shape or bent to the desired radius.
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User Manual 15
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
The procedure for bonding with fillets is the same as normal bonding but, instead
of removing the squeezed-out thickened epoxy after the components are clamped
in position, the epoxy/filler blend is shaped into a fillet. For larger fillets, as soon as
the bonding operation is complete and before the squeezed-out epoxy becomes
tack free, add more thickened mix to the joint and shape into a fillet.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Figure 13 Shape and smooth the fillet.
Apply additional thickened epoxy to fill voids or make larger fillets. Add sufficient
mix along the joint line with the rounded mixing stick to create the desired size of
fillet. For longer or multiple fillets, empty caulking gun cartridges or disposable
cake decorating bags can be used. Cut the plastic tip to lay a bead of thickened
epoxy large enough for the desired fillet size. Heavy duty, sealable food storage
bags with one corner cut off may also be used.
3.
Clean up the remaining excess material outside the margin by using a mixing
stick or a putty knife (Figure 14). Glasscloth or tape may be applied over the fillet
area before the fillet has cured (or after the fillet is cured and sanded).
Figure 14 Clean up the excess epoxy
outside the fillet margin.
4.
When the fillet has fully cured, sand smooth with 80-grit sandpaper. Wipe the
surface clean of dust and apply two or three coats of resin/hardener over the entire
fillet area before final finishing.
3.4 Bonding fasteners and hardware
Installing screws and other threaded fasteners with WEST SYSTEM epoxy
dramatically improves the load carrying capacity of the fastener by spreading the
load into a greater area of the substrate. There are several methods of hardware
bonding dependent upon the loads carried by the hardware.
Basic fastener bonding
For improved pullout strength and eliminating moisture ingress, the easiest method
is to simply wet out stripped fastener holes and new pilot holes before installing
the screws. Epoxy penetrates the fibre around the hole, effectively increasing the
fastener diameter.
1.
Wet out a standard-size pilot hole and work the resin/hardener mix into the
hole with a pipe cleaner or syringe (Figure 15). Thicken a second coat of epoxy as
necessary for stripped or oversized holes.
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Figure 15 Wet out a standard pilot
hole and install the fastener.
2.
Insert the fastener in the hole and allow the epoxy to cure.
Advanced fastener bonding
For greater strength and stability, drill oversized holes to increase the exposed
substrate area and the amount of epoxy around the fastener. If the fastener/
hardware can be clamped by other means, the oversized hole can be extended to
the end of the fastener.
1.
Drill oversized holes approximately 2/3 the depth of the fastener. The hole
diameter is 6mm larger than the fastener diameter. (Figure 16a).
2.
Drill a normal sized pilot hole at the bottom of the oversized hole to the full
length of the fastener. The normal sized pilot hole serves to hold or clamp the
hardware in position until the epoxy cures.
3.
Wet out the holes and the fastener with a resin/hardener mix. Allow the
epoxy to thoroughly soak into the exposed end grain of the wood.
a
2
Oversized
hole
1
Pilot hole
/3
/3
x
x+6mm
Epoxy interface
with penetration
into end grain.
Figure
16
Drill
oversized holes to
increase the exposed
substrate area and
the amount of epoxy
around the fastener.
4.
Fill the hole with thickened epoxy/adhesive filler. Use 404 High-Density
(preferred) or 406 Colloidal Silica.
5.
Install the fasteners with just enough force to hold the hardware in place. Allow
the epoxy to cure thoroughly before applying load to the hardware (Figure 16b).
Bonding hardware
Bonding hardware goes much further than only bonding the fasteners. By bonding
the hardware base to the surface, the hardware load capacity is significantly
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User Manual 17
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
b
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
increased by providing a solid bearing surface for the hardware. It also seals the
wood underneath and is a stronger, longer lasting attachment than bonding the
fasteners only. It is especially useful to mount hardware on surfaces which are not
level, curved or uneven.
1.
Prepare the mounting surface and the hardware base for good adhesion (see
surface preparation - page 10).
2.
Wet out the oversized hole with epoxy. Allow the epoxy to soak into the
exposed end grain of the wood (as with fastener bonding).
3.
Coat the bottom contact surface of the hardware with unthickened epoxy.
Wire brush or sand the wet epoxy into the surface with 50-grit sandpaper. Sanding
the base, coated with epoxy, exposes the epoxy directly to fresh metal avoiding
any oxidisation of the metal.
4.
Inject a non-sagging epoxy/404 or 406 mix into the hole. Use sufficient mix to
ensure there are no voids in the hole after inserting the fastener. Coat the bottom
of the hardware and the fastener threads with thickened epoxy
(Figure 17).
Figure 17 Coat the hardware bottom
and the fastener threads with thickened
epoxy.
5.
Place the hardware in position. Insert and tighten fasteners until a small
quantity of mix squeezes out of the joint (Figure 18).
Backing Plate
Figure 18 Tighten the fasteners until a
small amount of epoxy squeezes from
the joint.
6.
Remove excess epoxy or shape into a fillet. Allow the epoxy to cure for at
least 24 hours at 15°C minimum before applying load to the hardware. Allow more
time in cool weather.
Casting a base
Use thickened epoxy to cast a base under the hardware when mounting hardware
to a curved or uneven surface or mounting hardware at an angle to the surface.
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1.
Prepare the fasteners, holes, substrate and base as described above.
2.
Bond small blocks to the substrate to support the base at the desired height
and position (e.g., winch base, Figure 19”A”).
A
C
B
Figure 19 Support
the base in position
with blocking - apply
enough
thickened
epoxy to fill the void.
3.
Apply enough thickened epoxy – non-sagging, peanut butter consistency to fill the volume below the required position of the hardware to a level marginally
higher than the blocks. If the gap between the base and the surface is over 12mm
fill the gap in two separate layers to avoid exotherm.
4.
Place the hardware in position, resting on the blocks (Figure 19”B”) and install
the fasteners.
5.
Smooth the excess epoxy into the desired fillet shape around the base (Figure
19”C”). Allow the epoxy to cure fully before loading. Protect exposed epoxy from
UV. (see finish coating page 29).
Bond threaded rods or studs into the substrate (instead of bolts or screws) and
attach the hardware with nuts. This variation is appropriate for many engine, motor
or machine installations. Coat the base of the hardware with wax/mould release
to make it removable. Although the hardware is not “bonded” to the substrate, the
epoxy still provides a bearing surface that perfectly matches and supports the base
of the hardware.
1.
Prepare the studs/threaded rods by waxing the upper ends (above the
surface) and cleaning the lower ends (below the surface).
2.
Place a nut and washer on the studs, wet out the lower ends and push them
into the epoxy filled holes. Allow the epoxy to cure thoroughly before attaching
hardware and tightening the nuts (Figure 20).
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WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Bonding studs
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Figure 20
Bond threaded
rods or studs into
the substrate as
an alternative for
easily removable
hardware.
Removing fasteners
If a fastener needs to be removed at a future date, coat the threads with wax or
mould release (contaminating the surface sufficiently to prevent a good bond).
Remove a permanently bonded fastener by applying heat to the head of the
fastener with a soldering iron or propane torch. Use a heat shield to protect the
surrounding area. Heat will travel down the fastener, softening the epoxy with
which it is in contact. After heating the epoxy should soften enough to allow the
fastener to be backed out. Allow more time for heat to travel along longer and/or
larger diameter fasteners.
3.5 Laminating
Clamping
The term “laminating” refers to the process of
bonding together a number of relatively thin
sheets, like plywood, veneers, fabrics or core
material, to create a composite. A composite
may be any number of layers of the same
material or combinations of different materials.
Methods of epoxy application and clamping
will differ depending on the materials being
laminated.
Any method of clamping is suitable
to prevent movement between the
parts being joined. Methods of
clamping include spring clamps,
“C” clamps and adjustable bar
clamps, rubber bands cut from
inner tubes, packaging tape,
applying weights, and vacuum
bagging. When placing clamps
near epoxy covered areas, use
polyethylene sheeting or peel ply
under the clamps so they do not
inadvertently bond to the surface.
Staples, nails or drywall screws
are often used where conventional
clamps are unsuitable.
Any
fasteners that need to remain
should be of a non-corroding alloy
such as bronze. In some cases,
the thickened epoxy or gravity
will hold parts in position without
clamps. Avoid excessive clamping
pressure.
A quick method to apply epoxy for laminating
is to use a foam roller. An even faster method
for large flat surfaces is to simply pour the
resin/hardener mix onto the middle of the
panel/veneer/ fabric and spread the epoxy
evenly over the surface with a plastic spreader.
Apply thickened mixes with an 809 Notched
Spreader.
Using staples or screws is the most common
method of clamping when there is a solid
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material on which to fasten. An even distribution of weights will suffice when
laminating over a base that will not hold mechanical fixings, such as a foam or
honeycomb core material.
Vacuum bagging is a specialized clamping method for laminating a wide range of
materials. Using a vacuum pump and plastic sheeting, the atmosphere is used
to apply perfectly even clamping pressure over all areas of a panel regardless of
the size, shape or number of layers. For detailed information on vacuum bagging,
refer to 002-150 Vacuum Bagging Techniques.
3.6 Fairing
Fairing refers to the filling and shaping of low or uneven areas so they blend with
the surrounding surfaces and appear “fair” to the eye and touch. After major
structural assembly has been completed, final fairing can be accomplished easily
with WEST SYSTEM epoxy and low-density fillers.
1.
Prepare the surface as detailed for bonding (page 10). Sand smooth any
bumps or ridges on the surface and remove all dust from the area to be faired.
2.
Wet out porous surfaces with resin/hardener mix (Figure 21).
Figure 21 Wet out porous
surfaces before applying
fairing compound.
4.
Trowel the thickened epoxy mix onto the wetted surface with a plastic spreader,
working it into all voids and depressions. Smooth the epoxy to the desired shape,
leaving the mix slightly higher than the surrounding area (Figure 22). Remove any
excess thickened epoxy before it cures. If filling voids over 12mm deep, apply
the fairing mix in several applications allowing each application to partially cure
before proceeding and/or use 206 Slow Hardener® or 209 Extra Slow Hardener™,
depending on temperature.
Note: On vertical and overhead surfaces, allow the wet-out coat to gel before
applying the fairing compound which may sag or slide off the fresh wet-out coat.
Apply the fairing compound while the wet-out coat is still tacky.
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WEST SYSTEM User Manual
3.
