Achieving Higher Level Data Interoperability with 3D Printing

Achieving Higher Level Data Interoperability with 3D Printing
Achieving Higher
Level Data
Interoperability
with 3D Printing
Sally Chan
Associate Technical Fellow
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2014 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 1
Biography
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
• Education
• B.A. UCLA Design
• M.A. UCLA Computer Aided Design
• Certificate Program
– UCLA eBusiness
– Penn State Univ. Graduate Enterprise Architecture
– MIT 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing
• License – Private Pilot
• Career
• IBM – CAD/CAM Numerical Control
• McDonnell Douglas – Engineering
• Boeing – IT
– System Development
– Artificial Intelligence
– Numerical Control
– Define eBusiness data standards (ISO 15000 ebXML, OAGIS, and OASIS UBL)
sally.m.chan@Boeing.c om
• Current Role
• Enterprise Architect enabling global business
• Hobbies
• Travel, Flying, Photography, Painting…
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 2
Agenda
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
•
3D Printing
•
Current Data File Format
‒ STereoLithography (STL)
•
Future Data File Format
‒ Additive Manufacturing Format (AMF)
‒ 3D Manufacturing Format (3MF)
•
Impact to the value stream
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 3
Definitions
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
What is Additive Manufacturing?
• Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which
digital 3D design data is used to build up a component in
layers by depositing material. (from the International
Committee F42 for Additive Manufacturing Technologies,
ASTM)
Additive Manufacturing
• The term “3D printing” is increasingly used as a synonym
for AM. However, the latter is more accurate in that it
describes a professional production technique which is
clearly distinguished from conventional methods of material
removal.
From http://w w w.eos.info/additive_manufacturing/for_technology_interested
Am erican Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ajhart@mit.edu | AM 2015-5
Conventional Manufacturing
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Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 4
3D Model Creation
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
CAD System
CT/MRI
(Surface and internal)
3D Scanner
(Surface only)
All can generate STL file format as input to 3D Printers
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 5
From Model to Part
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 6
Additive Manufacturing Process - Vat Photopolymerization
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Technology: Stereolithography Apparatus
(SLA)
Description: Curing a photo-reactive resin
with a UV laser
Advantages:
– High level of accuracy and good finish
– Relatively quick process
– Typically large build areas: objet 1000:
1000 x 800 x 500 and max model
weight of 200 kg
Disadvantages:
– Relatively expensive
– Lengthy post processing time and
removal from resin
– Limited material use of photo-resins
– Often requires support structures and
post curing for parts to be strong
enough for structural use
http://w ww.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditivemanufacturing/
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 7
Vat Photopolymerization - Pictures
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 8
Additive Manufacturing Process – Material Extrusion
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Technology: Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Description: laying down material in layers with nozzle
Advantages:
– Widespread and inexpensive process
– ABS plastic can be used, which has good structural
properties and is easily accessible
Disadvantages:
– The nozzle radius limits and reduces the final
quality
– Accuracy and speed are low when compared to
other processes and accuracy of the final model is
limited to material nozzle thickness
– Constant pressure of material is required in order
to increase quality of finish
http://w ww.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditivemanufacturing/
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 9
Material Extrusion - Pictures
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 10
Additive Manufacturing Process – Powder Bed Fusion
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Technology: Selective Laser Sintering/ Selective Laser Melting (SLS/SLM)
Description: Uses laser or electron beam to melt powdered
Advantages:
– Relatively inexpensive
– Suitable for visual models and prototypes
– Large range of material options
Disadvantages:
– Relatively slow speed
– Lack of structural properties in materials
– Size limitations
– High power usage
– Finish is dependent on powder grain size
http://w ww.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditivemanufacturing/
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 11
7 Additive Manufacturing Processes (from ASTM F42)
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
•
VAT Photopolymerization - uses ultraviolet (UV) light to cure or harden a vat of liquid
photopolymer resin
•
Material Jetting – Similar to ink jet printers, droplets of build material are deposited from
the print head onto build platform, solidify and make up the part
•
Binder Jetting - uses two materials, powder and binder, deposits alternating layers to
build the part
•
Material Extrusion – solid Material is drawn through a heated nozzle and deposited layer
by layer on build platform
•
Powder Bed Fusion - use either a laser or electron beam to melt and fuse material
powder together layer by layer
•
Sheet Lamination – bonding sheets of material together
•
Directed Energy Deposition - similar to material extrusion, but the nozzle can move in
multiple directions and using a laser or electron beam to melt the deposited build power
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 12
Process and Material – enabler for new design
Extrusion
FDM
MJ
Material Jetting
PJ
Binder Jetting
3DP
Sheet Lamination
LOM
VAT
SLA
Photopolymerization DLP
SLS
SLM
Powder Bed Fusion
EBM
SHS
HSS
Direct Energy
DMP
Deposition
LEMS
D'Angelo and Hart, In review 2015
Solid
Liquid
Liquid
Powder
Solid
Liquid
Liquid
Powder
Powder
Powder
Powder
Powder
Powder
Powder
Multi-Material
Composites
Biomaterials
Thermosets
Thermoplastics
Technology Feedstock
Ceramics
Process
Metal
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Others
Wood, Food
Sugar, Plaster
Paper
Sugar
ajhart@mit.edu |AM2015
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 13
3D Printed Part Classification (Todorov et al.)
