Selection and Maintenance of Temperature
PURDUE EXTEnSIon
Safe food guidelines for small meat and poultry processors
FS-25-W
Selection and Maintenance of
Temperature Measurement Devices
Outline
Kevin Keener, Ph.D., P.E.
Food process engineer, Extension
specialist, and associate professor
of food science
1. Importance of accurate temperature
measurement
2. Temperature units and conversions
3. Types of measurement devices and
how to choose
3.1 Device comparison table
3.2 Bimetal thermometers
3.3 Glass-liquid thermometers
3.4 Thermocouples
3.5 Resistance temperature
detectors (RTD)
3.6 Thermistors
3.7 Infrared radiation thermometers
4. Generic double-point calibration
technique
5. Example: Double-point calibration
Calibration of temperature
measurement devices is one of
the most important verification
activities a meat or poultry
processor can perform. Accurate
temperature measurement
devices are critical for ensuring
the safety of meat products.
Introduction
Accurate temperature measurement
is critical for ensuring production of a
safe and high-quality meat or poultry
product. Millions of people each year
are affected by foodborne pathogens
at a cost of nearly $10 billion. Many of
the microorganisms that cause
foodborne disease may be eliminated
by proper temperature regulation,
which requires accurate and precise
temperature measurement.
There are many different types of
temperature measurement devices,
each one tailored to meet a specific
need. This fact sheet provides
information on the types, use, and
calibration of temperature measuring
devices. It also provides guidelines for
the selection and proper maintenance
of common thermometers and
temperature sensors.
1. Importance of accurate
measurement
It is important to understand the
difference between accuracy and
precision. Using the simple analogy
of a game of darts, accuracy is
consistently hitting the true mark, or
bull’s-eye. Precision is consistency, but
not necessarily accurate consistency.
You may throw three darts and they
all may hit the same area, but it may
not be the true result (bull’s-eye) you
were aiming for. The following
illustration (see page 7) demonstrates
the difference between accuracy and
precision.
Selection and Maintenance of Temperature Measurement Devices (FS-25-W)
2. Temperature units and conversions
Boiling point of water (at sea level) *
Freezing point of water (at sea level)
Consult www.topozone.com/ to find the elevation of
any town in the United States.
°C °F
100 212
0
32
Conversion formulas
°F = 32 + (9/5 x °C) {Eq 3}
°C = 5/9 x (°F – 32) {Eq 4}
Example 2: Convert 10°C to °F:
°F = [32 + (9/5) x 10°C] = 50°F
* Boiling point of water is a function of elevation. The
higher the elevation, the lower the boiling point of
water. Use the following equations to calculate the
boiling point of water.
Example 3: Convert 45°F to °C
°C = (5/9) x (45°F – 32) = 7.2°C
Boiling Pt (°F) = 212 – (0.0018 x elevation in feet) {Eq 1}
Boiling Pt (°C) = 100 – (0.001 x elevation in feet) {Eq 2}
3. Types of devices and how to choose
As stated above, a wide array of temperature
measuring devices are suited for any number of
temperature ranges, measuring environments,
durability requirements, etc. For a quick reference,
refer to the following table. For more detailed
information, refer to the corresponding section
regarding use and maintenance of the specific device.
Example 1: The elevation of West Lafayette, Ind., is 617
feet above sea level. The adjusted boiling point of water
for West Lafayette is:
°F = 212 – (0.0018 x 617 feet) = 210.9°F
°C = 100 – (0.001 x 617 feet) = 99.4°C
3.1 Device comparison table
Sensor Type
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cost
Application
Bimetal
• Inexpensive
• Simple
• Easy to calibrate
• Analog display
• Limited range
±1ºF or 1.0% of
and accuracy
$20full scale,
• Takes an average
$200
whichever is larger
of temperatures
• Slow response
General food
preparation
Glass-Liquid
• Simple
• Easy to calibrate
• Highly accurate
• Analog display
• Difficult to read
• Fragile
• Slow response
±0.1ºF or 2.0% of
$25full scale,
$300
whichever is larger
Basic temperature
measurement
method for fluids
±1ºF or 0.2% of
$100full scale,
$300
whichever is larger
Specialty applications
– for use in meeting
HACCP requirements
Good for repeated use
• Wide temperature range
• Fast response
• Simple
Thermocouple
• Expensive
• Easy to calibrate
• Digital display
• Standardized
RTD
• Fast response
• Highly accurate
Thermistor
• Digital display
• Highly sensitive
Infrared
Radiation
• Digital display
• Fast response
• Non-destructive
Accuracy
±0.4ºF or 0.1% of
full scale,
whichever is larger
• Fragile
±1ºF or 0.7% of
• Limited
full scale,
temperature range whichever is larger
• Only measures
surface
±2ºF or 1.0% of
temperatures
full scale,
• Expensive
whichever is larger
• Limited accuracy
• Expensive
Pricing information from Cole Parmer Catalog, Summer 2003.