Mix resin/hardener and 407 Low-Density or 410 Microlight® filler to a peanut
butter consistency. The thicker the mix, the easier it will be to sand when cured.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Figure 22 Apply fairing compound to fill
all voids and smooth to shape.
5.
Allow the final application of thickened epoxy to cure thoroughly.
6.
Sand the fairing material to blend with the surrounding contour (Figure 23).
Begin with 50-grit sandpaper if it is necessary to remove a lot of fairing material.
Use 80-grit paper when close to the final contour.
Figure 23 Sand cured fairing compound
to desired contour.
CAUTION! Wear a dust mask when sanding cured epoxy. Remove the
sanding dust and fill any remaining voids following the same procedure.
7.
When satisfied with the fairness, apply two or three coats of resin/hardener
mix to the area with a disposable brush or roller. Allow the final coat to cure
thoroughly before final sanding and finishing. Note: 410 filler can be affected by
the solvents in most paints. Surfaces faired with with 410 Filler must be sealed
with epoxy before applying any solvented paints.
3.7 Applying woven cloth and tape
Glass cloth may be applied to surfaces by two methods to provide reinforcement
and/or abrasion resistance. It is usually applied after fairing and shaping are
completed and before the final coating operation. It is also applied in multiple
layers i.e. laminated and in combination with other materials to build composite
parts.
The “wet” method refers to the cloth being applied to an epoxy-coated surface
before the coating reaches final cure. The “dry” method is to apply the cloth over
a dry surface and then impregnate the glass with epoxy. The wet method is
preferred whenever possible.
Wet method
By working with small quantities of epoxy, it is possible to work at a comfortable
pace over quite large areas to be reinforced.
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1.
Prepare the surface for bonding as discussed in
surface preparation (page 10).
Clear wood finishes
2.
Pre-fit and trim the cloth to size. Roll the cloth
neatly so that it may be conveniently rolled back into
position later.
An alternative wet out
method is to lay the
epoxy onto the fabric with
a short bristled brush.
Dip the brush in the
epoxy and lay the epoxy
onto the surface with a
light even stroke. Do not
force the epoxy into the
cloth, which may trap air
in the fabric and show
through the clear finish.
Apply enough epoxy
to saturate the fabric
and the wood below.
After several minutes,
lay on additional epoxy
to dry (white) areas. If
epoxy appears milky
due to high humidity or
overworking, warm the
surface by passing a
heat gun or hair dryer
over the surface. Use
low heat to avoid outgassing. Be sure to use
207 Hardener for clear
finishes.
Roll a heavy coat of epoxy on the surface.
4.
Unroll the glass cloth into position over the
wet epoxy. Surface tension will hold most cloths in
position. (If applying the cloth vertically or overhead,
it is possible to wait until the epoxy becomes a little
tacky). Work out wrinkles by lifting the edge of the
cloth and smoothing from the centre with a gloved
hand or a squeegee/spreader. If cutting a pleat or
notch in the cloth, lay it flat on a curve or corner, make
the cut with sharp scissors and temporarily overlap
the edges.
5.
Any areas of cloth which appear to be dry, (white
in appearance) apply more epoxy with a foam roller.
6.
Remove the excess epoxy with a squeegee
(Figure 24), using long overlapping strokes of uniform
pressure. The object is to remove the excess epoxy
that may allow the cloth to “float off” the surface but
avoid creating dry spots by exerting too much pressure
on the squeegee. Excess epoxy appears as a shiny
area while a properly wet out surface appears evenly
transparent with a smooth cloth texture. Subsequent
coats of epoxy will fill the weave of the cloth.
Figure 24 Squeegee away excess
epoxy before it begins to gel.
7.
Further layers of cloth may be applied immediately by repeating the steps
above.
8.
Trim the excess (Figure 25) and overlapped cloth after the epoxy has reached
its initial cure. The cloth will cut easily with a sharp utility knife as long as the epoxy
is not fully cured. If required, trim overlapped cloth as follows.
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WEST SYSTEM User Manual
3.
(stripper canoes, etc.)
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Figure 25 Trim excess cloth after the
epoxy gels but before it cures hard.
a)
Place a metal straightedge on top of and midway between the two overlapped
edges.
b)
Cut through both layers of cloth with a sharp utility knife (Figure 26), being
very careful not to cut too deeply.
Figure 26 Trim overlapped cloth after
the epoxy gels.
c)
Remove the top-most trimming and then lift the opposite cut edge to remove
the overlapped trimming (Figure 27).
Figure 27 Remove the topmost
trimming, lift the opposite cut edge to
remove the overlapped trimming.
d)
Re-wet the underside of the raised edge with epoxy and smooth into place.
The result should be a near perfect butt joint, eliminating double cloth thickness.
However, a lapped joint is stronger than a butt joint, so if appearance is not
important, it may be advisable to leave the overlap and fair in the unevenness after
coating. Alternatively use WEST SYSTEM 743 tapered edge cloth to eliminate
the need to butt join, contact Wessex Resins & Adhesives Limited or your local
distributor for further information.
Any remaining irregularities or transitions between cloth and substrate can be
faired by using an epoxy/filler fairing compound if the surface is to be painted. Any
fairing completed after the final glass cloth layer should receive several additional
coats of epoxy over the faired area.
9.
Coat the surface to fill the weave before the wet-out becomes tack free
(Figure 28). Follow the procedures for final coating in the next section. It will take
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two or three coats to completely fill the weave of the cloth and to allow for a final
sanding that will not damage the cloth.
Figure 28 Coat the surface to fill the weave
before the wet-out becomes tack free.
Dry method
1.
Prepare the surface for bonding (see surface preparation page 10).
2.
Position the cloth over the surface and cut it 30 mm larger on all sides. If the
surface area to be covered is larger than the cloth size, allow multiple pieces to
overlap by approximately 50 mm. On sloped or vertical surfaces, hold the cloth in
place with masking or duct tape, or with staples.
3.
Mix a small quantity of epoxy (three or four pumps each of resin and
hardener).
4.
On horizontal surfaces, pour a small pool of resin/hardener near the centre
of the cloth but it is essential to use a roller or brush for wetting cloth on vertical
surfaces.
Figure 29 Spread the epoxy over the
cloth surface with a plastic speader.
6.
Continue pouring and spreading (or rolling) small batches of epoxy from the
centre towards the edges, smoothing wrinkles and positioning the cloth. Check
for dry areas (especially over porous surfaces) and re-wet as necessary before
proceeding to the next step. If cutting a pleat or notch in the cloth, lay it flat on
a compound curve or corner, make the cut with a pair of sharp scissors and
temporarily overlap the edges.
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User Manual 25
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
5.
Spread the epoxy over the cloth surface with an 808 Plastic Squeegee,
working the epoxy gently from the pool into the dry areas (Figure 29). As the fabric
is wet out it becomes transparent, indicating the cloth has absorbed sufficient
epoxy. If applying cloth over a porous surface, ensure that sufficient epoxy is
left to absorb into both the cloth and the surface below. Try to limit the amount of
squeegeeing as excessive “work” on the wet surface produces minute air bubbles
which are placed in suspension in the epoxy. This is especially important if a clear
finish is required.
7.
Now refer to Steps 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 detailed above in the “wet method” to
complete the procedure.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
3.8 Epoxy barrier coating
The object of barrier coating is to build up an epoxy thickness that provides an
effective moisture barrier and a smooth base for final finishing.
Apply a minimum of two coats of WEST SYSTEM epoxy for an effective moisture
barrier. Apply three coats if sanding is to be carried out. Moisture protection will
increase with additional coats and, in the case of osmosis repair and protection,
six coats or about a thickness of 600 microns must be applied. Six coats, with
422 Barrier Coat Additive™ in the final five coats, provides maximum moisture
protection. Additives or pigments should not be added to the first coat. Do not
add thinners or solvents to WEST SYSTEM epoxy.
Disposable, thin urethane foam rollers, such as WEST SYSTEM 800 or 790 Roller
Covers, allow greater control over film thickness, are less likely to cause the epoxy
to exotherm and leave less stipple than thicker roller covers. Cut the covers into
narrower widths to reach difficult areas or for long narrow surfaces like stringers. A
paint brush can be used for smaller areas, if the bristles are stiff enough to spread
the epoxy to an even film.
Complete all fairing and cloth application before beginning the final coating. Allow
the temperature of porous surfaces to stabilise before coating otherwise, as the
material warms up, air within the porous material may expand and pass from
the material (out-gassing) through the coating and leave bubbles in the cured
coating.
1.
Prepare the surface for bonding (see surface preparation page 10).
2.
Mix only as much resin/hardener as can be applied during the open time of
the mix. Pour the epoxy into a roller pan as soon as it is mixed thoroughly.
3.
Load the roller with a moderate amount of the epoxy. Roll out the excess on
the raised section of the roller pan to obtain a uniform coating on the roller.
4.
Roll lightly and randomly over an area approximately 600mm x 600mm to
transfer the epoxy evenly over the area (Figure 30).
Figure 30 Roll lightly and randomly
over a small area. Spread the epoxy
into a thin even film.
5.
As the roller dries out, increase pressure to spread the epoxy into a thin even
film. Increase the coverage area if necessary to spread the film more thinly and
evenly. The thinner the film, the easier it is to keep it even and avoid runs or
sags in each coat.
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6.
Finish the area with long, light, even strokes to reduce roller marks. Overlap
the previously coated area to blend both areas together.
7.
Coat as many of these small working areas as possible with each batch. If a
batch begins to thicken before it can be applied, discard it and mix a fresh, smaller
batch.
8.
“Tip off” the coating by dragging a foam roller brush lightly over the fresh
epoxy in long, even, overlapping strokes after each batch is applied. Use enough
pressure to smooth the stipple, but not enough to remove any of the coating
(Figure 31). Alternate the direction in which each coat is tipped off, 1st coat vertical,
2nd coat horizontal, 3rd coat vertical, etc. A WEST SYSTEM 800 Roller Cover can
be cut into segments to make an excellent “tipping” brush.
Figure 31 Tip off the coating by dragging
a foam roller brush lightly over the fresh
epoxy.
Recoating
Apply second and subsequent coats of epoxy following the same procedures.
Ensure the previous coat is still tacky, but has cured firmly enough to support the
weight of the next coat. To avoid sanding between coats, apply all coats in the
same day. After the final coat has cured overnight, wash with clean water and
abrade the surface to prepare for the final finish. See Special Preparation - Cured
epoxy on page 11.