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
5 Classes
• Simple tools and components (i.e. those that can be made
subtractively thus inspected the same way)
• Optimized standard parts could be made subtractively but using
specialized/intricate operations.
• Parts with embedded features (i.e. those that requires assembly)
Printed Electronics
• ‘Design for AM’ – essentially impossible by subtractive methods.
• Lattice structures – impossible without AM. Also most challenging to
inspect.
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 14
Factors Affecting Consistent AM Part Production
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
STL Model
Data,
Slicing
Data, and
G-code (tool
path data)
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 15
The Genesis of Stereolithography (STL)
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Hull's designed the STL (STereoLithography) file format widely
accepted by 3D printing software as well as the digital slicing and
infill strategies common to many processes today. It has lasted for
the last 30 years.
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 16
Current Data Format Strength and Weakness
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Data Format
Strength
Weakness
StereolithographySimple, portable, does not require large amount Geometry accuracy, does not represent color,
(STL)
of RAM process, describe surface geometry of texture, material, and orientation. Does not scale
a 3D object
well for high resolution and lattice. Duplicate
information and inconsistence.
X3D Virtual Reality
Modeling Language
(VRML)
STEP
IGES
PLY
SAT
OBJ
DXF
3DS
SLC
allow 3D content to be viewed over the web, includes
information about a 3D surface and its color
contains information not relevant for AM, such as transparency,
animations, lights, sounds, and embedded navigation URLs.
Cannot define multiple materials within a given mesh or
arbitrary microstructure.
defines the geometric shape of a product: includes topology, unnecessarily complex for the needs of AM
features, tolerance, material properties, etc. necessary to
completely define a product for the purposes of design,
analysis, manufacture, test, inspection and product support.
IGES was originally developed for the exchange of drafting not design for AM with high barrier to entry
data like 2D/3D wireframe
models, text, dimensioning data, and a limited class of
does not define materials or microstructure volumetrically
surfaces.
widely used for boundary-representation (B-Rep) objects in format revolves around its internal topological data structure,
CAD packages
which makes it difficult to understand and unsuitable for an
exchange format
simple, compact, widely accepted in the 3D modeling
lacks the ability to define materials or microstructure
community, and can map textures easily
volumetrically
design for exchange 2D/3D wireframe data, allows the
not for 3D objects
definition of 3D triangle meshes and solids best suited for
2D drawings
Can include color and texture information. It is limited to
contains much information not necessary for the AM industry,
65536 vertices and polygons
such as lighting and animation info
format represents individual 2D slices of a 3D object as
not suitable for a cross-platform interchange format
contours representing internal and external boundaries
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 17
Characteristics of Good Data File Format
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
• Technology independence
– Describes the object, not how to make it
– Any machine can make the part to the best of its ability
• Simplicity - easy to implement and understand
• Scalability – can handle complex objects, microstructures, etc.
• Performance – reasonable read/write time, file size, processing, and accuracy
• Backwards compatibility - can convert to/from original format without
additional information
• Future compatibility – ability to include new features easily
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 18
Future Data File Formats
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
• Additive Manufacturing Format (AMF)
• 3D Manufacturing Format (3MF)
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 19
Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) - ISO Standard
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
ISO/ASTM 52915:2013 Describes a framework for an interchange format to address the current
and future needs of additive manufacturing technology…
Current Version: 1.2
Released By: ISO / ASTM52915
Developed by Subcommittee: F42.04
Initial Release: May 2011
Extension: .amf File Type: XML format
Advantages of using a W3C XML : Human readable, Technology independent, Extensible, text
based, and compressible.