2
General, high-end
$140temperature
$2,150
measurement
General food
$145preparation and
$800
medical applications
$100- Use only for surface
$2,350 measurement
Selection and Maintenance of Temperature Measurement Devices (FS-25-W)
3.2.1.1 Hot processes – boiling water method
1. Heat distilled water to a rolling boil. See {Eq 1} to
calculate boiling point.
Enter boiling point: ___________ (1)
2. Place the thermometer to be calibrated in the hot
water bath once the bath has reached the desired
reference temperature. Be certain that the stem is
immersed at least past the sensing region notch.
3. Allow one minute for the reading to stabilize.
Enter observed temperature: ____________ (2)
4. Compare the reading with the calculated boiling
point.
5. Correct the indicator needle of the bimetal thermometer. Typically, this is done by adjusting the coil
spring by turning a hex nut behind the thermometer
head. If the thermometer has a digital display, adjust
the temperature with the calibration button.
* If there is no calibration adjustment, a correction
factor must be determined. This requires taking the
difference between observed (2) and actual (1)
recordings above. This +/-differential then must be
applied to each subsequent measurement made with
the thermometer.
Bimetal thermometer
3.2 Bimetal thermometers
Bimetal thermometers are often used in the food
industry. Generally, bimetal thermometers consist of a
metal stem encasing a coil of two different metals
bonded together to a temperature indicator at the head.
To properly use such a thermometer, insert the stem in
the center of the product until the temperature-sensing
region is completely immersed. A notch on the stem
indicates the end of the temperature-sensing region. It
is important to note that the indicated temperature is
an average of temperatures along the sensing region,
making proper placement critical to accurate
measurement. Because of this average range, bimetal
thermometers are not suited for products undergoing
rapid heating or cooling.
Conversion factor (3) = (1) – (2) = __________ (3)
6. Double-check the calibration by repeating steps 1-4.
3.2.1.2 Cold processes – ice bath method
1. Fill a container with crushed ice, then add water
(distilled preferred) to make an ice slush bath.
Freezing point temperature = 0°C (32°F) (1)
2. Place the bimetal thermometer in the ice slurry,
making sure that the sensing region is immersed
and that the thermometer is not touching the
container. Slowly stir the slurry.
3. Allow one minute for the reading to stabilize.
This variety of thermometer is typically sensitive to
constant use and stress on the stem, which may affect
the tension of the inner coil. Bimetal thermometers
should be calibrated daily to ensure accuracy.
3.2.1 Bimetal thermometer calibration
Calibration with a reference thermometer may be
done at any number of temperature ranges (see section
3.2.1.3); however, it is strongly suggested that you use a
calibration temperature close to the temperature range
at which the thermometer will actually be used. Use of
a reference thermometer certified by the National
Institute of Standards and Technology is strongly
suggested.
Enter observed temperature: ____________ (2)
4. Compare readings and adjust the bimetal
thermometer appropriately. (See step 5 above.)
3
Selection and Maintenance of Temperature Measurement Devices (FS-25-W)
3.4 Thermocouples
3.2.1.3 General calibration with certified reference
thermometer
1. Measure the temperature of an object with the
reference thermometer, allowing one minute for the
reading to stabilize.
2. Place thermometer to be calibrated in test object,
making sure that the sensing region is immersed
and that the thermometers are not touching each
other and are both in the center region of the object.
3. Allow readings to equilibrate and compare readings
Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metals,
joined to produce a voltage when the measured
temperature deviates from the reference temperature.
The selection of the two metals determines the
thermocouple’s application temperature, measuring
environment, required service life, accuracy, and cost.
There are hundreds of thermocouple designs. Many
designs are tailored to a specific measurement need.
Thermocouple thermometers have been standardized
for use worldwide. Specifications include letter coding,
color coding, voltage/temperature tables, and
operational limits.
Reference thermometer reading: ____________ (1)
Bimetal thermometer reading: _____________ (2)
4. Adjust the bimetal thermometer appropriately.
(See step 5 of 3.2.1.1 above.)