Osmosis, otherwise known as gel-coat blistering, is a complex phenomenon. The
technical issues and repair instructions are contained in our specialist manual
“Gelcoat Blisters, A guide to Osmosis repair”. It is essential to fully read,
understand, and follow the instructions contained in it when considering a treatment.
Any such treatments should only be carried out under the close supervision of a
qualified Marine Surveyor or by an experienced boatyard or Contractor who has
clear evidence of successful past treatments. Specialist yards or Contractors
will have links with a qualified experienced surveyor and will usually obtain a full
report prior to commencing a treatment. We stongly recommend that advice is
sought from a qualified Marine Surveyor concerning a particular hull prior to the
commencement of any treatment. Because of the variability of hull constructions
and the complexity of the Osmosis phenomenon there can be no guarantee of a
100% success rate in treatments. Recurrence is always a possibility but by following
these instructions we believe that the risks of recurrence will be minimised.
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WEST SYSTEM User Manual
3.9 WEST SYSTEM Epoxy and Barrier Coating
for Osmosis repair.
3.10 Final surface preparation
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Correct finishing techniques will not only add beauty, but will also protect surfaces
from ultraviolet light which will break down the epoxy over a long period of time.
The most common methods of finishing are painting or varnishing. These coating
systems protect the epoxy from ultraviolet light and require proper preparation of
the surface before application.
Preparation for the final finish is just as important as it is for recoating with epoxy.
The surface must be clean, dry and sanded and free of amine blush.
1.
Allow the final epoxy coat to cure thoroughly.
2.
Wash the surface with a Scotch-brite™ pad and water to remove the amine
blush. Dry with paper towels.
3.
Sand to a smooth finish (Figure 32). If there are runs or sags, begin sanding
with 80-grit paper to remove the highest areas. Sand until the surface feels and
looks fair. Complete sanding with the appropriate grit for the type of coating to be
applied - check coating instructions. Paint adhesion partly relies on the mechanical
grip of the paint keying into the sanding scratches in the surface of the epoxy. If
a high-build or filling primer is to be applied, 80-100 grit is usually sufficient. For
primers and high-solids coatings, 120-180 grit may be adequate. Finishing with
180 grit paper is often recommended for coatings with high-gloss finishes. Grits
finer than this may not provide enough “tooth” for good adhesion and may promote
sags and runs. Always follow the paint manufacturer’s recommendations for
surface preparation. Wet sanding is preferred by many people because it reduces
sanding dust and in addition, Steps 2 and 3 above become one operation.
Figure 32 Sand to a smooth finish.
4.
When satisfied with the texture and fairness of the surface, rinse the surface
with fresh water which should flow evenly without beading or fisheyeing. If the
rinse water forms into droplets or beads (a sign of contamination), wipe the area
dry with a paper towel, then wet sand again until all water droplets are eliminated.
(Figure 33).
Figure 33 Rinse the surface with
fresh water after sanding.
Proceed with the final coating after the surface has dried thoroughly. To reduce
User Manual 28
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the possibility of contamination, it is advisable to begin coating within 24 hours
of the final sanding. Follow the paint manufacturer’s instructions but we suggest
making a test panel to evaluate the degree of surface preparation required and the
compatibility of the finish system.
3.11 Finish coatings
Coating function
Paint or varnish applied over an epoxy barrier coat is intended to decorate the
surface and protect the epoxy from sunlight. In so doing, the finish coating extends
the life of the epoxy moisture barrier which, in turn, provides a stable base that
extends the life of the finish coating. Together, the two form a protective system far
more durable than either coating by itself.
Protection from sunlight is a primary consideration in the selection of a final
coating. Long term UV (ultraviolet) protection of the barrier coat depends on the
effectiveness with which the finish coating resists UV and retains it’s pigmentation
and/or shield of UV filters on the surface of the epoxy barrier coat. A high gloss
finish reflects a higher proportion of the light from the surface than a dull finish.
Therefore, a white - especially a high gloss white – coating is much more durable.
Coating Compatibility
Most types of coatings are compatible with cured epoxy which is an almost
completely inert, hard plastic. Thus, most paint solvents will not soften, swell or
react with an epoxy surface. However, it is advisable to build a test panel to assure
coating compatibility. It is always recommended to check manufacturer’s
instructions to verify compatibility and suitability.
Coating types
Latex paints are compatible with epoxy and they do an adequate job of protecting
the epoxy barrier from UV radiation. In many architectural applications latex paint
may be the most suitable coating to use. Their durability is limited.
Alkyd finishes - enamel, alkyd enamel, marine enamel, acrylic enamel, alkyd
modified epoxy, traditional varnish and spar varnish - offer ease of application, low
cost, low toxicity, and easy availability. Their disadvantages are low UV resistance
and low abrasion resistance.
One-part polyurethanes offer easy application, cleanup and better properties than
alkyds. They are also more expensive and some may be incompatible with amine
cured epoxy systems such as WEST SYSTEM epoxy, although 207 Hardener
offers good compatibility. Test first.
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User Manual 29
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
One-part polyurethanes and polyester gelcoat can be affected by epoxy amines
and if used must be applied when the epoxy is thoroughly cured, generally after two
weeks at room temperature. A thorough cure can be achieved much quicker with
elevated temperature post curing. Post curing will also improve epoxy’s thermal
properties and is recommended if dark paint is to be applied over epoxy.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Two-part linear polyurethane (LP) paints offer the most durable protection
available. LP’s are available as pigmented or clear coatings and offer excellent
UV protection, gloss retention, abrasion resistance and complete compatibility with
epoxy. However, compared to other types of coatings, they are expensive, require
more skill to apply and present a greater health hazard, especially when sprayed.
Epoxy paints are available in one-part and two-part versions. Two-part epoxies
offer many characteristics similar to the higher performance polyurethanes. They
are durable and chemically resistant, but offer limited UV protection compared to
the linear polyurethanes.
Antifouling paints are available in a variety of formulations. Most antifouling paint
systems are compatible with epoxy and can be applied directly over a prepared
epoxy barrier coat. If unsure of compatibility or having curing or adhesion problems
with a specific paint, use the primer recommended for that antifouling paint over the
barrier coat. Follow the recommendations given for preparation of GRP surfaces.
Other paints, including marine LP’s and primers, are not recommended for use
below the waterline.
Primers are usually not needed to bond a paint film to epoxy, although interfacing
primers may be required with some specialised bottom paints and high-build
primers are useful for hiding scratches or flaws in the substrate. If the instructions
on the selected paint or varnish recommend a specially primed surface, follow the
recommendations given for fibreglass preparation. Self-etching primers are not
effective on an epoxy coating because of the chemical resistance of the epoxy.
Polyester gelcoat is a pigmented version of polyester resin used to build GRP
boats and many other products. Gelcoat provides a smooth pre-finished surface
and is applied during the production process of the boat or component part. It
is not often used as a post-production finish coating, but it can be applied over
epoxy and is useful in some repair situations. Unreacted epoxy will interfere with
gelcoat cure. Refer to 002-550 Fibreglass Boat Repair & Maintenance, published
by Wessex Resins, for detailed information on patching gelcoat over an epoxy
repair.
Always follow the instructions from the manufacturer of the coating systems.
Nevertheless, as previously stated, it is recommended to make a test panel to
evaluate the degree of surface preparation required and the compatibility and
handling characteristics of the finish system.
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4. COLD TEMPERATURE BONDING
Epoxy can be used under cold weather conditions, but special application techniques
should be employed to achieve acceptable long-term epoxy performance. These
precautions are not elaborate or difficult and do not apply to WEST SYSTEM
epoxy alone - any epoxy used at low temperatures may have its capabilities and
performance affected which could promote significant problems if the epoxy is used
in critical marine structural situations. In fact, due to differences in formulation, not
all epoxies possess the necessary characteristics to perform well when used under
cold weather conditions. The precautions are not elaborate or difficult.
4.1 Chemical characteristics
When an epoxy resin and hardener are mixed together, a chemical reaction is
started which produces heat - an “exothermic reaction”. The ambient temperature
in which an epoxy chemical reaction takes place affects the rate or speed of this
reaction. Warmer temperatures accelerate, while cooler temperatures retard the
reaction time.
If the reaction is too slow, even though the epoxy may harden, it may not cure
completely and possibly never achieve its designed physical properties. This
is where danger lies, for improperly cured epoxy may possess enough strength
to hold a structure together, yet may fail after repeated loadings during normal
operation.
Temperature has a profound effect on the working properties of uncured epoxy.
Ambient temperature changes will dramatically change the viscosity (thickness) of
the epoxy. When cold, the viscosity of water varies little with temperature changes
until it freezes but temperature can have an effect that is 10 times greater on epoxy
molecules than on water molecules over a temperature change of 15°C. Because
of this, the colder it is, the thicker the epoxy becomes, significantly reducing its flow
properties. This change has three important consequences for working with epoxy
under cold conditions.
a.) It is more difficult to mix the resin and hardener thoroughly. The resin flows
through the dispensing pumps and out of containers with much greater difficulty
and both resin and hardener are prone to clinging to the surfaces of the pumps,
containers and mixing tools. Remember, because of the low temperature, the
chemical reaction is much slower and compounding a less efficient exothermic
reaction with the potential for incomplete and/or inaccurate mixing, is a recipe for a
permanently deficient bond.
b.) The mixed epoxy is much harder to apply because the viscosity is similar to
cold honey and is extremely difficult to coat and wet out surfaces.
c.) Air bubbles may be introduced when mixing and remain in suspension
due to the increased surface tension of the cold epoxy. This can be especially
troublesome in clear-finish applications and osmosis repair work.
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User Manual 31
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
4.2 Working properties
4.3 Cold weather techniques
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Having explained that cold weather epoxy usage is both difficult and potentially
dangerous, with a little advance planning and taking certain simple precautions,
the problems detailed above can be addressed and their consequences avoided.
The following six basic cold weather rules have been used for over 25 years and
we have yet to experience a cold weather curing problem with WEST SYSTEM
epoxy.
1. Use WEST SYSTEM 205 Fast Hardener.
WEST SYSTEM 205 Hardener has been designed with a chemically-activated
polyamine system which exhibits a good cure at temperatures as low as 5°C. It
exhibits a fast cure characteristic and offers less uncured exposure time thereby
reducing the chances of incomplete cure due to cold temperatures.
2. Dispense resin and hardener in the proper mixing
ratio.
All epoxies are formulated to a specific mix ratio of resin to hardener. It is important
to mix epoxy in the precise ratio recommended by the manufacturer. Increasing
the amount of hardener will not accelerate cure but it will seriously compromise
the ultimate strength of the cured epoxy. NOTE: WEST SYSTEM Mini Pumps are
designed and calibrated to dispense the correct ratio with one pump stroke of resin
for every one pump stroke of hardener.
3. Warm resin and hardener before using.
As discussed above, the warmer the resin and hardener, the lower the viscosity.
Thinner (lower viscosity) resin and hardener will flow through dispensing pumps
better, cling less to containers and mixing equipment and exhibit superior handling
and wet-out characteristics.
The two epoxy components can be warmed using heat lamps or kept in a warm area
until they are needed. Another simple method of warming the resin and hardener
is to construct a small hot box out of rigid sheets of foil-backed insulation. Place
a regular light bulb or an electric heating pad inside to maintain a temperature no
greater than 30°C.
4. Stir the resin and hardener thoroughly.
Use extra care when mixing the resin and hardener and mix for a longer period
of time than normal. Scrape the sides and bottom of the mixing container using
a mixing stick to reach the edges. Using a smaller diameter mixing pot will also
improve the chemical activity because the limited surface area will contain the heat
produced by the reaction.
5. Warm working surfaces.
Applying warmed epoxy to a cold structure will quickly retard the molecular bonding
activity of the epoxy. Ensure the structure and the surrounding area is brought up
to temperature. A hull, for example, which is colder than the surrounding air may
User Manual 32
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exhibit condensation and this moisture could contaminate the epoxy when it is
applied. Warm the structure as much as possible. This can be done by constructing
tents around small areas and heating with portable heaters or warming the area
with hot air guns or heat lamps. Small components or materials e.g. glass cloth,
can be warmed before use in a hot box as described in Paragraph 3 above.
6. Prepare surfaces carefully between applications.
When coating under cold conditions, a thin film of epoxy does not generate much
heat. The rate or speed of cure is therefore extended and some reaction with
moisture in the atmosphere may occur, resulting in the formation of an amine blush
on the cured surface. Immediately prior to applying subsequent coatings, wash the
surface with clean water, allow it to dry thoroughly and sand.
4.4 Cold weather storage
WEST SYSTEM materials should be stored above 10°C with the container caps
screwed down tightly. Storing epoxy resin in extreme cold may cause crystallization
but the formation of crystals does not compromise the resin and the situation can
be remedied. Heat water in a pot large enough to hold the epoxy resin container.
Remove the lid of the resin container to avoid pressure build-up and place the
container in the hot water. Be careful to ensure no water enters the resin container.
Stir the epoxy with a clean stick until the liquid regains clarity and all crystals have
melted. Remove from the water, replace the lid tightly and invert the container to
melt any crystals which may be clinging to the top of the container. If the resin
pump has crystallized, pumping warm resin through should dissolve the crystals.
40W light bulb
to maintain a
temperature
of
around 15 - 20°C.
Box constructed using
6mm plywood and WEST
SYSTEM
epoxy/filler
mixed to peanut butter
consistency to create
fillet joints.
Magnetic catches
to
keep
the
door secure and
maintain heat.
Dimensions:
Note:
This
box
is
designed to warm
a WEST SYSTEM
epoxy ‘B’ Pack.
The
dimensions
should be altered
accordingly for use
with ‘C’ Pack sizes.
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30cm
30cm
Wooden blocks for feet to
keep WEST SYSTEM epoxy
off a cold floor and to make
lifting easier.
60cm
User Manual 33
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
To keep WEST SYSTEM epoxy at a constant temperature construct a HOT BOX,
as shown below.
5. PRODUCT SELECTION AND ESTIMATING
GUIDES
Select a hardener for its intended use and for the cure speed best suited for your
job in the temperature range in which you are working
Hardener Temperature Range (°C)
Hardener
Resin/Hardener Use
205
Fast cure—General bonding,
fabric application and barrier
coating
206
Slow cure—General bonding,
fabric application and barrier
coating
207
209
Cure Speeds at room tempurature*
Room Temp
5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35°
Gel Time
Open Time Cure to solid
Mini Pump
Required
at (25°C)
at (21°C)
at (21°C)
(60g mass)
10-15
(Thin film)
60-70
(Thin film)
5-7
301 A,B
mins
20-30
mins
90-110
hours
9-12
or C
301 A,B
min
20-30
mins
85-110
hours
9-12
or C
303 A,B
mins
50-70
mins
200-260
hours
20-24
or C
303 A,B
mins
mins
hours
or C
Special coating—Fabric
application and coating for a
natural wood finish
Extra Slow cure—General
bonding, fabric application,
barrier coating
*Note: Epoxy cures faster in warmer temperatures and in thicker applications. Epoxy cures slower in
cooler temperatures and in thinner applications.
Fairing Fillers
Small Glassfibre repairs (Peanut Butter
Consistency)
****
Bonding Hardware (Mayonnaise Consistency)
- Increased fastener interface and hardware load
capability - maximum strength
****
***
***
**
General Bonding (Mayonnaise Consistency)
- Join parts with epoxy thickened to create a
structural gap filler - strength/gap filling
***
***
***
**
*
Bonding with Fillets (Peanut Butter Consistency)
- Increase joint bonding area and create a
structural brace between parts - smoothness/
strength
**
****
**
***
***
Laminating (Ketchup Consistency) - bond layers
of wood strips, veneers, planks, sheets and cores
- gap filling strength
**
***
****
**
**
Fairing (Peanut Butter Consistency) - Fill low
areas and voids with an easily shaped and sanded
surface filler/fairing compound - sandability/gap
filling
410
407
405
402
Lowest density
Easiest sanding
403
High density
High strength
406
Applications - desired characteristics
Thickness of Resin/Hardener/Filler mixes.
Adhesive Fillers
409
Filler Selection Guide
Uses
404
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Hardener Selection Guide
***
**** ****
Filler suitability for various uses: **** = excellent, *** = very good, ** = good, * = fair, (no stars) = not recommended.
Selecting Fillers
As a rule, use higher-density fillers when bonding higher-density materials such as
hardwoods and metals. Any of the adhesive fillers are suitable for most bonding
situations. The choice of a filler for general use may be based on the handling
characteristics prefered. Fillers may also be blended to create mixtures
User Manual 34
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Filler Characteristics Guide
FILLER
GENERAL
CHARACTERISTICS
402
403
404
405
406
407
409
410
Mixing (Easiest = 5)
3
5
2
4
3
2
2
4
Texture (Smoothest = 5)
1
1
2
3
5
4
4
4
Strength (Strongest = 5)
4
4
5
4
4
2
2
1
Weight (Lightest = 5)
2
3
1
3
3
4
4
5
Sanding (Easiest = 5)
2
2
1
2
2
4
4
5
Filler suitability for various uses: 5 = excellent, 4 = very good, 3 = good, 2 = fair, 1 = poor
Filler Estimation Guide
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
FILLER
KETCHUP
MAYONNAISE
PEANUT
BUTTER
402 Milled Glass Fibre Blend
N/A
N/A
25-30%
403 Microfibres
4%
7%
16%
404 High-Density Filler
35%
45%
60%
405 Filleting Blend
15%
20%
25%
406 Colloidal Silica
3%
5%
8%
407 Low-Density Filler
20%
30%
35-40%
409 Microsphere Blend
11%
16%
25-30%
410 Microlight
7%
13%
16%
The table above shows approximate percentages by weight of filler required to
be added to mixed epoxy to product a ‘Ketchup’, ‘Mayonnaise’ or ‘Peanut Butter’
consistency for the various filler products.
1.0 Kg of Mixed
Epoxy
Saturation Coat over a
Porous Surface at 25°C
Build-up Coat over a NonPorous Surface at 25°C
105 Resin with 205 or
206 Hardener
6.5 - 7.5m2
8.5 - 9.5m2
105 Resin with 207 or
209 Hardener
7.0 - 8.0m2
9.0 - 10.0m2
table
gives
the
The
approximate quantity of
mixed epoxy required to
coat a 1m2 area.
Please note the epoxy
fairing mixes will provide
an epoxy/filler thickness of
approximately 3mm.
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Adding fillers
or wetting out
fabrics
will
decrease these
coverages
Epoxy Mix
Mixed Weight required to
coat 1m2 at room temperature
105 Resin with 205 or 206
Hardener
135g
105 Resin with 207 or 209
Hardener
125g
105 Resin with 205 Hardener and
40% by weight of 407 Low-Density
1.8kg = 3mm Thick Layer
105 Resin with 205 Hardener and
16% by weight of 410 Microlight
1.5kg = 3mm Thick Layer
User Manual 35
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Estimating coating coverage of Mixed WEST SYSTEM Epoxy
6. PROBLEM SOLVER
PROBLEM
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
POSSIBLE
CAUSES
Off ratio – too much or
too little hardener will
affect the cure time and
thoroughness of the
cure.
The epoxy
mixture has not
cured after the
recommended
cure time has
passed.
Bond Failure
SOLUTION
1. Remove epoxy. Do not apply additional
material over non-curing epoxy. See removing
epoxy on page 11.
2. Check correct number of pump strokes used
- equal stroke of resin and hardener. DO NOT
add extra hardener for faster cure!
3. Check for correct pump (5:1 or 3:1 ratio)
and pump group size e.g. Group A
4. Check pump ratio (see pump instructions).
See Dispensing on page 7.
Low temperature-epoxy
mixtures cure slower at
low temperatures.
1. Allow extra curing time in cool weather.
2. Apply heat to maintain the chemical
reaction and speed the cure. NOTE! Unvented
kerosene or propane heaters can inhibit
the cure of epoxy and contaminate epoxy
surfaces.
3. Use a faster hardener, designed to cure at
lower temperatures.
See understanding cure time & cold
temperature bonding on pages 4 and 31.
Insufficient mixing
1. Remove epoxy. Do not apply additional
material over non-curing epoxy. See epoxy
removal note on page 11.
2. Mix resin and hardener together thoroughly
to avoid resin rich and hardener rich areas.
3. Add fillers or additives after resin and
hardener have been thoroughly mixed.
See Mixing on page 8.
Incorrect products
1. Remove epoxy. Do not apply additional
material over non-curing epoxy. See epoxy
removal note on page 11.
2. Check for correct resin and hardener. Resin
will not cure properly with other brands of
hardeners or with polyester catalysts.
Insufficient cure
See above
Resin starved jointepoxy has wicked into
porous surfaces leaving
a void at the joint.
Wet out bonding surfaces before applying
thickened epoxy. Re-wet very porous surfaces
and end grain.
See Two-step bonding on page 14.
Contaminated bonding
surface.
Clean and sand the surface following the
preparation procedure on page 10.
Sand wood surfaces after planing or joining.
Bonding area too small
for the load on the joint.
Increase bonding area by adding fillets,
bonded fasteners or scarf joints.
Too much clamping
pressure squeezed
epoxy out of the joint.
Use just enough clamping pressure to squeeze
a small amount of epoxy from the joint.
See clamping note on page 20.
User Manual 36
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Clear Coating
turned cloudy.
Waxy film appears
on surface of
cured epoxy.
POSSIBLE
CAUSES
Moisture from
condensation or very
humid conditions reacts
with components in
uncured hardener.
1. Apply moderate heat to partially cured
coating to remove moisture and complete cure.
Caution - avoid out gassing - See page 6.
2. Use 207 Hardener for clear coating
applications and for bonding thin veneers
where epoxy may bleed through to the surface.
Entrapped air from
aggressive roller
application.
1. Apply coating at warmer temperature-epoxy
is thinner at warmer temperatures.
2. Apply epoxy in thin even coats.
3. Apply moderate heat to release trapped air
and complete cure.
Caution - avoid out gassing - See page 6.
Amine blush forms as
a result of the curing
process.
Blush formation is typical. Remove with water.
See special preparation- cured epoxy, on
page 11.
Epoxy applied is too
thick.
1. Use 790 or 800 Roller Covers and roll the
coating into a thinner film. A thin film will flow
out much more smoothly than a thicker film
after it is tipped off with the foam roller brush.
2. Warm the epoxy to reduce viscosity or apply
the coating at a warmer temperature.
See Cold Temperature Bonding on page 31.
Coating curing too
slowly.
1. Apply the coating at a warmer temperature.
2. Warm the resin and hardener before mixing
to speed the cure in cool werather.
3. Switch to a faster hardener if possible.
See controlling cure time on page 5.
Fairing material not
thick enough.
1. Add more filler to the mix until it reaches a
“peanut butter” consistency - the more filler
added, the stiffer it becomes and the easier it
will be to sand.
2. Allow the wet-out coat to gel before applying
the fairing material to vertical surfaces.
See Fairing on page 21.
Epoxy not completely
cured.
Allow the final epoxy coat to cure thoroughly.
Allow several days if necessary for slow
hardeners at cooler temperatures. Apply
moderate heat to complete the cure if
necessary.
See controlling cure time on page 5.
Paint incompatible with
epoxy.
1. Use a different type of paint. Some paints
and varnishes may be incompatible with some
hardeners. If unsure, test for compatibility on
a coated piece of scrap material.
2. Use 207 Hardener. It is compatible with
most paints and varnishes.
Epoxy surface not
thoroughly prepared.
Remove the amine blush and sand the
surface thoroughly before applying paints and
varnishes.
See Final surface preparation on page 28.
Runs or sags in
coating.
Fairing compound
(using filler/407 or
410 mixture) sags
and is difficult to
sand.
Paint, varnish or
gelcoat will not
cure over epoxy.
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SOLUTION
User Manual 37
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
PROBLEM
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE
CAUSES
SOLUTION
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Batch too large, or left in
mixing pot too long.
1. Mix smaller batches.
2. Transfer the mix to a container with more
surface area, immediately after mixing.
See Understanding cure time on page 4.
Dispensing and mixing on page 7.
Temperature too warm
for the hardener.
Use 206 Slow or 209 Extra Slow Hardener in
very warm weather.
Application too thick.
When filling large, deep areas, apply mix in
several thin layers.
Bubbles formed
in coating over
porous material
(bare wood or
foam)
Air trapped in the
material escapes
through coating
(out-gassing) as the
temperature of the
material rises
1. Coat the wood as its temperature is
dropping-after warming the wood with heaters
or during the later part of the day.
2. Apply a thinner coat, allowing air to escape
more easily.
3. Tip off the coating with a roller cover brush
to break bubbles.
See out-gassing caution on page 6.
Pinholes appear
in epoxy coating
over abraded
fibreglass or
epoxy.
Surface tension causes
epoxy film to pull away
from pinhole before it
gels.
Epoxy became
very hot and
cured too quickly.
Fish-eyeing in
coating.
Contamination of the
coating caused by dirty
application tools and/or
inadequate preparation
of the surface.
After applying epoxy with 800 Roller Cover,
force epoxy into pinholes with a stiff plastic
or metal spreader held at a low or nearly flat
angle. Re-coat and tip off coating after all
pinholes are filled.
1. Ensure mixing equipment is clean. Avoid
waxed mixing containers.
2. Ensure surface is properly prepared. Use
correct grit paper for the coating, e.g. 80-grit
for epoxy. See paint or varnish manufacturer’s
instructions for precise surface preparation.
After surface is prepared, avoid contaminationfingerprints, exhaust fumes, rags with fabric
softener (silicone). Coat within hours of
preparation.
After wet sanding, rinse water should
sheet without beading (beading indicates
contamination). If rinse water forms droplets/
beads, clean and dry and repeat operation
– see Final surface preparation, on page 28.
Hardener has
turned red after
several years of
storage.
Moisture in contact with
hardener and metal
container.
Red colour is a normal condition. It will not
affect epoxy handling or cured strength. Avoid
using hardener for clear coating or exposed
areas where colour is not desired
Contact Wessex Resin & Adhesives Ltd or your local distributor for further technical help.
Technical support line +44 (0)870 770 1030
User Manual 38
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7. THE PRODUCTS
WEST SYSTEM brand epoxy cures to a high-strength plastic solid at room
temperature by mixing specific proportions of liquid epoxy resin and hardener.
By using a simple ‘cookbook’ approach it is possible to tailor the handling
characteristics and the physical properties of the cured epoxy to suit the working
conditions and specific application of the project in hand.
1. Begin with 105 Epoxy Resin, the basic ingredient of all WEST SYSTEM epoxy compounds
2. Control the cure time or adjust to working temperature or working time required with one of four specially
formulated WEST SYSTEM hardeners
3. Select the correct set of
MINI PUMPS
COATING and
FIBREGLASSING
Special Coating
Hardener
APPLYING FIBREGLASS
SEALING and BARRIER COATING
GLUING TIGHT JOINTS and LAMINATING
Epoxy
Resin
Extra Slow
Hardener
Pigment
Pigmented Undercoat
Copper Compound
Antifouling Primer
Graphite Powder
Barrier Coat
Fast
Hardener
Fire Retardant
Hardeners
Aluminium Powder
4. Adjust the strength, weight,
texture, sandability and colour
of the cured epoxy with one
of six WEST SYSTEM fillers.
Adjust the viscosity of the
resin/hardener mixture by
the amount of filler added
or
provide
specific
coating
properties
with WEST SYSTEM
additives
Microlight®
Filleting Blend
High-Density
Microfibres
Milled Glass Fibre Blend
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Fire Resistance
Abrasion Resistance
Lowest Weight
White
Low-Density
SPECIAL
COATING
Blister Resistance
Microsphere Blend
Colloidal Silica
PRODUCTS
Low-friction
SURFACE
FILLING
Light Structural
General Structural
Wood Toned
High Load
GLUING and
GAP FILLING
General Wood
GRP
APPLICATIONS
User Manual 39
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
Slow
Hardener
8. PRODUCT GUIDE
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
8.1 WEST SYSTEM RESIN & HARDENERS
105 Epoxy Resin®
105 Resin is a clear, low-viscosity liquid epoxy resin. Formulated for use with one
of four WEST SYSTEM hardeners, it can be cured in a wide temperature range to
form a high-strength solid with excellent moisture resistance.
105 Epoxy Resin, when mixed at the proper ratio with a WEST SYSTEM hardener,
is an excellent adhesive. It is designed specifically to wet out and bond to wood
fibre, fibreglass, reinforcing fabrics, foam other composite materials, and a variety
of metals.
A superb adhesive, WEST SYSTEM epoxy will fill gaps and bridge voids when
modified with WEST SYSTEM fillers and can be sanded and shaped afterwards.
With roller application, it possesses excellent thin-film characteristics by flowing
out and self-leveling without fisheyeing. Multiple coats of a 105 epoxy create a
superior moisture barrier and a tough, stable base for paints and varnishes. The
105 Resin has a relatively high flash point, which makes if safer to work with than
polyesters and is free from solvent odours and vapours. For each container size
of resin, there is a corresponding sized container of hardener and mini pump size.
When purchasing resin, hardener and mini pumps ensure that all items are labelled
with the same pack size letter (i.e., A, B, C or E).
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205 Fast Hardener®
205 Hardener is used in a majority of situations to produce a rapid cure and results
in an epoxy which develops its physical properties quickly. When mixed in the
ratio of five parts by weight of 105 Resin to one part by weight of 205 Hardener, the
cured resin/hardener mixture yields a high-strength, rigid solid which has excellent
cohesive properties and provides an outstanding moisture vapour barrier with
excellent bonding and coating properties.
Pot Life at 25°C
10 to 15 minutes
Cure to Solid State at 21°C
5 to 7 hours
Cure to Maximum Strength at 21°C
5 to 7 days
Minimum Recommended Working Temperature
5°C
Pumps Required
(5:1 ratio) 301, 306-25, 309
206 Slow Hardener®
When this low viscosity curing agent is combined with 105 Resin in the ratio of five
parts by weight of resin to one part by weight of 206 Hardener, the cured resin/
hardener mixture yields a high-strength, rigid, moisture-resistant solid, excellent
for use as a coating and bonding adhesive. Can be used for extended assembly
times when working in ideal conditions.
Pot Life at 25°C
20 to 30 minutes
Cure to Solid State at 21°C
9 to 12 hours
Cure to Maximum Strength at 21°C
5 to 7 days
Minimum Recommended Working Temperature
16°C
Pumps Required
(5:1 ratio) 301, 306-25, 309
207 Special Coating Hardener is formulated for use with WEST SYSTEM 105
Resin for coating applications where an extremely clear finish is desired. This
hardener also provides excellent adhesion for bonding applications. 207 contains
an ultraviolet inhibitor to protect the 105/207 mix against sunlight. However, the
cured epoxy surface still requires long-term UV protection with a quality marine
paint or a UV filtered two part varnish. Note: Ratio 3:1 Resin:Hardener by
volume.
Pot Life at 25°C
20 to 30 minutes
Cure to Solid State at 21°C
9 to 12 hours
Cure to Maximum Strength at 21°C
5 to 7 days
Minimum Recommended Working Temperature
16°C
Pumps Required
(3:1 ratio) 303, 306-23, 309-3
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Product Guide 41
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
207 Special Coating Hardener™
209 Extra Slow Hardener™
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
209 Extra Slow Hardener is formulated for use with 105 Resin in extremely warm
and/or humid conditions for general bonding and coating applications or when
extended working time is desired at room temperature.
A 105/209 mix provides approximately twice the pot life and working time of 206
Slow Hardener and adequate pot life up to 43°C. Forms a clear amber coloured
solid with good physical properties and moisture resistance for bonding and coating
applications. Note: Ratio 3:1 Resin:Hardener by volume.
Pot Life at 25°C
50 to 70 minutes
Pot Life at 35°C
20 to 30 minutes
Cure to Solid State at 21°C
20 to 24 hours
Cure to Solid State at 35°C
6 to 8 hours
Cure to Maximum Strength at 21°C
5 to 9 days
Minimum Recommended Working Temperature
18°C
Pumps Required
(3:1 ratio) 303, 306-3, 309-3
8.2 EPOXY DISPENSERS
301 Mini Pumps
Designed for convenient and accurate dispensing
of WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin and 205 or 206
Hardeners. Mini pumps ensure accurate metering
of the resin/hardener mix and eliminate the mess
involved with hand proportioning. The pumps
mount directly onto the resin and hardener
containers and have been calibrated to deliver
the correct working ratio of 5 parts by weight of
resin to 1 part by weight of hardener with one
stroke from each pump. When the resin and hardener are in continual use, the
pumps can be left mounted on the containers. Order 301A Mini Pumps for ‘A’ Pack
containers, 301B Mini Pumps for ‘B’ packs or 301C for ‘C’ Packs.
Warning: do not use with 207 or 209 hardeners.
303 Special Ratio Mini Pumps
Designed for use with WEST SYSTEM 207 and 209 Special Application Hardeners.
The mini pumps mount directly onto the resin and hardener containers and have
been calibrated to deliver the correct working ratio of 3.5 parts by weight of resin
to 1 part by weight of hardener with one stroke from each pump. See Dispensing
with Mini Pumps - page 7.
Warning: do not use with 205 or 206 hardeners
306-25 Metering Pump
For metering larger quantities of 105 Resin and 205 or 206 (5:1 ratio) Hardeners.
The 306-25 Pump will reduce mixing time and waste on large projects. A
Product Guide 42
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carrying handle allows you to move the pump where the work is. Reservoirs hold
approximately 3.75 litres of resin, 900ml of hardener. Dispenses approximately
15g of resin/hardener per pump stroke (500g per minute). Can be converted to a
3:1 ratio.
306-23 Metering Pump
Similar to 306-25 Metering Pump described above. For metering 105 Resin and
207 Special Coating or 209 Extra Slow (3:1 ratio) Hardeners. Can be converted
to 5:1 ratio.
306-K235 Rebuild Kit
For 306-25 (5:1) ratio and 306-23 (3:1) ratio pumps. Includes seals, balls, gaskets,
springs, high-rise tubes with ferrules and new resin and hardener reservoirs with
lids.
306-K and 306-3K Rebuild Kits: for older model 306 (single body) dispensing
pumps.
309 High-Capacity Gear Pump
Designed and built by Gougeon Brothers. The home builder and professional
alike will enjoy the efficiency of this pump. The resin/hardener mix is delivered
with continuous rotation of the crank. Dispenses approximately 500g per minute,
yet can dispense smaller quantities with partial crank rotation. A positive shut-off
value eliminates resin and hardener loss and dripping spouts. The convenient
handle makes it easy to carry the pump to right where it’s needed. Stainless steel
reservoirs hold 10kg of resin, 5kg of hardener. Also available in 309-3 Special ratio
configuration for use with 207 or 209 Hardeners.
309-3 High-Capacity Gear Pump
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
Similar to 309 High-Capacity Gear Pump described above. For metering 105
Resin and 207 Special Coating or 209 Extra Slow (3:1 ratio) Hardeners.
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Product Guide 43
8.3 REPAIR PACKS AND RESIN PACKS
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
101 Mini Pack
Contains a selected mix of materials used to complete smaller repairs around the
boat, in the workshop or at home. Contents include: 250g 105 Resin, 50g 205
Hardener, 403 & 407 fillers, dispensing syringes, application tools, gloves and
instructions.
104 Junior Pack
A 600g pack of WEST SYSTEM epoxy (105/205). Designed for the small users.
105-K Glass fibre Boat Repair Kit
This kit includes all the materials required to complete a range of repairs to glass
fibre boats. Contents: 250gm 105 resin, 50gm 205 hardener, 402 milled glass,
409 microspheres blend, Three mixing cups, One Reusable mixing stick, Two
pairs nitrile gloves, Two glue brushes, Two syringes, 1m x 125mm 450g/m² biaxial
glass tape, 1m x 75mm 175g/m² plain weave glass tape, 1m x100mm peel ply,
Instructions.
8.4 SPECIALYTY EPOXIES
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G/flex® Epoxies
G/flex Epoxy is a toughened, resilient two-part epoxy engineered for a superior grip
to metals, plastics, glass, masonry, fibreglass, and wet and difficult-to-bond woods.
Make structural bonds that absorb the stresses of expansion, contraction, shock
and vibration. Easy-to-use 1:1 mix ratio provides a 45 minute pot life and a long
open time of 75 minutes at room temperature. Reaches an initial cure in 3–4 hours
and a workable cure in 7–10 hours.
Available in two consistencies.
650 Epoxy is a versatile easily-modified liquid epoxy.
655 Epoxy Adhesive is a convenient pre-thickened epoxy.
G/flex 650 Epoxy
650-8 118ml resin/118ml hardener. 650-32 500ml resin/500ml hardener. Larger
sizes are available.
650-K Kit contains 118ml G/flex 650 Resin, 118ml G/flex 650 Hardener, 2 reusable
mixing stick/applicators, 2 12 cc syringes, 4g of adhesive filler, 4 mixing cups, 1
pair of disposable neoprene gloves, 4 alcohol cleaning pads and handling and
repair instructions.
G/flex 655 Epoxy Adhesive
655-K Kit contains 125ml G/flex 655 Resin, 125ml G/flex 655 Hardener (250ml
mixed epoxy), 2 reusable mixing stick/applicators, 4 alcohol cleaning pads, 1
pr disposable neoprene gloves, 10 mixing palettes and handling and repair
instructions.
A two-part thickened epoxy adhesive in a convenient, self-metering cartridge. For
permanent, waterproof, structural gap-filling and gluing. Bonds to wood, fibreglass,
metals and masonry. With the included 600 Static Mixer attached fully mixed
adhesive can be dispensed right where it is needed using a standard caulking gun.
Working time is 42 minutes at 21°C, cures to a solid in 5–6 hours and takes high
loads in 24 hours. Contains 190 ml of resin and hardener.
Extra 600 Static Mixers are available.
G/5® Five-Minute Adhesive
An easy to use two part, fast setting resin/hardener system. This adhesive is
ideal for quick repairs and general bonding around the boat and in the home, the
workshop or garage. It is suited for spot applications to hold component parts in
position whilst bonding is completed with WEST SYSTEM epoxy. G/5 will adhere
to most prepared surfaces including wood, fibreglass and most metal and cures in
4-5 minutes.
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Product Guide 45
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
Six10® Epoxy Adhesive
8.5 WEST SYSTEM PACKS
WEST SYSTEM resins and hardeners are available in these pack sizes.
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
PACK SIZE
RESIN QUANTITY
HARDENER QUANTITY
MIXED QUANTITY
Junior
500g
100g
600g
A
1kg
200g
1.2kg
B
5kg
1kg
6kg
C
25kg
5kg
30kg
E
225kg
45kg
270kg
Storage/Shelf Life
Store at room temperature. Keep containers closed to prevent contamination.
With proper storage, resin and hardeners will remain usable during the products
shelf life. Over time, 105 Resin will thicken slightly and will therefore require extra
care when mixing. Hardeners may darken with age, but physical properties are
not affected by colour. Mini Pumps may be left in containers during storage. After
a long storage, it is recommended to verify the metering accuracy of the pumps
and mix a small test batch to assure proper curing. Repeated freeze/thaw cycles
during storage may cause crystallization of 105 Resin. See Cold weather storage
- page 33
8.6 FILLERS
ADHESIVE FILLERS
402 Milled Glass Fibre
Blend
A high density blended filler
consisting of loose chopped glass
and other fillers, intended for small
semi structural repairs, filling voids, or
small scale impact damage to glass
fibre laminates. The finished repairs
are incredibly strong, tough and resilient. When mixed with WEST SYSTEM epoxy
at a ratio of approximately 25% by weight, the result is a thick paste that can be
carefully stippled into place with a brush and can be held in place with PVC tape or
peel ply to give a smooth finish to the repair. Typical uses include deep void repair
due to osmotic damage; damage to dinghy rudder and centre boards and hard
edge impact damage on small sailboats.
403 Microfibres
A blend of cellulose cotton fibres, used as a thickening additive for bonding
applications. Epoxy thickened with microfibres provides good wetting out of the
substrate and excellent gap-filling properties. Add 4% to 16% by weight of 403 to
WEST SYSTEM epoxy mix. Colour: off-white
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404 High-Density Filler
A filler developed to maximise bond strength in hardware bonding where high cyclic
loads are anticipated. It can also be used for filleting and gap-filling applications.
May be added to the resin/hardener at a rate of 35% to 60% by weight, depending
on the viscosity needed. Colour: off-white
405 Filleting Blend
Consists of a mix of cellulose fibres and other fillers for use in filleting applications
when a naturally finished interior is intended. Alchohol or waterbased stains may
be added to adjust the colour. Add 15% to 25% by weight to the epoxy mix. Colour:
tan
406 Colloidal Silica
General purpose thickening additive suitable for bonding, gap-filling and filleting.
It can be used to prevent resin flow on vertical and overhead surfaces and to
control the viscosity of the epoxy. It is often used in combination with other fillers
to control the working characteristics of an epoxy mix, e.g. improve the consistency
of fairing compounds. Add 3% to 8% by weight to the resin/hardener mix. Colour:
off-white.
FAIRING FILLERS
407 Low-Density Filler
A blended microballoon-based filler used to make fairing putties which are easy to
sand but remain strong on a strength-to-weight basis. Add 20% to 40% by weight
to mixed WEST SYSTEM epoxy. Cures to a dark reddish-brown colour.
A pure white, hollow glass bubble based, low density filler designed for filling and
fairing of fibreglass. When the filler is mixed with WEST SYSTEM epoxy at a ratio of
10% to 25% by weight, it creates a smooth creamy paste for filling and fairing over
glass fibre repairs. The cured epoxy/filler is very easy to sand. Being white in colour
the cured epoxy filler mix will be hidden easily behind paint or polyester gelcoat but
must be protected by further coats of epoxy if used below the waterline.
410 Microlight®
410 Microlight™ is the ideal low-density filler for creating a lightweight, easily
worked fairing compound especially suited for large areas. Microlight is easily
blended into the epoxy mix at additions between 7% to 16% by weight and when
cured is easier to sand than any other filled system. Holds a feather edge and
is more cost effective than other fillers. Not recommended for high temperature
applications and should not be coated with dark colours. Cures to a tan colour.
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Product Guide 47
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
409 Microsphere Blend
ADHESIVE FILLERS VS. FAIRING FILLERS
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
Fillers are used to thicken the basic resin/hardener mixture for specific applications.
Each filler possesses a unique set of physical characteristics, but they can be
generally categorized as either Adhesive (high-density) or Fairing (low-density).
Adhesive filler mixtures cure to a strong, hard-to-sand plastic useful in structural
applications like bonding, filleting and hardware bonding.
Fairing filler mixtures cure to light, easily sandable material that is generally used
for cosmetic or surface applications like shaping, filling or fairing. Seal all faired
surfaces with epoxy before painting.
8.7 ADDITIVES
420 Aluminium Powder
Add between 5% to 10% by volume to provide
protection from ultraviolet light in areas which
will not be protected with other coatings and
as a base for subsequent painting. Will
substantially increase the hardness of the
coated surface.
Additives for special
coating properties
Additives are mixed with the
epoxy to alter the physical
properties when used as
a coating.
Additives can
be used to alter the colour,
abrasion resistance or moisture
resistance of cured epoxy.
421 Fire Retardant
A fine white powder added to the epoxy in the ratio of one to one by weight. The
cured material is a fire retardant composition for use in engine or galley areas. 421
Fire Retardant will greatly increase the viscosity of the epoxy and the composition
requires trowelling or squeegeeing into place.
422 Barrier Coat Additive™
A proprietary blend designed to improve the moisture-exclusion effectiveness of
WEST SYSTEM epoxy and to combat osmosis. It is an excellent additive for
providing a barrier coating to overcome gelcoat blistering and also increases the
abrasion resistance. Add 20% to 25% by weight of 422 to the mixed epoxy.
423 Graphite Powder
A fine black powder added to WEST SYSTEM epoxy (10% by volume) to produce
a low-friction exterior coating with increased scuff resistance, durability and
mar-resistance. Epoxy/graphite is commonly used as a coating on rudders and
centreboards or on the bottoms of racing craft that are dry sailed. The epoxy/
graphite mix can also be used in teak deck construction to simulate traditional
seams in appearance and to protect the resin from sunlight.
425 Copper Compound
425 Copper Compound can be added to the mixed epoxy to provide a base coat
for conventional antifouling paint. When added to epoxy at the rate of 80% by
weight, the resultant hard surface increases the moisture exclusion effectiveness,
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abrasion resistance and provides some backup antifouling properties. It is ideal
for coating any substrate that will be in contact with water and can be used when a
harder surface is required, eg., coating moulds.
501/506 Colour Pigments
Can be added to the epoxy to provide a base colour for a final finish system. The
coloured surfaces also tend to highlight flaws and imperfections. Pigments should
be added at a rate of approximately 3%-5% by weight and should only be added
to the final coat of epoxy because the increased viscosity of the mix will impair the
ability of the epoxy to penetrate and seal surfaces. Available in white (501), black
(502), blue (505) and grey (506).
Specifically treated with an amino-silane coupling agent for use with epoxy
systems. When used with WEST SYSTEM epoxy, reinforcing materials exhibit
significantly improved peel strength, flexural modulus and tensile and compressive
load-carrying ability compared with other chemical finishing systems, especially
those reinforcing materials manufactured for bonding with polyester resins.
All reinforcing materials sold under the Episize trademark are manufactured under
strict quality control guidelines. Materials undergo periodic testing at Wessex
Resins to ensure the materials selected for building or repair projects meet the
highest possible standards.
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Product Guide 49
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
8.8 EPISIZE™REINFORCING MATERIALS
740-746 Glass Fabrics
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
Episize™ Glass Fabrics are ideal for building composite laminates and for the
repair of fibreglass structures. May also be used to provide an abrasion-resistant
covering for wood structures. When thoroughly wetted with WEST SYSTEM epoxy,
the lighter fabrics become transparent, allowing a clear, natural wood finish.
740 – 135g/m² Plain Weave Glass Cloth 1000mm wide
741 – 200g/m² Plain Weave Glass Cloth 1000mm wide
742 – 200g/m² Twill Weave Glass Cloth 1200mm wide
743 – 280g/m² Twill Weave Glass Cloth 1000mm wide
745 – 190g/m² Crowsfoot Weave Glass Cloth 1000mm wide
746 – 260g/m² Woven Roving 1250mm wide
All the above are available in 5m, 10m, 25m, 50m and 100m lengths
736-739 Biaxial Glass Fabrics
These non-crimp fabrics combine two layers of unidirectional fibres ±45° which are
stitched together using a light thread. The result is an engineered biaxial fabric with
predictable, repeatable properties.
736 – 300g/m² ±45° Biaxial Glass Fabric 1265mm wide
738 – 600g/m² ±45° Biaxial Glass Fabric 1250mm wide
739 – 450g/m² ±45° Biaxial Glass Fabric 1250mm wide
All the above are available in 5m,10m 25m and 50m lengths
729-733 Glass Tape
Versatile glass tapes are ideal for reinforcing chines, hull-deck corners and similar
structural applications. When bonded with WEST SYSTEM epoxy, they provide
additional tensile strength to resist hairline crack development and provide added
abrasion resistance. Weight 175g/m²
729A – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 25mm wide 10m Length
729B – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 25mm wide 50m Roll
730A – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 50mm wide 10m Length
730B – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 50mm wide 50m Roll
731A – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 75mm wide 10m Length
731B – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 75mm wide 50m Roll
732A – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 100mm wide 10m Length
732B – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 100mm wide 50m Roll
733A – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 150mm wide 10m Length
733B – 175g/m² Plain Weave Glass Tape 150mm wide 50m Roll
Product Guide 50
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727 Biaxial Glass Tape
Available in 125mm width, weight 450g/m2 ±45°. This tape significantly increases
structural strength where major reinforcement is required.
727A – 450g/m² Biaxial Glass Tape 125mm wide 5m Length
727B – 450g/m² Biaxial Glass Tape 125mm wide 90m Roll
773-775 Peel Ply
Peel Ply is a finely woven fabric treated with a release agent to which epoxy will
not bond. Excellent for providing a release and reducing subsequent sanding prior
to applying more epoxy.
773 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply 500mm wide 100m Roll
774-1 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply 1000mm wide 1m length
774 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply 1000mm wide 100m Roll
775-1 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply 1250mm wide 1m length
775-125 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply 1250mm wide 100mRoll
775-50 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply Tape 50mm wide 100m Roll
775-100 – 83g/m² Plain Weave Peel Ply Tape 100mm wide 100m Roll
Tool reusability
Epoxy will not bond well to many plastic tools. This is because plastic has a glossy
surface that does not provide enough texture, or tooth, for epoxy to key into. When
cured, flex the tool to loosen epoxy. Thick films pop off easier than thin films. As a
tool becomes scuffed and scratched from use, it will become more difficult to pop
the cured epoxy from the surface.
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Product Guide 51
WEST SYSTEM Product Guide
8.9 APPLICATION TOOLS
790 180mm Foam Roller Cover
180mm wide, 45mm diameter, foam roller cover.
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
791 180mm Roller Frame
180mm wide bird cage roller frame designed for use with the 790 Roller cover.
800 75mm Foam Roller Cover
75mm wide foam roller cover - ideal for coating epoxy in small areas.
801 75mm Roller Frame
Reusable 75mm wide roller frames for use with the 800 roller covers.
802 Roller Pan
Flexible plastic roller pan allows cured epoxy to ‘pop out’, so the pan can be reused.
Eliminates the need for liners.
803 Glue Application Brushes
Handy, disposable, glue brushes with a wooden handle. These brushes are used
for a wide variety of gluing and coating applications.
804 Reusable Mixing Sticks
A practical mixing, application, filleting, and cleaning tool. Squared, beveled end
reaches mixing pot corners for thorough mixing and blending in fillers and for
cleaning up excess epoxy. Use rounded end to shape 10mm radius fillets. Cured
epoxy pops off easily, so they can be reused many times.
804B Wooden Stirrers
300mm x 27mm, square edged wooden stirrers will ensure thorough mixing when
high percentages of fillers are incorporated into the epoxy. Strong, durable stirrers
that are ideal for scraping excess epoxy from surfaces.
805 Graduated Mixing Pot
Strong reusable 800ml mixing pots graduated in 50ml divisions. When cured, solid
epoxy easily “pops out”.
807 Syringes
Reusable syringes which can be loaded with the epoxy for injecting into difficult
working areas. Ideal for hardware bonding and plywood repairs. 10ml and 50ml
available.
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808 Plastic Squeegees
Lightweight, reusable squeegees for fairing and filling applications. Double-edged,
90mm x 150mm.
809 Notched Spreaders
110mm × 110mm Lightweight, reusable spreaders with 3mm, 4mm and 6mm
notches on three sides for quickly applying modified epoxy at a constant rate.