Am erican Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 20
AMF General Concept
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Sample
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<amf units="mm">
<object id="0">
<mesh>
<Object> is the root element in the AMF
<vertices>
<vertex>
<coordinates>
<x>0</x>
<y>1.32</y>
<z>3.715</z>
</coordinates>
</vertex>
<vertex>
<coordinates>
<x>0</x>
<y>1.269</y>
<z>2.45354</z>
</coordinates>
</vertex>
...
</vertices>
<volume>
<triangle>
<v1>0</v1>
<v2>1</v2>
<v3>3</v3>
</triangle>
<triangle>
<v1>1</v1>
<v2>0</v2>
<v3>4</v3>
</triangle>
...
</volume>
</mesh>
</object>
</amf>
http://amf.w ikispaces.com/file/view /amf.xsd/402895728/amf.xsd
•
Objects (parts) defined by volumes and materials
‒
Volumes defined by triangular mesh
‒ Materials defined by properties/names
•
Color, Texture
•
Materials can be combined
‒ Graded materials
‒ Lattice / Mesostructure orientation
•
Print Constellations- printing groups of same or different
objects
•
Increased Geometric Accuracy
– Addresses vertex duplication and leaks of STL
–
•
Add normal/tangent vectors to triangle mesh edges to
produce accurate geometry
Future : Tolerances, data encryption, copy right, external
references, subassemblies, process control, etc.
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 21
3D Manufacturing Format (3MF) Industry Consortium
launched on April 30, 2015
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
“With the rapid adoption of 3D printing capabilities and
increased usage across industries, the need for a file
format that can accurately and completely transfer data
from a CAD system to a 3D printer became instantly
obvious,” stated Gian Paolo Bassi, CEO, SOLIDWORKS,
Dassault Systèmes.
http://3dprintingindustry.com/2015/04/30/microsoft-announces-3mf-consortium-for-3d-printing-file-format/
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 22
3MF
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
3MF is an industry consortium working to define a 3D printing format that
will allow design applications to send full-fidelity 3D models to a mix of
other applications, platforms, services and printers
http://w ww.3mf.io/
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 23
3MF Schema
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
An XML Schema describes the data structure of an XML document
<model> is the root element
of the 3MF document
<model>
:
:
:
:
</model>
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 24
AMF and 3MF - Print Difference
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
AMF
3MF
.AMF + Slicer + G-code
.3MF
1. Create Model and Save file
2. Setup the Slicer with required
settings, Slice it (and save/copy the
G-code)
3. Use that G-code to print the
object
1. Create Model and Save file
2. Click Print and select the 3D
printer and required settings, hit
OK
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 25
New AM Design
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
3D printed T25 sensor enclosure unit produced by GE
Aviation and certified by FAA. Image credit: GE Aviation
GE is currently partnering with Boeing to install this new
part in over 400 of its GE90-94B engines used on the
new high-tech Boeing 777 aircraft.
3d printed fuel nozzle.
This 3d printed part is five times as
durable as regularly produced one,
25% lighter, runs cooler because of
internal cooling structures, only one
part instead of 18.
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 26
Future Supply Chain
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Boeing files patent for 3D-printed aircraft parts
March 16, 2015
Besides Boeing trying to patent the 3d printing of aircraft parts
it is also trying to patent the entire system around it including:
“a parts library, a database, a parts management system, and a
three dimensional printing system.” Boeing describes a method
and apparatus for requesting, authorizing, printing, and even
paying for aircraft parts under the simple title: “Three
Dimensional Printing of Parts”. Simple title, HUGE impact and
implications!
http://w ww.geekw ire.com/2015/boeing-files-patent-for-3d-printing-of-aircraft-parts-and-yes-its-already-using-them/
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 27
Future of Manufacturing is Here
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Product will be codesigned using
SMAC (Social,
Mobile, Analytic,
Cloud) and
enabled by 3D
printer
What is a Microfactory?
The Microfactory brings the worldwide Local
Motors community together and allows for the
creation and production of new vehicles based
on local needs. Leveraging the Co-Creation
platform produces innovative designs from
community members in over 130 countries.
The Microfactory brings those designs to life.
Sources: Local Motors
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 28
Summary
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Presented the three most common 3D printing technologies and processes
Discussed the current STL data format limitations
Listed the characteristics of good data format
Reviewed the two future Additive Manufacturing data formats, AMF and 3MF, and
understand the key differences.
3D Printing technology with the new data format enables innovative ideas through
out the value chain from design, to manufacturing, to supply chain, to new
business opportunities
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 29
Q&A
Global Product Data Interoperability Summit | 2015
Thank you!
Sally.m.chan@Boeing.com
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company
Copyright © 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2014 Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
GPDIS_2015.ppt | 30
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