3.3 Glass-liquid thermometers
A glass-liquid thermometer is likely what first comes
to mind when most people think of temperature
measurement. Typically simple, a glass-liquid
thermometer consists of a glass cylinder with a capillary
hole containing either mercury or alcohol. While
convenient and reliable, glass-liquid thermometers are
not well suited for meat and poultry products. Glassliquid thermometers are often used as a reference
thermometer, but not for food monitoring processes.
3.3.1 Glass-liquid thermometer calibration
It is suggested that the calibration of glass-liquid
thermometers be checked annually. Glass-liquid
thermometers are not adjustable, so a correction factor
must be determined when they are calibrated.
Thermocouple thermometer
3.4.1 Thermocouple selection and use
A number of issues should be considered when
selecting the appropriate thermocouple construction
for your specific needs. The following table lists
commonly used, standardized thermocouple types,
including material combinations and the
corresponding application ranges. It is important to
note that while the color codes are standard in the
United States, other countries, such as Great Britain,
France, and Germany, use different color-coding
designations.
Gass-liquid thermometer
4
Selection and Maintenance of Temperature Measurement Devices (FS-25-W)
utilize inexpensive semiconductors. As temperature
changes, the semiconductor resistance also changes.
The resistance can then be converted and displayed as
a temperature.
Most medical thermometers are limited-temperature
thermistor-type thermometers. They are massproduced for specific sensitivity and range
requirements. Typically, these devices do not have
temperature adjustment capability, thus a correction
factor must be determined when they are calibrated.
3.6.1 Thermistor calibration
Thermistor sensors are highly fragile and tend to lose
calibration when used at high temperatures (greater
than 220ºF). Follow calibration methods previously
discussed.
Thermistor
3.4.2 ASTM coding table for common thermocouples
Color
Application
Type
Materials
Code
Range
E
Purple Chromel (+)
-201 to 871ºC
Constantan (-) (-330 to 1,600ºF)
J
Black Iron (+)
-201 to 1,000ºC
Constantan (-) (-330 to 1,832ºF)
K
Yellow Chromel (+)
-250 to 1,260ºC
Alumel (-)
(-418 to 2,300ºF)
T
Blue Copper (+)
-250 to 371ºC
Constantan (-) (-418 to 700ºF)
There is a wide assortment of thermocouple probes,
each tailored to a specific measurement need.
3.7 Infrared radiation thermometers
Infrared radiation thermometers collect radiated
infrared energy emitted from the surface of an object.
They measure surface temperature only. The detector
Figure 3.7a
3.4.3 Thermocouple Calibration
Thermocouple thermometers also require routine
calibration. (See previous section dedicated to bimetal
thermometer calibration [3.2.1] or refer to section 4 on
generic double-point calibration.)
Spot
1”
6”
Distance
Distance
Spot
= 6:1
converts the emitted radiation into a temperature
reading and displays the temperature almost
immediately. Most infrared thermometers have a range
of 10 feet and respond within a half second. The easiest
of all thermometers to use and read, all that is involved
is to point the sensor at the desired object, press a
button, and read the temperature. It doesn’t get any
simpler than that!
3.5 Resistance-Temperature Detectors (RTD)
RTDs are temperature sensors based on the nearly
linear relationship between metal resistance and
temperature. Typically, high-end RTDs are made from
wire-wound or thin-film platinum, providing for a
highly sensitive but expensive temperature sensor.
RTDs also must be calibrated periodically. This type of
thermometer is stable and highly accurate but
extremely fragile, so weekly calibration is suggested.
It is essential to note that while the range may be 10
feet, the closer the sensor is to the target object the
more accurate the reading will be. This is because the
spot size becomes larger as the distance between target
and sensor increases. (See figure 3.7a above.) As a
general rule of thumb for accurate measurement, the
3.6 Thermistors
Like RTDs, thermistors are temperature sensors that
measure current and convert it to temperature. Where
RTDs typically use expensive platinum, thermistors
5
Selection and Maintenance of Temperature Measurement Devices (FS-25-W)
target object should be at least twice the diameter of the
spot size (see previous page).
It is also important to be aware that infrared
thermometers only measure surface temperatures.
Another point to consider is emissivity, which is an
object’s ability to absorb or release energy. Reflective
surfaces, such as metal, will show temperatures lower
than the actual. Most infrared thermometers may be
adjusted by using a reference thermometer to take a
temperature reading of the surface in question.