Useful when laminating large panels
811 Paddle Rollers
Ridged aluminium rollers for thoroughly wetting-out fabrics with epoxy. Available in
50mm and 150mm lengths, diameter 22mm.
817 Finishing Brush
High quality brush for varnish or paint application. Available in 25mm and 50mm
widths.
818 Laminating Brush
Good quality firm bristle brush for applying epoxy over the laminating area and for
consolidating the fabric. Available in 50mm width.
820 Resin Removing Cream
Formulated to remove uncured epoxy from skin. Available in 250 dispensers and
1kg plastic pots.
831 Barrier Cream
832 Disposable Gloves
Lightweight, seamless disposable gloves help prevent exposure to chemicals.
Excellent protection with good finger sensitivity and dexterity. CE marked.
834 Reusable Gloves
Heavy-duty rubber gloves offer superior tear and abrasion resistance and are liquid
proof. Can be reused. CE marked.
850 Solvent
A specially blended cleaning solvent for removing uncured epoxy from tools, boat
and workshop surfaces. Also excellent for cleaning contaminants from cured epoxy
surfaces.
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User Manual 53
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
An aerosol containing a non-irritant, multi-purpose barrier cream which has special
bactericidal ingredients to minimise the risk of skin infection. Protects against
resins, oils, grease and petroleum spirits.
855 Cleaning Solution
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
A safe, easy to use cleaning solution
developed to remove uncured epoxy from
tools workbenches, minipumps etc. Can also
be used to wash off amine blush.
875 Scarffer®
A unique tool designed by Gougeon Brothers
for cutting accurate scarf joints in plywood up
to 9mm thick. Attaches easily to most circular
saws and is simple to remove.
885 Vacuum Bagging Kit
Acomplete starter kit for room temperature
repairs and small laminating projects up
to 1.2m2 in size. The kit includes: Venturi
vacuum generator (with bronze muffler),
Vacuum Cups (3), 6mm i/d. Vacuum
Tubing (3m), Vacuum Gauge, Junction
“T” Barbs (2), Release Fabric (1.4m2),
Breather Fabric (1.4m2), Vacuum Bag
Film (1.4m2) Vacuum Bag Sealant
(7.5m), Instruction leaflet, 002-150
VACUUM BAGGING TECHNIQUES.
The venturi generator develops over
65kPa of vacuum (0.065MPa) and is
designed to run off of conventional
shop air compressors delivering at least
0.42MPa. Some item specifications
may vary.
Harness the atmosphere
Vacuum Bagging is a clamping system used for laminating a wide range of fabrics,
core materials and veneers. It uses atmospheric pressure to deliver firm, even
clamping pressure over the entire surface area of a composite part or repair,
regardless of the material or materials being laminated. By laminating over simple
moulds, composites can be moulded into a wide range of functional shapes.
8.10 INSTRUCTIONAL PUBLICATIONS
002 The Gougeon Brothers on Boat Construction
This book is a must for anyone building a boat or working with wood and WEST SYSTEM
epoxy. Includes extensive chapters on composite construction techniques, materials, lofting,
safety and tools, with many illustrations, diagrams and photographs. Hardcover - 406
pages
User Manual 54
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002-550 Fibreglass Boat Repair & Maintenance
A complete guide to repair fibreglass boats with WEST SYSTEM epoxy. Includes illustrated
procedures for structural reinforcement, deck and hull repair, hardware installation, keel
repair and teak deck installation. Softcover 75 pages.
002-970 Wooden Boat Restoration & Repair
An illustrated guide to restore the structure, improve the appearance, reduce the maintenance
and prolong the life of wooden boats with WEST SYSTEM epoxy. Includes information on
dry rot repair, structural framework repair, hull and deck planking repair, hardware installation
with epoxy and protective coating. Softcover 76 pages.
A guide for repairing and preventing gelcoat blisters in fibreglass boats with WEST SYSTEM
epoxy. Includes an analysis of the factors that contribute to blister formation and illustrated
steps for preparation, drying, repairing and coating for moisture protection. Softcover 22
pages.
002-150 Vacuum Bagging Techniques
A step-by-step guide to vacuum bag laminating, a technique for clamping wood, core
materials and synthetic composites bonded with WEST SYSTEM epoxy. Discusses theory,
moulds, equipment and techniques used to build composite structures. Softcover 52 pages.
002-740 Final Fairing & Finishing
Techniques for fairing wood, fibreglass and metal surfaces. Includes fairing tools, materials
and a general guide to finish coatings. Softcover 29 pages.
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User Manual 55
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
002-650 Gelcoat Blisters - A Guide to Osmosis Repair
8.11 INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEOS
002-894 Fibreglass Repair with WEST SYSTEM Brand Epoxy
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
A guide to structural repair on fibreglass boats. Covers repairs to cored and non-cored panels
and how to apply gelcoat over epoxy repairs. VHS–20 min.
002-896 Gelcoat Blister Repair with WEST SYSTEM Brand Epoxy
A guide for repairing and preventing gelcoat blisters on fibreglass boats. Includes an analysis
of the factors contributing to blister formation and steps for preparation, drying, repairing and
coating for moisture protection. VHS–16 min.
8.12 INSTRUCTIONAL DVD
002-898 WEST SYSTEM Epoxy How-To DVD
A compilation of three instructional videos demonstrating basic handling and advanced epoxy
repair techniques.
Basic Application Techniques—A guide to the optimum use of WEST SYSTEM epoxy
products, including epoxy safety and procedures for coating, bonding and fairing.
Fibreglass Repair with WEST SYSTEM Epoxy—Using WEST SYSTEM epoxy to make
structural repairs on fibreglass boats, including repairs to cored and non-cored hulls and how
to apply gelcoat over epoxy repairs.
Gelcoat Blister Repair with WEST SYSTEM Epoxy—A guide for repairing and preventing
gelcoat blisters on fiberglass boats. Analyzing the causes of blister formation, preparing
and drying fiberglass hulls, and repairing and coating for moisture protection with WEST
SYSTEM epoxy.
Interactive menus allow for easy navigation through these subjects. DVD—59 minutes.
International Distributors of WEST SYSTEM Brand
Products
CHINA
High Gain Industrial Limited
Tel: +852 2322 1912, Fax: +852 2323 7575
Email: [email protected]
ESTONIA
Bang & Bonsomer Estonia
Tel: +372 6580000, Fax: +372 6580001
Email: offi[email protected]
CROATIA & SERBIA
Yacht Center Adriatic d.o.o.
Tel: +385 1 56 16 306
Email: [email protected]
FINLAND
Bang & Bonsomer Oy
Tel: +358 9681081, Fax: +358 96924174
Email: [email protected]fi
DENMARK
H F Industri & Marine
Tel: +45 62 201312, Fax: +45 62 201477
Email: [email protected]
FRANCE
Boero Colori France
Tel: +33(0)492389088, Fax: +33(0)492389106
Email: [email protected]
EGYPT
MAPSO
Tel: +202 6984 777, Fax: +202 6990 780
Email: [email protected]
GERMANY, AUSTRIA & SWITZERLAND
M.u.H. von der Linden GmbH
Tel:+49(0)281338300, Fax:+49(0)2813383030
Email: [email protected]
User Manual 56
Back to Contents
GREECE
Delos Co Ltd
Tel: +30 22990-41056, Fax: +30 22990-41059
Email: [email protected]
RUSSIA
UA-Marine
Tel: +7 495 626 9835, Fax: +7 495 626 9835
Email: [email protected]
HOLLAND, BELGIUM & LUXEMBOURG
Epifanes/W.Heeren & Zoon B.V.
Tel: +31 297 360366, Fax: +31 297 342078
Email: [email protected]
SOUTH AFRICA
Harveys Composites
Tel: +27 11 230 5300, Fax: +27 11 397 8206
Email: [email protected]
HUNGARY
Waterlife Bt.
Tel: +36-30-350-1255
Email: [email protected]
SPAIN
Pinmar SL
Tel: +34 971 713744, Fax: +34 971 718143
Email: [email protected]
Barcelona Office:
Tel: 34 932 214454, Fax: 34 932 214160
Email: [email protected]
ISRAEL
Atlantis Marine Ltd
Tel: +972 3 5227978, Fax: +972 50 269449
Email: [email protected]
ITALY
Boero Bartolomeo S.p.A.
Tel: +39 010 5500240, Fax: +39 010 5500291
Email: yacboero[email protected]
LATVIA
Bang & Bonsomer Latvia.
Tel: +37167320320, Fax: +37167320163
Email: [email protected]
LEBANON
Bardawil & Co.
Tel: +96 11 894566, Fax: +96 11 884187
Email: [email protected]
SWEDEN
LOTRÉC AB,
Tel: +46 (0) 8-544 80 900
Fax: +46 (0) 8-544 80 909
Email: [email protected]
TURKEY
A.R.C. AHSAP RECINE CAM ELYAF LTD. STI.
Tel: +90 216 493 6227, Fax: +90 216 493 6228
Email: [email protected]
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Marine & Elect. Supplies Co. LLC
Tel: +971 2 6734 900, Fax: +971 2 6730 070
Email: [email protected]
LITHUANIA
Bang & Bonsomer UAB.
Tel: +370 5 2622887, Fax: +370 5 2617251
Email: offi[email protected]
WEST SYSTEM User Manual
MALTA
Epoxy Resins Tech. Ltd
Tel: +356 21 220145, Fax: +356 21 220145
Email: [email protected]
NORWAY
WEST SYSTEM Norge A/S
Tel: +47 22233500, Fax: +47 22180604
Email: fi[email protected]
POLAND
CMS Co. Ltd.
Tel: +48 (91)4314300, Fax: +48 (91)4314300
Email: [email protected]
REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
Waller & Wickham
Tel: +353 1 8392330, Fax: +353 1 8392362
Email: [email protected]
Back to Contents
User Manual 57
WEST SYSTEM epoxy is manufactured in the UK under
licence from Gougeon Brothers Inc., by:
Wessex Resins & Adhesives Limited
Cupernham House, Cupernham Lane,
Romsey, Hampshire, SO51 7LF
Telephone:
+44 (0) 1794 521111
Facsimile:
+44 (0) 870 7701032
Technical Support Helpline: +44 (0) 870 7701030
email:
Web Site:
© April 2012 Wessex Resins & Adhesives Limited
[email protected]
www.westsystem.co.uk
www.wessex-resins.com
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