3.7.1. Infrared radiation thermometer emissivity calibration
To calibrate for emissivity effects, a blackbody
calibration instrument is required. Most manufacturers
of infrared thermometers provide a calibration service
for a yearly fee. Contact your device manufacturer for
further information regarding emissivity calibration.
10. Actual Temperature = Z x Thermometer Reading + S
= ___________ (Actual Temperature)
5. Example: Double-point calibration
1. Prepare an ice bath. (See instructions 3.2.1.2.)
2. Prepare a boiling water bath. (See instructions 3.2.1.1.)
3. Measure with the uncalibrated thermometer the
temperature of the ice bath as (A).
Uncalibrated Boiling Water
Bath Temperature:
0.5°C (A)
100.5°C (B)
5. Record below: X = B - A
2. Prepare a boiling water bath. (See instructions 3.2.1.1.)
3. Measure with the uncalibrated thermometer the
temperature of the ice bath as (A).
100°C (X)
6. Record from a calibrated reference thermometer
the actual temperature of the boiling water bath
(Hot) (remember to adjust for altitude) and of the
ice bath (Cold).
Uncalibrated Ice Bath Temperature: _________(A)
4. Measure with the uncalibrated thermometer the
temperature of the boiling water bath as (B).
Actual Ice Bath Temperature: 0°C (Cold)
Altitude-Corrected Boiling Point of Water:
____________ (B)
100°C (Hot)
5. Record X = B - A
7. Record below: Y = Hot – Cold
____________ (X)
6. Record from a calibrated reference thermometer
the actual temperature of the boiling water bath
(Hot) (remember to adjust for altitude) and of the
ice bath (Cold).
Actual Ice Bath Temperature: 0°C
100°C (Y)
8. Record below: Z = Y/X
1.00 (Z)
9. Record below: S = Cold – (A x Z)
(Cold)
Altitude-Corrected Boiling Point of Water:
-0.5°C (S)
10. Actual Temperature = Z x Thermometer Reading + S
_________ (Hot)
7. Record: Y = Hot – Cold
___________ (Y)
8. Record: Z = Y/X
___________ (S)
4. Measure with the uncalibrated thermometer the
temperature of the boiling water bath as (B).
1. Prepare an ice bath. (See instructions 3.2.1.2.)
Uncalibrated Ice Bath Temperature:
4. Generic double-point calibration technique
Uncalibrated Boiling Water
Bath Temperature:
9. Record: S = Cold – (A x Z)
___________ (Z)
6
= 14°C (Actual Temp)
Selection and Maintenance of Temperature Measurement Devices (FS-25-W)
Purdue Extension
Other publications in this series
Additional resources
FS-20-W, Small Meat Processing Plants: Overview of
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)
} www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/FS/FS-20-W.pdf
Purdue Department of Food Science,
} www.foodsci.purdue.edu/outreach
Food Safety and Inspection Service of the USDA,
} www.fsis.usda.gov
FS-21-W, Small Meat Processing Plants: SSOP and
GMP Practices and Programs (Sanitation Standard
Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing
Practices)
} www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/FS/FS-21-W.pdf
Acknowledgement
FS-22-W, Small Meat Processing Plants: A Pest Control
Program
} www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/FS/FS-22-W.pdf
FS-23-W, Small Meat Processing Plants: A Recall and
Traceability Program
} www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/FS/FS-23-W.pdf
The author would like to acknowledge the financial
support of the United States Department of
Agriculture/Food Safety Inspection Service/Strategic
Initiatives, Partnerships, and Outreach Office in
developing this fact sheet. This fact sheet was developed
with a portion of the funds provided from cooperative
agreement FSIS-C-30-2003.
For additional information
Kevin Keener
Associate professor, food process engineer, and
Extension specialist
Director, Food Technology Development Laboratory
Purdue Department of Food Science
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2009
Phone: (765) 494-6648
[email protected]
FS-24-W, Small Meat Processing Plants: Verification
Programs
} www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/FS/FS-24-W.pdf
The difference between accuracy and precision.
Accuracy
Precision
Precision with
Accuracy
New 9/07
You can order or download materials on this and other
topics at the Purdue Extension Education Store.
www.ces.purdue.edu/new
In accordance with Purdue policies, all persons have equal
opportunity and access to Purdue University’s educational
programs, services, activities, and facilities without regard to
race, religion, color, sex, age, national origin or ancestry, marital
status, parental status, sexual orientation, disability or status as
a veteran. Purdue University is an Affirmative Action institution.
This material may be available in alternative formats.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement