Manual - Ivium Technologies

Manual - Ivium Technologies
Manual
Contents
1.
2.
Electrical Compliance .................................................................................................... 7
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 8
2.1
About Ivium Technologies ................................................................................................ 8
2.2
About Ivium Instruments ................................................................................................. 8
2.3
About IviumSoft .............................................................................................................. 9
3. IviumSoft .................................................................................................................... 9
3.1
Closing IviumSoft .......................................................................................................... 10
3.2
Screen layout ............................................................................................................... 10
3.2.1
Device & Software control ....................................................................................... 15
3.2.2
Operating parameters ............................................................................................. 16
3.2.3
Advanced parameters ............................................................................................. 16
3.2.4
Measurement results .............................................................................................. 18
3.2.5
Legend panel ......................................................................................................... 19
3.2.6
Data file history list ................................................................................................ 20
3.2.7
Status bar ............................................................................................................. 21
3.3
File menu ..................................................................................................................... 22
3.4
Options menu ............................................................................................................... 23
3.4.1
Options - Module, Range and FRA ............................................................................. 23
3.4.2
Datahandling options .............................................................................................. 27
3.4.3
Ivium data file registration ...................................................................................... 29
3.5
Tools menu .................................................................................................................. 29
3.6
Help menu ................................................................................................................... 30
3.7
About .......................................................................................................................... 30
3.8
Data file format ............................................................................................................ 30
3.9
Multichannel control ...................................................................................................... 30
3.10
Data Explorer ............................................................................................................ 32
4. Getting started ........................................................................................................... 34
4.1
Installation and setup .................................................................................................... 34
4.2
Driver installation .......................................................................................................... 34
4.2.1
Configuring Windows 8 and 8.1 ................................................................................ 35
4.2.2
Configuring Windows 10 .......................................................................................... 39
4.2.3
Disable driver signature enforcement ........................................................................ 40
4.2.4
Driver installation Automatic .................................................................................... 43
4.3
pocketSTAT .................................................................................................................. 46
4.4
Vertex ......................................................................................................................... 49
4.4.1
Vertex 100mA/1A ................................................................................................... 49
4.4.2
Vertex.S 2A/5A/10A ............................................................................................... 50
4.5
CompactStat ................................................................................................................ 53
4.6
IviumStat ..................................................................................................................... 56
4.7
Ivium-n-Stat ................................................................................................................ 58
4.8
Modules ....................................................................................................................... 64
4.8.1
DataSecure ........................................................................................................... 64
4.8.2
Bipotentiostat ........................................................................................................ 65
4.8.3
True Linear Scan .................................................................................................... 67
4.8.4
CIM: Current Interrupt Module ................................................................................. 68
4.8.5
HiZ ....................................................................................................................... 70
4.8.6
Multiplexers ........................................................................................................... 71
4.8.7
Boosters................................................................................................................ 82
4.8.8
Light modules ........................................................................................................ 92
4.8.9
HiSens32............................................................................................................. 112
4.8.10
Peripheral interfacing modules ............................................................................... 113
4.8.11
FastScan ............................................................................................................. 125
4.8.12
QuickScan ........................................................................................................... 128
4.9
Accessories ................................................................................................................ 128
4.9.1
Faraday cage ....................................................................................................... 129
4.9.2
MCF-cell .............................................................................................................. 130
4.9.3
Optical platform ................................................................................................... 134
4.10
Connecting the electrodes ......................................................................................... 136
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4.11
Testcell1 module...................................................................................................... 138
4.12
Measurement .......................................................................................................... 139
4.13
Internal dummy cells ............................................................................................... 139
4.14
Test 1: Internal dummy 1 ......................................................................................... 140
4.15
Test 2: Standard testcell........................................................................................... 141
4.16
Test 3: standard testcell & BiStat ............................................................................... 141
5. Instrument control .................................................................................................... 142
5.1
Direct control.............................................................................................................. 143
5.2
Method control............................................................................................................ 146
5.3
BatchMode ................................................................................................................. 149
5.4
Synchronised channels ................................................................................................ 157
5.5
Special techniques ...................................................................................................... 158
5.6
Sequence of a measurement ........................................................................................ 159
5.7
Floating operation ....................................................................................................... 159
5.8
SigView ..................................................................................................................... 160
6. Electrochemical techniques ........................................................................................ 165
6.1
Linear Sweep .............................................................................................................. 165
6.1.1
LinearSweep Standard .......................................................................................... 165
6.1.2
LinearSweep CurrentAveraging .............................................................................. 166
6.1.3
LinearSweep TrueLinear ........................................................................................ 166
6.1.4
LinearSweep Galvanostatic .................................................................................... 167
6.2
Cyclic voltammetry...................................................................................................... 167
6.2.1
CyclicVoltammetry Standard .................................................................................. 167
6.2.2
CyclicVoltammetry CurrentAveraging ...................................................................... 168
6.2.3
CyclicVoltammetry TrueLinear ................................................................................ 168
6.2.4
CyclicVoltammetry Galvanostatic ............................................................................ 169
6.3
Transients .................................................................................................................. 169
6.3.1
Transients ChronoAmperometry ............................................................................. 169
6.3.2
Transients ChronoPotentiometry ............................................................................ 170
6.3.3
Transients MixedMode ........................................................................................... 172
6.3.4
Transients Electrochemical Noise ............................................................................ 174
6.4
Electroanalysis ............................................................................................................ 175
6.4.1
Amperometric Detection ........................................................................................ 175
6.4.2
Differential Pulse .................................................................................................. 175
6.4.3
Square Wave ....................................................................................................... 175
6.4.4
AC Voltammetry ................................................................................................... 175
6.4.5
Potentiometric Stripping ........................................................................................ 176
6.4.6
AC detection ........................................................................................................ 176
6.4.7
Normal Pulse Voltammetry .................................................................................... 176
6.4.8
Voltammetric Pulse Builder .................................................................................... 176
6.5
Impedance ................................................................................................................. 178
6.5.1
Impedance Constant E .......................................................................................... 178
6.5.2
Impedance Constant I ........................................................................................... 181
6.5.3
Impedance PotentialScan ...................................................................................... 181
6.5.4
Impedance CurrentScan ........................................................................................ 182
6.6
Corrosion ................................................................................................................... 182
6.6.1
Eoc monitor ......................................................................................................... 182
6.6.2
Polarization Resistance .......................................................................................... 183
6.6.3
Tafel Plot ............................................................................................................. 183
6.6.4
Potentiodynamic................................................................................................... 184
6.6.5
Cyclic Polarization................................................................................................. 184
6.6.6
Galvanic Corrosion ............................................................................................... 185
6.6.7
Corrosion Rate Monitor.......................................................................................... 185
6.7
Real Time impedance................................................................................................... 186
6.8
Pre-measurement ....................................................................................................... 186
7. Measurement Results ................................................................................................ 187
7.1
Result graph sheet ...................................................................................................... 187
7.2
Graph options ............................................................................................................. 188
7.3
Legend panels ............................................................................................................ 190
7.4
Data appearance ......................................................................................................... 192
7.5
Graphic toolbars.......................................................................................................... 192
7.6
Energy and Charge for Mixed Mode ............................................................................... 195
7.7
Graph pop-up menu .................................................................................................... 195
7.8
Scaling and zooming.................................................................................................... 196
7.9
Result data sheet ........................................................................................................ 197
7.10
E scan sheet ........................................................................................................... 198
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7.11
Clipboard functions .................................................................................................. 198
7.12
Edit ........................................................................................................................ 199
7.12.1
Edit data ............................................................................................................. 199
7.12.2
Smooth all data.................................................................................................... 200
7.12.3
Subtract ohmic drop ............................................................................................. 200
7.12.4
Average scans ..................................................................................................... 200
7.12.5
Subtract overlay................................................................................................... 200
7.12.6
Add overlay ......................................................................................................... 201
7.13
Analysis .................................................................................................................. 201
7.13.1
Equivalent circuit analysis...................................................................................... 201
7.13.2
Kramers Kronig .................................................................................................... 206
7.13.3
Time Respons from Equivalent Circuit ..................................................................... 206
7.13.4
Spectral analysis .................................................................................................. 207
7.13.5
Corrosion analysis ................................................................................................ 208
7.13.6
Peakfinding and baseline correction ........................................................................ 209
7.13.7
Peakfind automatic ............................................................................................... 209
7.13.8
Peakfind advanced................................................................................................ 210
7.13.9
Clear peaks ......................................................................................................... 216
7.13.10
Electrochemical noise analysis ............................................................................ 216
7.13.11
Find levels........................................................................................................ 221
7.13.12
Solar cell report ................................................................................................ 222
7.13.13
Curve fit .......................................................................................................... 224
7.13.14
Electrolysis report ............................................................................................. 225
7.14
Mott-Schottky analysis ............................................................................................. 226
7.15
Current density graphs ............................................................................................. 227
7.16
Reference potential graphs ....................................................................................... 227
7.17
EIS/Impedance data ................................................................................................ 228
8. Data files ................................................................................................................. 230
8.1
Automatic data file storage and file structure .................................................................. 230
8.2
Data file ..................................................................................................................... 231
8.3
Data set ..................................................................................................................... 231
8.4
CSV file...................................................................................................................... 232
8.5
Method file ................................................................................................................. 232
8.6
Data analysis and reporting .......................................................................................... 232
8.7
Data file management ................................................................................................. 232
8.8
File name ................................................................................................................... 232
8.9
Data file history list ..................................................................................................... 233
8.10
Datahandling options ............................................................................................... 233
8.11
Data Explorer .......................................................................................................... 233
8.12
Library ................................................................................................................... 233
8.13
Project ................................................................................................................... 234
8.14
Tempfiles ................................................................................................................ 235
8.15
Bookmarks.............................................................................................................. 236
8.16
Handling large data files ........................................................................................... 236
8.17
Automatic timed saving ............................................................................................ 237
9. Special functions ....................................................................................................... 237
9.1
Calibration ................................................................................................................. 237
9.2
Performance test......................................................................................................... 237
9.3
Pulse Generator .......................................................................................................... 238
9.4
Current Interrupt ........................................................................................................ 239
9.5
Impedance measurement configuration ......................................................................... 240
9.6
IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement ......................................................................... 241
9.7
Galvanostatic generation icw. Amperometric detection with BiStat .................................... 247
9.8
EMO: Emergency Off ................................................................................................... 248
9.9
Safeties: Automatic disconnect ..................................................................................... 248
9.10
Peripheral port ........................................................................................................ 249
9.11
Peripheral analog inputs ........................................................................................... 249
9.12
Using AC input ........................................................................................................ 252
10. Software upgrade ..................................................................................................... 252
10.1
Software upgrade .................................................................................................... 253
10.2
Firmware upgrade .................................................................................................... 253
10.3
Device maintenance ................................................................................................. 256
11. Control via other software .......................................................................................... 256
11.1
Software development driver DLL .............................................................................. 256
11.2
GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 257
11.3
DIRECT MODE ......................................................................................................... 257
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11.4
METHOD MODE ....................................................................................................... 258
11.5
Labview interfacing .................................................................................................. 260
12. Trouble shooting ....................................................................................................... 266
12.1
Serial numer not displayed in IviumSoft ..................................................................... 275
12.2
Instrument fails performance test .............................................................................. 277
12.3
Restore instrument driver ......................................................................................... 277
12.4
Restore factory settings ............................................................................................ 277
12.5
Restore instrument .................................................................................................. 277
12.5.1
Restore CompactStat ............................................................................................ 278
12.5.2
Restore IviumStat ................................................................................................ 279
12.5.3
Restore Vertex ..................................................................................................... 280
12.5.4
Restore Ivium-n-Stat: Modules .............................................................................. 281
12.5.5
Restore pocketSTAT.............................................................................................. 282
12.6
Re-installing IviumSoft ............................................................................................. 283
12.7
Range Check error in IviumSoft ................................................................................. 283
12.8
Disabling USB power saving mode ............................................................................. 284
12.9
Failure to connect, firmware version '0' ...................................................................... 287
12.10
Error at Firmware update: Range check error .............................................................. 288
12.11
Help file empty/shows no content .............................................................................. 288
13. Instrument specifications ........................................................................................... 290
13.1
Compatibility table of Ivium instruments ..................................................................... 291
13.2
pocketSTAT............................................................................................................. 291
13.3
Vertex .................................................................................................................... 292
13.3.1
Vertex 100mA/1A ................................................................................................. 292
13.3.2
Vertex.S 2A/5A/10A ............................................................................................. 293
13.4
CompactStat ........................................................................................................... 295
13.5
IviumStat ............................................................................................................... 299
13.6
Ivium-n-Stat ........................................................................................................... 301
13.7
Connectors ............................................................................................................. 302
13.8
Peripheral port ........................................................................................................ 305
13.9
Modules .................................................................................................................. 305
13.9.1
DataSecure ......................................................................................................... 305
13.9.2
BiStat ................................................................................................................. 305
13.9.3
True Linear Scan .................................................................................................. 306
13.9.4
CIM: Current Interrupt Module ............................................................................... 306
13.10
HiZ ........................................................................................................................ 307
13.11
Multiplexers ............................................................................................................ 308
13.11.1
HiMUX.XR ........................................................................................................ 308
13.11.2
uMUX .............................................................................................................. 308
13.11.3
MUX32 ............................................................................................................ 308
13.11.4
MEA ................................................................................................................ 309
13.11.5
Multiplexer Clamping kit .................................................................................... 309
13.12
Boosters ................................................................................................................. 309
13.12.1
IviumBoost10012.............................................................................................. 309
13.12.2
IviumBoost1040 ............................................................................................... 309
13.12.3
IviumBoost1001 ............................................................................................... 310
13.12.4
IviumBoost1010 ............................................................................................... 311
13.12.5
IviumBoost205 ................................................................................................. 311
13.12.6
Plus module ..................................................................................................... 311
13.12.7
Edoubler .......................................................................................................... 311
13.13
Light modules ......................................................................................................... 312
13.13.1
ModuLight ........................................................................................................ 312
13.13.2
ModuSens ........................................................................................................ 312
13.13.3
IviSUN ............................................................................................................. 312
13.13.4
LightSens......................................................................................................... 312
13.14
MultiWE32 .............................................................................................................. 312
13.15
HiSens32 ................................................................................................................ 313
13.16
Peripheral interfacing modules................................................................................... 313
13.16.1
PPE ................................................................................................................. 313
13.16.2
PDA................................................................................................................. 314
13.16.3
mPDA .............................................................................................................. 314
13.16.4
sPDA ............................................................................................................... 315
13.16.5
PLT ................................................................................................................. 315
13.16.6
TCM-K: Thermocouple module ............................................................................ 315
13.16.7
FastScan .......................................................................................................... 315
13.16.8
QuickScan ........................................................................................................ 315
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13.17
Accessories ............................................................................................................. 315
13.17.1
WE32 electrode cable ........................................................................................ 315
14. Method parameters ................................................................................................... 316
14.1
Mode ...................................................................................................................... 316
14.2
Title ....................................................................................................................... 316
14.3
Duration ................................................................................................................. 316
14.4
Repeat interval ........................................................................................................ 316
14.5
vs Eoc .................................................................................................................... 316
14.6
E start .................................................................................................................... 316
14.7
I start .................................................................................................................... 316
14.8
E end ..................................................................................................................... 316
14.9
I end ...................................................................................................................... 316
14.10
E step .................................................................................................................... 316
14.11
I step ..................................................................................................................... 317
14.12
DynamicVertexes ..................................................................................................... 317
14.12.1
DynamicVertexes.I max ..................................................................................... 317
14.12.2
DynamicVertexes.I min...................................................................................... 317
14.13
Vertex 1 ................................................................................................................. 317
14.14
I vertex 1 ............................................................................................................... 317
14.15
Vertex 2 ................................................................................................................. 317
14.16
I vertex 2 ............................................................................................................... 317
14.17
PulseDefinition ........................................................................................................ 317
14.18
N scans .................................................................................................................. 319
14.19
Scanrate ................................................................................................................. 319
14.20
Iscanrate ................................................................................................................ 319
14.21
Alpha ..................................................................................................................... 319
14.21.1
Alpha.Value ...................................................................................................... 321
14.22
Interval time ........................................................................................................... 321
14.23
Eoc interval ............................................................................................................. 321
14.24
Run time ................................................................................................................ 321
14.25
Stop when dE/dt< ................................................................................................... 321
14.26
Levels .................................................................................................................... 321
14.26.1
Levels[index].time ............................................................................................ 322
14.27
Levels separate ....................................................................................................... 322
14.28
Stages.................................................................................................................... 323
14.29
Cycles .................................................................................................................... 331
14.30
Cycles separate ....................................................................................................... 331
14.31
N samples............................................................................................................... 331
14.32
Thresholds .............................................................................................................. 331
14.32.1
Thresholds.E max ............................................................................................. 332
14.32.2
Thresholds.E min .............................................................................................. 332
14.33
Pulse time............................................................................................................... 332
14.34
Pulse amplitude ....................................................................................................... 332
14.35
SQRWV frequency .................................................................................................... 332
14.36
Phase sensitive ........................................................................................................ 332
14.36.1
Phase sensitive.phase ........................................................................................ 332
14.37
2nd Harmonic.......................................................................................................... 332
14.38
Deposition time ....................................................................................................... 332
14.39
Current stripping ..................................................................................................... 332
14.39.1
Current Stripping.Stripping current ..................................................................... 333
14.40
Equilibration time .................................................................................................... 333
14.41
Current range.......................................................................................................... 333
14.42
Noise reduction ....................................................................................................... 333
14.42.1
Noise reduction.Acquisition period ....................................................................... 333
14.43
AutoCR ................................................................................................................... 334
14.43.1
AutoCR.Max range ............................................................................................ 335
14.43.2
AutoCR.Min range ............................................................................................. 335
14.43.3
Pre ranging ...................................................................................................... 335
14.44
DualCR ................................................................................................................... 335
14.44.1
DualCR.SwitchFreq ............................................................................................ 335
14.45
Potential range ........................................................................................................ 335
14.46
Frequency ............................................................................................................... 335
14.47
Amplitude ............................................................................................................... 336
14.48
Continuous AC ......................................................................................................... 336
14.49
AC mean Current ..................................................................................................... 336
14.50
ThresholdHoldoff ..................................................................................................... 336
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14.51
Frequencies ............................................................................................................ 336
14.51.1
Frequencies.Single sine ..................................................................................... 340
14.51.2
Frequencies.Multi sine ....................................................................................... 341
14.51.3
Frequencies.Dual sine ........................................................................................ 343
14.52
Noise reduction ....................................................................................................... 344
14.52.1
Noise Reduction.Acquisition period ...................................................................... 344
14.53
Filter ...................................................................................................................... 344
14.54
Stability .................................................................................................................. 345
14.55
Connect to .............................................................................................................. 345
14.56
Analog inputs .......................................................................................................... 345
14.57
AccumulateCharge ................................................................................................... 346
14.58
Anout2 ................................................................................................................... 346
14.59
Level ...................................................................................................................... 346
14.60
Pulse period ............................................................................................................ 346
14.61
Apply wrt OCP ......................................................................................................... 346
14.61.1
Apply wrt OCP.monitor time ............................................................................... 347
14.61.2
Apply wrt OCP.monitor interval ........................................................................... 347
14.61.3
Apply wrt OCP.Estart wrt OCP ............................................................................. 347
14.61.4
Apply wrt OCP.Vtx/End wrt OCP .......................................................................... 347
14.61.5
Apply wrt OCP.Estandby wrt OCP ........................................................................ 347
14.61.6
Apply wrt OCP.Record real E............................................................................... 347
14.61.7
Apply wrt OCP. Accept if dE/dt< ......................................................................... 347
14.62
Remove DC initial .................................................................................................... 348
14.63
Signal averaging ...................................................................................................... 348
14.63.1
Signal averaging.Full interval.............................................................................. 348
14.63.2
Signal averaging.Averaging time ......................................................................... 348
14.64
IR feedback ............................................................................................................ 348
14.64.1
IR feedback.Compensation ................................................................................. 348
14.65
BiStat ..................................................................................................................... 348
14.65.1
BiStat.E offset .................................................................................................. 349
14.65.2
BiStat.Current range ......................................................................................... 349
14.65.3
BiStat.CR max .................................................................................................. 349
14.65.4
BiStat.CR min ................................................................................................... 349
14.65.5
BiStat.mode ..................................................................................................... 349
14.66
Cell after measurement ............................................................................................ 349
14.66.1
Cell after measurement.E standby....................................................................... 349
14.67
Pretreatment ........................................................................................................... 349
14.67.1
Pretreatment each freq ...................................................................................... 350
14.68
Data Options ........................................................................................................... 350
14.69
Data reduction ........................................................................................................ 354
14.69.1
Data reduction.average every ............................................................................. 355
14.69.2
Data reduction.no averaging .............................................................................. 355
14.69.3
Data reduction.min E delta ................................................................................. 355
14.69.4
Data reduction.min I delta ................................................................................. 356
14.69.5
Data reduction.max interval ............................................................................... 356
14.70
Automatic save........................................................................................................ 356
14.70.1
Automatic save.filename .................................................................................... 356
14.70.2
Automatic save.save every ................................................................................. 356
14.70.3
Automatic save.on completion ............................................................................ 356
14.71
AUX ....................................................................................................................... 357
14.71.1
AUX.Purging period ........................................................................................... 358
14.71.2
AUX.Stirrer pretreatment ................................................................................... 358
14.71.3
AUX.RDE speed ................................................................................................ 358
14.71.4
AUX.New drops at start ..................................................................................... 358
14.71.5
AUX.Trigger each pnt ........................................................................................ 358
14.71.6
AUX.InvertDig polarity ....................................................................................... 359
14.72
Modules .................................................................................................................. 359
14.72.1
Modules.PDA .................................................................................................... 359
14.72.2
Modules.SyncChannels ...................................................................................... 359
14.73
CI at Level[2] .......................................................................................................... 360
14.74
MeasConfig ............................................................................................................. 360
14.75
WE32_offsets .......................................................................................................... 361
14.76
WE32_allchannels .................................................................................................... 362
14.77
Report .................................................................................................................... 362
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1. Electrical Compliance
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
We: Ivium Technologies B.V.
De Zaale 11
5612 AJ Eindhoven
The Netherlands
Certify that the products:
IviumStat, CompactStat, Ivium-n-Stat, Vertex and pocketSTAT
are in conformity with EC Standard: IEC 61326 Standard (Electrical equipment for measurement control
and laboratory use),
referring to the following norms: IEC 61000-4-2 , IEC 61000-4-3 , IEC 61000-4-4,
IEC 61000-4-5 , IEC 61000-4-6 , IEC 61000-4-11 , CISPR 22
Eindhoven, January 2014
Dr. A. Baars, director
Conformity applies to configuration and cabling as delivered by Ivium Technologies.
Ivium Technologies, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, will not accept any liability for damages caused directly
or indirectly by connecting this instrument to devices which do not meet the relevant safety standards.
Ivium Technologies cannot, under any circumstance, be held responsible for the outcome or
interpretation of data measured with these instruments.
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2. Introduction
Ivium Technologies is a manufacturer of potentiostat/galvanostat instruments with integrated frequency
response analyser (FRA/EIS). Our instruments can be used for a wide range of applications, including
measurements in the field with our portable USB powered instruments. To further increase the
application possibility of our instruments we manufacture a variety of modules, such as multiplexers,
power boosters, light sources, etc. To control our instruments we have developed our own versatile, yet
intuitive, control and data analysis software IviumSoft. IviumSoft can run on any Windows based
platform using Windows XP and newer.
2.1
About Ivium Technologies
Ivium Technologies was founded in 2001 and our head office is based in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, our
US office is based in Fernandina Beach, FL. USA. We develop and supply potentiostat/galvanostat
systems with integrated impedance analyser for electrochemical research all over the world. We have
grown to where we are today by combining modern design techniques and state-of-the-art components
with efficient manufacture and swift customer service. We understand the needs of electrochemical
researchers and are focused on developing the products and support to meet those needs. Our dedication
to developing solutions for electrochemical research has resulted in high performance instrumentation for
a wide variety of applications.
International sales and support of Ivium products is done by an ever increasing number of distributors all
over the world. A list of Ivium Technologies distributors world wide is given on our website at:
www.ivium.nl/Worldwide representation. For support you can contact your local distributor. If your
country is not listed, you can contact Ivium support: www.ivium.nl/Support.
Ivium products are used in academic, industrial, and government laboratories around the world. Actually,
our portable CompactStat and pocketSTAT are often used outside the lab. With four potentiostats and a
multichannel potentiostat, we can meet virtually any application and budget requirement. For physical
electrochemists, electroanalytical chemists, corrosion scientists, battery developers, fuel cell researchers,
and sensor developers, Ivium has the potentiostat, options, and software features to conduct their critical
experiments quickly, easily, and accurately. Ivium instruments perform at a very high level, are very
versatile, and exhibit excellent reliability.
Apart from our own potentiostat/galvanostat systems and performance enhancing modules, we can
supply a variety of electrochemical cells and electrodes. On request we also deliver third party products
that have been tested to work well together with Ivium systems.
2.2
About Ivium Instruments
Ivium Technologies manufactures 5 lines of potentiostat/galvanostat instruments:

pocketSTAT - handheld, USB-powered

CompactStat - portable, USB powered

Vertex - entry level

IviumStat - high power, general purpose

Ivium-n-Stat - multichannel
All of our potentiostats are equipped with an integrated frequency response analyser (FRA/EIS). The
advantages of an integrated design over a modular approach include shorter communication paths, so
less noise; fewer parts and connections, so lower statistical probability of failure, so higher reliability;
better calibration possibilities; smaller footprint.
In addition to the P/G instruments, a number of modules is available to enhance the possibilities, such as
power boosters, light sources, multiplexers, etc. The compatibility of each of the potentiostats with the
modules is listed in the compatibility table. The characteristics and specs of each instrument are listed in
the instrument specifications.
For optimum use of an Ivium potentiostat it should be noted that some of the capabilities are only
available after activating the relevant option in the Options menu such as extended voltage range and the
use of various modules. Other capabilities are automatically activated under certain conditions, such as
the activation of the e20250 power booster for the CompactStat which is automatically activate when the
power adapter is used. All activations and options are also listed in the instrument-specific sections of
this document.
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2.3
About IviumSoft
IviumSoft Electrochemistry Software is developed and used to control Ivium potentiostats. There is only
1 version of IviumSoft, which contains all techniques and can control all Ivium potentiostats. The
IviumSoft user interface on the PC is used to specify the parameters of the measurement, to display the
measured curves and calculate the results of the measurements. IviumSoft can be used to control one
instrument/channel, or multiple instruments/channels from the same instance. Alternatively, multiple
instances of IviumSoft can be used to control multiple instruments. IviumSoft is supplied with each Ivium
instrument and can be installed on an unlimited number of PCs.
PC



requirements:
Current PC
Windows XP, 7, 8, 10
free USB port
Each Ivium potentiostat is equipped with an internal microPC. Through firmware (software) running on
this microPC the actual potentiostat/galvanostat is controlled. To ensure that the instrument's internal
microprocessor gets enough time to run its start-up procedure, there should be at least 10 seconds delay
between powering up the instrument and connecting it in the IviumSoft.
The IviumSoft communicates with the microPC. For correct communication it is vital that the IviumSoft
version on the PC and the firmware version on the microPC correspond. That is why the correct firmware
is embedded in the IviumSoft and can always be uploaded to the instruments microPC at any time.
3. IviumSoft
Set up
IviumSoft Electrochemistry Software is developed and used to control Ivium potentiostats. There is only
1 version of IviumSoft, which contains all techniques and can control all Ivium potentiostats. IviumSoft
can be used to control one instrument/channel, or multiple instruments/channels from the same
instance. Alternatively, multiple instances of IviumSoft can be used to control multiple instruments.
IviumSoft is supplied with each Ivium instrument and can be installed on an unlimited number of PCs.
PC



requirements:
Current mid range PC
Windows XP, 7, 8, 10
free USB port
Communication with potentiostat
Each Ivium potentiostat is equipped with an internal microPC. Through firmware (software) running on
this microPC the actual potentiostat/galvanostat is controlled. To ensure that the instrument's internal
microprocessor gets enough time to run its start-up procedure, there should be at least 10 seconds delay
between powering up the instrument and connecting it in the IviumSoft.
The IviumSoft communicates with the microPC. for correct communication it is vital that the IviumSoft
version on the PC and the firmware version on the microPC correspond. That is why the correct firmware
is embedded in the IviumSoft and can always be uploaded to the instruments microPC at any time.
User interface
The IviumSoft on the PC is used to specify the parameters of the measurement, display the results, and
analyse the measurements. The hierarchical structure of IviumSoft is conveniently flat: from the main
user interface all functions and full instrument control are only one or two mouse clicks away. IviumSoft
uses as few pop-up windows as possible. The screen layout of the user interface clearly identifies
different area's where specific functions are accessed.
Connect to potentiostat
To control a potentiostat it needs to be 'connected' ("assigned") to the IviumSoft. This is done by
selecting the serial number of the instrument that is to be connected from the drop-down list at the left
top of the IviumSoft screen, next to the connect button. In the drop-down list all connected Ivium
potentiostats are listed. Choose one and click on "connect". A pop-up window will appear briefly, showing
that the instrument is being connected. When the connection is successfull, the pop-up window will
disappear and now the instrument is ready to be controlled by IviumSoft.
Instrument control
An Ivium potentiostat can be controlled in 2 ways:
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

via Direct control; in this situation a potential or current can be applied directly, the actual potential
and current are displayed and updated once every second. The data is not recorded/stored.
via Method control; in this situation a (pre)defined electrochemical method is created and executed.
All data is automatically recorded/stored.
Direct control of an instrument is mostly used for diagnostic puropses, i.e. to get a quick and rough idea
what is happening in the electrochemical cell when certain conditions are applied. Method control is what
is used for most electrochemical experimental research and testing.
3.1
Closing IviumSoft
To close IviumSoft, access the File menu and choose "Exit". Alternatively, click on the red "X" at the right
top corner of the IviumSoft user interface window.
If the IviumSoft application is closed, active/running measurements are aborted and the data is lost.
When the user attempts to close the application while a measurement is in progress, a message will
popup:
Responding with "OK" will close IviumSoft and the data is lost. Selecting "Cancel" will ignore the attempt
to close Iviumsoft and continue the measurement. Note that the pop-up will wait for a response while the
measurement continues. A response is needed before IviumSoft can accept new commands or settings.
3.2
Screen layout
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Looking at the layout of the IviumSoft screen, 7 areas can be distinguished:
1. Device & software control
2. Operating parameters
3. Advanced parameters
4. Measurement results
5. Legend panel
6. Data file history list
7. Status bar
1. Device & Software control
To the top left of the screen is the area where the main menu can be accessed and where an instrument
can be connected ("assigned") to the IviumSoft.
At the top the main menu is shown:

File: to load/save method and datafiles and to access the Ivium data explorer

Options: setting the device and module options, incl. FRA settinds for result optimization, and setting
the data handling options

Tools: tools for device maintenance (upgrades) and special functions.

Help: information how to use the software

About: information about the software
To start working with your potentiostat (after having properly installed the drivers):

Connect your potentiostat to the computer via USB and switch on the instrument (if required).

At the left top of the screen the serial/channel number read out window is located. In the drop down
menu to the right side of that select the device you want to connect in the IviumSoft by
serial/channel number.
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
To operate this instrument, click "Connect". (Connect button: connect or disconnect the instrument
displayed in the indicated "serial number box". You must be connected before you can communicate
with a device. When the IviumSoft program is terminated, the device will automatically disconnect. A
device can only be connected to one IviumSoft application at a time.)
2. Operating parameters
To the left of the screen is the area where you can control the operating parameters, i.e. where you can
tell the instrument what to do. There are 2 ways of operating an Ivium potentiostat: Direct, or via an
electrochemical Method. Select the apropriate tab for the desired operating mode.
Direct mode: for direct control of the instrument

Intended for diagnostic purposes.

Actual potential and current are displayed. These values are updated every second.

When no potential/current is applied, the open-cell potential (S-RE) is displayed (within specified
accuracy).
Method mode: for executing electrochemical methods
The operator can define a technique or measurement protocol on the Method sheet.
When the Start button at the bottom of the tab sheet is pressed, this measurement protocol is executed.
In this state, the software takes control over the instrument: Method control. This will last until the
measurement is completed or aborted by the user.
During Method control, the Direct control functions are not available, neither are some filing and analysis
functions.
3. Advanced parameters
At the top of the screen to the right of the 'Control bar' are located:
Indicator bar: a series of indicators that show the real time status of:

Eovl: default grey; will turn red if the voltage compliance limit is exceeded on CE. If this occurs, the
data obtained will not be reliable.

Iovl: default grey; will turn red if the WE current exceeds 3 X the current range. The data will be
reliable up to 4 X the current range, but it is recommended to select a larger current range.

Ext: will turn red if the voltage on the analog input channel 1 exceeds the defined value. The operator
may set this value in the Options>Options menu.

Current range: will show the actual real time current range. If automatic current ranging is activated,
this value will be updated during the scan.
Operational mode: selecting Basic or Advanced from the drop down menu sets the access level for the
operator. In Basic mode, only the essential method parameters are shown. In Advanced mode, more
specialized parameters are accessible, such as the automatic selection of filters and stability settings,
OCP measurment, pre/after treatment, etc.
Project selector: this window shows the project where the data files will automatically be stored upon
completion/abortion of a measurement. A project can be selected from the drop down list next to the
window, or a new one can be typed into the window. This newly typed project will be automatically
created when the first datafile is stored. The library in which the project is created can be selected in the
Options>Datahandling Options menu. As project also the 'Tempfiles' project can be selected.
Channel selector: in the drop down menu the user can select how many channels/potentiostats are to be
connected to the instance of IviumSoft. This is especially useful when a multichannel instrument is used.
If more than one channel is selected, an extra menu bar will open that allows selection of each channel
by different tab sheet, simultaneous control of all connected channels, and simultaneous plotting of data
of all channels.
Sigview: opens a window that shows voltage and current signal trace of an impedance measurement.
This can be used during a measurement to verify the quality of the signal and to check for i.e.
overload/oscillation situations, and after a measurement to retrieve the conditions for each measured
point, as well as harmonics data.
BatchMode: Clicking the batch mode button opens the batch programming window in the Operating
parameters area of the screen. The batch mode can be used for automating measurements, sequencing
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events, scheduling, running experiments over multiple cells of multiplexer or MultiWE32, controlling
external equipment, etc.
4. Measurement results
When a measurement is started the data are shown real time in the result graph. A right mouse click on
the graph will give the user a number of options, including changing the graph colour and background, as
well as copying the graph to clipboard.
To the left of the graph:
The buttons to the left of the graph allow additional data to be displayed ("Graphic toolbar"). Data is by
default displayed "2D"; "3D" and "3Di" display may also be chosen (when available). Clicking the "Cor"
button after the measurement has finished, will start the correction mode, allowing the user to change
individual data-points. "X" shows the primary data, "Ain, ocp, pre, Q, Rs, Cs" will all open a second graph
to the top of the primary one, that shows the corresponding data when available: optional analog inputs,
ocp-measurement before scan, pre-treatment data, etc.
Above the graph:

The "Scale" button, at the left, allows the scale of the graph to be adjusted via the drop down menu,
or the axis reversed; clicking on the button itself will auto-scale the graph.

Clicking on the "Analysis" button will open a pop-up window with the most apropriate analysis. Using
the drop down list next to 'Analysis' will make different analysis of the result data possible.

Clicking on the "Edit" button will smooth the data automatically (when method/data allows it). Using
the drop down list next to 'Edit' will allow various editing of the data, such as smoothing or
adding/subtracting of a scan.

The buttons on the top right of the graph activate different representations of impedance data.
The tabs "Result graph" and "Result data" on the very top of the 'Measurement results' area enable
switching between graphical and numerical representation of the scan data. The "E scan" tab is shown at
start up of the software, but will disappear if another method than an impedance-scan method is
selected. It will only become available for impedance scan methods, in which case it allows different ways
of plotting data, including Mott-Schottky.
5. Legend panel
To the right of the screen is the legend panel, with 3 tab sheets:
1) The "Scan" tab shows a list of the subsequent scans that have just been measured or loaded as data
from memory. Note that the scan that is highlighted blue is the scan in active memory. This is the one
that is evaluated in "Analysis", or has the numerical data shown in "Result data", etc. Clicking on a scan
will select that one (highlight it), making it available for analysis, saving, etc. In the list of scans
checking/unchecking the box next to the scan will show/hide the individual scan. Clicking on the box will
also automatically select that scan.
Above



the list of scans are the options:
"Hide all": will hide all scans
"Show all": will show all scans.
Checking the box "Hide previous' will make it so that only the most recent scan will be shown.
This option is usefull when for example a CV is run with many cycles.

"All extradata": clicking this will show the extra data, for example OCP measurement, of all scans
in the list.
Below the list of scans are the options:

"Delete": will delete the selected (active) scan

"Delete all": will delete all scans from the list in the legend panel (it will not delete corresponding
the datafiles)

"Data appear": will allow user to change the appearance of the data: lines, colours, symbols.
2) The "Chan" tab shows when analog inputs are sampled and/or when multiple channels are connected
in the IviumSoft. It allows the user to show/hide channels in the (second) graph.
3) The "Olay" tab will allow the user to load data from file and to overlay it on the scan data that was
just recorded (or loaded), so that it can be compared graphically. Several scans can be loaded at the
same time. The scans will be listed and can be shown or hidden by checking/unchecking the box next to
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the scan, clicking on a scan will select that one (highlight it). Overlayed scans cannot be used for analysis
or editing.
Above the list of overlayed scans:

"Hide all": will hide all scans

"Show all": will show all scans.
Below the list of overlayed scans :

"Load": will allow to load data files (.idf) from memory

"Load Set": will allow to load data sets (.ids) from memory

"Delete": will delete the selected (active) scan

"Delete all": will delete all scans from the list in the legend panel (it will not delete corresponding
the datafiles)

"Data appear": will allow user to change the appearance of the data: lines, colours, symbols.
6. Data file history list
All Ivium experimental data is automatically saved upon completion or user-abort of a measurement. A
data file is created with an automatically generated file name, based on a combination of a unique scan
id, date/time stamp, technique, etc. After the data is saved the file will be added to the history list of
most recent data files, below the Measurement results. The data file will be displayed in red when it is
stored in the 'Tempfiles', and in black when it is stored in a project file.
Double clicking on a file in the history list will load that file into the result window. Holding the [Shift] key
will allow multiple data files to be selected simultaneously. A Right mouse click will open a pop-up:

Load Scans: will load selected scans into the result window.

Add Scans: will add selected scans to the result window.

Copy files: will copy data file to clipboard, for example for easy pasting into an e-mail, or a file
directory.

Add to Bookmarks: will add the selected data file to the Bookmarks.

Move to active project: will move the data file to the active project, i.e. the project that is
selected in the project window (in the Advanced parameters Control bar, area 3)

Move to tempfiles: will move the data file to the tempfile directory. Datafiles in the Tempfile
directory (or project) will be automatically deleted after a period of (default) 90 days. This period
can be changed in the Datahandling Options.

Delete permanently: will delete the data file permanently.
Data Storage:
Data files are stored in a Library\project structure. In the menu "File>Data Explorer" data files in all
libraries and projects can be explored, with a list of method parameters and result graph preview. In the
menu "Options>Datahandling Options" the data storing options can be specified, such as: timed
intermediate saving, automatic storage of a file copy to another designation (i.e. network drive), temp
file properties, etc.
7. Status bar
At the bottom of the user interface the Status bar is located. Depending on the status of the instrument
(idle, running a method, kind of method, etc.) and/or the method that is run a series of parameters is
shown.
In the case of a CV scan (see figure above) it shows the real time E, I, number of acquired data points so
far, number, elapsed runtime of the scan and the notification that a measurement is in progress. In case
an OCP measurement is carried out, the OCP value can also be found in the status bar. During an
impedance measurement, next to the real time E and I, it shows the frequency of the datapoint
measured and the percentage of progress.
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Note I: the values shown in the information bar may be lagging behind when high sampling rates are
used. In that case data exchange between instrument and computer takes precedent over the display of
real time data.
Note II: When different electrochemical methods are used, the data cannot always be represented in the
same graph; i.e. running an FRA-scan after a CV-scan without clearing the graph window will lead to
unreadable graphs.
Note III: Running a CV-scan will automatically clear the graph when the next experiment is started.
3.2.1 Device & Software control
To the top left of the screen is the area where the main menu can be accessed and where an instrument
can be connected ("assigned") to the IviumSoft.
At the top the main menu is shown:

File: to load/save method and datafiles and to access the Ivium data explorer

Options: setting the device and module options, incl. FRA settinds for result optimization, and
setting the data handling options

Tools: tools for device maintenance (upgrades) and special functions.

Help: information how to use the software

About: information about the software
To start working with your potentiostat (after having properly installed the drivers):

Connect your potentiostat to the computer via USB and switch on the instrument (if required).

At the left top of the screen the serial/channel number read out window is located. In the drop
down menu to the right side of that select the device you want to connect in the IviumSoft by
serial/channel number.
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
To operate this instrument, click "Connect". (Connect button: connect or disconnect the
instrument displayed in the indicated "serial number box". You must be connected before you can
communicate with a device. When the IviumSoft program is terminated, the device will
automatically disconnect. A device can only be connected to one IviumSoft application at a time.)
3.2.2 Operating parameters
To the left of the screen is the area where you can control the operating parameters, i.e. where you can
tell the instrument what to do. There are 2 ways of operating an Ivium potentiostat: Direct, or via an
electrochemical Method. Select the apropriate tab for the desired operating mode.
Direct mode: for direct control of the instrument

Intended for diagnostic purposes.

Actual potential and current are displayed. These values are updated every second.

When no potential/current is applied, the open-cell potential (S-RE) is displayed (within specified
accuracy).
Method mode: for executing electrochemical methods
The operator can define a technique or measurement protocol on the Method sheet.
When the Start button at the bottom of the tab sheet is pressed, this measurement protocol is executed.
In this state, the software takes control over the instrument: Method control. This will last until the
measurement is completed or aborted by the user.
During Method control, the Direct control functions are not available, neither are some filing and analysis
functions.
3.2.3 Advanced parameters
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At the top of the screen to the right of the 'Control bar' are located:
Indicator bar: a series of indicators that show the real time status of:
- Eovl: default grey; will turn red if the voltage compliance limit is exceeded on CE. If this occurs, the
data obtained will not be reliable.
- Iovl: default grey; will turn red if the WE current exceeds 3 X the current range. The data will be
reliable up to 4 X the current range, but it is recommended to select a larger current range.
- Ext: will turn red if the voltage on the analog input channel 1 exceeds the defined value. The operator
may set this value in the Options>Options menu.
- Current range: will show the actual real time current range. If automatic current ranging is activated,
this value will be updated during the scan.
Operational mode: selecting Basic or Advanced from the drop down menu sets the access level for the
operator. In Basic mode, only the essential method parameters are shown. In Advanced mode, more
specialized parameters are accessible, such as the automatic selection of filters and stability settings,
OCP measurment, pre/after treatment, etc.
Project selector: this window shows the project where the data files will automatically be stored upon
completion/abortion of a measurement. A project can be selected from the drop down list next to the
window, or a new one can be typed into the window. This newly typed project will be automatically
created when the first datafile is stored. The library in which the project is created can be selected in the
Options>Datahandling Options menu. As project also the 'Tempfiles' project can be selected.
Channel selector: in the drop down menu the user can select how many channels/potentiostats are to be
connected to the instance of IviumSoft, this allows Multichannel contol from a single instance of
IviumSoft. This is especially useful when a multichannel instrument is used. If more than one channel is
selected, an extra menu bar will open that allows selection of each channel by different tab sheet,
simultaneous control of all connected channels, and simultaneous plotting of data of all channels.
Sigview: opens a window that shows voltage and current signal trace of an impedance measurement.
This can be used during a measurement to verify the quality of the signal and to check for i.e.
overload/oscillation situations, and after a measurement to retrieve the conditions for each measured
point, as well as harmonics data.
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BatchMode: Clicking the batch mode button opens the batch programming window in the Operating
parameters area of the screen. The batch mode can be used for automating measurements, sequencing
events, scheduling, running experiments over multiple cells of multiplexer or MultiWE32, controlling
external equipment, etc.
3.2.4 Measurement results
When a measurement is started the data are shown real time in the result graph. A right mouse click on
the graph will give the user a number of options, including changing the graph colour and background, as
well as copying the graph to clipboard.
To the left of the graph:
The buttons to the left of the graph allow additional data to be displayed ("Graphic toolbar"). Data is by
default displayed "2D"; "3D" and "3Di" display may also be chosen (when available). Clicking the "Cor"
button after the measurement has finished, will start the correction mode, allowing the user to change
individual data-points. "X" shows the primary data, "Ain, ocp, pre, Q, Rs, Cs" will all open a second graph
to the top of the primary one, that shows the corresponding data when available: optional analog inputs,
ocp-measurement before scan, pre-treatment data, etc.
Above the graph:

The "Scale" button, at the left, allows the scale of the graph to be adjusted via the drop down
menu, or the axis reversed; clicking on the button itself will auto-scale the graph.

Clicking on the "Analysis" button will open a pop-up window with the most apropriate analysis.
Using the drop down list next to 'Analysis' will make different analysis of the result data possible.

Clicking on the "Edit" button will smooth the data automatically (when method/data allows it).
Using the drop down list next to 'Edit' will allow various editing of the data, such as smoothing or
adding/subtracting of a scan.

The buttons on the top right of the graph activate different representations of impedance data.
The tabs "Result graph" and "Result data" on the very top of the 'Measurement results' area enable
switching between graphical and numerical representation of the scan data. The "E scan" tab is shown at
start up of the software, but will disappear if another method than an impedance-scan method is
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selected. It will only become available for impedance scan methods, in which case it allows different ways
of plotting data, including Mott-Schottky.
Note I: When different electrochemical methods are used, the data cannot always be represented in the
same graph; i.e. running an FRA-scan after a CV-scan without clearing the graph window will lead to
unreadable graphs.
Note II: Running a CV-scan will automatically clear the graph when the next experiment is started.
3.2.5 Legend panel
To the right of the screen is the legend panel, with 3 tab sheets:
1) The "Scan" tab shows a list of the subsequent scans that have just been measured or loaded as data
from memory. Note that the scan that is highlighted blue is the scan in active memory. This is the one
that is evaluated in "Analysis", or has the numerical data shown in "Result data", etc. Clicking on a scan
will select that one (highlight it), making it available for analysis, saving, etc. In the list of scans
checking/unchecking the box next to the scan will show/hide the individual scan. Clicking on the box will
also automatically select that scan.
Above



the list of scans are the options:
"Hide all": will hide all scans
"Show all": will show all scans.
Checking the box "Hide previous' will make it so that only the most recent scan will be shown.
This option is usefull when for example a CV is run with many cycles.

"All extradata": clicking this will show the extra data, for example OCP measurement, of all scans
in the list.
Below the list of scans are the options:

"Delete": will delete the selected (active) scan

"Delete all": will delete all scans from the list in the legend panel (it will not delete corresponding
the datafiles)

"Data appear": will allow user to change the appearance of the data: lines, colours, symbols.
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2) The "Chan" tab shows when analog inputs are sampled and/or when multiple channels are connected
in the IviumSoft. It allows the user to show/hide channels in the (second) graph.
3) The "Olay" tab will allow the user to load data from file and to overlay it on the scan data that was
just recorded (or loaded), so that it can be compared graphically. Several scans can be loaded at the
same time. The scans will be listed and can be shown or hidden by checking/unchecking the box next to
the scan, clicking on a scan will select that one (highlight it). Overlayed scans cannot be used for analysis
or editing.
Above the list of overlayed scans:

"Hide all": will hide all scans

"Show all": will show all scans.
Below the list of overlayed scans :

"Load": will allow to load data files (.idf) from memory

"Load Set": will allow to load data sets (.ids) from memory

"Delete": will delete the selected (active) scan

"Delete all": will delete all scans from the list in the legend panel (it will not delete corresponding
the datafiles)

"Data appear": will allow user to change the appearance of the data: lines, colours, symbols.
3.2.6 Data file history list
All Ivium experimental data is automatically saved upon completion or user-abort of a measurement. A
data file is created with an automatically generated file name, based on a combination of a unique scan
id, date/time stamp, technique, etc. After the data is saved the file will be added to the history list of
most recent data files, below the Measurement results. This list of files will be visible in the order that
these were recorded or loaded, the most recent file at the top. These files can be used for quickly
switching to earlier results and back. The Listview panel keeps track of all data stored in the current
session; when (re)starting IviumSoft the most recent 25 stored/called datafiles are listed (default, can be
changed in the Datahandling options sheet). Files listed in RED are stored in the 'tempfiles' project and
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subject to automatic deletion after a user defined time (default, can be changed in the Datahandling
options sheet). The file will be listed in black when it is stored in a project file.
Multiple scans/files can be selected simultaneously by holding the [Shift] or [Ctrl] button and clicking on
the desired scans/files
The history list displays the most relevant scan (method) properties:
Scan id: automatically generated scan number.
Nscans: number of scans in the datafile/dataset; datasets are highlighted in yellow.
Title: scan title (= method parameter).
Technique: electrochemical technique used to acquire the data in the file.
SN: serial number of the Ivium instrument used to acquire the data.
Chan: Ivium-n-Stat channel number (=1 for a single channel instrument).
Cycle: cycle number for multi cycled experiments (=1 for single cycle).
Status: results status, 100% = fully completed
File: file path and name; the file name is automatically generated from scan id, date (mm,dd), technique
and first 8 letters of the title.
Double clicking on a file in the history list will load that file into the result window. Holding the [Shift] key
will allow multiple data files to be selected simultaneously. A Right mouse click will open a pop-up:

Load Scans: will load selected scans into the result window, replacing the previous.

Add Scans: will add selected scans to the result window (retaining the previous).

Copy files: will place the file on clipboard, for example for easy pasting into an e-mail, or a file
directory.

Add to Bookmarks: will add the selected data file to the Bookmarks.

Move to active project: will move the data file to the active project, i.e. the project that is
selected in the project window (in the Advanced parameters Control bar, area 3)

Move to tempfiles: will move the data file from the present location to the tempfile directory.
Datafiles in the Tempfile directory (or project) will be automatically deleted after a period of
(default) 90 days. This period can be changed in the Datahandling Options.

Delete permanently: will delete the data file permanently.
Data Storage:
Data files are stored in a Library\project structure. In the menu "File>Data Explorer" data files in all
libraries and projects can be explored, with a list of method parameters and result graph preview. In the
menu "Options>Datahandling Options" the data storing options can be specified, such as: timed
intermediate saving, automatic storage of a file copy to another designation (i.e. network drive), temp
file properties, etc.
3.2.7 Status bar
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At the bottom of the user interface the Status bar is located. Depending on the status of the instrument
(idle, running a method, kind of method, etc.) and/or the method that is run a series of parameters is
shown.
In the case of a CV scan (see figure above) it shows the real time E, I, number of acquired data points so
far, number, elapsed runtime of the scan and the notification that a measurement is in progress. In case
an OCP measurement is carried out, the OCP value can also be found in the status bar. During an
impedance measurement, next to the real time E and I, it shows the frequency of the datapoint
measured and the percentage of progress.
Note: The values shown in the information bar may be lagging behind when high sampling rates are
used. In that case data exchange between instrument and computer takes precedent over the display of
real time data.
3.3
File menu
The File menu under the main menu bar allows the user to import, export, open and store data files and
method files. The options are:
Data explorer: This opens a data exploration pop-up window. From this data explorer, Ivium data files
from all projects and libraries can be browsed, previewed, copied and loaded.
Save dataset in project: Saves all scans in the legend panel as a single data set in the active project, with
automatically generated file name
Save method in project: Will save the active method and parameters in the active project, a pop-up will
appear prompting for a file name confirmation.
Load data: Loads a datafile (*.idf) from a previously stored measurement. This action will clear any data
that might be present in the measurment results area already.
Save data: Saves the selected scan data to disk as *.idf. If no scan is selected, the most recent in the
legend panel is taken. A pop-up will open promting for a storage location and file name.
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Add data: Adds a datafile from memory to the legend panel. A pop-up will open promting for the file
location and name.
Load dataset: Loads a dataset from a previously stored set of scans (*.ids). This action will clear any data
that might be present in the measurment results area already.
Save dataset: Saves all scans in the legend panel as a single data set in a single file as *.ids file. A popup will open promting for a storage location and file name.
Save visible dataset: Saves all data in the legend panel that is made visible in the graph, to disk in a
single file as *.ids file. A pop-up will open promting for a storage location and file name.
Load method: Loads a previously saved measurement protocol (*.imf file) to the operating parameters.
This will replace the active operating (method) parameters.
Save method: Saves the current active measurement protocol as *.imf file.
Load Batchfile: Loads a previously stored bacth file in the Batch mode window.
Save Batchfile: Saves the programmed bacth file in the Batch mode window.
Export data as ASCII: Saves the selected scan from the legend panel to disk as textfile, without method
information. It is possible to add the time and date of the measurement. This feature can be activated in
the menu Tools>Datahandling options, on the "Content Tabsheet", by checking "Add timestamp".When
activated, the time and date will be written on the first line of the Exported ASCII file. The time
corresponds with the Starting Time of the scan.
Export DataSet asAscii: Saves all scans from the legend panel as ASCII in separate files with the addition
of '_x' to the filename, with x the sequence number of the scan.
Import data as ASCII: Imports a textfile as measurement data. The actual method protocol will be
assumed to apply to this data. This action will clear any data that might be present already.
Import CSV: Imports CSV file, such as the automatic generated CSV data file (see also Datahandling
Options). Note that the only CSV file with the proper format will be imported correctly.
Exit: Exits the IviumSoft program. If a measurement is still running while attempting to close IviumSoft,
a pop-up will appear prompting the user to continue closing and loose data, or cancel the closing of
IviumSoft.
3.4
Options menu
The Options menu allows the user to set instrument (hardware) options and datahandling options:
- Options: to change instrument, environment and FRA options. The Options>Options menu is only
available when an instrument is connected because some of these settings are changed inside the
instrument. When the Options-window is closed the instrument should sound a beep to acknowledge that
the changed settings are excepted. The Options sheet includes a variety of different settings, available in
2 tabs:
Settings

External Ivium modules and extended operating ranges can be activated.

Data display for corrosion calculation and charge calculation

Safety settings: parameters to terminate measurement for protection of the test object

Automatic current range switching threshold

Amplitude modification for anodizing application

Calibration option for FastScan module
FRA settingsheet (optimization of impedance results)

Stabilisation period before the measurement starts at the new frequency

Acquisition period of the signal

Result optimization through repeats and gain change allowance
- Datahandling options: for setting the options for automatic data storage, projects and libraries, timed
saving and memory management.
- Register idf/ids files: clicking this option will register Ivium data files (*.idf) and Ivium data sets
(*.ids) on your computer. This action will make it possible to double mouse click on an Ivium data file/set
which will open an instance of IviumSoft and load the data in the scan panel panel of the IviumSoft. Note
that each double click on a data file/set will open a new instance of IviumSoft.
3.4.1 Options - Module, Range and FRA
The Options menu Settings sheet allows the user to set a variety of instrument, environment and FRA
settings, available in 2 tabs:
Settings tab
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





External Ivium modules and extended operating ranges can be activated.
Data display for corrosion calculation and charge calculation
Safety settings: parameters to terminate measurement for protection of the test object
Automatic current range switching threshold
Amplitude modification for anodizing application
Calibration option for FastScan module
FRA settingsheet tab (optimization of impedance results)

Stabilisation period before the measurement starts at the new frequency

Acquisition period of the signal

Result optimization through repeats and gain change allowance
Settings
In the Settings tab 6 areas can be identified. Each of these areas allows a different group of controls to
be set by the operator.
Environment
60Hz: check this box in countries that have 60Hz mains frequency. A correct setting will strongly improve
noise suppression because the measurement period will be synchronised with the line frequency.
E extended range: check this box to activate the extended voltage range of your instrument, for example
the 10V range of a CompactStat.e, the 50V range of an IviumStat.XRe. Note that the increased potential
range decreases the potential resolution.
Edoubler/X100V: check this box if the Edoubler is connected (only for IviumStat20V), or the X100V
module.
CompactStat.8V: check this box when you are using an 8V-conversion CompactStat, and you want to set
the 8V potential range.
CompactStatPlus: check this box if the Plus-module (20V/250mA) is connected to the CompactStat.
type II: also check this box if the Plus2-module (10V/800mA) is connected to the CompactStat.
IviumBoost: check this box when the IviumBoost is Connected to the IviumStat. With the radio buttons
select the correct current range of your model IviumBoost.
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type II: also check this box if you use a type II IviumBoost.
MEA: check this box when you are connecting a MEA module
MultiWE32: check this box when you are using the MultiWE32 module. In the drop down list select the
number of MultiWE32 modules that you are connecting
Audio off: checking this option will disable the instrument's internal speaker (the beep-sound).
AC input: check this box to activate the AC input of the peripheral port. Only when checked can the AC
parameter be used in various methods.
E50 module: check this box when you are connecting an E50 module.
FastScan: check this box when you are connecting a FastScan.
Data display
mpy instead of mm/yr: when checked the reuslt of the calculation of the rate of corrosion is given in mpy
and not in mm/yr.
Automatic charge calc.: when checked the charge accumulation during potentiostatic transients and the
Energy and Charge in the Mixed Mode technique is calculated and updated real time in the graph during
the measurement.
100A Booster
High Speed Gstat mode:
Max 100A Booster current (CEabs):
Automatic disconnect
The automatic disconnect functions can be activated for extra protection of a testobject. When checked
and the cut-off criterium is reached during the operation of a method, the instrument will automatically
disconnect the cell cable and the measurement is terminated. This is controlled from inside the
instrument independent from the software that is running on the PC.
at external signal, Ext1 >: When this box is checked, the Analoginput1 of the peripheral port is
measured. When this signal exceeds the voltage that is entered in the adjacent box, the measurement
will be terminated.
at temperature: Unavailabele for change by user; when the instrument's inside reaches a temperature
exceeding 80 degC the measurement will be terminated. This is an automatic safety feature to protect
the instrument.
at Eovl (CE electrode): When this option is checked, in galvanostatic mode the instrument will terminate
the measurement when an E_overload is reached. The potential range can be set by user in the advanced
method parameters.
at current OVL (WE electrode): When this box is checked, in potentiostatic mode the instrument will
terminate the measurement when a current of 3.072 x the set current range is exceeded (i.e. for CR =
1mA, the measurement will be terminated at a current of 3.072mA). This option may also be used in
combination with Automatic Current Ranging (AutoCR). The measurement will then be terminated at
3.072 x the maximum CR setting.
If one of the active disconnect conditions is met, the cell will be disconnected automatically, and the
method in progress is aborted (most methods). The cell will remain off until the condition is removed and
the condition is reset. Resetting can be accomplished by toggling the Cell on/off, or restarting the
method. When a method is aborted by the automatic disconnect feature, a message is shown on the
bottom Status bar. Also the condition is logged in the process-report.
Note that Automatic disconnect is intended as a safety feature. It is directly hardwired in the electronics,
therefore it works instantaneous and does not depend on whatever the software is doing at that time.
Even in the event the software has crashed, the electrodes will still be disconnected on the alarm
conditions.
AutoCR
When automatic current ranging is active there are default protocols in place determing when the
switching of the CR should occur. The CR is switched when:

the current exceeds 80% of the current range; then will be switched to a higher current range;

the current falls below 5% of the current range for 4 consecutive measurements; then will be
switched to a lower current range.
In certain situations, it is useful to lower the underload threshold, for example for noisy signals, to create
more margin between CR switchpoints. For this situation the parameter "Underload at..." can be altered,
and the second condition above is altered. For example, when 1% is selected, the CR will only be
switched to a lower one when the current falls below 1% of the CR.
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NOTE I: The "Underload at..." parameter is adjustable from 0.2% to 25% in 0.1% increments, default is
5%.
NOTE II: Changing the "Underload at..." parameter is only active during the measurement for which it is
set. The value is automatically reset to its 5% default when the instrument is disconnected from
IviumSoft.
Amplitude modification
This parameter is specifically for instruments that have been modified for Etch control application. To
facilitate proper dataprocessing adjust the "ACfactor" from default '1' to value '10'
Calibrate
The calibrate functions allow the calibration of various Ivium modules:
WE32 offsets: clicking this button will calibrate the offsets between the channels of the MultiWE32
module.
Calibrate FastScan: clicking this button will calibrate the FastScan.
FastScan Default: Clicking this button will restore the default settings of the FastScan.
Note that to properly allow the calibration, communication and storage the user should wait at least 20s
after clicking any of these buttons before taking the next action.
FRA settingssheet


Stabilisation period: time delay after an ac-signal is applied, before acquisition is started. This
allows the cell and instrument to reach a steady state after a new frequency or amplitude is
applied. It can be specified as an absolute time (seconds) or as a multiple/fraction of the applied
signal period (cycles). Both criteria must be true before the measurement starts, thus the longest
of the 2 is taken.
Acquisition period: time period that the ac-signals are measured. It can be specified as an
absolute time (seconds) or as a multiple/fraction of the applied signal period (cycles). Both
criteria must be true before the measurement ends, thus the longest of the 2 is taken. Increasing
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

the measurement time will let the instrument acquire more datapoints/cycles that are used to
calculate the average impedance, and thus give more accurate results. Range: 2s - 60s.
Result optimalization: set maximum number of re-measurements for each impedance point. In
case of an overload or underload, the instrument will attempt to change its settings: current
range and/or gain settings, and measure again at the new settings. This process continues until
optimum settings are reached, or the maximum number of retries has occurred. Increasing these
numbers will improve accuracy, but extend measurement duration.
Set default: will reset all FRA-setting to default values
3.4.2 Datahandling options
Data recorded with Ivium instruments via IviumSoft is automatically stored in a data file. The file names
and folder locations for auto-saving are automatically created in a structured manner as projects in
labraries. In the Options menu 'Datahandling options' pop-up window the settings for file storage can be
chosen. More details are also given in the chapter Data files where file storage and structure is discussed.
Storing data - tab
Data storage
Operator name: The users name may be entered; this will be stored in the datafile
Library: Name of a group of projects. A library is a higher folder level, that can be used to group projects
together. The active library is used to store new datafiles; a new one can be created, or an existing one
can be called from the drop down menu.
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Project: Folder that contains the datafiles. the active Project folder is used to store new datafiles; a new
Project can be created, or an existing one can be called from the drop down menu. A quick access to the
project name can also be found in the 'Advanced parameters' area.
Timed saving every: Number of minutes before next automatic data saving will occur. All data will be
saved automatically upon completion of the experiment. However, if a long term experiment is carried
out, the data is also automatically saved at the end of every period that is specified here (see also
Automatic timed saving).
Maximum workfile size: Maximum workfile size before automatic datastreaming takes place; default is
400,000 points (min. 2,000; max. 2,000,000).
Maximum in historylist: Number of datafiles listed in history list, see also Data file history list under
Screen layout .For experiments ultimately resulting in more scans/files than specified here, all scans/files
will be shown in the history list upon completion.
Always create CSV file: When checked, every time a data file (.idf) is saved, a copy of the primary data is
saved as an ASCII file in the same location (this CSV file will have the same name as the .idf file). The
CSV file only contains the raw data, with comma separated columns (the same as when "copy to
clipboard" is selected from the "Result data" tab). Usually the .csv extension is registered by MS Excel,
and double clicking will open it.
Save multiscan runs...: Multiscan experiments (such as CV) can produce multiple cycles after a single
click on "Start". These cycles can be saved in the usual manner with each cycle in a separate .idf file.
However, when this "dataset" option is activated, such scans are stored together in a single .ids file.
Maximum visible cycles: The number specified here is the maximum number of cyles (latest cycles) that
will be shown in the graph during a multi-cycle experiment. When running a multi-cylce experiment with
a large number of cycles limiting this number will prevent the graph from becoming undecipherable.
Maximum stored cycles: The number specified here is the maximum number of cyles (latest cycles) that
will be stored in the datafile during a multi-cycle experiment. When running a multi-cylce experiment
with a large number of cycles limiting this number will prevent the data file from becoming too large.
Copy data to external folder
This allows to store copies of the datafiles to other locations, such as user defined folders, network
drives, dropbox, etc. The data is stored simultaneous with the automatic storage to the project location.
Save datacopy: When checked, a copy of the data is stored to the user defined folder. If the destination
location is not available, or invalid, the command is ignored without an error message.
Redefine filename: Normally the filename of the external copy will be the same as for the automatic
generated filename of the project version. However this behavior can be overridden with this checkbox. If
checked, the user defined filename is used instead. If the user defined filename already exists, an
underscore and (incremented) number is added to the filename.
Delete temporaryfiles
The folder "Tempfiles" is normaly used to store files with a temporary status, such as exploratory
measurements. These will automatically be deleted after the user defined time, default 90 days.
Never: When checked files in the 'Temporary files' folder are never automatically deleted.
After: Allows the user to define the period after which files in the 'Temporary files' folder are
automatically deleted.
Clicking "Apply" will apply the shown (changed) settings.
Clicking "Cancel" will cancel any changes entered in this session.
Content - tab
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In the Datahandling options > Content tab it is possible to set some preferences regarding data:

Add timestamp: will add a timestanp to data exported as ASCII file, for example to accommodate
export of data to other programs such as Origin. When activated, the time and date will be
written on the first line of the Exported ASCII file. The time corresponds with the Starting Time of
the scan.

mpy instead of mm/yr: will change the unit of corrosion rate from mm/yr to mpy
3.4.3 Ivium data file registration
It is possible to "register" Ivium datafiles (*.idf) and Ivium datasets (*.ids). This action will make it
possible to double mouse click on an Ivium data file/set to load it in the scan panel of the IviumSoft.
To activate this option, in the Options menu click on "Register idf/ids files".
Each time when double clicking on an Ivium datafile/set, the file/set will be opened in the scan panel of a
new IviumSoft instance.
3.5
Tools menu
Device maintenance: the device maintenance window will allow the user to diagnose the instrument,
calibrate and upgrade instrument firmware. Also in this window the idle sampling of the instrument may
be disabled.
Restore device: this option is only available when the instrument is not connected in the software. When
not connected this option may be used to return the instrument to factory settings, factory firmware or
previous firmware.
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Performance test: opens a window to run a performance test of the instrument.
Pulse generator: opens a window that allows operation of the pulse generator.
CurrentInterrupt: opens the window to operate the CIM (Current Interrupt Module).
Define channels: to define sModules as channel; only available with an Ivium-n-Stat
3.6
Help menu
Contents: lists the topics on which help is available
Topic search: search for help on specific topics
Help on help: how to use the online help tool
3.7
About
This opens a pop-up window that shows the release version of the IviumSoft that is running (left bottom)
and between brackets behind that is the version number of the IVIUM_remdriver.dll that is connected
with this IviumSoft version.
Also shown are the e-mail and web addresses to contact Ivium Technologies.
3.8
Data file format
See Data files.
3.9
Multichannel control
The IviumSoft allows multiple channels to be controlled and displayed from one instance. Additionally,
multiple channels can be started synchronously running the same method. Data from different
instruments and/or channels can be shown in a single graph.
Note that Multichannel control is a beta-option: it has been tested but not officially released, some small
bugs may still be undetected. The official release of Multichannel control will coincide with a new version
of IviumSoft which is scheduled in May 2017.
To activate the multichannel mode, click on the Channel selector window in the Advanced parameters
area of the IviumSoft window, and press CTRL:
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Now open the drop down list of to select the number of channels to be used:
If more than one channel is selected, the channel selection bar will open that allows selection of each
channel by different tab sheet, simultaneous control of all connected channels, and simultaneous plotting
of data of all channels.
sych. channels: The "synch. channels" checkbox to the left of the selection bar determines the
synchronized/unsynchronized operation of the channels for methods. When this is left unchecked, all
channels will behave independently. Each channel may be loaded with a different procedure, and when
Start is pressed, only the selected channel starts. In synchronized mode, all channels will use the same
measurement procedure. Now when Start is pressed, all channels will start at the same time, using the
procedure of the selected channel. However, note that since all channels could measure different values,
in combination with dynamic vertexes/thresholds/etc, the measurements may not end at the same time
for all channels.
Connectall: When clicking "Connectall" all phyiscal channels that are assigned to each of the tabs (in the
picture above Ch 1 - Ch 4) will be automatically connected to the software.
Multiview: Clicking multiview will display the graphic results of all assigned channels in as many graph
windows in the Measurement results area. Clicking the same button, which has now become 'Singleview',
again will switch back to a single graph showing the results of the selected channel-tab.
Channel tabs: Clicking each of these tabs will open the Measurement results and the Operating
parameters of that channel. Note that the channel number shown in this tab is not necessarily the same
as the actual physical channel of the Ivium-n-Stat.
Operating multichannel mode
To start, first the instruments/channels (hardware) must to be assigned and connected to the channels in
IviumSoft (software). Select the instrument serial- or channel number from the serial number drop down
list and connect it in the usual manner. Repeat this for all devices until each is assigned and connected to
a channel. When an instrument is assigned and connected, the channel-label font on the selectionbar
turns bold. Alternatively, assign a channel to each tab and then press 'Connectall' to connect all channels
simultaneously (this is especially usful when (re)connecting to repeat an experiment).
When "synch. channels" is not active, in the Operating parameters Direct mode and Methods can be used
as before on the selected channel. By default "single view" is active, which means that only the data of
the selected channel is displayed. The other channels will be active on the background. One can step
through all channels by selecting the corresponding button on the channel selection bar.
Alternatively, all channels can be shown at the same time by selecting the "Multiview" button.
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Multiview will show all channels in separate plots, and it will open a table below the graphs showing the
real time current, potential and status of each channel. The checkboxes in the table can be used to
selectively make channelplots (in)visible.
Above the legend panel, the option "All in 1" can be selected to plot all data in a single plot, instead of in
multiple individual graphs (default). Obviously the "All in 1" option only makes sense when all channels
use the same technique and/or dataformat.
The Maximize button can be used to hide the operating parameters so that the full screen is used to
display data.
Saving data proceeds in the usual way, each channel data is saved separately.
3.10 Data Explorer
From the top menu bar, a Data explorer can be opened: File>Data explorer.
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This will open a Data Explorer window (note that depending on the amount of data, this may take some
seconds while indexing the first time):
The Data Explorer window shows:

The Library and Project tree to the left

The list of data files in the selected Project to the right

When a data file is selected by mouse-clicking on it once, it will show a preview of the graph and
method parameters below. Double clicking on a dfatafile will load the file into the result window.
The list



of data files can show different colors:
Regular black on white: data file
Highlighted in yellow: data set
Highlighted in green: method file
Right-mouse clicking on a data file will open a list with 4 options:
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



Set Bookmark: will bookmark this datafile
Remove Bookmark: will remove the this file from Bookmarks
Copy file: will put the selected file(s) on the clipboard for copying (to, for example, a folder or email).
Delete file: will delete the data file permanently.
Once a file is selected, at the bottom of the Data Explorer window 4 options are available:

Load File: will load the data file to the result window.

Add File: will add the data to the data already present in the result window.

Add Overlay: will add the data to the Overlay panel.

Cancel: will close the Data Explorer window.
4. Getting started
To start working with an Ivium instrument, first the instrument has to be properly installed. Prior to
installation of the instrument, the Ivium instrument drivers have to be installed via the Ivium_driver
installer on your installation CD, see also Driver installation. Then connect the instrument to your
computer as instructed for your instrument. After the instrument is connected to the computer (and
switched on) the instrument serial number appears in the serial number read out window in the Device
and software control area of the IviumSoft. It can now be connected to the IviumSoft by clicking the
'Connect' button next to the serial number. The instrument is now ready for use.
4.1
Installation and setup
Install software before connecting the USB cable.
(Refer also to: Quick reference guide)
Software installation:
1. Insert CDROM with IviumSoft Installation program.
2. From the CDROM root directory, run "setup.exe", and follow instructions.
Driver installation:
After installation of the IviumSoft and BEFORE connecting your instrument, proceed with the Driver
installation.
Hardware Installation:
Depending on your location and environment, as well as whether you have additional Ivium modules or
instruments connected, the Ivium instrument hardware configuration (for your specific instrument check
the instrument chapter of this manual) may need to be correctly set in the Options menu.
1. After installation of the IviumSoft software and Ivium driver, start the IviumSoft.
2. In the left top of the IviumSoft window mouse-click on the "Connect" button.
3. In the menu go to "Options>Options".
4. Under "Environment" check the relevant boxes.
5. Close the window. The new settings are now implemented in the Ivium instrument. To make sure
these new settings are activated, in the left top of the IviumSoft click the "Connect" button once to
disconnect the device and again to reconnect the device. The instrument is now ready for use.
4.2
Driver installation
An increasing number of Windows versions is currently being used: XP/Vista/7/8/10. Because the
installation of the Ivium instrument driver is different for each version, a driver installer program has
been made that automatically installs the driver correctly, regardless the version of windows (32/64 bits).
This program:
Ivium_driverinstaller.exe
is included in IviumSoft set-up CDs and is automatically copied to your ..\IviumStat\iviumdrivers
directory upon installation of IviumSoft. But it can also be copied manually if you have an older version
installation CD. To install the Ivium Driver for an Ivium Instrument in Windows, follow these instructions.
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Before driver installation:

Do NOT connect the device before installing the driver.

If not done already, first install IviumSoft by running the setup.exe on your IviumSoft installation
CD.

For users who do not use Windows 8 or 10, continue to Driver installation Automatic.

For users of Windows versions newer than 7, first configure Windows (for Windows 8, for
Windows 10), then disable the driver signature enforcement, before running the Driver
installation Automatic.
After succesfully installing the drivers the Ivium Instrument can be connected to the PC. The drivers will
now automatically be loaded and you are ready to use your instrument .
4.2.1 Configuring Windows 8 and 8.1
In the Windows 8 start screen, move your pointer to the upper right corner until you see the menu bar as
displayed in the picture below. Select "Settings".
Figure 1, Windows 8 & Windows 8.1 start screen
From the settings bar select "Change PC settings":
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Figure 2, Change PC settings
For windows 8
At the next screen select "General"on the left side of the screen. Scroll down the list on the right and
under "Advanced start-up" select : Restart now".
Figure 3.1, PC settings (Windows 8)
For Windows 8.1
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At the next screen select "Update and recovery" on the left side of the screen.
Figure 3.2, PC settings (Windows 8.1)
A new screen will be displayed, select "Recovery" on the left side of the screen and then select "Restart
Now" under Advanced Start-up.
Figure 4, Update and recovery
A new screen will be displayed, select "Troubleshoot"; in the following screen select "Advanced options";
in the folowing screen select "Windows Startup Settings". Then the start up settings screen will be
displayed: select "Restart".
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Figure 5, Startup Settings
The PC will be restarted.
When the PC is restarted, a new screen will be displayed, select option 7 "Disable driver signature
enforcement" by pressing 7 or F7:
Windows 8 will now be started with the driver signature enforcement disabled. The driver can now be
installed without Windows blocking the installation process.
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4.2.2 Configuring Windows 10
In Windows 10 click the Windows start button.
Open the "Settings" app, this app can also be found under "All apps" and then "Settings".
A new window will open, select "Update & Security"
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In the next screen select "Recovery" and select "Restart now" under "Advanced start-up"
Continue to chapter Disable driver signature enforcement.
4.2.3 Disable driver signature enforcement
Following the steps to configure Windows 8 or 10, a new screen will be displayed, select "Troubleshoot":
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A new screen will be displayed, select "Advanced options":
A new screen will be displayed, select "Windows Startup Settings":
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A new screen will be displayed, select "Restart":
The PC will be restarted.
When the PC is restarted, a new screen will be displayed, select option 7 "Disable driver signature
enforcement" by pressing 7 or F7:
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Windows will now be started with the driver signature enforcement disabled. The driver can now be
installed without Windows blocking the installation process, continue to the Automatic driver installation.
4.2.4 Driver installation Automatic
On your PC navigate to the ..iviumstat\iviumdrivers folder. Start the application:
Ivium_driverinstaller.exe.
1) Depending on your PC settings the following message may appear:
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2) Select "Yes" (the files needed for installation will temporarily be stored on your computer).
3) In the following step the program will detect if you are using a 32-bit or 64-bit Operating System.
4) Immediately after detection of the used OS (32-bit or 64-bit) the Driver Installer will be opened and a
welcome screen will be displayed.
Click "Next" to continue.
5) The driver will now start installing. During install you will be prompted if you want to install the driver
because windows can't verify the publisher (Windows XP will show a similar message, select 'Continue
anyway') :
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6) Select: "Install this driver software anyway".
7) The first part of the driver will be installed, this may take several minutes.
8) After this you are prompted again with the same message:
9) Select: "Install this driver software anyway".
10) The second part of the driver will be installed, this may take several minutes.
11) When finished the following screen will be displayed:
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12) Click "Finish" to complete the driver installation process.
After succesfully installing the drivers the Ivium Instrument can be connected to the PC. The drivers will
now automatically be loaded and you are ready to use your instrument .
4.3
pocketSTAT
pocketSTAT: Handheld potentiostat/galvanostat/ZRA with integrated impedance analyser
The pocketSTAT is a complete electrochemical measurement instrument with the size of a smart phone.
It has been specifically designed for (field) measurements such as corrosion and analytical
electrochemistry. The pocketSTAT receives its power and is controlled via the USB cable. The housing is
made of strong, yet light weight, aluminium and complies with the ip44 waterproof rating.
1. Kit
The pocketSTAT is delivered in an aluminium protective case. Next to the pocketSTAT instrument the
case holds the cell cable, a USB to miniUSB cable, 4 aligator clips and a test cell. The manual, operating
instructions and IviumSoft installation CD are separate.
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2. Installation
2.1. New users
1. Before first use of the pocketSTAT, install IviumSoft from the CD by running the setup.exe.
2. Navigate to the ..\IviumStat\iviumdrivers folder and run the Ivium_driverinstaller.exe. If prompted,
select to install the drivers anyway.
3. After the IviumSoft and drivers are installed, connect the USB cable between the computer (M-USB)
and the pocketSTAT (M-miniUSB).
4. The pocketSTAT is USB-powered, so when the USB connection is made the pocketSTAT's internal
microPC will start up. Please allow 10 seconds for the microPC to start up. When it has started up, an
animation/slide show will start on the display showing a few characteristic electrochemical graphs and the
Ivium logo. After the slide show has started, click "connect" in the IviumSoft.
5. Connect the cell cable to the pocketSTAT. Note that it can only be inserted in 1 position.
6. The pocketSTAT is now ready for use.
2.2 Existing IviumSoft users
NOTE that the Ivium instrument driver has been updated for use with the pocketSTAT. Before using your
new instrument:
1. - Uninstall the existing IviumSoft, and install new IviumSoft from CD (run setup.exe);
- then run Ivium_driverinstaller (..\IviumStat\iviumdrivers)
Or:
- Navigate to your folder ..IviumStat\iviumdrivers and delete all drivers (all files in the folder, including
the FastScan folder itself). Then copy ..\IviumStat\iviumdrivers\Ivium_driverinstaller.exe from CD and
run it.
2. After the IviumSoft and drivers are installed, connect the USB cable between the computer (M-USB)
and the pocketSTAT (M-miniUSB).
3. The pocketSTAT is USB-powered, so when the USB connection is made the pocketSTAT's internal
microPC will start up. Please allow 10 seconds for the microPC to start up. When it has started up, an
animation/slide show will start on the display showing a few characteristic electrochemical graphs and the
Ivium logo. After the slide show has started, click "connect" in the IviumSoft.
4. Connect the cell cable to the pocketSTAT. Note that it can only be inserted in 1 position.
5. The pocketSTAT is now ready for use.
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3. Display
The pocketSTAT is equipped with a full color display:
When the pocketStat is connected to the PC via USB, and the microPC has started, an animation/slide
show will start on the display, showing a few characteristic electrochemical graphs and the Ivium logo. It
will run for approximately 30 minutes and then the pocketSTAT will enter sleep mode to conserve energy.
As soon as the the pocketSTAT is connected in the IviumSoft, the slide show will stop and the display will
show the actual E (potential) and I (current) values, with a graph window below and "Ivium" to the right:

In idle mode (when not running an experiment/method) the E and I values are updated every
second, corresponding to the E and I values displayed in the "Direct" tab in IviumSoft.

During a DC method, the E and I values will continue to be updated during the experiment, if the
sample rate of the experiment allows this. Below the E and I values a representative DC graph is
shown. This is not the real-time actual data, but just an example. The Display does not show
real-time graphic data during a DC technique.

During an AC method, the f (frequency) and a (amplitude) will be displayed in stead of the E and
I. These values will continue to be updated during the experiment. Below the f and a values, the
"SigView" window will show with the real-time trace signals.

Above the graph in the display window the arrow to the left will change alternating between ">"
and "<" to indicate the instrument is available. To the right of the arrow the connection is shown:
"*cell" when connected to the cell cable and cell, "*dum_x" to indicate the internal dummy cell
that it is connected to; when no measurement is run, the area is blank. Next to that the
instrument status is shown: "*idle" when the instrument is connected but not engaged in any
measurment or when operated from the "Direct" tab, "*meas" when a measurement/method is in
progress. To the far right the actual current range is shown.
When the pocketSTAT is disconnected in the IviumSoft, the display will show the slide show again for
approximately 30 minutes and then the pocketSTAT will enter sleep mode to conserve energy.
4. Electrode connection
The pocketSTAT cell cable has 4 banana's that are marked on the cable and by color. The working WE
electrode is red and marked 'W', the Counter CE electrode is black and marked 'C', the reference RE
electrode is blue and marked 'R', the ground GND is green and marked '?'. The pocketSTAT can be
connected in a 2- or 3 electrode configuration:

in 2 electrode configuration connect WE to the working electrode and RE + CE together to the
counter electrode;

in 3 electrode configuration connect WE to the working electrode, RE to the reference electrode
and CE to the counter electrode.
5. TestCell
A TestCell is delivered with the pocketSTAT. The TestCell has connections for the WE, CE, RE and GND.
The WE and RE+CE are connected via a 1 kOhm resistor. This TestCell should be connected to the cell
cable when a performance test is executed.
6. Operation
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After connecting the pocketSTAT to the computer via the delivered USB cable, start the IviumSoft control
and data analysis software on the computer. The pocketSTAT will identify itself in the left top of the user
interface with its serialnumber, for example "P15502"; the serial number can be found on the back of the
pocketSTAT instrument. Click connect in the left top of the IviumSoft. Now the pocketSTAT is ready to
operate.
4.4
Vertex
Ivium manufactures various versions of the entry level potentiostat Vertex. The Vertex can optionally be
equipped with an integrated impedance analyser. The Vertex range of instruments includes two design
platforms:
Vertex 100mA/1A
Vertex 2A/5A/10A
4.4.1 Vertex 100mA/1A
The Vertex is an entry level potentiostat/galvanostat with optional impedance analyser . It is controlled
by the same powerful suite of IviumSoft as the rest of the Ivium Technologies instruments. The Vertex is
available in various models:
Model
Vertex.100mA.DC
Vertex.100mA.EIS
Impedance analyser
NO
Yes, 10uHz - 1MHz
Vertex.1A.DC
Vertex.1A.EIS
NO
Yes, 10uHz - 1MHz
The model and availability of an impedance analyser is automatically detected by the IviumSoft. No
options need to be activated.
1. Connecting the instrument
Install






IviumSoft and Ivium drivers as instructed. Then:
Plug in the power adapter
Connect the USB to the PC
Open IviumSoft
Switch on the Vertex by pressing the on/off switch at the front of the Vertex. The switch will now
light up.
Wait for the drivers to be automatically loaded. The serial number of the instrument will appear in
the IviumSoft.
Connect the Vertex in the IviumSoft
Now the Vertex is ready for use.
2. On/off front switch
The button/switch at the front of the Vertex is a multifunctional switch:
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a. Upon first connection the on/off switch is pushed to activate the instrument. After this the blue light
around the switch will flash briefly every second to indicate idle mode.
b. When the Vertex is used to run a method, the light around the switch will turn red for the duration of
the method. After the method is finished, the light will turn back to blue.
c. When the Vertex instrument is off, pushing the switch and holding it for ca. 10 sec will set the Vertex
to recovery mode. After this the user can proceed to restore the instrument (to factory settings/factory
firmware/previous firmware).
d. When the Vertex is switched on and the switch is pushed for >8 sec. the Vertex will be switched off.
3. WE2/analog input
The Vertex cannot be equipped with a bipotentiostat. However, the WE2 lead (small red banana) in the
standard cell cable, is connected to the peripheral analog input and can be used to monitor external
voltage signals. The signal can be monitored from IviumSoft using the apropriate parameter. Only one
signal at a time can be measured.
WE analog input function:
Function
Analog input 1 (Anin1)
Channel X input (Xin)
AC-input (ACin)
Signal
0 to +5V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40 kHz
±4V, 16 bits resolution
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-1MHz with variable attenuation
4. Floating operation
The Vertex can be operated in floating mode. To activate floating operation in IviumSoft in the Direct
mode select the 'Extern' tab at the bottom check the box "Floating mode".
4.4.2 Vertex.S 2A/5A/10A
The Vertex.S is an entry level potentiostat/galvanostat with integrated peripheral I/O port for external
interfacing and signal acquisition, and optional impedance analyser. The instrument is controlled by the
same powerful suite of IviumSoft as the rest of the Ivium Technologies instruments. All standard
electrochemical techniques are available.
The Vertex.S is available in various models:
Model
Vertex.5A.DC
Vertex.5A.EIS
Impedance analyser
NO
Yes, 10uHz - 1MHz
Vertex.10A.DC
Vertex.10A.EIS
NO
Yes, 10uHz - 1MHz
Vertex.2A.DC (20V)
Vertex.2A.EIS (20V)
NO
Yes, 10uHz - 1MHz
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The model and availability of an impedance analyser is automatically detected by the IviumSoft. No
options need to be activated.
1. Connecting the instrument
Install






IviumSoft and Ivium drivers as instructed. Then:
Plug in the power adapter
Connect the USB to the PC
Open IviumSoft
Switch on the Vertex.S by pressing the on/off switch at the front of the Vertex.S. The switch will
now light up. After the instrument has started up (ca. 10s after pushing the on/off button) the
status LED at the front, between the cell connector and the peripheral I/O connector, will light up
blue.
Wait for the drivers to be automatically loaded. The serial number of the instrument will appear in
the IviumSoft.
Connect the Vertex.S in the IviumSoft
Now the Vertex is ready for use.
2. Vertex.S status LED
The status of the Vertex.S is indicated by the color of the status LED at the front, between the cell
connector and the peripheral I/O connector:
blue (blinking white): idle with no pc-client connected
green (blinking white): pc-client connected, Direct mode, cell = off
red (blinking white): pc-client connected, Direct mode, cell = on
red (continuous): pc-client connected, Method mode
The status LED will blink white every time a datapoint is taken. In Direct mode and/or when the
instrument is idle, this is once per second. When running a method the frequency depends on the rate of
sampling; at high rates the LED will blink faster, resulting in an apparant change of color from red to
pink.
3. On/off front switch
The button at the front of the Vertex.S is a multifunctional button:
1. Upon first connection the on/off button is pushed to activate the instrument. After this the rim around
the button will light up blue.
2. To switch off the Vertex.S: push and hold the on/off button for >5 sec. The Vertex.S will be switched
off.
3. When the Vertex.S instrument is off, pushing the button and holding it for ca. 10 sec will set the
Vertex.S to recovery mode. After this the user can proceed to restore the instrument (to factory
settings/factory firmware/previous firmware), see also Note T4 in the manual section of your IviumSoft
installation (IviumStat file folder/manuals).
4. Floating operation
The Vertex.S modelscan be operated in floating mode. The floating mode is user selectable and can be
accessed from the "Direct panel" > "Extern" tab in IviumSoft. To operate the channel in floating mode,
check the box: "Floating mode".
NOTE1: The Vertex.S is by default not floating.
NOTE2: The "Floating mode" setting is not stored in the instrument or settings. This means that each
time the instrument is started, and floating mode is required, the floating operation needs to be
activated.
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5. WE2 lead as voltage sensor instead of bipotentiostat
The Vertex.S is not equipped with a bipotentiostat. Its WE2 lead can instead be used to measure
potentials relative to the Sense lead (S) in techniques that measure voltages: galvanostatic
LSV/CV/CP/mixed mode.
When the 'E at WE2' parameter is checked, the potential of the WE2 lead is measured instead of the
primary WE. The 'E at WE2' can be activated from the "Direct panel", "Extern" tab.
In Direct mode, the WE2 voltage sensor can be activated with a checkbox "E at WE2" on the "Extern
tabsheet". In the Method mode for techniques that measure potentials, the WE2 sensor can be chosen by
checking the "E at WE2" method parameter. When selected, the voltage measured at the WE2 lead is
shown in stead of the WE-voltage, in the corresponding graph or read out window.
WE2 voltage sensor lead specifications:
a) Range
b) Input resistance
c) Bandwidth
±10V
>12Mohm
> 100kHz
6. Internal dummy cells and 2 Electrode mode
As opposed to the IviumStat and CompactStat instruments, the Vertex.S is not equipped with internal
dummy cells. Also the 2-electrode mode is not available. If only a WE and CE are present in your cell,
simply connect the RE (blue) to the CE and the S (white) to the WE.
7. Peripheral port
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The peripheral port of the Vertex.S is accessible via the female 15 pins sub-D connector at the front of
the instrument. The Peripheral port pinouts are given in the table below.
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Function Remarks
+5V
Dig input 1
Yin Range ±4V
Dig output 1 Rin=2.2kohm
Dig output 3 Rin=2.2kohm
Iout 1V/Current Range
Analog in 1 ±10V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
Ac input -4 to +4V
Ac output -0.5 to +0.5 V
Xin Range +/-4V
GND
Dig output 2 Rin=2.2kohm
An output 1 -10 to +10V*
Eout
Analog in 2 ±10V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
*A setting of 0V in the IviumSoft corresponds with an output of +10V; a setting of 4V in the IviumSoft corresponds
with an output of -9.48V; a setting of 2.048V in the IviumSoft corresponds with an output of =0V; etc.
Note: in floating mode, the peripheral signals are referred to the local Vertex.S gnd. In floating mode, the
peripheral port should only be used with floating equipment.
Using the peripheral port in combination with PDA
When a PDA is connected (via the DB37 to DB15 connector cable), the default analog input from the PDA
(+/-2V) is converted to a PDA output of 0 to +4V (to accommodate the CompactStat and IviumStat) and
measured on default input of the Vertex.S (+/-10V). This means that in Direct mode an input in the PDA
translates to a reading in IviumSoft of:
Input in PDA Reading in IviumSoft*
0
2.05
-2
0.0
+2
4.0
etc.
*Note that slight offsets may be possible due to the combination potentiostat/PDA. To ensure a fully accurate reading
it is advisable to check the values and if necessary create a calibration curve.
When running an experimental method in Method mode, make the method parameter "Analog inputs" =
"2 channels". To display the actual PDA input voltage in the analog input graph (click "Ain" in the graphic
toolbar to the left of the graph window) go to the method parameter "Data Options". In the pop-up
window for the apropriate plot use the transformation:
A + B*y
with A = -2.048 and B = 5.0
4.5
CompactStat
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The CompactStat is a portable USB powered potentiostat/galvanostat with integrated impedance
analyser.
1. Available models
The CompactStat.h is available in various models:
Model
CompactStat.h
CompactStat.h10800
CompactStat.h20250
CompactStat.h10030
Compliance
±10V/±30mA/FRA 10uHz - 3MHz
±10V/±800mA/FRA 10uHz - 3MHz
±20V/±250mA/FRA 10uHz - 3MHz
±100V/±30mA/FRA 10uHz - 3MHz
At the rear panel:

power connector: fits the supplied 5V power adapter.

USB connector: fits to the supplied USB A/B cable which should be connected between instrument
and PC.

Peripheral port: 37pin connector that provides access to a range of analog/digital input/output
signals.

Metal clip between USB housing and Peripheral port screw: remove this clip for Floating
operation.
At the



front panel:
On LED: when the instrument is turned on from the PC, this LED will light up blue.
Cell LED: when the cell is on (CE), this LED will light up red.
Cell connector: 15p connector that fits the supplied electrode cable. Above the connector is
indicated the compliance of the CompactStat (see above for available models).
2. Power and compliance
The CompactStat instrument can be powered from the USB cable. In this configuration the CompactStat
can be used anywhere (in the field) in combination with a laptop. In USB powered configuration the
compliance current of the instrument is guaranteed to +/-1mA via the external adapter, however with
most modern laptops and PCs the full +/-30mA will be feasible. But it is best to be aware that when
powered via the USB cable, the instrument draws its power from the pc. USB powered devices may
formally draw a maximum of 500 mA. When in doubt whether your USB connection can supply enough
power, some restrictions may be applied to the CompactStat to remain below this formal limit:

10 mA current range should not be used

internal dummy cells should not be used

automatic 2-electrode mode should not be used
Note 1: No features are disabled in USB powered mode. The operator should be aware that formal USB
limits may be exceeded if he/she applies the features listed above.
Note 2: Some USB hubs are not compliant to 500 mA, and cannot be used to power the CompactStat. In
this case, connect the CompactStat directly to the USB port of the pc, or use the external power adapter.
Alternatively, the CompactStat can be powered from the adapter. When powered from the external
adapter, the instrument can access full power and no restrictions apply.
To switch from USB to adapter power, first unplug USB, then insert adapter followed by USB. To switch
from adapter to USB, unplug adapter and USB, then insert USB.
The CompactStat selects its power supply automatically based on the presence/absence of the dcconnector plug. If the IviumSoft program is not running, or the instrument is disconnected in the
IviumSoft, but the USB cable is still connected to the PC/laptop, the CompactStat is put in standby mode
(blue LED is off). In standby mode, the instrument will lower power consumption to about 50 mA.
In the serial number read-out window, the lower case 'b' before the serial number indicates that this
CompactStat is using usb-power, while a capital 'B' indicates mains-adapter power. This can be verified in
Device maintenance, under Tools, by selecting "Check device".
3. Connecting the instrument
Install IviumSoft and Ivium drivers as instructed. Then:
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- Plug in the power adapter cable followed by the USB cable (or only the USB cable when operation on
USB power only is desired).
- Connect the USB cable to the PC. The serial number of the instrument will appear in the IviumSoft.
- Open IviumSoft
- Connect the CompactStat in the IviumSoft
Now the CompactStat is ready for use.
4. Selecting the Voltage range
Standard CompactStat
The CompactStat.e is capable of +/-10V compliance/applied voltage. By default the instrument operates
up to a maximum of +/-4V; to increase the operating range to +/-10V in the menu bar select
"Options>Options" and the tabsheet "Settings". Now tick the box next to "E extended range". Close the
options sheet, and in the top-left disconnect the instrument by clicking the "Connect" button. Wait 10
seconds and re-connect the instrument by clicking the same "Connect" button. Now the new range
setting and corresponding calibration values are active .
Note: Increasing the voltage range proportionally decreases the applied voltage resolution.
CompactStat with internal power booster
The Ivium CompactStat.e series instruments is optionally equipped with an internal power booster (see
models above). Several internal booster are available:
I) 10V / 800mA (IP10)
II) 20V / 250mA (IP20)
III) 100V / 30mA (IP100)
(The Internal boosters 800mA (IP10) and 250mA (IP20) are replacements for the Plus- and Plus2modules that can be added to the CompactStat externally).
USB powered: The CompactStat.e with internal booster is set-up in such a way that when the instrument
is powered from USB only, the compliance as mentioned above for the Standard CompactStat is valid and
the internal booster is not activated.
Adapter powered: When the CompactStat.e with internal booster is powered from the adapter, the
internal booster is automatically activated. This means that:
I) The CompactStat.e10800 with booster 10V/800mA automatically can deliver 800mA. But the +/-10V
range needs to be activated separately, see standard CompactStat applied voltage above.
II) The CompactStat.e20250 with booster 20V/250mA automatically can deliver 250mA and the +/-20V
range is automatically activated.
II) For the CompactStat.e10030 with booster 100V/300mA the +/-100V range is automatically activated.
5. Bipotentiostat
When activated in the Method parameters, the bipotentiostat (payable option) of the CompactStat.e can
only be operated in the +/-4 V and +/-10V potential ranges (this includes the combination with the
10V/800mA internal booster, however, the bipotentiostat maximum current is not increased). The
bipotentiostat cannot be operated when the 20V/250mA or 100V/30mA boosters are activated.
6. Performance test
The instrument performance test for self diagnostics of the instrument can only be executed in the
standard configuration. This means that for the standard CompactStat the performance test can be
executed both in USB and adapter powered configuration, but only in the standard +/-4V range and not
in E_extended range. For the CompactStat with internal powered booster the performance test can only
be executed when the CompactStat is USB powered.
7. Floating operation
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The Ivium CompactStat is standard delivered in such a configuration that the housing and main circuit
board are grounded to the USB ground. However, it can be converted in a simple way so that it can be
operated in "floating mode".
To convert to floating operation:
1) Locate the ground bridge at the back of the instrument. The bridge consists of a silver-metal clip that
is screwed onto the outside of the housing and clamped between the housing and the USB socket.
2) Unscrew the hex screw and with a small pair of pliers pull the silver-metal clip outwards (it is not
attached).
3) Replace the hex screw. The CompactStat is now floating
NOTE: When the ground bridge is removed, any static energy supplied to the housing or the cell cable
may cause peak voltages that can lead to a USB communication error resulting in the instrument
disconnecting itself from IviumSoft. This will manifest itself as an "unresponsive" instrument. When this
happens restart the instrument.
To avoid this situation be aware of touching the instrument when operating in low humidity
environments.
4.6
IviumStat
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The IviumStat is a high power general purpose bench top potentiostat/galvanostat with integrated
impedance analyser.
1. Available models
The IviumStat is available in various models:
Model
IviumStat
IviumStat.XRi
IviumStat.XRe
Compliance (max.)
±10V/±5A/FRA 10uHz - 8MHz
±10V/±10A/FRA 10uHz - 8MHz
±50V/±2A/FRA 10uHz - 8MHz
limits
±[email protected]±A, ±[email protected]±5A
±[email protected]±1A, ±[email protected]±5A, ±[email protected]±10A
±[email protected]±2A
At the



rear panel:
Power connector: fits the standard power cable, which should be connected to the main power.
Fuseholder: contains 2 fuses. Replacement should be done by a qualified person.
USB connector: fits to the supplied USB A/B cable which should be connected between instrument
and PC.

Cooling element with fan. Please make sure that air can flow freely.
Frontpanel:

On/Off button: when pressed, the instrument powers up and the button lights up blue when
ready. Please allow several seconds for the startup sequence to be completed.

Disconnect button: when pressed, a relais disconnects the CE and WE leads of the electrode cable
are disconnected.

LCD screen: a graphical screen that displays the status of the instrument*.

Peripheral port: 37p connector that provides access to a range of analog/digital input/output
signals.

Cell connector: connector that fits the supplied electrode cable.
*The LCD screen displays a number of user-relevant information:

In the Left top an arrow ">" shows the status of the instrument; when changing between "<" and
">" the instrument is idle; when fixed in position, the instrument is busy.

Below the arrow it shows what method is running and the actual value of E and I. Note that these
are updated at a 1s interval with low priority, i.e. when the instrument is busy, updates of E and I
may not show.

At the left bottom in the blue bar the operating mode is shown, for example Estat or Istat mode.
Below that the actual current range is shown (this is especially usefull when automatic current
ranging is used).

In the right bottom corner in the blue bar the version of firmware that is running is displayed.

In the middle of the blue bar at the bottom it shows 'EMO' when the EMO or Disconnect button is
pressed.
2. Connecting the instrument
Install IviumSoft and Ivium drivers as instructed. Then:
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




Attach the powercord to the instrument and mains, and press the power button.
Connect the USB cable to the IviumStat device and a free USB socket of the pc.
Start the IviumSoft program. From the top left corner of the screen in the drop-down menu select
the serial number of the IviumStat.This can be verified with the serial number written at the rear
of the instrument.
Wait 10 seconds and press the connect button at the left-top-corner. The IviumSoft program will
activate the IviumStat and the instrument should indicate the connection.
Before starting measurements, be sure that the red "disconnect" button is depressed and is unlit.
3. Compliance and Selecting the Voltage range
The model IviumStat is automatically detected in the IviumSoft. This means that the current compliance
is automatically available.
By default the IviumStat instruments operate in the ±10V range. In the 10V range the IviumStat.XRe
does have a compliance voltage of the full ±50V range; to increase the applied range of the
IviumStat.XRe to ±50V, in the menu bar select "Options>Options" and the tabsheet "Settings". Now tick
the box next to "E extended range". Close the options sheet, and in the top-left disconnect the
instrument by clicking the "Connect" button. Wait 10 seconds and re-connect the instrument by clicking
the same "Connect" button. Now the new range setting and corresponding calibration values are active .
Note: Increasing the voltage range proportionally decreases the applied voltage resolution.
4. Bipotentiostat
When activated in the Method parameters, the bipotentiostat (payable option) of the IviumStat can only
be operated in the +/-10V potential range. The bipotentiostat cannot be operated in the ±50V applied
voltage range.
5. Performance test
The instrument performance test for self diagnostics of the instrument can only be executed in the
standard configuration. This means that for the IviumStat.XRe the performance test can only be executed
when the E_extended range is deactivated in the Options>Options menu.
4.7
Ivium-n-Stat
The Ivium-n-Stat multi-channel potentiostat/galvanostat is operated in the same way as the Ivium single
channel instruments. Each channel can be connected to IviumSoft as a completely independent
instruments. For each channel a new instance of IviumSoft can be opened. Alternatively, the channels
can be operated using the Multichannel control as offered by IviumSoft.
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1. Instrument
2. Connecting the instrument
3. Channel management
4. Identify channel
5. Floating operation
6. WE2 lead as voltage sensor
7. Internal dummy cells and 2 Electrode mode
8. Peripheral port
9. Shared EMO connector
10. Reset channels
1. Instrument
The Ivium-n-Stat is available in 1 frame configuration with 8 slots:
- 40A frame for a combination of channels with a total maximum of 40A output compliance
The Ivium-n-Stat frame can be stocked with any combination of the available modules, keeping in mind
that the total output compliance of the channels/modules should not exceed the capability of the frame,
i.e. a 20A frame cannot support more than 4 x 5A channels. The available channels/modules are:

sModule 2.5A: single channel ±2.5A/±10V module with integrated FRA 10µHz-250kHz (1MHz
optional) and peripheral analog/digital I/O port.

sModule 5A: single channel ±5A/±10V module with integrated FRA 10µHz-250kHz (1MHz
optional) and peripheral analog/digital I/O port.

dModule 500mA: dual channel 2 x ±500mA/±10V module with integrated FRA 10µHz-250kHz
(1MHz optional), no peripheral port available.

dModule 2.5A: dual channel 2 x ±2.5A/±10V module with integrated FRA 10µHz-250kHz (1MHz
optional), no peripheral port available.
Ivium-n-Stat rear panel:

Power connector: fits the standard mains power cable.

Fuseholder: integrated in the power connector, contains 2 x 4AT fuses. Replacement should be
done by a qualified person.

USB connector: fits to the supplied USB A/B cable to be connected between instrument and PC.

EMO connector: Red, 4mm socket (banana)

GND connector: Green, 4mm socket (banana)

Reset aperture: small hole above the fan slits of each channel, can be used to reset an individual
channel while the Ivium-n-Stat is operating (see also poaragraph 10 below).
Ivium-n-Stat front panel:

On/Off button: when pressed, the instrument powers up and the button lights up blue when
ready. Please allow several seconds for the startup sequence to be completed.
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
Slots: 8 slots are available, each slot is either used by a module or covered with a blind plate.
Module front panel:

sModule: cell connector; status LED; peripheral port connector; extra options (i.e. 1MHz option)
are indicated below the peripheral port connector.

dModule: cell connector + status LED channel A; cell connector + status LED channel B; options
(i.e. 1MHz option) are indicated below the Channel A (top) cell connector.
Status LED:
The front of the channel module is equiped with a status-LED above the cell connector for each channel.
The channel status is indicated by the LED-color:
blue (blinking white): idle with no pc-client connected
green (blinking white): pc-client connected, Direct mode, cell = off
red (blinking white): pc-client connected, Direct mode, cell = on
red (continuous): pc-client connected, Method mode
When the system starts up, it will start with the blue color (after the firmware has started up).
The status LED will blink white every time a datapoint is taken. In Direct mode and/or when the
instrument is idle, this is once per second. When running a method the frequency depends on the rate of
sampling, at high rates the LED will blink faster, resulting in an apparant change of color from red to
pink.
2. Connecting the instrument
Install






IviumSoft and Ivium drivers as instructed. Then:
Connect the USB cable to the Ivium-n-Stat and a free USB socket of the pc.
Attach the powercord to the instrument and mains, and press the power button.
Wait 1 minute for all channels to start up, connect to the driver, and the status LED to become
blue.
Assign channel numbers as described in paragraph 3 below. This only needs to be done once at
the first installation of the Ivium-n-Stat.
Start the IviumSoft program. From the top left corner of the screen in the drop-down menu select
the desired channel number (or serial number when the channel number assignment has not
been done).
Press the connect button at the left-top-corner. The IviumSoft will connect to the selected
channel and the calibration values are synchronized
3. Channel management
Each channel has a unique serial number, assigned at the factory. This number will never change. For
multi-channel operation, it is useful to assign sequential channel numbers instead of working with factory
serial numbers.
When starting up after a fresh installation, the software will show the factory serial numbers in the serial
number read out window, such as "S09001", "S09007", "D84807A", etc. To assign these to channel
numbers:
i. After starting IviumSoft, do not press the connect button, but select in the menu bar "Tools/Define
Channels"
ii. A form will be opened with a list of connected devices. Next to each serial number a channel number
can be chosen. The "FW/vs." indicates the firmware version number running on that channel. The
"Identify" button to the right of each channel can be pressed and the corresponding channel in the Iviumn-Stat will flash the status LED briefly. In this way the serial number's corresponding channel can be
identified. As shipped from the factory, the Channel numbers are predefined according to the
slotpositions in the nStat Frame. If these are correct and to accept this assignment, simply press close.
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iii. To change the channel assignment, use the up/down thumbs. A ChannelNo of "0" means unassigned.
To identify specific modules, pressing the Identify button will flash its LED briefly. Pressing the Write
button will apply the new channel assignments.
Note: the serialnumbers & channelnumbers are stored in each datafile, for your reference. The
ChannelNo is stored inside the module, and will be kept, until re-assigned by the operator. After a fresh
software install, the actual serial numbers can be read from the modules, by opening and closing the
assignment screen.
iv. After assigning, the connection selection box will display the channel numbers instead of the serial
numbers.
The channel assignment has to be done only once after installation. The settings are kept when the
software restarts.
4. Identify channel
For ease of use the operator can identify the channel that is currently connected in the IviumSoft
instance. In the "Direct" mode tab there is an "Identify" button. When this button is clicked the channel
that is connected will flash its LED briefly.
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5. Floating operation
The Ivium-n-Stat channels can be operated in floating mode, for example to be able to operate 2
channels in the same electrochemical solution. The floating mode is user selectable and can be accessed
from the "Direct panel" > "Extern" tab in IviumSoft. To operate the channel in floating mode, check the
box: "Floating mode" (see very bottom of picture above).
NOTE1: The Ivium-n-Stat channel is by default not floating.
NOTE2: The "Floating mode" setting is not stored in the instrument or settings. This means that each
time the instrument is started, and floating mode is required, the floating operation needs to be
activated.
NOTE3: When using a dModule the floating mode can be checked for each channel A and B. However
checking it for 1 or both channels, both means that the Module is floating. Channels A and B are NOT
floating from each other. To disengage floating mode it has to be unchecked for BOTH channels.
6. WE2 lead as voltage sensor
Ivium-n-Stat channels are not equipped with a bipotentiostat. Its WE2 lead can instead be used to
measure potentials relative to the Sense lead (S) in Direct mode and in techniques that measure
voltages: galvanostatic LSV/CV/CP/mixed mode.
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Direct mode: Check the 'E at WE2' parameter the "Direct panel" > "Extern" tab in IviumSoft (see check
box second from bottom in picture above),
Method mode: For techniques that measure potentials, the WE2 sensor can be chosen by checking the "E
at WE2" method parameter.
NOTE: When selected, the voltage measured at the WE2 lead is shown instead of the WE-voltage, in the
corresponding graph or read out window.
WE2 voltage sensor lead specifications:
a) Range ±10V
b) Input resistance >100 GOhm
c) Bandwidth > 100kHz
7. Internal dummy cells and 2 Electrode mode
As opposed to the other Ivium potentiostats, Ivium-n-Stat channels are not equipped with internal
dummy cells. Also the 2-electrode mode is not available. If only a WE and CE are present, simply connect
the RE (blue) to the CE and the S (white) to the WE.
8. Peripheral port
The sModules are equipped with a peripheral port. The female subD connector has 15 pins:
pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
function
Frame
+5V
Dig input 1
Yin
Dig output 1
Dig output 3
Iout
Analog in 1
GND
Ac output
Xin
GND
Dig output 2
An output 1
Eout
Analog in 2
remarks
GND Connected to nStat common GND
Range +/-4V
Rin=2.2kohm
Rin=2.2kohm
1V/Current Range
+/-10V
150 Ohm
Range +/-4V
Rin=2.2kohm
-10 to +10V*
+/-10V
*A setting of 0V in the IviumSoft corresponds with an output of -10V; a setting of 4V in the IviumSoft corresponds
with an output of =10V.
Note: in floating mode, the peripheral signals are referred to the local sModule gnd. In floating mode,
the peripheral port should only be used with floating equipment.
9. Shared EMO connector
At the back of the Ivium-n-Stat, two 4mm sockets are available: EMO (= EMergency Off; red) and GND
(green). The EMO bus is a 0 to 5V compliant input, and unconnected it pulls up to 5V, which means "EMO
not activated". When the EMO is pulled to GND (i.e. via a wire bridge), it will actively disconnect the
sModules/dModules of all channels in the frame, and generate a shut-off event that will stop all running
methods. The EMergency Off function operates independently from the software/firmware. The cells
cannot be activated until the signal on the EMO bus is removed.
10. Reset channels
In the event that a channel/module is not responding to IviumSoft or not communicating with the PC
anymore, the individual module can be reset while the rest of the Ivium-n-Stat keeps operating. For this
there is the "reset hole" at the back of the instrument, directly above the fan slits of each module. To
reset a channel Insert a small rod, like a paper clip, into the reset hole and push through the hole and
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press the switch behind it. When effective it shows by the status LED on the relevant channel at the front
becoming blue.
4.8
Modules
Ivium Technologies has a variety of options and modules available that can be added/connected to our
potentiostats. Each of these modules and options adds a specific function and/or increase of the
possibilities of the potentiostat. The compatibility of the options and modules with our potentiostats is
given in the compatibility table. The options and modules are:
Bipotentiostat:
True Linear Scan:
Current interrupt:
Mulitiplexer:
IviSUN:
IviumBoost1040:
IviumBoost1001:
IviumBoost205:
ModuLight:
MultiWE32:
PPE:
PDA:
PLT:
FastScan:
Plus module:
Adds a second working electrode to the potentiostat.
Converts the applied signal to a true analog ramp
The CIM makes the current interrupt technique possible
Allows switching to multiple channels sequentially
LED Light source with intensity of one sun
10V/40A booster
100V/0.6A booster
20V/5A booster
LED Programmable light source
32 channel/working electrode potentiostat module
Peripheral port expander
Peripheral port expander with high impedance differential amplifiers
Peripheral level transformer
High speed scanning with high sample rate
External power booster for CompactStat
4.8.1 DataSecure
The Ivium DataSecure module has been designed to fulfil two important functions:

Data storage and back-up: never loose data, independent from computer failure

Connection: connect your computer to your potentiostat via WI-FI, LAN, USB, Remote/direct
Data Storage
The Ivium Datasecure module stores data from your entire on-going experiment, independent from your
PC. Even if your computer fails, your data will be saved on the Datasecure module. Your data will never
be lost. You can "log-on" at any time to stream the available data to your PC.
Additionally, the Datasecure module also keeps a back-up of your previous experiment.

Data is stored independent of your PC

Data storage of up to 5E108 datapoints

"Log-on" any time with your PC to stream available data
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
Password protection of data possible
Connection
The Ivium Datasecure module is the connection link between the Ivium potentiostat and your computer.
The Datasecure can connect directly to your WI-FI network to be accessed from anywhere in the WI-FI
covered area.
Alternatively the Datasecure can also create its own hotspot. In this way password protected connection
is possible.
Direct (hard-wired) connection to your computer is also possible via both LAN and USB.

Wireless connection --> access anywhere: ideal for connection in fume hood or glove box

Direct (hard-wired) connection also possible

For single Ivium potentiostats and for Ivium-n-Stat with full complement of channels

Password protected connection possible
Compatibility
The DataSecure is compatible with all Ivium potentiostats
4.8.2 Bipotentiostat
The bipotentiostat is a second potentiostatic control in addition to the primary cell. The bipotentiostat
(aka. BiStat, WE2, bipot, etc.) is carried out as a second lead in the cell cable; in case of the Ivium cell
cable it is the second red banana, marked "W2". The bipotentiostat is used for example for RRDE
experiments. It is a potentiostatic signal and cannot be used galvanostatically. The bipotentiostat can be
used in 2 modes:

standard: the bipotentiostat voltage is referred to the RE and kept at a fixed offset voltage with
respect to RE.

scanning: the bipotentiostat voltage is referred to the primary WE and kept at a fixed offset
voltage with respect to WE.
Most Ivium potentiostats, but not all, can be equipped with a bipotentiostat (payable option). In the
compatibility table of Ivium instruments it can be checked if your instrument is compatible with a
bipotentiostat. If so, the bipotentiostat is integrated inside the instrument. The bipotentiostat can be
activated ex-factory, i.e. when ordered by the user with the order for the main instrument; or it can be
ordered at a later time. In the latter case the instrument configuration can be upgraded to activate the
bipotentiostat.
To upgrade an Ivium instrument to activate the bipotentiostat:

Go to Tools>Device maintenance, this will open the pop-up.
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




In the "Set configuration" field enter the Activation-code that was supplied to you.
Press "Apply"
You should get the message "Successfully updated".
Disconnect and reconnect the instrument.
Now the new configuration including the bipotentiostat will be active.
Bipotentiostat specifications:
Current: max. ±30mA
Voltage: max. ±2V with respect to primary WE
Current ranges: 1pA to 10mA in 11 steps
Resolution: max. 0.076% of current range, min. 0.15fA
A full list of specifications can be found in the under Instrument specifications.
Operation
The bipotentiostat is integrated in the following techniques: Linear sweep (LSV), Cyclic voltammetry
(CV), amperometric detection. To use the bipotentiostat, connect the second working electrode to the
"W2" lead of the cell cable. In the IviumSoft activate the advanced parameters. In the Method tab in the
method parameters find the parameter "+BiStat" and check the box next to it. This will open the
bipotentiostat method parameters. Adjust these, and the rest of the method's parameters, to the desired
settings and start the measurement.
BiStat method parameters:
E offset: offset voltage of bipotentiostat with respect to reference (WE or RE, depending on mode)
Current range: current measurement range (min. 1pA full scale, max. 10mA full scale)
CR max: when AutoCR (automatic current ranging) is activated for the primary measurement, it is also
activated for the bipotentiostat, and this is the max. allowed range. A range can be selected from the
drop down list.
CR min: when AutoCR (automatic current ranging) is activated for the primary measurement, it is also
activated for the bipotentiostat, and this is the min. allowed range. A range can be selected from the drop
down list.
Mode: this indicates the measurement mode, from the drop down list select "Standard" or "Scanning".
Test3
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To test the hardware and functionality of the bipotentiostat Test3 has been designed.
4.8.3 True Linear Scan
The True Linear Scan generator applies a smooth analog ramp, as opposed to the staircase ramp that is
generated by any digital potentiostat. The True Linear Scan (aka. LinScan) is an electronic circuit that is
integrated inside the instrument, but it is a payable option. The LinScan can be activated ex-factory, i.e.
when ordered by the user with the order for the main instrument; or it can be ordered at a later time. In
the latter case the instrument configuration can be upgraded to activate the LinScan.
To upgrade an Ivium instrument to activate the LinScan:

Go to Tools>Device maintenance, this will open the pop-up.





In the "Set configuration" field enter the Activation-code that was supplied to you.
Press "Apply"
You should get the message "Successfully updated".
Disconnect and reconnect the instrument.
Now the new configuration including the LinScan will be active.
LinScan specifications:
Scan range: Full applied potential range of the controlling potentiostat
Scan rate: 1 µV/s to 10,000 V/s
Implementation: Linear scan, Cyclic voltammetry
A full list of specifications can be found in the under Instrument specifications.
Operation
The LinScan can be used for linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry and is available as a separate technique
under these technique groups.
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4.8.4 CIM: Current Interrupt Module
Functionality of a Current interrupt module
To enable the current interrupt technique for measuring the IR-drop of the electrochemical system.
Application
The CIM can be used for measuring the IR-drop of an electrochemical system via the current interrupt
technique. As the name of the technique suggests, the current of a running experiment is interrupted
instantly and the response of the cell potential is measured in high speed mode. The momentary drop of
the cell potential, representing the IR-drop of the electrochemical system, is then shown in a graph of the
potential vs. time.
Operation
In the IviumSoft, the current interrupt technique is integrated as a diagnostic tool. When the technique is
used a graph is produced showing the potential vs. time and from this result the IR-drop is calculated.
The Current interrupt Tool uses the HiSpeed mode for recording the data. Over the user defined period a
maximum
In Direct Mode:
To operate the CIM, in the "Direct Mode" set the desired potential in either the 4-electrode or 2-electrode
configuration, and then apply so that the the potential is applied to the test object. Then in the menu bar
choose "Tools>CurrentInterrupt" and then press "apply". The current is momentarily interrupted and the
IR-drop is calculated.
The Current interrupt Tool uses the HiSpeed mode for recording the data. Over the user defined period,
64 datapoints are evenly distributed, with:

number of datapoints (fixed): 64

minimum time base: 10 µs

minimum period: 0.5 ms

maximum period: 1000 ms
In Chronopotentiometry:
The CIM can be used during ChronoPotentiometry: with "Advanced" parameters activated, the parameter
"CI at Level[2]" is available. When checked, it will activate a Current Interrupt during the 2nd level of the
method, i.e. for the duration of level 2 the current will be interrupted. The response of the cell is shown
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in the measurement results, for fast responding cells a sufficiently small interval time needs to be
chosen.
Ivium manufactures 2 types of current interrupt module:
1) The Standard 5A CIM for all Ivium potentiostats with HD15 cell connector
2) 10A CIM for IviumStat.XRi and IviumBoost1010 that is integrated in the cell cable
TYPE 1: Standard 5A CIM for HD15 cell connector
CIM specifications
Current compliance: ± 5A
Voltage compliance: ± 20V
Resistance on-state: 0.13 Ohm typical
Resistance off-state: >100 GOhm
Interrupt time: < 2µs
power requirements: powered from cell cable
Size: w x d x h = 3.3 x 6.3 x 1.5 cm
Weight: 60 gram
Interfacing/connectivity: HD15, connects in-line with cell cable
Use: only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
Installation
The male side of the CIM can be placed directly on the cell connector of the Ivium potentiostat. The
instrument cell cable can be then connected to the female side of the CIM. The CIM is thus connected
between the instrument and the cell cable. When the current interrupt technique is not used, all signals
are passed through the module and it is fully compatible with the situation without CIM. However, the
CIM adds ca. 130 mOhm impedance to the cell cable. This should be taken into account when measuring
in the 2-electrode mode: it will slightly lower the compliance voltage of the potentiostat. The latter will
only have a significant effect when measuring very low impedance objects.
TYPE 2: 10A CIM integrated in cell cable
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CIM 10A specifications
Current compliance ± 10A
Voltage compliance ± 10V
Resistance on-state < 0.1 Ohm
Resistance off-state >100 GOhm
Interrupt time < 2µs
power requirements powered from cell cable
Size w x d x h = 5 x 5 x 2.7 cm
Weight 100 gram
Interfacing/connectivity Integrated in Cell Cable
Use only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
Installation
The CIM 10A module is integrated in the Cell Cable, which can be connected as the standard 10A cell
cable. When not using the current interrupt technique all signals are passed through this module and it is
fully compatible with the situation without CIM. However, the CIM adds < 100 mOhm impedance to the
cell cable. This should be taken into account when measuring in the 2-electrode mode and it will slightly
lower the compliance voltage of the potentiostat. The latter will only have a significant effect when
measuring very low impedance objects.
4.8.5 HiZ
HiZ: High Impedance Potential Pre-Amplifier
The Ivium Technologies HiZ module has been designed to improve the electrometer performance: lower
leakage, and higher input impedance.
Be advised that the HiZ module lowers the bandwidth.
1. HiZ specifications
Electrometer:
Input Impedance :
Input bias current (typical):
Input range:
Voltage gain:
Bandwidth:
Slewrate:
> 1E15 Ohm//0.2pF
3fA
±10V or ±200mV
1X or 50X
800kHz or 220kHz
0.7V/us
Potentiostatic mode using HiZ:
Bandwidth
Applied resolution
Applied resolution
Applied voltage accuracy
Measurement resolution
Measurement resolution
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800kHz (histability*)
6.6uV for IviumStat
2.5uV for CompactStat
±0.05mV
40nV or 0.8nV for IviumStat
16nV or 0.3nV for CompactStat
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*In potentiostatic mode, the HiZ module can only be used in histability mode.
Module:
Size:
Weight:
Interfacing/connectivity:
w x d x h = 3.3 x 6.3 x 1.5 cm
60 gram
module connects in-line with cell cable
2. Installation
The HiZ unit is directly connected between the instrument and the cell cable. It is ready for use, it is not
necessary to activate any options.
4.8.6 Multiplexers
Ivium Technologies manufacturers 3 models of multiplexer:
HiMUX.XR:

8 channels, stackable to 64 channels

Compliance: ±20V @ ±5A

4 Electrode connection: WE, CE, RE, S

Each channel has its own electrometer

Compared to uMUX it has a better performance at high frequencies and high impedances, and
higher rate of switching channels.
Fast channel switching: each channel is equipped with its own electrometer, so because no switches are
connected to RE&S, there are no (dis-)charge currents when channels are switched. High impedance
(reference-) electrodes require a long stabilization time after each switch. The HiMUX.XR keeps RE&S
always connected, and allows for fast channel switches without disturbing the electrochemical cells.
High frequency performance: the design with 8 independent active electrometers allows the whole RE/S
cable-length to be enclosed with driven shields. This results in a very low leakage capacitance, and
measurements can be done in the high frequency range without performance loss compared to the unmultiplexed situation.
UMUX:

8 channels, stackable to 64 channels

Compliance ±100V @ ±5A

5 Electrode switching: WE, CE. RE, S, WE2

Switches with relays directly to the potententiostat
Both the HimUX.XR and the uMUX are connected and operated in the same manner.
MUX32:
To facilitate the connection of a single channel Ivium potentiostat to a Multi Electrode Assembly (MEA) or
multiple working electrodes sharing a single counter and reference electrode.

32 channels, stackable to 256 channels

32 WEs, shared CE and RE

Compliance ±10V @ ±1mA

Bandwidth 10 kHz
MEA:
To facilitate the connection of a single channel Ivium potentiostat to a Multi Electrode Assembly (MEA), a
multiplexer-set up has been developed.
For the HiMUX.XR and the uMUX a multiplexer clamping kit is available to fix the multiplexer in a 19inch
rack.
4.8.6.1 HiMUX.XR
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HiMUX.XR:

Compliance: ±20V @ ±5A

Each channel has its own electrometer

Compared to uMUX it has a better performance at high frequencies and high impedances, and
higher rate of switching channels.
Fast channel switching: each channel is equipped with its own electrometer, so because no switches are
connected to RE&S, there are no (dis-)charge currents when channels are switched. High impedance
(reference-) electrodes require a long stabilization time after each switch. The HiMUX.XR keeps RE&S
always connected, and allows for fast channel switches without disturbing the electrochemical cells.
High frequency performance: the design with 8 independent active electrometers allows the whole RE/S
cable-length to be enclosed with driven shields. This results in a very low leakage capacitance, and
measurements can be done in the high frequency range without performance loss compared to the unmultiplexed situation.
1. Connection


Connect the multiplexer to the Ivium potentiostat via the 15-pins cell cable connector. Each
multiplexer comes with 8 standard cell cables, 1 for each of its 8 channels. Each channel/cell
cable can then be connected to an electrochemical cell in the same way that the
IviumStat/CompactStat would be connected directly.
The multiplexer requires an external 5 VDC powersupply (included in shipment), that must be
connected before operation.
In case multiple multiplexer modules are used, a cell-cable-connection assembly is provided. This
consists of a flexible cell-cable extender, and a connection-box. This box has 1 input (F) and 3 outputs
(M), and can connect to 3 multiplexer modules. Assemblies may be cascaded to connect more units. Put
the cable extender between the connection box (F) and the potentiostat, connect 1 multiplexer to each
output (M) of the connection box. Insert the power adapter for each multiplexer.
When more than one multiplexer is delivered, each multiplexer has assigned a range of channels. This
assignment is pre-arranged by internal hardware selector. When connecting the channels the channel
assignment can be taken into account regarding the placement of the unit.
2. Operation
After the multiplexer has been installed the sequential use of all channels is available, either by choosing
the channel in the Direct mode and then executing the desired technique (1) or automated via the
Batchmode (2).
1) In the Direct control tab sheet select the channel number next to the "Set MUX channel" button by
entering the channel number manually or using the up/down arrows. Then mouse click on the "Set MUX
channel" button to activate this channel. The red LED of the chosen channel on the multiplexet will now
light up.
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2) In the Batch mode use the "Direct Command" to set a channel number directly ("SetMuxChannel"), or
use the "Loop" command to set the channel number to the loop index ("SetMuxToIndex").
4.8.6.2 uMUX
UMUX:

8 channels, stackable to 64 channels

Compliance ±100V @ ±5A

5 Electrode switching: WE, CE. RE, S, WE2

Switches with relays directly to the potententiostat
1. Connection


Connect the multiplexer to the Ivium potentiostat via the 15-pins cell cable connector. Each
multiplexer comes with 8 standard cell cables, 1 for each of its 8 channels. Each channel/cell
cable can then be connected to an electrochemical cell in the same way that the
IviumStat/CompactStat would be connected directly.
The multiplexer requires an external 5 VDC powersupply (included in shipment), that must be
connected before operation.
In case multiple multiplexer modules are used, a cell-cable-connection assembly is provided. This
consists of a flexible cell-cable extender, and a connection-box. This box has 1 input (F) and 3 outputs
(M), and can connect to 3 multiplexer modules. Assemblies may be cascaded to connect more units. Put
the cable extender between the connection box (F) and the potentiostat, connect 1 multiplexer to each
output (M) of the connection box. Insert the power adapter for each multiplexer.
When more than one multiplexer is delivered, each multiplexer has assigned a range of channels. This
assignment is pre-arranged by internal hardware selector. When connecting the channels the channel
assignment can be taken into account regarding the placement of the unit.
2. Operation
After the multiplexer has been installed the sequential use of all channels is available, either by choosing
the channel in the Direct mode and then executing the desired technique (1) or automated via the
Batchmode (2).
1) In the Direct control tab sheet select the channel number next to the "Set MUX channel" button by
entering the channel number manually or using the up/down arrows. Then mouse click on the "Set MUX
channel" button to activate this channel. The red LED of the chosen channel on the multiplexet will now
light up.
2) In the Batch mode use the "Direct Command" to set a channel number directly ("SetMuxChannel"), or
use the "Loop" command to set the channel number to the loop index ("SetMuxToIndex").
4.8.6.3 MUX32
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To facilitate the connection of a single channel Ivium potentiostat to a Multi Electrode Assembly (MEA) or
multiple electrodes sharing a single counter and reference electrode, a multiplexer is available: the
MUX32.
The MUX32 set includes:

1 x MUX32 32 channel multiplexer

1 x connection cable: 50cm M/F HD15

1 x MUX 32 cell cable

1 x TestCell
When installed the system allows control of up to 32 (multiplexed) channels (working electrodes).
1. Specifications
System
Max Current:
Max Voltage:
Bandwidth:
Interfacing/connectivity:
MUX32
Size:
Weight:
Front indicators:
Protected with 100 Ohm in Series with CE.
10V.
10 kHz.
HD15, connects to the potentiostat cell connector. Use only i.c.w. Ivium
potentiostats.
w x d x h = 13 x 27.5 x 2.5 cm
0.5 kg
'ON'; Lights up when correctly powered via IviumStat
'Active'; Lights up when one of the 32 channels is selected.
2. Installation
To assemble the set-up:
1 Install the Ivium potentiostat as instructed in the Manual.
2 Take the connection cable and insert the M-side into the cell connector at the front of the Ivium
potentiostat.
3 Insert the F-side of the connection cable in the "In" connector of the MUX 32.
4 Connect the cell cable to the DB37 connector at the back of the MUX32. The color code for the cell
cable can be found in the WE32 electrode cable.
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3. Operation
a Power up the Ivium potentiostat. The MUX32 devices should indicate "ON" and "Active" at the front.
b Open the IviumSoft software and connect the Ivium potentiostat in the software.
c In the menu bar, go to "Options>Options" and check the box in front of "MEA".
d Disconnect the potentiostat in the software and connect it again to synchronize the hardware.
e Now you can select the desired channel/electrode by using the "Set MUX channel" option in the "Direct"
mode tab in the IviumSoft, or use the relevant function in the IviumSoft batch programming mode.
To select a channel, insert the desired channel number, and activate this by clicking on the "Set MUX
channel" button.
Note: to operate the Ivium potentiostat as a stand alone single channel instrument, remove the check
from the box "MEA" in the options menu, and restart the instrument.
4. Test cell
A test cell for the MUX32 is included in the delivery. This test cell consists of 32 10k resistors. The
dummy can be inserted at the back of the MUX32. When a relevant channel is selected, the 10k resistor
can be used to verify the correct operation of that MUX32 and channel.
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5. Cell cable
The MUX32, when not delivered with a custom connector cable, is supplied with the same cell cable as
the MultiWE32. The cable assembly and color assignment can be found here: WE32 electrode cable.
4.8.6.4 MEA
To facilitate the connection of a single channel Ivium potentiostat to a Multi Electrode Assembly (MEA), a
multiplexer-set up has been developed. The complete set-up consists of:
-
1 x IviumStat single channel potentiostat/galvanostat with integrated impedance analyser
2 x MUX32 32 channel multiplexer
1 x break out box
1 x MEA: Multichannel Systems MEA1060-INV Adapter
1 x Junction box
3 x connection cable: 50cm M/F HD15
When installed the system allows control of 64 channels (working electrodes), of which 60 are fixed in the
MEA and 4 are separately accessible from the break out box.
1. Specifications
System
Max Current:
Max Voltage:
Bandwidth:
Interfacing/connectivity:
Protected with 100 Ohm in Series with CE.
10V.
10 kHz.
HD15, connects to the potentiostat cell connector.
Use only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
MUX32
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Size:
Weight:
Front indicators:
w x d x h = 13 x 27.5 x 2.5 cm
0.5 kg
'ON'; Lights up when correctly powered via IviumStat
'Active'; Lights up when one of the 32 channels is selected.
2. Installation
To assemble the set-up:
1- Install the IviumStat as instructed.
2- Take 1 connection cable and insert the M-side into the cell connector at the front of the IviumStat.
3- Insert the F-side of the connection cable into the "In" connector of the junction box.
4- Take connection cables 2 and 3 and insert the M-side into connectors "Out1" and "Out2" of the
junction box.
5- Insert the F-side of connection cables 2 and 3 into the connectors at the front of the two MUX32 (A
and B, see back of the MUX32).
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Note that the order of MUX A and B is not relevant, the junction box is a parallel connection.
6- Connect the DB37 connectors A and B of the break out box and insert these in the apropriate DB37
connectors of MUX32 A and B.
7- Connect the SCSI cable of the breakoutbox to the MEA Cell.
8- Connect the reference and counter electrode leads to their BNC connectors on the break out box.
3. Operation
a- Power up the IviumStat. Both MUX32 devices should indicate "ON" at the front, MUX32 device A
should also indicate "Active".
b- Open the IviumSoft software and connect the IviumStat in the software (see also "Quick install
manual").
c- [Only for first time installation:] In the menu bar, go to "Options>Options" and check the box in front
of "MEA".
d- [Only for first time installation:] Disconnect the IviumStat in the software and connect it again to
synchronize the hardware.
e- Now you can select the desired MEA-channel by using the "Set MUX channel" option in the "Direct"
mode tab in the IviumSoft, or use the relevant function in the IviumSoft batch programming mode. To
select a channel, insert the desired channel number, and activate this by clicking on the "Set MUX
channel" button.
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Note: to operate the IviumStat as a stand alone single channel instrument, remove the check from the
box "MEA" in the options menu, and restart the instrument.
4. Test cell
A test cell for the MUX32 is included in the delivery. This test cell consists of 32 10k resistors. The
dummy can be inserted at the back of the MUX32. When a relevant channel is selected, the 10k resistor
can be used to verify the correct operation of that MUX32 and channel.
Note: both RE shield leads are present in the cable as shielding for the RE, but they are not carried out to
a banana plug.
5. Cell cable
When a separate cell cable is included, this will be identical to the MultiWE32 cell cable.
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6. Channel Numbering
MultiPlexer A
IVIUM
MEA
Channel
Electrode
WE1
47
WE2
48
WE3
45
WE4
37
WE5
36
WE6
17
WE7
16
WE8
25
WE9
14
WE10
34
WE11
23
WE12
22
WE13
21
WE14
31
WE15
43
WE16
42
WE17
51
WE18
54
WE19
62
WE20
63
WE21
82
WE22
83
WE23
74
WE24
85
WE25
65
WE26
76
WE27
77
WE28
78
WE29
68
WE30
56
WE31
57
WE32
58
MultiPlexer B
IVIUM
MEA
Channel
Electrode
WE33
46
WE34
38
WE35
28
WE36
27
WE37
26
WE38
35
WE39
15
WE40
24
WE41
13
WE42
12
WE43
33
WE44
32
WE45
44
WE46
41
WE47
52
WE48
53
WE49
61
WE50
71
WE51
72
WE52
73
WE53
64
WE54
84
WE55
75
WE56
86
WE57
87
WE58
66
WE59
67
WE60
55
WE61
A1 (EXT1)
WE62
A2 (EXT2)
WE63
A3 (EXT3)
WE64
A4 (EXT4)
4.8.6.5 Multiplexer Clamping kit
The multiplexer clamp kit (payable module) is intended to enable easy mounting of the 8-channel
multiplexer into a 19-inch rack. The Clamp-Kit consists of an aluminium front with 2 brackets on the rear
side for clamping the multiplexer unit in place. When mounted, on the front side all 8 channels are
available, as well as two connectors for connecting the multiplexer to the Ivium potentiostat and for
connecting an optional next multiplexer unit for additional channels.
Dimensions:
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

Size: 48,3 x 13,3 cm (front view)
Weight: 650 g
Assembly
1. Remove the blue end-rubbers of the multiplexer unit.
2. Unscrew the brackets on the rear side of the Multiplexer-Clamp-Kit. Place the multiplexer unit with the
front faced down. Then place the brackets over the ends of the multiplexer units so that the edge of each
bracket slides into the slid where the rubber used to be.
3. Take the multiplexer unit with the brackets and place it on the rear side of the Clamp-Kit so that the
holes in the brackets fall over the 4 threads (2 on either side). Use the washers and nuts to tighten the
brackets to the rear of the front plate of the Clamp-Kit. Notice that the brackets clamp the multiplexer
unit tightly in position.
4. Insert the HD15 Sub-D connector from the multiplexer unit into the female connector on the print
board at the back of the Clamp-Kit. (Note that this connector is wired in parallel to the connectors
visible/accessible at the front side of the Clamp-Kit.)
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5. Insert the 5.5 mm plug of the power supply into the socket of the multiplexer unit. The Clamp-Kit is
now ready for mounting in the 19 inch rack. The power supply and the multiplexer-ground can be
connected at will.
6. At the front of the Clamp-Kit the Ivium potentiostat can be connected to the connector marked
"source" using the cable that is delivered with the Clamp-Kit. The Multiplexer is now ready for use. Any
additional multiplexer units can be connected to the connector marked "next".
4.8.7 Boosters
Various current/voltage boosters are available:

IviumBoost10012

IviumBoost1040

IviumBoost1001

IviumBoost1010

IviumBoost205

Plus module
For compatibility of the boosters with various Ivium potentiostats check the Compatibility Table.
4.8.7.1 IviumBoost10012
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1. IviumBoost: hardware description
Note that the specific instructions here apply to the latest model of IviumBoost. If you have an older
model IviumBoost, the specific instructions for your instrument were included in the original shipment.
Contact Ivium if you wish to receive a copy.
1.1
Device description
The IviumBoost is a current booster for the IviumStat and will increase the maximum current of the
IviumStat to ±100A at ±10V (±12V compliance voltage). The IviumBoost is compatible with all models of
IviumStat, including various versions of the IviumStat.XR
1.2 IviumBoost specifications
Applied voltage:
Compliance voltage:
Maximum current:
2 Current ranges:
Potentiostatic
Bandwith:
Dimensions:
Weight :
Power:
±10V
±12V
±100A
±10A (clamped at ±15A)
±100A
0V capability
> 100 kHz
w x d x h = 47x36x14cm
13kg
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 1500W
Note that the device specs are including the cell cables, but excluding the appendages for connecting the
cables to the test subject.
1.3 Display
The IviumBoost is a very powerful instrument that is capable of high power outputs. In order to inform
the user, the IviumBoost10012 is equipped with a status display with LED indicators.
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Fig.: Front view LED display
Located at the front, the display window contains 5 LED indicators. These LEDs are only active when the
IviumBoost10012 is active:
Indicator
I ovl
E ovl
Cell on
10A
100A
Color
[red]
[red]
[green]
[yellow]
[yellow]
Shows when
maximum current is reached
maximum compliance (CE) voltage is reached
cell relais is closed and cell is active
corresponding current range is active
corresponding current range is active
When a (unforeseen) situation occurs where it is desired to protect the test object/substrate, an
(emergency) manual override is possible. The cell will be instantly isolated from the IviumBoost by
pressing the red "Disconnect" button located at middle-top on the front of the IviumBoost.
2. Connection & configuration of the IviumBoost/IviumStat
To connect the IviumBoost to the IviumStat:
1. Take the included M/F HD15 connection cable. Insert the M-side into the Cell-connector of the
IviumStat. Insert the F-side into the IviumStat connector.
2. Connect the RE/S cable (cable with blue RE banana, white S banana, green GND banana) to the RE/S
connector.
3. Connect the two WE/CE cables (identical):
by fastening them to the relevant
screw terminals at the front:
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4. switch on the IviumBoost
When the IviumStat is on and idle, it will automatically detect the presence of the IviumBoost10012 (if
switched on and the connection cable is inserted). There is no need to set any options in the IviumStat or
IviumSoft.
3. Operation
3.1 Cell cables
The IviumBoost is capable of outputting high currents and high powers. In order to guarantee the best
measurement results, the current carrying cables of the WE and CE have been separated from the
potential measurement cables RE and S. It should be noted here however, that the IviumBoost can only
be operated in the 4-electrode mode. The RE and S leads need to be connected.
The WE and CE electrode cables end in an o-ring for fastening to the test object.
The RE/S cable includes the ground cable, all leads end in a banana-plug. The RE and S should be
connected to the appropriate contacts of the test object (or the WE and CE leads). These cables do not
carry any current and can be connected using the crocodile clips that are included in the IviumBoost
shipment.
3.2 Electrode connections
The IviumBoost can only be operated in the 4-electrode mode (the RE and S leads need to be
connected). So as soon as the IviumStat detects the presence of the IviumBoost10012, in the "Connect
to" group only 3 options will be available:
1. "Off": the cell is off
2. "Cell Estat4": potentiostatic 4-electrode connection
3. "Cell Istat4": galvanostatic 4-electrode connection
3.3 IviumBoost10012 active
When the IviumBoost10012 is connected and active, only the 10A and 100A current ranges are available.
The operation of the IviumBoost10012 is fully integrated in the IviumSoft and the operation of the setup.
3.3 Safety limits/G-Stat speed settings in IviumSoft
Safety limits
Because of the high current capability of the IviumBoost10012, it is possible to limit the maximum
current output of the instrument. To do so, go to menu Options > Options and select the 'Settings' tab.
In the 'Settings' tab the manual in the '100A Booster' group the maximum current (1) can be entered.
The limit will be active when the pop-up window is closed.
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G-Stat speed
Because the bandwidth of the galvanostat is dependent of the load, a user selection is possible of the
bandwidth of the galvanostat. At higher impedance objects, the bandwidth of the galvanostat can be set
to "High speed" mode. This limit will be active when the pop-up window is closed.
4.8.7.2 IviumBoost1040
The IviumBoost is a current booster for the IviumStat and will increase the maximum current of the
IviumStat to 40A at ± 10V. The IviumBoost is compatible with all models of IviumStat, including various
versions of the IviumStat.XR
Specifications:

Compliance:

Potentiostatic:

Bandwith:

wxdxh

power:
Ivium Technologies ©
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0V capability
> 100 kHz
= 47x36x14 cm; 16 kg
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 1000W
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Note 1: The device specs are including the cell cables, but excluding the appendages for connecting the
cables to the test subject.
Note 2: The specific instructions here apply to the latest model of IviumBoost. If you have an older model
IviumBoost, the specific instructions for your instrument were included in the original shipment. Contact
Ivium if you wish to receive a copy.
1. Display
The IviumBoost is a very powerful instrument that is capable of high power outputs. In order to inform
the user, the IviumBoost1040 is equipped with a status display with LED indicators.
Figure 1.: Front view LED display
Located at the front, the display window contains 5 LED indicators. These LEDs are only active when the
IviumBoost1040 is active:
Indicator
I ovl
E ovl
Cell on
10V
40A
Color
[red]
[red]
[red]
[red]
[red]
Shows when
maximum current is reached
maximum compliance (CE) voltage is reached
cell relais is closed and cell is active
always on, indicating maximum voltage compliance
booster is active, i.e. in 40A current range
When an (unforeseen) situation occurs where it is desired to protect the test object/substrate, an
(emergency) manual override is possible. The cell will be instantly isolated from the IviumBoost by
pressing the red "Disconnect" button located at the bottom right on the front of the IviumBoost.
2. Connecting the IviumBoost to the IviumStat
To connect the IviumBoost to the IviumStat:
1. take the included M/F HD15 cable. Insert the M-side into the Cell-connector of the IviumStat. Insert
the F-side into the IviumStat connector.
2. Connect the RE/S cable to the RE/S connector.
3. Connect the (heavy) WE/CE cable by inserting the plug so that the notch and the slid line up. Then
turn the plug clockwise until it clicks in place. (To unfasten, pull the silver button and turn the plug
counter-clockwise).
4. Connect the power cable
5. switch on the IviumBoost
6. switch on the IviumStat
When the potentiostat is switched on and idle, it will automatically detect the presence of the
IviumBoost1040 (if switched on and the connection cable is inserted). There is no need to set any options
in the potentiostat or IviumSoft.
3. Operation
3.1 Cell cables
The IviumBoost is capable of outputting high currents and high powers. In order to guarantee the best
measurement results, the current carrying cables of the WE and CE have been separated from the
potential measurement cables RE and S. It should be noted here however, that the IviumBoost can only
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be operated in the 4-electrode mode. The RE and S leads need to be connected to the sample at all times
during a measurement.
The WE and CE electrode cables end in an o-ring for fastening to the test object. The shipment of the
IviumBoost1040 includes several appendages for connecting the cell cables to the test object. The gold
plated bananas can be attached to the o-ring of the WE or CE cables by unscrewing the back of the
banana and re-fasten it through the o-ring. Do not use other banana's, because these gold plated
banana's are especially assembled so they can be safely operated at 40A.
To attach the battery clips to the WE or CE electrode cables, remove the handle insulation of the battery
clip. Fasten the electrode cable o-ring to the bolt in the handle, and re-attach the handle insulation.
The RE/S cable includes the ground cable. All end in a banana-plug. The RE and S should be connected to
the appropriate contacts of the test object (or the WE and CE leads). These cables do not carry any
current and can be connected using the crocodile clips that are included in the IviumBoost shipment.
3.2 Electrode connections
The IviumBoost can only be operated in the 4-electrode mode (the RE and S leads need to be
connected). So as soon as the potentiostat detects the presence of the IviumBoost1040, in the "Connect
to" group in the IviumSoft method paramters only 3 options will be available:
1. "Off": the cell is off
2. "Cell Estat4": potentiostatic 4-electrode connection
3. "Cell Istat4": galvanostatic 4-electrode connection
3.3 IviumBoost1040 active
The IviumBoost1040 is only active when the highest (10A) current range is selected. And it is shown that
the IviumBoost1040 is active by indication of the '40A' LED on the front display. When lower current
ranges are active, the Ivium potentiostat itself is active and does the measurement, the IviumBoost is
then only a 'conduit'.
The operation of the IviumBoost1040 is fully integrated in the IviumSoft and the operation of the set-up.
This means that it is possible to operate the AutoCR from the lower CRs available on the Ivium
potentiostats up to and including the 10A range of the IviumBoost1040.
4. Integrated Current Interrupt
The IviumBoost1040 is equipped with an integrated Current Interrupt 'module'. This means that the
current interrupt technique can be used as usual, either directly from the menu
Options>CurrentInterrupt, or in Chronopotentiometry level 2.
4.8.7.3 IviumBoost1001
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1. IviumBoost1001: hardware description
The IviumBoost1001 is a power booster that will increase the maximum current and potential to ±600mA
and ±100V. Note that the specific instructions here apply to the latest model of IviumBoost. If you have
an older model IviumBoost, the specific instructions for your instrument were included in the original
shipment. Contact Ivium if you wish to receive a copy.
At the front the IviumBoost1001 is equipped with:
-
A
A
A
A
male round (R15) connector for connection to the Ivium potentiostat
female round (R15) connector for the cell cable
white on/off switch
display with status bar and the instrument type indication:
Indicator
I ovl
E ovl
Cell on
100V/1A
Color
[red]
[red]
[red]
[yellow]
Shows when
current range maximum is reached
potential range maximum is reached
cell is electrically controlled
booster type indicator
2. Connecting the IviumBoost
To connect the IviumBoost to the potentiostat:
1. Take the included R15-to-HD15 cable. Insert the HD15-side into the Cell-connector of the potentiostat.
Insert the R15-side into the connector of the IviumBoost.
2. Connect the R15-to-banana cell cable by inserting the R15-plug into the Cell-connector of the
IviumBoost.
3. Connect the power cable.
4. Switch on the IviumBoost.
5. Switch on the potentiostat.
Note 1: When the IviumBoost1001 is connected to a CompactStat with internal power booster (e10800 or
e20250), power the CompactStat.e10800 via the USB cable only. Do not use the AC adapter.
Note 2: The IviumBoost can only be operated in the 4-electrode mode. The RE and S leads need to be
connected.
3. Cell cable
The IviumBoost1001 cell cable is equipped with shrouded banana plugs to protect the user from high
voltages. When connected, the shrouds automatically retract: make sure that the banana's are inserted
completely. Failing to do so may cause bad contact and will result in bad measurements.
Note: The IviumBoost1001 can only be operated in the 4-electrode mode. The RE and S leads need to be
connected.
4. TestCell
For testing the IviumBoost1001 a custom TestCell is included with a 100kOhm resistor. This TestCell can
be used over the full (voltage) range of the IviumBoost1001.
NOTE:
The standard Ivium TestCell1, which is included with each Ivium potentiostat shipment, has a 1 kOhm
resistor between CE and WE. This resistor is rated to 20mA. The IviumBoost1001 is capable of delivering
voltages of up to ±100V, and should thus not be used at voltages over ±20V when connected to
TestCell1.
5. Software operating instructions
After both the potentiostat and IviumBoost1001 have been connected and switched on, start the
IviumSoft and connect to the potentiostat. The IviumSoft and potentiostat will both automatically detect
that the IviumBoost1001 is connected.
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Standard potential range
The potentiostat will operate and allow applied potentials (RE vs. WE) within its standard operating range
(i.e. 4V for CompactStat, 10V for IviumStat). But the compliance voltage (WE vs. CE) will be the
maximum of 100V.
E_Extended range
To increase the applied and measured potential ranges to the maximum of 100V, go to the menu
Options>Options and tick the box for "E_Extended range". Then disconnect and reconnect the
potentiostat in the IviumSoft to synchronise the new option.
4.8.7.4 IviumBoost1010
1. IviumBoost1010: hardware description
The IviumBoost1010 is a power booster for the IviumStat, Ivium-n-Stat and Vertex. It will increase the
maximum current to ±10A. Note that the specific instructions here apply to the latest model of
IviumBoost. If you have an older model IviumBoost, the specific instructions for your instrument were
included in the original shipment. Contact Ivium if you wish to receive a copy.
At the front the IviumBoost1010 is equipped with:
- 2 round high power or R15 connectors: "Control" and "Cell"
- An on/off switch
- A display window with 4 indicators:
Indicator
I ovl
E ovl
Cell on
10V10A
Color
[orange]
[orange]
[red]
[white]
Shows when
current range maximum is reached
potential range maximum is reached
cell is connected
instrument is switched on, indicating the IviumBoost compliance
2. Connecting the IviumBoost to the IviumStat
To connect the IviumBoost to the IviumStat:
1. Take the included HD15-to-R15 cable. Insert the HD15-side into the Cell-connector of the IviumStat.
Insert the R15-side into the Control-connector of the IviumBoost.
2. Connect the R15-to-banana cell cable by inserting the R15-plug into the Cell-connector of the
IviumBoost
3. Connect the power cable
4. Switch on the IviumBoost
5. Switch in the IviumStat
Note that the IviumBoost can only be operated in the 4-electrode mode. The RE and S leads need to be
connected.
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3. Software instructions
After both the IviumStat and IviumBoost have been connected and switched on, start the IviumSoft. The
Software and IviumStat will both automatically detect that the IviumBoost205 is connected; no additional
settings are necessary.
4.8.7.5 IviumBoost205
1. IviumBoost205: hardware description
The IviumBoost205 is a power booster for the IviumStat, Ivium-n-Stat and Vertex. It will increase the
maximum current and potential to ±5A and ±20V. Note that the specific instructions here apply to the
latest model of IviumBoost. If you have an older model IviumBoost, the specific instructions for your
instrument were included in the original shipment. Contact Ivium if you wish to receive a copy.
At the



front the IviumBoost205 is equipped with:
2 round high power or R15 connectors: "Control" and "Cell"
An on/off switch
A display window with 4 indicators:
Indicator
I ovl
E ovl
Cell on
20V 5A
Color
[orange]
[orange]
[red]
[white]
Shows when
current range maximum is reached
potential range maximum is reached
cell is connected
instrument is switched on, indicating the IviumBoost compliance
2. Connecting the IviumBoost to the IviumStat
To connect the IviumBoost to the IviumStat:
1. Take the included HD15-to-R15 cable. Insert the HD15-side into the Cell-connector of the IviumStat.
Insert the R15-side into the Control-connector of the IviumBoost.
2. Connect the R15-to-banana cell cable by inserting the R15-plug into the Cell-connector of the
IviumBoost
3. Connect the power cable
4. Switch on the IviumBoost
5. Switch on the IviumStat
Note that the IviumBoost can only be operated in the 4-electrode mode. The RE and S leads need to be
connected.
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3. Software instructions
Install the latest version of the IviumSoft that is delivered on an installation CD with your IviumBoost205.
If you already have IviumSoft installed on your PC, simply copy the latest version of IviumSoft.exe from
the installation CD and paste it in your ..\IviumStat folder. Then open the IviumSoft and upgrade the
firmware of your IviumStat.
After both the IviumStat and IviumBoost have been connected and switched on, start the IviumSoft. The
Software and IviumStat will both automatically detect that the IviumBoost205 is connected; no additional
settings are necessary.
4.8.7.6 Install Plus-module
The Plus-module is compatible with the Ivium CompactStat and is available in 2 models as a separate
unit:

±250mA @ ± 20V

±800mA @ ± 10V
Installation:
Connect the Plus-module is to the CompactStat via de 15-pins cell cable connector. The cell-cable is
connected to the output cell connector of the Plus-module.
The Plus-module requires an external powersupply (included in shipment), that must be connected.
When the Plus module is connected, the configuration in the software should be updated. In the Options
menu, the relevant "Plus" checkbox should be checked:

check only the box for "CompactStatPlus" for the ±250mA @ ± 20V model

check both boxes for "CompactStatPlus" and "type II" for the ±800mA @ ± 10V model
When the relevant box is checked, close the Options window, and in the software "Disconnect" the
instrument and "Connect" again to switch on the Plus-module.
Note that when Plus-module is connected and activated, the internal dummy cells, the 2-Electrode-mode,
and the BiStat module can not be used.
4.8.8 Light modules
Several modules are available for photo-electrochemistry, such as (prgrammable) light sources and light
intensity meters:

ModuLight

ModuSens

IviSUN

LightSens
4.8.8.1 ModuLight
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The ModuLight-module is a programmable light source that has been designed to investigate photoelectrical devices, such as solar cells. The add-on module will operate in combination with Ivium
potentiostats, through the peripheral I/O-port.
The ModuLight, by default, contains 7 LEDs with wavelengths ranging from 460-740 nm. On request LEDs
can be exchanged for others from the same product range (see table below).
During operation an LED can be programmatically selected. The sinewave generator of the potentiostat
can then be used to modulate the intensity of the LED with a frequency of 10uHz-2MHz. The extensive
Solar cell applications that are included in the Ivium software allow a full characterization of the solar cell.
The functionality includes E/I curves as function of the light intensity, IMVS/IMPS, and solar cell
modelling resulting in all characteristic values of the studied object.
1. Modulight specifications
Table 1: Wavelength specification, specification subject to change as LED technology progresses.
Light intensity
Bias resolution
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Can be modulated with the FRAoutput of the build-in
sinewave generator of the IviumStat/CompactStat/Ivium-nStat/Vertex from 10 µHz to 2 MHz (pending potentiostat
capability).
16 bit, 0.0015%
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Wavelength
Power
Bandwidth
Light aperture
Power Requirements
Size
Weight
Interfacing/connectivity
Use
Set programmatically 460-740 nm in 7 steps
0 - 1430 mW (depending on LED)
0 => 2 MHz
Circular, d=34mm, 9.08cm2
external adapter: 100-240 V, 45-65Hz
at DC-connector: 5 V, 1A
w x d x h = 12 x 13 x 2.5 cm
0.5 kg
1) HD37 at the back: connects to the potentiostat peripheral
port;
2) HD15 connector at the front: for connection to optional
ModuSens light intensity meter
only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
2. Installation
Connect the ModuLight to the potentiostat using the cable that is included with the instrument. Insert the
connection cable into the SD37connector at the back of the Modulight and the other end into the
peripheral port connector of your potentiostat:
- The SD37-SD37 cable connects the ModuLight to the IviumStat and CompactStat;
- The SD37-SD15 cable connects the ModuLight to the Vertex.s and sModule.
The HD15 connector at the front of the Modulight is intended for the connection of the ModuSens lightintensity meter. The ModuSens is available as a separate product from Ivium.
Insert the external 5V power adapter. The ModuLight is now ready for operation, using your IviumSoft.
The test object (solar cell) can be connected to the cell cable and illuminated with the ModuLight.
The operation of the ModuLight is independent of its position, i.e. the ModuLight can be placed under, on
top, to the side, etc. of the test object. At the bottom of the ModuLight a screw socket is available to put
the ModuLight on a common camera stand.
3. Direct operation
The ModuLight can emit a modulated light flux of 6 different wavelengths and 1 wavelength spread
(white), using 7 different LED's as light source. The present specifications of each wavelength are given
in table 1 (above).
Color Selection
The color/LED can be selected by using the 3 digital outputs of the peripheral port. The digital codes are
given in table 1. (Note that these codes are according to the electronic standards, i.e. counting from right
to left). The digital outputs can be accessed in the IviumSoft from the "Direct" tab in the "Extern" tab
below. As an example, to choose the color "white", the digital code is "IIO". This means that "Dig out 3"
and "Dig out 2" need to be checked and "Dig out 1" is unchecked.
DC Intensity
The DC intensity of the light is controlled via the Analog output1. This output has a range of 0 - 4V, which
corresponds to a light output of 0-100% of the full-on output power. For example enter "1V" into the ch1
field and click on "ch1". This will result in a light output of the chosen colour corresponding with 25% of
full-drive current (see paragraph 6: Ivium ModuLight photometry).
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Note: The DC intensity/Analog output1 can also be controlled directly from within some methods (Mixed
Mode) and as a Direct command from Batch Mode.
AC Modulation
The AC modulation of the light is controlled via the AC-output of the peripheral port. The AC-output is
accessed in IviumSoft from the "AC" tab which is found under the Direct control menu tab.
The rate of modulation is controlled by the Frequency setting. An AC amplitude setting of 0 - 1V
corresponds to a modulation of 0 -100% of the full-on output power (see paragraph 6: Ivium ModuLight
photometry), which is added to the selected dc power.
Examples
1Set DC Voltage (Analog output ch1) = 2V; click "Ch1"
Set AC Voltage (AC signal Amplitude) = 0.500V
Set Frequency (AC signal Frequency) = 2Hz; click "Apply";
now the light will start modulating between 100% intensity and 0% intensity at the chosen frequency of
2 Hz. The 2V DC sets the light amplitude at 50% of maximum drive current3, then 0.5V AC adds a
modulation intensity of 50% of full ouput current3, and so the combined signal oscillates between full-on
output power and zero.
2Set DC Voltage = 3.6V (90% of max power)
Set AC Voltage = 0.1V (10% of max power)
Set Frequency (AC signal Frequency) = 100Hz
This produces a modulation between 80% of full-on and 100% of full on with a dc offset power at 90% of
full-on, at a frequency of 100Hz3.
3Overdriving to non-linearity (not recommended):
DC Voltage = 4V (100% of max power)
AC Voltage = 0.05V (5% of max power)
This produces a modulation between 95% of full-on and 100% of full-on with a dc offset power at 100%
of full-on3. Because more than 100% of full-on is not possible, the first half of the sine wave will
modulate between 95% and 100%, the second half of the sine wave will yield 100%. This could produce
a non-linear modulation and is not recommended.
Note1: When controlling the ModuLight from the direct mode, it should be taken into account that
communication between PC and Ivium device only takes place once per second. This means that there
may be a delay of up to one second before a change takes effect.
Note2: The peripheral port signal output depends on the Ivium instrument type. I.e. when the "Plusmodule" option is checked, the AC-output signal is a factor of 5.33 lower than the set value; when the "E
extended range" option is checked, the AC-output signal is a factor of 2 lower than the set value. This
means that in these cases the amplitude of the light intensity variation is equally less. If this is an issue,
please contact Ivium Technologies for a solution.
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Note3: Due to the non-linear nature of the LED light output as a function of the driving current (see
paragraph 6: Ivium ModuLight photometry), the DC voltage control 0 - 4V also shows a non-linear
control function.
4. Running a Method
4.1 Single method
A single method can be run by first setting the desired parameters of the ModuLight, such as wavelength
and intensity, in the "Direct" mode tab (see paragraph 3). Then in the "Method" mode tab, a method can
be run. For example, to measure an E/I curve of a solar cell, set the desired wavelength (Digital outputs)
and intensity (DC Voltage, Ch1), then the E/I curve can be measured using the linear sweep method.
Note that modulation cannot be applied whilst performing a DC sweep - only during EIS. If an AC
modulation was selected under the Direct Mode tab, it will simply switch off during the DC sweep.
However, swept measurements incorporating pulsed modulation of the light amplitude can be achieved
using Mixed Mode by segmenting the sweep into levels and having different values of the analogue
output in each sweep level.
To run an impedance measurement, the ModuLight parameters such as colour choice and DC intensity,
first need to be set in the "Direct" mode tab. Then in the "Method" mode tab select the desired
impedance technique (for example "Constant E"). Then activate the "Advanced" method. In the method
parameter list now "MeasConfig" is available. This parameter determines how and which signals are
recorded and shown in the graph (see also paragraph 5).
4.2 Automated methods
Batch mode
In the "BatchMode" it is possible to run several methods successively. In between methods it is possible
to change the wavelength (light colour) and DC intensity of the ModuLight. To do this add a
"DirectCommand" line in the appropriate place in the batch program. When this line is selected in the
Line-properties, the wavelength can be chosen by ticking the "SetDigOut" box. The boxes for the
individual digital outputs become available and by ticking the relevant boxes the wavelength can be
chosen. In the same way ticking the "SetDAC" box will make the analog outputs available. Inserting the
desired value in the "DAC 1" field (=Analog output 1, ch1) will set the intensity of the light.
Mixed mode
In the transient technique "MixedMode" a sequence of operations can be programmed in the pop-up of
the method parameter "Stages". In the "Properties for Level", at the bottom of the list, the following
parameters allow operation of the ModuLight:

AnOut1: when ticked a value can be entered from 1 - 4 V which determines the DC intensity of
the light from 0 - 100% of full-on (in the same way as in the direct mode operation, see
paragraph 3).

Digouts: when ticked an integer value can be entered to select the color. This integer
corresponds to an 8 bit conversion for the digital outputs, i.e. 0 = all digouts off; 1 = digout1 on
digout2and3 off, etc.

The AC modulation of the light can be controlled by ticking the "Record ac" box. Then in the main
method parameters the modulation Frequency (Hz) and AC amplitude can be set (amplitude: 0 1V corresponding with 0 - 100% of full-on; in the same way as in the direct mode operation, see
paragraph 3).
5. Measurement/signal configuration (AC transfer function)
Standard electrochemical impedance is determined from measurements of the AC current and AC
potential at the instrument's cell connectors. A standard impedance (Z) sweep is derived from E/I, where
the Y-input/signal is E (voltage) and the X-input/signal is I_we (current at the working electrode). In
table 2 (below) this situation is given in line 0: MeasConfig = standard.
However, with Ivium potentiostats/IviumSoft it is possible to select other signals for the X- and Y-inputs.
In the Impedance techniques the advanced method parameter "MeasConfig" is available. This parameter
allows various signals to be used for the X- and Y-inputs. These signals can then be plotted in the
impedance Result graph as if these were I_we and E respectively.
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Table 2 below shows alternative choices which are accessible in IviumSoft from the "MeasConfig"
parameter in the Impedance techniques (Advanced mode only). For the Modulight the relevant choices
are lines 0, 1 and 2 (BOLD), corresponding with standard, INT_ac I and INT_ac E.
Table 2
In the table:
I_we and E:
ac intern:
Internal DSG not applied:
Are generated or measured as usual via the potentiostat/cell connector;
Is the internally generated (FRA) ac signal applied via the peripheral port
connector (=AC-out in the pinout in the instrument manual). It drives the
ModuLight AC intensity.
Signifies that the Internal Direct Signal Genereator is not applied, so no AC
perturbation is carried through to the E and I_we signals; these are DC
signals only.
When measuring impedance the IviumSoft always defines this as Y/X so, for standard impedance (Z),
this would be E/I we in the table above.
When other signals are used for Y and X the data is still displayed as impedance (Z=E/I) by the software
however it is actually a transfer function which is defined by the MeasConfig selection and the user must
interpret the data.
To invert the transfer function to X/Y, select Admittance (Y) instead of Impedance (Z) in the software.
Example 1: Solarcell IMPS - Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy
The IMPS technique measures the transfer function between modulated light intensity and the resulting
AC current generated by the cell (there are no universal standards for display of IMPS and IMVS. If the
inverse ratio is required then Admittance (Y) should be selected for display within IviumSoft). To run this
technique:

Select from the method tree: Impedance> Constant E.

Activate advanced method parameters

Set parameter "MeasConfig" to "INT_ac E"
With this parameter-setting, the internal applied AC signal is used as Y (light-intensity) and the photo
current is used as X:
IMPS = Y/X = light intensity/photo-Current = AC intern/I_we.
This potentiostats dc potential may be set to short circuit conditions (E=0), but it may also be made at,
for example, the maximum power point or Eoc (I=0).
Note that the potentiostat's DC potential may be set to short circuit conditions (E=0), but it may also be
operated at other settings, for example maximum power point or E_oc (I=0).
Example 2: Solarcell IMVS - Intensity Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy
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The IMVS technique measures the transfer function between modulated light intensity and the resulting
AC voltage generated by the cell. To run this technique:

Select from the method tree: Impedance> Constant I.

Activate advanced method parameters

Set parameter "MeasConfig" to "INT_ac I"
With this parameter-setting, the internal applied AC signal is used as Y (light-intensity) and the photo
potential is used as X:
IMPS = Y/X = photo potential/light intensity = E/AC intern
Note that the galvanostat current may be set to OCP conditions (I=0), but it may also be made at, for
example, the maximum power point.
Experimental examples of measurement results are given in IMPS/IMVS and solar cell measurement.
6. Ivium ModuLight Photometry
Luminous Flux
The applied LED series is adapted to the so-called luminous efficiency function. This function describes
the average sensitivity of the human eye to light at different wavelengths. This means that to obtain a
relatively equal light output at different colors the radiant power will vary.
The relationship between luminous and radiant intensity can be described as:
I_v = 683 * I * Y(lambda)
I_v
I
Y(lambda)
sr
Luminous Intensity in Lm/sr
Radiant Intensity in W/sr
Luminous Function
Steradium
Luminous efficiency function
Luminous Intensity
In the graphs in paragraph 7, the relative light output (%) as a function of the driving current is given for
each of the LEDs used in the ModuLight. 0 mA corresponds to 0% light, 1000mA corresponds with 100%
relative light output.
In the ModuLight the LED intensity is controlled via the setting of Analog output 1, linear from 0 - 4V. The
setting of 0V corresponds to a driving current of 0 mA, 4 V corresponds to a driving current of 1000mA.
Example
Using a the RED LED (623nm, 260lm/W, output 461mW at 100%):

setting 0V will give 0 light

setting 4V will give 100% light (1000mA), corresponding with 461mW or 119.86 lm (= 260 *
0.461/1)

for 50% light output, a driving current is needed of ca. 430mA (see also graphs in paragraph 7),
for this a setting of 1.72V (4V * 0.430/1) is required, corresponding with 230.5mW or 59.93lm
(= 260 * 0.2305/1)
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7. LED specifications
Standard LEDs
Cool White 6500K, 200lm @ 1A
Blue 460nm, 40lm @ 1A
Green 525nm, 200lm @ 1A
Amber 590nm, 105lm @ 1A
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Red 623nm, 160lm @ 1A
Deep Red 660nm, 900mW @ 1A
Far Red 740nm, 705mW @ 1A
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Optional LEDs
Cool White 5500K, 250lm @ 1A
Violet 405nm, 1400mW @ 1A
UV 365nm, 1470mW @ 1A
IR 940nm, 1150mW @ 1A
IR 850nm, 1150mW @ 1A
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Dental Blue 460nm, 1100mW @ 1A
8. Accessories
Available accessories for the ModuLight:

ModuSens - Light intensity meter for ModuLight

Optical platform - Facilitates the fixation of the Ivium ModuLight at a precise distance from the
illuminated object
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
Glass cell - water jacketed glass cell with quartz window (included with Optical platform)
4.8.8.2 ModuSens
1. About the ModuSens
The ModuSens is a light sensor that connects to the Ivium ModuLight. Its operation and measurement are
integrated in the IviumSoft.
2. Specifications
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Sensor:
Weight:
Diameter sensor holder:
Length diameter holder:
Cable length:
Power:
3 x 3mm2
75g
15mm
60mm
1.3m
powered from ModuLight
3. Measurement sensitivity
The ModuSens is equipped with a rotary selector switch that can choose any of 4 measurement sensitivity
ranges. The sensitivity is given in the table below.
ModuSens measurement sensitivity:
Switch selection
0
1
2
3
Sensitivity
39.6 µV/lx
79.54 µV/lx
159.1 µV/lx
319.2 µV/lx
1/Sensitivity
25252 lx/V
12572 lx/V
6285 lx/V
3132 lx/V
4. Operation
When connected to the ModuLight, the ModuSens outputs 2 signals that are measured/read by the
peripheral port of the potentiostat:
Analog input 1: Control signal of LED intensity (V)
Analog input 2: Measured intensity (V, according to sensitivity table)
The Analog inputs can be used as normal in IviumSoft.
4.8.8.3 IviSUN
The Ivium Technologies IviSUN is a solar simulator, that can be modulated at high frequencies. The
IviSUN uses a high density LED array that is capable of a light intensity of the 1 sun standard, i.e. 1,000
W/m2. This LED array, can realize far higher modulation frequencies than conventional xenon-lamp solar
simulators.
The IviSUN can be used:

Stand-alone: by manually setting a fixed light intensity.

Remote: by connecting the IviSUN to an IviumStat or CompactStat
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The IviSUN instrument consists of
1) a Base that houses the power supply, instrument controls, and display window, and
2) a separate LightBox that connects to the Base via a cable. The LightBox can be positioned freely by
the user and is equipped with a standard socket for mounting on a for example a camera stand.
1. Remote Operation
1) Connect the mains connector to rear panel of the IviSUN base.
2) Connect the supplied connection cable to the Peripheral I/O port of the Ivium potentiostat and to the
Remote Control port of the IviSUN base. Use the DB37 male-male cable to connect the
IviumStat/CompactStat; use the DB37/DB15 male-male cable for connection to sModule/Vertex.
3) Connect the supplied HD15 male-female connection cable to the Light port of the IviSUN base and the
connection port on the IviSUN Light Box.
4) Make sure the Intensity/Remote control knob is turned to the remote position: all the way counter
clock wise, a click can be felt.
5) Switch on the potentiostat.
**NOTE: by default, the sModule/Vertex set "0V" to the Analog output 1 in IviumSoft, which
controls the intensity of the IviSUN. As can be found in the products notes for the sModule and
Vertex.S instruments, a setting of 0V corresponds to a maximum intensity of the light output.
To set the light output of the IviSUN to 0% ("off"), connect the potentiostat in IviumSoft,
navigate to the "Direct" control panel, and set the analog output to "2V". Do this before
switching on the IviSUN.**
6) Turn on the IviSUN by using the on/off switch (push button at the front).
7) The IviSUN can now be controlled from IviumSoft. In the "Direct" mode the light intensity can be set
by using Analog Output Ch1; the modulation can be set using the AC Signal Output. In "Method" mode
when running an electrochemical method, the Analog Output Ch1 can be set as a parameter in the
method parameters field. The modulation of the intensity is controlled by the impedance analyser of the
potentiostat (hence, in DC methods there is no modulation, this is only available when using impedance
methods).
For the appropriate set values of Analog Output Ch1 and AC Signal, also refer to the product notes of
your potentiostat.
2. Manual Operation
1) Connect the mains connector to rear panel of the IviSUN
2) By using the Manual control on the front of the IviSUN a constant light output can be set manually.
Control
Manual
Analog Output Ch1
AC Signal amplitude
Setting
min - max
0 - 4V
0 - 1V
Output
0 - 125%
0 - 100%
0 - 100%
Note: Do not use both the manual
and Analog Output Ch1 at the same time.
3. Operation example
On the Direct tab in IviumSoft Set Analog output ch1 to 2V. Now set the AC signal to 0.5V and 0.1Hz.
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Now the IviSUN will be modulated between darkness and 100% light output with a period of 10 seconds.
You can monitor the relative light output on the display on the front of the IviSUN.
More details on how to use the IviSUN for solar cell research, as well as some experimental examples,
can be found in Impedance measurement configuration and IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement.
4. Specifications
LED array
Light area
Luminous efficacy (sun)
Luminous efficiency (sun)
Measured bandwidth
361 x 7 lm LEDs
15 x 15 cm = 0.15² = 2.25 x 10-2 m2
93 lumens per watt of radiant flux
14% (93/683)
10uHz - 250kHz
Measured intensity of IviSUN
100%
100,000lx
130%
130,000lx
2,250lm
2,925lm
Calculation Example:
Illuminance
Ev  100,000lx
Luminance
Lv 
Radiant Intensity
1,075 W/m²
1,398 W/m²
Ev 100,000

2250 lm 2
2
m
A
0.15
Ev
100,000
I

 1,075W 2
m
efficacy
93
LED properties:
The LEDs in the IviSUN are operated in the linear range of Fig.3.
4.8.8.4 LightSens
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4.8.8.5 MultiWE32
The Ivium Technologies MultiWE32 is a high quality potentiostat module for use in combination with the
Ivium potentiostats. It enables electrochemical potentiostatic control and impedance measurements of 32
working electrodes versus one counter electrode and one reference electrode. Simultaneous control of 32
WEs is possible for the techniques CV/LSV/SQRwave/ChronoAmperometry, sequential control is possible
for all potentiostatic techniques, including inpedance.
1. Technical Specifications
The MultiWE32 module will accomodate cells with 32 Working Electrodes, that share a single CE and RE.
The potential is applied to all channels simultaneously, thus applied E is not multiplexed!
Each channel:

Max current +/- 1mA

Applied potential +/-20V (depending on controlling potentiostat)

Programmable offset +/-2V, 0.0625 mV resolution, independent for each channel

2 modes:
Simultaneous
• CV/LSV/DPV/SQRwave/ChronoAmperometry
• Data acquisition of 32 WE currents at the same time,
• maximum rate of 10 samples/sec (0.1sec interval time)
Sequential
• All electrochemical potentiostatic methods possible
• Frequency response analysis
Each MultiWE32 module:

Voltage Input: 5V ± 0.2Vdc

Max. input current: 400mA

Max. power: 2W
A full list of Technical specifications is under Instrument specifications\MultiWE32.
2. Installation
To connect the MultiWE32 to the potentiostat:
1. For a single MultiWE32 module:
Connect the M/F HD15 cable: M-side into the Cell-connector of the potentiostat; F-side into the HD-15
connector at the front of the MultiWE32.
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For multiple MultiWE32 modules:
Place the MultiWE32 modules on top of the potentiostat. Note that each MultiWE32 module has a specific
range of channels, so it is easiest to start counting from the top down, or from the bottom up. Then
insert the connector cable:
2. Insert the multi electrode cable(s) to the 37-pin connector at the back of the MultiWE32(s).
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3. Connect the 5Vdc power adapter to the MultiWE32 (at the back). The green power LED at the front will
now light up. For multiple MultiWE32s a splitter cable is provided to power all MultiWE32s from a single
adapter.
4. Switch on and connect the IviumStat or CompactStat.
5. Open the IviumSoft control Software.
6. In the menu "Options>Options" check the box for "MultiWE32". Next to that box select from the drop
down menu the number of MultiWE32 modules connected.
7. Disconnect the instrument in the IviumSoft and re-connect, to synchronize the configuration.
The MultiWE32 is now ready for use.
3. MultiWE32 Electrode Cable assembly
The MultiWE32 cell cable has 35 leads:

32 Working electrodes

1 Counter electrode

1 Reference electrode

1 gnd connector
The color code of the individual electrode cables is given in the WE32 electrode cable.
4. Dummy
For testing purposes, a 10kOhm, 0.1% dummy is provided. This can be used to verify the correct
operation of the instrument, both in simultaneous and single channel mode.
5. Operating instructions
The MultiWE32 can be operated in 2 modes:
1. Sequential mode: All available potentiostatic methods can be run in this mode.
Before the method is started the user can select the channel number from the Direct Control tabsheet.
Its operation is similar to the HiMUX multiplexer. The selected channel will be measured, however, note
that the potential is applied to all channels simultaneously.
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Channel selection can be automated in the Batchmode. The Loop command has a property
"SetWE32ToIndex" that will set the channel nr. to the loopcounter.
Alternatively, the channelnr. can be set directly with the DirectCommand property "SetWE32channel"
2. Simultaneous mode: To acquire measurement data from all channels simultaneously. It is available for
the following techniques: CV/LSV/SQRwave/ChronoAmperometry.
To access simultaneous signal acquisition activate the advanced method parameters. Then check the box
for "WE32_allchannels", and below that the number of channels that you want to measure
simultaneously.
Note that the count always starts at channel 1 (i.e. 16 channels means channels 1 to 16). In the Direct
mode tab set the number of MultiWE32 channels to '0'. Each scan will now produce a number of curves
equal to the number of channels. Individual curves can be stored with "save data", while all scans can be
stored in a single file with "save dataset"
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6. Applying a potential with the MultiWE32
By default, the electrodes of the MultiWE32 act similar to a Bipotentiostat in Scanning mode. This means
that the potential that is selected by the user is applied on all working electrodes at the same time. For
example, when a CV is run, all working electrodes will be sweeping at the same speed.
As an advanced feature, it is possible to give each working electrode an individual offset (available for a
maximum of 32 channels, or 1 MultiWE32 module). This offset is subtracted from the base-potential.
Offsets are intended to apply fixed potential differences between the 32 working electrodes, which remain
constant during a scan. Note that the value for the real-time potential in the software measurement
window, and the graph axis, will only show the "base-potential" (the potential/potential range selected by
user), thus this potential does not include the offset-part. The offset potentials for each WE are stored in
the datafile/method parameters.
The offset potentials can be defined in the Method parameters: selecting "We32_offsets" will open a
dialog screen that will allow the operator to set independent offsets for each electrode, either manually or
with a distribution function (within a range of -2 V to 2 V).
In this example figure, a linear distribution is applied from -1V to +1V. Suppose the basepotential is
scanned from 0 to 1V, the WE[1] will sweep from 1V to 2V, and WE[32] would sweep from -1V to 0V.
To show the scans for all WE's in the Measurement results window, in the method parameters tick the
box "WE32_allchannels".
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Note that when a MultiWE32 is used, there is no primary (base) electrode. For most applications, the
offset potentials would remain at 0V, because potential manipulations are more conveniently done by
setting the base potential.
4.8.9 HiSens32
The HiSens32 is a pre-amplifier module to be used in combination with the Ivium MultiWE32. It amplifies
the measured signal from the cell cable for a specific current range. The HiSens32 is available for 3
current ranges:

1 nA

100 pA

10 pA
NOTE1: When the HiSens32 module is used, only its designated current range can be used; AutoCR
should not be used.
NOTE2: The current range that is operated by the HiSens32 module can be found on the label at the
bottom of the module.
Installation:
The HiSens32 module can be placed directly on the cell connector of the MultiWE32 (DB37). The cell
cable can be inserted in the back of the of the HiSens32 module.
A splitter cable for the power adapter is provided with the HiSens32 module. The splitter cable is
connected between the MultiWE32 power adapter and MultiWE32 and HiSens32 modules.
Set up in IviumSoft:
Open IviumSoft and activate the HiSens32 module together with the MultiWE32 in the menu
Options>Options:
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1. Check the box for MultiWE32.
2. From the drop down menu next to 'MultiWE32' select '1' for the number of MultiWE32 units.
3. From the drop down menu next to 'HiSens32' select the current range for the module that is
connected.
4. Close the Options window.
5. In the IviumSoft, disconnect and re-connect the potentiostat to synchronize the selected options.
6. The potentiostat, MultiWE32 and HiSens32 are now ready for use.
7. While constructing your electrochemical method, in the method parameters select the '10nA' current
range and make sure 'AutoCR' is switched off.
The HiSens32 can only be operated using the 10nA current range. All current values will be re-calculated
automatically for the HiSens32 module that is used and displayed in the Graph and Result Data correctly.
4.8.10 Peripheral interfacing modules
4.8.10.1 PPE
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The PPE - Peripheral Port Expander is a break out box for the peripheral port of the CompactStat and
IviumStat. The 37-pin peripheral port signals are transferred from the 37-pin connector to the banana
socket on the PPE module for easy access and connection.
The PPE module is connected via the data cable that is included with the PPE order. Insert one side of the
data cable into the 37-pin connector of the potentiostat and insert the other side into the connector on
the PPE. Now the instrument is ready for use. No options need to be checked to use the PPE.
More information on how and what the peripheral port signals can be used for is explained in
Measurements using the peripheral port and Peripheral analog inputs.
4.8.10.2 PDA
The PDA-module facilitates the connection to the peripheral port and allows simultaneous recording of 8
different bipolar high-ohmic external voltages, such as voltage monitors, reference or pH electrodes. The
module is stackable up to 8 units (64 channels).
1. Connection
Connecting the PDA module:
Each PDA module has 8 differential high-ohmic analog inputs:

Each channel can measure the difference between + and - inputs up to +/-2V

The maximum allowed common mode voltage is +/-15V. This means that the potential of the
inputs may be 15V different from the instrument gnd (Agnd)

Each input +&- has a very high input resistance: > 1E12 Ohm
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Note that there always must be a relation between in the inputs and Agnd. It is incorrect to
keep the inputs "free floating", because these may end up at very high voltages due the highohmic character of the inputs (charge can accumulate because leakage is small). However, in
practical real measurements, this is almost never an issue, because normally electrodes are put in
connecting solutions or cells are put in series etc. If the primary electrodes (WE/CE etc) are used, the
relation with Agnd is already established. However if the primary electrodes are not used, the (green)
gnd connection must be connected to some point of the experimental setup.
Connecting multiple PDA modules:
A single PDA module can measure up to 8 analog signals; when more signals need to be measured,
multiple PDA modules can be stacked. When multiple PDA modules are stacked, only the number of
differential analog inputs is increased, the remaining connections on the PDA module are all connected,
i.e. there still are only 3 digital outputs, 2 digital inputs, 1 E-out, 1 I-out, etc. Also the GNDs are
connected.
PDA modules are delivered by Ivium Technologies clearly stating the designated channel order: i.e.
channels 1-8, channels 9-16, etc. These modules are to be used according to this designation because
the internal hardware is thus coded.
Use the cable delivered by Ivium Technologies to connect all PDA modules to the potentiostat.
2. Operation
Measurements/data acquisition:
The analog inputs can be recorded both in the Direct mode and during methods. Note that the measured
values are always given in a 0 to +4V range. This means that a signal of -2V shows as a measurement of
0V, a signal of -1V shows as a measurement of +1V, a signal of +1.5V shows as a measurement of +3V,
etc. (Modified PDA modules with increased potential range -optional product on request- also always give
a value in the 0 to +4V range, with 0V being the minimum (i.e. -5V or -10V) and +4V being the
maximum (i.e. +5V or +10V).
Direct Mode:
In the Direct mode the analog channels can be measured from the PDA-tab. Use the selector arrows in
the top left of the PDA-tab to select the number of PDA modules connected. Then click on the "Read
units" button and all channels will be measured and the data will be displayed in the table. Every time the
"Read units" button is clicked all analog channels will be measured.
Method Mode:
To measure the analog input channels of the PDA in the Method mode (during methods) proceed as
follows:

Select the desired method,

Activate the advanced method parameters,

In the method parameters check the box next to "Modules" to show "on", and check the box next
to "PDA" to show "on"

In the method parameters next to "Analog inputs" select the desired number of inputs (available
in multiples of 2)

Optionally: In the method parameters clicking next to "Data Options" opens a pop-up window. In
the "Analog Inputs" tab, a transformation can be entered. This transformation will be applied to
the measured data.

In the "Result graph" window click the "Ain" to the left of the graph. This will open an extra graph
on top of the primary result graph, that shows the analog input data. Two graphs will appear
when in the "Data options" the result data is distributed over two plots.

When the method is started, the analog inputs will be measured simultaneous with the primary
signal; however: note that each factor of 2 in number of analog channels measured, will decrease
the frequency of data acquisition of said channels by a factor of 2 w.r.t. the primary signal (i.e.
when 2 analog channels are selected these channels will be measured at the same rate as the
primary signal, when 4 channels are selected these will be measured at half the rate of the
primary signal, when 8 channels are selected these will be measured at 1/4th the rate of the
primary signal, etc.
3. Calibration
Calibration of the PDA is not required.
4. Other signals
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Next to the 8 analog inputs, the PDA-module contains all other signals that are available in the peripheral
port of the CompactStat and IviumStat. These signals are just transferred directly from the peripheral
port of the instrument to the banana socket on the PDA. More information on how and what these can be
used for is explained in Measurements using the peripheral port and Peripheral analog inputs.
4.8.10.3 mPDA
The mPDA-module facilitates the connection to the peripheral port and allows simultaneous recording of 2
different bipolar high-ohmic external voltages, such as voltage monitors, reference or pH electrodes.
1. Connection
Insert the M-DB37 connector into the peripheral port connector of the CompactStat or IviumStat.
Connect the banana plugs to the signal to be measured; channel 1 is indicated by a '1' on the
corresponding red and black banana; channel 2 is indicated by a '2' on the corresponding red and black
banana. The red bananas are the channel+ and the black bananas are the channel-.
2. Capability
An mPDA module has 2 differential high-ohmic analog inputs:

Each channel can measure the difference between + and - inputs up to +/-10V

The maximum allowed common mode voltage is +/-12V. This means that the potential of the
inputs may be 12V different from the instrument gnd (Agnd)

Each input + and - has a very high input resistance: > 1012 Ohm
Note that there always must be a relation between in the inputs and Agnd. It is incorrect to
keep the inputs "free floating", because these may end up at very high voltages due to the
high-ohmic character of the inputs (charge can accumulate because leakage is small).
However, in practical real measurements, this is almost never an issue, because normally electrodes are
put in connecting solutions or cells are put in series, etc. If the primary electrodes (WE/CE, etc.) are
used, the relation with Agnd is already established. However if the primary electrodes are not used, the
(green) gnd connection must be connected to some point of the experimental setup.
3. Operation
Measurements/data acquisition:
The analog inputs can be recorded both in the Direct mode and during methods. The actual measured
values are show in the IviumSoft in the range of -2V to +2V, i.e. the actual measured voltage is scaled
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down to fit in this voltage range. This means that a measured voltage of +10V is shown as +2V and a
measured voltage of -10V is shown as -2V, etc.
Direct Mode:
In the Direct mode the analog channels can be measured from the PDA-tab (leave the selected number
of PDA-units to '1' in the top left of the PDA-tab). Click on the "Read units" button and both channels will
be measured and the data will be displayed in the table. Every time the "Read units" button is clicked
both analog channels will be measured.
Note that since the mPDA only has 2 channels, only the readings for ch1 and ch2 are valid (although
channels 1 - 8 are displayed, no values will appear at channels 3 - 8).
Method Mode:
To measure the analog input channels of the mPDA in the Method mode (during methods) proceed as
follows:
- Select the desired method,
- Activate the advanced method parameters,
- In the method parameters check the box next to "Modules" to show "on", and check the box next to
"PDA" to show "on"
- In the method parameters next to "Analog inputs" select the number of inputs to be 2.
- Optionally:
In the method parameters clicking next to "Data Options" opens a pop-up window. In the "Analog
Inputs" tab, a transformation can be entered. This transformation will be applied to the measured data.
- In the "Result graph" window click the "Ain" to the left of the graph. This will open an extra graph on
top of the primary result graph, that shows the analog input data.
- When the experiment is started, the analog inputs will be measured simultaneous with the primary
signal (and at the same sample rate).
4. Calibration
Calibration of the mPDA is not required.
4.8.10.4 sPDA
The sPDA-module facilitates the connection to the peripheral port and allows simultaneous recording of 2
different bipolar high-ohmic external voltages, such as voltage monitors, reference or pH electrodes.
1. Connection
Insert the M-DB37 connector into the peripheral port connector of the Vertex or sModule. Connect the
banana plugs to the signal to be measured; channel 1 is indicated by a '1' on the corresponding red and
black banana; channel 2 is indicated by a '2' on the corresponding red and black banana. The red
bananas are the channel+ and the black bananas are the channel-.
2. Capability
An sPDA module has 2 differential high-ohmic analog inputs:

Each channel can measure the difference between + and - inputs up to +/-10V

The maximum allowed common mode voltage is +/-12V. This means that the potential of the
inputs may be 12V different from the instrument gnd (Agnd)

Each input + and - has a very high input resistance: > 1012 Ohm
Note that there always must be a relation between in the inputs and Agnd. It is incorrect to
keep the inputs "free floating", because these may end up at very high voltages due to the
high-ohmic character of the inputs (charge can accumulate because leakage is small).
However, in practical real measurements, this is almost never an issue, because normally electrodes are
put in connecting solutions or cells are put in series, etc. If the primary electrodes (WE/CE, etc.) are
used, the relation with Agnd is already established. However if the primary electrodes are not used, the
(green) gnd connection must be connected to some point of the experimental setup.
3. Operation
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Measurements/data acquisition:
The analog inputs can be recorded both in the Direct mode and during methods. The actual measured
values are show in the IviumSoft in the range of -2V to +2V, i.e. the actual measured voltage is scaled
down to fit in this voltage range. This means that a measured voltage of +10V is shown as +2V and a
measured voltage of -10V is shown as -2V, etc.
Direct Mode:
In the Direct mode the analog channels can be measured from the PDA-tab (leave the selected number
of PDA-units to '1' in the top left of the PDA-tab). Click on the "Read units" button and both channels will
be measured and the data will be displayed in the table. Every time the "Read units" button is clicked
both analog channels will be measured.
Note that since the sPDA only has 2 channels, only the readings for ch1 and ch2 are valid (although
channels 1 - 8 are displayed, no values will appear at channels 3 - 8).
Method Mode:
To measure the analog input channels of the sPDA in the Method mode (during methods) proceed as
follows:
- Select the desired method,
- Activate the advanced method parameters,
- In the method parameters check the box next to "Modules" to show "on", and check the box next to
"PDA" to show "on"
- In the method parameters next to "Analog inputs" select the number of inputs to be 2.
- Optionally:
In the method parameters clicking next to "Data Options" opens a pop-up window. In the "Analog
Inputs" tab, a transformation can be entered. This transformation will be applied to the measured data.
- In the "Result graph" window click the "Ain" to the left of the graph. This will open an extra graph on
top of the primary result graph, that shows the analog input data.
- When the experiment is started, the analog inputs will be measured simultaneous with the primary
signal (and at the same sample rate).
4. Calibration
Calibration of the sPDA is not required.
4.8.10.5 PLT
Revision 1:
Revision 2:
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The PLT- Peripheral Level Transformer is used to increase the potential range of the analog inputs 1 & 2
and the analog outputs 1 & 2 of the peripheral port to ±10V. This is especially usefull when the Ivium
potentiostat is used to interface with an instrument that has an output signal of up to 10V, such as an
EQCM or RDE.
Specifications
Interfacing/connectivity
power requirements
Size revision1:
revision2:
Weight
Use
DB37, connects in-line with data cable/peripheral output
powered from peripheral port
w x d x h = 7.5 x 5.3 x 1.5 cm
w x d x h = 7.0 x 3.7 x 1.5 cm
50 gram
only i.c.w. IviumStat and CompactStat
Installation
The male side of PLT module can be placed directly on the peripheral port connector of the
IviumStat/CompactStat [note 4]. Any external equipment can be connected to the female side, as before.
It is thus connected between the instrument and the periphery. All other signals (than analog
inputs/outputs 1 & 2) are passed through this module, so it is fully compatible with the situation without
PLT. Only the analog inputs/outputs 1 & 2 are changed. No options need to be checked to operate the
PLT.
Application
The IviumStat and CompactStat are equipped with a 37-pins expansion port that can be used to apply
analog output signals and measure analog input signals. The standard input/output-range is 0 to +4V.
The PLT adapter module can be used to extend this range. The PLT transforms the range of the analog
inputs 1 & 2 to ±10V, and the analog outputs to 0 to +10V (or ±10V see [note 2]) for revision 1, and to
±10V for revision 2.
When the PLT is connected, the externally measured/applied potential E can be calculated from E_PLT
Revision 1:

analog inputs 1 and 2 : E_PLT = -0.185 * E + 1.96
range -10V to +10V
(where E_PLT = reading on screen; E = actual input on peripheral port)

analog outputs 1 and 2 : E = 5 * E_PLT
range 0V to +10V [note 3]
(where E_PLT = setting on screen; E = actual output of peripheral port)
Revision 2:

analog inputs 1 and 2 : E_PLT = (0.2*E) + 2.048
range -10V to +10V
(where E_PLT = reading on screen; E = actual input on peripheral port)

analog outputs 1 and 2 : E = 5 * (E_PLT - 2.048)
range -10V to +10V
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(where E_PLT = setting on screen; E = actual output of peripheral port)
Note 1: Because of small variations in electronic components and their precision, the above equations are
an approximation. If higher precision is required it is advisable to create your own calibration relationship
for your specific instrument.
Note 2: The analog inputs 3-8 remain unchanged, the other connections of the peripheral port also
remain unchanged.
Note 3: On request the analog output range can be adjusted to ±10V. In such case, the potential
transformation will be: E = 5 * ( E_PLT - 2.048V ).
Note 4: For the CompactStat, when using the PLT, it is advised to make sure that the CompactStat is fed
from adapter power.
4.8.10.6 TCM-K: Thermocouple module
The TCM-K: K-type Thermocouple Module is used to connect K-type thermocouples to the peripheral port
of an Ivium potentiostat. In this way temperatures can be measured and recorded simultaneously with
the primary signal.
TCM-K: type A for sModule/Vertex.s
1. Connection
Connect the Sub-D connector of the cable to the peripheral port of the potentiostat. Now a K-type
thermocouple of the users choice can be inserted into the K-type connector on the thermocouple module
(yellow female socket on the black connector-box).
Note 1: The K-type connector has one wide and one small pin, insert the thermocouple correctly.
Note 2: The Thermocouple module is connected to the cable to avoid the themperature bridge between
sModule and thermocouple module; do not remove the cable.
Various K-type thermocouples can be used (not included), for example:
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2. Specifications
TCM-K:
Isolation:
The TCM-K thermocouple module fits K-type thermocouples.
The input of the thermocouple module is not isolated from the potentiostat's
ground; if isolation of the thermocouple is required a thermocouple with isolated tip
should be used.
Power supply:
The TCM-K is powered from the 5V supply available in the peripheral port of the
potentiostat.
Temp. range:
The TCM-K thermocouple module can be used in ambient the temperatures 0degC
to 50degC.
Measurement range: 0degC to 400degC
Output signal:
Analog output voltage of 5mV/degC (0degC = 0V; 400degC = 2V)
Port interfacing:
Analog input1 of the potentiostat peripheral port
3. Operation
The analog inputs of an Ivium potentiostat can be recorded both in the Direct mode (for an immediate
result) and during methods.
Note that the actual measured values are shown in the IviumSoft in the range of 0V to +2V. This means
that a measured temperature of +25degC is shown as +125mV and a measured temperature of 100degC
is shown as +500mV, etc.
Direct Mode:
In the 'Direct' mode select the 'Extern tab'. Then click on the "Read analog inputs" button and the
measured data will be displayed in the table. The top value displays the data for Analog input channel 1.
Every time the "Read analog inputs" button is clicked all analog channels will be measured and the values
will be updated. Note that since the thermocouple module only has 1 channel, only the reading for ch1 is
valid.
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Analog input 1 reads 0.1303V, this
corresponds with a temperature of:
130.3mV/5mVdegC-1 = 26.06degC
Method Mode:
To measure the analog input channels of the thermocouple module in the 'Method' mode (during
methods) proceed as follows:
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




Select the desired method
Activate the advanced method parameters
In the method parameters next to "Analog inputs" select the number of inputs to be '2 channels'.
Ater completing the definitition of your method, click 'Start' to run the method.
Next to the graph click on 'Ain' to activate the graph for the analog inputs. Note that since only
Analog input 1 is active, the other trace can be ignored.
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By default the signal on Analog input 1 is the actual measured voltage. To convert this to degC:

In the method parameters click the "Data Options" to open the DataOptionForm.

Enter the appropriate axis title.

In the Transform field choose:
A+B*y

In the Transform paramters enter:
A=0 and B=200.

Click 'OK' to accept the parameters and close the window.
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Now when the method is executed, the signal is converted and the temperature is displayed in degC:
4. Calibration
Calibration of the thermocouple module is not possible. Due to the typically small signal output of a
thermocouple module, an offset could be present. If calibrated against a known temperature
measurement, this offset can be compensated in the DataOptionForm by entering the correct
compensation value for parameter 'A'.
4.8.11 FastScan
The Ivium Technologies FastScan module is a 20MHz data recorder in combination with an ultrafast scan
generator. The FastScan is designed to be used in combination with an IviumStat or CompactStat and
connects to the analog peripheral port. A built-in memory stores the data before sending it to the PC.
1. Technical Specifications
Data sampling

2 channels: 16 bits

Max. acquisition speed: 20 Msamples/sec

Data memory: 10,000,000 points

Input bandwidth: >8MHz
Scan Generator

2 scan modes: Staircase & True Linear

Max. scanrate: 10,000,000 V/sec

Resolution: 0.125 mV at ±4V scan range
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Implemented techniques

Chronopotentiometry

Chronoamperometry

Cyclic voltammetry
Compatibility

IviumStat

CompactStat
2. Installing the FastScan driver
To install the Ivium Technologies FastScan driver under Windows, follow these instructions:
A. In your \IviumStat\iviumdrivers\FastScan file folder, start the "FastScan_Driver.exe". This will extract
the installation files to a temporary directory.
B. If you are prompted about an unknown Publisher, select "Yes".
C. The Ivium FastScan Driver Installer will be started and guide you through the installation process.
D. When the installation is successfully completed the following screen will appear:
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E. The FastScan can now be connected and the driver should configure automatically.
3. Installation
To install the FastScan:
a. Make sure the latest version of IviumSoft is installed, if not then update IviumSoft.
b. Power the FastScan by inserting the 5V power adapter.
c. Connect the FastScan module to the PC via the USB cable.
d. Install the FastScan driver (see Annex 1).
e. Connect the FastScan to the peripheral port of the IviumStat or CompactStat using the DB37 data
cable.
f. Start IviumSoft, connect the instrument, and in the menu Options>Options check the box for
"FastScan". To synchronise, in the IviumSoft disconnect and reconnect the instrument. In the "Mode"
field of the method parameters now, ext to "Standard/HiSpeed", also "FastScan" is available.
4. Calibration
To calibrate the FastScan, in the menu Options>Options click the "Calibrate FastScan" button and wait
20s. Two beeps will sound. This procedure is required only once, the values will be stored.
5. Operation
The FastScan can currently be used in the techniques CV/CA/CP. To use the FastScan:
a. In the "Mode" field of the method parameters choose the "FastScan".
b. Select corresponding apropriate method parameters*.
c. Click "Start" to start the measurment.
d. First the low speed data is plotted, and when the measurement is finished, the FastScan data will
appear on the screen. Note that depending on the amount of data points this may take some time.
*The FastScan mode behaves similar to HiSpeed mode, except:

Interval time range: 50ns to 2ms

Maximum number datapoints: 16M for intervals>62ns (16MHz)

Maximum number datapoints: 2k for intervals>50ns (20MHz)

Voltage range of scangenerator: ±4V, wrt the Start-potential.
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
Galvanostatic range of scangenerator: is ±1.6* Current Range
NOTE:
The experimental data can be saved in a datafile. But note that the data may not be shown in the result
data sheet, because an accumulated maximum of 10,000,000 datapoints exceeds the limits which can be
dealt with in this way by Windows and will cause the software to crash.
6. Front connector
At the front of the FastScan is a 9 pins connector. This connector is currently not in use, it is intended for
future expansion.
4.8.12 QuickScan
The QuickScan is a hardware module that can be integrated in an IviumStat.h or CompactStat.h to
increase the applied and measured signal rates. The QuickScan can be ordered ex-factory on new
instruments, and the module is also retro-fittable on field instruments of the IviumStat.h and
CompactStat.h series, but the instrument does have to come back to Ivium for fitting.
Functionality
The QuickScan increases the signal rates for the IviumStat.h and CompactStat.h up to 5MHz, both for the
applied signal as well as for the measured E and I.
QuickScan specifications
Signal rate:
Sample rate:
Scan rate:
Applied signal:
Applied voltage range:
Applied current range:
Measured voltage range:
Measured current range:
Max. nr. of data points:
Compatibility:
500Hz - 5MHz
500 - 5,000,000 pts/s
max. 5MV/s
16 bits
± 4V
±full I-Stat current range
16 bits at full measurement range
16 bits at full measurement range
4,000,000
IviumStat.h, CompactStat.h
Installation
The installation involves a hardware integration in the compatible potentiostat at the Ivium factory.
Application
The QuickScan can be used in the following techniques:

LSV standard, LSV galvanostatic

CV standard, CV galvanostatic

ChronoPotentiometry, ChronoAmperometry
Implementation
The QuickScan can be selected in the advanced method parameter "Mode", by selecting "QuickScan"
from the drop down menu. When the method is started, the data is sampled to local memory in the
potentiostat and transferred to the PC upon completion of the scan.
4.9
Accessories
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Ivium Technologies offers various accessories for our potentiostats:
-Faraday cage
-MCF-cell
-Custom cell cables
-Electrodes and cells
-Third party products on request
4.9.1 Faraday cage
A Faraday cage is an enclosure formed by conducting material or by a mesh of such material. The
Faraday cage's operation depends on the fact that an external (static) electrical field causes the electric
charges within the cage's conducting material to be distributed such that they cancel the field's effect in
the cage's interior.
A Faraday cage blocks external static and non-static electric fields. It cannot block static or slowly varying
magnetic fields, such as the Earth's magnetic field (a compass will still work inside). To a large degree,
though, they shield the interior from external electromagnetic radiation if the conductor is thick enough
and any holes are significantly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. The reception or
transmission of radio waves, a form of electromagnetic radiation, to or from an antenna within a Faraday
cage are heavily attenuated or blocked by a Faraday cage.
The key specific of a Faraday cage is that any holes in the enclosure are (much) smaller than the
wavelength it is trying to block. The smaller the holes, the better the cage. That is why the Ivium
Technologies Faraday cage is made of a continuous (welded) stainless steel box with only 2 openings: the
hole in the top to let the cell cable through, and the door for placing objects inside. For optimum shielding
the cell cable hole is lined (on the inside) with a stainless steel wire mesh (netting), and the door crack is
closed with a Beryllium spring strip all round.
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For proper operation the Faraday cage needs to be electrically grounded to the ground of the Ivium
instrument with the green banana of the cell cable. For this purpose a 4mm banana ground connection is
available inside the Faraday cage.
Specifications
Material:
Walls:
Size:
Weight:
Cable hole:
Door: Closed
AISI 304 Stainless steel
1.2 mm
360 x 360 x 240 mm (external)
8.3 kg
28 mm, lined with stainless steel wire mesh
on Beryllium spring strip all round
4.9.2 MCF-cell
The Ivium MCF cell: Magnetic Corrosion Flat-cell
has been designed for use both in the laboratory and in the field. It can be clamped to any (magnetic)
steel object, in any position. Among its applications are corrosion study, coating testing, materials
research, etc.
1. Kit
The MCF cell-kit includes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
2
2
2
2
1
MCF cells
m tube
syringes
silicon connector tubes
spare seals
carrying case
In the foam inside the hard case there are three pre-cut inserts that can be easily removed for storage of
additional items, such as a reference electrode.
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2. Description of use
The Ivium MCF cell (Magnetic Corrosion Flat cell) has been designed for multifunctional use. The cell is
magnetic and can be clamped to any (magnetic) metal object. In this way the metal object forms the
bottom of the electrochemical cell. A flexible silcone ring in the bottom of the MCF cell creates a tight seal
so no electrolyte leakage will take place. Because the MCF cell has been designed to be completely sealed
can it be clamped to the object in any position, both in the laboratory and in the field.
The object it has been clamped to can be used as counter (or working) electrode if the conducting metal
is available for contact. If it is not accessible, for example in the case of a large coated steel object (i.e. a
ships hull, an offshore construction, etc.), the second MCF cell can be used as the second electrode.
3. Electrode connection
The MCF cell is equipped with a steel electrode to the back of the cell compartment. On the outside this
electrode has a 4mm banana connector for connection to the cell cable WE (or CE). In case of 2 MCF cells
used, one will be the WE and the other will be the CE.
The MCF cell is also equipped with 2 holes, each covered by a white plug. These holes allow the use of a
reference electrode, and, if desired, another (working) electrode. Rubber seals are included with the
available plugs to prevent leakage.
4. Electrolyte
To fill the MCF cell with electrolyte, 2 meters of tube is supplied in the cell kit. The cell has 2 connections
for the tube, 1 for the inlet, 1 for the outlet. Cut the tube to the desired length and insert the tube into
the inlet and outlet by inserting it into the (blue) connector. Fill the syringe with electrolyte and connect
this to either one of the tubes. Because the plastic tube itself is rather rigid, 2 short silicon connector
tubes are supplied that can be used to connect the plastic tube to the syringe.
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Now position the MCF cell on the sample to be tested. When used in vertical position, make sure the tube
with the syringe is below the outlet tube for proper venting of the air. Press the plunger of the syringe to
fill the MCF cell with electrolyte.
Both when the MCF cell is in vertical position, or in horizontal position, it is advisable to flush the cell with
some extra electrolyte to make sure all air is removed from the electrolyte compartment.
To remove the tube from the filling hole press down the blue rim of the connector and pull out the tube.
5. MCF cell assembly
The MCF cell consists of 2 parts:
1) Bottom of the cell:
Black plastic ring that holds the magnets and has the soft silicone seal at the bottom. The silcone seal
can be easily removed and re-inserted for cleaning purposes.
2) Cell cover:
From bottom to top this consists 4 layers:
- a silicone seal
- the steel electrode
- a silicone seal
- back of the cell, that holds the electrode connector, 2 filling holes and 2 auxiliary holes
The cell cover is inserted into the cell bottom to form the MCF cell, and these are bolted together using 4
screws in the cell cover. The MCF cell can be disassembled if necessary for cleaning purposes.
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6. MCF cell specifications
Size MCF cell:
outer diameter:
height:
Cell compartment:
diameter:
height:
volume:
geometry:
75mm
30mm
Fill tube:
RE opening:
40mm
10mm
12.5 cm3
- flat
- fits curved pipes with diameter:
>44 inch/1118mm
Weight
150 gram
Materials
Cell:
Electrode:
Seals:
POM
Steel 316L
Silicone rubber
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4.9.3 Optical platform
The Optical platform is a "bench" that facilitates the fixation of the Ivium ModuLight at a precise distance
from the illuminated object. Both the positioning clamp of the ModuLight and that of the object/cell can
be moved along the length of the bench for optimal positioning. The bench is equipped with a distance
scale in cm/mm.
The Optical platform is constructed from aluminium and has sufficient weight to ensure its stability. The
positioning clamp for the cell can be adjusted in height by manually positioning the vertical rod, and is
also equipped with a rotating ring for fine-tuning of the height.
Optical Platform Specifications:
Material:
Weight:
Length:
Height:
Width:
Aluminium and stainless steel
3.75 kg
500 mm
190 mm
120 mm
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Optionally included with the Optical platform is a water jacketed 40ml glass cell that fits the cell
positioning clamp. The glass cell is equipped with a quartz glass window to allow the light to pass
through. A lid with a sealing ring is provided with 3 openings for the counter electrode, reference
electrode and working electrode.
Included with the cell are a Pt-counter electrode, a Ag/AgCl-reference electrode and a Teflon working
electrode-holder with Pt-contacts.
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Cell Specifications:
Weight:
Inside diameter:
Inside height:
Volume:
Lid:
0.275 kg
35 mm
55 mm
40 ml
Teflon with seal
Quartz window:
Diameter:
Distance from cell centre:
22 mm
50 mm
Working electrode holder:
Reference electrode:
Counter electrode:
Electrode holes:
Teflon rod and screws with Pt-contact
Ag/AgCl
Platinum
d = 6 mm
Spares:
1 x Lid seal, 1 x Quartz window seal, 10 x Electrode seal
4.10 Connecting the electrodes
Standard cell cable
The standard cell cable has a HD15 connector on one end for connecting to the potentiostat and 6 leads
with 4 mm plugs on the other end:

CE (black) counter electrode, labelled "C"

WE (red) working electrode, labelled "W"
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



WE2 (red) working electrode for bipotentiostat (inactive if not ordered)/potential sensor for
sModule (Ivium-n-Stat), labelled "W2"
RE (blue) reference electrode, labelled "R"
S (white) sense electrode, labelled "S"
GND (green) ground connection "labelled †)
Usually an experiment does not require all these electrodes separately. In that case you can connect
multiple leads together by stacking banana's.
The GND lead is (normally) not connected to an electrode, but to a grounding point or to a Faraday cage,
to reduce noise.
All of the cell cable leads are individually shielded. The shields of WE and CE are connected to ground.
But the shields of RE and S are driven shields, for further improvement of the signal.
pocketSTAT cell cable
The pocketSTAT cell cable has a Lemo connector on one end for connecting to the potentiostat and 4
leads with 2 mm plugs on the other end:

CE (black) counter electrode

WE (red) working electrode

RE (blue) reference electrode

GND (green) ground connection
Usually an experiment does not require all these electrodes separately. In that case you can connect
multiple leads together by stacking banana's.
The GND lead is (normally) not connected to an electrode, but to a grounding point or to a Faraday cage,
to reduce noise.
All of the cell cable leads are individually shielded. The shields of WE and CE are connected to ground.
But the shield of RE is a driven shield, for further improvement of the signal.
Configurations
For a 2-electrode Electrochemical experiment, when just a working electrode and counter electrode are
used:

connect WE and S together to the electrode to be studied

connect CE and RE together to the other electrode
NB: it is possible to let the instrument make the WE-S and the CE-RE shortcuts internally, by setting the
2-EL mode, thus you only need to connect WE and CE. However, it is recommended to use the 4-EL
mode, because that configuration gives better performance in some cases.
For a 3-electrode Electrochemical experiment, when a working electrode, counter electrode and
reference electrode are used:

connect WE and S together to the electrode to be studied

connect CE to the counter electrode

connect RE to the reference electrode
For a 4-electrode Electrochemical experiment (not available on pocketSTAT), when a working electrode,
counter electrode and 2 reference electrodes are used (one for each of the WE and CE):

connect WE er to the electrode to be studied

connect CE to the counter electrode

connect RE to the reference electrode near the counter electrode

connect S to the reference electrode near the working electrode
For an experiment with the bipotentiostat:

connect WE/S/RE/CE as described above

connect WE2 to the secundary working electrode
Special techniques
Special techniques may require an alternative way of connecting the electrodes, such as electrochemical
noise measurements and galavanic corrosion. These techniques use 3 electrodes: 1 reference electrode,
and 2 (identical) working electrodes. Connect these is the following manner:

RE to reference electrode

WE+S to working electrode 1

Gnd to working electrode 2
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Theory of operation
The WE and CE leads carry the current, while the RE and S leads measure the potential. The instrument
has a control loop that will keep the potential of WE near the gnd-potential, while applying a signal to CE.
In galvanostatic mode, the instrument will apply a defined current through CE, and thus WE.
In potententiostatic mode, the instrument will force a current through CE&WE so that the
potentialdifference (S-RE) is a defined value.
There are distinct advantages of using 4 electrodes instead of 2, because the separate measurement of
potential (without current) eliminates losses over the cable:

any cable has an ohmic resistance that causes a voltage drop at higher currents. A good standard
cable may add approximately 0.2 ohm, that amounts to 200 mV loss at 1 A. In such cases a 4electrode configuration is recommended.

any cable also adds inductance and parasidic capacitances. These may become dominant at
higher frequencies. Therefore also for high frequencies, the 4-electrode configuration is
recommended.
4.11 Testcell1 module
With all Ivium potentiostats a standard testcell, "TestCell1", is delivered. It has six 4 mm sockets that
correspond with the cell cable leads. Each lead should be plugged in before measurement.
The testcell contains a number of resistors:

1 kOhm between CE and WE

S is connected to WE

RE is connected to CE

WE2 is connected via 100 kOhm to CE

GND is connected to the internal shielding of the testcell box
The TestCell1 is used for testing the instrument in combination with the cell cable, for example see Test-2
and performance test. It is intended for diagnostic purposes. Since the TestCell1 only contains resistors,
it is not suited for diagnostics of impedance testing.
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4.12 Measurement
Measurements can be done with the internal dummy cells, the external TestCell1, or electrochemical
cells.
For an introduction of operation you can execute the supplied test procedures 1, 2 and 3.
Also study the section on electrode connections.
Connecting internal dummy cells:
Ivium potentiostats are equipped with internal dummy cells that are intended for diagnostic purposes. To
run an experiment on an internal dummy cell, activate the advance operating parameters, and select the
desired dummy cell in the method parameter Connect to. Note that not all techniques can be executed on
an internal dummy cell.
Connecting Testcell1:

Connect the electrode cable to the HD15 connector at the front of the instrument.

Connect the 4mm bananaplugs to the "TestCell1" (included in shipment):

Gnd: ground (green)

WE1, WE2: Working Electrode (red), WE2 refers to the Bipotentiostat.

CE: Counter Electrode (black)

RE: Reference Electrode (blue)

S: Sense (white)
Connecting to electrochemical cells:

Connect the electrode cable to the HD15 connector at the front of the instrument.

Electrode connections can be made similar to the TestCell1 as described above:

Gnd may be connected to a shielding body, such a Faraday cage. If possible connect gnd to a low
impedance grounding point, to avoid noise.

WE1,WE2: should be connected to the electrode "under test".

CE: to be connected to the electrode that delivers the "counter" current.

RE: to be connected to the electrode that maintains a fixed potential. In 2-electrode
configurations, this is connected at the same point as CE.

S: allows for a secondary RE in a 4-electrode configuration, in 2-or 3-electrode configurations,
this is connected at the same point as WE1.
Measurement:
To start measuring, startup the instrument and IviumSoft. Then connect the instrument in IviumSoft.
Then in the operating parameters choose the tab for direct mode if you want to control the instrument
directly (diagnostic purposes) or choose the tab for method mode if you want to run an electrochemical
method.
In direct control, choose the desired parameters and apply. The measured results will show in the direct
panel read out window and are updated once per second. The settings will be applied until changed or
until the connection is ended.
In method control, choose the desired method parameters thereby creating your own specific method.
Then press "Start" to start the measurement. The measurement will run until finished or aborted by
pressing the "Abort" button. In some techniques additional options are available such for CV there
"Pause" for pausing the technique or "ReverseScan" for reversing the scan direction. The results are
plotted in the measurement results and are automatically saved to a datafile.
4.13 Internal dummy cells
All Ivium potentiostats are equipped with internal dummy cells. These are used for the calibration of the
instrument as well as for the instrument performance test. The available dummy cells, or internal test
cells, are:

dummy 1: 1 kOhm resistor

dummy 2: 100 kOhm resistor

dummy 3: 10 MOhm resistor

dummy 4: 100 ohm resistor, in series with 1 kOhm resistor parallel over 1 uF capacitor (250 ohm
resistor, in series with 1 kOhm resistor parallel over 1 uF capacitor for IviumStat)
It is possible to select one of the above mentioned dummy cells for some of the electrochemical
techniques to test the instrument or technique (this option is not available for Ivium-n-Stat channel
modules). An internal dummy cell can be selected in Direct as well as in Method mode. All internal
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dummies are measured in the 2-Electrode configuration. The external cell is disconnected while internal
dummies are measured. Therefore, the cell cable does not need to be connected.
Direct control
To run a test on the internal dummy cell in the Direct mode, select the desired dummy from the drop
down menu in the 'Connect' field. When an internal dummy is connected the check box next to the drop
down menu does not need to be checked, the dummy is automatically connected. Then select the desired
parameters and enter the voltage or current value and click "Apply". Now the values will be applied and
the measured results will show in the direct panel read out window; these are updated once per second.
The settings will be applied until changed or until the connection is ended.
Method control
To run a test on the internal dummy cells in Method mode, activate the advanced operating parameters.
Then in the method parameters scroll down to the "Connect to" parameter and from the drop down menu
select the desired dummy cell. Then adjust the rest of the method parameters to the desired values and
press "Start" to start the measurment.
4.14 Test 1: Internal dummy 1
Test1 is a test that is designed for instrument diagnostics and for educational purposes. The test is a
potentiostatic linear scan from 0 to 1V on dummy1. Dummy 1 is an internal resistor inside the
instrument. The cell cable does not need to be connected for this test (this test is not available for the
Ivium-n-Stat).
To run Test1 start the instrument and IviumSoft, go to Method mode and load the method TEST1.imf.
This method file is automatically installed during the installation of IviumSoft and by default located in:
C:\IviumStat\datafiles\Test1.imf). Measurement procedures can be loaded with the "Load method"
function from the File Menu.
Now press Start at the bottom of the Method panel and the instrument starts the measurement. When
completed, the result should look like the plot below.
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4.15 Test 2: Standard testcell
Test2 is a test that is designed for instrument diagnostics, testing of the cell cable, and for educational
purposes. The test is a potentiostatic linear scan from 0 to 1V on TestCell1.
To run Test2 connect the cell cable to TestCell1. Then start the instrument and IviumSoft, go to Method
mode and load the method TEST2.imf. This method file is automatically installed during the installation of
IviumSoft and by default located in: C:\IviumStat\datafiles\Test2.imf). Measurement procedures can be
loaded with the "Load method" function from the File Menu.
Now press Start at the bottom of the Method panel and the instrument starts the measurement. When
completed, the result should look like the plot below.
4.16 Test 3: standard testcell & BiStat
Test3 is a test that is designed for instrument diagnostics, testing of the cell cable, and for educational
purposes. The test is a potentiostatic linear scan from 0 to 1V on TestCell1 with activated bipotentiostat.
Of course this test is intended only for instruments that are equipped with a bipotentiostat (payable
option).
To run Test3 connect the cell cable to TestCell1. Then start the instrument and IviumSoft, go to Method
mode and load the method TEST3.imf. This method file is automatically installed during the installation of
IviumSoft and by default located in: C:\IviumStat\datafiles\Test2.imf). Measurement procedures can be
loaded with the "Load method" function from the File Menu.
Now press Start at the bottom of the Method panel and the instrument starts the measurement. Because
of the automatic scaling of the graph, both the results for WE and WE2 will be plotted on top of each
other. The line for the WE2 result is plotted in blue and referred to the right-hand axis, the WE (current)
results is plotted in black and referred to the left axis. To distinguish between the results it is advised to
click the "2nd" button to the left of the graph (see also graphic toolbar). This will open 2 separate graphs
for each of the WE and WE2 current signals. When completed, the result should look like the plot below.
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5. Instrument control
Ivium potentiostats can be controlled in 4 different ways:
1) Direct control
Direct control of the instrument allows the user to set a value, for example current or potential, directly
and apply this to the electrochemical cell. The cell response is measured and the values are shown in the
Direct mode tab sheet. This way of control of the instrument is intended for diagnostic purposes and for
quick study of a cell response. The measured values are shown, but the results are not stored in a
datafile.
2) Method control
Method control of the instrument allows the user to control the instrument via a predefined set of
parameters according to an electrochemical method. First the method and parameters are selected and
then these are automatically applied when the method is started. The results are shown in the
measurement results and are automatically stored in a datafile.
3) Batch control
Batch control of the instrument allows the user to program an elaborate sequence of events,
electrochemical techniques and control of external exquipment via the peripheral I/O of the instrument.
Then the program is started and the sequence is carried out automatically by the IviumSoft and
instrument.
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4) Synchronised channels
It is possible to synchronise channels of an Ivium-n-Stat so that all channels start running their
instructed methods simultaneously. This can be used for identical, as well as different methods.
5) Special Techniques
Special techniques are special techniques, not included in the electrochemical techniques, that are
intended to carry out a specific test or conditioning of the electrochemical cell. These include the current
interrupt technique and the pulse generator.
When the IviumSoft is started it will activate by default showing the Method control panel.
5.1
Direct control
An Ivium instrument can be controlled directly from the Direct control sheet. From the Direct control tab
values, such as current or voltage, can be set and applied directly to the cell. The cell response is
measured and the values are shown in the Direct mode tab sheet. This way of control of the instrument is
intended for diagnostic purposes and for quick study of a cell response. The measured values are shown,
but the results are not stored in a datafile.
Regular electrochemical measurements are usually done using method control.
It is important to note that the direct control settings for current and voltage are not related
to the settings under method control. Once an instrument is controlled using a method, all
these settings are suspended. However, some parameters do have influence when running a
method, such as the "Set MUX channel" and "Automatic E ranging".
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*Depending on your instrument and selected options, the avalailable parameters may differ.
The Direct control sheet:

Top panel/tabs (click to activate/click again to deactivate):

DC/AC: by default DC is active and DC signals are measured; selecting the AC setting will enable
the ac tabsheet below that allows the application of ac signals, and (only) AC signals are
measured and shown in the measurement panel.

IRcorr: enables the real time IR correction by current feedback. The settings are controlled from
the IR /Zstat sheet below.

HiSens: activates the 4 lower current ranges (only if avaliable on your instrument). As these rely
on the postgain amplifier, this option cannot be used simultaneously with IRcorr or in
galvanostatic mode.

Zstat: for using the instrument as constant load (constant Z). This option is not active yet.

Measurement panel: displays E and I in idle mode, or Rs and Cs when AC measurements are
running. When the cell is off, E displays open cell potential as measured on the RE and S leads
and I shows zero current within specified accuracy. When the instrument is connected, the actual
current and potential are updated regularly (once/second).

Current range radiogroup: allows manual selection of the current range. Please note that in
Galvanostatic mode, the current range is selected automatically, depending on the applied
current. When HiSens is activated the high sensitivity current ranges are added.

Connect group: this controls the connections to the electrode, internal dummy cells,
Bipotentiostat (when available), and potentiostatic/galvanostatic operation. For connections to
external cells, also the checkbox must be enabled. Available configurations:

Off: default, cell is switched off and instrument is placed in idle configuration (open cell).

Cell Estat4: potentiostatic operation with 4 electrodes.

Cell Estat2: potentiostatic operation with 2 electrodes, WE and CE.
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1 kOhm Estat: potentiostatic operation with internal 1 kOhm resistor.
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100 kOhm Estat: potentiostatic operation with internal 100 kOhm resistor.
10 MOhm Estat: potentiostatic operation with internal 10 MOhm resistor.
R(RC) Estat: potentiostatic operation with internal 250 ohm resistor (IviumStat) or 100 ohm
resistor (CompactStat) in series with a 1kohm resistor placed in parallel with a 1 µF capacitor.
Cell Istat4: galvanostatic operation with 4 electrodes.
Cell Istat2: galvanostatic operation with 2 electrodes, WE and CE.
Dummy Istat: galvanostatic operation with internal dummy cell.
Cell Bistat4: potentiostatic operation with 4 primary electrodes, and the bipotentiostat WE2.
Cell Bistat2: potentiostatic operation with primary electrodes WE and CE, and the bipotentiostat
WE2.
Stability: set bandwidth of the applied signal, hispeed/standard/high stability.
Filter: set filter of measured signals, 1MHz/100kHz/10kHz/1kHz/10Hz. These filters are applied to
all measured signals: current, potential, and bipotentiostat current.
Apply: set the potential in potentiostatic mode or current in galvanostatic mode; enter the value
in the box and click "Apply" to apply the signal.
Set Mux channel: for manually choosing the channel to be measured of the multiplexer. Enter a
channel number in the adjacent box directly or use the arrows to increase/decrease channel
number. After setting the desired channel, click on "Set Mux channel" to activate this channel.
The selected channel is also the active channel when an electrochemical method is run.
Set WE32 channel: for manually choosing the WE32-channel to be measured of the MultiWE32module (only available when MultiWE32 module is active). Enter a channel number in the
adjacent box directly or use the arrows to increase/decrease channel number. After setting the
desired channel, click on "Set WE32 channel" to activate this channel. The selected channel is
also the active channel when an electrochemical method is run on a single channel only.
Automatic E ranging: when unchecked, the potential measurements are done on the widest
range. Therefore the resolution for measured potential is limited, for example: 0.125mV for
CompactStat, 0.333mV for IviumStat, etc. When checked (default), the instrument will
automatically choose a more sensitive range if possible. This will increase resolution to below
1uV.
Tabs at the bottom
At the bottom of the Direct-sheet tabbed pages are located. Some of these tabs are only visible if the
instrument configuration/setting allows this:
BiStat
The "BiStat" tab will appear when in the connect group a "Cell BiStat" configuration is selected. This is
only possible when the instrument is equipped with a bipotentiostat (payable option). Under this tab the
bipotentiostat parameters can be set and the measured values are displayed:

Measurement panel: displays E and I in idle mode. When the instrument is connected, the actual
current and potential are updated regularly (once/second).

Current range radiogroup: allows manual selection of the current range. When HiSens (see
above) is activated the high sensitivity current ranges are added.

Scanning mode:
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Unchecked: default (standard), the bipotentiostat voltage is referred to the RE and kept at a fixed
offset voltage with respect to RE.
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Checked: scanning, the bipotentiostat voltage is referred to the primary WE and kept at a fixed
offset voltage with respect to WE.
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Voltage: enter the desired bipotentiostat voltage and click "Apply" to apply the value.
AC
The "AC" tab allows the direct setting of an AC frequency and amplitude. This signal will be superimposed
on the signal set in the Direct tab:
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Frequency: enter the desired ferquency
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Amplitude: enter the desired amplitude (this is the top-top value of the AC sine wave)

Apply: click "Apply" to activate the selected frequency and frequency sine wave.
Extern

In the "Extern" tab the signals of the peripheral port can be controlled:

Analog inputs: click on "Read analog inputs" and all 8 analog input values will be read and shown
in the read out window above ch1-ch8

Analog output: enter the desired voltage value for the analog output ch1, click on "ch1" to
activate that value. Same for ch2.

Digital output: the digital outputs 1-3 are high by default (ca. 3.5V). Check the corresponding
box to make each low (0V).
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Digital input: click on "Read" to read the digital inputs 1 and 2. These are high by default,
connecting them to ground will make them low.
Ext ACin 1.0 X: when checked, the analog or ac signal connected to ACin on pin 9 of the
peripheral port will be superimposed on the DC signal that is set in the Direct mode (multiplied by
1).
Floating mode: when software selectable floating mode is available (Vertex, Ivium-n-Stat), the
instrument is by default not floating; check the box to make the instrument floating. For
dModules checking the box will make both channels in the same module floating. Note that
floating operating is reset to default not floating when the instrument power is cycled and/or
IviumSoft is restarted.
Enable periph. port: for Vertex instruments with peripheral port, check the box to enable the
peripheral port.
IR /Zstat
To compensate for ohmic drop in the sample, the direct feedback can be controlled. The instrument will
increase the cell potential by the amount that is defined by the product of current and compensation
resistance. Care should be exercised, because overcompensation will result in instabilities. This
compensation value may range from 0 to 2V/current range, for example at 1mA current range at most 2
kohm can be compensated.

calculate: clicking this button will automatically calculate what resistance can be calculated in the
active/selected current range in the Direct sheet.

Compensation/Z: enter the value in Ohms of the ohmic drop to be compensated. Clicking "Apply"
will activate the IRdrop compensation.
PDA
When one or more PDA modules are used, in this tab page the values of the analog inputs can be read,
and the PDA module can be calibrated.

Selector box: using the arrows select the number of PDA modules connected (8 channels = 1
module)

Read units: click on "Read units" to read all analog differential inputs of all connected PDA
modules. The values will be displayed in the read out window. The scroll bar at the bottom of the
window allows scrolling to the right to show all values up to module no.8
Calibration
The PDA differential analog inputs can be calibrated. Follow the displayed instructions:
1 Connect ch1+ and ch2+ both to Eout
2 Connect ch1- and ch2- both to Agnd
3 Click "Calibrate" to calibrate the inputs
4 Click "Save cal." to save the calibration values
Reset: Click "Resest" to reset the calibration values to default.
5.2
Method control
Method control of the instrument allows the user to control the instrument via a predefined set of
parameters according to an electrochemical method. First the method and parameters are selected and
then these are automatically applied when the method is started. The results are shown in the
measurement results and are automatically stored in a datafile.
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Method panel
Method history list
directly on top is the history list, use the drop down menu to quickly select a recently loaded method file.
Method tree
The method tree shows a group of electrochemical methods. Clicking on the [+] before each group will
expand the group. Select the desired measurement technique by clicking on it to highlite it in blue.
Depending in the selected method, a list of parameters is shown below. Clicking on and activating the
technique group will select the first method in that group.
Method parameter grid
In the method parameter grid all available method parameters are shown. By default the Basic
parameters are shown, by selecting "Advanced" in the Advanced parameters panel, the list will be
expanded to include all available method parameters.
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Parameters:

The first column lists the parameter name. If a parameter contains subparameters, a "+" symbol
will be displayed in front of it. When such a parameter is activated, the subparameter names will
appear below it, indented.
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The second column allows you to edit the parameter values:

text parameters can be entered by typing any string of characters

value parameters can be entered by typing numerical characters, non-numerical characters are
ignored. On leaving the field, the value is tested against its allowed limits. If a limit is exceeded
this will be notified in a pop-up window.
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boolean (on/off) parameters can be set by (un-)checking the checkbox

enumerated (list) values can be set by selecting the desired item from the dropdown list. The
dropdown arrow will appear when the field is selected.

dialog variables are displayed with a square button in the grid. When this button is pressed, a
dialog screen appears with the group of variables.
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The third column will indicate the unit of the parameter, if applicable.
A detailed explanation of all method parameters can be found by parameter name under Method
parameters.
Control Buttons
At the bottom of the Method panel:
Start: Clicking "Start" will start the measurement with the settings as chosen in the parameter list.
Abort: Will abort the running method. When during Method control the "Abort" button is pressed, the
measurement is stopped. In some cases there maybe a quantity of data pending in the buffers, which
has to be processed, and it may take a while (up to a few seconds) before the software appears to return
from method control. When the Abort button is pressed between data points, the measurement is
stopped at the next datapoint, at long intervals between datapoints it may take full interval time before
the measurement is stopped.
Continue: Prior to a measurement, there are several pre-measurement stages:
1. Purging
2. Pretreatment
3. OCP measurement
4. Equilibration
The duration of these stages is predefined. However, it is possible to manually abort these stages during
its execution, by pressing the "Continue" button. This will stop the currently running pre-measurement
stage, and proceed to the next. If it was the last scheduled stage, the measurement will start
immediately. In case of the OCP measurement stage, it will accept the last measured value as the actual
OCP, and proceed.
The "Continue" button only appears next to the "Abort" button at the start of a method and during the
pre-measurement stages.
During LSV/CV below the graph:
ReverseScan: Clicking "ReverseScan" will reverse the scan during a CV method.
Pause: Clicking "Pause" will pause the scan, holding the potential/current that is reached when the Pause
button is activated, untill "Resume" is clicked and the method is resumed.
During transients below the graph:
Value: During a transient the set-value of the level can be manually changed. For CA enter the desired
voltage and click "Apply", for CP enter the desired current and click "Apply".
Apply: Click "Apply" to activate the manually entered value.
Pause: Click "Pause" to pause the scan. The set-value will be maintained but data acquisition will be
suspended untill "Resume" is clicked and the method is resumed.
Using the method control
1) From the Method control panel the operator can select a recently used method from the drop down list
at the top,
Or select an electrochemical technique/measurement protocol from the tree. The tree can be expanded
for each group of techniques to show the individual techniques in that group. To select one click on it to
make it highlite in blue. Depending on the technique a list of method parameters will be shown in the list
below the method tree.
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2) In the Advanced parameters from the drop down list "Basic" or "Advanced" can be chosen. Basic is
default and shows the basic and most essential method parameters, Advanced shows all available
method parameters.
2) Set each method parameter to its desired value (and make sure the cell is connected properly to the
electrode cable).
4) Click "Start" below the list of method parameters to start the measurement. Now the method will be
run on the instrument autonomously. The running of the method can be aborted at any time by clicking
the "Abort" button.
For the duration of the method the datapoints will be plotted real time in the measurement results panel.
An exception is when a method is executed in high speed mode: in this case the data rate is too high for
USB communication and the data will be stored inside the instrument and communicated with the
computer after completen of the experiment. The number of data points is limited.
Depending on the method, below the graph some options will be available to change certain parameter
settings, or to pause/reverse the scan.
When the method is finished, the data will be automatically stored in a datafile.
Note 1: When the IviumSoft is closed, the method parameters of the last method that was used are in
active memory and will show when the IviumSoft is started again.
Note 2: The electrochemical method with all it parameters is run from the uPC inside the potentiostat.
This means that after the "Start" button is clicked, the method will be uploaded to the uPC inside the
potentiostat first. Subsequently the measurement is carried out. Running the measurement from inside
the potentiostat does have the advantage that cutt-off conditions and thresholds can be established much
faster, thus improving significantly the time respons and resolution of the potentiostat.
Note 3: A method can contain pre- and post conditioning, OCP measurements etc. The order of these
events in the operation of a method is described in the Sequence of a measurement.
5.3
BatchMode
1. Introduction
In IviumSoft, Batch control has the flexibility to configure sophisticated experimental sequences, control
external equipment, schedule measurements, etc. The advanced design of Batch Mode makes this very
easy.
Using Batch Mode, you can:
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Sequentially load and execute electrochemical Methods
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Create loops for repetitive experiments
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Edit a Method based on the previous experiments (e.g., increment the Scan Rate, adjust the
Initial Potential, etc.)
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Set time delays and program a schedule
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Switch the Multiplexer or MultiWE32 to fixed channels or change the channel for multiple samples

Set the digital and analog outputs
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Wait for a HI or LO level on the digital input
All data is automatically saved.
The Batch script is created and edited by the Batch Editor that is included in IviumSoft. Creating a new
Batch script is fast and easy with the Batch Editor. The Batch script can be saved for later use.
2. The Batch Editor
The Batch Editor is activated by clicking the "BatchMode" button in the top bar of IviumSoft. This will
open the Batch tabsheet. Clicking the "BatchMode" button repeatedly will toggle between the Batch
tabsheet and the Method tabsheet.
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On top of the Batch tabsheet are the Batch file controls [A] to load and save Batch files (*.ibf). When
saving BatchFiles, it is suggested to store these in the active Project folder. When you select
LoadBatch/SaveBatch, the filename selection dialog will start in the active Project folder.
A Batch Script is created in a linear step-by-step fashion in the Batch Command Grid [B] in exactly the
same way you would do it manually. When a command in the Batch Command Grid is selected, its
Properties can be specified in [C] the bottom Batch Parameter Grid (Line Properties).
Above the Batch Command Grid there are 4 buttons [D]:
[AddLine]:
Add a new line at the bottom of the script.
[DeleteLine]: Delete currently selected line.
[InsertLine]:
Insert a new line above the currently selected line.
[Test]:
Test the script for illegal Loop constructions or invalid Method Files.
Below these 4 buttons is a check box for ChronoSequencing:
In BatchMode, it is possible to display the time scale of the time based or Transient techniques relative to
the starting time of the Batch. When multiple techniques are executed in sequence, their time variable
accumulates. This mode is actived by checking the "ChronoSequencing" checkmark, on the Batch
tabsheet. If the "Cleargraph" option (see below, item 4: Line properties) is not used, one can view all the
Transient results in one plot, in a chronological manner.
Below the Batch Parameter Grid there are 3 buttons [E]:
[Start]:
Execute the Batch Script. If the Script contains errors, it will not be executed.
[AbortLine]:
Abort the action on the line that is currently being executing and proceed to the next line.
[AbortBatch]: Abort the action on the line that is currently being executed and stop the Batch script.
A list of all the available commands for Batch Mode is shown below in chapter 4.
3. Command grid
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To create a Batch script, click on the first "Empty" Line field to open a drop-down list with the available
commands [B].
There are only 8 commands in the Batch Command Grid:
1. Empty:
2. DefineMethod*:
3. Execute Method:
4. Loop:
5. LoopEnd:
6. DirectCommand:
7. EditMethod:
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Leave the line empty; it will be ignored during execution of the batch file.
Will allow you to define a Method procedure inside the BatchScript. You can select
the Technique and edit measurement parameters directly. The "DefineMethod"
variables are fully embedded in the BatchFile. You do not need to rely on external
method files. When you change the file location, or move to another pc
workstation, you only need to transport the ".ibf" file.
When the DefineMethod command is active, 4 buttons will appear above the Line
properties:
[Load]: will load (import) the parameters from an existing methodfile on disk.
These are loaded when you click this button, and embedded in the active
BatchFile. If the original source file would be removed/changed afterwards, it
would not affect the embedded Method definitions.
[Save]: will save the defined method to file.
[Get active]: will copy the parameters from the active Method, as it is displayed
on the main Method tabsheet.
[Set Active]: will export the DefineMethod parameters to the active Method, and
will be displayed on the main Method tabsheet, replacing the previous active
Method.
Runs the previously defined (or loaded) electrochemical method with the
parameters as defined in the Method file.
Creates a loop for a repetitive action. The number of loops is unlimited and 32
levels of nested loops are allowed.
Sets the end of a loop. Each Loop must be matched with a LoopEnd command.
Allows the setting of direct parameters and commands; used for scheduling,
setting the channel of the HiMux, setting an analog I/O, etc.
Used to modify one parameter of the electrochemical Method in use. Examples of
the application of EditMethod include incrementing the scan rate in a cyclic
voltammetry experiment or the DC voltage in an EIS measurement. It is also
possible to set/modify method parameters automatically, where the parameter
value is calculated from the Loop index counters. In this way ranges of
measurements can be scheduled with regular changing parameters (see also
below under Line properties for EditMethod).
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8. LoadMethod:
Loads an electrochemical method from file that was previously setup and saved.
When a command in the Batch Command Grid is selected, its Properties can be specified in [C]: the
Batch Parameter Grid (Line Properties).
*It is important to note, that while a BatchScript is being edited, the DefineMethod parameters can be
different from the active Method settings on the MethodSheet. Also note that a BatchScript may contain
several different Method definitions. However, when a Batch is run, and a DefineMethod line is executed,
the active Method setting will be set according to the embedded Method definition on the active line.
Batchfiles (.ibf) can be saved as usual. These must be saved by the user, these are not saved
automatically.
4. Line properties
In the Batch parameter grid the Line properties for each command line can be set. Depending on the
command line these properties will vary. A complete list of all commands and their explanation is given
below.
DefineMethod
Define a Method procedure inside the BatchScript. In the "Set Line[] properties" window, the Method
group can be selected from the "Method" drop down list, the Technique can be selected from the
"Technique" drop down list. The Method parameters can be edited and selected the same as when
running a method from Method control, including the setting of the Basic and Advanced method
parameters.
Parameters
Load
Save
Get Active
Set Active
Description
Will load (import) the parameters from an existing method file on disk.
These are loaded when you click this button, and embedded in the active
BatchFile. If the original source file would be removed/changed afterwards,
it would not affect the embedded Method definitions.
Will save (export) the method parameters to a method file "*.imf" diskfile.
Will copy the parameters from the active Method, as it is displayed on the
main Method tabsheet.
Will export the DefineMethod parameters to the active Method, and will be
displayed on the main Method tabsheet, replacing the previous active
Method.
It is important to note, that while a BatchScript is being edited, the DefineMethod parameters can be
different from the active Method settings on the MethodSheet. Also note that a BatchScript may contain
several different Method definitions. However, when a Batch is run and a DefineMethod line is executed,
the active Method parameters will be set according to the embedded Method definition on the active line.
ExecuteMethod
Execute defined/loaded Method.
Parameters
ClearGraph
Description
Clear plot before scan starts. This is useful when different data are plotted,
i.e. CV and impedance.
Data is automatically saved to file, using an automatically generated file name.
Loop
Create a repetitive loop. The number of loops is unlimited. Nesting is allowed up to 32 levels deep. Each
loop must be matched with a LoopEnd command.
Parameters
LoopCycles
SetMuxToIndex
SetWE32ToIndex S
Description
Number of repetitions
Switch the multiplexer channel to the loop-index.
witch the MultiWE32 channel to the loop-index.
LoopEnd
Set the end of the loop.
DirectCommand
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Execute a direct command. Used for scheduling, setting the channel of the HiMux, setting an analog I/O,
etc.
Parameters
Scheduler
Description
Events can be scheduled: the Repeat time-timer keeps track of total time
lapsed since the Batch was started. Events can be scheduled at a fixed
time, independent of the durations of previous executed scans. Thus
measurements can be repeated exactly every minute, hour, etc. Note the
difference with the DirectCommand.Wait function, that adds a delay. To
activate, check Scheduler, and set Repeat time variable. Scheduler will take
precedence over other DirectCommands in the same Batchline: they will be
set only after the Repeat timer period has passed.
Scheduler.Repeat time
Repeat period can be set: 1 sec to 1E7 s (> 3 months)
SetMuxChannel
If checked, the channel is switched to the selected channel no#
SetMuxChannel.channel
Channel no# to be set
SetWE32Channel
If checked, the channel is switched to the selected channel no#
SetWE32Channel.channel
Channel no# to be set
SetDAC
If checked, the analog outputs are set
SetDAC.DAC 1
New value for An_out 1
SetDAC.DAC 2
New value for An_out 2
SetDigOut
If checked, the DigOuts are set
SetDigOut.DigOut 1
On if checked (HI default, 0 if checked)
SetDigOut.DigOut 2
On if checked (HI default, 0 if checked)
SetDigOut.DigOut 3
On if checked (HI default, 0 if checked)
WaitForDigIn1
If checked, the execution is halted until the digital input 1 reaches the
desired level, or timeout is exceeded.
WaitForDigIn1.WaitForHi
If checked, the system waits until a HI level is applied. If unchecked, it
waits for a LO level.
WaitForDigIn1.TimeOut
Maximum period that is waited for the selected level on diginput 1.
WaitForAn1
When checked, this option allows a batch to wait for a specified analog
voltage on the peripheral port (Analog Input1).
WaitForAn1.UntilAn1>
Specified Analog Input 1 voltage the batch should wait for before continuing
WaitForAn1.TimeOut
After this time the Batch will continue regardless the state of the analog
input.
ExecuteProgram
When checked enables that external programs can be executed in a
controlled manner.
ExecuteProgram.Program Name
Enter the filename of the program to be executed, using the path below
ExecuteProgram.Path
Location of the program; If left empty, the executable will be assumed to
be in the same folder as IviumSoft
ExecuteProgram.Command Line
Optional parameters to be transferred to the external program
ExecuteProgram.ScanAsCmdline
If checked, the last recorded scan filename will be used as command line
ExecuteProgram.WaitUntilFinished
If checked, the batch will be paused until the external program is finished.
Wait
Program a delay [seconds] (note that all wait periods of minutes/hours
work cumulative)
WaitMinutes
Program a delay [minutes] (note that all wait periods of minutes/hours
work cumulative)
WaitHours
Program a delay [hours] (note that all wait periods of minutes/hours work
cumulative)
EditMethod
Edit a single parameter of defined/loaded Method.
Parameters
Parameter
ValueText
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Description
Textual expression of the parameter-name; exact and case sensitive. For a
primary parameters type the exact name; for a secondary parameter type
the primary parameter name followed by a "." and then the secondary
parameter.
Textual expression of the parameter value. The format of the supplied value
must correspond with the type of the selected parameter name. If the
selected parameter is a checkbox, a value of 'true' will correspond to the
checked condition, anything else will uncheck the box. Numerical text
strings must be of the correct format.
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AddIndexToValue
Checking this option allows the possibility to set/modify method parameters
automatically, where the parameter value is calculated from the Loop index
counters. In this way ranges of measurements can be scheduled, with
regular changing parameters.
When the "AddIndexToValue" parameter is checked, the new value of the
selected parameter is calculated as follows:
Newvalue = ValueText + (Loop_index * IndexMultiplier)
AddIndexToValue.IndexMultiplier
The 'IndexMultiplier' is user defined and can be any value;
Note1: The 'IndexMultiplier' is the increment for the 'Parameter' with start
value 'ValueText'
Note2: No check is executed to see if a valid 'Newvalue' is achieved, it is
the users responsibility to choose the 'IndexMultiplier' value wisely.
AddIndexToValue.Loop_index
Actual value of the Loopcounter during the running batch.
AddIndexToValue.IndexFromLoop
This parameter allows you to select which Loopcounter is to be used, if
multiple Loops are nested. A value of 0 means that the actual (inner)
Loopcounter will be used, for an 'IndexFromLoop' value of 1 the
Loopcounter of 1 level higher will be used, etc. When that number is higher
than the outmost Loop, the outmost Loopcounter will be used. See also
Example 3 below.
Incremental
If unchecked (default), the new value will replace the existing one. If
checked, the new value will be added to the existing parameter value. This
option is only valid for parameters that accept numerical data.
NOTE: The "Incremental" parameter in the "EditMethod" Line properties will add the previous value to the
new value. Note that if you enable both "AddIndexToValue" and "Incremental", it creates a complex
situation which will quickly run over parameter limits. Therefore it is not recommended to use both
options at the same time.
LoadMethod
Load Method file from disk It is recommended not to use this command, but create a new method using
the DefineMethod command. This is to avoid compatibility issues.
Methodfile
Use the ".." prompt box to open a pop-up window to navigate to the method file
to be loaded.
5. Examples
Example 1: In the figure below the "Edit Method" parameters (Properties) in the Batch script are shown.
In this case, first a CV method is defined (with a scan rate of 50mV/s). Then the Loop is opened and the
CV technique is executed. Following this the parameter "Scanrate" is edited: in each loop, the scan rate is
incremented by 50 mV/sec. The loop is carried out 4 times. Note that it is important to keep the "Define
method" command outside the loop. If this is not done the CV method is re-defined each time and the
edited parameter will be reset in each loop.
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Example 2: Creating a Sequence Using Batch Mode
Create a sequence that will carry out a CV experiment, then an impedance measurement, followed by a 1
hour waiting period, on all 8 channels of a multiplexer consecutively.
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Step 1: Create the batch file
Line Properties
Line[1]: Loop Loopcycles = 8; SetMuxToIndex = check
Line[2]: DefineMethod Create CV method
Line[3]: ExecuteMethod ClearGraph = check
Line[4]: DefineMethod Create Impedance method
Line[5]: ExecuteMethod ClearGraph = check
Line[6]: DirectCommand Wait = 3600s
Line[7]: LoopEnd
Step 2: Check the script for errors by clicking "Test". If no errors are detected, then nothing happens. If
an error is detected, a pop-up will appear showing the error.
Step 3: Start the Batch script by selecting the Start button.
Example 3: EditMethod parameter
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In the example above an LSV is created [Line1] with a Scanrate of 50mV/s. In Loop #1 the LSV is
executed with Scanrate = 50mV/s =0.05V/s [Line3]. Then the new Scanrate is recalculated [Line4] to
become: 0.05+(1*0.01) = 0.06V/s = 60mV/s. Then Loop #2 is executed with Scanrate = 60mV/s, etc.
In this example, 4 loops are executed with subsequent scanrates of 50mV/s, 60 mV/s, 70 mV/s, 80
mV/s.
NOTE: The "Incremental" parameter in the "EditMethod" Line properties will add the previous value to the
new value. Note that if you enable both "AddIndexToValue" and "Incremental", it creates a complex
situation which will quickly run over parameter limits. Therefore it is not recommended to use both
options at the same time.
5.4
Synchronised channels
To facilitate the synchronised start of methods running at multiple channels/modules in the same Iviumn-Stat frame, a selection parameter for channels is available. This parameter "SyncChannels" is available
from the "Method" tab as a subparameter of the "Modules".
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When the box is checked it will suspend the start of any method on the connected channel untill the
masterchannel starts. The masterchannel is always in slot 1. If this is a dModule, the A-channel is the
master.
The "SynchChannels" parameter operates over different instances of IviumSoft, i.e. if 4 channels are
connected in 4 instances of IviumSoft, pressing "Start" in each instance will make the channel wait for
the start-trigger of the master channel.
Note that when synchronisation is required, the "Start" button of the master channel should be clicked
last.
In this way even different techniques can be operated on different channels, but started at the same
time.
The synchronisation is executed via an internal electronic connection and thus not affected by PC or USB
delays.
If for any reason the master channel fails to deliver the trigger, a suspended channel can be released by
pressing "Abort".
5.5
Special techniques
Apart from the most common way to control an Ivium potentiostat, i.e. via Direct control or Method
control, there are techniques available, for example for diagnostics or preparation of a sample, that don't
require data acquisition or monitoring and as such don't need to be carried out using an electrochemical
method. These techniques include:
Pulse generator
For conditioning an electrode prior to measurement, it is possible to apply a continuously repeating pulse
to the cell with variable period and dutycycle. During the pulse generation no data is measured.
The pulse generator can be started form the Tools menu.
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Current interrupt
The current interrupt technique can be used for measuring the IR-drop of an electrochemical system. This
application is designed to operate in combination with the Ivium Technologies CIM. As the name of the
technique suggests, the current of a running experiment is interrupted instantly and the response of the
cell potential is measured in high speed mode.
The current interrupt technique is also implemented in the transient technique ChronoPotentiometry.
5.6
Sequence of a measurement
The operation of an Ivium potentiostat via Method control allows the setting of many different method
parameters. But it also allows pre-conditioning (pretreatment), measurement of starting values (like for
example OCP) and post conditioning (Cell after measurement). After a Method is defined (all parameters
values are set according to the operators wishes) and start is pressed, all the method settings are send
to the instrument, and carried out from there. The order in which the various treatments are carried out
is listed below.
After the "Start" button has been pressed, the events are sequenced in this order:
1) first, the pretreatment stages are executed, if the number of pretreatment levels > 0;
2) thereafter, the OCP is determined, if that option was activated;
3) next, the equilibrium stage is applied, if the equilibration time >0. The equilibrium potential/current is
equal to E/I_start;
4) then, the actual measurement technique is applied: LSV/CV etc.;
5) finally, upon completion of the measurement, the standby potential is applied, if "Cell after
measurement" is activated. This potential is maintained until the instrument is switched off.
The duration of the pre-treatment stages 1-4 is predefined. However, it is possible to manually abort
these stages during its execution, by pressing the "Continue" button. This will stop the currently running
pre-measurement stage, and proceed to the next. If it was the last scheduled stage, the measurement
will start immediately. In case of the OCP measurement stage, it will accept the last measured value as
the actual OCP, and proceed. The "Continue" button only appears next to the "Abort" button at the start
of a method and during the pre-measurement stages.
5.7
Floating operation
Ivium potentiostats are designed according to the general operating principle in which the WE is
connected to the potentiostat's electronic ground. Normally this ground is connected to the Earth Ground.
However, there are situations and cells where the cell itself is grounded, and to avoid possible problems
and noise the WE needs to be disconnected from Earth Ground. Examples of these situations are:

working in an autoclave

testing rebar

corrosion measurement in-situ on pipes, rigs, etc.
To accommodate these measurements most Ivium potentiostats can be operated in floating mode, i.e.
with WE disconnected from Earth ground.
pocketSTAT
The pocketSTAT is powered from USB and by extension grounded via the PC ground. Desktop PCs are
normally grounded to earth, and so are their USB ports. In this case the pocketSTAT powered from a
desktop PC is grounded by extension. Laptop's are normally not connected to earth ground through their
power supplies. When the pocketSTAT is connected to and powered from a laptop, the pocketSTAT is
floating.
Vertex
The Vertex can be operated in floating mode. To activate floating operation select the Direct tab in
IviumSoft and check the box "Floating mode".
CompactStat
The CompactStat can be powered from USB and by extension grounded via the PC ground. Desktop PCs
are normally grounded to earth, and so are their USB ports. In this case the CompactStat powered from
a desktop PC is grounded by extension. Laptop's are normally not connected to earth ground through
their power supplies. When the CompactStat is connected to and powered from a laptop, the
CompactStat is floating.
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The Ivium CompactStat is standard delivered in such a configuration that the housing and main circuit
board are grounded to the USB ground. However, it can be converted in a simple way so that it can be
operated in "floating mode". To convert to floating operation locate and remove the ground bridge at the
back of the instrument. When this clip is removed the CompactStat is floating, regardless if it is powered
by USB or power adapter.
IviumStat
The IviumStat cannot be operated in floating mode.
Ivium-n-Stat
The Ivium-n-Stat channels can be operated in floating mode, for example to be able to operate 2
channels in the same electrochemical solution. The floating mode is user selectable and can be accessed
from the "Direct panel" > "Extern" tab in IviumSoft. To operate the channel in floating mode, check the
box: "Floating mode".
NOTE1: The Ivium-n-Stat channel is by default not floating.
NOTE2: The "Floating mode" setting is not stored in the instrument or settings. This means that each
time the instrument is started, and floating mode is required, the floating operation needs to be
activated.
NOTE3: When using a dModule the floating mode can be checked for each channel A and B. However
checking it for 1 or both channels, both means that the Module is floating. Channels A and B are NOT
floating from each other. To disengage floating mode it has to be unchecked for BOTH channels.
5.8
SigView
In diagnostic operation via Direct control and during impedance measurements it is possible to show the
voltage and current trace signals in an oscilloscope like window. This can be used to verify the quality of
the signal and to check for i.e. overload/oscillations situations. The Signal Monitor window is accessible
by clicking on "SigView" in the top function bar (advanced parameters).
1) Direct Control
In Direct control mode, the signal can be observed in an oscilloscope type of screen: current and
potential vs time. This can help to diagnose connection problems, and find sources of noise. The operator
can manipulate the timebase in direct mode.
Top panel:

Rescale: clicking will revert the graph back to automatic scaling, for example after an area has
been zoomed into.

Options: shows graph options.

Copy: copy graph to clipboard.
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



Freq: shows frequency based signal for E and I, and 1st to 15th harmonics; click again to revert
back to time based signal
Sample: when clicked will give a signal sample for the time period indicated below the graph.
Auto: shows continuous signal trace.
Hide: hides the window.
Graph:

Black plot corresponds to left axis, Blue plot corresponds to right hand axis.

Left axis: Current/% of full current range as selected.

Right axis: Potential/% of full range as selected (by automatic E ranging or maximum range).
Lower



panel:
Period: enter length of the measurement.
I = actual I value with accuracy interval
E = actual E value with accuracy interval
2) Impedance measurement
During an impedance measurement (Method control), in the Signal Monitor window the real time
perturbing and resulting sine waves are shown, with the actual filter and amplifier settings. This will give
a good idea of the quality of the result, and may be useful for experimental optimizations.
Top panel:

Rescale: clicking will revert the graph back to automatic scaling, for example after an area has
been zoomed into.

Option: shows graph options.

Copy: copy graph to clipboard.

Freq: shows frequency based signal for E and I, and 1st to 15th harmonics; click again to revert
back to time based signal

Hide: hides the window.
Graph:

Black plot corresponds to left axis, Blue plot corresponds to right hand axis.

Left axis: Current/% of full current range as selected.

Right axis: Potential/% of full range as selected (by automatic E ranging or maximum range).
Lower





panel:
Freq = real time applied frequency
CR = active current range
Disto = Corr. = correlation, a measure of deviation from the ideal sine
Igain = gain value for current measurement
Egain = gain value for potential measurement
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


Nonlin = nonlinearity, the linearity of E and I is calculated, this can be used as an indication of
too high an amplitude, causing nonlinearity.
Filter = filter number (0=1MHz/1=100kHz/2=10kHz/3=1kHz/4=10Hz)
Coupling = internal signal coupling code
3)
During an impedance measurement the signal traces for each data point are stored in the datafile and
can be recalled to be investigated/analyzed at a later time. Not only the impedance data is stored, but
also the measurement settings: Current range/overload flags/etc, for each individual data point. To
display the specifics of a datapoint, first open the Sigview window, then point the mouse at the datapoint
in question (on the graph of an opened impedance measurement). The Signal view will show the data in
Recall mode. By default it will show the signal trace in "Time" mode. By clicking the "Freq" button at the
top of the window you can swith to the Frequency analysis.
TIME
In the example above, the E/I traces (time) are displayed by default in recall mode. Note that the display
in Recall mode is different from the AC signal monitor shown during the EIS scan.
Lower panel:

Freq = frequency of data point

CR = current range used for the measurement of the data point, useful when automatic current
ranging was used. Between brackets, in the example (1), number of times oversampling. This
can be adjusted in the FRA settings.

Corr.= correlation, a measure of deviation from the ideal sine

Zabs = value for Z_abs

Status: status for this datapoint; OK = OK, when an overload occurred, "OVL" will be displayed;
the values between brackets are (a:b:c)=(x_gain[I]:y_gain[E]:8x_ampl.[1=x, 2=y, 3=x+y])

Nonlin = nonlinearity, the linearity of E and I is calculated, this can be used as an indication of
too high an amplitude, causing nonlinearity.

Phase = phase angle of data point

Date/time of data point
FREQUENCY: Harmonic analysis EIS
To investigate non-linearities or (FEM) modulation products, the EIS data can be analyzed with multiple
frequency harmonic analysis. Up to 15 harmonics are calculated. To invoke the harmonic analysis, open
the Signal Monitor, press the [Freq] button and select with the mouse the desired datapoint.
The harmonics are defined as multiples of the base frequency. The relative importance of each harmonic
is shown as fraction of the combined total of 15 frequencies. This data can be used for verification of
impedance quality: for a single sine experiment on linear systems, the higher harmonics should be small
or absent. Also, it can be used to investigate nonlinearity effects. However, when the data is used
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quantitatively, it must be realized that the (higher harmonics) data is not calibrated as rigorously as the
base frequency data.
The data can be shown expressed in absolute potentials&currents or in impedance format.
Potentials & currents
When "Freq" is clicked above the graph, the frequency dependent data is shown by default as Potentials
& currents. In the picture above, the Iabs/Eabs (frequency) are displayed in recall mode.

harmonic: number of harmonic

Freq/Hz: frequency in Hz

Iabs/A: absolute current in A

Eabs/V: absolute potential in V

Iratio%: percentage of total current
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
Eratio%: percentage of total voltage
When the check box for "Impedance format" is checked at the bottom left of the window, the impedance
data will be given: Z and phase instead of E and I:

Z/ohm: total absolute Z in ohms

Phase/deg: phase angle in degrees
Impedance format
When clicking the button "Copy harmonic data" at the bottom right of the window, the harmonic data in
the table will be copied to clipboard.
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6. Electrochemical techniques
In IviumSoft all electrochemical techniques listed below can be used for measurement.
Available Methods:
LinearSweep LSV

Standard: staircase voltammetry, records current at the end of each step

CurrentAveraging: records average currents (integrated) over each step

TrueLinear: applies true linear voltage ramp, requires optional LinScan module

Galvanostatic: staircase potentiometry, records potential at the end of each step
CyclicVoltammetry CV

Standard: cyclic voltammetry, records current at the end of each step

CurrentAveraging: records average currents (integrated) over each step

TrueLinear: applies true linear voltage ramp, requires optional LinScan module

Galvanostatic: cyclic potentiometry, records potential at the end of each step
Transients

ChronoAmperometry: applies up to 255 voltage steps, and records current

ChronoPotentiometry: applies up to 255 current steps, and records potential

MixedMode : applies up to 255 definable steps, records current & potential & impedance, etc.

Electrochemical Noise: corrosion measurement, records current & potential at 2 separate
working electrodes
ElectroAnalysis

Amperometric detection: potential is applied, and current recorded vs. time

Differential Pulse: potential with superimposed pulse is applied and current is recorded vs. time

Square Wave: square wave with increasing bias potential is applied and current is recorded vs.
time

AC Voltammetry: AC potential added to a DC ramp, AC current is measured

Potentiometric Stripping Analysis: potential controlled quantitative determination of ionic species

AC detection: record the ac impedance with time, at a fixed frequency

Normal Pulse Voltammetry: a repetitive potential pulse is applied at increasing amplitude

Voltammetric Pulse Builder: voltammetric Pulse Techniques can be defined to user specifications
Impedance EIS

Controlled E: voltammetric frequency scan at a fixed DC potential

Controlled I: galvanostatic frequency scan at a fixed DC current

PotentialScan: voltammetric frequency scans for a range of DC potentials

CurrentScan: galvanostatic frequency scans for a range of DC currents
Corrosion

Eoc monitor: monitoring of open circuit potential vs. time

Polarization Resistance: linear potential controlled scan from E_start to E_end

Tafel Plot: linear potential controlled scan with logarithmic data representation for Corrosion rate
analysis

Potentiodynamic: linear potential controlled scan from E_start to E_end

Cyclic Polarization: cyclic potential controlled scan from E_start to Vertex1 and back to E_start

Galvanic Corrosion: records current vs. time when two different metals are immersed in an
electrolyte

Corrosion Rate Monitor: starts with Eoc, followed by Polarization Resistance, repeated over time,
calculation of Rp and corrosion rate vs. time
6.1
Linear Sweep




Standard: staircase voltammetry, records current at the end of each step
CurrentAveraging: records average currents (integrated) over each step
TrueLinear: applies true linear voltage ramp, requires optional LinScan module
Galvanostatic: staircase potentiometry, records potential at the end of each step
6.1.1 LinearSweep Standard
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A linear potentialsweep is created by updating the potential with E_step at each interval, so that a
staircase scan is applied to the cell with a defined scanrate.
The interval is defined by E_step/scanrate. The recorded currents are measured at the end of each
interval (unless the Alpha parameter is activated). Standard mode allows for interval times down to
0.002 s, for shorter intervals use HiSpeed mode.
6.1.2 LinearSweep CurrentAveraging
A linear potentialsweep is applied, identical to LinearSweep Standard.
However, instead of recording the current at the end of each interval, the current is integrated during the
whole interval and divided by the interval time. This results in the average current during each
potentialstep. In some situations, this technique yields the same results as when using a True Linear
Scan technique.
This particular technique can be used when the standard staircase method does not give the desired
results, such as experiments involving time dependent phenomena such as film formation or
electrochemical nucleation.
The CurrentAveraging method is more sensitive to capacitive currents. When that is undesirable, the
standard variant is more appropriate.
6.1.3 LinearSweep TrueLinear
A continuous linear analog potentialsweep is applied, instead of the standard staircase.
The E_step variable defines the interval time. The interval is defined by E_step/scanrate. The recorded
currents are measured at the end of each interval. Standard mode allows for interval times down to
0.002 s, for shorter intervals use HiSpeed mode.
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6.1.4 LinearSweep Galvanostatic
This is similar to the Standard potentiostatic sweep, but now galvanostatic. A linear currentsweep is
created by updating the current with I_step at each interval, so that a staircase scan is applied to the cell
with a defined scanrate.
The interval is defined by I_step/scanrate. The recorded potentials are measured at the end of each
interval (unless the Alpha parameter is activated). Standard mode allows for interval times down to
0.002 s, for shorter intervals use HiSpeed mode.
6.2
Cyclic voltammetry




Standard: cyclic voltammetry, records current at the end of each step
CurrentAveraging: records average currents (integrated) over each step
TrueLinear: applies true linear voltage ramp, requires optional LinScan module
Galvanostatic: cyclic potentiometry, records potential at the end of each step
Generic features of all cyclic voltammetry techniques are:
1) When a CV scan is running (standard speed), the datapoints appear real-time on the screen. It is
possible for a user to react directly on the result, and change a vertex by mouse-click. During a CV scan,
the operator can reverse the scan direction immediately by pressing the "ReverseScan" button at the
bottom of the Result graph sheet. Clicking the button is only effective when the scan is moving away
from "E start", thus the scan-range can be constricted, but not extended. The new vertex is applied to
the ongoing cycle only.
Also an ongoing scan can be paused with the "Pause" button: during a pause, the applied
potential/current will be kept constant, and the instrument will suspend measurements. A paused scan
can be continued by pressing the "Resume" button.
2) Cyclic Voltammograms are usually displayed as Current vs Potential, but also the Current vs time and
Potential vs time plots can be shown. Note that the interval time between 2 consecutive datapoints
equals Estep/Scanrate.
To show the CV-time plots, move the mouse on the resultplot, right click, and select "CV plots".
3) For plots with Cyclic Voltammograms, the scan direction can immediately be recognized: the scan in
positive direction is plotted in a thicker line that the negative direction.
6.2.1 CyclicVoltammetry Standard
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Each scan consists of 3 linear segments: E_begin to Vertex 1, Vertext 1 to Vertex2, and Vertext 2 back to
E_begin.
The segments are created by increasing the potential with E_step at each interval, so that a staircase
scan is applied to the cell with a defined scanrate.
The interval is defined by E_step/scanrate. The recorded currents are measured at the end of each
interval (unless the Alpha parameter is activated). Standard mode allows for interval times down to
0.002 s, for shorter intervals use HiSpeed mode.
In standard mode the number of datapoints is unlimited, in HiSpeed mode a maximum of 32,000
datapoints applies.
6.2.2 CyclicVoltammetry CurrentAveraging
Linear potentialsweeps are applied, identical to the standard variant.
However, instead of recording the current at the end of each interval, the current is integrated during the
whole interval and divided by the interval time. This results in the average current over each
potentialstep. In some situations, this technique yields the same results as when using a True Linear
Scan technique.
This particular technique can be used when the standard staircase method does not give the desired
results, such as experiments involving time dependent phenomena such as film formation or
electrochemical nucleation.
The CurrentAveraging method is more sensitive to capacitive currents. When that is undesirable, the
standard variant is more appropriate.
6.2.3 CyclicVoltammetry TrueLinear
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Continuous linear analog potentialsweeps are applied, instead of the standard staircase.
The E_step variable defines the interval time. The interval is defined by E_step/scanrate. The recorded
currents are measured at the end of each interval. Standard mode allows for interval times down to
0.002 s, for shorter intervals use HiSpeed mode.
6.2.4 CyclicVoltammetry Galvanostatic
This is similar to the Standard potentiostatic sweep, but now galvanostatic.
Each scan consists of 3 linear segments: I_start to Vertex 1, Vertext 1 to Vertex2, and Vertext 2 back to
I_start.
The segments are created by increasing the current with I_step at each interval, so that a staircase scan
is applied to the cell with a defined scanrate.
The interval is defined by I_step/scanrate. The recorded potentials are measured at the end of each
interval (unless the Alpha parameter is activated). Standard mode allows for interval times down to
0.002 s, for shorter intervals use HiSpeed mode.
In standard mode the number of datapoints is unlimited, in HiSpeed mode a maximum of 32,000
datapoints applies.
6.3
Transients




ChronoAmperometry: applies up to 255 voltage steps, and records current
ChronoPotentiometry: applies up to 255 current steps, and records potential
MixedMode : applies up to 255 definable steps, records current & potential & impedance, etc.
Electrochemical Noise: corrosion measurement, records current & potential at 2 separate working
electrodes
6.3.1 Transients ChronoAmperometry
During chronoamperometry, a single or a series of potential pulses (max. 255) is applied, and the current
is recorded. The timebase of the experiment is set by the interval time, it defines the measurement
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speed and the pulse duration. The minimum interval time is 10 µs, and the maximum level duration is
4E9 times the interval time.
At interval times larger than 2 ms, the standard mode can be applied. Here the number of datapoints is
unlimited.
For interval times shorter than 2 ms, the HiSpeed mode must be applied. In HiSpeed mode, the
maximum number of datapoints is 8192.
In standard mode, the multicycling option can be applied.
During ChronoAmperometry, the user can change the applied potential manually, without stopping the
experiment. The operator may specify potentials that deviate from the fixed potential levels that were
pre-defined in the procedure method. This feature gives the user the possibility to react directly on an
observed event. It can be especially useful for long duration experiments.
During a ChronoAmperometry scan in standard mode, a button appears below the Result graph, with a
potential-input-field. Any valid potential can be typed. After pressing the "Apply direct" button, the new
potential will be applied to the cell immediately after the next measured point. This potential will be
applied for the remainder of the presently executing level.
Note that if this feature is used, the sequence of applied potentials will no longer be completely defined
by the methodfile, and "user intervention" is not recorded. This may hinder the repeatability of
experiments.
An ongoing chronamperometric scan, in standard speed (sample interval > 2ms) can be paused by
pressing the "Pause" button (below the graph), at which it will maintain the momentary potential applied.
Pressing the "Resume" button will continue the scan sequence, as defined by the method. During a Pause
period, the data is not recorded.
6.3.2 Transients ChronoPotentiometry
During chronopotentiometry a single or a series of current pulses (max. 255) is applied, and the voltage
is recorded. The timebase of the experiment is set by the interval time, it defines the measurement
speed and the pulse duration. The minimum interval time is 10 µs, and the maximum level duration is
4E9 time the interval time,
At interval times larger than 2 ms, the standard mode can be applied. Here the number of datapoints is
unlimited.
For interval times shorter than 2 ms, the HiSpeed mode must be applied. In HiSpeed mode, the
maximum number of datapoints is 8192.
In standard mode, the multicycling option and dynamic level switching can be applied.
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Example of ChronoPotentiometry with 2 levels, and 4 cycles, and dynamic level switching at +0.9 Volt
and +0.2 Volt.
Same experiment as above, with CyclesSeparate option activated and plotted in 3D with cycles index as
depth axis.
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Also the Current Interrupt Module (CIM) can be used during ChronoPotentiometry. In Advanced mode,
the parameter "CI at Level[2]" was added. When checked, it will activate a Current Interrupt during the
2nd level.
6.3.3 Transients MixedMode
The MixedMode technique provides maximum flexibility. You can alternate between Potentiostatic,
Galvanostatic and Open-cell mode. Moreover, it allows the combination of DC with Impedance
measurements and potential/current sweeps in a single experiment:

programmable switching between Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic and Open-cell mode (OCP),
while recording dc current and potential simultaneously.

Potential- and Current- Sweep capability: the Estat and Istat stages can optionally be defined as
Sweep-stages. Sweeps can be activated by checking the SweepE/SweepI option. When activated,
values for Eend/Iend and scanrate can be entered. Note that the values for Estep/Istep are
defined by scanrate/interval time.

Up to 255 levels may be sequenced in Stages during the technique. Each level can be set to
Potentiostatic/Galvanostatic/Open-cell mode. Programmed sequences can be repeated up to
65535 times.

Each level can be set to a fixed time duration. Also levels can be ended dynamically when
predefined criteria are met, see table below.

Simultaneously, the ac impedance can be measured, in both Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic
mode.

Automatic Current ranging can be used in the usual manner:

Only applicable for Estat stages. In Istat and OCP stages the initial current range is reset a the
beginning of the stage.

If an Estat stage is preceded by another Estat stage, the starting current range is the same as
the last current range of the previous stage.

If AutoCR is activated, the dynamic threshold options I<, I>, dIdt<, dIdt>, Ifraction<, |Q|> are
not available

AutoCR will only decide to change current ranges based on dc-values. If the simultaneous acmeasurement is active, the impedance is measured at the same current range as the dc-signal.

The analog output port from the Peripheral port can be set at the start of each level. In this
manner, it is possible to generate complex waveforms to control external equipment: RDErotationrate, intensity of light sources, positioning of SECM, temperature of thermostats, etc. Also
this feature may be used to synchronize external events at defined point(s) inside the
measurement sequence. Unlike the AUX.trigger function, at each level this may be different from
the start of the sequence.

Specifications:

Switching between Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic mode < 1us

Switching between Potentiostatic/Galvanostatic and OCP mode < 5ms

Minimum measurement interval time: 2ms. When AC measurements are required, the minimum
interval time is 0.2s
Dynamic level parameters:
parameter
E applied
E vs Eprev
available
Estat
Estat
SweepE
Estat
I applied
SweepI
Istat
Istat
Duration
Record ac
always
Estat,Istat
Until
Until
Until
Until
Until
Until
Until
Istat,
Istat,
Estat
Estat
Istat,
Istat,
Estat
E>
E<
I>
I<
dE/dt>
dE/dt<
dI/dt>
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OCP
OCP
OCP
OCP
Applied potential
Applied potential vs last measured potential of previous level. If the
previous stage was dynamically ended from threshold criteria, the actual
last applied/measured potential is used.
Creates a linear sweep with E applied as start potential, E_step =
scanrate/interval time
Applied current
Creates a linear sweep with I applied as start current, I_step =
scanrate/interval time
Level duration (not when SweepE/I is active)
When checked, impedance is measured using defined frequency and
amplitude
End level if E exceeds value
End level if E falls below value
End level if current exceeds value
End level if current falls below value
End level if E-rate-of-change exceeds value
End level if E-rate-of-change falls below value
End level if current-rate-of-change exceeds value
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Until dI/dt<
Estat
Until An1>
If enabled
Until An1<
If enabled
Until dAn1/dt> If enabled
Until dAn1/dt< If enabled
Until Ifraction< Estat
Until|Q|>
Estat
AnOut1
always
Digouts
always
End level if current-rate-of-change falls below value
End level if the analog input voltage level is exceeded
End level if the analog input voltage level falls below value
End level if AnalogInput-rate-of-change exceeds value
End level if AnalogInput-rate-of-change falls below value
End level if I decreases > 10%
End level if |Q| exceeds value
Set value for Analog Output1 at start of level
Set digital outputs with value at start of level
(8 bit conversion: 0 = all digouts off; 1 = digout1 on digout2and3 off,
etc.)
More on the specific thershold conditions and possibilities of the Mixed mode technique can also be found
in the explanation of the Stages.
Examples of (advantages of) Mixed mode application
Example 1: Cycling a battery, while monitoring the internal resistance:

Battery is charged with +150mA until E>+1.425V

Battery is discharged with -150mA until E<+0.400V

Cycle is repeated (6x)

The impedance is monitored real-time at each data point, and Rs is plotted.
Note that the battery resistance Rs is decreasing while charging, while it increases during discharge. And
that Rs decreases with increasing cycle number. Real-time monitoring has the advantage that the normal
"charge-discharge" cycle is not disturbed, and even small changes in internal resistance can be observed.
Example 2: Two cycles with a 1F supercap using stage-protocol:

Apply 50mA constant current 100s, or until E>3.5V, record impedance

Switch to open cell for 5 seconds

Apply -50mA constant current 100s, or until E<0.1V, record impedance
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
Switch to open cell for 5 seconds
The top-graph of the resistance shows that the internal resistance is well reproducible between cycles.
The resistance of the supercap increases during charging, while it decreases during discharge. Thus its
behaviour is opposite from the NiCd battery in example 1.
Note that the variations in resistance are quite small, and probably would not have been observed in a
non-real-time measurement configuration.
6.3.4 Transients Electrochemical Noise
This technique allows for Electrochemical Noise measurements with an Ivium potentiostat; no hardware
modifications are required. Usually this technique is applied in corrosion research.
Specifications:

Data sampling of E and I up to 500 samples/second, simultaneously

Minimum current resolution: 0.15 fA

Minimum potential resolution: 40nV (IviumStat), 16nV (CompactStat)
A standard noise measurement uses 3 electrodes: 1 reference electrode, and 2 identical working
electrodes. Connect these is the following manner:

RE to reference electrode

WE+S to working electrode 1

Gnd to working electrode 2
The software can evaluate the recorded results automatically.
Before an ElectroChemical Noise scan, the voltage bias can be removed. If the checkbox "Remove DC
initial" (method parameter) is checked, the initial voltage is measured and subsequently electronically
subtracted from the cell potential before measurement. This option can improve the sensitivity of ECN
measurements, because it will allow for a more narrow Potential range setting with a higher resolution.
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6.4
Electroanalysis








Amperometric detection: potential is applied, and current recorded vs. time
Differential Pulse: potential with superimposed pulse is applied and current is recorded vs. time
Square Wave: square wave with increasing bias potential is applied and current is recorded vs.
time
AC Voltammetry: AC potential added to a DC ramp, AC current is measured
Potentiometric Stripping Analysis: potential controlled quantitative determination of ionic species
AC detection: record the ac impedance with time, at a fixed frequency
Normal Pulse Voltammetry: a repetitive potential pulse is applied at increasing amplitude
Voltammetric Pulse Builder: voltammetric Pulse Techniques can be defined to user specifications
6.4.1 Amperometric Detection
During amperometric detection, a potential is applied, and the current is recorded.
The timebase of the experiment is set by the interval time.
6.4.2 Differential Pulse
During differential pulse voltammetry, a staircase scan is applied with a superimposed pulse at the end of
each interval. The current is measured before and at the end of each pulse, from which the difference is
displayed. The operator can choose pulse time and height. The pulse time must be shorter than half of
the interval time.
Normally only the current difference is displayed. Optionally, the original measured currents can be
viewed.
In analytical experiments, the result usually appears as a peak which height is proportional to the
concentration.
6.4.3 Square Wave
During square wave voltammetry, a staircase scan is applied with a superimposed square wave. The
interval time equals 1/frequency. The current is measured at the end of the 1st flank (forward), and at
end of the 2nd flank (backward), from which the current difference is displayed: forward-backward. The
sign of forward/backward pulses is defined by the scan direction. The operator can choose amplitude and
frequency.
Normally only the current difference is displayed. Optionally, the original measured currents can be
viewed: forward and backward.
In analytical experiments, the result usually appears as a peak which height is proportional to the
concentration.
6.4.4 AC Voltammetry
During AC voltammetry, a staircase scan is applied with a superimposed sine wave. The resulting ac
current is measured and displayed.
The operator may set the amplitude and the frequency of the applied ac signal
If Phase sensitive is turned off, then the rms value is shown. If Phase is turned on, the user may choose
the phase which will be used for detection.
Optionally, the second harmonic current might be recorded (advanced parameter).
Note: AC voltammetry is similar to the impedance potentialscan technique, but with a few differences.
Only 1 frequency is used and the results are obtained as currents, instead of impedances. Because AC
voltammetry must obey the time constraints of the potentialscan, no re-measurements are done and
automatic gaining is not used. Therefore the dynamic range for accurate measurement is less, and on
occasion flyers might be observed during automatic current range selection.
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6.4.5 Potentiometric Stripping
A potentiometric stripping experiment contains 2 stages: first a product will be deposited on the electrode
at potentiostatic conditions during a longer period, thereafter the product will be stripped in a relatively
short time while recording the potential under galvanostatic conditions. For the second stage, 2 variants
are possible:

chemical stripping: occurs spontaneous at Open Cell Potential, no external current is applied
(Current stripping option = Off)

electrochemical stripping: the galvanostat applies a constant current that removes the reactant
electrochemically (Current stripping option = On)
According to convention, the recorded potentials are transformed to the inverse differential w.r.t. time:
dt/dE. This will yield a pattern of peaks that can be used to determine concentrations.
6.4.6 AC detection
The technique "AC Detection" can be used to record the ac impedance with time, at a fixed frequency.
This application is comparable to AC Voltammetry, but at a constant dc potential. The results are plotted
as Rs and Cs, at left and right axis. Rs & Cs are determined from a circuit with a resistor and capacitor in
series: Rs=Z1, Cs=-1/(2PI*frequency*Z2).
Specifications:

frequency range: 10Hz to 2MHz

Interval time: 0.2s to 2.5s
6.4.7 Normal Pulse Voltammetry
With Normal Pulse Voltammetry a repetitive potential pulse is applied at increasing amplitude. Starting at
a base potential (E start), a pulse with a definable pulse time is applied at each interval time
(Estep/Scanrate). Each subsequent pulse is increased with Estep, until E end is reached.
6.4.8 Voltammetric Pulse Builder
With this technique Voltammetric Pulse Techniques can be defined to user specifications. All existing
techniques, such as DPV, NPV, DNPV, SQRWV, etc, can be compiled with this tool. Moreover newly
proposed pulse waveforms can be constructed and tested, in a very flexible and user-friendly manner,
without the loss of performance. Pulse patterns can be defined with 0.02ms resolution, with each pulse as
short as 1ms.
The Voltammetric Pulse Builder implements a Voltammetric scan with the usual parameters: E_start,
E_end, E_step. This will generate a staircase scan, with a pulse pattern superimposed on each staircase
level:
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Selecting "PulseDefinition" opens a pop-up, in which the pulse pattern can be defined, for example the
pattern above can be achieved with these settings:
Levels:
Delay Time:
the number of Levels (pulses) can be defined (min. 1, max. 4).
wait-time after each staircase level application, before the first pulse is applied (min.
5ms, max. 5000ms).
E/Volt:
pulse height/amplitude (V)
Period/ms:
pulse period (ms)
Add to Result: result multiplication-operator
Up to 4 pulse levels can be defined, each between 1ms and 200ms. The total duration of the 4 combined
pulses must be below 600ms (Delay Time not included).
At the end of the "Delay Time", and at the end of each level, the current is measured. These recorded
values can be used to calculate the single datapoint that is displayed and stored. The user can define how
that datapoint will be calculated, using the "Add to Result" field in the definition screen. Each level
measurement can be added/subtracted/ignored/etc. in the end-result with multiplication-operators "+1/1/0/0.5/-0.5". In the example below, a DPV scan is compiled with 50mV amplitude and 10ms pulse time:
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The "+1" operator at Level[1] will add the measured current at Level[1], and the "-1" operator at Delay
Time will subtract the current measured during Delay Time, so the difference of currents from before and
at the end of the pulse will be recorded.
The sampling acquisition period is set automatically equally for all levels to 25% of the shortest Level
Period, maximized to 1 mains line cycle period (50Hz/60Hz option). These acquisition periods are always
located at the end of the corresponding Level.
Note that the ScanRate is implicitly defined by the "E step" parameters and the sum of Delay Time and
Pulse Periods. In the DPV example above, the total period is 100ms, so this scan would produce 10
datapoints/second. Suppose E step was 10mV, the scanrate would be 100mV/sec.
6.5
Impedance




Controlled E: voltammetric frequency scan at a fixed DC potential
Controlled I: galvanostatic frequency scan at a fixed DC current
PotentialScan: voltammetric frequency scans for a range of DC potentials
CurrentScan: galvanostatic frequency scans for a range of DC currents
6.5.1 Impedance Constant E
A range of frequencies is applied, at a constant dc potential.
Frequencies and amplitudes can be defined by pressing the Frequencies button in the method grid. This
will open a pop-up window where a choice can be made to apply a SingleSine or MultiSine method.
SingleSine
In SingleSine mode the operator can supply the amplitude, a start- and end-frequency and the number
of frequencies each decade. When pressing "Apply" the software will calculate automatically a logarithmic
spread of frequencies. The operator may choose to override specific frequencies and amplitudes, and
enter these manually (check "Manual override" box and enter values).
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It is recommended to always start with the highest frequency, because real systems have usually lower
impedance at higher frequencies. Starting at the lowest impedance is favorable, because the probability
for overloads is less and the system will find the optimal set of internal gains more quickly.
MultiSine
For EIS measurements MultiSine applies multiple sine wave frequencies simultaneously, and the
corresponding impedances are collected in a single measurement. For measurements at lower
frequencies this can decrease measurement time considerably, and minimize artefacts caused by to timevariable impedances.
In Multi-sine mode, 5 frequencies within a single decade are combined. By using the odd harmonics:
1:3:5:7:9 Hz., etc. and carefully controlling the relative phase of these frequencies it is possible to
minimise the total combined amplitude for a given effect. Thus, the maximum amplitude from the
combination of 5 frequencies is less than 2.5 times the individual amplitudes. This minimises the signal
degradation which is traditionally inherent in the multi-sine technique whilst still producing fast results.
Compared to SingleSine, there are some constraints:

Start and End frequency must be at decade-boundaries

Manual override of individual frequencies/amplitudes is not available. The amplitudes are the
same for all frequencies.
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
Fixed number of frequencies per decade (5)
The MultiSine method is applicable for frequencies below 100Hz. However, it is possible to combine the
SingleSine method and the MultiSine method in a single frequency scan. In the MultiSine tab simply
select the frequency range required and the software will automatically determine which method to use
over the frequency range. In the screenshot below, note that the frequencies above 100Hz will use the
SingleSine method, while below 100Hz the MultiSine method is applied. Also note the logarithmic
frequency distribution for SingleSine, and the odd-harmonic distribution for MultiSine.
The measurement data format will be the same as for SingleSine, each frequency will be stored
individually. Also the data analysis is conducted in the same manner.
Note that MultiSine offers faster measurement, however this is at the expense of measurement accuracy.
If measurement duration is not an overriding issue, it is strongly recommended to use the standard
SingleSine method.
Sequence
The measurement sequence during a frequency scan:

prepare the frequency: set filters, stabilization, dc-coupling, etc..

apply the frequency and allow the system to settle (stabilization period)

record current and potential during the acquisition period

determine theoretical optimal current range, dc bias, and gainsettings

if actual settings are not optimal, adjust settings, and repeat measurement

send result to pc, and continue with next frequency
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Note that for each following frequency, the settings are copied from the previous frequency. If the
frequency-spacing is not too large, the settings are usually almost the same, and 1 or 2 attempts will
probably give an optimal result. Therefore the first frequency will often take a longer time than the rest.
Although in Advanced mode, it is possible to override automatic Filter and Stability settings, this is
usually not recommended.
The results are recorded and stored in the format: Z1, Z2, frequency. However these maybe visualized in
a number of formats:

Impedance plot selection: set graphical presentation of impedance data with the buttons above
the graph.
6.5.2 Impedance Constant I
A range of frequencies is applied, at a constant dc current.
The implementation is analog to the Constant E variant, except:

dc & ac currents should be supplied instead of potentials

automatic current range selection is not possible
Special care should be taken with the choice of the amplitude. If the resulting ac potential gets too large,
non-linearity effects might occur that hinder the interpretation of the result.
6.5.3 Impedance PotentialScan
The implementation is analog to the Constant E variant, but it is repeated at a range of dc potentials.
The results can be stored as single potential files *.idf, or all together as dataset *.ids.
In the primary datagraph, results for each potential are plotted in the usual manner: Z1Z2/Y1Y2/etc..
On the Escan sheet, results may be plotted vs potential:

Cs vs E

Z' vs E

Z'' vs E

Y' vs E

Y'' vs E

Mott-Schottky : 1/Cs^2 vs E
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Specific frequencies can be shown or hidden by clicking these in the "Select frequencies" checklist.
Also, a specific potential range can be selected by setting the "from" and "to" in the "Select potentials"
group.
6.5.4 Impedance CurrentScan
Galvanostatic impedance scans can be performed in combination with a dc Current scan, in much the
same way as the PotentialScan variant. Select the "Currentscan" method, and set the dc scan
parameters: Istart, Istep and Iend. The frequency scan will now be repeated at every dc-step value of
the ramp. The results can be stored as single potential files *.idf, or all together as dataset *.ids.
6.6
Corrosion
In IviumSoft the following Corrosion Techniques are available:

Eoc monitor: monitoring of open circuit potential vs. time

Polarization Resistance: linear potential controlled scan from E_start to E_end

Tafel Plot: linear potential controlled scan with logarithmic data representation for Corrosion rate
analysis

Potentiodynamic: linear potential controlled scan from E_start to E_end

Cyclic Polarization: cyclic potential controlled scan from E_start to Vertex1 and back to E_start

Galvanic Corrosion: records current vs. time when two different metals are immersed in an
electrolyte

Corrosion Rate Monitor: starts with Eoc, followed by Polarization Resistance, repeated over time,
calculation of Rp and corrosion rate vs. time
6.6.1 Eoc monitor
The Eoc monitor technique will allow the monitoring of the open circuit potential versus time.
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Method parameters:
Title:
Eoc interval:
Run time:
Stop when dE/dt<:
scan title
interval time between data points, min. 0.1s; max. 60s.
duration, min. 2s.
experiment is automatically terminated when this criterion is met, min. 0 mV/s;
max. 65 mV/s.
Equilibration time:
Potential range:
Filter:
Stability
Analog inputs:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Report:
6.6.2 Polarization Resistance
The Polarization Resistance technique allows a linear potential controlled scan from E start to E end. The
results can be displayed as I/E, E/I, Log(I)/E, E/log(I). The most common presentation is E (Y-axis) vs. I
(X-axis) and is used to measure the corrosion rate.
Method parameters:
Title:
vs Eoc:
E start:
E end:
DynamicVertexes:
E Step:
Scanrate:
Equilibration time:
Current Range:
Filter:
Stability:
Connect to:
Analog inputs:
AutoCR:
IR feedback:
Cell after meas:
Pretreatment:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Modules:
Report:
scan title
when activated, the E oc will be monitored before the scan is started and the E
parameters can be entered to be relative to E oc.
start potential
end potential
potential step increment
rate of the potential scan
6.6.3 Tafel Plot
The Tafel Plot technique will record a linear potential controlled scan from E start to E end. The results
can be displayed as I/E, E/I, Log(I)/E, E/log(I). The most common presentation is E (X-axis) vs. log I (Yaxis) and is used to measure the corrosion rate. The corrosion parameters can be calculated from the
Corrosion rate analysis (above the graph: Analysis>Corrosion rate)
Method parameters:
Title:
vs Eoc:
E start:
E end:
DynamicVertexes:
E Step:
Scanrate:
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scan title
when activated, the E oc will be monitored before the scan is started and the E
parameters can be entered to be relative to E oc.
start potential
end potential
potential step increment
rate of the potential scan
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Equilibration time:
Current Range:
Filter:
Stability:
Connect to:
Analog inputs:
AutoCR:
IR feedback:
Cell after meas:
Pretreatment:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Modules:
Report:
6.6.4 Potentiodynamic
The Potentiodynamic technique will record a linear potential controlled scan from E start to E end. The
results can be displayed as I/E, E/I, Log(I)/E, E/log(I). The most common presentation is E (Y-axis) vs.
log I (X-axis) and is used to qualitatively evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the sample.
Method parameters:
Title:
vs Eoc:
E start:
E end:
DynamicVertexes:
E Step:
Scanrate:
Equilibration time:
Current Range:
Filter:
Stability:
Connect to:
Analog inputs:
AutoCR:
IR feedback:
Cell after meas:
Pretreatment:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Modules:
Report:
scan title
when activated, the E oc will be monitored before the scan is started and the E
parameters can be entered to be relative to E oc.
start potential
end potential
potential step increment
rate of the potential scan
6.6.5 Cyclic Polarization
The Cyclic Polarization technique will record a cyclic potential controlled scan from E start to Vertex 1,
and back to E start. The results can be displayed as I/E, E/I, Log(I)/E, E/log(I). The most common
presentation is E (Y-axis) vs. log I (X-axis) and is used to evaluate the tendency of the sample to
undergo localized corrosion. Pitting and crevice corrosion are the most common examples of localized
corrosion.
Method parameters:
Mode:
Title:
vs Eoc:
E start:
Vertex 1:
I Vertex:
E Step:
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scan title
when activated, the E oc will be monitored before the scan is started and the E
parameters can be entered to be relative to E oc.
start potential
Vertex potential (point at which the scan is reversed)
Vertex current, maximum current allowed before scan direction is reversed.
potential step increment
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Scanrate:
Alpha:
Equilibration time:
Current Range:
Filter:
Stability:
Connect to:
Analog inputs:
AutoCR:
IR feedback:
Cell after meas:
Pretreatment:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Modules:
Report:
rate of the potential scan
6.6.6 Galvanic Corrosion
The Galvanic Corrosion technique will record the current versus time when two different metals are
immersed in an electrolyte. The results can be displayed as E/time and I/time. In the Galvanic Corrosion
experiment, the instrument acts as a Zero Resistance Ammeter.
The galvanic corrosion technique is implemented for low currents, smaller than and up to ca. 1mA. If the
currents exceed a few mA, this electrode connection cannot be used anymore and a transient technique
needs to be used, like Mixed Mode .
Electrode connection for Galvanic Corrosion :

RE to reference electrode

WE+S to working electrode 1

Gnd to working electrode 2
Method parameters:
Title:
Interval time:
Run time:
Equilibration time:
Current Range:
Potential range:
Filter:
Stability:
Analog inputs:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Report:
scan title
interval time between data points, min. 0.1s; max. 60s.
duration, min. 2s.
6.6.7 Corrosion Rate Monitor
The Corrosion Rate Monitor technique will start with recording the Eoc (open cell potential), after this a
Linear (potential controlled) Polarization Resistance measurement will carried out. This is repeated for the
duration of the experiment and the Rp and corrosion rate are displayed vs. time. This experiment is
commonly used to test the performance of corrosion inhibitors.
Method parameters:
Title:
Duration:
Repeat interval:
E start:
E end:
DynamicVertexes:
E Step:
Scanrate:
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scan title
experiment duration, min. 2 minutes.
duration of the E oc recording
start potential
end potential
end potential
potential step increment
rate of the potential scan
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Equilibration time:
Current Range:
Filter:
Stability:
Connect to:
Analog inputs:
AutoCR:
IR feedback:
Cell after meas:
Pretreatment:
Data Options:
AUX:
Anout2:
Modules:
Report:


The LSV data belonging to a Corrosion Monitoring experiment can be viewed in the table in the
Result data tab, by checking the 'CorMon LSV' checkbox in the Format group. Of course this
checkbox will only work if Corrosion Rate Monitor data available.
To minimize data file size, superfluous Eoc data is not stored:
Only the following data is only stored:
i. The first 5 points of each Eoc period;
ii. All data points where Eoc is more than 0.2mV different from the last stored point;
iii. Data points after a maximum time interval of 10 minutes;
iv. The last point of each Eoc period.
6.7
Real Time impedance
The Mixed Mode technique allows the recording of Impedance data simultaneous with DC results, in real
time. The minimum interval time to allow real time impedance measurement has been greatly reduced
from 0.2 sec to 0.002 sec. But note that at interval times shorter than 0.2sec, the AC signal is always
continuously applied (regardless of Continuous AC option). At interval times longer than 0.2 sec the AC
signal is only applied at the last portion of the interval.
To make use of real time impedance the the condition must be observed that:

the Signal Frequency must be higher than (2/interval time).
6.8
Pre-measurement
Prior to a (method) measurement, there are several pre-measurement stages:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Purging
Pretreatment
OCP measurement
Equilibration
The duration of these stages is predefined. However, it is possible to manually abort such stages during
its execution, by pressing the "Continue" button. This will stop the currently running pre-measurement
stage, and proceed to the next. If it was the last scheduled stage, the measurement will start
immediately. In case of the OCP measurement stage, it will accept the last measured value as the actual
OCP, and proceed.
The "Continue" button only appears next to the "Abort" button at the start of a method and during the
pre-measurement stages, at the bottom of the method Tab:
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7. Measurement Results
When the instrument is used with Direct control, the real time data is shown in the read out panel, but
the data is not recorded or stored. When the instrument is used with Method control all data is recorded
and automatically stored in a datafile. The data points are also plotted in real time in the Result graph
sheet when standard speed is used. In high speed mode the data is recorded inside the instrument and
communicated to the PC after the measurement has finished, because of USB data communication limits.
The numeric data is also available and can be viewed and copied from the Result data sheet.
After the experiment has finished a variety of Data anlysis and Edit possibilities are available.
Note that IviumSoft has certain measures in place to protect the user from computer failure in case of
very large data accumulation.
7.1
Result graph sheet
When operating an Ivium instrument using Method control the data is recorded, automatically stored and
plotted in the Result graph sheet. When an experiment is done in standard mode the data is plotted real
time in the graph (allowing for USB communications speed). When the experiment is done in high speed
mode the data is recorded inside the instrument and communicated to the PC after the measurement has
finished, because of USB data communication limits. The numeric data is also available and can be
viewed and copied from the Result data sheet.
On top and to the left, the graphic toolbars are shown.
On the right, the legend panels are shown.
In the center, the scan data is shown. By default the results of the primary measurements are shown,
but optionally 1 or 2 additional graphs may be shown with pretreatment data or analog input data from
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the peripheral port. In the Legend panel to the right of the graph the operator can control which scans
are displayed and which are hidden.
At the bottom of the graph sheet, depending on the method used, some extra method commands may
show. For example:

In cyclic voltammetry, the "Reverse scan" and "Pause/Resume" buttons are shown. These can be
used during a scan to temporarily pause the scan or to reverse the scan direction.

During a ChronoAmperometry scan in standard mode, a button appears with a potential-inputfield. Any valid potential can be typed. After pressing the "Apply direct" button, the new potential
will be applied to the cell immediately after the next measured point. This potential will be applied
for the remainder of the presently executing level. Note that if this feature is used, the sequence
of applied potentials will no longer be completely defined by the methodfile, and "user
intervention" is not recorded. This may hinder the repeatability of experiments.

An ongoing chronamperometric scan, in standard speed (sample interval > 2ms) can be paused
by pressing the Pause button, at which it will maintain the momentary potential applied. Pressing
the Resume button will continue the scan sequence, as defined by the method. During a Pause
period, the data is not recorded.
During the scan an arrow near the top of the graph will show where the most recent data point was
added to the graph. The arrow is only displayed during the experiment and thus functions as an indicator
that the experiment is still running. This may be especially usefull when long interval times between data
points occur. During the experiment the data points in the graph cannot be selected, analysed or edited.
The graph is by default auto scaling, it is however possible to zoom into an area of the graph by selecting
that area using the mouse. The scale can be restored to automatic scaling by clicking on the "Scale"
button on the left above the graph. Alternatively, scaling and changing of the axis can be done from the
from drop down menu accessible from the "Scale" button, or from the pop-up window by right-clicking on
the graph.
The graph options can be changed by right-clicking on the graph, this will open a pop-up window that
allows changing/setting of titles and (background) colors, scaling, data shape/colors, etc.
Only compliant data is shown
If all loaded and/or generated data would be visible in the Result graph, for example when a Linear
Sweep would be executed after an Impedance (EIS) experiment without deleting the EIS data, the LSV
data would be plotted in the EIS graph. This would cause the data/graph to look erratic. That is why only
data will be displayed that is compliant with the active plot. So in the previous example, the EIS data
would be hidden from view after the LSV started. Note that the EIS data is still there. If thereafter
another EIS experiment would be run, the older EIS data would become visible again (and the LSV data
will become hidden).
The display mode always follows the active scan. Previous recorded/loaded scans will only be visible
when these are compliant with the current display mode. Note that this will make it possible to
meaningfully combine results from different techniques in 1 dataset.
When multiple scans are loaded, containing data recorded with different techniques, the hidden ones can
be viewed by mouse-clicking on the scan in the Legend panel, while keeping CTRL pressed. This will
make the clicked scan active, thus redefining the plot "mode".
7.2
Graph options
A right mouse click over the graph will allow the graph options to be selected, resulting in the 2 windows
shown below (3D parameters only show when 3D graph is selected, see Graphic toolbars):
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Title:
X text:
Y text:
Axis Color:
Text Color:
Background color:
Data Bckg Color:
Axis grid:
gradientfill:
draw databg:
Close:
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Type the title that is shown above the graph
Type the title for the x-axis
Type the title for the y-axis
Allows selection of the axis color
Allows selection of the text color
Allows selection of the graph background color
Allows selection of the background color of the plot area (also check box for
"draw databg")
Check box, when checked shows grid in plot area, when unchecked the grid in the
plot area disappears
Check box that allows gradient fill of the background color(s)
Check box, when checked background color for the plot area is enabled, when
unchecked plot area color is disabled
Closes pop-up window
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The 3D parameters are only available for a select number of techniques and data representations, for
example for Z',Z" (Nyquist) plot for impedance data.
7.3
Legend panels
To the right of the Result graph sheet, the legend panels are shown. These panels allow the selection of
particular scans, that can be manipulated/saved/analysed etc. Clicking on a particular scan will make that
scan available for manipulation etc. (it will be highlighted blue, independent of whether the box next to it
is (un)checked).
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Scan panel: recently measured data will be shown here.

Datalabel selector: optionally shows the numerical values of the datapoints in the plot. It is
possible to show only every nth datalabel.

Scanlist: displays a checklistbox of all available scans. Scans can be made (in)visible by
(un)checking the corresponding box. Scans can be selected by clicking them with the mouse,
these will appear blue.

Save data: saves the selected data to disk as *.idf. If none is selected, the most recent is taken
(at the bottom of the list).

Save dataset: saves all listed data to disk in a single file as *.ids.

Delete: deletes the selected data.

Delete all: deletes all listed data, clears the list.

Data appearance: manipulate data appearance of the data: lines/symbols/colors/styles/etc.
When multiple scans are displayed, it is possible that each was measured at different conditions. The
method parameters of each individual scan can be viewed by a right-click of the mouse button while the
mousepointer is on the scan in question in the Legend panel. A form with the corresponding data will pop
up. In this form, it is also possible to edit the Title of this single scan: retype, and press the Change
button.
Additionally, the specific parameters of the selected plot will be copied into the Method parameter panel,
when the CTRL key is pressed while the scan was selected: keep the CTRL key pressed and click on the
scan-name in the Legendpanel.
Note that this will change the active Method parameters. If thereafter Start were pressed, it would start a
scan using the parameters of the selected scan. However the use of the CTRL key should avoid
unintentional modification of the active parameters.
The latter function can also be used after reading a previously recorded Dataset.
Chan panel: when recorded, shows the results of the analog input channels of the peripheral port (when
no analog inputs are entered in the method parameters, this tab will be invisible).

Channel list: displays a checklistbox of all available channels. Channels can be made (in)visible by
(un)checking the corresponding box.
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


Option: manipulate plot appearance: titles/background colors etc..
Data appearance: manipulate appearance of the data: lines/symbols/colors/styles/etc.
Copy: copies plot into clipboard (WMF format)
Olay panel: overlays data from previous measurements.

Overlay list: overlays can be made (in)visible by (un)checking the corresponding box.

Load: loads a datafile (*.idf) that will be overlaid. Multiple files can be overlayed at the same
same by keeping the CTLR or Shift buttons pressed while selecting the files.

Overlay Dataset: loads a complete Dataset file (*.ids) as overlay.

Delete: deletes the selected overlay data.

Delete all: deletes all listed overlays, clears the list.

Data appearance: manipulate data appearance of the overlay data:
lines/symbols/colors/styles/etc.
NB in all 3 panels, all (in-)visible checkboxes can be checked at once by pressing "show all", and
unchecked by pressing "hide all".
Only compliant data is shown
If all loaded and/or generated data would be visible in the Result graph, for example when a Linear
Sweep would be executed after an Impedance (EIS) experiment without deleting the EIS data, the LSV
data would be plotted in the EIS graph. This would cause the data/graph to look erratic. That is why only
data will be displayed that is compliant with the active plot. So in the previous example, the EIS data
would be hidden from view after the LSV started. Note that the EIS data is still there. If thereafter
another EIS experiment would be run, the older EIS data would become visible again (and the LSV data
will become hidden).
The display mode always follows the active scan. Previous recorded/loaded scans will only be visible
when these are compliant with the current display mode. Note that this will make it possible to
meaningfully combine results from different techniques in 1 dataset.
When multiple scans are loaded, containing data recorded with different techniques, the hidden ones can
be viewed by mouse-clicking on the scan while keeping CTRL pressed. This will make the clicked scan
active, thus redefining the plot "mode".
7.4
Data appearance
A right mouse click on the graph or a click on the button at the bottom of the legend panel will make the
data appearance available. This will allow the user to choose the colors for the lines and the
colors/size/appearance of symbols in the graph.
7.5
Graphic toolbars
Above and to the left of the Result graph, two graphic toolbars are shown. These contains a number of
tool buttons, that are visible depending on the data that is present:
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To the left, a vertical toolbar is displayed:

2D/3D/3Di: selects 2- or 3-dimensional presentation. The assignment of the 3rd axis depends on
the result type. I.e. for scan techniques, the 3rd axis equals the scan sequence number, while for
nyquist plots, the 3rd axis equals the frequency. In the latter case the 3rd axis can be forced to
show the sequence number by selecting "3Di".

Zm/Cor: set Zoom or Correction mode. Standard the Zoom mode is selected, in which you can
expand parts of the plot by left-click and drag the mouse cursor. In Correction mode you can
correct erroneous data points:

select the point to be edited with a left-mouse-click

while keeping the left-mouse button pressed, drag the point up or down to the desired location in
the graph

release the mouse-button, and the data point will be updated

Note that the correction tool will change the measured datapoint, and should be used with care.

when the point to be edited is right-mouse clicked, the option to delete the data point appears.
Note that deletion is irreversible. Be sure to save the data before performing this action.

X/Ain/ocp/pre/Q: display a 2nd graph above the primary data graph. Ain = analog inputs, ocp =
OCP data, pre = pretreatment data, Q = integrated current (charge), while X will hide the
secundary data graph.
Each scan may contain so-called "Extra Data", which can be "Peripheral port Analog data", "OCP
data", "Pretreatment data", "Charge data", "Rs"/"Cs" data. Each can be displayed by pressing the
corresponding button on the vertical toolbar, located left from the "Result graph". Normally it
shows only the data that corresponds with the scan that is selected in the Legend panel. Now, if
multiple scans are loaded, the "Extra data" of each scan can be shown at the same time, by
pressing the "All extradata" button located on the Legend panel.
This feature allows comparison of the various data from datasets. For example, the charge plots
for individual Cyclic Voltammetry cycles can be compared.
Q for Mixed Mode: When in the Mixed Mode technique the "Q" button is clicked, this will open the
second graph with and additional bar allowing the display of various extra Energy and Charge
parameters

L/R/2nd: Left/Right twin axis selector. If the double vertical axis presentation is active (i.e. for
impedance measurements), you can select to hide either the left or the right axis, by depressing
L/R. Or you can split the graph into 2 separate plots by pressing "2nd".
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


N/F/B scanned pulse visualization: for the techniques Differential pulse,Square Wave , AC
Voltammetry, Normal Pulse Voltammetry and the Voltammetric Pulse Builder also forward and
backward current can be shown:
N: normal, difference (forward-backward) is shown
F: forward, forward current is shown
B: backward, backward current is shown
On top, a horizontal toolbaar is displayed:

Scale: clicking "Scale" will autoscale the current graph on all axis;

The drop down menu will allow:

Autoscale: performs autoscale on all axis

Scale X axis: scale only the horizontal axis manually or automatically

Scale Y axis: scale only the (left) vertical axis manually or automatically

Scale Z axis: in 3D plots scale only the depth axis manually or automatically, in twin axis plots
scale only the right vertical axis manually or automatically

Invert X axis: will invert X axis (display right to left)

Invert Y axis: will invert Y axis (display top to bottom)

Swap XY axis: will swap X and Y axis

Analysis:

Equivalent circuit: to fit measured impedances with an equivalent circuit

Spectral analysis: will show a pop-up with analysis of impedance data

Corrosion rate: to analyze and calculate corrosionrate from linear polarisation scans

Peakfind automatic: to determine location and height of peaks automatically

Peakfind advanced: to determine location and height of peaks manually and to subtract baseline

Clear peaks: to remove peaks from the screen that were created with Peakfind analysis

Electrochemical noise: to analyse chemical noise results with FFT and/or MEM

Find levels: "level finding" tool for chronopotentiometric data

Solar cell report: complete analysis of a solar cell from FRA experiments

Curve fit: to fit arbitrary polynomials

Electrolysis Report: will analyse and display the passed charge and current

Edit:

Edit data: data smoothing functions, based on Savitzky-Golay or Fourier transformation, and
change data point

Smooth all data: automatically smooths all data according to the prevailing smoothing settings.
(Note: once pressed the raw data is replaced by the smoothed data, so save data before using)

Subtract ohmic drop: to correct by calculation the potential-loss due to the effects of ohmic
resistance on Linear scans and Cyclic Voltammograms

Average scans: automatically averages scans in a dataset

Subtract overlay[1]: subtracts overlay graph from scan graph

Add overlay[1]: adds overlay graph to scan graph

Impedance plot selection: set graphical presentation of impedance data

|Z|, Phi: Bode plot, the absolute impedance is plotted with the left, and the phase angle is plotted
with the right axis

Rs, Cs: the Rs is plotted with the left, and the Cs is plotted with the right axis

Z',Z'': Nyquist plot, impedances-Z'' is plotted vs Z'. In 3D, the frequency is on the depth axis

Y',Y'': Admittances -Y'' is plotted vs Y'. In 3D, the frequency is on the depth axis

Z, freq: the Z' is plotted with the left, and the Z'' is plotted with the right axis

Y,freq: the Y' is plotted with the left, and the Y'' is plotted with the right axis

epsilon: the 10log(e') is plotted with the left, and the 10log(e'') is plotted with the right axis: the
complex permittivity. The permittivity is defined as:

Epsilon = - j * Addmittance / (2*pi*freq * Cap0)

with j the complex variable, freq the frequency, and Cap0 the reference capacity. This reference
capacity equals the capacity of an "empty" cell, and it should be defined by the user. It can be
changed in the Data Options method parameter, on the Electrode tabsheet.

Tan(d): the Tan(delta) is plotted with the left, and the Cs/C0 is plotted with the right axis: the so
called Loss Tangent. The Loss Tangent is defined as the ratio of real and imaginary impedance.

Cole: Cole-plot, the -Y''/w is plotted vs Y'/w

E/I value correction: when in the method parameter "Data options" an offset potential or an
electrode surface area are entered, the graph data can be updated for these values.

Ecor: updata graph for E_corrections*

Idens: updata graph for electrode area (current density)*
*Note that when the Ecor or Idens buttons are checked, the values in the Result data tab will show these
corrected values.
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7.6
Energy and Charge for Mixed Mode
Extra features are available for the Mixed Mode technique, that can be used for example for battery
testing. During Mixed Mode experiments, the Charge and Energy state (for example of a battery) can be
monitored against Time or Cycle number. To access these features click on the "Q" button in the Graphic
toolbar to the left of the Result Graph. The second graph that becomes visible (as before) has now added
to it a new tool bar with labeled buttons. To select the display parameter click on the relevant button:

Q/t: Charge vs. time

C%/t: (Capacity/Nominal Capacity) * 100% vs. time

P/t: Power vs. time

U/t: Energy (U) vs. time (integrated P/t plot)

Q%/cls: (Q_discharge/Q_charge) * 100% vs. Cycle nr.

U%/cls: (U_discharge/U_charge) * 100% vs. Cycle nr.

C%/cls: (Capacity_discharge/Nominal Capacity) * 100% vs Cycle nr.

Uc/cls: U_charge vs Cycle nr.
The Nominal (battery) Capacity is a user defined parameter in the method parameter Data
Options/Electrode, in Coulombs. Note that 1mAh=3.6C. The numerical data vs. time, can be
viewed/exported from the Result Data tab sheet, using the Extended Data option.
For plots against Cycle nr., it is necessary to have each cycle loaded as individual scan. Check "Cycle
separate" in the method parameters. By default the plots are only updated after a click on the
corresponding button. Optionally, the plots can be updated automatically in real time while a scan is in
progress, by checking "Automatic charge calc." in the menu "Options/Settings".
7.7
Graph pop-up menu
When the mouse is hovered over the Result graph window and the right-mouse-button is pressed, a popup window appears:
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









7.8
Autoscale: performs autoscale on all axis
Graph options: manipulates plot appearance: titles, background colors, etc.
Data appearance: manipulate appearance of the data: lines/symbols/colors/styles/etc.
Scale X axis: scale the horizontal axis manually or automatically
Scale Y axis: scale the (left) vertical axis manually or automatically
Scale Z axis: in 3D plots scale the depth axis manually or automatically, in twin axis plots scale
only the right vertical axis manually or automatically
Copy graph: copies graph to clipboard
Print graph: send graph directly to printer. The standard Windows printer-dialog will appear at
which the printer & properties can be selected.
Set phase: opens a window to change the phase for phase sensitive AC voltammetry.
CV plots: opens a separate graph where data for cyclic voltammograms can be represented by
users choice: I vs E, I vs time, E vs time; a right mouse click will allow this graph to be
copied/printed:
Scaling and zooming
Standard, plots are autoscaled. When a new datapoint is recorded that is outside the present graphical
range, the scaling is adjusted to include the new point.
It is possible to override this behaviour:
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

manually scale X/Y/Z axis: over the graph press the right-mouse button and choose the axis, or
use the scale option from the graphic toolbar.
zooming: left-click the mouse on the graph, keep button pressed, and move over de area to be
expanded. When the leftmouse button is released, the enclosed area is expanded to full scale.
It is always possible to restore automatic scaling, either with the right-mouse button to activate the
Graph pop-up menu, or clicking the scale button on the graphic toolbar.
7.9
Result data sheet
Here the results are shown in numerical form.
The top toolbar contains 2 buttons: Refresh and Export. Refresh updates the displayed data, and Export
opens dropdown list with options for data export:

Copy all to clipboard: places all numerical data from the grid into the clipboard

Copy selected to clipboard: places the selected numerical data from the grid into the clipboard.

Save all to disk: saves all the numerical data from the grid into the clipboard

Save selected to disk: saves selected numerical data from the grid into the clipboard

Save all in separate files: will save the data from each scan in a separate file

The data is formatted as shown in the grid, thus as characters. Note that non-visual digits are
lost, and it is advisable to set the appropriate units first.





Show data: defines which data is shown:
selected data: shows only data that is selected in the Scan panel. Usually this is the most recent
scan.
all data: shows all data that is listed in the Scan panel; when the "sequentially" box is ticked, the
data will be shown sequentially (head to tail) in one column
extended dataset: shows the selected scan, together with the data from the external analog
inputs.
OCP values: when an OCP measurement is selected, this will show the numerical OCP data; these
can be subsequently copied and exported.
Current units: set the format of the displayed current values.
Potential units: set the format of the displayed potential values.
Time units: set the format of the displayed time values.
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Impedance: select the parameters of impedance data to be shown (checking Edc,Idc will display the dc
values of E and I during the impedance scan).
Format:

Scientific notification: when the box is ticked the values in the table are shown in scientific
notation with a 2 digit exponent; this is especially useful when small values are shown since by
default only 4 digits are displayed.

CorMon LSV: When this box is checked the LSV data belonging to a Corrosion Rate Monitoring
experiment can be viewed in the table in the Result data tab. (This checkbox will only work if
Corrosion Rate Monitor data available).
7.10 E scan sheet
When an impedance scan is carried out, the "E scan" tab will show next to the "Result graph" and "Result
data" sheet. This will allow impedance data to be plotted and evaluated. Also Mott-Schottky analysis can
be done here.
7.11 Clipboard functions
Graphs can be stored on the clipboard, to be transferred to other applications, such as WORD or EXCEL.
The graphic data is stored as WMF: windows meta file, which is vector based and can be resized without
losses.
To place a graph in the clipboard, move the mouse above the plot, right-click and select Copy. Or use the
Copy function on the graphic toolbar above the plot, when available.
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Numerical data can also be stored on the clipboard, to be copied to other applications. The data is stored
as text characters in columns, separated by TAB-delimiters, and rows are separate by CR-delimiters. This
is the basic format for applications as WORD or EXCEL, and transfer goes 1:1.
To place numerical data in the clipboard, use the toolbar above the numerical grid (Result data sheet).
7.12 Edit
In the graphic toolbar "Edit" will open a dropdown menu that allows the operator to execute a number of
data manipulations:

Edit data: will allow the operator to smooth data, or change an individual datapoint

Smooth all data: will automatically smooth data

Subtract ohmic drop: will allow ohmic drop compensation when resistance is known

Average scans: will automatically average scans in the Scan-panel

Subtract overlay: will subtract overlay scan from the one Scan-panel

Add overlay: will add overlay scan to the one in Scan-panel
7.12.1 Edit data
Edit data allows the operator to smooth data or edit (=change) a data point. This can be activated from
the graphic toolbar. The selected data to be manipulated will be shown in a different smoothing dialog
window. After smoothing is completed and accepted by the operator, the original data is replaced.
On the left of the smoothing dialog window 3 tabsheets are shown from which the data editing process is
controlled:

Smooth

FFTsmooth

Change point
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Generally with smoothing data, if the noise is non-frequency-specific, the general smoothing gives better
results. However when noise is concentrated in specific fequency bands, such as 50/60Hz, the Fourier
variant works better.
Smooth
The Smooth tab sheet gives access to Savitzky-Golay smoothing and spike rejection. Savitzky-Golay
smoothing will process the data by using a moving window that interpolates each point using the position
of neighboring datapoints. The algorithm calculates a quadratic fit and shifts the center point to the
modeled position. The smoothing effect is stronger when more points are used: 5/11/25.
Spike rejection uses an algorithm that detects spikes, and when detected interpolates these. The
algorithm uses 2 points on either side to decide whether a datapoint is a spike.
FFTsmooth
On the FFTsmooth tab sheet, smoothing based on Fourier frequency analysis is executed. When this
sheet is activated, 2 graphs appear: the original data and the Fourier transform. The original data is
recalculated to the corresponding time-transient, to calculate the proper frequencies. For example Linear
PotentialSweep data, is recalculated to current vs time (from current vs E).
In the frequency plot, the most abundant frequencies are visible. Usuallly a peak is visible at the 50/60
Hz line frequency, and possibly its multiples. This can be removed by either using the "Low pass filter" or
the "Band reject filter".
For the Low pass, set the cutoff frequency and press apply. Set the cutoff frequency low enough to
remove the noise, but not too low that data is deformed.
For the Bandreject, set the cutoff frequency, the Bandwidth and press apply. It is also possible to remove
the higher harmonics by checking that option: this will repeat the bandfilter at all multiples of the cutoff
frequency.
Change point
In the Change point tab sheet it is possible to change individual data points. Activate the mouse editor,
left click on the data point to be changed and drag it to its desired vertical position.
7.12.2 Smooth all data
From the Edit menu, select: "Smooth all", and all presently loaded scans will automatically be smoothed,
and spikes are removed. This is done by Savitzky Golay smoothing, using a sliding polynomial of default
11 points. This number may be modified in the Edit data screen. Every time the "Smooth all" function is
activated, the data will be smoothed again; this can be applied repeatedly.
7.12.3 Subtract ohmic drop
The potential-loss due to the effects of ohmic resistance on Linear scans and Cyclic Voltammograms can
be corrected by calculation. If the resistance is known, the ohmic drop can be calculated from the product
with measured current. The real applied potential can thus be calculated.
First select the scan to be processed, and from the Edit menu, select : "Subtract ohmic drop". A window
will popup, at which the resistance should be entered. Clicking "Apply" will process the selected scan.
7.12.4 Average scans
The operator can average scans. In the graphic toolbar select the Edit menu>Average scans. Clicking this
option will automatically average all scans in the Scan panel.
7.12.5 Subtract overlay
With this function the operator can subtract the scan in the Overlay panel from the scans in the Scan
panel. Note that this function can be applied repeatedly: each time it is activated the overlay will be
subtracted from the scans.
The scan to be subtracted should be saved as a normal datafile (*.idf) and loaded as the first overlay.
After recording the new scan, you can select Subtract Overlay from the Edit menu. The overlay will be
subtracted from all scans. However, it only works for datafiles with identical structure: same Estart,
Estep, Vtx1, Vtx2.
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The Subtract overlay function also works with (identical) datafiles loaded from memory into the scan and
overlay panels.
7.12.6 Add overlay
With this function the operator can add the scan in the Overlay panel to the scans in the Scan panel. Note
that this function can be applied repeatedly: each time it is activated the overlay will be added to the
scans.
The scan to be added should be saved as a normal datafile (*.idf) and loaded as the first overlay. After
recording the new scan, you can select Add Overlay from the Edit menu. The overlay will be added to all
scans. However, it only works for datafiles with identical structure: same Estart, Estep, Vtx1, Vtx2.
The Add overlay function also works with (identical) datafiles loaded from memory into the scan and
overlay panels.
7.13 Analysis
The graphic toolbar "Analysis" will open a dropdown menu that allows the operator to execute a number
of analysis options. These analysis options are only available when relevant to the data in memory:

Equivalent circuit: equivalent circuit analysis for impedance measurements

Corrosion rate: analysis of corrosion rate for LSV

Peakfind automatic: will automatically draw peaks

Peakfind advanced: will allow operator to identify and analyse peaks

Clear peaks: will clear peaks that were drawn earlier from peakfind

Electrochemical noise: will allow analysis of electrochemical noise data

Find levels: allows operator to identify and analyse levels

SolarcellReport: will automatically create a solar cell report of the available data in memory

Curve fit: will allow curve fit analysis

Electrolysisreport: will automatically create an electrolysis report of the available data in memory
7.13.1 Equivalent circuit analysis
The IviFIT equivalent circuit fit module can be started from the Analysis dropdown menu on the Graphic
toolbar. After selecting "Equivalent circuit" the IviFIT module is opened in a new window:
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1). TOP MENU
File




load fitresult: loads a previously saved model, including the parameter values.
save fitresult: saves current model, including the fitted parameter values (if available).
load Zplot data: imports a datafile produced with the Zplot program
save as Zplot file: exports a datafile so this can be read by the Zplot program





copy graph: copy current graph to clipboard
copy fit parameters: copy fit parameters to clipboard
Swap Z for Y: changes Z into Y in plot
copy simulated: copies simulated data to measurement result
Subtract as parallel components: subtract the entered equivalent circuit off the data as parallel
components to analyse remaining data
Subtract as series components: subtract the entered equivalent circuit off the data as series
components to analyse remaining data
Edit

Options

Fitting options:

Optimize: select which measured parameter should be used to fit best on the theoretical model:
Z1andZ2/Zabs/Z1/Z2/phase.

Error weight

equal for each point: to minimize the absolute errors

proportional to absolute impedance: to minimize the errors relative to measurement accuracy

proportional to value: to minimize the relative errors

allow negative values: whether components R/C/etc can have negative values
Fit parameter defaults and constraints:
The user can set boundaries for the fit-able parameters: the default values for the parameter types, and
their allowable limits, can be set. These will be applied as starting values for newly created circuit
parameters. The boundaries can also be individually edited after circuit creation in the actual parameter
grid.
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2). COMPONENT GRID
On the left middle, the graphical equivalent circuit editor grid is shown. It contains a toolbar with the
selectable electrical components:

R: resistor

C: capacitor

W: Warburg (diffusion impedance)

Q: Constant Phase Element (CPE)

L: inductance

T: hyperbolic tangent

O: hyperbolic cotangent

G: Gerisher impedance
: horizontal conductor

del: delete element, to remove components from the circuit
To place a new element, click the desired component on the element toolbar and drop it on the desired
location in the grid. Components can be removed with the del-element. Vertical conductors are placed
automatically between upper and lower neighbors. Where this is not wanted, maintain an empty row
between elements. Horizontal conductors are placed after selecting the "-" element. When editing is
finished, press "Accept" and the components are named, and the CDC expression is evaluated.
When "Apply" is pressed the model will be implemented in the fitting engine, the fit-able components and
parameters are shown in the parameter grid below.
Instead of entering the circuit manually, a Model can be entered manually in the "Model" field.
Alternatively, predefined circuits might be loaded (load fitresult), or be selected from the dropdownlist in
the CDC field.
3). SUGGEST CIRCUIT
Below and to the right of the component grid is the "Suggest Circuit" button. When the equivalent circuit
is not known, the Ivium Software can suggest a circuit that would fit the data the best. This is done by
internally evaluating several standard circuits, and comparing fit quality. At this time only combinations
of R,L and C are included.
4). COMPONENT and PARAMETER LIST
Below the Component Grid is the component and parameter list. After the equivalent circuit has been
constructed and Accepted, in this list the components and their values will be listed. These show a default
value until the fit has been executed.
In the Component list:

Par: Name of the parameter, the symbol R/C/etc. and the sequence number corresponding to
the Component grid and the CDC expression

Fixed: When checked, this parameter will not be changed by the fitting engine (not fitted) and
the shown value will be used.

Value: Before the fit this shows the (default) start value. This value can be changed/entered
manually before the Fit is applied. If "Fixed" is checked it will not be changed during the fit; if
"Fixed" is unchecked this value will be taken as start value for the Fitting if the "User defined
Startvalues" box is checked. This value will be updated during fitting and contains the end value
after fitting is complete.

Error: Calculates the error of the fitted parameter; is only calculated after fitting is completed

Unit: Unit in which the parameter is listed, Ohm/F/etc.
At the bottom is a check box for User defined Startvalues:
The IviFIT modeling tool is capable of generating its own starting values. This is convenient for the user,
and it obtains better endresults. Therefore by default the starting values are automatically generated.
Optionally, the user can still apply their own starting values by checking "User defined Startvalues" and
entering the start Value in the parameter list.
5). FITTING
To the right of the IviFIT window is the Result window.
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Graph
In the Graph window the data points of the scan in memory are shown. These can be Rescaled and
Represented from the toolbar above the graph:

Rescale: Will scale the graph back to automatic scaling after the user has zoomed in.

2D/3D: Representation in 2D/3D (only available for Nyquist representation).

Option: Opens the Graph options.

Data: Opens the Data appearance.

|Z|, Phi: Bode plot

Rs, Cs: Rs and Cs vs. frequency

Z',Z": Nyquist plot

Y',Y": Admittance plot

errors: |Z| and Phi errors vs. frequency

KKtest: Data can be validated by means of the Kramers Kronig test. When you press the "KKtest"
button, the KK plot will be generated.

Time: Time respons modulator:

Time responses can be calculated from the equivalent circuit. Equivalent circuits are normally
modeled from the Z vs. frequency relation. However from any equivalent circuit, the E&I vs. time
relation can be reconstructed also. This might be useful for educational purposes, or verification
of particular measurements in the time domain. It can be selected by clicking the "Time" button.
There is a choice between various potential perturbations: SquareWave, Cosine, Impulse, Sweep,
Sine, Step, Triangle. These perturbations can be applied either in potentiostatic mode (: apply E
and measure I), or in galvanostatatic mode (: apply I and measure E).
For SquareWave, Cosine, Sine and Triangle, also the frequency can be chosen.
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It is possible to transform the axis, evaluate the time dependence of the signals: see the indicated
example above for the linear relation of the Logarithmic decay of the impulse response on an RC
network.
Graphic selection of Fitting range

Fit from: The range of data that is included in the Fit; by default the full data range is included in
the fit. However, by clicking on the datapoints in the graph, an alternative fit range can be
chosen; the data points included in the fit are marked as blue squares. The data points included
in the fit are given in these fields. Alternatively the data points to be included in the fit can be
entered in these fields manually by index number of the datapoint.
Fit
[Fit]
[Simulate]
[Accept]
[Cancel]
Click this button to run the Fit.
Will draw the impedance curve using the present equivalent circuit and the parameter
values in the parameter list.
Closes the equivalent circuit fit module. The present model and parametervalues will be
included in the data file. When the equivalent circuit fit module is started again with this
data, the same results will be shown.
Closes the equivalent circuit fit module without saving the results. The present model and
parameter values will not be included in this data.
The calculated parameters for the equivalent circuit can be exported from the Equivalent circuit
calculator. From the Edit menu, choose "Copy fit parameters". This will place the results in the clipboard,
to be exported to other applications.
Data
On the





Data tabsheet of the "Equivalent circuit calculator", the numerical data can be accessed:
Phi |Z|: phase/impedance data
Z' Z": complex impedance data
"Phi |Z| model": will display the modelled numerical phase/impedance data
"Z' Z'' model": will display the modelled numerical complex impedance data
"Copy data": will copy the currently displayed data into the clipboard.
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7.13.2 Kramers Kronig
Data acquired with an impedance measurement can be validated by means of the Kramers Kronig test:
In the Result graph window, above the graph select from the Analysis drop down list the Equivalent
circuit analysis. In the pop-up window, above the graph click on the button "KKtest". The KK plot will be
generated in the graph window of the Equivalent circuit evaluator.
7.13.3 Time Respons from Equivalent Circuit
Time response reconstruction from the Equivalent circuit:
In the Result graph window, above the graph select from the Analysis drop down list the Equivalent
circuit analysis. In the pop-up window, above the graph click on the button "Time".
Time responses can be calculated from the equivalent circuit. Equivalent circuits are normally modeled
from the Z vs. frequency relation. However from any equivalent circuit, the E&I vs. time relation can be
reconstructed also. This might be useful for educational purposes, or verification of particular
measurements in the time domain. It can be selected by clicking the "Time" button. There is a choice
between various potential perturbations: SquareWave, Cosine, Impulse, Sweep, Sine, Step, Triangle.
These perturbations can be applied either in potentiostatic mode (: apply E and measure I), or in
galvanostatatic mode (: apply I and measure E).
For SquareWave, Cosine, Sine and Triangle, also the frequency can be chosen.
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It is possible to transform the axis, evaluate the time dependence of the signals: see the indicated
example above for the linear relation of the Logarithmic decay of the impulse response on an RC
network.
7.13.4 Spectral analysis
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7.13.5 Corrosion analysis
The corrosion rate analysis can be applied on data from, for example, a Linear Sweep experiment or a
Corrosion experiment such as Polarization Resistance or Tafel Plot. The analysis can be started from the
Analysis dropdown menu on the Graphic toolbar. This will open a pop-up:
Material constants
At the top left of the window the material constants of the studied electrode can be entered. These can
be entered manually or copied from the Data options (method parameter) by clicking on the button
"Copy values from Data Options". The material constants will be used in the calculation of the corrosion
data.
Tafel slopes
The Tafel slopes for the Polarization resistance analysis can be entered. By default the generally accepted
approximation values of 0.1 V/decade are suggested. Other values can be entered manually or copied
from the Data options (method parameter) by clicking on the button "Copy values from Data Options".
Parameter result table
To the middle left is the table that shows the calculated values after the analysis. The table will be
populated after the analysis is done, for the each of the analysis approaches. Note that for the Pol.Res
analysis, ba and bc are not relevant, and thus not given.
E. corr V
i cor. A
I cor. A/cm^2
Rp Ohm
ba V/dec
bc V/dec
C. Rate mm/y
Corrosion potential (E at log(I)=0); unit = V
Corrosion current; unit = A
Corrosion current density; unit = A/cm^2
Corrosion resistance; unit = Ohm
Calculated anodic activity; unit = V/dec
Calculated cathodic activity; unit = V/dec
Calculated corrosion rate of the material; unit = mm/y or mpy. This unit can be changed
in the menu Options > Datahandling Options in the Content tab.
Analysis
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To the



bottom left 3 types of analysis are available:
Slope analysis: the corrosion potential and Rp are calculated at the zero current intersection point
Tafel analysis: the corrosion parameters are calculated from the 2 Tafel lines
Model analysis: the corrosion parameters are calculated with a numerical analysis of the available
data
By default the box for Automatic analysis is checked.
Clicking on any of the analysis buttons will execute the automatic analysis and calculate the results.
Clicking on all 3 options will yield independent results and the various results can be compared.
If desired it is also possible to manually set the markers for the various analyses: uncheck the box for
"Automatic analysis" and follow the instructions for setting the markers. The markers can be set
repeatedly and the analysis repeated.
Note that the Tafel analysis is based on simplifications that do not always apply. For instance one must
have data over a very wide potential range on either side of the corrosion potential, which is often not
available. The Model analysis usually gives the most reliable result.
[Clear results] Will clear the analysis results
[Copy results] Places the parameter result table on the clipboard
[Exit]
Exits the Corrosion Analysis window
Minimize logarithmic errors: checking this box will minimize logarithmic errors during the analysis.
Graph
[Linear]/[Log]
[i vs E]/E vs i]
[Copy plot]
[Rescale]
The result graph to the right is plotted linear by default, but it can be plotted
logarithmically by clicking the "Log" button above the graph. Note that when Tafel and
Model analysis are done, the result graph automatically switches to logarithmic view.
Depending on your preference it is possible to plot the results "i vs E" or E vs i" by
clicking on the corresponding buttons above the graph.
Will put the result graph in the clipboard for copying.
Will revert the graph back to automatic scaling after you have zoomed in.
Potential range markers: These fields will indicate the E-value of the markers for each analysis after
these have been set.
[Clear]
Will clear the markers.
7.13.6 Peakfinding and baseline correction
The IviumSoft program contains an integrated "peak finding" tool. It is accessible from the Analysis
menu, via the options: Peakfind automatic and Peakfind advanced. The automatic option will execute the
peak-search automatically with a single click. The advanced option will allow the operator to manipulate
the automatic peak-search parameters, or manually add/remove peaks, subtract baselines and process
the results.
The advanced tool also contains a baseline corection option, as wel as the option to manually add/remove
peaks.
7.13.7 Peakfind automatic
This will automatically find and draw the peaks.
Note that the peakfind parameters can be modified in the advanced tool.
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7.13.8 Peakfind advanced
Pressing the Peakfind advanced, will open an extra window that contains:

Automatic peak find tool, and its editable parameters.

Manual peak addition tool.

Peak results list, and peak removal functions

Baseline subtraction options
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Graphical presentation of the data with found/added peaks drawn in: Automatic peakfind example with
whole peak and 1st derivative selected
The automatic peak find tool is located on the top left panel. It has an 'execute search button':
"Automatic peak find", and below that a list of parameters that will be applied during automatic search
actions:
Construct from: whole peak / front flank / rear flank
Selecting whole peak will construct a full peak, while front flank will only use the rising part of the peak,
and rear flank only the descending flank. Whole peak is best suited for peaks with clearly defined flanks
and horizontal baselines. Front peak is appropriate when the tail of the peak is "smeared out", or has a
steep baseline, or is close to the scan boundaries, as is often the case in Cyclic Voltammetry.
Find Method: 1st derivative / 2nd derivative
Selects the control variable for the method that is used by the algorithm that determines where peaks
start and end. The 1st derivative method is more sensitive to small peaks, but only works well when the
baseline is (nearly) horizontal. The 2nd derivative technique can cope with sloped baselines, as is often
the case for fast scan techniques, as Linear Sweep or Cyclic Voltammetry.
Height mode: proportional / absolute
Refers to the minimum height.
Minimum height: in absolute height mode it defines the absolute minimum height for a peak, while in
proportional mode, it defines the minimum fraction from the maximum value in the whole scan.
Width mode: proportional / absolute
Refers to the minimum width.
Minimum width: in absolute width mode it defines the absolute minimum width for a peak, while in
proportional mode, it defines the minimum fraction from the range of the scan.
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Sensitivity: number of consecutive points that must fulfill the begin & end criteria for a peak to be
accepted. A higher number usually expands the peak
Smoothing: Apply smoothing on the data from which the peaks are to be determined. Use higher levels
(more points) on noisy data. Note that the underlying data will not be changed.
Convert result: When activated, a multipcation factor and unit can be entered. The charge is multiplied
by the "*factor" and the calculated result is given in the last column of table below the graph. The "unit"
of the calculated result is determined by the factor and can be edited by the user.
Automatic peakfind example with front-flank and 2nd derivative selected
Peaksearch parameters are stored: When peak search parameters are changed by the operator,
these become the default values, which are applied to all subsequent peak-finding actions. When a
datafile that contains peakresults is stored, also the used peak search parameters are included in that
datafile. When such a datafile is loaded at a later time, it may thus contain peak search parameters that
could be different from the active default values. However if all peaks are cleared in this dataset, the
default search parameters will be applied on subsequent search actions.
Manual peak addition tool: Peaks can be added manually by first marking (left-mouse-click) the
desired locations in the graph, and thereafter pressing the Add marked peak button. Peaks can be added
either from 2 marks or from 3 marks. When 3 markers are set, these are taken as the beginpoint,
toppoint, and the endpoint of the peak. When 2 markers are set, these are taken as the beginpoint and
the endpoint of the peak, while the top is determined automatically.
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When Cyclic Voltammograms are edited, the checkbox must be checked before markers on the reverse
scan can be set.
Note that manual addition works independent of the peak search parameters, and always whole peaks
are added.
Baseline subtraction: Sometimes it is convenient to remove the baseline before the peak-analysis is
executed. To activate the baseline subtraction tool, select the "Baseline subtract" tabsheet.
Example of baseline subtraction with a 6th order polynomial
The operator should use left-mouse clicks to set anchor-points (markers) to which the baseline is fitted.
The software will recalculate the baseline automatically after the addition of each anchor-point, unless
this is disabled with the indicated checkbox. There is no limit to the number of anchor-points. When the
projected baseline is satisfactory, press <subtract baseline>, and the data correction will be applied.
Please note that this procedure will change the underlying data, and prior calculated peakdata will be
cleared.
Two baseline types are available:

Polynomial: 1st order corresponds to linear, 2nd to parabolic, etc.

Exponential: the sum of exponents of increasing order, up to the indicated value.
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The baseline order can be set from 1 to 6. However the order will always be lower than the number of
data points, for example on 3 anchor-points the baseline order is limited to 2.
For Cyclic Voltammograms, forward and reverse scan baselines have to be subtracted separately. Use the
"mark CV reverse scan" checkbox to select each branch.
Figure a: baseline determination of CV forward scan
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Figure b: baseline determination of CV reverse scan
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Figure c: CV after baseline subtraction
7.13.9 Clear peaks
In the graphic toolbar selecting the menu item "Analysis" > "Clear peaks" will allow the operator to
remove peaks from the graph that have previously been drawn by the Peakfind automatic or Peakfind
advanced options.
7.13.10
Electrochemical noise analysis
The software can evaluate the recorded results of electrochemical noise experiments. It is possible to
perform:

Time domain analysis

Frequencydomain analysis

Baseline removal
Time domain analysis
In addition to the possibility to analyze ElectroChemical Noise (ECN) data in the frequency domain
(Fourier, MEMS, etc.), also the time domain transients can be evaluated directly. On the "Time domain
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analysis" tabsheet of the Electrochemical Noise Analysis tool, both the E and I data can be analyzed, in
segments over time: the full length of the ECN E or I data is divided into segments of user defined
duration, to which the selected analysis is applied. The segment-results are plotted vs. time.
Several analysis are available:

Inoise Std.dev: standard deviation of the current signal

Enoise Std.dev: standard deviation of the potential signal

Rp: Enoise Std.dev / Inoise Std.dev

Pitting index: Inoise Std.dev / mean current

E transients: number of E transients* in each segment.

I transients: number of I transients* in each segment.
*A transient (or peak) is counted when its absolute difference from the "average segment value" exceeds
the defined threshold. Note that consecutive points that exceed the threshold do not increase the
transient (or peak)-count. These are assumed to belong to the same transient.
Enter the segment size.
Enter the I and E thresholds (above these thresholds the data point will register, below these thersholds
the data point will not be ignored).
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The selected time analysis is performed by clicking the "calculate" button. The results are shown in the
graph, which can be copied by right-clicking on the plot and selecting "Copy". The numerical results can
be copied with the "Copy data" button, and can be pasted into other applications (Excel, etc.) in the usual
manner.
Frequency domain analysis
The "Frequency-domain"analysis offers 2 methods to calculate frequency spectra:

Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT): straightforward transformation

Maximum Entropy Method (MEM): alternative method to calculate the frequency spectra using a
finite number of coefficients. MEM yields more smooth spectra, if less coefficients are used. If the
number is increased, the MEM result converges to the FFT curve.
Evaluation of noise data with FFT (black) and MEM (red). Data was recorded by TNO, Den Helder, The
Netherlands
MEMS coefficients: MEM yields more smooth spectra, if less coefficients are used. If the number is
increased, the MEM result converges to the FFT curve.
Because FFT and MEM are affected by the so-called "leakage effect", it is advisable to use a Windowing
function. A choice of 5 different Window functions is provided:

Bartlett
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



Welch
Hann
Hamming
Blackman
For data filtering a low pass filter is available.
The filter function can be applied by checking "Apply". The frequency and the order can be set by the
user. The frequency will correspond with the cut-off frequency: at which half the signal magnitude is
attenuated. The order gives the "slope" of the filter: 1st order = 20dB/decade, 2nd order=40dB/decade,
etc. Clickin on "Calculate" at the bottom of the window will recalculate the results for the low-pass filter.
[Subtract baseline]: If the data contains a dc-drift, it can be removed by checking the "Subtract baseline"
box. This will construct a baseline between 1st and last point, which is subtracted from the dataset before
transformation. A more extensive option to remove a baseline or trends from the data is available in the
"Baseline remove" tab. To do so, check the box and click "Calculate"
[Calculate Rnoise]: To calculate the R_noise, check the box and click "Calculate". A third graph will
appear at the bottom of the window showiung the calculate Rnoise data.
Baseline remove
In the "Baseline remove" tab the dc-base line can be removed. The order of the polynomial baseline is
selectable from 1st (linear) to 9th order. Clicking the "Apply" button will subtract the baseline from both
the Potential and Current data. Subsequent time-domain and Frequency-domain analysis will use the
corrected data. After the ECN Analysis tool is closed, the original data is also changed, and corrected
curves can be saved thereafter.
For details about the mathematical background, contact Ivium Technologies.
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ECN data before baseline subtraction
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ECN data after baseline subtraction
7.13.11
Find levels
The IviumSoft program contains an integrated "level finding" tool for chronopotentiometric data. It is
accessible from the Analysis menu, via the option: "Level Find". This will open a window where the
operator can execute the tool, manipulate level-search parameters, and process the results.
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Pressing the <Find> button will execute the search. The results are shown in the graph and written to the
table below the graph. On the left, parameters can be altered before a "find" is done:

Search for: plateau (only option for now, enhancements possible upon request).

Threshold slope: set detectionpoint for a level

Minimum separation: minimum distance between 2 results

Value reference: absolute/differential; for absolute all results are referenced to time=0 , for
differential, relative subsequent result-values are referenced from the preceeding found result.

Convert result: On/Off; normally (Off) the timevalue is taken as the result, alternatively this
option can be checked (On) at which the result can be converted to another value. The following
sub-properties can be defined:

factor: resultvalue is multiplied by a definable constant, deault = 1

time: On/Off; when checked the result is multiplied by time

charge: On/Off; when checked the result is multiplied by charge

unit text: textual value that is written behind the result value

Smoothing none/5/11/25: integrated Savitzky-Golay smoothing that is applied before each find
option, to be used for noisy data. Selecting more smoothing points will result in stronger
smoothing.
When parameters are changed, these are automatically stored in the configuration file (IviumSoft.ict),
thus these are always copied from a previous session.
Results can be copied to for example to WORD/EXCEL with the "Copy results" button (numerical data) or
the "Copy graph" button (graph).
When a datafile is saved after an analysis is executed, the analysis results are stored in the file (*.idf).
7.13.12
Solar cell report
The Ivium instruments and IviumSoft are equiped to carry out experiments to characterize solar cells, for
example in combination with a light source such as the Ivium ModuLight. When the relevant
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measurements are carried out, a Solar cell report can be created by selecting in the graphic toolbar:
"Analysis" > "SolarcellReport". This will open a pop-up window where by choice a basic (basic model) or
more elaborate (including Rs, Rp) model can be executed. After entering the cell area and light intensity,
clicking the "Calculate" button will result in all the relevant parameters of the solar cell, given in the
"Analysis results" window.
Top left: Select model

Basic model: model based on simple diode

include Rs, Rp: model based on diode with series and parallel resistors

direct (no model): does not rely on any model, directly calculates the solar variables, by finding
the shortcut current/Open cell potential/Pmax/etc. by iteration over the data:
Solar cell fitting equations
(1) I = Isc - AA * ( exp(BB*V) - 1 ) -V/Rp
with:
(2) V = E + I * Rs
I
E
V
Isc
AA
BB
total current
total potential
internal potential across solar cell (= excluding potentialdrop over Rs)
shortcut photocurrent (V=0)
saturation current
exponential constant related to ideality factor
Note that equation (1) and (2) cannot be solved by simple calculation. IviumSoft uses the LevenMarquard method of nonlinear fitting, by iterative minimizing the sum of quadratic deviations from the
experimental E/I data with the model.
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7.13.13
Curve fit
A tool to fit arbitrary polynomials can be accessed from the Analysis menu in the graphic toolbar.
Choosing this option will open a pop-up window where a curve analysis can be carried out.
First select the curve to be analysed in the Legend panel (highlight it in Blue), then from the Analysis
drop down select Curve fit:
At the top-left the projection can be chosen based on the available variables: potential, current, time, Z1,
Z2, frequency, etc.
Below that a check box allows the X and Y axes to be switched.
For both the horizontal and vertical axes the transformation can be chosen from the drop down menu:
Below that the constant value 'k' and a multiplying factor can be entered.
At the top above the graph:
[ReScale]:
[Graph options]:
[Copy graph]:
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Will rescale back to automatic scaling, for example after having zoomed in on the
graph (zoom in by selecting an area with your mouse)
Opens the Graph options pop-up
Copies graph to clipboard
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[Copy results]:
[Zoom fitrange]:
Copies calculated results to clipboard
Will zoom into the area between the selected fit range markers
Below the graph:
[Click mouse to set fit range]: When checked you can click your mouse in teh graph on the first and last
data point between which you wish the fit to be done. The read-out windows show the x-asis value for
the selected data points.
To the right of the graph are 3 tabs:
Polyn
In the Polyn tab you can select the order of the polynomial fit you wish to be done on the data from the
drop down list. Clicking on "Apply fit" will execute the fit and show the relevant parameters in the read
out window below. Below the read out window clicking on "Subtract fit" will subtract the fitted polynomial
from the data. Clicking "Restore" will restore the original graph.
Stats
In the Stats tab, clicking on "Calculate" will calculate the statistical parameters of the data and display
these in the read out window below.
Transf
In the Transf tab the data can be treated:
Smooth: will apply smoothing to the data
Integrate: will integrate the data
Differentiate: will differentiate the data.
7.13.14
Electrolysis report
From the Analysis menu in the graphic toolbar, an Electrolysis report can be generated. It will display the
passed charge and current. Also it will report the numerical values for "Total Charge" and "Netto Charge".
The "Netto Charge" is defined as the "Total Charge" corrected for the "Baseline Current", which is taken
to be equal to the "End current".
Note that this analysis can be used in combination with the Mixed-Mode technique, where in
Potentiostatic mode the "Until fraction" parameter can be used to complete electrolysis.
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7.14 Mott-Schottky analysis
Mott-Schottky: After an impedance scan technique, on the Escan tabsheet Mott-Schottky can be selected.
Automatically the slope and intercept are calculated, using Linear regression. The results appear in a
table below the graph. If the selected potential range is decreased, the non-selected potentials are
excluded from the calculation.
The results may be copied with the Copy button (Excel format).
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Example of Mott-Schottky plots at various frequencies from measurements on a diode
7.15 Current density graphs
All plots that show current can be plotted as current density. When the [Idens] button on the Graphic
Toolbar is pressed, the data will be divided by the specified surface area. The plot axis text will change to
"Current density" and the recalculated data is shown.
The surface area can be specified by selecting the "Data Options" method parameter, and the "Electrode"
tab sheet. The specified area will be saved in the method file and in the datafile.
Usually the area is specified before the measurement is executed. However it is possible to change the
area afterwards: first select the scan, and in "Data Options" press apply to selected data (re-save when
necessary).
Note that the original data is not changed. Releasing the [Idens] button will show the total current again.
7.16 Reference potential graphs
All plots that show potential can be automatically corrected to refer to an offset potential or various
reference electrodes. When the [Ecor] button on the Graphic toolbar is pressed, the potential axis will be
automatically corrected for the selected offset or reference electrode. The plot x-axis text will change to
"Potential" and the recalculated data is shown.
The potential correction can be specified by selecting the "Data Options" method parameter, and the
"Ecorrections" tab sheet. The values will be saved in the method file and in the datafile.
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Usually the correction is specified before the measurement is executed. However it is possible to change
it afterwards: first select the scan, and in "Data Options" press apply to selected data (re-save when
necessary).
Note that the original data is not changed. Releasing the [Ecor] button will show the total current again.
7.17 EIS/Impedance data
During an impedance measurement the signal traces for each data point are stored in the datafile and
can be recalled to be investigated/analyzed at a later time. Not only the impedance data is stored, but
also the measurement settings: Current range/overload flags/etc, for each individual data point. To
display the specifics of a datapoint, first open the Sigview monitor, then point the mouse at the datapoint
in question (on the graph of an opened impedance measurement). The Signal view will show the data in
Recall mode:
TIME
In the example above, the E/I traces (time) are displayed in recall mode. Note that the display in Recall
mode is different from the AC signal monitor shown during the EIS scan.
Lower panel:

Freq = frequency of data point

CR = current range used for the measurement of the data point, useful when automatic current
ranging was used. Between brackets, in the example (1), number of times oversampling. This
can be adjusted in the FRA settings.

Corr.= correlation, a measure of deviation from the ideal sine

Zabs = value for Z_abs

Status: status for this datapoint; OK = OK, when an overload occurred, "OVL" will be displayed;
the values between brackets are (a:b:c)=(x_gain[I]:y_gain[E]:8x_ampl.[1=x, 2=y, 3=x+y])

Nonlin = nonlinearity, the linearity of E and I is calculated, this can be used as an indication of
too high an amplitude, causing nonlinearity.

Phase = phase angle of data point

Date/time of data point
FREQUENCY
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When "Freq" is clicked above the graph, the frequency dependent data is shown. In the picture above,
the Iabs/Eabs (frequency) are displayed in recall mode. Below the lower panel a table is shown with the
frequency dependent harmonics data for the 1st to the 15th harmonics, default:

harmonic: number of harmonic

Freq/Hz: frequency in Hz

Iabs/A: absolute current in A

Eabs/V: absolute potential in V

Iratio%: percentage of total current

Eratio%: percentage of total voltage
When the check box for "Impedance format" is checked, the impedance data will be given: Z and phase
instead of E and I:

Z/ohm: total absolute Z in ohms
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
Phase/deg: phase angle in degrees
8. Data files
Data can be saved in a:
Datafile: Datafiles can only contain data from a single scan in the Legend panel and contain all relevant
information on an experiment, including method parameters. The file is saved with the extension .idf:
Ivium Data File. When a data file is loaded from memory the method parameters used during the
experiment will be copied to the Method parameter grid.
Dataset: Datasets can contain data from multiple scans in the Legend panel and contain all relevant
information on the experiments, including method parameters. The file is saved with the extension .ids:
Ivium Data Set. When a data set is loaded from memory the method parameters used during the
experiment of the first scan in the set will be copied to the Method parameter grid.
Experimental data is automatically saved:
1) Upon completion of an experiment
2) When a predefined time has elapsed
3) When the workfile exceed a predefined number of data points
More details on this are given in Data file management. The parameters for automatic saving can be
specified in the Datahandling options. Of course manual saving of data under a user defined name is also
possible from the File menu.
The file name and folder locations for auto-saving are automatically created in a structured manner. In
this way saved files are easy to locate and retrieve in the Data Explorer window. Data files are saved in a
structure of Libraries and projects: upon installation of IviumSoft a directory called "data" is created in
your \IviumStat directory. In this "data" directory multiple "Library" directories can be created, with sub
directories as "projects":
Note that IviumSoft has certain measures in place to protect the user from computer failure in case of
very large data accumulation.
CSV file: It is possible to automatically save data also in a Comma Separated Values or CSV file (.csv),
parallel with saving an Ivium Datafile (.idf). This option can be activated in the Datahandling Options. The
thus created CSV file does have the proper structure and column order to be imported into IviumSoft
from the File menu.
8.1
Automatic data file storage and file structure
A) All measured data is automatically stored on disk upon completion of the experiment, and during the
experiment when so instructed in the Datahandling options.
B) The automatic data saving mechanism creates "regular" idf and ids -files that are readable in the usual
manner.
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C) The file names and folder locations for auto-saving are automatically created in a structured manner.
In this way saved files are easy to locate and retrieve, and data can be stored under a project name.
Upon installation of IviumSoft, in ..\:IviumStat a file folder named "data" is automatically created. In this
"data" folder libraries are created, which in turn can contain multiple projects.
D) Manual saving of data files and data sets, in a user selectable location and file name, is of course also
possible.
E) Data files are stored under an automatically generated file name that is constructed from:
-
Scan id: automatically incremented scan number
Date stamp: (mm,dd)
Technique used; (for example LSV for Linear Scan Voltammetry)
First 8 letters (signs) of the Title of the experiment from the method parameters
Instrument serial number
8.2
Data file
Datafile: Datafiles can only contain data from a single scan in the Legend panel and contain all relevant
information on an experiment, including method parameters. The file is saved with the extension .idf:
Ivium Data File. When a data file is loaded from memory the method parameters used during the
experiment will be copied to the Method parameter grid.
8.3
Data set
Dataset: Datasets can contain data from multiple scans in the Legend panel and contain all relevant
information on the experiments, including method parameters. The file is saved with the extension .ids:
Ivium Data Set. When a data set is loaded from memory the method parameters used during the
experiment of the first scan in the set will be copied to the Method parameter grid.
In the Data Explorer window data sets are highlighted in YELLOW.
Upon opening a data set, all plots/scans are listed in the Legend panel; the specific method parameters
of the first scan in the list will be displayed in the Method parameter panel. By selecting a scan by mouse
click and highlighting it in blue, that scan will be put into active memory and make that data available for
analysis.
When multiple scans are displayed in a single plot, it is of course possible these were recorded with
different parameters. It is possible to verify the method parameters of each scan: when the CTRL key is
pressed while the scan is selected (keep the CTRL key pressed and click on the scan-name in the Legend
panel), the method parameters of the selected scan (high lighted in blue) will be displayed in the Method
parameter panel. Thus the active Method parameters are changed. If thereafter "Start" were clicked, it
would start a scan using the parameters of the selected scan.
This function can also be used after reading a previously recorded Dataset.
Alternatively, the method parameters of an individual scan in a list of scans in the Legend panel can also
be checked by right mouse clicking on the scan. This will open a pop-up that displays the method
parameters used to record that specific scan. It will also make it possible to change the title of that scan.
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8.4
CSV file
CSV file: It is possible to automatically save data also in a Comma Separated Values or CSV file (.csv),
parallel with saving an Ivium Datafile (.idf). This option can be activated in the Datahandling Options. The
thus created CSV file does have the proper structure and column order to be imported into IviumSoft
from the File menu. Note that the only CSV files with the proper format can be imported into IviumSoft
correctly.
8.5
Method file
In the Method control panela method can be created. This method can be stored (and loaded) for future
use in the File menu. Method files are stored as .imf (Ivium Method File).
Alternatively method files can also be stored in a project. This can also be done from teh File menu, by
selecting the option "Save method in project". In the Data explorer window method files are highlighted
in GREEN.
8.6
Data analysis and reporting
Result data can be analysed according to various options, depending on the type of data. The data
analysis options can be accessed from the graphic toolbar by selecting an analysis method from the drop
down list. More on these options can be found in "Analysis"
8.7
Data file management
Data will be stored to disk automatically on the following events (settings can be changed in the
Datahandling options sheet):

On completion of the datascan (or all datacycles in multiscan run)

When the "timed savings" period expires before the scan finishes, default every 600 minutes:
The 1st occurrence of an expiry period, the data is saved in .idf format
At subsequent occurrences of expiry periods, the data is saved in CSV format, each time
overwriting the previous CSV file.
After the scan finishes, the complete data is saved in .idf format, overwriting the 1st
saved idf file.

When the total number of datapoints exceeds the maximum workfile size, default 400,000 points:
When scan exceeds workfile size, an .idf will be stored with present number of
datapoints. Also a CSV file is created with half the present datasize (200k), and those
points are deleted from the shown scan.
At subsequent occurrences of exceeded workfile size, the 1st data-half is saved in CSV
format while deleting it from the shown data, each time appending to the previous CSV
file.
After the scan finishes, the complete data is saved in .idf format, overwriting the 1st
saved idf file. (it uses the CSV file to recover all datapoints).
Datafiles will be deleted:

From the "tempfile" folder automatically, after the (user defined) expiry period, default 90 days
(user definable, see Datahandling options).

Manually by the user, by selecting "delete permanently"
8.8
File name
Data files that are automatically saved by IviumSoft are stored under an automatically generated file
name that is constructed from:
-
Scan id: automatically incremented scan number
Date stamp: (mm,dd)
Technique used; (for example LSV for Linear Scan Voltammetry)
First 8 letters (signs) of the Title of the experiment from the method parameters
Instrument serial number
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8.9
Data file history list
See Data file history list.
8.10 Datahandling options
Data is automatically stored upon completion of a measurement. For longer measurements, it is also
possible to save data at set times during the measurement to protect against (computer) system failures.
The settings can be accessed in the Options menu > Datahandling options.
8.11 Data Explorer
See also Data explorer.
8.12 Library
Data files are saved in a structure of Libraries and projects: upon installation of IviumSoft a
folder/directory called "data" is created in your \IviumStat directory. In this "data" directory multiple
"Library" directories can be created, with sub directories as "projects":
A Library is a higher level folder/directory, that can be used to group projects together. It is shown (and
effectively is) a folder/directory that is also shown when navigated to in your MS Windows explorer. The
active library is where projects are created/selected in which new data files are stored; a new one can be
created in the Datahandling options, or an existing one can be called there from the drop down menu.
The library "primary is created upon installation of IviumSoft.
Top menu File>Datahandling Options:
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8.13 Project
Data files are saved in a structure of libraries and projects: upon installation of IviumSoft a
folder/directory called "data" is created in your \IviumStat directory. In this "data" directory multiple
"Library" directories can be created, with sub directories as "projects":
A Library is a higher level folder/directory, that can be used to group projects together. It is shown as
(and effectively is) a folder/directory that is also shown when navigated to in your MS Windows explorer.
The active library is where projects are created/selected in which new data files are stored. The library
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"primary" is created upon installation of IviumSoft. In this library the project: "Project_1" is created upon
installation of IviumSoft. Projects are shown as (and effectively are) folders/directories that are also
shown when navigated to in your MS Windows explorer. The project folder is where data files are actually
stored.
New projects can be easily created by the user in 2 ways:
1) Top menu File>Datahandling Options:
In the "Project" field select another one from the drop down menu or type a new name in the field. The
new project will be automatically created when the first new data file is automatically saved.
2) From the Advanced parameters:
In the "Project" field select another one from the drop down menu or type a new name in the field. The
new project will be automatically created when the first new data file is automatically saved.
For exploratory work, if measurements do not need to be saved for permanent use, you can, for
example, create/select a Draft (project) folder, which can be (manually) deleted on a regular basis.
Alternatively the "tempfiles" library can be selected.
8.14 Tempfiles
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Tempfiles is a project that is automatically created upon installation of IviumSoft, but is shown in the tree
in the Data Explorer on the level of a library. This project (folder/directory) is intended for designation
when exploratory experiments are carried out. Data files are automatically stored in IviumSoft, but when
you carry out exploratory measurements that you know you will not need you can select the project
"tempfiles". The automatically saved datafiles will then be saved here and shown in the history list in
RED. The advantage of this is that these exploratory data files do not need to be manually deleted, but
will automatically be deleted after a period of 90 days (default, this period can be changed in the
Datahandling options sheet).
If datafiles are stored in the tempfiles project, they can easily be moved to an active project from the
history list or Data explorer by right-mouse clicking on the data file and selecting the relevant option.
8.15 Bookmarks
Datafiles can be labeled with a description and/or bookmarked for convenient recognition and later
retrieval in the Bookmark bar in the history list (see also Screen layout). Directly above the file history
list, a field is available where the "Description" of the selected scan can be entered. The new description
can be stored in the datafile by clicking the Apply button.
This description will appear in the 3rd column of the file list. The description text can be of unlimited
length.
Datafiles of special importance can be bookmarked, by checking the Bookmark box and subsequently
clicking "Apply" (unchecking the button and clicking "Apply" will remove the Bookmark. Bookmarked files
can be recognized by the underlining in the file history list. Directly to the left of the file history list, there
are 2 buttons:
[Files]
[Bmrks]
shows the usual historylist of datafiles
brings up the list of bookmarked files.
Bookmarks can also be set/removed by right-clicking on a datafile in the Historylist or Bookmarklist, and
selecting the appropriate item form the popup menu.
In the Data Explorer, bookmarks can also be created. A list of all bookmarks files can be shown by
selecting the "Bookmarks" branch in the root of the Projects tree (on top).
8.16 Handling large data files
When experiments produce a large number of datapoints (>10^5), the Windows PC system can become
unstable due to performance issues. In order to ensure reliable operation with such experiments,
IviumSoft employs several strategies to ensure stable operation of IviumSoft. The main feature is to limit
the maximum number of points in memory and visible on screen. Note that the excess data is not lost,
but will be stored on disk. The maximum can be user defined in the "Datahandling options" (see also
paragraph 3.3 on p.6):
MWS: The Maximum Workfile Size; default 400,000 points
When data-length exceeds the MWS, all data is streamed to disk, and the visual dataset is reduced in
size by removing datapoints that do not affect the appearance of the data in the graph. The datareduction algorithm employs a reduction approach that will result in data size that just fits in the MWS.
The reduction is based on varying thresholds. If a datapoint does not differ from its neighboring points by
more than a defined threshold, it is removed. The magnitude of the applied threshold is automatically
determined to keep datasize just below the MWS requirement. The user can thus always keep a complete
overview over the duration of the scan, while still capturing all its important features.
At the end of the experiment, the reduced data is saved as an ".idf" file (Ivium Data File). That reduced
data file will be about the size of the MWS. The raw data that is streamed continuously during the scan, is
saved in a separate file with the same name as the .idf file, but with the ".ief" extension. Usually the
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reduced data contains all important changes and features required for further analysis. However, if the
complete raw data is required, it can be restored:
1- In the Legends panel right mouse click the desired scan: the scan properties popup will open.
2- Click the button [Restore Full datasize], and all data will be shown undecimated.
NOTE: for extremely large datafiles this may impair the performance of the PC.
Alternatively, the .ief file can be directly imported in an external program. Contact Ivium for details.
When the option of "Timed saving" is selected (See data handling options, paragraph 3), the raw datafile
(.ief) is updated after every specified timing interval. This behavior cooperates with the "MWS savings":
the timing interval is determined from the last saving event. Therefore, every triggering event for MWS
saving, resets the clock for the next "Timed saving event". When the MWS is chosen small, the Timed
saving feature becomes obsolete.
8.17 Automatic timed saving
During a (long term) experiment, IviumSoft automatically saves data in a temporary datafile at regular
intervals, to prevent loss of data due to an unforeseen communication loss between computer and
potentiostat. The default automatic saving interval is 600 minutes, but this can be changed by the user in
the menu Options > Datahandling Options. The first automatic save is in a standard Ivium datafile (.idf)
to additionally store the method parameters; subsequent automatic saves are done in a .tmp file that
only contains raw data points. When each next interval passes the data is appended to the .tmp file (so
there will always be only one .tmp file per experiment). At the end of the experiment the data is
automatically saved as .idf (or .ids dataset, depending on the type of technique and settings) file and the
.tmp file is deleted.
When communication is lost between the computer and the potentiostat, and/or the IviumSoft crashes,
the final .idf cannot be formed. But the available data is then still stored in the .tmp file. The data
available in the .tmp file can be easily recovered by importing it, using the "Import CSV" command from
the "File" menu.
Note that, because the .tmp file only contains raw data points and no method information, if you wish to
recover a .tmp file from a fresh instance of IviumSoft, you should first load the .idf file with (containing
the method information) and then import the CSV.
9. Special functions
9.1
Calibration
Full calibration of any instrument is done by the manufacturer or the official distributor for your
geographic region. The calibration values and instrument settings are stored on the instrument's internal
microPC.
Only the offset calibration for the IviumBoost and the PDA calibration can be done on site by the
operator.
If for some reason, the instrument does not function properly, or a performance test turns up a "fail"
repeatedly, please apply the Restore procedure described elsewhere. Use "Restore factory options".
9.2
Performance test
To verify proper operation and to diagnose possible problems, the instrument can be instructed to
perform a self-test.
To execute the test:

Connect the cellcable and Testcell 1

Select "Performance test" from the Tools menu.

Click the "Run test" button. Each individual test result is compared to preset limits, and a Pass or
Fail status will be assigned. A testreport is generated that can be saved or printed directly. Also it
can be copied to the Windows clipboard and transferred to the application of choice. The report is
generated in ASCII format and can be read by any text editor.
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
All status reports should read "Pass". If one reads "Fail", re-run the test. If after repeatedly
running the test, a fail continues to show up, the instrument may need recalibration.
Note that the report is stored automatically in the IviumStat main directory, with the serial number as
filename and ".ipt" as extension, for example "B07003.ipt" (subsequent reports with the same instrument
will overwrite older reports). The test report starts with recording time/date and the instrument/software
configuration, and is followed by the test results. Each individual test result is compared to preset limits,
and a Pass or Fail status will be assigned.
9.3
Pulse Generator
A continuously repeating pulse can be applied to the cell with variable period and dutycycle. It is intended
as a tool to treat the electrode, without data being measured. It can be applied in potentiostatic (Estat)
or in galvanostatic mode (Istat), both in 4-electrode mode. The duration of a pulse-level can be defined
from 10us to 0.6 seconds (0.01 to 650 ms). Each level: Hi_period and Lo_period can be set
independently.
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The pulse generator can be started form the Tools menu. Please note that the settings for Current range
and Stability are copied from the Direct tabsheet. These settings should be set before the Pulse generator
form is opened. After pressing <Apply> the pulse will be applied, and repeated continuously, until
<Stop> is pressed. The period and Voltage/Ampere values will be retained until the IviumSoft program is
ended.
9.4
Current Interrupt
The current interrupt technique can be used for measuring the IR-drop of an electrochemical system. This
application is designed to operate in combination with the Ivium Technologies CIM. As the name of the
technique suggests, the current of a running experiment is interrupted instantly and the response of the
cell potential is measured in high speed mode. The momentary drop of the cell potential, representing the
IR-drop of the electrochemical system, is then shown in a graph of the potential vs. time.
Operation in Direct Mode: In the IviumSoft, the current interrupt technique is integrated as a diagnostic
tool.
To operate the current interrupt technique, in the "Direct Mode" set the desired potential in either the
potentiostatic 4-electrode or 2-electrode configuration, and then apply so that the potential is applied to
the test object and the current flows. Then in the menu bar choose "Tools>CurrentInterrupt" and then
press "apply". The current is momentarily interrupted and a graph is produced showing the potential vs.
time. From this result the IR-drop is calculated.
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The Current interrupt Tool uses the HiSpeed mode for recording the data. Over the user defined period,
64 datapoints are evenly distributed, with:

number of datapoints (fixed): 64

minimum time base: 10 µs

minimum period: 0.5 ms

maximum period: 1000 ms
Current Interrupt in ChronoPotentiometry:
The Current Interrupt Module (CIM) can be used during ChronoPotentiometry. In Advanced mode, the
parameter "CI at Level[2]" is available. When checked, it will activate a Current Interrupt during the 2nd
level.
9.5
Impedance measurement configuration
Standard electrochemical impedance is determined from measurements of the AC current and AC
potential at the instrument's cell connectors. A standard impedance (Z) sweep is derived from E/I, where
the Y-input/signal is E (voltage) and the X-input/signal is I_we (current at the working electrode). In
table 2 (below) this situation is given in line 0: MeasConfig = standard.
However, with Ivium potentiostats/IviumSoft it is possible to select other signals for the X- and Y-inputs.
In the Impedance techniques the advanced method parameter "MeasConfig" is available. This parameter
allows various signals to be used for the X- and Y-inputs. These signals can then be plotted in the
impedance Result graph as if these were I_we and E respectively.
Table 2 below shows alternative choices which are accessible in IviumSoft from the "MeasConfig"
parameter in the Impedance techniques (Advanced mode only). For measurements with the Modulight or
IviSUN the relevant choices are lines 0, 1 and 2 (BOLD), corresponding with standard, INT_ac I and
INT_ac E.
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Table 2
In the table:
I_we and E:
ac intern:
Internal DSG not applied:
are generated or measured as usual via the potentiostat/cell connector;
is the internally generated (FRA) ac signal applied via the peripheral port
connector (=AC-out in the pinout in the instrument manual). It drives the
ModuLight AC intensity.
signifies that the Internal Direct Signal Genereator is not applied, so no
AC perturbation is carried through to the E and I_we signals; these are
DC signals only.
When measuring impedance the IviumSoft always defines this as Y/X so, for standard impedance (Z),
this would be E/I we in the table above.
When other signals are used for Y and X the data is still displayed as impedance (Z=E/I) by the software
however it is actually a transfer function which is defined by the MeasConfig selection and the user must
interpret the data.
To invert the transfer function to X/Y, select Admittance (Y) instead of Impedance (Z) in the software.
9.6
IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement
Standard electrochemical impedance is determined from measurements of the AC current and AC
potential at the instrument's cell connectors. A standard impedance (Z) sweep is derived from E/I, where
the Y-input/signal is E (voltage) and the X-input/signal is I_we (current at the working electrode). In
table 2 (below) this situation is given in line 0: MeasConfig = standard.
However, with Ivium potentiostats/IviumSoft and an Ivium light source such as the ModuLight or IviSUN,
it is possible to select other signals for the X- and Y-inputs. In the Impedance techniques the advanced
method parameter "MeasConfig" is available. This parameter allows various signals to be used for the Xand Y-inputs. These signals can then be plotted in the impedance Result graph as if these were I_we and
E respectively.
Table 2 below shows alternative choices which are accessible in IviumSoft from the "MeasConfig"
parameter in the Impedance techniques (Advanced mode only). For measurements with the Modulight or
IviSUN the relevant choices are lines 0, 1 and 2 (BOLD), corresponding with standard, INT_ac I and
INT_ac E.
Table 2
In the table:
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I_we and E:
ac intern:
Internal DSG not applied:
are generated or measured as usual via the potentiostat/cell connector;
is the internally generated (FRA) ac signal applied via the peripheral port
connector (=AC-out in the pinout in the instrument manual). It drives the
ModuLight AC intensity.
signifies that the Internal Direct Signal Genereator is not applied, so no AC
perturbation is carried through to the E and I_we signals; these are DC
signals only.
When measuring impedance the IviumSoft always defines this as Y/X so, for standard impedance (Z),
this would be E/I we in the table above.
When other signals are used for Y and X the data is still displayed as impedance (Z=E/I) by the software
however it is actually a transfer function which is defined by the MeasConfig selection and the user must
interpret the data.
To invert the transfer function to X/Y, select Admittance (Y) instead of Impedance (Z) in the software.
Example 1: Solarcell IMPS - Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy
The IMPS technique measures the transfer function between modulated light intensity and the resulting
AC current generated by the cell (there are no universal standards for display of IMPS and IMVS. If the
inverse ratio is required then Admittance (Y) should be selected for display within IviumSoft). To run this
technique:

Select from the method tree: Impedance> Constant E.

Activate advanced method parameters

Set parameter "MeasConfig" to "INT_ac E"
With this parameter-setting, the internal applied AC signal is used as Y (light-intensity) and the photo
current is used as X:
IMPS = Y/X = light intensity/photo-Current = AC intern/I_we.
This potentiostats dc potential may be set to short circuit conditions (E=0), but it may also be made at,
for example, the maximum power point or Eoc (I=0).
Note that the potentiostat's DC potential may be set to short circuit conditions (E=0), but it may also be
operated at other settings, for example maximum power point or E_oc (I=0).
Example 2: Solarcell IMVS - Intensity Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy
The IMVS technique measures the transfer function between modulated light intensity and the resulting
AC voltage generated by the cell. To run this technique:

Select from the method tree: Impedance> Constant I.

Activate advanced method parameters

Set parameter "MeasConfig" to "INT_ac I"
With this parameter-setting, the internal applied AC signal is used as Y (light-intensity) and the photo
potential is used as X:
IMPS = Y/X = photo potential/light intensity = E/AC intern
Note that the galvanostat current may be set to OCP conditions (I=0), but it may also be made at, for
example, the maximum power point.
Experimental examples of solar cell measurements
Experiments were conducted on a 1cm2 Dye Sensitized SolarCell (DSSC).
The solarcell was connected to an Ivium CompactStat, with WE/S to the positive pole, and CE/RE to the
negative pole. (A negative current means that the solarcell is producing power).
As lightsource, the Ivium ModuLight module was used with the 635nm setting, connected to the
CompactStat peripheral port's AnalogOut1 for DC intensity and ACout for AC intensity modulation.

The DC LSV scans were done by first setting the illumination level with AnalogOut1 (in the Direct
Mode) and thereafter performing a scan.

The DC experiments with pulsed light were done with the Mixed Mode technique (the the Anout1
parameter of the 2nd level was used to set the desired light intensity).
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
The EIS scans were done by first setting the bias-illumination level with AnalogOut1 (in the Direct
Mode tab), and thereafter performing an EIS scan with "MeasConfig" parameter to "Int_AC_E" for
potentiostatic scans and "Int_AC_I" for galvanostatic scans. The applied frequency range was
10kHz to 0.1Hz.
E/I curves for DSSC at various light intensities: 15lm, 30lm, 60lm
Screenshot of the solarcell modeling circuit, using the 15lm intensity curve
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Screenshot of the solarcell modeling circuit, using the 60lm intensity curve
Open Cell Potential of DSSC for variable intensity light pulses
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Current response of DSSC at Estat 0V, for variable intensity light pulses
IMVS photo-electric-impedance of a DSSC at OCP, at various light intensities, left to right:
15lm,18lm,23lm,30lm
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Photo-electric-impedance of a DSSC at various constant currents, 0.1Hz to 1kHz, at fixed light intensities
of 60lm, left to right: 0mA (OCP), 1mA, 3 mA
Photo-electric-admittance of DSSC at various DC bias, at fixed light intensity of 60lm, left to right: 0.7V,
0.6V, 0.0V(IMPS)
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Photo-electric-admittance of DSSC at 600mV DC, at various light intensities, left to right:
15lm,30lm,60lm
9.7
Galvanostatic generation icw. Amperometric detection with BiStat
The techniques: Chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic CV and galvanostatic LSV, can be combined with the
bipotentiostat module (payable option on CompactStat/IviumStat).
Several applications that normally require 2 potentiostats/galvanostats can be performed with a single
instrument. The primary WE and CE will control the applied current in galvanostatic mode, while the
bistat module is operating in potentiostatic mode, applying a potential and measuring a current. The
bipotentiostat will use the RE (standard mode) or S (scanning mode) electrode as reference. Its offset
potential can be set in the ±2V range.
When the Bistat option is activated, the measurement plot will show both working electrode currents.
The WE/CE electrode pair may be located in a different cell-compartment than the WE2/RE(S) pair. For a
typical application the WE/CE pair would generate a product that is detected by measurement with the
WE2.
An example of this is the application in a Devanathan cell where in one cell Hydrogen is generated
galvanostatically. This hydrogen is transported through a membrane and subsequently detected in the
other cell potentiostatically. The connections are given in the figure below.
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9.8
EMO: Emergency Off
Next to the Safeties for Automatic disconnect (accesible from the Options menu) of the cell, the
IviumStat and Ivium-n-Stat instruments are equiped with an external EMO (emergency off) function.
IviumStat
All IviumStat instruments (including XR's) have a red push button for the EMO function on the front
panel. When pressed, the WE and CE relais are opened and the cell-current circuit is interrupted. When
pushed the button lights up red. Its circuitry is hardware wired and independent of the pc software
setting or the instruments microprocessor. Its operation has a 100% reliability. This button can be used
as an EMO or panic button, to avoid dangerous situations. During normal operation, this button should
not be used, and the red light should be off. Of course, measurements are not possible while this button
is pressed.
Ivium-n-Stat
At the back plane of the Ivium-n-Stat, two 4mm sockets are available: EMO (red) and GND (green). The
EMO bus is a 0 to 5V compliant input, and unconnected it pulls up to 5V, which means "EMO not
activated". When the EMO is pulled to GND (i.e. via a wire bride, or a connected dedicated EMO button),
it will actively open the CE ralais of all channels in the frame, effectively interrupting the cell-current
circuits of all connected cells, and generate a shut-off event that will stop all running methods. The EMO
function operates independently from the software and operates through the pld of each channel. The
cells cannot be re-activated until the signal on the EMO bus is removed.
For both the IviumStat and Ivium-n-Stat the EMO function is also used for instrument restoration (i.e. to
recover from a firmware upgrade mishap).
9.9
Safeties: Automatic disconnect
Some Ivium potentiostats have a manual Emergency Off function (EMO). But in addition to this all Ivium
potentiostats have the possibility to apply certain safeties to protect the electrochemical object under
test. This facility is introduced to provide additional protection against damage to sensitive devices. For
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example, a loose or intermittent RE or S connection, or simply an operator error, could cause an
instrument to overdrive a device.
In IviumSoft it is possible to automatically disconnect power to the electrodes, and abort a measurement
according to user- definable conditions.
Automatic disconnect
The automatic disconnect functions can be activated for extra protection of a testobject. When checked
and the cut-off criterium is reached during the operation of a method, the instrument will automatically
disconnect the cell cable and the measurement is terminated. This is controlled from inside the
instrument independent from the software that is running on the PC.
at external signal, Ext1 >: When this box is checked, the Analoginput1 of the peripheral port is
measured. When this signal exceeds the voltage that is entered in the adjacent box, the measurement
will be terminated.
at temperature: Unavailabele for change by user; when the instrument's inside reaches a temperature
exceeding 80 degC the measurement will be terminated. This is an automatic safety feature to protect
the instrument.
at Eovl (CE electrode): When this option is checked, in galvanostatic mode the instrument will
terminate the measurement when an E_overload is reached. The potential range can be set by user in
the advanced method parameters.
at current OVL (WE electrode): When this box is checked, in potentiostatic mode the instrument will
terminate the measurement when a current of 3.072 x the set current range is exceeded (i.e. for CR =
1mA, the measurement will be terminated at a current of 3.072mA). This option may also be used in
combination with Automatic Current Ranging (AutoCR). The measurement will then be terminated at
3.072 x the maximum CR setting.
If one of the active disconnect conditions is met, the cell will be disconnected automatically, and the
method in progress is aborted (most methods). The cell will remain off until the condition is removed and
the condition is reset. Resetting can be accomplished by toggling the Cell on/off, or restarting the
method. When a method is aborted by the automatic disconnect feature, a message is shown on the
bottom Status bar. Also the condition is logged in the process-report.
Note that Automatic disconnect is intended as a safety feature. It is directly hardwired in the electronics,
therefore it works instantaneous and does not depend on whatever the software is doing at that time.
Even in the event the software has crashed, the electrodes will still be disconnected on the alarm
conditions.
9.10 Peripheral port
Most Ivium potentiostats are equipped with what we call a "Peripheral port". This refers to all analog and
digital inputs/outputs that are available in the potentiostat. These are normally available from an extra
connector apart from the cell connector. The number and type of peripheral interfacing channels depends
on the type of instrument and can be found in the corresponding instruments specifications:

pocketSTAT

Vertex

CompactStat

IviumStat

Ivium-n-Stat
The peripheral port can be used to interface with external equipment, for example by setting value
(rotation speed, voltage level, etc) or reading a value (voltage, digital state, etc.).
The channels/signals of the peripheral port are integrated in the IviumSoft.
9.11 Peripheral analog inputs
Ivium Instruments are equiped with a peripheral I/O port (list of signals and connections: see
Connectors). The peripheral port interfaces via a DB37 connector (CompactStat, IviumStat) or a DB15
connector (Ivium-n-Stat sModule). For the DB37 connector a break-out box is available: the PPE
(peripheral port expander, see chapter 9.9), that outputs all signals to 4mm banana connectors.
Alternatively, the desired signals can be taken directly from the corresponding pins in the DB37
connector.
The peripheral port includes:
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

8 analog inputs (0 to +4V) for the CompactStat/Iviumstat
2 analog inputs (0 to +10V) for the Ivium-n-Stat.
Signals from these inputs can be recorded in pairs simultaneously with the primary signals. In the 2
channel configuration, ch1 & ch2 are sampled at the same speed as the primary channel. When 4
channels are sampled, ch1&ch2 and ch3&ch4 are sampled alternately, at half the sampling speed of the
primary signals. Likewise when 4 channels are sampled, the peripheral channels are sampled at a quarter
of the sampling speed of the primary signals. Results are visualized in the "Extra" plot, accessible via the
graphic toolbars by clicking "Ain".
Analog inputs direct or via PPE
Measurement in Method mode
To use analog inputs in method mode:
1. Connect the analog inputs as desired (analog inputs are measured vs. analog ground).
2. In the method parameters (advanced) at the "Analog inputs" parameter choose the number of
channels to be measured, keeping within the capability of your hardware (= 2, 4, 8 channels standard).
3. In the method parameters (advanced) at the "Data Options" parameter select the "Analog Inputs"
tab:
In this form it is possible to select how the inputs are displayed, including plot title and a number of
transformations that will be executed before the signal is plotted. It is also possible to plot different
channels in 2 different plots by ticking the relevant box (when ticked the corresponding channel will be
displayed in plot 2). Each of the 2 plots can have its own transformation.
4. When the rest of the method is defined as desired, click "Start" to start the measurement.
5. Click "Ain" in the graphic toolbar to the left of the graph window to make the extra graph visible
containing the signals of the analog inputs. When any of the signals is plotted in plot 2, there will be 2
plot windows: Plot 1 and Plot 2 (otherwise only one extra plot will be visible).
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6. In the legend panel to the right of the graph, click on the "Chan" tab to select individual traces to be
plotted display.
7. All analog signal data are stored in the same data file as the primary signal.
Measurement in Direct mode
The analog input signals can be measured from the direct mode tab:

Connect the analog inputs as desired (analog inputs are measured vs. analog ground).

Select the "Direct" tab

Below, select the "Extern" tab

Click on "Read analog inputs"

A single signal sample will be measured on all analog inputs and displayed in the value-array.
Analog inputs via PLT
The analog input measuring capability of the CompactStat/IviumStat is standard 0 to +4 V. This can be
extended to 0 to +10 V or -10 to +10 V by using a PLT (peripheral level transformer). To measure via
the PLT connect the PLT directly to the Ivium instrument and connect the external signal to the PLT. Then
the same procedure for measuring as described above can be used. When using the PLT it is the
operators responsibility to calculate the correct signal value based on the formula given for the PLT (see
chapter PLT).
Analog inputs via PDA
The PDA module (see chapter PDA) is an interface box, almost the same as the PPE, that outputs all
signals to 4mm banana connectors. The exceptions are:
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

Normally the peripheral port analog inputs are measured vs the common analog ground, resulting
in an "absolute" measurement. In the PDA the analog inputs are differential, i.e. each signal is
measured with a differential measurement range of ± 2V and a maximum common mode voltage
± 15V.
PDA modules can be stacked up to 8 units resulting in a maximum of 64 differential analog
inputs.
Measurement in Method mode
1. Connect the analog inputs as desired (each analog input connected differentially).
2. In the method parameters (advanced) at the "Modules" parameter tick the box and then tick the box
next to "PDA" to activate the PDA module
3. Then in the method parameters at the "Analog inputs" parameter choose the number of channels to be
measured, keeping within the capability of your hardware (= up to 64 channels for 8 PDA modules).
4. Proceed in the same manner as described above at "Analog inputs direct or via PPE"
Measurement in Direct mode
The differential analog input signals can be measured from the direct mode tab:

Connect the analog inputs as desired (each analog input connected differentially).

Select the "Direct" tab

Below, select the "PDA" tab

Using the arrow buttons select the number of PDA modules connected

Click on "Read units "

A single signal sample will be measured on all analog inputs on all modules and displayed in the
value-array.
9.12 Using AC input
The peripheral port of the CompactStat and IviumStat instruments is equiped with an AC-input. The
analog input port Ac-in from the peripheral port can be used to apply a signal directly to the cell, from an
external source. The external signal will be added to the internal potential/current setting: In potentiostat
mode, the inverted external voltage will be added. In galvanostatic mode, the external voltage is
translated to -1* Current Range.
The external input is controlled by an internal switch that must actively be closed before the signal is
applied. Standard, the external input is disconnected, to avoid injection of unwanted noise.
In direct mode
In the Direct mode on the "Extern" tab, check the box for "Ext ACin". When checked the analog or ac
signal connected to pin 9 of the peripheral port will be superimposed on the DC signal that is set in the
Direct mode.
In method mode
For using the AC-input during a method, go to the Options menu>Settings. In the "Environment" area
check the box for AC input. Now the analog or ac signal connected Ac-in pin of the peripheral port will be
superimposed on the DC signal that is set in the method parameters. The external input is applied during
the execution of the scan.
Note that some techniques are incompatible with an external input signal:
- EIS techniques
- Techniques using the True Linear scan generator
- Techniques that use IR compensation
After a technique finishes, the external input is always switched off.
When the external input is activated, the applied signal that is stored in the datafile does usually not
account for the external signal. This must therefore be documented by the operator.
10.Software upgrade
Ivium´s own software IviumSoft is frequently upgraded with new features, often at a customers request.
When a new version of IviumSoft is available it is published on our website at: www.ivium.nl/Support.
Here the new version can be downloaded as .zip file. The .zip file contains the IviumSoft.exe and
whatever auxiliary files necessary. Note that this does NOT contain a full installation package, so using
this file for a new installation is not possible.
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After downloading the new IviumSoft and upgrading your existing IviumSoft, do not forget to also
upgrade the instrument firmware.
10.1 Software upgrade
The Ivium control and data analysis software IviumSoft is frequently upgraded with new features. When
a new version of IviumSoft is available it is published on our website. From this location the new version
can be downloaded as .zip file. The .zip file contains the IviumSoft.exe and whatever auxiliary files
necessary. Note that this does NOT contain a full installation package, so using this file for a new
installation is not possible.
To upgrade the IviumSoft, download the latest version of the software from www.ivium.nl/Support. Open
the .zip file and copy all files (IviumSoft.exe, etc.) to clipboard. Browse to your IviumStat file folder:
..\IviumStat, and paste (replace the files already there with the new ones).
Now your IviumSoft has been upgraded. After this proceed to upgrade the firmware of your instrument.
NOTE: Eventhough new versions of IviumSoft are released frequen0802tly, it is not necessary to upgrade
to each new version. If your version operates to your satisfaction, there is no reason to upgrade.
10.2 Firmware upgrade
Ivium instruments are equipped with an internal micro PC that operates the electronics, and is used to
store data during a HiSpeed experiment. This micro PC runs on firmware (=software) and the version of
this firmware is specific to the version of IviumSoft that it communicates with. For correct communication
(and operation) these versions need to match. That is why the IviumSoft checks the firmware version of
the instrument when it is connected. If the versions do NOT match, a warning pops up:
When this pop-up is observed after connecting your instrument to the IviumSoft, the instrument
firmware needs to be updated. This can be the case for example after upgrading the pc-based software to
a newer release, or when another PC/laptop is used to control the instrument that has a different version
IviumSoft installed.
No tools or files are necessary, the firmware is embedded in the IviumSoft to ensure that the correct
firmware is always available.
To upgrade the instrument firmware:
1. Connect your instrument in the IviumSoft
2. In the main menu bar go to Tools>Device maintenance. This will open a pop-up window.
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3. In the pop-up window you can click on "Check firmware" to verify the number of the firmware version
currently installed on your instrument .
Then click on "Firmware upgrade".
This will open a new pop-up window.
4. In this pop-up click "Start".
The firmware will now start uploading.
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5. When finished the message "firmware successfully uploaded, reboot device to complete" will show,
now click "Close".
6. Now the instrument needs to be rebooted to start the new firmware. Back in the Device maintenance
window, click on "Reboot device".
After this close the IviumSoft.
7. Now start-up the IviumSoft and connect the instrument to the IviumSoft. The firmware has now been
updated. It is possible to verify this in the Device maintenance window by checking firmware (see 3.).
This should now display the new updated firmware number.
If the instrument becomes unresponsive after a failed upgrade, see the "restore instrument" paragraph.
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10.3 Device maintenance
The "Device maintenance" panel can be accessed from the Tools menu. It will open a pop-up window
where the instrument can be maintained.
In the device maintenance window, 8 area's can be distinguished:
1) Verify device: clicking the "Check device" button will show the (power) status and configuration of the
instrument. This will also show whether the instrument is USB or self powered.
2) Verify firmware: clicking the "Check firmware" button will display the firmware version that is running.
A new instrument will always have installed the firmware belonging to the software that is delivered.
When a software upgrade is carried out, the firmware also needs to be upgraded. After upgrading the
firmware, the "Check firmware" will show whether the firmware has been upgraded (a higher version
number will be shown).
3) Set configuration: when an upgrade, such as LinScan or BiStat, is purchased after the the instrument
has been deliverd, the upgrade code can be applied here. When necessary, special instructions will be
sent.
4) Calibration: calibration is done by the manufacturer. Only the Booster offset can be calibrated by the
user.
5) Manual control: Reboot device is needed after a firmware upgrade.
6) Upgrade firmware: click "Firmware Upgrade" for upgrading the firmware.
7) Upload file: to upload a specific file to the instrument internal PC. This is not meant to be used
without proper specific instructions from the manufacturer.
8) Disable idle sampling: clicking this button will disable the idle sampling (when no method is running
or in direct mode, every second a sample taken to update the status bar and the values shown in direct
control panel.)
11. Control via other software
11.1 Software development driver DLL
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You can develop your own software to control the IviumStat and CompactStat instruments. Developing
programs is easy, because IviumSoft will do all the hard work. The supplied driver will allow you to
integrate the functionality in your own program. You can still use the convenience of the IviumSoft
software, and program your specific tasks with a few program lines in the desired language: VB, Delphi,
C, Labview, etc.
Advantages:

Faster development of applications than programming from scratch. IviumSoft takes care of most
overhead: communication, error handling, graphic plotting, datastorage etc. You may mix modes,
for example first set the device in a desired state with IviumSoft, and let your own program take
control from that point.

More flexible than using a scripting language. You can use all the programming power of the
higher programming language of your choice. It is possible to customize data processing, or react
on specific results and events.

Control multiple Ivium devices at the same time, and simultaneously control/read other types of
devices: pumps, valves, thermostats, motors, sensors, etc.
Versions:
Over the years its existance, functionality has been added to the IVIUM_remdriver.dll. From IviumSoft
version 2.200 (with firmware version 417) it is possible to check which version of IVIUM_remdriver.dll it
corresponds with: in the top menu select "About", it will open a pop-up window. At the bottom left the
IviumSoft release version is given, behind it between brackets [..] the IVIUM_remdriver.dll version it
corresponds with.
Method:
1) Import the provided dll in your program: IVIUM_remdriver.dll
2) Embed the control-functions in your software
3) Start IviumSoft and your own program
The dll allows you to import and execute most basic functions of the Ivium device:
Imported Function
11.2 GENERAL
IV_open
IV_close
IV_selectdevice (int)
IV_getdevicestatus
IV_readSN (*char)
IV_connect (int)
IV_version
11.3 DIRECT MODE
IV_getcellstatus (int)
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Description
Opens the driver
Closes the driver
Select device, applicable for multi-device configurations,
default=1
Returns status of device: -1=no IviumSoft; 0=not connected;
1=available_idle; 2=available_busy
Returns serial number of selected device, empty string if not
connected
Connect to selected device, int=1 for connect, int=0 for
disconnect
Returns the version number of the IVIUM_remdriver.dll the
active IviumSoft needs
Returns cell status: bit 2=I_ovl, bit 4 =Anin1_ovl, bit 5 =
E_ovl, bit 7 = CellOff_button pressed, bit 8= cell on
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IV_setconnectionmode (int)
IV_setpotential (double)
IV_setpotentialWE2
(double)
IV_setcurrent (double)
IV_getpotential (double)
IV_setcurrentrange (int)
IV_setcurrentrangeWE2
(int)
IV_getcurrent (double)
IV_getcurrentWE2 (double)
IV_setfilter (int)
Select configuration, 0=off; 1=EStat4EL(default),
2=EStat2EL, 3=EstatDummy1, 4=EStatDummy2,
5=EstatDummy3, 6=EstatDummy4, 7=Istat4EL,
8=Istat2EL, 9=IstatDummy, 10=BiStat4EL, 11=BiStat2EL
Note that the above is for single instruments, but when an
IviumBoost1040 is connected, the number of available
connect states is less and the code definition changes to:
Select configuration, 0=off; 1=EStat4EL(default),
2=IStat4EL
Therefore in the presence of a 40A Booster, to switch to
galvanostatic operation, code 2 should be sent instead of
7. If code 7 would be sent, it is ignored.
Set cell potential
Set BiStat offset potential
Set cell current (galvanostatic mode)
Returns measured potential
Set current range, 0=10A, 1=1A, etc,
Set current range for BiStat, 0=10mA, 1=1mA, etc,
IV_we32setchannel (int)
IV_we32setoffset
(int,double)
IV_we32getoffsets (int,
*values)
IV_we32readcurrents
(*values)
Returns measured current
Returns measured current from WE2 (bipotentiostat)
Set filter, for int :0=1MHz, 1=100kHz, 2=10kHz, 3=1kHz,
4=10Hz
Set stability, for int 0=HighSpeed, 1=Standard,
2=HighStability
Select mode for BiStat, for int 0=standard, 1=scanning
Set dac on external port, int=0 for dac1, int=1 for dac2
Returns measured voltage on external ADC port,
int=channelnr. 0-7
Set channel of multiplexer, int=channelnr. starting from
0(default)
Set digital lines on external port, int is bitmask
Returns status of digital inputs from external port, int is
bitmask
Set ac frequency, double in Hz
Set ac amplitude, double in Volt
Returns a sequence of measured currents at defined
samplingrate (npoints, interval, array of double):
npoints<=256, interval:10us to 20msec
Returns a sequence of measured WE2 currents at defined
samplingrate (npoints, interval, array of double):
npoints<=256, interval: 10us to 20msec
Returns a sequence of measured potentials at defined
samplingrate (npoints, interval, array of double):
npoints<=256, interval: 10us to 20msec
Select active WE32 channel (chan)
Set WE32 offset (chan,value), value –2 to +2V. Use
chan=0 to apply the same offset to all channels.
Returns actual WE32 offset values (Nchan,values), with
Nchan the number of channels (1..32)
Returns array with 32 WE32 current values, that are
measured simultaneously
11.4 METHOD MODE
IV_readmethod (*char)
IV_savemethod (*char)
Loads method procedure from disk, with char as filename
Saves method procedure to disk, with char as filename
IV_setstability (int)
IV_bistat_mode (int)
IV_setdac (int,double)
IV_getadc (int,double)
IV_setmuxchannel (int)
IV_setdigout (int)
IV_getdigin (int)
IV_setfrequency (double)
IV_setamplitude (double)
IV_getcurrenttrace (int
,double,*double)
IV_getcurrentWE2trace (int
,double,*double)
IV_getpotentialtrace (int
,double,*double)
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IV_startmethod (*char)
IV_abort
IV_savedata (*char)
IV_setmethodparameter
(*char1,*char2)
IV_Ndatapoints (int)
IV_getata (int,d1,d2,d3)
IV_getdatafromline
(int,int2,d1,d2,d3)









Start method procedure. If char is empty then presently
loaded procedure is used, else the procedure is loaded
from disk.
Abort the ongoing method procedure
Saves actual result data to disk, with char as filename
Modify method parameter, with char1=parameter_name,
char2=new value
Returns actual available number of datapoints: indicates
progress during a run
Read datapoint with index int, returns 3 doubles
(d1/d2/d3) that represent measured values depending on
the used technique, for example LSV/CV methods return
(E/I/0) Transient methods return (time/I,E/0), Impedance
methods return (Z1,Z2,freq) etc.
Same as IV_readdata, but with the additional int2
parameter which specifies the scannr. This function will
allow reading data from non-selected (previous) scans.
All imported functions return an integer as result (32 bit signed number),
0=successfully executed, -1= no device, 1=illegal command, 2=argument out of
range. Note that IV_getdevicestatus return codes are different.
Arguments are passed by reference.
Pchar= zero-terminated string; int=32 bit signed integer; double=8 byte floating point
number
Current is expressed in Amperes, potential in Volts, time in seconds, and frequency in
Hertz
The driver must be opened with the IV_open function before the control functions can
be used.
When the driver is opened, it automatically connects the first connected device. For
single-device users, nothing needs to be done to select it. For multi-device
configurations, use the IV_selectdevice() command to select each different device.
After starting a method, IV_getdevicestatus will indicate whether a scan is ready.
During a scan, progress can be monitored with the IV_Ndatapoints function.
When reading datapoints with the IV_getdata command during an ongoing scan, be
sure to check whether data is available with the IV_Ndatapoints function, before
attempting to access the data.
The IV_setmethodparameter(pchar1,pchar2) function will change method-parameters
of the currently loaded procedure. If subsequently a scan is started, the new values will
be used. It requires 2 arguments, the parametername and the parametervalue:
o Parametername: this must correspond exactly to the spelling on the methodtabsheet.
o Parametervalue: textual expression of the parametervalue. The format of the
supplied value must correspond with the type of the selected parametername. If
the selected parameter is a checkbox, a value of ‘true’ will correspond to the
checked condition, anything else will uncheck the box. Numerical text strings
must be of the correct format.
o When the technique is modified, first set the Method, then the Technique. For
example, when selecting Standard Cyclic Voltammetry:
 setmethodparameter('Method',’CyclicVoltammetry’)
 setmethodparameter('Technique',’Standard’)
o If wrong or unavailable parameter names are selected, or when unavailable
parametervalues are entered, the commands are ignored without an error
message. When a parametervalue with improper format is supplied, the
command is ignored and an error message is shown. Please note that the
parameter availability depends on the chosen Method and Technique.
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11.5 Labview interfacing
1. Order of communication hierarchy
For optimum results when using Labview to control an Ivium device it is very important to realise the
order of hierarchy for communication between the various software and hardware. In this case Labview
(the VI) communicates with the Ivium remdriver, which in turn communicates with the IviumSoftsoftware. Only the IviumSoft communicates directly with the Ivium device (IviumStat/CompactStat). This
implicates that the IviumSoft-software should always be running in the background when using a Labview
VI to operate the device.
The IviumSoft can be minimised when operating Labview.
2. Constructing the LabVIEW vi library
Import the Ivium remdriver (dll) into LabVIEW. LabVIEW will automatically create a library with a vi for
each available function in the Ivium remdriver. A list of available functions can be found in the Software
development driver DLL.
3. Building you LabVIEW vi
To use the functions in Labview open the ' IVIUM_remdriver.lvlib' (in the Labview directory) in the
getting started window of Labview. Then drag the desired function from the lvlib onto the Block Diagram
of the VI that you are building.
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When a VI is build to control an Ivium device make sure that the driver is opened before operating the
device and closed again before the VI is stopped.
Boundary conditions
Some of the settings of the Ivium device that can be controlled via Labview change an actual setting in
the Ivium device, like for example the current range. When one (or some) of these settings are changed
outside Labview, i.e. in the IviumSoft or by the device itself when for example using the AutoCR setting
in a method, this change of setting is NOT read back into Labview. That implicates that the value in the
User Interface in the Front Panel may not be the actual setting anymore.
When using the method mode a number of strings (file names and locations) are communicated to the
IviumSoft software. These can only be communicated when the device is CONNECTED. If the device is
not connected it will result in an error.
NOTE: The IviumSoft-software has many conditions and safeties incorporated. When using Labview to
control an Ivium device the programmer her/himself will be responsible for supplying valid input
parameters.
4. Example
As an example how Labview may be used to control an Ivium device, a Labview VI is build. This example
is available in your ..\IviumStat\Labview folder. In this example mostfunctions that can be controlled
through Labview are included. This example has been set up in such a way that the user interface
resembles the user interface of the IviumSoft. Note that the example is build using Labview 8.2, if you
are using a later version of LabVIEW, not all functions may work and you will need to contruct your own
vi library.
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Set up of Ivium Driver 1.0
The Ivium Driver 1.0 has been set up using a flat sequence to ensure that the order of events is correct.



The first operation is to open the Ivium_remdriver.dll so the IviumSoft and device can be
operated.
Next a check is performed to see whether the IviumSoft is running. If not the VI is stopped. If
IviumSoft is running a check is performed to see if the device is connect, and if so it will be
disconnected.
Third sequence is the actual operation of the Ivium device, either in direct-mode or in methodmode.
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
Finally, upon closing the VI, the Ivium device is disconnected and the Ivium_remdriver.dll is
closed.
Operating sequence of Ivium Driver 1.0: Block Diagram set-up
To ensure the continuance of operating the Ivium device the actual running-sequence of the VI is
incorporated in a while-loop. However, before the while-loop commences an initiation of the default
values is executed for all the controls for the direct-mode operation. This has been done to ensure that
the values shown in the user interface or Front Panel are the actual values. After this has been done the
while-loop starts.
First in the while loop (refer to Block Diagram) is the possibility of connecting with the Ivium device (1).
Upon connecting, a flat sequence is carried out (2) connecting the device and subsequently setting the
current range, again to ensure that the shown value is the actal one.
The rest of the while-loop is reserved for a tab controlled case structure (3). This case structure operates
depending on the choice of 'direct' or 'method' mode.
The 'direct' case includes all operating parameters, as well as the tab controlled case structure for the
AC/Extern/BiStat controls. It also includes the writing-data-to-file operation and the simple chart.
The 'method' case includes all the operating parameters for reading, starting, changing and saving
experimental methods.
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Operating the Ivium Driver 1.0
Operating the Ivium Driver 1.0 mostly resembles the IviumSoft software. First start the VI from Labview.
Clicking the 'Disconnect - Connect' button at the top of the user interface above the tab control connects
the Ivium device.
If the device is not connected, none of the direct operating controls or the method controls, work. After
connecting, all functions can be operated. This includes the reading of the device serial number. If the
IviumSoft is not running a pop-up window will show mentioning this. Upon clicking the 'OK'-button the
Ivium Driver 1.0-VI will stop running.
When connected the Ivium device can be simply operated by using the controls on the various tab pages.
Direct Mode
In the 'direct' mode tab page the device and cell status can be called and all parameters of the Ivium
device can be controlled directly. For some of these parameters a property node is called to
enable/disable the controls when relevant. This has been done to eliminate the possibility of sending
illegal or conflicting commands that might result in an error and subsequent ceasing of Labview.
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In the direct mode, as an example, an operation for writing data to spread-sheet file (1) and a simple
chart (2) have been incorporated. The chart plots data from the data file and thus only operates when
the data is being written to file. The name of the data file is automatically genrated as 'test+date/time'.
This filename can be altered in the Block Diagram.
The 'direct' mode also shows an extra number of tab pages: AC/Extern/BiStat (3).

The 'AC' page allows to control a simple AC experiment.

The 'Extern' page allows to read and control all external ports.

The 'BiStat' page only shows when the configuration 'BiStat4EL' or 'BiStat2EL' has been chosen.
It then allows BiStat control.
Method mode
In the 'method' mode tab page a method can be selected (A). This method can then be read into the
Ivium software and the device (B). Then the method can be started (C). When 'start method'is clicked
and no method was read into the IviumSoft, the method currently selected in the IviumSoft is started.
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Furthermore, separate parameters of method can be changed (D) and this new method can be saved (E).
Care should be taken that the entered method-parameters to be changed are spelled exactly as in the
IviumSoft, otherwise it will not register.
During running of a method the number of available data points can be requested (F). In Labview there is
no possibility to abort a method once started.
Finally, upon completion of executing a method the then in the IviumSoft available data can be stored as
a Ivium data file (.idf) (G).
12. Trouble shooting
When anomalous behaviour occurs, there are several actions the user can take to solve the problem:
1) Instrument serial number not (properly) displayed in IviumSoft
When the IviumSoft is started and the instrument serialnumber is not properly displayed in the read out
window, this may have several causes:
1.1)
When an unfamiliar code is displayed it may be that another USB device is connected to your PC that
uses the same driver. This may be a (voltage) meter, (stirrer) control, etc., In this case remove the other
device and cycle power of the Ivium instrument, and restart the IviumSoft.
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1.2) If there is no serial number shown and the serial number read out window is blank or shows 'No
Device', there may be several causes, depending on the type of Ivium potentiostat that you are
operating:
A) Adapter/mains powered Ivium instruments
When operating an Ivium instrument that can only be powered from mains, either directly or via an
adapter, such as an IviumStat, Vertex, Ivium-n-Stat, the absence of the serial number can have two
causes:
I- There is no USB connection
II- An error in the Instrument hardware
To solve the problem, make sure your instrument is powered and connected via USB, then:
- Check the USB cable and make sure the USB cable is inserted into the computer (you can also replace
the USB cable with a new one)
- Check if the Ivium instrument is connected to your computer and recognized as such:
In your Windows 'Device Manager' expand the 'Universal Serial Bus Controllers':

If your Ivium instrument is properly connected, you will see the 'Ivium Instrument' in the list

If you see something like 'unknown device' with a black exclamation point on a yellow field, it is
likely that the driver has gotten corrupted. In this case disconnect your instrument, close
IviumSoft and follow the instructions to execute the "Ivium_driverinstaller.exe".

If you don't see any evidence that the Ivium Instrument is connected, it is likely your USB power
is switched off. In this case, remove the Ivium instrument USB cable from the computer and reinsert it. Then make sure Windows is not allowed (again) to switch off power to your USB (see
paragraph below for instructions).
If all these actions fail to solve the problem, contact Ivium or your local distributor for service.
B) USB/Adapter powered Ivium instruments
Operating an Ivium instrument that can be powered from adapter and/or USB, such as a CompactStat or
pocketSTAT, the absence of the serial number can have different causes.
pocketSTAT
The pocketSTAT can only be powered from USB. The absence of the serial number in the read out
window can be caused by:
I- There is no USB connection;
II- An error in the Instrument hardware.
To solve the problem, make sure your instrument is powered and connected via USB, then:
- Check the USB cable and make sure the USB cable is inserted into the computer (you can try and
replace the USB cable with a new one)
- Check if the pocketSTAT is connected to your computer and recognized as such:
In your Windows 'Device Manager' expand the 'Universal Serial Bus Controllers':

If your pocketSTAT is properly connected, you will see the 'Ivium Instrument' in the list

If you see something like 'unknown device' with a black exclamation point on a yellow field, it is
likely that the driver has gotten corrupted. In this case disconnect your instrument, close
IviumSoft and follow the instructions to execute the "Ivium_driverinstaller.exe".

If you don't see any evidence of the pocketSTAT that is connected, it is likely your USB power is
switched off. In this case remove the pocketSTAT USB cable from the computer and re-insert it.
Then make sure Windows is not allowed (again) to switch off power to your USB (see paragraph
below for instructions).
If all these actions fail to solve the problem, contact Ivium or your local distributor for service.
CompactStat
The CompactStat can be powered from USB or from adapter. If the serial number is absent in the read
out window:
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- Check the USB cable and make sure the USB cable is inserted into the computer (you can try and
replace the USB cable with a new one)
- Check if the CompactStat is connected to your computer and recognized as such:
In your Windows 'Device Manager' expand the 'Universal Serial Bus Controllers':

If your CompactStat is properly connected, you will see the 'Ivium Instrument' in the list

If you see something like 'unknown device' with a black exclamation point on a yellow field, it is
likely that the driver has gotten corrupted. In this case disconnect your instrument, close
IviumSoft and follow the instructions to execute the "Ivium_driverinstaller.exe".

If you don't see any evidence of the CompactStat that is connected, it is likely your USB power is
switched off. In this case cycle the connection and power of the CompactStat by removing the
USB cable from the computer (and the adapter plug from the back of the CompactStat) and reinsert it. Then make sure Windows is not allowed (again) to switch off power to your USB (see
paragraph below for instructions).
If this does not help, check how your CompactStat is powered. If it is powered from the adapter, remove
the adapter and USB cable, and try to power the CompactStat from USB alone by re-inserting the USB
cable.
- If now the serial number does show, your CompactStat may have lost the FTDI programming. Contact
Ivium to solve the problem. In the meantime, the CompactStat will still function normally on USB power.
- If the serial number does not show, it is likely there is a problem with the power electronics inside the
CompactStat. Contact Ivium to have it repaired.
2) Instrument fails performance test
When the performance test is executed and 1 or more values show a "fail" status consistently after
repeatedly running the peformance test, it may have happened that the calibration or instrument values
have gotten corrupted. To solve this the user can restore the factory settings. When this does not solve
the problem, contact your local distributor or Ivium Technologies.
3) Re-installing IviumSoft
If reinstallation of IviumSoft is in order for any reason, please note the following.
IviumSoft is installed in the ..\IviumStat directory. When using IviumSoft some additional directories are
created that store the generated data files. If IviumSoft is uninstalled, these data directories are not
removed/deleted. However, to avoid any problems or loss of data files during uninstallation and then reinstalling IviumSoft, it is recommended to rename the data directories before uninstalling the program,
and move these to a separate directory outside the IviumStat directory. Then uninstall IviumSoft, and
after this manually delete the IviumStat directory.
Upon (re)installation the IviumStat directory is created (again).
Note: IviumSoft does not install any files in the Windows registry.
4) "Range Check Error" in IviumSoft
When you encounter a pop-up with a "Range Check Error" when you attempt to connect to your Ivium
instrument, depending on the cause, this can be solved in different ways;
A)
The problem might be due to a number of "configuration" files that are saved in IviumSoft every time it
closes. These files save various items so that, when you restart IviumSoft, the last Method is displayed
with the correct parameters, etc. If something changes in the system between the time the IviumSoft is
closed and then reopened, you might see the Range Change Error.
The problem may be solved by deleting the relevant files and restarting IviumSoft.
Make sure all instances of IviumSoft are closed before deleting the files.
Browse to the IviumStat directory on the C Drive (see screenshot below) and click on 'Date Modified' to
sort the files with most recent at the top. You will find 7 files named "iviumsoft.xyz" are shown at the top
of the file list. Delete the 6 files named:
iviumsoft.hst
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iviumsoft.icf
iviumsoft.imf
iviumsoft.ini
iviumsoft.opt
iviumsoft.ios
Do not delete iviumsoft.bmk, as this will delete your bookmarks in IviumSoft.
Then restart IviumSoft, the "Range check error" should be gone.
Don't worry about deleting the "iviumsoft.xyz" files…new versions will be saved in the IviumStat directory
the next time you close IviumSoft.
B)
The range check error may be caused by the fact that Windows keeps a counter for the up-time of the
operating system, counted in ms. After some 20 days the counter is full. The IviumSoft polls this counter
and returns an error, resulting in the Range check error that prevents the instrument from being
connected to the firmware from being upgraded.
To recover from this:
- Switch the computer off and back on, this will reset the counter.
- Upgrade to the latest IviumSoft (newer versions of IviumSoft have a fix for this issue).
5) Disabling USB Power Saving Mode
It is possible that Windows is set to allow the computer to turn the USB ports off to save power. If the
power to the USB is turned off, IviumSoft will be unable to connect to the instrument and thus control the
Ivium Potentiostat.
To avoid this problem, disable power management of the USB ports:
Open your Windows Explorer and right mouse click on 'Computer', then click on 'Properties.
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In the pop-up window click on 'Device Manager' to open the Device Manager, and expand the 'Universal
Serial Bus Controllers' group
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Make sure that for all Generic USB Hubs and USB Root Hubs, Windows is not allowed to shut down the
power:
Right mouse click on Generic USB HUB and choose 'Properties' from the list:
Then in the pop-up window select the tab to the right 'Power Management', and UNCHECK the box that
"Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power"
Repeat this for all USB generic and root hubs.
6) Failure to connect, firmware version '0'
When connecting to your Ivium instrument in IviumSoft by clicking "Connect", the computer and Ivium
instrument will connect and synchronize. However, inside each Ivium instrument there is a microPC that
needs some time (10 s) to start up. When, for example, inserting the power and/or USB of a
CompactStat, and then immediately clicking "Connect" in the IviumSoft, the computer will try to connect
to the instrument before its internal microPC has started up. This results in a communication failure, first
showing the pop-up:
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followed by:
and sometimes a message indicating that the firmware version is '0', rather than the firmware version
that is installed on the microPC. The indication of 'firmware version 0' just means that the instrument and
computer have not connected/synchronized.
In this case, just cycle the power of the instrument, close and re-open IviumSoft, and wait 10 s before
clicking "Connect" in IviumSoft.
If the Ivium instrument does not connect after repeated attempts (cycling power each time), it may be
that the firmware on the internal microPC of your instrument has gotten corrupted. In this case, try to
restore the firmware as described in Restore instrument.
7) Error at Firmware update: "Range check error"
It may happen that when attempting to upgrade the firmware of an instrument, the message "Range
check error" occurs and the firmware upgrade is not possible. This problem is caused by the fact that
Windows keeps a counter for the up-time of the operating system, counted in ms. After some 20 days
the counter is full. The IviumSoft polls this counter and returns an error, resulting in the Range check
error that prevents the firmware from being upgraded.
To recover from this:
- Switch the computer off and back on, this will reset the counter.
- Upgrade to the latest IviumSoft (newer versions of IviumSoft have a fix for this issue).
8) Help file empty/shows no content
The IviumSoft contains a help file which can be activated by pressing 'F1' on your keyboard, or from the
menu 'Help'. The help file contains the complete manual and is mostly content sensitive, i.e. when
placing your cursor on the object in IviumSoft you wish help on and press 'F1', the help file opens
automatically on the relevant subject.
It may be that when you open the helpfile the content is not visible, or you see a cryptic browser
message like "Navigation to the webpage was canceled" or "Action canceled".
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This is caused by Windows solving yet again a security leak. It can be fixed simply by changing a setting.
In Windows explorer navigate to your IviumStat directory where the help file is located. Right-mouseclick on the 'IviumSoft.chm' file and choose 'Properties' at the bottom of the list. This opens a pop-up.
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In the bottom panel of the pop-up click "Unblock" and OK. Close the pop-up window. Now the content in
the IviumSoft help will be available.
12.1 Serial numer not displayed in IviumSoft
When the IviumSoft is started and the instrument serialnumber is not properly displayed in the read out
window, this may have several causes:
1.1)
When an unfamiliar code is displayed it may be that another USB device is connected to your PC that
uses the same driver. This may be a (voltage) meter, (stirrer) control, etc., In this case remove the other
device and cycle power of the Ivium instrument, and restart the IviumSoft.
1.2)
If there is no serial number shown and the serial number read out window is blank or shows 'No Device',
there may be several causes, depending on the type of Ivium potentiostat that you are operating:
A) Adapter/mains powered Ivium instruments
When operating an Ivium instrument that can only be powered from mains, either directly or via an
adapter, such as an IviumStat, Vertex, Ivium-n-Stat, the absence of the serial number can have two
causes:
I- There is no USB connection
II- An error in the Instrument hardware
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To solve the problem, make sure your instrument is powered and connected via USB, then:
- Check the USB cable and make sure the USB cable is inserted into the computer (you can also replace
the USB cable with a new one)
- Check if the Ivium instrument is connected to your computer and recognized as such:
In your Windows 'Device Manager' expand the 'Universal Serial Bus Controllers':

If your Ivium instrument is properly connected, you will see the 'Ivium Instrument' in the list

If you see something like 'unknown device' with a black exclamation point on a yellow field, it is
likely that the driver has gotten corrupted. In this case disconnect your instrument, close
IviumSoft and follow the instructions to execute the "Ivium_driverinstaller.exe".

If you don't see any evidence that the Ivium Instrument is connected, it is likely your USB power
is switched off. In this case, remove the Ivium instrument USB cable from the computer and reinsert it. Then make sure Windows is not allowed (again) to switch off power to your USB (see
paragraph below for instructions).
If all these actions fail to solve the problem, contact Ivium or your local distributor for service.
B) USB/Adapter powered Ivium instruments
Operating an Ivium instrument that can be powered from adapter and/or USB, such as a CompactStat or
pocketSTAT, the absence of the serial number can have different causes.
pocketSTAT
The pocketSTAT can only be powered from USB. The absence of the serial number in the read out
window can be caused by:
I- There is no USB connection;
II- An error in the Instrument hardware.
To solve the problem, make sure your instrument is powered and connected via USB, then:
- Check the USB cable and make sure the USB cable is inserted into the computer (you can try and
replace the USB cable with a new one)
- Check if the pocketSTAT is connected to your computer and recognized as such:
In your Windows 'Device Manager' expand the 'Universal Serial Bus Controllers':

If your pocketSTAT is properly connected, you will see the 'Ivium Instrument' in the list

If you see something like 'unknown device' with a black exclamation point on a yellow field, it is
likely that the driver has gotten corrupted. In this case disconnect your instrument, close
IviumSoft and follow the instructions to execute the "Ivium_driverinstaller.exe".

If you don't see any evidence of the pocketSTAT that is connected, it is likely your USB power is
switched off. In this case remove the pocketSTAT USB cable from the computer and re-insert it.
Then make sure Windows is not allowed (again) to switch off power to your USB (see paragraph
below for instructions).
If all these actions fail to solve the problem, contact Ivium or your local distributor for service.
CompactStat
The CompactStat can be powered from USB or from adapter. If the serial number is absent in the read
out window:
- Check the USB cable and make sure the USB cable is inserted into the computer (you can try and
replace the USB cable with a new one)
- Check if the CompactStat is connected to your computer and recognized as such:
In your Windows 'Device Manager' expand the 'Universal Serial Bus Controllers':

If your CompactStat is properly connected, you will see the 'Ivium Instrument' in the list

If you see something like 'unknown device' with a black exclamation point on a yellow field, it is
likely that the driver has gotten corrupted. In this case disconnect your instrument, close
IviumSoft and follow the instructions to execute the "Ivium_driverinstaller.exe".

If you don't see any evidence of the CompactStat that is connected, it is likely your USB power is
switched off. In this case cycle the connection and power of the CompactStat by removing the
USB cable from the computer (and the adapter plug from the back of the CompactStat) and reinsert it. Then make sure Windows is not allowed (again) to switch off power to your USB (see
paragraph below for instructions).
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If this does not help, check how your CompactStat is powered. If it is powered from the adapter, remove
the adapter and USB cable, and try to power the CompactStat from USB alone by re-inserting the USB
cable.
- If now the serial number does show, your CompactStat may have lost the FTDI programming. Contact
Ivium to solve the problem. In the meantime, the CompactStat will still function normally on USB power.
- If the serial number does not show, it is likely there is a problem with the power electronics inside the
CompactStat. Contact Ivium to have it repaired.
12.2 Instrument fails performance test
When the performance test is executed and 1 or more values show a "fail" status consistently after
repeatedly running the peformance test, it may have happened that the calibration or instrument values
have gotten corrupted. To solve this the user can restore the factory settings. When this does not solve
the problem, contact your local distributor or Ivium Technologies.
12.3 Restore instrument driver
If the IviumSoft is started, but the instrument serial number is not shown in the serial number read out
window (after the instrument is properly started), the instrument driver may have gotten corrupted. This
can be solved by (re-)running the driver-installer following the driver installation instructions.
12.4 Restore factory settings
An Ivium instrument is equipped with an internal microPC. Next to the instrument firmware and the high
speed data, the microPC also stores the calibration values and the instrument settings as established in
the factory. In the occasion that these calibration values and/or settings get corrupted, it is possible to
restore the factory values. The procedure for restoring factory setting is different for each Ivium
instrument and can be found as given below; note that to restore the factory settings from the menu:
choose the top option "Restore factory settings".
Restore factory settings for:

CompactStat

IviumStat

Vertex

Ivium-n-Stat: Modules

pocketSTAT
12.5 Restore instrument
If the connection process takes exceptionally long, the instrument fails to respond, or the firmware
update fails, it is possible to recover the instrument. Please note that the recovery procedure is slightly
different for each instrument.
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




Restore
Restore
Restore
Restore
Restore
CompactStat
IviumStat
Vertex
Ivium-n-Stat: Modules
pocketSTAT
12.5.1 Restore CompactStat
1)
2)
3)
4)
Remove the power adapter and the USB cable.
Start the IviumSoft on your PC.
Insert the USB cable.
From the IviumSoft main menu, choose Tools>Restore device
5) This will open a pop-up
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


Restore factory settings: reverts back to the original settings and calibration values.
Restore factory firmware: sets the firmware back to the original release.
Restore previous firmware: go back to the version before the last upgrade.
The last option is useful when recovering from a failed upgrade. If also the previous version was corrupt,
the factory version can be used.
6) Select "Restore previous firmware", click this option once. It will appear if nothing happens, but inside
the instrument the internal micro PC is reset.
7) Close the "Restore device" pop-up.
8) Close the IviumSoft.
9) Remove the USB cable and re-insert it.
10) Now the CompactStat should be able to connect (again) in the IviumSoft, running on the previous
firmware. If this option fails, repeat the procedure from step 1, but in step 6. select "Restore factory
firmware"
11) If the restore function was executed because of a failed firmware upgrade, the firmware upgrade
may now be re-attempted.
12.5.2 Restore IviumStat
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Switch off the IviumStat.
Start the IviumSoft on your PC.
Press the red "Disconnect" button at teh front of the IviumStat.
Now switch on the IviumStat. The red "Disconnect" button should be lit.
From the IviumSoft main menu, choose Tools>Restore device
6) This will open a pop-up



Restore factory settings: reverts back to the original settings and calibration values.
Restore factory firmware: sets the firmware back to the original release.
Restore previous firmware: go back to the version before the last upgrade.
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The last option is useful when recovering from a failed upgrade. If also the previous version was corrupt,
the factory version can be used.
7) Select "Restore previous firmware", click this option once. It will appear if nothing happens, but inside
the instrument the internal micro PC is reset.
8) Close the "Restore device" pop-up.
9) Close the IviumSoft.
10) Switch off the IviumStat.
11) De-press the red "Disconnect" button at the front of the IviumStat.
12) Switch on the IviumStat (the "Disconnect button at the front should not be lit anymore).
13) Now the IviumStat should be able to connect (again) in the IviumSoft, running on the previous
firmware. If this option fails, repeat the procedure from step 1, but in step 6. select "Restore factory
firmware"
14) If the restore function was executed because of a failed firmware upgrade, the firmware upgrade
may now be re-attempted.
12.5.3 Restore Vertex
1) Switch off the Vertex (remove the power adapter).
2) Start the IviumSoft on your PC.
3) (Insert the power adapter and) Push and hold the on-switch at the front of the Vertex until it lights up
red. Then release the switch. This will put the Vertex in restore mode.
4) From the IviumSoft main menu, choose Tools>Restore device
5) This will open a pop-up



Restore factory settings: reverts back to the original settings and calibration values.
Restore factory firmware: sets the firmware back to the original release.
Restore previous firmware: go back to the version before the last upgrade.
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The last option is useful when recovering from a failed upgrade. If also the previous version was corrupt,
the factory version can be used.
6) Select "Restore previous firmware", click this option once. It will appear if nothing happens, but inside
the instrument the internal micro PC is reset.
7) Close the "Restore device" pop-up.
8) Close the IviumSoft.
9) Switch off the Vertex (remove the power adapter).
10) (Insert the power adapter and) Switch on the Vertex.
11) Now the Vertex should be able to connect (again) in the IviumSoft, running on the previous
firmware. If this option fails, repeat the procedure from step 1, but in step 6. select "Restore factory
firmware"
12) If the restore function was executed because of a failed firmware upgrade, the firmware upgrade
may now be re-attempted.
12.5.4 Restore Ivium-n-Stat: Modules
1) Switch off the Ivium-n-Stat.
2) Start the IviumSoft on your PC.
3) Make a wire connection between the EMO and GND sockets at the back of the Ivium-n-Stat, for
example using a banana-lead. This will enable the restore mode.
4) Now switch on the Ivium-n-Stat (the LEDs will light up faint red).
5) In the serial number window select the channel to be restored.
6) From the IviumSoft main menu, choose Tools>Restore device
7) This will open a pop-up
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


Restore factory settings: reverts back to the original settings and calibration values.
Restore factory firmware: sets the firmware back to the original release.
Restore previous firmware: go back to the version before the last upgrade.
The last option is useful when recovering from a failed upgrade. If also the previous version was corrupt,
the factory version can be used.
8) Select "Restore previous firmware", click this option once. It will appear if nothing happens, but inside
the instrument the internal micro PC is reset.
9) Close the "Restore device" pop-up.
10) Close the IviumSoft.
11) Switch off the Ivium-n-Stat.
12) Remove the wire connection between the EMO and GND.
13) Switch on the Ivium-n-Stat.
14) Now the restored channel should start up again and be able to connect (again) in the IviumSoft,
running on the previous firmware. If this option fails, repeat the procedure from step 1, but in step 6.
select "Restore factory firmware"
14) If the restore function was executed because of a failed firmware upgrade, the firmware upgrade
may now be re-attempted.
12.5.5 Restore pocketSTAT
1)
2)
3)
4)
Remove the USB cable.
Start the IviumSoft on your PC.
Insert the USB cable.
From the IviumSoft main menu, choose Tools>Restore device
5) This will open a pop-up
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


Restore factory settings: reverts back to the original settings and calibration values.
Restore factory firmware: sets the firmware back to the original release.
Restore previous firmware: go back to the version before the last upgrade.
The last option is useful when recovering from a failed upgrade. If also the previous version was corrupt,
the factory version can be used.
6) Select "Restore previous firmware", click this option once. It will appear if nothing happens, but inside
the instrument the internal micro PC is reset.
7) Close the "Restore device" pop-up, and wait for 10 seconds.
8) Now the pocketSTAT should be able to connect (again) in the IviumSoft, running on the previous
firmware. If this option fails, repeat the procedure from step 1, but in step 6. select "Restore factory
firmware"
9) If the restore function was executed because of a failed firmware upgrade, the firmware upgrade may
now be re-attempted.
12.6 Re-installing IviumSoft
If reinstallation of IviumSoft is in order for any reason, please note the following.
IviumSoft is installed in the ..\IviumStat directory. When using IviumSoft some additional directories are
created that store the generated data files. If IviumSoft is uninstalled, these data directories are not
removed/deleted. However, to avoid any problems or loss of data files during uninstallation and then reinstalling IviumSoft, it is recommended to rename the data directories before uninstalling the program,
and move these to a separate directory outside the IviumStat directory. Then uninstall IviumSoft, and
after this manually delete the IviumStat directory.
Upon (re)installation the IviumStat directory is created (again).
Note: IviumSoft does not install any files in the Windows registry.
12.7 Range Check error in IviumSoft
When you encounter a pop-up with a "Range Check Error" when you attempt to connect to your Ivium
instrument, depending on the cause, this can be solved in different ways;
A)
The problem might be due to a number of "configuration" files that are saved in IviumSoft every time it
closes. These files save various items so that, when you restart IviumSoft, the last Method is displayed
with the correct parameters, etc. If something changes in the system between the time the IviumSoft is
closed and then reopened, you might see the Range Change Error.
The problem may be solved by deleting the relevant files and restarting IviumSoft.
Make sure all instances of IviumSoft are closed before deleting the files.
Browse to the IviumStat directory on the C Drive (see screenshot below) and click on 'Date Modified' to
sort the files with most recent at the top. You will find 7 files named "iviumsoft.xyz" are shown at the top
of the file list. Delete the 6 files named:
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iviumsoft.hst
iviumsoft.icf
iviumsoft.imf
iviumsoft.ini
iviumsoft.opt
iviumsoft.ios
Do not delete iviumsoft.bmk, as this will delete your bookmarks in IviumSoft.
Then restart IviumSoft, the "Range check error" should be gone.
Don't worry about deleting the "iviumsoft.xyz" files…new versions will be saved in the IviumStat directory
the next time you close IviumSoft.
B)
The range check error may be caused by the fact that Windows keeps a counter for the up-time of the
operating system, counted in ms. After some 20 days the counter is full. The IviumSoft polls this counter
and returns an error, resulting in the Range check error that prevents the instrument from being
connected to the firmware from being upgraded.
To recover from this:
- Switch the computer off and back on, this will reset the counter.
- Upgrade to the latest IviumSoft (newer versions of IviumSoft have a fix for this issue).
12.8 Disabling USB power saving mode
It is possible that Windows is set to allow the computer to turn the USB ports off to save power. If the
power to the USB is turned off, IviumSoft will be unable to connect to the instrument and thus control the
Ivium Potentiostat.
To avoid this problem, disable power management of the USB ports:
Open your Windows Explorer and right mouse click on 'Computer', then click on 'Properties.
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In the pop-up window click on 'Device Manager' to open the Device Manager, and expand the 'Universal
Serial Bus Controllers' group
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Make sure that for all Generic USB Hubs and USB Root Hubs, Windows is not allowed to shut down the
power:
Right mouse click on Generic USB HUB and choose 'Properties' from the list:
Then in the pop-up window select the tab to the right 'Power Management', and UNCHECK the box that
"Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power"
Repeat this for all USB generic and root hubs.
12.9 Failure to connect, firmware version '0'
When connecting to your Ivium instrument in IviumSoft by clicking "Connect", the computer and Ivium
instrument will connect and synchronize. However, inside each Ivium instrument there is a microPC that
needs some time (10 s) to start up. When, for example, inserting the power and/or USB of a
CompactStat, and then immediately clicking "Connect" in the IviumSoft, the computer will try to connect
to the instrument before its internal microPC has started up. This results in a communication failure, first
showing the pop-up:
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followed by:
and sometimes a message indicating that the firmware version is '0', rather than the firmware version
that is installed on the microPC. The indication of 'firmware version 0' just means that the instrument and
computer have not connected/synchronized.
In this case, just cycle the power of the instrument, close and re-open IviumSoft, and wait 10 s before
clicking "Connect" in IviumSoft.
If the Ivium instrument does not connect after repeated attempts (cycling power each time), it may be
that the firmware on the internal microPC of your instrument has gotten corrupted. In this case, try to
restore the firmware as described in Restore instrument.
12.10 Error at Firmware update: Range check error
It may happen that when attempting to upgrade the firmware of an instrument, the message "Range
check error" occurs and the firmware upgrade is not possible. This problem is caused by the fact that
Windows keeps a counter for the up-time of the operating system, counted in ms. After some 20 days
the counter is full. The IviumSoft polls this counter and returns an error, resulting in the Range check
error that prevents the firmware from being upgraded.
To recover from this:
- Switch the computer off and back on, this will reset the counter.
- Upgrade to the latest IviumSoft (newer versions of IviumSoft have a fix for this issue).
12.11 Help file empty/shows no content
The IviumSoft contains a help file which can be activated by pressing 'F1' on your keyboard, or from the
menu 'Help'. The help file contains the complete manual and is mostly content sensitive, i.e. when
placing your cursor on the object in IviumSoft you wish help on and press 'F1', the help file opens
automatically on the relevant subject.
It may be that when you open the helpfile the content is not visible, or you see a cryptic browser
message like "Navigation to the webpage was canceled" or "Action canceled".
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This is caused by Windows solving yet again a security leak. It can be fixed simply by changing a setting.
In Windows explorer navigate to your IviumStat directory where the help file is located. Right-mouseclick on the 'IviumSoft.chm' file and choose 'Properties' at the bottom of the list. This opens a pop-up.
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In the bottom panel of the pop-up click "Unblock" and OK. Close the pop-up window. Now the content in
the IviumSoft help will be available.
13.Instrument specifications
Specifications of instruments and modules can be found here:



















Compatibility table of potentiostats and options/modules
pocketSTAT
Vertex
CompactStat
IviumStat
Ivium-n-Stat and channel modules
IviumBoost
PPE
PDA
PLT
Bipotentiostat
Tue Linear Scan
MultiWE32
Multiplexers
E-doubler
Current interrupt module
ModuLight
IviSUN
Connectors
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13.1 Compatibility table of Ivium instruments
The table below shows the available Ivium instruments and modules, and whether they are compatible to
operate together.
13.2 pocketSTAT
Ivium pocketSTAT specifications:
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
3 Electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Electrode connection
±10 mA
±8V
WE, CE, RE and GND (2mm banana plugs)
>1 MHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1 MHz , 100 kHz , 10 kHz , 1 kHz , 10 Hz
dual channel 16 bit ADC, 5000 samples/sec
RE/WE/CE and GND lead, 2mm banana plugs
Potentiostat:
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution
Measured current accuracy
±4 V, 0.125 mV resolution
0.2%, or 2 mV
±1 nA to ±10 mA in 8 decades
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15pA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.0125% of applied current range
0.2%
±0.4 mV, ±4 mV, ±40 mV, ±0.4 V, ±4 V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 16nV
0.2%, or 2 mV
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Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
10µHz to 100 kHz
0.015mV to 1.0V, or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
Electrometer
Input impedance
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<20pF
<10 pA
>2 MHz
Environment
Power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
Waterproof
PC requirements
via USB
USB
w x d x h = 11.5 x 5.85 x 1.25 cm
140 gram
IP44
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2016
13.3 Vertex


Vertex 100mA/1A
Vertex.S 2A/5A/10A
13.3.1 Vertex 100mA/1A
Ivium Vertex specifications:
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
100mA
1A
±100mA
±1A
±10V
± 10V below 1A and ± 8V up to
5A
WE, CE, RE, S
>500kHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
Dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Measured current accuracy
±10V, 0.333mVresolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±100mA in 8 decades ±1A
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15pA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.033% of applied current range
0.2%
±10mV, ±100mV, ±1V, ±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 0.4µV
0.2%, or 2mV
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>100 Gohm //<20pF
<20pA
>5 MHz
Impedance Analyser (optional)
Frequency range
Impedance range
10µHz to 1MHz
Recommended for 20mohm to 10Gohm
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Amplitude
DC offset
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit DC offset subtraction, 2 DC-decoupling filters
Special functions
Ohmic drop compensation
2V/current range, 16bit resolution
Peripheral connections
Shared input/output
User selectable input or output
±10V, 16bit, bandwidth 40kHz
Environment
Power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
100-240V, 47-63Hz, 700mA
USB
w x d x h = 13 x 27 x 4 cm
1.5 kg
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2016
13.3.2 Vertex.S 2A/5A/10A
Vertex.2A
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
2A/20V
±2A
±20V
WE, CE, RE, S
>500kHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
Dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Measured current accuracy
±10V, 0.333mVresolution/±20V, 0.667mVresolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±1A in 9 decades
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15pA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.033% of applied current range
0.2%
±10mV, ±100mV, ±1V, ±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 0.4µV
0.2%, or 2mV
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>100 Gohm //<20pF
<20pA
>5 MHz
Impedance Analyser (optional)
Frequency range
Impedance range
Amplitude
DC offset
10µHz to 1MHz
Recommended for 20mohm to 10Gohm
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit DC offset subtraction, 2 DC-decoupling filters
Special functions
Ohmic drop compensation
2V/current range, 16bit resolution
Peripheral connections
2 Analog in
1 Analog out
1 Digital input, 3 Digital outputs
I-out, E-out
AC-out
Channel-X and Channel-Y inputs
±10V, 16 bit resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
±10V, 16 bit resolution
0 to +5V
Analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-1MHz with variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
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Environment
Power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
100-240V, 47-63Hz, 2A
USB
w x d x h = 15 x 35 x 5 cm
2kg
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
Vertex.5A
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
5A/10V
±5A
±10V
WE, CE, RE, S
>500kHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
Dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Measured current accuracy
±10V, 0.333mVresolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±10A in 10 decades
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15pA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.033% of applied current range
0.2%
±10mV, ±100mV, ±1V, ±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 0.4µV
0.2%, or 2mV
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>100 Gohm //<20pF
<20pA
>5 MHz
Impedance Analyser (optional)
Frequency range
Impedance range
Amplitude
DC offset
10µHz to 1MHz
Recommended for 20mohm to 10Gohm
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit DC offset subtraction, 2 DC-decoupling filters
Special functions
Ohmic drop compensation
2V/current range, 16bit resolution
Peripheral connections
2 Analog in
1 Analog out
1 Digital input, 3 Digital outputs
I-out, E-out
AC-out
Channel-X and Channel-Y inputs
±10V, 16 bit resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
±10V, 16 bit resolution
0 to +5V
Analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-1MHz with variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
Power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
100-240V, 47-63Hz, 2A
USB
w x d x h = 15 x 35 x 5 cm
2kg
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
Vertex.10A
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System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
10A/10V
±10A
±10V
WE, CE, RE, S
>500kHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
Dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Measured current accuracy
±10V, 0.333mVresolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±10A in 10 decades
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15pA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.033% of applied current range
0.2%
±10mV, ±100mV, ±1V, ±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 0.4µV
0.2%, or 2mV
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>100 Gohm //<20pF
<20pA
>5 MHz
Impedance Analyser (optional)
Frequency range
Impedance range
Amplitude
DC offset
10µHz to 1MHz
Recommended for 20mohm to 10Gohm
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit DC offset subtraction, 2 DC-decoupling filters
Special functions
Ohmic drop compensation
2V/current range, 16bit resolution
Peripheral connections
2 Analog in
1 Analog out
1 Digital input, 3 Digital outputs
I-out, E-out
AC-out
Channel-X and Channel-Y inputs
±10V, 16 bit resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
±10V, 16 bit resolution
0 to +5V
Analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-1MHz with variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
Power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
100-240V, 47-63Hz, 4A
USB
w x d x h = 15 x 35 x 5 cm
3kg
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2016
13.4 CompactStat
1. CompactStat
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Ivium Technologies ©
CompactStat
±30mA (guaranteed ±1mA in USB powered mode)
±7.5V
WE, CE, RE, S
>1MHz
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Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Safety features
Electrode connection
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec.
automatic disconnect on intern./ext. exceptions
RE/WE/CE/S/WE2 and GND lead: 4mm banana's
Potentiostat:
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
High sensitivity current ranges
Measured current resolution
Measured current accuracy
±4V, 0.125mV resolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±10mA
±1pA, ±10pA, ±100pA, ±1nA
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15fA
0.2%
Galvanostat:
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.0125% of applied current range
0.2%
±1mV,±4mV,±10mV,±40mV
±100mV,±400mV,±1V,±4V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 16nV
0.2%, or 2mV
Impedance Analyser:
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10uHz to 2MHz
0.015mV to 1.0V, or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
4nV to 4V, and 0.05fA to 30mA
Electrometer:
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Special functions:
Current feedback ohmic drop compensation
Peripheral connections:
8 Analog in
2 Analog out
2 Digital inputs, and 3 Digital outputs
I-out, and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X, and Channel-Y inputs
2V/current range, 16 bits resolution
0 to +4.000V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
0 to +4.096V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5V
analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-3MHz, variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment:
power requirements: in USB powered mode
USB, 500mA (standard pc spec.)
: with external adapter 100-240V, 45-65Hz, 6VA
Interfacing
USB 1.1 or 2.0 compliant
Size
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
Weight
0.6 kg
PC requirements
Windows XP/Vista/7/8, with free USB port
2. CompactStatPlus
Same specifications as CompactStat, except:
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
Additional current range
Plus Plus2
± 250mA
± 20V
100mA
± 800mA ± 500mA
± 8V
± 10V
100mA, 1A
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
± 20 V, 0.666mV res.
± 10 V, 0.333mV res.
±2mV,±20mV, ±200mV,
±2V,±20V
±1mV,±10mV, ±100mV,
±1V,±10V
Galvanostat
Potential ranges
Environment
power requirements in USB powered mode
power requirements with external adapter
power requirements at dc-connector
Size
Ivium Technologies ©
not available
100-240V, 45-65Hz, 12VA
12V, 1A
w x d x h = 12 x 12 x 2.5 cm
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Weight
0.6 kg
3. CompactStat.e
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Safety features
Electrode connection
CompactStat.e
±30mA (guaranteed ±1mA in USB powered mode)
±10V
WE, CE, RE, S
>3MHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec.
automatic disconnect on intern./ext. exceptions
RE/WE/CE/S/WE2 and GND lead: 4mm banana's
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
High sensitivity current ranges
Measured current resolution
Measured current accuracy
±4V, 0.125mV resolution/±10V, 0.333mV resolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±10mA (±100mA, ±1A)
±1pA, ±10pA, ±100pA, ±1nA
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15fA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.0125% of applied current range
0.2%
±1mV,±4mV,±10mV,±40mV,
±100mV,±400mV,±1V,±4V,±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 16nV
0.2%, or 2mV
Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10uHz to 3MHz
0.015mV to 1.0V, or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
4nV to 4V, and 0.05fA to 30mA
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Special functions
Current feedback ohmic drop compensation
Peripheral connections
8 Analog in
2 Analog out
2 Digital inputs, and 3 Digital outputs
I-out, and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X, and Channel-Y inputs
2V/current range, 16 bits resolution
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5V
analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-3MHz, variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
power requirements: in USB powered mode
USB, 500mA (standard pc spec.)
: with external adapter 100-240V, 45-65Hz, 350mA
Interfacing
USB 1.1, 2.0, 3 compliant
Size
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
Weight
0.6 kg
PC requirements
Windows XP/Vista/7/8, with free USB port
4. CompactStat.e with power booster
Same specifications as CompactStat.e, except:
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
Additional current range
e20250
±250mA
±20V ±10V
100mA
e10800
±800mA
100mA, 1A
e10030
±30mA
±100V
--
Applied potential range
3.33mV res.
±20V, 0.667mV res.
±10V, 0.333mV res.
±100V,
Ivium Technologies ©
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Additional potential ranges
±20V -Power requirements (Adapter powered only)100-240V, 45-65Hz, 700mA
240V, 45-65Hz, 700mA
Weight
0.7 kg
±100V
100-240V, 45-65Hz, 700mA1000.7 kg
0.7 kg
5. CompactStat.h
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
4 electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Safety features
Electrode connection
CompactStat.h
±30mA (guaranteed ±1mA in USB powered mode)
±10V
WE, CE, RE, S
>3MHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 24 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec.
automatic disconnect on intern./ext. exceptions
RE/WE/CE/S/WE2 and GND lead: 4mm banana's
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
High sensitivity current ranges
Measured current resolution
Measured current accuracy
±4V, 0.01mV resolution (20bits)/±10V, 0.02mV resolution
0.2%, or 1mV
±10nA to ±1A in 9 decades
±1pA, ±10pA, ±100pA, ±1nA
0.00001% of current range, minimum 0.6aA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.00013% of applied current range
0.2%
±0.4mV, ±4mV, ±40mV, ±0.4V, ±4V, ±10V
0.00001% of potential range, minimum 0.05nV
0.2%, or 1mV
Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10uHz to 3MHz
0.015mV to 1.0V, or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit DC offset subtraction, 2 DC-decoupling filters
0.05nV to 10V, and 0.2aA to 30mA
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Special functions
Current feedback ohmic drop compensation
2V/current range, 16 bits resolution
Safety features
Automatic disconnect on internal/external limits
Peripheral connections
8 Analog in
2 Analog out
2 Digital inputs, and 3 Digital outputs
I-out, and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X, and Channel-Y inputs
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5V
analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-3MHz, variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
power requirements: on USB powered mode
Standard 5V, 500mA
: with external adapter 100-240V, 45-65Hz, 500mA
Interfacing
USB
Size
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
Weight
0.6 kg
PC requirements
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
6. CompactStat.h with power booster
Same specifications as CompactStat.h, except:
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum output voltage
Additional applied range
Ivium Technologies ©
h20250
±250mA
±20V ±10V
±20V, 0.04mV res.
Manual June 2016
h10800
±800mA
--
h10030
±30mA
±100V
±100V
298
Additional measured range
±20V -±100V, 0.2mV resolution
Power requirements (Adapter powered only)
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 700mA100-240V, 50-60Hz, 700mA
100240V, 50-60Hz, 700mA
Weight
0.7 kg
0.7 kg
0.7 kg
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2016
13.5 IviumStat
1. Classic IviumStat
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Safety features
IviumStat
±5A
±10V below 1A and ±8V up to 5A
8MHz for small signals, 300kHz for large signals
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
automatic disconnect on intern./ext. exceptions
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
High sensitivity current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Measured current accuracy
Current feedback ohmic drop comp.
±10V, at 0.33mV resolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±10A in 10 steps
±1pA, ±10pA, ±100pA, ±1nA
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15fA
0.2%
2V/current range, 16 bits resolution
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.033% of applied current range
0.2%
±1mV, ±10mV, ±100mV, ±1V, ±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 40nV
0.2%, or 2mV
Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10µHz to 8MHz
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
12nV to 10V, and 0.05fA to 5A
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Special functions
Current feedback ohmic drop compensation
Safety features
2V/current range, 16 bits resolution
Automatic disconnect on internal/external limits
Peripheral connections
8 Analog in
2 Analog out
2 Digital inputs, and 3 Digital outputs
I-out, and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X, and Channel-Y inputs
0 to +4.000V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
0 to +4.096V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5V
analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-8MHz, variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
power requirements
Interfacing
Size
100-240V, 47-63Hz, 150VA
USB 1.1, 2.0 and 3 compliant
w x d x h = 26 x 33 x 12 cm
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Manual June 2016
299
Weight
PC requirements
4 kg
Windows XP/Vista/7/8, with free USB port
2. Classic IviumStat.XR/XRe/XRi
Same specifications as IviumStat, except:
System Performance:
Current compliance
IviumStat.XR
±5A
IviumStat.XRi
±10A
IviumStat.XRe
±2A
±[email protected]±1A/±[email protected]±5A/±[email protected]±10A
Maximum output voltage
±20V
±10V
Additional applied range
±20V, 1.667mV res.
-Additional measured range
±20V
-resolution
Power requirements (Adapter powered only) 100-240V, 50-60Hz, 300VA
50-60Hz, 300VA
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 300VA
Weight
5.3 kg
5.3 kg
±50V
±50V
±50V, .33mV
100-240V,
5.3 kg
3. IviumStat.h
System Performance
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Safety features
IviumStat
±5A
±10V below 1A and ±8V up to 5A
8MHz for small signals, 300kHz for large signals
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 24 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
automatic disconnect on intern./ext. exceptions
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
High sensitivity current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Measured current accuracy
±10V, at 0.02mV resolution (20bits)
0.2%, or 1mV
±10nA to ±10A in 10 decades
±1pA, ±10pA, ±100pA, ±1nA
0.00001% of current range, minimum 0.6aA
0.2%
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
Measured potential accuracy
0.00013% of applied current range
0.2%
±1mV, ±10mV, ±100mV, ±1V, ±10V
0.00001% of potential range, minimum 0.15nV
0.2%, or 1mV
Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10µHz to 8MHz
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit DC offset subtraction, 2 DC-decoupling filters
0.05nV to 10V, and 0.2aA to 5A
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Special functions
Current feedback ohmic drop compensation
Safety features
2V/current range, 16 bits resolution
Automatic disconnect on internal/external limits
Peripheral connections
8 Analog in
2 Analog out
2 Digital inputs, and 3 Digital outputs
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40kHz
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5V
Ivium Technologies ©
Manual June 2016
300
I-out, and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X, and Channel-Y inputs
Aanalog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-8MHz, variable attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
100-240V, 47-63Hz, 150VA
USB
w x d x h = 26 x 33 x 12 cm
4.2 kg
Windows XP/7/8/10, with free USB port
4. IviumStat.h/XRe/XRi
Same specifications as IviumStat, except:
System Performance:
IviumStat.XRi
Current compliance
±10A
Maximum output voltage
±10V
Additional applied range
-Additional measured range
-Power requirements (Adapter powered only) 100-240V, 45-63Hz, 300VA
Weight
5.3 kg
IviumStat.XRe
±2A
±50V
±50V
±50V, 0.1mV resolution
100-240V, 45-63Hz, 300VA
5.3 kg
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2016
13.6 Ivium-n-Stat
1. Ivium-n-Stat main frame
Slot positions
Frame capability
Common connectors
Power requirements
8: can mount up to 8 Modules
40A max. for 8 slots
GND and combined emergency off control
(EMO{linkID=747}) connector
100-240 V, 47-63 Hz, 300 W
100-240 V, 47-63 Hz, 600 W
USB
47 x 36 x 14 cm
6.2 kg (no modules)
ca. 12 kg (with 8 modules)
20A frame:
40A frame:
Interfacing
Size: w x d x h =
Weight
2. General channel performance
Channel performance
4 Electrodes
Potentiostat Bandwidth
User selectable stability settings
Programmable response filters
Dual channel signal acquisition
WE, CE, RE, S
>500 kHz
High Speed, Standard and High Stability
1 MHz, 100 kHz, 10 kHz, 1 kHz, 10 Hz
Dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/s
Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
10µHz to 250kHz (optional: 10µHz to 1MHz)
0.015mV to 1.0V, or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
Electrometer
Input impedance
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<8pF
<10 pA
>5 MHz
Peripheral connections (if available)
2 Analog in
1 Analog out
1 Digital input, 3 Digital outputs
±10 V, 16 bits resolution, bandwidth 40 kHz
±10 V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5 V
Ivium Technologies ©
Manual June 2016
301
I-out and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X and Channel-Y inputs
analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5 V sinewave 10µHz to max. 1MHz with variable
attenuation
±4 V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Special functions
Ohmic drop compensation
2 V/current range, 16 bits resolution
Dimensions
Size
Weight
w x d x h = 3 x 35 x 13 cm
0.8 kg
3. Specific channel performance
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2016
13.7 Connectors
1. Cell connector Type 1: DB9 female
(older versions of IviumStat/CompactStat)
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Function
CE
gnd
gnd
WE
WE2
S-shield
S
RE-shield
RE
Colour
black
green
red
red
white
blue
2. Cell connector Type 2: HD15 female
Pin
Function
Ivium Technologies ©
Colour
Manual June 2016
302
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
shield WE/WE2
WE
Reserved gnd
CE
Shield CE/agnd
Reserved clk
+5V
Reserved sel
Reserved data-out
Reserved data-in
WE2
S
S-shield
RE-shield
RE
red
black
green
red
white
blue
3. MultiWE32 cable assignment
Note: both RE shield leads are present in the cable as shielding for the RE, but they are not carried out to a
banana plug.
Electrode
CE
CE shield/Ground
RE
RE shield
RE shield
WE1
WE2
WE3
WE4
WE5
WE6
WE7
WE8
WE9
WE10
WE11
WE12
WE13
WE14
WE15
WE16
WE17
WE18
WE19
WE20
WE21
WE22
WE23
WE24
WE25
WE26
WE27
WE28
WE29
WE30
WE31
WE32
Color
black
green
blue
white (not external lead)
brown (not external lead)
brown-blue
yellow
white-red
pink
brown-red
grey
white-black
red
brown-black
violet
yellow-grey
grey-pink
green-grey
red-blue
yellow-pink
green-white
green-pink
green-brown
yellow-blue
white-yellow
green-blue
yellow-brown
yellow-red
white-grey
green-red
brown-grey
yellow-black
white-pink
green-black
pink-brown
pink- blue
white-blue
Ivium Technologies ©
DB37 Pin number
21
3
20
1
2
22
4
23
5
24
6
25
7
26
8
27
9
28
10
29
11
30
12
31
13
32
14
33
15
34
16
35
17
36
18
37
19
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303
4. Peripheral port connector: DB37 female
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27to35
36
37
Function
+5V
dig-in-1
dig-out-2
busy
com-RxD
dgnd
an-out-1
ac-out
ac-in
pga-in-X
pga-in-Y
an-in-1
an-in-3
an-in-5
an-in-7
an-in-2
an-in-4
an-in-6
an-in-8
dig-in-2
dig-out-1
dig-out-3
com-TxD
dgnd
agnd
an-out-2
agnd
I-out
E-out
Signal range
Remarks
max 100mA, not to be used in usb-powered mode
0 to +5V
0 to +3.3V
0 to +5V
RS2322C
reserved for Ivium
reserved for Ivium
0 to+4.096V
-0.5 to +0.5 V
-4 to +4V
-4 to +4V
-4 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0 to +5V
0 to +3.3V
0 to +3.3V
RS2322C
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
1MOhm impedance
reserved for Ivium
0 to+4.096V
-4 to +4V
-10 to +10V
1 V = -1 X Current Range
inverted signal; limited by device compliance*
*E-out:
-IviumStat: signal range -10 to +10V, i.e. for IviumStat.XR in 20V mode: E-out = -E/2
-CompactStat: signal range -4 to +4V, i.e. for CompactStatPlus: E-out = -E/5.33;
for CompactStatPlus2: E-out = -E/2.66
5. Peripheral connector sModule/Vertex.S: DB15 female
The peripheral connector of the sModule has 15 pins instead of 37 pins. The sModule has fewer signals than
the IviumStat/CompactStat. Also note that the analog input-range is different.
Note: in floating mode, the peripheral signals are referred to the local sModule gnd. In floating mode, the
peripheral port should only be used with floating equipment.
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8*
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
-
Function
+5V
Dig input 1
Yin
Dig output 1
Dig output 3
Iout
Analog in 1
Ac input*
Ac output
Xin
GND
Dig output 2
An output 1
Eout
Analog in 2
Frame GND
Ivium Technologies ©
Remarks
Range +/-4V
Rin=2.2kohm
Rin=2.2kohm
1V/Current Range
±10V
±4V
150 ohm
Range ±4V
Rin=2.2kohm
±10V**
±10V
Connected to Ivium-n-Stat common GND
Manual June 2016
304
*Pin number 8 is GND for first version sModules, with serial numbers S09XXX.
**A setting of 0V in the IviumSoft corresponds with an output of -9.48V; a setting of 4V in the IviumSoft
corresponds with an output of +9.48V. A setting of 2.048 V corresponds with 0V on An output1. Be advised
that the exact output of the An ouput1 can vary slightly between channels and instrument. To compensate
for this, a calibration curve may be constructed.
6. CompactStat power connector: 5.5mm bus female
2.1mm inner, 5.5mm outer diameter, recommended shaftlength 12mm
 center pin should be +5V ± 0.2V, max 1A
7. Plus-module power connector: 5.5mm bus female
6.8mm diameter
 center pin should be +12V ± 0.2V, max 1A
13.8 Peripheral port
Most Ivium potentiostats are equipped with what we call a "Peripheral port". This refers to all analog and
digital inputs/outputs that are available in the potentiostat. These are normally available from an extra
connector apart from the cell connector. The number and type of peripheral interfacing channels depends
on the type of instrument and can be found in the corresponding instruments specifications:

pocketSTAT

Vertex

CompactStat

IviumStat

Ivium-n-Stat
The peripheral port can be used to interface with external equipment, for example by setting value
(rotation speed, voltage level, etc) or reading a value (voltage, digital state, etc.).
The channels/signals of the peripheral port are integrated in the IviumSoft.
13.9 Modules
13.9.1 DataSecure
13.9.2 BiStat
BiStat, bipotentiostat module (WE2):
2 configurations
"standard":
"scanning":
Current compliance
Voltage compliance
Applied potential resolution
Current ranges
Minimum current resolution
Measured current resolution
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Software implementation
WE2 at a fixed potential with respect to RE
WE2 at a fixed offset potential with respect to the primary WE
±30mA (±1mA guaranteed in USB powered mode for
CompactStat)
±2V offset
0.0625mV
1pA to 10mA in 11 ranges
(lower 4 ranges use amplifier)
0.15fA
0.076% or current range,
and 0.0000023% using gain amplifier
1MHz, 100kHz, 10kHz, 1kHz, 10Hz
simultanously with primary WE1,
100kHz sample rate
LSV and CV
Note 1: Configuration standard/scanning is controlled by software, and is determined by the method
procedure parameter BiStat.
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Manual June 2016
305
13.9.3 True Linear Scan
Applies a smooth analog ramp, instead of the standard staircase ramp.
LinScan, True Linear Scan module:
Scan range
Equal to the applied voltage range of the potentiostat
Minimum scanrate
1 µV/s
Maximum scanrate
10,000 V/s
Software implementation
LSV and CV
Resolution
The resolution of the LinScan reflects on the E-start, E-step and Vertex
potentials, the applied signal itself is analog.
13.9.4 CIM: Current Interrupt Module
Ivium manufactures 2 types of current interrupt module:
1) The Standard 5A CIM for all Ivium potentiostats with HD15 cell connector
2) 10A CIM for IviumStat.XRi, IviumBoost1010 and Vertex.10A that is integrated in the cell cable
1) Standard 5A CIM
Specifications
Current compliance
Voltage compliance
Resistance on-state
Resistance off-state
Interrupt time
± 5A
± 20V
0.13 Ohm typical
>100 GOhm
< 2µs
Use
Interfacing/connectivity
Power requirements
Size
Weight
only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
HD15, connects in-line with cell cable
Powered from cell cable
Size w x d x h = 3.3 x 6.3 x 1.5 cm
25 gram
2) CIM 10A
Ivium Technologies ©
Manual June 2016
306
Specifications
Current compliance
Voltage compliance
Resistance on-state
Resistance off-state
Interrupt time
± 10A
± 10V
< 0.1 Ohm
>100 GOhm
< 2µs
power requirements
Size
Weight
Interfacing/connectivity
Use
Powered from cell cable
w x d x h = 5 x 5 x 2.7 cm
100 gram
Integrated in Cell Cable
Only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
13.10 HiZ
specifications
Electrometer:
Input Impedance
:
Input bias current (typical):
Input range:
Voltage gain:
Bandwidth:
Slewrate:
> 1E15 Ohm//0.2pF
3fA
±10V or
±200mV
1X
or
50X
800kHz or
220kHz
0.7V/us
Potentiostatic mode using HiZ:
Bandwidth
Applied resolution
Applied resolution
Applied voltage accuracy
Measurement resolution
Measurement resolution
800kHz (histability*)
6.6uV for IviumStat
2.5uV for CompactStat
±0.05mV
40nV or
0.8nV for IviumStat
16nV or
0.3nV for CompactStat
*In potentiostatic mode, the HiZ module can only be used in histability mode.
Module:
Size:
Weight:
Interfacing/connectivity:
Ivium Technologies ©
w x d x h = 3.3 x 6.3 x 1.5 cm
60 gram
module connects in-line with cell cable
Manual June 2016
307
13.11 Multiplexers





HiMUX.XR
uMUX
MUX32
MEA
Multiplexer clamping kit
13.11.1
HiMUX.XR
System Performance:
No. of channels
Maximum no. of channels
Configuration WE, WE2, CE
Configuration RE&S
GND
HiMUX.XR
8 for each unit, uses standard cell cables
with 6 leads each: WE/CE/RE/S/WE2/GND
64 (8 units)
selected channel connected to primary instrument
continuously connected to dedicated electrometers
continuously connected
Each Channel
Maximum current
Maximum applied potential
Connector
Electrometer input impedance
Electrometer input bias current
Electrometer bandwidth
±5A (limited by instrument)
±20V (limited by instrument)
HD15
>100 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Environment
power requirements with external adapter 100-240V, 45-65Hz, 6VA
Size
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
Weight
1 kg excluding cabling
13.11.2
uMUX
System Performance:
No. of channels
Maximum no. of channels
Configuration WE, WE2, CE
Configuration RE&S
GND
uMUX
8 for each unit, uses standard cell cables
with 6 leads each: WE/CE/RE/S/WE2/GND
64 (8 units)
switched via relais
switched via relais
continuously connected
Each Channel
Maximum current
Maximum applied potential
Connector
±5A (limited by instrument)
±100V (limited by instrument)
HD15
Environment
power requirements with external adapter 100-240V, 45-65Hz, 6VA
Size
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
Weight
1 kg excluding cabling
13.11.3
MUX32
System
Max Current:
Max Voltage:
Bandwidth:
Interfacing/connectivity:
MUX32
Size:
Weight:
Ivium Technologies ©
Protected with 100 Ohm in Series with CE.
10V.
10 kHz.
HD15, connects to the potentiostat cell connector. Use only i.c.w. Ivium
potentiostats.
w x d x h = 13 x 27.5 x 2.5 cm
0.5 kg
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308
Front indicators:
13.11.4
'ON'
'Active'
: Lights up when correctly powered via IviumStat
: Lights up when one of the 32 channels is selected.
MEA
System
Max Current:
Protected with 100 Ohm in Series with CE.
Max Voltage:
10V.
Bandwidth:
10 kHz.
Interfacing/connectivity:
HD15, connects to the potentiostat cell connector.
Use only i.c.w. Ivium potentiostats
MUX32{linkID=239}
Size:
Weight:
Front indicators:
13.11.5
w x d x h = 13 x 27.5 x 2.5 cm
0.5 kg
'ON'
: Lights up when correctly powered via IviumStat
'Active' : Lights up when one of the 32 channels is selected.
Multiplexer Clamping kit
Dimensions:

Size: 48,3 x 13,3 cm (front view)

Weight: 650 g
13.12 Boosters







IviumBoost10012
IviumBoost1040
IviumBoost1001
IviumBoost1010
IviumBoost205
Plus module
E doubler
13.12.1
IviumBoost10012
Applied voltage:
Compliance voltage:
Maximum current:
2 Current ranges:
Potentiostatic 0V capability
Bandwith:
Dimensions
Weight
Power:
±10V
±12V
±100A
±10A (clamped at ±15A)
±100A
> 100 kHz
w x d x h = 47x36x14cm
13kg
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 1500W
Note that the device specs are including the cell cables, but excluding the appendages for connecting the
cables to the test subject.
13.12.2
IviumBoost1040
40A @ 10 V
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Ivium Technologies ©
±40 A
±10 V
>100 kHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
Manual June 2016
309
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Rise time
±10 V, at 0.33mV res.
0.2%, or 2mV
±100 mA, ±1 A, ±10 A
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15fA
<50 µs
Galvanostat
Applied current resolution
Applied current accuracy
Potential ranges
Measured potential resolution
0.033% of applied current range
0.2%
±0.1V, ±1V, ±10V
0.003% of potential range, minimum 40nV
Impedance Analyser
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10µHz to 300kHz
0.015mV to 1.0V or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
12nV to 10V,
and 0.05fA to 40A
Electrometer
Input impedance:
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Special functions
Ohmic drop compensation
Safety features
2 V/current range, 16 bits resolution
automatic disconnect on intern./ext. exceptions
Peripheral connections
8 Analog in
2 Analog out
2 Digital inputs, and 3 Digital outputs
I-out, and E-out
AC-out
Channel-X, and Channel-Y inputs
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +4V, 16 bits resolution
0 to +5V
analog monitor for cell current and potential
±0.5V sinewave 10µHz-100kHz, var. attenuation
±4V: to record impedance from peripheral devices
Environment
power requirements
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 1000VA
USB 1.1 or 2.0 compliant
w x d x h = 47 x 36 x 14 cm
16 kg
Windows XP/Vista/7, with free USB port
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2010
13.12.3
IviumBoost1001
Applied voltage 2 ranges:
Compliance voltage:
Maximum current:
Standard
Extended range
±10V
±100V
±100V (also in standard applied range of ±10V)
±0.6A
Potentiostatic 0V capability
Bandwith:
Dimensions
Weight:
Power:
>100kHz
w x d x h = 26 x 33 x 12 cm
6kg
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 150VA
Note that the device specs are including the cell cables, but excluding the appendages for connecting the
cables to the test subject.
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Manual June 2016
310
13.12.4
IviumBoost1010
Applied voltage:
Compliance voltage:
Maximum current:
Current range:
±10V
±10V
±10A
±10A (clamped at ±15A)
Potentiostatic 0V capability
Bandwith:
Dimensions:
Weight:
Power:
>100kHz
w x d x h = 26 x 33 x 12 cm
6kg
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 150VA
Note that the device specs are including the cell cables, but excluding the appendages for connecting the
cables to the test subject.
13.12.5
IviumBoost205
Applied voltage:
Compliance voltage:
Maximum current:
±20V
±20V
±5A
Potentiostatic 0V capability
Bandwith:
Dimensions
Weight
Power:
>100kHz
w x d x h = 26 x 33 x 12 cm
6kg
100-240V, 50-60Hz, 150VA
Note that the device specs are including the cell cables, but excluding the appendages for connecting the
cables to the test subject.
13.12.6
Plus module
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum output Voltage
Additional current range
Plus
± 250mA
± 20V
100mA
Plus2
± 800mA/± 500mA
± 8V/± 10V
100mA, 1A
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
± 20 V, 0.667mV res.
± 10 V, 0.333mV res.
Galvanostat
Potential ranges
±2mV,±20mV, ±200mV,
±1mV,±10mV, ±100mV,
±2V,±20V
±1V,±10V
Environment
power requirements in USB powered mode
not available
power requirements with external adapter 100-240V, 45-65Hz, 12VA
power requirements at dc-connector
12V, 1A
Size
w x d x h = 12 x 12 x 2.5 cm
Weight
0.6 kg
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2010
13.12.7
Edoubler
The Edoubler module is to be connected to the IviumStat20V via de 15-pins cell cable connector. The
original cell-cable is connected to the output cell connector of the Edoubler module. The Edoubler
requires an external 5 Volt power supply (included in shipment), that must be connected.
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When the Edoubler module is connected, the configuration in the software should be updated. In the
Options menu, the "Edoubler" checkbox should be checked.
Note that when Edoubler is connected, the internal dummy cells, the 2-Electrode-mode, and the BiStat
module should not be used.
Specifications Applied Edoubler in combination with IviumStat20V:
Potentiostat
Applied potential range
Applied potential accuracy
±20 V, at 0.66mVresolution
0.2%, or 4mV
13.13 Light modules




ModuLight
ModuSens
IviSUN
LightSens
13.13.1
ModuLight
See Modulight.
13.13.2
ModuSens
See ModuSens.
13.13.3
IviSUN
See IviSUN.
13.13.4
LightSens
See LightSens.
13.14 MultiWE32
The MultiWE32 module will accomodate cells with 32 Working Electrodes, that share a single CE and RE.
The potential is applied to all channels simultaneously, thus applied E is not multiplexed!
Features:
 Full potentiostat capability
 Independent programmable offset for each channel
 Simultaneous sampling
 Potential applied continuously across all channels
 Stackable up to 8 units x 32 channels = 256 channels (i.c.w. IviumStat)
2 modes of operation:
Simultaneous
• CV/LSV/DPV/SQRwave/ChronoAmperometry
• Data acquisition of max. 32 WE currents at the same time,
• maximum rate of 10 samples/sec (0.1sec interval time)
Sequential
• All electrochemical potentiostatic methods possible
• Frequency response analysis
System Performance:
Current compliance
Maximum offset Voltage
Ivium Technologies ©
±1mA for each WE (±32 mA for CE)
± 2V
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312
Applied potential
Potentiostat Bandwidth
Stability settings Potentiostat/Galvanostat
Programmable response filter
Signal acquisition
Potentiostat:
Applied potential range
max. ±20 V (depends on controlling potentiostat)
>100 kHz
High Speed, Standard, and High Stability
1MHz , 100kHz , 10kHz , 1kHz , 10Hz
dual channel 16 bit ADC, 100.000 samples/sec
determined by controlling Ivium potentiostat:
CompactStat: max. ±10V
IviumStat: max. ±10V
IviumStat.XR: max. ±20V
max. ±2V, 0.0625mV resolution
0.2%, or 2mV
±10nA to ±1mA
0.015% of current range, minimum 0.15fA
n*ohm /(current range*65,536), with n=0 to 65,535
Applied potential offset
Applied potential accuracy
Current ranges
Measured current resolution.
Current feedback ohmic drop comp.
Impedance Analyser:
Frequency range
Amplitude
DC offset
Dynamic range
10µHz to 2MHz
0.015mV to 1.0V,
or 0.03% to 100% of current range
16 bit dc offset subtraction, 2 dc-decoupling filters
4nV to 4V
Electrometer:
Input impedance
Input bias current
Bandwidth
>1000 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
>16 MHz
Environment:
power requirements
external adapter: 100-240V, 47-63Hz, 400mA
Voltage input: 5V ±0.2Vdc / max. 2W
USB 1.1 or 2.0 compliant
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
0.6 kg
Windows XP/Vista/7/8, with free USB port
Interfacing
Size
Weight
PC requirements
Specifications subject to change, Ivium Technologies ©2013
13.15 HiSens32
See HiSens32
13.16 Peripheral interfacing modules
13.16.1
PPE
Peripheral Port Expander: Break out box for peripheral port.
Specifications
Connection
Power Requirements
Size
Weight
To instrument peripheral port
DB37 to 32 x 4mm banana sockets
Not powered
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
0.5 kg excluding cabling
Peripheral connections:
pin
1
2
3
4
function
+5V
dig-in-1
dig-out-2
busy
Ivium Technologies ©
Signal range
0 to +5V
0 to +3.3V
0 to +5V
remarks
max 100mA, not to be used in usb-powered mode
reserved for Ivium
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27to35
36
37
com-RxD
dgnd
an-out-1
ac-out
an-in
pga-in-X
pga-in-Y
an-in-1
an-in-3
an-in-5
an-in-7
an-in-2
an-in-4
an-in-6
an-in-8
dig-in-2
dig-out-1
dig-out-3
com-TxD
dgnd
agnd
an-out-2
agnd
I-out
E-out
13.16.2
RS2322C
reserved for Ivium
0 to +4.096V
-1 to +1 V
-4 to +4V
-4 to +4V
-4 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0.05 to +4V
0 to +5V
0 to +3.3V
0 to +3.3V
RS2322C
1MOhm
1MOhm
1MOhm
1MOhm
1MOhm
1MOhm
1MOhm
1MOhm
impedance
impedance
impedance
impedance
impedance
impedance
impedance
impedance
reserved for Ivium
0 to+4.096V
-4 to +4V
-10 to +10V
1 V = 1 X Current Range
depending on device compliance
PDA
System Performance:
No. of channels
Maximum no. of channels
8 analog inputs for each unit
64 (8 units)
Same specifications as for PPE, except for analog inputs:
Each Channel
Differential measurement range
Maximum common mode voltage
Input impedance
Input bias current
Signal bandwidth
± 2V
± 15V
>100 Gohm //<8pF
<10pA
3.3 kHz
Environment
power requirements with external adapter
Size
Weight
100-240V, 45-65Hz, 6VA
w x d x h = 12 x 26 x 2.5 cm
0.6 kg excluding cabling
Calibration
The PDA differential analog inputs can be calibrated in the Direct mode{linkID=305}:
 Connect the PDA to the P/G-instrument
 In the Direct mode select the "PDA" tab
 Connect ch1+/ch2+ to E_out (i.e. use a banana lead)
 Connect ch1-/ch2- to Agnd (i.e. use a banana lead)
 Press the "Calibrate" button
 Press the "Save cal." button
 Remove the connections
 Calibration values can be reset by pressing the "Reset" button
13.16.3
mPDA
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13.16.4
sPDA
13.16.5
PLT
See PLT.
13.16.6
TCM-K: Thermocouple module
13.16.7
FastScan
13.16.8
QuickScan
13.17 Accessories
13.17.1
WE32 electrode cable
WE32 electrode cable assembly
Electrode
CE
CE shield/Ground
RE
RE shield
RE shield
WE1
WE2
WE3
WE4
WE5
WE6
WE7
WE8
WE9
WE10
WE11
WE12
WE13
WE14
WE15
WE16
WE17
WE18
WE19
WE20
WE21
WE22
WE23
WE24
WE25
WE26
WE27
WE28
WE29
WE30
WE31
WE32
Color
black
green
blue
white (not external lead)
brown (not external lead)
brown-blue
yellow
white-red
pink
brown-red
grey
white-black
red
brown-black
violet
yellow-grey
grey-pink
green-grey
red-blue
yellow-pink
green-white
green-pink
green-brown
yellow-blue
white-yellow
green-blue
yellow-brown
yellow-red
white-grey
green-red
brown-grey
yellow-black
white-pink
green-black
pink-brown
pink- blue
white-blue
HD37 Pin number
21
3
20
1
2
22
4
23
5
24
6
25
7
26
8
27
9
28
10
29
11
30
12
31
13
32
14
33
15
34
16
35
17
36
18
37
19
Note: Each lead is carried out to a 2mm banana plug. Both RE shield leads are present in the cable as
shielding for the RE, but they are not carried out to a banana plug.
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14.Method parameters
A complete list of all method paramters and their descriptions are given in this chapter.
14.1 Mode
Standard/HiSpeed mode.
Standard mode allows sample rates up to 500 samples/s, during Standard mode sampes are directly
communicated to the pc. Standard mode allows application of more features: automatic current ranging,
etc.
HiSpeed mode allows sample rates up to 100,000 samples/s, during a HiSpeed expertiment the data is
stored inside the instrument on an internal microPC and communicated after experiment completion.
Maximum available datapoints = 8192 (32768 for CV methods). Note that in HiSpeed some features are
unavailable, such as AutoCR.
14.2 Title
Title of the experiment that will appear above the result plot.
14.3 Duration
Duration (length) of the Corrosion Rate Monitor experiment, the final Corrosion Rate measurement will be
started after this period. The Duration has a minimum of 2 minutes.
14.4 Repeat interval
For the Duration of the Corrosion Rate Monitor experiment, after each time this Repeat interval has
elapsed, a Corrosion Rate measurement is done.
14.5 vs Eoc
The parameter vs Eoc allows the Polarization to be done vs. open cell potential (E-oc, OCP, OCV, etc).
The settings are also explained in Apply wrt OCP.
14.6 E start
Start potential of the scan
14.7 I start
Start current of the galvanostatic scan
14.8 E end
End potential of the scan
14.9 I end
End current of the galvanostatic scan
14.10 E step
Potential incerement with which the potential is increased at each step.
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14.11 I step
Current incerement with which the current is increased at each step.
14.12 DynamicVertexes
It is possible to define the scan boundaries depending on the measured currents. The operator can set
parameters for Maximum and Minimum current limits, inside which the scan will remain. If the current
exceeds the defined "I max", or gets below "I min", the scan is stopped. This feature is only available in
Standard mode (not in HiSpeed mode).
It is possible to use Dynamic Vertexes in combination with AutoCR. However when AutoCR is activated,
the dynamic vertexes will only be active in the defined "AutoCR.Max range". This means that the
Absolute values of "I max" and "I min" should be larger than 0.25* the selected "Max range". In practice,
usually the 'Max range" parameter will be chosen according to the desired vertexes.
14.12.1
DynamicVertexes.I max
Maximum current allowed, when exceeded the sweep is terminated or the scan direction is reversed.
14.12.2
DynamicVertexes.I min
Minimum current allowed, when exceeded the sweep is terminated or the scan direction is reversed.
14.13 Vertex 1
First vertex potential: potential is scanned from E start to Vertex 1, subsequently to Vertex 2, and back
to E start.
14.14 I vertex 1
First vertex current: current is scanned from I start to I vertex 1, subsequently to I vertex 2, and back to
I start.
14.15 Vertex 2
Second vertex potential: potential is scanned from E start to Vertex 1, subsequently to Vertex 2, and
back to E start.
14.16 I vertex 2
Second vertex current: current is scanned from I start to I vertex 1, subsequently to I vertex 2, and back
to I start.
14.17 PulseDefinition
In the Voltammetric Pulse Builder clicking on the parameter PulseDefinition will open a pop-up that allows
the user to build a pulse pattern of their own design. All existing techniques, such as DPV, NPV, DNPV,
SQRWV, etc, can be compiled with this tool. Moreover newly proposed pulse waveforms can be
constructed and tested, in a very flexible and user-friendly manner, without the loss of performance.
Pulse patterns can be defined with 0.02ms resolution, with each pulse as short as 1ms.
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[Levels]:
the number of Levels (pulses) can be defined (min. 1, max. 4) by manually entering a
number or using the up/down arrows.
[Delay Time]:
wait-time after each staircase level application, before the first pulse is applied (min.
5ms, max. 5000ms).
[E/Volt]:
pulse height/amplitude (V)
[Period/ms]:
pulse period (ms)
[Add to Result]: result multiplication-operator
[Close]:
[Verify]:
will close the window and apply the selected parameters
will verify the validity of the selected paramters; if not valid a pop-up error message will
be shown
Up to 4 pulse levels can be defined, each between 1ms and 200ms. The total duration of the 4 combined
pulses must be below 600ms (Delay Time not included).
At the end of the "Delay Time", and at the end of each level, the current is measured. These recorded
values can be used to calculate the single datapoint that is displayed and stored. The user can define how
that datapoint will be calculated, using the "Add to Result" field in the definition screen. Each level
measurement can be added/subtracted/ignored/etc. in the end-result with multiplication-operators "+1/1/0/0.5/-0.5". In the example below, a DPV scan is compiled with 50mV amplitude and 10ms pulse time:
The "+1" operator at Level[1] will add the measured current at Level[1], and the "-1" operator at Delay
Time will subtract the current measured during Delay Time, so the difference of currents from before and
at the end of the pulse will be recorded.
The sampling acquisition period is set automatically equally for all levels to 25% of the shortest Level
Period, maximized to 1 mains line cycle period (50Hz/60Hz option). These acquisition periods are always
located at the end of the corresponding Level.
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Note that the ScanRate is implicitly defined by the "E step" parameters and the sum of Delay Time and
Pulse Periods. In the DPV example above, the total period is 100ms, so this scan would produce 10
datapoints/second. Suppose E step was 10mV, the scanrate would be 100mV/sec.
14.18 N scans
Number of cycles to be executed for the CV experiment, 1 to 65535 for Standard mode. At HiSpeed
mode, the maximum is limited by 32678 datapoints. When '0' is entered, the CV will continue until the
operator aborts.
14.19 Scanrate
Slope of the potential scan in Volts/second. The sample rate equals scanrate/E_step.
14.20 Iscanrate
Slope of the current scan in Ampere/second. The sample rate equals Iscanrate/I_step.
14.21 Alpha
During digitally produced sweeps, e.g. in LSV and CV, the potential/current-ramp is generated in stepincrements in a staircase shape. The standard practice for staircase sweeps of digital potentiostats is to
sample the measured variable (current for chrono-amperometry; potential for chrono-potentiometry) at
the end of each step increment. However in some cases, a different sampling point is required for the
measurement. Hence the parameter "alpha" is used to indicate the fraction of the step at which sampling
occurs. For example, "alpha"=1 (the default setting) means sampling at the end of each step whereas
alpha = 0.5 is halfway along, and so on. In practice, the effect of "alpha" depends on the object under
test. For a pure resistor, "alpha" variations have no effect, but for systems with a capacitive component,
strong variations can be observed. For the staircase techniques of LSV and CV in Advanced mode at
Standard speed, the parameter "Alpha" can be activated. When checked, a value from 0.125 to 0.625
can be entered. The resolution for alpha is 0.04ms.
If the "Alpha" parameter remains unchecked, the value reverts to 1 (default).
Example
In practice, the effect of "alpha" depends on the object under test. For a pure resistor, "alpha" variations
have no effect, but for systems with a capacitive component, strong variations can be observed.
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Current response on an RC-cell: 50mV step on a 10kohm+1uF circuit
LSV 1V/s, Estep=50mV, with alpha from top to bottom: 0.2/0.3/0.4/0.5/0.6/1.0
In the two figures above, the effect of "alpha" is demonstrated. The staircase scan is made from 50mV
steps that are applied every 50ms. In the first figure is shown how the current decays after each step.
The 2nd figure shows the corresponding decrease of the LSV current with increasing "alpha". Note that
alpha=0.2 corresponds with 2ms, etc.
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14.21.1
Alpha.Value
Fraction of the step (see Alpha) at which sampling occurs; Values of 0.125 to 0.625 can be entered.
14.22 Interval time
Time between 2 consecutive samples. The sample rate equals 1/interval time, or scanrate/E_step.
The maximum interval time is 60s.
14.23 Eoc interval
In the Corrosion technique Eoc monitor the Eoc interval allows the user to set the interval between
measurements. This is similar to the Interval time for the transient techniques.
14.24 Run time
Duration of the experiment, for example for the transient technique "Electrochemical Noise" and for the
electroanalysis method "AC detection".
14.25 Stop when dE/dt<
The measurement of the OCP can be stopped before the end of the monitor time has expired when a
sufficiently stable potential has been reached by entering an appropriate value for dE/dt<. When left at
0.00 mV/s, this option is ignored. When a value is entered the OCP monitoring will be stopped if the E
changes less than the specified valied over time (or when the Run time is exceeded, whichever comes
first).
14.26 Levels
Number of potential or current levels to be applied, 0 to 255. A pop-up window allows each level to be
specified individually.
ChronoAmperometry


Levels: the number of levels can be chosen by entering the desired value between 0 and 255, or
use the up/down arrows to change the number of levels.
Unit: the time unit can be chosen s/ms/µs
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


[Insert level]: will insert a level above the selected level
[Delete level]: will delete the selected level
Levels E(1) etc: enter the Voltage and duration of that level; the time duration of a level may be
1 to 4E9 times the interval time in Standard mode; in HiSpeed mode the minimum time is 1 x
interval time and the maximum total number of datapoints must be lower than 8192.
Clicking "Close" will close the pop-up and accept the entered values.
Note that in the pop-up window the interval time (sample rate) cannot be changed, this needs to be done
in the main method parameters.
ChronoPotentiometry





Levels: the number of levels can be chosen by entering the desired value between 0 and 255, or
use the up/down arrows to change the number of levels.
Unit: the time unit can be chosen s/ms/µs
[Insert level]: will insert a level above the selected level
[Delete level]: will delete the selected level
Levels I(1) etc: enter the Current and duration of that level; the time duration of a level may be
1 to 4E9 times the interval time in Standard mode; in HiSpeed mode the minimum time is 1 x
interval time and the maximum total number of datapoints must be lower than 8192.
Clicking "Close" will close the pop-up and accept the entered values.
Note that in the pop-up window the interval time (sample rate) cannot be changed, this needs to be done
in the main method parameters.
Mixed Mode
See stages
14.26.1
Levels[index].time
Time duration of level[index], from 1 to 4E9 times the interval time in Standard mode. In HiSpeed mode,
the total number of datapoints must be lower than 8192.
14.27 Levels separate
When applying the Transient methods: ChronoAmperometry, Chronopotentiometry or Mixed Mode, each
level can be viewed and stored separately. Each level is plotted as an independent scan, i.e. the time
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coordinate starts at 0 sec at the start of each level. The curves are listed in the Legends pane as "level
1", "level 2" etc, and can therefore be selected, saved and analysed separately.
To activate level-separation, check 'Levels separate' in advanced mode. This feature cannot be used in
combination with 'Cycles separate'.
14.28 Stages
The Stages pop-up allows the user to create the subsequent stages in the Mixed Mode technique, and is a
very powerfull tool for creating a sequence of experiments that may include any and all of:

E control: control of the potential over time (potentiostatic, chronoamperometry), with integrated
E sweep possibility (LSV)

I control: control of the current over time (galvanostatic, chronopotentiometry), with integrated I
sweep possibility (LSV galvanostatic)

Open cell: monitoring of the open cell voltage over time

Z control: control of the impedance over time, the instrument will keep the ratio of the
'voltage/current' constant over time to operate at constant resistance.

P control: the instrument will control the power of the cell, determined from the product of the
(S-RE)-voltage and the WE current.

Impedance measurement at each datapoint, for example for determining the internal
resistance/capacity of a cell during charge/discharge

GITT/PITT protocols
Up to individual 255 levels may be defined:
- Each level may be the start or end of a loop (a protocol can be used to include loops in the levels)
- Each level does allow the user to define a variety of cut-off or termination parameters which will end
that specific level to proceed onto the next, or, in case of the final level, to end the experiment.
The minimum time base (Interval time) of the Mixed Mode technique is 0.002s, which equals a maximum
of 500pnt/s. AutoCR is only available up to a maximum of 100pnts/s.
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The Stages pop-up window has a top menu:
Levels: Enter the number of different levels you wish for this experiment, or use the up/down arrows to
change the number of levels.
[Insert level]: Inserts a level above the selected level
[Delete level]: Deletes the selected level
[Add level]: Adds a level at the bottom of the list
[Add protocol]: Allows the user to add a protocol, see further down
The "Mode" window shows the levels and allows the type of level to be chosen from the drop down list,
the Properties line next to the Mode shows the most inportant properties of that level, such as Set value,
duration and cut-off criteria.
The Properties window to the right allows the user to set the properties of that level, such as Set value,
duration and cut-off criteria/thresholds. Each different type of level allows different thresholds/cut-off
criteria, as well as sequence start/end and control of the Analog output 1 and digital outputs of the
peripheral port (if available on your potentiostat, check for your potentiostat in the instrument
specifications).
The thresholds are registered when the first datapoint shows it is exceeded, the method will move on to
the next level immediately.
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E control: Properties
SequenceStart: When checked will make this level start of a sequence. In the SeqRepeatCount the
number of repetitions of this sequence can be entered (minimum=1; maximum = 65535). Sequenceblocks can enclose other sequence-blocks (loop nesting), up to 8 levels deep. Note1: Each SequenceStart
needs to be manually matched by a SequenceEnd in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically.
Note2: When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to
the relevant levels. A SequenceStart is illustrated in the Properties of the level by the SeqRepeatCount
number, followed by "*[" at the beginning of the line.
E applied: Applied voltage for this level
E vs Eprev: When checked will apply "E applied" vs. the last measured E of the previous level. For
example, if for the previous level Open Cell is chosen, this option can be used to appply a voltage vs.
E_oc (OCP)
SweepE: When checked, will turn this constant E level into a potential controlled sweep level (LSV), using
E applied as E start. At E end the end-potential of the sweep can be chosen, at scanrate the rate of the
scan can be entered. The E step is defined by the 'scanrate x Interval time'
Duration: Duration of the level. This is the maximum time length the level will run, it will be cut short
when any of the cut-off conditions are met before the total run time has elapsed. The Duration parameter
will disappear when a SweepE is active.
Record ac: When checked an AC signal will be applied of Amplitude and Frequency as defined in the main
method parameters. The impedance will be measured for each datapoint (after each Interval time).
When the Interval time is chosen to be an minimum of 0.2s, the AC signal will be applied only at the end
of the measurement interval. This is done so that the AC signal has a minimum of influence of the DC
Mixed Mode measurement. When an Interval time <0.2s is chosen, the interval time is not long enough
to apply and remove the AC signal and determine the impedance, so the AC signal is continuously applied
(regardless of the Continuous AC option).
Note1: for the AC signal to be briefly applied at Interval time down to 0.2s, the Frequency needs to be a
minimum of 10Hz.
Note2: to make use of real time impedance, i.e. to apply the AC signal continuously, the signal Frequency
must be higher than '2/Interval time'.
Define Eac: Allows defining the Frequency and Amplitude of the AC signal, overruling these values as set
in main method parameters. FreqMultiplier allows the frequency to be multiplied by the entered factor.
FreqDuration allows the user to set the duration of the period that the frequency is applied (this will
overrule the FRA settings in the Options menu). Using these options allows real time impedance.
Cut-off conditions/thresholds: when reached the level is ended and the measurement will proceed to the
next level, or, when it is the last level, the measurement will be ended
Until I>: When checked the maximum allowed current can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is
active)
Until I<: When checked the minimum allowed current can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is
active)
Until dI/dt>: When checked the maximum allowed change of current over time can be entered. (not
available when AutoCR is active)
Until dI/dt<: When checked the minimum allowed change current over time can be entered. (not
available when AutoCR is active)
Until An1>: When checked, the maximum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until An1<: When checked, the minimum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until dAn1/dt>: When checked, the maximum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
Until dAn1/dt<: When checked, the minimum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
Until Ifraction<: When checked the minimum fraction of the initial measured current in the same level
can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is active). This parameter can be used, for example, in bulk
electrolysis experiments to
stop the electrolysis when the current falls below a specified percentage of the initial current value.
Until |Q|>: When checked the maximum allowed charge to be passed can be enetered. (not available
when AutoCR is active)
ExitScanOnThres: When checked will stop the entire measurement when any of the conditions are met,
rather than just move on to the next level.
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AnOut1: When checked the value for Analog output 1 of the peripheral port can be entered. This value
will be set immediately at the start of this level. This can be used for example, to set the intensity of a
light source (see IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement), or the rotation speed of an RDE.
Digouts: When checked the configuration of the digital outputs of the peripheral port can be set by
entering an integer between 0 and 8. This corresponds to binary setting of the peripheral port. For
example: 0 = 0,0,0: all Digital inputs are high (all digital outputs are active high). 1 = 0,0,1: digital
output 3 is low. 2 = 0,1,0: digital output 2 is low. 3 = 0,1,1: digital outputs 2 and 3 are low. 5 = 1,0,1:
digital outputs 1 and 3 are low. Etc.
SequenceEnd: When checked will make this level end of a sequence. Note1: Each SequenceEnd needs to
be manually matched by a SequenceStart in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically. Note2:
When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to the
relevant levels. A SequenceEnd is illustrated in the Properties by a "]" at the end of the line.
I control: Properties
SequenceStart: When checked will make this level start of a sequence. In the SeqRepeatCount the
number of repetitions of this sequence can be entered (minimum=1; maximum = 65535). Sequenceblocks can enclose other sequence-blocks (loop nesting), up to 8 levels deep. Note1: Each SequenceStart
needs to be manually matched by a SequenceEnd in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically.
Note2: When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to
the relevant levels. A SequenceStart is illustrated in the Properties of the level by the SeqRepeatCount
number, followed by "*[" at the beginning of the line.
I applied: Applied voltage for this level
I vs Iprev: When checked will apply "I applied" vs. the last measured I of the previous level.
SweepI: When checked, will turn this constant I level into a current controlled sweep level (galvanostatic
LSV), using I applied as I start. At I end the end-current of the sweep can be chosen, at scanrate the rate
of the scan can be entered. The I step is defined by the 'scanrate x Interval time'
Duration: Duration of the level. This is the maximum time length the level will run, it will be cut short
when any of the cut-off conditions are met before the total run time has elapsed. The Duration parameter
will disappear when a SweepI is active.
Record ac: When checked an AC signal will be applied of Amplitude and Frequency as defined in the main
method parameters. The impedance will be measured for each datapoint (after each Interval time).
When the Interval time is chosen to be an minimum of 0.2s, the AC signal will be applied only at the end
of the measurement interval. This is done so that the AC signal has a minimum of influence of the DC
Mixed Mode measurement. When an Interval time <0.2s is chosen, the interval time is not long enough
to apply and remove the AC signal and determine the impedance, so the AC signal is continuously applied
(regardless of the Continuous AC option).
Note1: for the AC signal to be briefly applied at Interval time down to 0.2s, the Frequency needs to be a
minimum of 10Hz.
Note2: to make use of real time impedance, i.e. to apply the AC signal continuously, the signal Frequency
must be higher than '2/Interval time'.
Define Iac: Allows defining the Frequency and Amplitude of the AC signal, overruling these values as set
in main method parameters.
Cut-off conditions/thresholds: when reached the level is ended and the measurement will proceed to the
next level, or, when it is the last level, the measurement will be ended
Until E>: When checked the maximum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until E<: When checked the minimum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until dE/dt>: When checked the maximum allowed change of voltage over time to be entered.
Until dE/dt<: When checked the minimum allowed change voltage over time can be entered.
Until An1>: When checked, the maximum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until An1<: When checked, the minimum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until dAn1/dt>: When checked, the maximum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
Until dAn1/dt<: When checked, the minimum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
Until |Q|>: When checked the maximum allowed charge to be passed can be enetered. (not available
when AutoCR is active)
ExitScanOnThres: When checked will stop the entire measurement when any of the conditions are met,
rather than just move on to the next level.
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AnOut1: When checked the value for Analog output 1 of the peripheral port can be entered. This value
will be set immediately at the start of this level. This can be used for example, to set the intensity of a
light source (see IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement), or the rotation speed of an RDE.
Digouts: When checked the configuration of the digital outputs of the peripheral port can be set by
entering an integer between 0 and 8. This corresponds to binary setting of the peripheral port. For
example: 0 = 0,0,0: all Digital inputs are high (all digital outputs are active high). 1 = 0,0,1: digital
output 3 is low. 2 = 0,1,0: digital output 2 is low. 3 = 0,1,1: digital outputs 2 and 3 are low. 5 = 1,0,1:
digital outputs 1 and 3 are low. Etc.
SequenceEnd: When checked will make this level end of a sequence. Note1: Each SequenceEnd needs to
be manually matched by a SequenceStart in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically. Note2:
When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to the
relevant levels. A SequenceEnd is illustrated in the Properties by a "]" at the end of the line.
Open cell: Properties
SequenceStart: When checked will make this level start of a sequence. In the SeqRepeatCount the
number of repetitions of this sequence can be entered (minimum=1; maximum = 65535). Sequenceblocks can enclose other sequence-blocks (loop nesting), up to 8 levels deep. Note1: Each SequenceStart
needs to be manually matched by a SequenceEnd in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically.
Note2: When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to
the relevant levels. A SequenceStart is illustrated in the Properties of the level by the SeqRepeatCount
number, followed by "*[" at the beginning of the line.
Duration: Duration of the level. This is the maximum time length the level will run, it will be cut short
when any of the cut-off conditions are met before the total run time has elapsed.
Cut-off conditions/thresholds: when reached the level is ended and the measurement will proceed to the
next level, or, when it is the last level, the measurement will be ended
Until E>: When checked the maximum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until E<: When checked the minimum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until dE/dt>: When checked the maximum allowed change of voltage over time to be entered.
Until dE/dt<: When checked the minimum allowed change voltage over time can be entered.
Until An1>: When checked, the maximum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until An1<: When checked, the minimum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until dAn1/dt>: When checked, the maximum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
Until dAn1/dt<: When checked, the minimum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
ExitScanOnThres: When checked will stop the entire measurement when any of the conditions are met,
rather than just move on to the next level.
AnOut1: When checked the value for Analog output 1 of the peripheral port can be entered. This value
will be set immediately at the start of this level. This can be used for example, to set the intensity of a
light source (see IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement), or the rotation speed of an RDE.
Digouts: When checked the configuration of the digital outputs of the peripheral port can be set by
entering an integer between 0 and 8. This corresponds to binary setting of the peripheral port. For
example: 0 = 0,0,0: all Digital inputs are high (all digital outputs are active high). 1 = 0,0,1: digital
output 3 is low. 2 = 0,1,0: digital output 2 is low. 3 = 0,1,1: digital outputs 2 and 3 are low. 5 = 1,0,1:
digital outputs 1 and 3 are low. Etc.
SequenceEnd: When checked will make this level end of a sequence. Note1: Each SequenceEnd needs to
be manually matched by a SequenceStart in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically. Note2:
When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to the
relevant levels. A SequenceEnd is illustrated in the Properties by a "]" at the end of the line.
Z control:
Z control will apply a variable load on the cell. In this mode, the ratio potential/current is controlled. This
mode is intended for active cells that generate power on their own: batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, etc.
For Z_control, the load value may be fixed to a constant ohmic value, or as a linear sweep. The allowed
range is defined by 2 Volt/CurrentRange, for example at CR=100mA the allowed range is 0 to 20 ohm.
However, if the E50 potential enhancement module is used, the range lowers accordingly.
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Similar to E_control and I_control, in Z_control the resistance value can be sweeped, see example below
(CR=1A).
Z-Control Properties:
SequenceStart: When checked will make this level start of a sequence. In the SeqRepeatCount the
number of repetitions of this sequence can be entered (minimum=1; maximum = 65535). Sequenceblocks can enclose other sequence-blocks (loop nesting), up to 8 levels deep. Note1: Each SequenceStart
needs to be manually matched by a SequenceEnd in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically.
Note2: When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to
the relevant levels. A SequenceStart is illustrated in the Properties of the level by the SeqRepeatCount
number, followed by "*[" at the beginning of the line.
Z applied: Applied impedance for this level
SweepZ: When checked, will turn this constant Z level into a controlled sweep level using Z applied as
start impedance. At Z end the end-impedance of the sweep can be chosen, at scanrate the rate of the
scan can be entered. The Z step is defined by the 'scanrate x Interval time'
Duration: Duration of the level. This is the maximum time length the level will run, it will be cut short
when any of the cut-off conditions are met before the total run time has elapsed. The Duration parameter
will disappear when a SweepZ is active.
Cut-off conditions/thresholds: when reached the level is ended and the measurement will proceed to the
next level, or, when it is the last level, the measurement will be ended
Until E>: When checked the maximum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until E<: When checked the minimum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until I>: When checked the maximum allowed current can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is
active)
Until I<: When checked the minimum allowed current can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is
active)
Until An1>: When checked, the maximum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until An1<: When checked, the minimum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until dAn1/dt>: When checked, the maximum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
Until dAn1/dt<: When checked, the minimum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
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ExitScanOnThres: When checked will stop the entire measurement when any of the conditions are met,
rather than just move on to the next level.
AnOut1: When checked the value for Analog output 1 of the peripheral port can be entered. This value
will be set immediately at the start of this level. This can be used for example, to set the intensity of a
light source (see IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement), or the rotation speed of an RDE.
Digouts: When checked the configuration of the digital outputs of the peripheral port can be set by
entering an integer between 0 and 8. This corresponds to binary setting of the peripheral port. For
example: 0 = 0,0,0: all Digital inputs are high (all digital outputs are active high). 1 = 0,0,1: digital
output 3 is low. 2 = 0,1,0: digital output 2 is low. 3 = 0,1,1: digital outputs 2 and 3 are low. 5 = 1,0,1:
digital outputs 1 and 3 are low. Etc.
SequenceEnd: When checked will make this level end of a sequence. Note1: Each SequenceEnd needs to
be manually matched by a SequenceStart in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically. Note2:
When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to the
relevant levels. A SequenceEnd is illustrated in the Properties by a "]" at the end of the line.
P control: Properties
The Power is defined in Watt, and is calculated from the product of the (S-RE)-voltage and the WECurrent. A positive applied power means that the instrument will apply a positive current, and a negative
applied power will generate negative current. Note that the potential can be positive or negative in either
of the latter cases; the sign of the "real power by the cell" depends on the object. For example for an
active object, such as a battery, a positive applied power means that the battery is being charged by the
Energy of the instrument, while for a negative applied power Energy will be drained from the battery, but
the battery voltage in both these cases is "positive".
In "P control" mode, the instrument uses a fixed Current Range. AutoCR cannot be used. For the best
performance, it is advisable to select the best initial Current Range and Potential Range.
SequenceStart: When checked will make this level start of a sequence. In the SeqRepeatCount the
number of repetitions of this sequence can be entered (minimum=1; maximum = 65535). Sequenceblocks can enclose other sequence-blocks (loop nesting), up to 8 levels deep. Note1: Each SequenceStart
needs to be manually matched by a SequenceEnd in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically.
Note2: When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to
the relevant levels. A SequenceStart is illustrated in the Properties of the level by the SeqRepeatCount
number, followed by "*[" at the beginning of the line.
P maximum: When checked, the whole level will run at maximum power, i.e. the electrochemical system
will be operated at its maximum power point. When active the parameter P applied will disappear.
The "P-maximum" -setting facilitates the further investigation and operation of active cells, such as
Batteries, Fuel Cells, SolarCells, and other power generating devices. The power that a device (Cell)
generates is dependent on its Potential/Current settings. Often there is a certain E/I setpoint that yields
maximum Power. That point is not known in advance and/or is constantly changing, i.e. consider a Solar
Cell for which the incoming light is variable. When the "P maximum" option is checked, IviumSoft will
automatically select the E/I settings that yield maximum power. The Potential/Current settings are
continuously adjusted, so the device is always operated at it maximum power output.
Note 1: The P-maximum is software controlled, based on real-time measured values.
Note 2: The P-maximum point is re-calculated at each 'interval time', so the shorter the interval, the
faster the 'control loop'.
P applied: Applied power for this level (this parameter is only available if P maximum is not active)
Duration: Duration of the level. This is the maximum time length the level will run, it will be cut short
when any of the cut-off conditions are met before the total run time has elapsed. The Duration parameter
will disappear when a SweepZ is active.
Cut-off conditions/thresholds: when reached the level is ended and the measurement will proceed to the
next level, or, when it is the last level, the measurement will be ended
Until E>: When checked the maximum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until E<: When checked the minimum allowed voltage can be entered.
Until I>: When checked the maximum allowed current can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is
active)
Until I<: When checked the minimum allowed current can be entered. (not available when AutoCR is
active)
Until An1>: When checked, the maximum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until An1<: When checked, the minimum signal on the Analog input 1 of the peripheral port can be
entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature criterium.
Until dAn1/dt>: When checked, the maximum signal change over time on the Analog input 1 of the
peripheral port can be entered. This can for example, be used for a temperature change criterium.
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ExitScanOnThres: When checked will stop the entire measurement when any of the conditions are met,
rather than just move on to the next level.
AnOut1: When checked the value for Analog output 1 of the peripheral port can be entered. This value
will be set immediately at the start of this level. This can be used for example, to set the intensity of a
light source (see IMVS/IMPS and solar cell measurement), or the rotation speed of an RDE.
Digouts: When checked the configuration of the digital outputs of the peripheral port can be set by
entering an integer between 0 and 8. This corresponds to binary setting of the peripheral port. For
example: 0 = 0,0,0: all Digital inputs are high (all digital outputs are active high). 1 = 0,0,1: digital
output 3 is low. 2 = 0,1,0: digital output 2 is low. 3 = 0,1,1: digital outputs 2 and 3 are low. 5 = 1,0,1:
digital outputs 1 and 3 are low. Etc.
SequenceEnd: When checked will make this level end of a sequence. Note1: Each SequenceEnd needs to
be manually matched by a SequenceStart in the levels/Modes (this is not added automatically. Note2:
When [Add protocol] is chosed, the SequenceStart and SequenceEnd are automatically added to the
relevant levels. A SequenceEnd is illustrated in the Properties by a "]" at the end of the line.
Add protocol
This allows the user to add a protocol, for example for Battery testing GITT (Galvanic Intermittant
Titration Technique) or PITT (Potentiostatic Intermittant Titration Technique). Clicking this option will
open a pop-up for the user to define the PITT or GITT parameters. When finished, this protocol will
automatically be added to the Stages sequence at the bottom of the list and appear as "normal" lines.
After adding the protocol, the lines included in the protocol can still be edited.
[Clear sequence]: Will clear the sequence
[Batterytest GITT/PITT]: Highligh the desired technique by mouse clicking; the selection parameters will
change accordingly:
GITT
Current: set the current for the GITT and choose the paramter unit from the drop down list
Apply time: select the length of the current pulse and choose the paramter unit from the drop down list
Elimit Hi: maximum cut off voltage, i.e. maximum allowed voltage to be allowed before moving to the
next line (same as Until E>)
Elimit Lo: minimum cut off voltage, i.e. minimum allowed voltage to be allowed before moving to the
next line (Same as Until E<)
Max nr. of pulses: maximum number of levels in the GITT protocol
PITT
E step: set the voltage for the PITT and choose the paramter unit from the drop down list
Apply time: select the length of the voltage pulse and choose the paramter unit from the drop down list
Elimit Hi: maximum cut off voltage, i.e. maximum allowed voltage to be allowed before moving to the
next line (same as Until E>)
Elimit Lo: minimum cut off voltage, i.e. minimum allowed voltage to be allowed before moving to the
next line (Same as Until E<)
Max nr. of pulses: maximum number of levels in the PITT protocol
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[Apply]: clicking apply will add the defined protocol at the end of the list of levels in the Mode window.
Four lines will be added that contain the complete protocol. After these have been added, these can be
manually changed if desired or more cut-off conditions can be added.
[Close]: will close the window without adding the protocol
Important notes on the Mixed Mode technique

Automatic current ranging is not active in the I control, P control and Open cell levels, here the
current range is reset to the value as chosen in the main method parameters.

If an E control stage is preceded by another E control stage, the starting current range is the
same as the last current range of the previous stage.

AutoCR will only decide to change current ranges based on dc-values. If the simultaneous acmeasurement is active, the impedance is measured at the same current range as the dc-signal.

Switching between E/I/P/Z control mode: < 1µs

Switching between E/I/P/Z control and OCP mode < 5ms

The analog input threshold criteria are only active if the Analog inputs are set to 2 channels.

The dynamic threshold tests will ignore the 1st measured point after a new level was applied.
14.29 Cycles
Number of times that the whole sequence of levels is repeated, range 1-65535, only available in
Standard mode.
This option will allow multi-cycle experiments, such a multiple charging and discharging of
batteries/supercaps.
Please see the "Cycles separate" option to select how cycles are displayed.
Also see the "Thresholds" option to select dynamic cycling limits.
Continuous cycling
For ChronoAmperometry and ChronoPotentiometry in standard mode, and in MixedMode, the scans may
be repeated continuously. When the parameter "Cycles" that normally is used to define a finite number of
scans, is assigned the value "0", it is translated to infinite. Thus the cycling will never stop. Note that the
only way to stop cycling is to press "Abort".
14.30 Cycles separate
For multi-cycle experiments, each cycle will appear as a separate scan, as is done for example in cyclic
voltammetry.
Turning on this option will keep subsequent scans separated, and will appear as different scans "on top of
each other". Thus the first level wil always start with time = 0 seconds.
Turning off this option will combine all cycles in a single scan. Subsequent scans are appended to the
datafile, and the time will appear continuous.
See both examples for ChronoPotentiometry for a comparison.
14.31 N samples
Number of samples to be acquired
14.32 Thresholds
Activate dynamic level switching in ChronoPotentiometry ( Standard mode).
If during a level with a positive current (charge cycle), the potential exceeds "E max", this level is ended
and the next level is applied.
If during a level with a negative current (discharge cycle), the potential falls below "E min", this level is
ended and the next level is applied.
If the interupted level was the last level, the scan is ended, or proceeds to level-1 for multi-cycle
experiments.
Please note that the potential is sampled each interval time. In this case the interval time coincides with
the reaction time.
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14.32.1
Thresholds.E max
Set maximum potential threshold for dynamic levelswitching.
14.32.2
Thresholds.E min
Set minimum potential threshold for dynamic levelswitching.
14.33 Pulse time
Time (DPV-Technique) that pulse is applied, 0.1 ms to 400 ms; must be less than half of the interval
time.
14.34 Pulse amplitude
Pulse height, 1 mV to 1000 mV. The sign of pulse is defined by scan direction.
14.35 SQRWV frequency
Frequency of the square wave signal, 2 Hz to 1kHz in Standard mode. Up to 50 kHz in Hispeed mode.
14.36 Phase sensitive
When checked the current detection in the technique AC Voltammetry will be phase sensitive. In this case
the result will show the current component detected at that phase angle: for example at 0 degrees the
ohmic component will be displayed.
If not activated the displayed result equals the RMS value of the current.
Note that in AC Voltammetry, both RMS and phase angle are collected and stored. It is thus always
possible to change the detection angle of existing measurements afterwards.
14.36.1
Phase sensitive.phase
Phase angle for Phase-sensitive AC Voltammetry.
14.37 2nd Harmonic
When checked the AC current at double the excitation frequency is detected.
This is useful to investigate non-linear phenomena. Please note the special relation with the excitation
amplitude.
14.38 Deposition time
Time duration deposition stage during which E_start is applied.
14.39 Current stripping
In the technique Potentiometric Stripping the parameter 'Current Stripping' determines if the cell is active
or not. When unchecked, the cell is turned off during the stripping stage, i.e. no electrical current flows.
This is sometimes called Chemical stripping.
When checked, the current stripping is turned on (cell is on), the instrument is configured as galvanostat,
and the electrode is stripped at a constant applied Stripping current.
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14.39.1
Current Stripping.Stripping current
Constant applied current during electrochemical strippping potentiometry.
Please note that the current must be compliant with applied current range.
14.40 Equilibration time
The equilibrium time allows E start to be applied for the indicated amount of time, prior to the start of the
method, and at each new DC-setting (when relevant).
The equilibrium stage is only applied if the equilibration time >0.
The measured data for current (Estat) or potential (Istat) during the Equilibrium stage/period recorded
and appended to the pre-treatment data. The results will be shown in the pre-treatment plot (can be
accessed from the Graphic toolbar to the left of the result graph), and stored in the datafile. If the actual
method data already contains pre-treatment data, the equilibrium data is appended as it where an
additional pre-treatment stage.
Note that for the Impedance-Potentialscan/Currentscan techniques, the equilibrium stage is repeated at
each dc-potential/current, before each frequency-scan starts. However the pretreatment stage is only
executed before the first frequency-scan.
During the Equilibration stage a "Continue" button appears next to the "Abort" button at the start of a
method and during the pre-measurement stages, at the bottom of the method Tab:
It is possible to manually abort the Equilibration stage during its execution by pressing the "Continue"
button. This will stop the Equilibration and proceed to the next pre-measurement stage. If it was the last
scheduled stage, the measurement will start immediately.
14.41 Current range
The current sensitivity for the experiment can be selected from the drop down menu.
When automatic current ranging is applied, this parameter sets the initial current range (CR). The
maximum current that can be measured is 3* the current range, higher currents will trigger the current
overload indicator. Overload currents that are higher than 3* but lower than 4* the current range may
still be correct, but the reliability is not guaranteed. (AutoCR is not available for galvanostatic
techniques).
In case the DualCR option is checked (for impedance measurements), the active current range depends
on the applied frequency.
14.42 Noise reduction
This parameter can be used to reduce the impact of noise in impedance measurements. This can be
convenient in cases that suffer from excessive noise.
When activated, it will apply stronger automatic filtering, with built in analog filters.
Also it will give easy access to the Acquisition period of the FRA settings, which is the total period that is
sampled (averaged).
14.42.1
Noise reduction.Acquisition period
Easy access to the acquisition period (FRA settings); a longer period will give better noise reduction. Note
that this will override the value in the Options menu. The default value in the Options menu is 0.4sec,
while this parameter in the EIS method is set to 2sec (default) when Noise reduction is activated.
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14.43 AutoCR
AutoCR = Automatic current ranging. When activated by checking the box, the instrument will
automatically select the appropriate current range for the measured signal. Automated current range
switching is possible for sampling rates below 100 datapoints/second.
When checked the maximum and minimum allowed current ranges need to be selected by setting the
'Max range' and 'Min range'. The selected 'fixed' Current Range needs to be either equal to the Max range
or Min range, or it needs to be between them. If not, the AutoCR will be ignored and the selected fixed
range will be used. When AutoCR is active, the fixed Current range is used as the starting point for
determining the most apropriate current range for the measured signal. If the fixed range is chosen
poorly, this may show in the first datapoints (when 'Pre-ranging' is not active).
Activating the 'Pre-ranging' will make the potentiostat use the initial datapoints to determine the most
appropriate current range. Only once this range is found, the data will be plotted and saved. If 'Preranging' is not active, the first datapoints will be shown and saved, regardless whether these are out of
range or not.
In case the DualCR option is checked (only available for impedance measurements), the active current
range depends on the applied frequency.
The AutoCR option is also active for the Pretreatment and Equilibration stages.
Note that activating the AutoCR function may automatically deactivate some functions that cannot be
combined with AutoCR, such as certain threshold conditions in the stages in the Mixed mode technique. It
is possible to use Dynamic Vertexes in combination with AutoCR. However when AutoCR is activated, the
dynamic vertexes will only be active in the defined "AutoCR.Max range". This means that the Absolute
values of "I max" and "I min" should be larger than 0.25* the selected "Max range". In practice, usually
the 'Max range" parameter will be chosen according to the desired vertexes.
AutoCR for current controlled techniques
AutoCR can optionally be selected for the ChronoPotentiometry technique. When activated, the system
will automatically set the most optimum CR at the beginning of each level. The CR is set to the most
sensitive range that can handle the requested applied current.
Using this feature increases the dynamic range, enabling the combination of high with low current stages
within 1 scan. Compared with the fixed CR configuration, there are 2 main advantages:
a) Using the optimum CR gives better accuracy for applied currents, because errors scale with CR.
Especially the applied offset error can be much lower.
b) Using the optimum CR will result in a better response time. In galvanostatic mode, the response time
is related to the actual CR. The response time for a high-impedance cell will be faster, when a more
sensitive CR is used.
However in some situations, switching the CR in galvanostatic mode, may potentially cause undesirable
spikes on the cell. Therefore, the system will switch to a zero-current situation during a CR-change, to
avoid such spikes. The zero current duration, will be less than 5ms, and not be noticeable in the
experimental graph, since AutoCR can only be used when the interval is longer than 10ms (100pnts/sec).
AutoCR switching criteria
In the Options menu > Options settings it is possible to access the criteria for switching the current
range. When automatic current ranging is active there are default protocols in place determing when the
switching of the CR should occur. The CR is switched when:

the current exceeds 80% of the current range; then will be switched to a higher current range;

the current falls below 5% of the current range for 4 consecutive measurements; then will be
switched to a lower current range.
In certain situations, it is useful to lower the underload threshold, for example for noisy signals, to create
more margin between CR switchpoints. For this situation the parameter "Underload at..." can be altered,
and the second condition above is altered. For example, when 1% is selected, the CR will only be
switched to a lower one when the current falls below 1% of the CR.
NOTE I: The "Underload at..." parameter is adjustable from 0.2% to 25% in 0.1% increments, default is
5%.
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NOTE II: Changing the "Underload at..." parameter is only active during the measurement for which it is
set. The value is automatically reset to its 5% default when the instrument is disconnected from
IviumSoft.
14.43.1
AutoCR.Max range
Maximum allowed current range for automatic current ranging.
14.43.2
AutoCR.Min range
Minimum allowed current range for automatic current ranging.
14.43.3
Pre ranging
It is possible to let the automatic current ranging start before the measurement so that the instrument
will automatically look for the appropriate Current Range. This will ensure the measurement starts with
an appropriate setting. The pre-ranging can be switched on/off with the checkbox.
Datapoints measured when Pre-ranging is active will not be shown or saved.
14.44 DualCR
This option may be checked for potentiostatic frequency scans that use automatic current ranging.
It will override the automatic current range selection and set the current range depending on a user
specified frequency :
at frequencies > SwitchFreq, the AutoCR.Max range is selected.
at frequencies < SwitchFreq, the AutoCR.Min range is selected.
Note that this option is only active if the AutoCR option is checked.
14.44.1
DualCR.SwitchFreq
Frequency at which current range is switched, see DualCR
14.45 Potential range
Maximum potential range for potentiometric (galvanostatic) measurements. More sensitive ranges give
higher accuracy, but lower the range of measurable potentials.
14.46 Frequency
Frequency of the superimposed sinewave.
When in the Mixed Mode technique Stages window the option is checked to Record ac, an AC signal will
be applied of Amplitude and this selected frequency. The impedance will be measured for each datapoint
(after each Interval time).
When the Interval time is chosen to be an minimum of 0.2s, the AC signal will be applied only at the end
of the measurement interval. This is done so that the AC signal has a minimum of influence of the DC
Mixed Mode measurement. When an Interval time <0.2s is chosen, the interval time is not long enough
to apply and remove the AC signal and determine the impedance, so the AC signal is continuously applied
(regardless of the Continuous AC option).
Note1: for the AC signal to be briefly applied at Interval time down to 0.2s, the Frequency needs to be a
minimum of 10Hz.
Note2: to make use of real time impedance, i.e. to apply the AC signal continuously, the signal Frequency
must be higher than '2/Interval time'.
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14.47 Amplitude
Amplitude of the AC signal sine wave top-top. The value can be chosen between the potentiostats
minimum voltage resolutions step and maximum 1 V.
When the amplitude is set for a galvanostatic experiment or level, the 1V corresponds to '1 x the nominal
current of the current range'. For example, 1V corresponds with an amplitude of 1mA when the 1mA
current range is active; when the 10mA current range is selected, 1V corresponds with 10mA amplitude.
14.48 Continuous AC
When checked, and the 'Record ac' option is checked in the Stages window, this will maintain the AC
amplitude throughout the level continuously, regardless whether the interval time is larger or smaller
than 0.2s.
14.49 AC mean Current
When this option is checked, and in the Stages window the option Record ac is active, this will measure
the mean AC current, instead of the DC current and plot this in the main dataplot (black line, left axis).
The mean current value is defined by averaging the quadratic current over a finite number of ac cycles,
after subtraction of the dc current. Please note that the thresholds for currents, are now applicable to the
AC Mean current.
14.50 ThresholdHoldoff
Time that threshold checking is inactive at each level. This parameter is to be used when, after a
levelchange, it is undesirable that threshold switching happens too fast. It puts a minimum duration to
the level. This is useful when systems need a stabilization time.
Note 1: The time is always counted from the start of the active level, so it is "reset" at each level change.
Note 2: The TresholdHoldoff time should not exceed the level duration.
14.51 Frequencies
Number of frequencies opens a pop-up that allows the user to select and configure the frequencies and
amplitudes used in the frequency scan. The maximum number of frequencies is 255, the min./max.
frequencies and amplitude are subject to the potentiostat capability.
The frequencies can be applied as:

Single sine

Multi sine

Dual sine
The FRA settings for the signal generation en result optimisation can be accessed from the Options menu.
Single sine
In single sine the frequencies are each applied individually and consecutively according to the selected
scan operation.
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



Frequencies: Indicates the number of frequencies that will be applied, this will be calculated
automatically.
Frequencies each decade: enter the number of frequencies to be applied per decade and click
apply. The frequencies will be calculated automatically in a logarithmic spread and these will be
listed in the table below. More frequencies will result in more data points, but the measurement
will take longer, especially in the lower frequency range.
Frequency scan:
Start: frequency at which the scan will start*
End: frequency at which the scan will end*
Amplitude: Amplitude of the sine wave, top-top
Manual override: when this box is checked all individual frequencies and amplitudes in the table
below can be manually changed. This can be used to create a completely flexible frequency scan
[Close]: clicking close will close the pop-up and apply the chosen values.
*A frequency scan is normally done starting at the highest frequency and ending at the lowest frequency.
The reason for this is that a frequency scan should normally be done at steady state, and while at higher
frequencies the time of the applied signal is low, at lower frequencies each sine wave takes increasing
longer and may thus have a Faradaic effect on the electrochemical system and its stability.
Multi sine
Multi sine applies multiple sine wave frequencies simultaneously and the corresponding impedances are
collected in a single measurement. Especially for measurements at lower frequencies this can decrease
measurement time considerably and minimize artefacts caused by time-variable impedances.
In multi sine 5 frequencies within a single decade are combined. By using the odd harmonics: 1:3:5:7:9
Hz., etc. and carefully controlling the relative phase of these frequencies it is possible to minimise the
total combined amplitude for a given effect. Thus, the maximum amplitude from the combination of 5
frequencies is less than 2.5 times the individual amplitudes. This minimises the signal degradation which
is traditionally inherent in the multi-sine technique whilst still producing fast results.
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The applied signal, for example, looks like:
Compared to Single Sine, there are some constraints:

Start and End frequency must be at decade-boundaries

Manual override of individual frequencies/amplitudes is not available. The amplitudes are the
same for all frequencies.

Fixed number of frequencies per decade (5)
The multi sine method is applied for frequencies below 100Hz, when a higher frequency is chosen the
single and multi sine approaches are combined: all frequencies above 100Hz will be applied as single sine
because the draw backs of multi sine (inaccuracy of the results, etc.) outweigh the benifits of time
gained. The IviumSoft will automatically distribute the frequencies according to the logarithmic frequency
distribution for single sine (>100Hz), and the odd-harmonic distribution for MultiSine (<100Hz).
The measurement data format is the same as for SingleSine: each frequency is stored individually. Also
the data analysis is conducted in the same manner.
Note that MultiSine offers faster measurement, however this is at the expense of measurement accuracy.
If measurement duration is not an overriding issue, it is strongly recommended to use the standard
SingleSine method.
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
Frequency scan: (when these values are chosen, the frequencies are calculated automatically and
displayed in the table below)
Start: frequency at which the scan will start
End: frequency at which the scan will end
Amplitude: Amplitude of the sine wave, top-top
[Close]: clicking close will close the pop-up and apply the chosen values.
Dual sine
With dual sine a sum of 2 frequencies is applied: 2x and 5x the base frequency. Applying such a signal on
an non-linear cell will result in a mix of well defined modulation products, which can be analyzed (for
example with the harmonic analysis in the SigView window). In dual sine each frequency in the scan is
treated as a base frequency. In the example picture below, the first datapoint freq[1] will be applied as a
sum of 2Hz + 5Hz, freq[2] will be applied as 0.2Hz and 0.5Hz etc.
The main graph will show the base frequency on the horizontal axis and the impedance of '2 x
basefrequency' on the vertical axis (at 1Hz you will see the impedance of 2Hz). For viewing the complete
result, see the Signal Monitor.
In principle the dual sine can be used for base frequencies up to 31Hz. However due to distortion at
higher frequencies, it is recommended for quantitative analysis to remain below 10Hz.
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



Frequencies: Indicates the number of frequencies that will be applied, this will be calculated
automatically.
Frequencies each decade: enter the number of frequencies to be applied per decade and click
apply. The frequencies will be calculated automatically in a logarithmic spread and these will be
listed in the table below. More frequencies will result in more data points, but the measurement
will take longer, especially in the lower frequency range.
Frequency scan:
Start: frequency at which the scan will start
End: frequency at which the scan will end
Amplitude: Amplitude of the sine wave, top-top
Manual override: when this box is checked all individual frequencies and amplitudes in the table
below can be manually changed. This can be used to create a completely flexible frequency scan
[Close]: clicking close will close the pop-up and apply the chosen values.
FRA properties
The applied frequencies are derived from the main 8MHz* oscillator: 8MHz/n*. An advanced software
algorithm is developed for high resolution. The applied frequency resolution is finer than 0.05% for the
whole applicable frequency range. The resolution is defined as the smallest possible separation between 2
applicable frequencies.
Note that the frequency resolution is not the same as the applied frequency accuracy. Frequency
resolution is defined as the smallest possible separation between 2 applied frequencies whereas
frequency accuracy is the accuracy of each frequency point. (For all Ivium instruments, the frequency
accuracy is better than 100ppm (0.01%), for -10degC to +70degC.).
*Oscillator max. frequency depends on type of potentiostat.
14.51.1
Frequencies.Single sine
In single sine the frequencies are each applied individually and consecutively according to the selected
scan operation. The maximum number of frequencies is 255, the min./max. frequencies and amplitude
are subject to the potentiostat capability.
The FRA settings for the signal generation en result optimisation can be accessed from the Options menu.
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



Frequencies: Indicates the number of frequencies that will be applied, this will be calculated
automatically.
Frequencies each decade: enter the number of frequencies to be applied per decade and click
apply. The frequencies will be calculated automatically in a logarithmic spread and these will be
listed in the table below. More frequencies will result in more data points, but the measurement
will take longer, especially in the lower frequency range.
Frequency scan:
Start: frequency at which the scan will start*
End: frequency at which the scan will end*
Amplitude: Amplitude of the sine wave, top-top
Manual override: when this box is checked all individual frequencies and amplitudes in the table
below can be manually changed. This can be used to create a completely flexible frequency scan
[Close]: clicking close will close the pop-up and apply the chosen values.
*A frequency scan is normally done starting at the highest frequency and ending at the lowest frequency.
The reason for this is that a frequency scan should normally be done at steady state, and while at higher
frequencies the time of the applied signal is low, at lower frequencies each sine wave takes increasing
longer and may thus have a Faradaic effect on the electrochemical system and its stability.
14.51.2
Frequencies.Multi sine
Multi sine applies multiple sine wave frequencies simultaneously and the corresponding impedances are
collected in a single measurement. Especially for measurements at lower frequencies this can decrease
measurement time considerably and minimize artefacts caused by time-variable impedances.
In multi sine 5 frequencies within a single decade are combined. By using the odd harmonics: 1:3:5:7:9
Hz., etc. and carefully controlling the relative phase of these frequencies it is possible to minimise the
total combined amplitude for a given effect. Thus, the maximum amplitude from the combination of 5
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frequencies is less than 2.5 times the individual amplitudes. This minimises the signal degradation which
is traditionally inherent in the multi-sine technique whilst still producing fast results.
The applied signal, for example, looks like:
Compared to Single Sine, there are some constraints:

Start and End frequency must be at decade-boundaries

Manual override of individual frequencies/amplitudes is not available. The amplitudes are the
same for all frequencies.

Fixed number of frequencies per decade (5)
The multi sine method is applied for frequencies below 100Hz, when a higher frequency is chosen the
single and multi sine approaches are combined: all frequencies above 100Hz will be applied as single sine
because the draw backs of multi sine (inaccuracy of the results, etc.) outweigh the benifits of time
gained. The IviumSoft will automatically distribute the frequencies according to the logarithmic frequency
distribution for single sine (>100Hz), and the odd-harmonic distribution for MultiSine (<100Hz).
The measurement data format is the same as for SingleSine: each frequency is stored individually. Also
the data analysis is conducted in the same manner.
Note that MultiSine offers faster measurement, however this is at the expense of measurement accuracy.
If measurement duration is not an overriding issue, it is strongly recommended to use the standard
SingleSine method.
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
Frequency scan: (when these values are chosen, the frequencies are calculated automatically and
displayed in the table below)
Start: frequency at which the scan will start
End: frequency at which the scan will end
Amplitude: Amplitude of the sine wave, top-top
[Close]: clicking close will close the pop-up and apply the chosen values.
The FRA settings for the signal generation en result optimisation can be accessed from the Options menu.
14.51.3
Frequencies.Dual sine
Dual sine
With dual sine a sum of 2 frequencies is applied: 2x and 5x the base frequency. Applying such a signal on
an non-linear cell will result in a mix of well defined modulation products, which can be analyzed (for
example with the harmonic analysis in the SigView window). In dual sine each frequency in the scan is
treated as a base frequency. In the example picture below, the first datapoint freq[1] will be applied as a
sum of 2Hz + 5Hz, freq[2] will be applied as 0.2Hz and 0.5Hz etc.
The main graph will show the base frequency on the horizontal axis and the impedance of '2 x
basefrequency' on the vertical axis (at 1Hz you will see the impedance of 2Hz). For viewing the complete
result, see the Signal Monitor.
In principle the dual sine can be used for base frequencies up to 31Hz. However due to distortion at
higher frequencies, it is recommended for quantitative analysis to remain below 10Hz.
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



Frequencies: Indicates the number of frequencies that will be applied, this will be calculated
automatically.
Frequencies each decade: enter the number of frequencies to be applied per decade and click
apply. The frequencies will be calculated automatically in a logarithmic spread and these will be
listed in the table below. More frequencies will result in more data points, but the measurement
will take longer, especially in the lower frequency range.
Frequency scan:
Start: frequency at which the scan will start
End: frequency at which the scan will end
Amplitude: Amplitude of the sine wave, top-top
Manual override: when this box is checked all individual frequencies and amplitudes in the table
below can be manually changed. This can be used to create a completely flexible frequency scan
[Close]: clicking close will close the pop-up and apply the chosen values.
14.52 Noise reduction
This parameter is added to the EIS techniques to reduce the impact of noise. This can be convenient in
cases that suffer from excessive noise. It has 2 functions:

When activated, it will apply stronger automatic filtering with the potentiostats' built in analog
filters.

It provides a short cut to the FRA setting in the Options menu for the signal acquisition period.
The acquisition period is the total period that the sampled signal is measured (averaged). A
longer period will give better noise reduction. Entering a vlaue for the Noise reduction parameter
will override this value in the Option menu. The default value in the Options menu is 0.4s, while it
is set to 2s (default) when Noise reduction is activated. Of course, these values may be modified
by the operator.
14.52.1
Noise Reduction.Acquisition period
When Noise Reduction is activated the acquisition period of the impedance signal can be entered here to
improve noise reduction. The maximum acquisition period is 60s.
14.53 Filter
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Signal measurement filter setting 1MHz/100kHz/10kHz/1kHz/10Hz or automatic. In Basic mode,
automatic is applied. This filter is applied to the signals to be measured: current/potential/bipotentiostat
or external X/Y-inputs. In automatic mode, the system determines the most appropriate setting from the
applied samplerate (DC) or applied frequency (impedance method). Overriding the automatic setting
should be done with care, because it may result in signal deformation. Especially for the impedance
methods it is recommended to use the automatic setting. The automatically selected filter depends upon
sample rate. It is subject to change in future revisions without notice but is currently as follows:
Filter:

SR>500kHz: 1MHz

SR>50kHz: 100kHz

SR>5kHz: 10kHz

SR>50Hz: 1kHz

when AUTOCR and SR>8Hz: 1kHz

else: 10Hz
14.54 Stability
The Stability setting determines the bandwidth of the applied signals on the sample:
highspeed/standard/high stability or automatic. The bandwidth determines the speed of the control loop
of the potentiostat. At higher speed, corrections are applied faster, but the risk of the system becoming
less stable increases. At lower speed the control loop is slower and this results in a more stable, but less
quickly responsive, system. Of course, a high speed control loop is necessary for high (sample) rates.
In Basic mode, automatic is applied. High speeds allow for faster pulses/scanrates and higher
frequencies, but increase noise levels and worsen stability. In automatic mode, the system determines
the most appropriate setting from the applied samplerate (DC) or applied frequency (impedance
method). Overriding the automatic setting should be done with care, because it may result in signal
deformation and instability. Especially for the impedance methods it is recommended to use the
automatic setting. In automatic setting the Stability is as follows*:

SR>1kHz: hispeed

SR>20Hz: standard

else histability
*Subject to change without notification
14.55 Connect to
Select






electrode cable configuration or internal dummy cell:
Cell-2El, only CE and WE need to be connected
Cell-4El, CE, WE, RE and S need to be connected
Dummy 1: 1kOhm
Dummy 2: 100kOhm
Dummy 3: 10Mohm
Dummy 4: 1kohm parallel over 1µF in series with 100ohm or 250ohm (depending on the type of
Ivium potentiostat; these values are subject to change without notice).
'Connect to' is an advanced method parameter.
Note that not all Ivium potentiostats have internal dummy cells available to be connected to, and the
dummy cell are not available in combination with certain options and modules. If the 'Connect to'
parameter is not available, the default is Cell-4El.
14.56 Analog inputs
Measurement configuration of external the analog inputs of the peripheral port. The 8 channels from the
peripheral port are recorded in pairs, simultaneously with the primary signals. In the 2 channel
configuration, ch1 & ch2 are sampled at the same rate as the primary channel. When 4 channels are
sampled, ch1&ch2 and ch3&ch4 are sampled alternatingly, at half of the sampling rateof the primary
signal. Likewise when 4 channels are sampled, the peripheral channels are sampled at a quarter of the
sampling speed of the primary signals. Results are visualized in the "Extra" plot, accessible via the
graphic toolbars.
The properties for the signal plots for the analog inputs are availble in Data Options.
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14.57 AccumulateCharge
When this option is checked, the charge will be accumulated over all levels from the start of the
experiment. If this option is unchecked the charge counter is reset at the start of each new level.
14.58 Anout2
The Anout2 parameter controls the Aanlog output 2 of the peripheral port and creates the a facility to
generate an external output pulse or variable voltage level just before the measurement starts. With this
option active, another measurement device can be triggered to start simultaneously, or a generator can
be controlled to perform at the selected analog level. For example the intensity of a light-source can be
varied to study photoelectric phenomena. It is both possible to apply a pulse of defined duration before
the measurement starts, or apply a continuous voltage level at Analog Output 2 of the peripheral port.
The pulse level can be defined at 16bits resolution. The pulse duration can be programmed from 0.05ms
to 500 ms, at 10us resolution. The pulse is applied just before measurement sampling starts. In the
HiSpeed techniques, the first recorded measurement sample follows within 0.05ms after the pulse/levelchange.
For all techniques, in Advanced mode, the methodparameter "Anout2" can optionally be checked. When
checked, 2 parameters appear:

Level : the voltage to be applied to Analog output 2

Pulse period : the duration of the pulse (0.05 to 500 ms), or 0
If a Pulse period of 0 ms is set, the level will be applied continuously. The value will be applied during the
whole measurement, and thereafter. In such case, the analog output retains its setting, and must be
reset in manual control or by the next executed scan.
14.59 Level
Potential level of the pulse. The pulse level can be defined at 16bits resolution.
14.60 Pulse period
Period of the pulse.
The pulse duration can be programmed from 0.05ms to 500 ms, at 10us resolution. The pulse is applied
just before measurement sampling starts. In the HiSpeed techniques, the first recorded measurement
sample follows within 0.05ms after the pulse/level-change.
If a Pulse period of 0 ms is set, the level will be applied continuous. The value will be applied during the
whole measurement, and thereafter. In such case, the analog output remains its setting, and must be
reset in manual control or by the next executed scan.
14.61 Apply wrt OCP
When desired the potentials can be referred to the Open Cell Potential by activating this option. When
checked before the measurement starts, the instrument determines the OCP by monitoring the potential
with CE disconnected (no current passes). The determined OCP is added to E start and the other (scan)
potentials, before the measurement starts. Results are visualized in the "ocp" plot, accessible via the
graphic toolbars.
The measured OCP that is used during the experiment is also shown in the bottom status bar after the
OCP detremination is finished.
When the Apply with respect to OCP is activated the time that is allowed for the OCP monitoring prior to
measurement can be chosen in the Monitor time in s. The sample interval can be chosen in Monitor
interval. The measured E at the end of the monitor time is taken to be the OCP. The measurement of the
OCP can be stopped before the end of the monitor time has expired when a sufficiently stable potential
has been reached by entering a value in for the Accept if dE/dt. In this way it is possible, when it is
unknown when the OCP will stabilize, to enter an excessively long monitor time and stop the
measurement when the OCP is sufficiently stabilized.
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The potentials for which the OCP is to be used need to be chosen in the 3 available check boxes for:
Estart wrt OCP
Vtx/End wrt OCP
Estandby wrt OCP
Note that when none of these are checked, the OCP will be measured but not used/applied!
By checking the box for Record real E, the real E will be shown in the result graph, not the E with respect
to OCP. If unchecked the potential with respect to the measured OCP will be shown in the result graph
(and in the saved data).
During the OCP stage a "Continue" button appears next to the "Abort" button at the start of a method
and during the pre-measurement stages, at the bottom of the method Tab:
It is possible to manually abort the OCP stage during its execution by pressing the "Continue" button.
This will stop the OCP measurement, it will accept the last measured value as the actual OCP, and
proceed to the next pre-measurement stage. If it was the last scheduled stage, the measurement will
start immediately.
14.61.1
Apply wrt OCP.monitor time
Time (s) that OCP is monitored nprior to the measurement. The potential that is reached at the end of
this period is assumed to be the OCP.
14.61.2
Apply wrt OCP.monitor interval
Sampling interval (s) during OCP monitoring
14.61.3
Apply wrt OCP.Estart wrt OCP
When checked the startpotential is defined relative to OCP. When unchecked, the E start is applied as a
real potential.
14.61.4
Apply wrt OCP.Vtx/End wrt OCP
When checked the Vertex- and End-potentials are defined relative to OCP. When unchecked, these are
applied as real potentials.
14.61.5
Apply wrt OCP.Estandby wrt OCP
Determines whether the stand-by potential needs to be applied with respect to OCP.
When checked the stand-by potential is defined relative to OCP. When unchecked, it is applied as real
potential.
14.61.6
Apply wrt OCP.Record real E
When checked, the real potentials are displayed and stored. When unchecked, potentials relative to OCP
are displayed and stored. To improve clarity, the OCP value is shown on screen in the bottom status
panel.
14.61.7
Apply wrt OCP. Accept if dE/dt<
The measurement of the OCP can be stopped before the end of the monitor time has expired when a
sufficiently stable potential has been reached by entering an appropriate value for dE/dt<. When left at
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0.00 mV/s, this option is ignored. When a value is entered the OCP monitoring will be stopped if the E
changes less than the specified valied over time (or when the Monitor time is exceeded, whichever comes
first)
14.62 Remove DC initial
Before an ElectroChemical Noise scan, the voltage bias can be removed. If the checkbox "Remove DC
initial" is checked, the initial voltage is measured and subsequently electronically subtracted from the cell
potential before measurement. This option can improve the sensitivity of ECN measurements, because it
will allow for a more narrow Potential range setting with a higher resolution.
14.63 Signal averaging
Normally the signals for each time interval in the Electrochemical Noise technique are recorded at the last
portion of that interval: i.e. the signals are sampled at high speed and averaged during a sufficiently
narrow period that is automatically chosen by the instrument. The option is available (in the ECN
technique only) to allow the user to override this and redefine the period by using the "Signal averaging"
parameter.
By checking the "Full interval" option, the data is measured and averaged during the whole interval
period (note the similarity with the current integration techniques).
If the "Full interval" option is left unchecked, the user can define the "Averaging time" to any other value
between 0.0003 and 10 seconds. Normally the Averaging time would be a fraction of the interval time,
but it is also possible to use larger time periods. In that case, the averaging also uses the previous
datapoints, and in fact will become a digital lowpass filter.
14.63.1
Signal averaging.Full interval
By checking the "Full interval" option, the data is measured and averaged during the whole interval
period (note the similarity with the current integration techniques).
14.63.2
Signal averaging.Averaging time
If the "Full interval" option is left unchecked, the user can define the "Averaging time" to any other value
between 0.0003 and 10 seconds. Normally the Averaging time would be a fraction of the interval time,
but it is also possible to use larger time periods. In that case, the averaging also uses the previous
datapoints, and in fact will become a digital lowpass filter.
14.64 IR feedback
It is possible to compensate for ohmic drop in the sample, via the direct feedback method. When the IR
feedback is checked the instrument will increase the cell potential (WE vs. CE) by the amount that is
defined by the product of current and Compensation resistance. Caution should be exercised, because
overcompensation will result in instabilities.
14.64.1
IR feedback.Compensation
The ohmic value to be compensated. This value may range from 0 to 2V/current range. For example in
the 1mA current range a maximum of 2V/0.001A = 2 kohm can be compensated.
14.65 BiStat
Checking the BiStat parameter will activate the bipotentiostat. When active, the bipotentiostat will apply
a potential on the WE2 lead of the cell cable. The measured current on WE2 is plotted in the result graph
together with the primary WE current. Note that on the x-axis of the graph, the potential of the primary
WE is plotted.
The plots of the primary WE current and WE2 current can separated by clicking the '2nd' button in the
tool bar to the left of the graph.
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The Bipotentiostat can be operated in 2 modes:

Standard: the bipotentiostat potential is referred to RE (and remains constant for the duration of
the experiment)

Scanning: the bipotentiostat potential is referred to the primary WE (and scans with same rate
and step as the primary WE)
14.65.1
BiStat.E offset
Potential offset for WE2. The potential range is +/-2V with respect to the primary WE (scanning) or the
RE (standard) with a maximum of the potentiostats' applied voltage.
14.65.2
BiStat.Current range
Similar to the primary current range setting, but for WE2.
When CR min and CR max are selected to be not equal to each other, and the BiStat Current range is
between or equal to CR min and CR max, then automatic current ranging is applied for the measurement
of the WE2 current.
14.65.3
BiStat.CR max
Maximum allowed current range for automatic current ranging.
14.65.4
BiStat.CR min
Minimum allowed current range for automatic current ranging.
14.65.5
BiStat.mode
Select Standard or Scanning mode. In Standard mode, the WE2 potential is set to a constant offset with
respect to RE. In Scanning mode, WE2 is kept at a constant offset potential with respect to the primary
WE, thus WE2 will scan at the same speed as WE1.
14.66 Cell after measurement
If activated the cell will remain connected after completion of the measurement and the E standby will be
applied. The E standby will be applied until the next measurement is started, or the potentiostat is
switched off and/or the IviumSoft is closed.
14.66.1
Cell after measurement.E standby
Potential applied after measurement(s).
14.67 Pretreatment
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Up to 5 potential or current levels may be applied before the experiment starts. Each level is defined by a
potential or current value, and a time duration. The pretreatment stage preceeds all operations, also the
OCP monitoring if that is activated. Results are visualized in the "Extra" plot, accessible via the graphic
toolbar.
During the pretreatment stage a "Continue" button appears next to the "Abort" button at the start of a
method and during the pre-measurement stages, at the bottom of the method Tab:
It is possible to manually abort the pretreatment stage during its execution by pressing the "Continue"
button. This will stop the pretreatment and proceed to the next pre-measurement stage. If it was the last
scheduled stage, the measurement will start immediately.
14.67.1
Pretreatment each freq
For the potentiostatic Impedance technique "Constant E", the advanced method parameter "Pretreat each
freq" is available. By checking this option, the pretreatment sequence is repeated before each new
applied frequency.
During each pretreatment, the ac signal is removed, and the dc current is measured once every second.
The (subsequent) pretreatment measurements are recorded and added to the Pretreatment data,
available in the Result data and Result graph.
14.68 Data Options
Opening the Data options pop-up allows a variety of transformations of the visualized data results:
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


the peripheral port signals may be transformed with user defined functions
the potential axis may be automatically corrected for various reference electrodes
the electrode surface area may be entered to display current density.
Note that the transformations are on the visual graphs only, the underlying data is always stored in
original form.
AnalogInputs
When Analog inputs are selected the measured voltage values can be transferred and shown in the graph
accordingly. By default all channels are shown in the same graph (Plot 1); when in the bottom left the
box is checked under Plot 2, that channel will be shown in Plot 2. If any of the channels are marked to be
shown in Plot 2, when opening the "Ain" graph in the graphic toolbar, automatically 2 plots are shown. If
none of the graphs is marked to be shown in Plot 2, only one Plot will be shown when the "Ain" graph is
opened.
In the 2 areas above, the transformations of each plot can be selected.
The Plot title will be shown above the graph, the Axis title (for the y-axis) will be shown next to the
graph. Note that the x-axis has the same scale as the x-axis of the primary signal graph.
In the "Transform" window a function can be selected from the drop down menu:
The transform parameters for the functions can be selected by entering the desired values in the boxes
for A through D.
[OK] accept the values and close the pop-up
[Set default] reset to default values
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[Apply to selected data] will apply settings only to the scan in active memory
[Apply to all data] will apply settings to the all data in the legend panel
E corrections
In the "Ecorrections" tab an offset potential may be entered, and/or reference electrode potentials may
be converted. If this is done, the potential values in the primary data graph are changed accordingly
when the "Ecor" button above the graph is pressed (see screen layout of the result graph).
In the "Offset potential" a value can be entered directly.
Alternatively in the conversion area below that, the actually used reference electrode may be selected
from the drop down menu next to "actual RE" and the referenece electrode that it needs to refer to can
be selected from the drop down menu next to "base RE". When "Calulate" is clicked, the offset potential
is automatically calculated and displayed in the "Offset potential" field.
[OK] accept the values and close the pop-up
[Set default] reset to default values
[Apply to selected data] will apply settings only to the scan in active memory
[Apply to all data] will apply settings to the all data in the legend panel
Electrode
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In the "Electrode" tab various electrode and material properties can be chosen for display and calculation
purposes.

Area: the working electrode surface area entered in this field will allow the display of the current
density when the "Idens" button above the graph is pressed (see screen layout of the result
graph). This value will also be used for the calculation of the corrosion rate.

Density: the working electrode material density entered in this field will be used for relevant
calculations, such as the calculation of the corrosion rate.

Equivalent weight: the working electrode equivalent weight entered in this field will be used for
relevant calculations, such as the calculation of the corrosion rate.
The Density and Equivalent weight for a select number of alloys can also be selected from a table by
clicking the "Select from Table" button:


Anodic slope Ba: the working electrode anodic slope coefficient entered in this field will be used
for relevant calculations, such as the calculation of the corrosion rate.
Cathodic slope Bc: the working electrode cathodic slope coefficient entered in this field will be
used for relevant calculations, such as the calculation of the corrosion rate.
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

Ref Capacity: the reference capacity entered in this field will be used for relevant calculations.
Battery Capacity: the battery capacity entered in this field will be used for relevant calculations.
[OK] accept the values and close the pop-up
[Set default] reset to default values
[Apply to selected data] will apply settings only to the scan in active memory
[Apply to all data] will apply settings to the all data in the legend panel
14.69 Data reduction
When data is captured over extended periods of time and/or at high sample rates, the large data files
produced can become slow and cumbersome to manage. For ChronoAmperometry and
ChronoPotentiometry in standard mode, and in MixedMode and Electrochemical Noise the data can be
reduced in real-time.
When this option is checked the following options are available:

average every

no averaging

min E delta

min I delta

max interval
Skipping or Averaging datapoints: Reduce the number of datapoints by entering a number of points to
use in computing an average. This is stored as a single value. By ticking the box "No Averaging", every
n-th value is stored without averaging the intermediate values.
The averaging is done inside the instrument, and only the average values are sent to the pc. Thus less
points are transferred and stored. For example at an interval time of 0.002 sec and an average count of
500, only 1 point per second will be produced. This feature is convenient for very long measurements
that otherwise would produce too many datapoints. At very long interval times, for example at 1 sec
interval, and an average count of 600, only 1 point per 10 minutes is recorded.
Data reduction by averaging has the beneficial effect that noise is suppressed, and curves will become
more smooth. Because less data needs to be communicated, the speed limit for standard mode is
increased. The minimum interval time is reduced from 2ms to 0.5ms at sufficient average counts. (500
Hz - 2 kHz).
This feature has some consequences for other functions. If AutoCR is active, the average values are used
to decide to change a current range. Also when averaging is activated, and analog inputs are recorded
simultaneously with the measurement, only channels 1&2 can be used, To use this feature, check the
"Data reduction" option, and set the "average" parameter to the desired number.
Adaptive sampling enables the user to set a minimum change in the measured parameter (E/I) which will
be stored in the data file. Thus, all relevant trends are captured with a minimum of datapoints. The user
can define a minimum potential- and/or current-difference which he considers relevant. Datapoints that
differ less than the defined delta from the last recorded point, will not be stored. Only datapoints that
differ more than the minimum defined delta will be displayed. The exception is the 1st datapoint after
each new applied level-change, which will always be stored.
For ChronoAmperometry the instrument will use the "min I delta", and for ChronoPotentiometry the "min
I delta" parameter.
For Mixed mode, both parameters will be used: either an E-delta or an I-delta will trigger a samplerecording. In this case a single parameter can be effectively disabled by entering a very high value.
In principle, the averaging approach could be combined with the "minimum delta" method. However, this
is not recommended because of the increasing complexity. Therefore, if using the "minimum delta"
method, keep the "average every" on 1 point. And for the averaging approach, keep both min-deltas to
0.
A maximum interval time can be defined after which a data point is stored in any case. This can be used
to make sure that the periods between data points do not become larger than desired.
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14.69.1
Data reduction.average every
Number of points to be averaged. For example at 1 sec interval, and an average count of 600, only 1
point per 10 minutes is recorded.
Skipping or Averaging datapoints: Reduce the number of datapoints by entering a number of points to
use in computing an average. This is stored as a single value. By ticking the box "No Averaging", every
n-th value is stored without averaging the intermediate values.
The averaging is done inside the instrument, and only the average values are sent to the pc. Thus less
points are transferred and stored. For example at an interval time of 0.002 sec and an average count of
500, only 1 point per second will be produced. This feature is convenient for very long measurements
that otherwise would produce too many datapoints. At very long interval times, for example at 1 sec
interval, and an average count of 600, only 1 point per 10 minutes is recorded.
Data reduction by averaging has the beneficial effect that noise is suppressed, and curves will become
more smooth. Because less data needs to be communicated, the speed limit for standard mode is
increased. The minimum interval time is reduced from 2ms to 0.5ms at sufficient average counts. (500
Hz - 2 kHz).
This feature has some consequences for other functions. If AutoCR is active, the average values are used
to decide to change a current range. Also when averaging is activated, and analog inputs are recorded
simultaneously with the measurement, only channels 1&2 can be used, To use this feature, check the
"Data reduction" option, and set the "average" parameter to the desired number.
14.69.2
Data reduction.no averaging
In the existing data reduction option (transient techniques), the number of datapoints can be reduced by
setting an averaging number. In this manner the instrument will reduce the number of datapoints by a
selectable fraction.
Skipping or Averaging datapoints: Reduce the number of datapoints by entering a number of points to
use in computing an average. This is stored as a single value. By ticking the box "No Averaging", every
n-th value is stored without averaging the intermediate values.
The averaging is done inside the instrument, and only the average values are sent to the pc. Thus less
points are transferred and stored. For example at an interval time of 0.002 sec and an average count of
500, only 1 point per second will be produced. This feature is convenient for very long measurements
that otherwise would produce too many datapoints. At very long interval times, for example at 1 sec
interval, and an average count of 600, only 1 point per 10 minutes is recorded.
Data reduction by averaging has the beneficial effect that noise is suppressed, and curves will become
more smooth. Because less data needs to be communicated, the speed limit for standard mode is
increased. The minimum interval time is reduced from 2ms to 0.5ms at sufficient average counts. (500
Hz - 2 kHz).
This feature has some consequences for other functions. If AutoCR is active, the average values are used
to decide to change a current range. Also when averaging is activated, and analog inputs are recorded
simultaneously with the measurement, only channels 1&2 can be used, To use this feature, check the
"Data reduction" option, and set the "average" parameter to the desired number.
14.69.3
Data reduction.min E delta
Adaptive sampling: only E values differing more than this value from the previously stored data point, will
be stored.
Adaptive sampling enables the user to set a minimum change in the measured parameter (E/I) which will
be stored in the data file. Thus, all relevant trends are captured with a minimum of datapoints. The user
can define a minimum potential- and/or current-difference which he considers relevant. Datapoints that
differ less than the defined delta from the last recorded point, will not be stored. Only datapoints that
differ more than the minimum defined delta will be displayed. The exception is the 1st datapoint after
each new applied level-change, which will always be stored.
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For ChronoAmperometry the instrument will use the "min I delta", and for ChronoPotentiometry the "min
I delta" parameter.
For Mixed mode, both parameters will be used: either an E-delta or an I-delta will trigger a samplerecording. In this case a single parameter can be effectively disabled by entering a very high value.
In principle, the averaging approach could be combined with the "minimum delta" method. However, this
is not recommended because of the increasing complexity. Therefore, if using the "minimum delta"
method, keep the "average every" on 1 point. And for the averaging approach, keep both min-deltas to
0.
14.69.4
Data reduction.min I delta
Adaptive sampling: only I values differing more than this value from the previously stored data point, will
be stored.
Adaptive sampling enables the user to set a minimum change in the measured parameter (E/I) which will
be stored in the data file. Thus, all relevant trends are captured with a minimum of datapoints. The user
can define a minimum potential- and/or current-difference which he considers relevant. Datapoints that
differ less than the defined delta from the last recorded point, will not be stored. Only datapoints that
differ more than the minimum defined delta will be displayed. The exception is the 1st datapoint after
each new applied level-change, which will always be stored.
For ChronoAmperometry the instrument will use the "min I delta", and for ChronoPotentiometry the "min
I delta" parameter.
For Mixed mode, both parameters will be used: either an E-delta or an I-delta will trigger a samplerecording. In this case a single parameter can be effectively disabled by entering a very high value.
In principle, the averaging approach could be combined with the "minimum delta" method. However, this
is not recommended because of the increasing complexity. Therefore, if using the "minimum delta"
method, keep the "average every" on 1 point. And for the averaging approach, keep both min-deltas to
0.
14.69.5
Data reduction.max interval
A maximum interval time can be defined after which a data point is stored in any case. This can be used
to make sure that the periods between data points do not become larger than desired.
14.70 Automatic save
When activated, that data will be saved automatically.
14.70.1
Automatic save.filename
Filename at which the automatic backup wil be saved. If a file with this name already exists, an index
number will be added to the filename.
14.70.2
Automatic save.save every
Every x seconds, the data will be saved to disk. This is intended for measurements that take a long time
to complete.
Note that when short periods of time (x) for saving are chosen, during long term experiments the datasaving action may take longer than the chosen period and there will be a conflict which may result in
non-responsive PC/software.
14.70.3
Automatic save.on completion
When checked, the data will be saved automatically at the end of the measurement.
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14.71 AUX
Most Ivium potentiostats are equipped with a peripheral port for controlling external equipment. Check
your potentiostats' peripheral capabilities in the instrument specifications. Depending on the availability
of signals, some of the functionality has been integrated in the method parameters of the technique.
Check "AUX" for:

purge control

stirrer control

RDE control

new drop control (DME, SMDE, etc.) will execute a selectable number of knock/dispense cycles at
the start of the measurement

an external trigger that signals begin & start of a measurement
When the appropriate peripheral port connections are made:
Purging period
When a Purging period is entered, the Digital Output 1 of the peripheral port will become low (from 3.3V
to 0V) for the duration. This can be used for purging your cell.
Stirrer pretreatment
When this box is checked the RDE speed is also applied during the pre-treatment stage of the method. If
unchecked, the RDE will only start when the actual techniques starts.
RDE speed
For the RDE speed a value between 0 and 100% can be entered that corresponds to 0 - 100% output of
Analog output 1 (16 bit analog voltage signal; check the range of the Analog output 1 for your
potentiostat in the instrument specifications). This parameter/Analog output 1 can be used, for example,
to control the rotation speed of your Rotating Disc Electrode, or any other analog voltage controlled
appendage.
New drops at start
Specify the number of knock/dispense cycles. If this value is non-zero, the new drops will be dispensed
directly after purging, before pretreatment starts. The new drops are dispensed at 1 second intervals. If
applied to Static Mercury Electrodes, usually this value is set to 3-5, to eliminate memory effects.
The Analog output 2 will go LO for 1 millisecond to dislodge the previous drop, and suspend the new
drop. It will remain HI after the last drop has been dispersed: LO = 0 Volt; HI = 4 Volt.
Trigger each point
External devices can be synchronized by using the trigger pulse from the peripheral port digital output 3.
When checked, the digital output 3 will apply a pulse directly after every measured point. For the
staircase sweep techniques, the next potential/current step is applied before the pulse.
The pulse is about 0.1ms wide, and active low: digout3 is normally 3.3V and goes to 0V for 100us. The
polarity can be changed with the "invertDig polarity" option.
This feature is available in the LSV/CV/transient techniques at standard speed (max data rate <500
pnts/sec).
InvertDig polarity
When checked the polarities of digital outputs invert, i.e. the ports will become active-high (from 0V to
3.3V).
The trigger, stirrer and purging is controlled via digital outputs (TTL compatible, active-low). The
rotation-speed of the RDE is controlled from an analog output with 16 bits resolution. The new drops are
controlled via the Analog output 2. Connections. Stirrer control line is Digital Output 2 (pin 3 from 37pins
peripheral port).
In the IviumSoft program, the auxiliary equipment can be activated with the "AUX" methodparameter.
When enabled, new options appear: "Purging period" ,"Stirrer pretreatment" ,"RDE speed", "New drops at
start", "InvertDig polarity". The trigger output is activated automatically with the AUX parameter.
When auxiliary equipment is activated by the "AUX" parameter, the corresponding output ports are
set/cleared depending on the progress of the measurement. Sequence of events:
1. RDE is turned on, and set to selected rotation speed.
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2. Purging is turned on for the indicated "Purging period". If this parameter is set to 0, no purging will
occur.
3. Selected number of new drops will be dispensed at 1 sec interval. If "New drops at start" is set to 0, no
knock/dispense cycles will be exceuted.
4. If "Stirrer pretreatment" is checked, the stirrer is turned on for the duration of the complete
pretreatment. NB: OCP determination, and equilibration time are not part of pretreatment.
5. Trigger line goes to LO (active-low logic)
6. The actual measurement is executed.
7. RDE is turned off.
8. Trigger line goes to HI.
14.71.1
AUX.Purging period
When a Purging period is entered, the Digital Output 1 of the peripheral port will become low (from 3.3V
to 0V) for the duration. This can be used for purging your cell.
During the Purging stage a "Continue" button appears next to the "Abort" button at the start of a method
and during the pre-measurement stages, at the bottom of the method Tab:
It is possible to manually abort the Purging stage during its execution by pressing the "Continue" button.
This will stop the Purging period and proceed to the next pre-measurement stage. If it was the last
scheduled stage, the measurement will start immediately.
14.71.2
AUX.Stirrer pretreatment
When this box is checked the RDE speed is also applied during the pre-treatment stage of the method. If
unchecked, the RDE will only start when the actual techniques starts.
14.71.3
AUX.RDE speed
For the RDE speed a value between 0 and 100% can be entered that corresponds to 0 - 100% output of
Analog output 1 (16 bit analog voltage signal; check the range of the Analog output 1 for your
potentiostat in the instrument specifications). This parameter/Analog output 1 can be used, for example,
to control the rotation speed of your Rotating Disc Electrode, or any other analog voltage controlled
appendage.
For some Ivium potentiostats the Analog output voltage can be increase by adding a Peripheral Level
Transformer (see PLT).
14.71.4
AUX.New drops at start
Specify the number of knock/dispense cycles. If this value is non-zero, the new drops will be dispensed
directly after purging, before pretreatment starts. The new drops are dispensed at 1 second intervals. If
applied to Static Mercury Electrodes, usually this value is set to 3-5, to eliminate memory effects.
The Analog output 2 will go LO for 1 millisecond to dislodge the previous drop, and suspend the new
drop. It will remain HI after the last drop has been dispersed: LO = 0 Volt; HI = 4 Volt.
14.71.5
AUX.Trigger each pnt
External devices can be synchronized by using the trigger pulse from the peripheral port digital output 3.
When checked, the digital output 3 will apply a pulse directly after every measured point. For the
staircase sweep techniques, the next potential/current step is applied before the pulse.
The pulse is about 0.1ms wide, and active low: digout3 is normally 3.3V and goes to 0V for 100us. The
polarity can be changed with the "invertDig polarity" option.
This feature is available in the LSV/CV/transient techniques at standard speed (max data rate <500
pnts/sec).
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14.71.6
AUX.InvertDig polarity
When checked the polarities of digital outputs invert, i.e. the ports will become active-high (from 0V to
3.3V).
14.72 Modules
Check this if special modules are to be activated, such as the use of a Peripheral Differential Amplifier
(PDA) module.
14.72.1
Modules.PDA
Check this if the external PDA module is connected. Note that checking this option will reflect in the
voltage measurement range of the analog inputs (-2V to 2V). In the Data options the relevant analog
input data graphs can be adjusted accordingly.
If multiple PDA units are used (>8 analog inputs available), checking the box will activate the automatic
selection of the extra PDA modules and their analog inputs.
When multiple PDA modules are connected, only the analog inputs of PDA modules 2 and higher are
used. The other peripheral port signals, such digital I/O etc., are only available on PDA no#1.
14.72.2
Modules.SyncChannels
To facilitate the synchronised start of methods running at multiple channels/modules in the same Iviumn-Stat frame, a selection parameter for channels is available. This parameter "SyncChannels" is available
from the "Method" tab as a subparameter of the "Modules".
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When the box is checked it will suspend the start of any method on the connected channel untill the
masterchannel starts. The masterchannel is always in slot 1. If this is a dModule, the A-channel is the
master.
The "SynchChannels" parameter operates over different instances of IviumSoft, i.e. if 4 channels are
connected in 4 instances of IviumSoft, pressing "Start" in each instance will make the channel wait for
the start-trigger of the master channel.
Note that when synchronisation is required, the "Start" button of the master channel should be clicked
last.
In this way even different techniques can be operated on different channels, but started at the same
time.
The synchronisation is executed via an internal electronic connection and thus not affected by PC or USB
delays.
If for any reason the master channel fails to deliver the trigger, a suspended channel can be released by
pressing "Abort".
14.73 CI at Level[2]
The Current Interrupt Module (CIM) can be used during the ChronoPotentiometry technique. In Advanced
mode, when checked, the parameter "CI at Level[2]" will activate a Current Interrupt during the 2nd
level.
14.74 MeasConfig
For impedance measurements, the applied and measured signals can be redefined. This is especially
useful when using external equipment in combination with the potentiostat/galvanostat. One can use the
ACout, Xin and Yin connectors on the peripheral port for this purpose. Some possible
applications/configurations:

Interfacing a Solar Cell, to modulate a light source and measure the photocurrent/ potential
(Modulight module).

Interfacing with an electronic load

Interfacing with an RDE to modulate rotation rate: Hydrodynamic impedance

using the Ivium FRA in combination with an external analog potentiostat

etc.
In standard setting, the impedance is defined as Y/X, which is normally the measured E/I from the
electrochemical cell. When other (external) signals are used for X/Y, the meaning of the plotted
impedance might be different from the classical definition. The plot is always displayed as if Y/X were E/I,
and the user is responsible for any conversions.
To change the configuration of the signals, in the method parameters the advanced parameter
"MeasConfig" gives the user the possibility to adjust this configuration. A list of possibilities is given in the
table below:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
MeasConfig
standard
INT_ac I
INT_ac E
EXT_ac EI
EXT_ac I
EXT_ac E
EXT_I INT_E
EXT_E INT_I
DirectE
DirectE_INT_I
DirectE_EXT_I
BiStat
EXT_I BiStat
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I we
ac intern
I we
X periph.
X periph.
I we
X periph.
ac intern
I we
ac intern
X periph.
I we
X periph.
Y
E
E
ac intern
Y periph.
E
Y periph.
ac intern
Y periph.
E
E
E
I we2
I we2
remarks
Internal DSG not applied
Internal DSG not applied
CE as reference, instead of (RE-S)
CE as reference, instead of (RE-S)
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In the Direct configs, the potential control loop is bypassed. This means that the potential is the directly
applied potential on the CE terminal, w.r.t. the gnd. This can be useful when controlling other equipment,
such as loads. The differential electrometer can be used independently for other purposes.
Example 1: Solarcell IMPS
The IviumStat/CompactStat AC-OUT port is used to drive the intensity of a light source, and the acphotocurrent from the solar cell is to be recorded with reference to the incident light: "impedance" =
Light /photo-Current. The instrument is set to "Impedance Constant E", and the MeasConfig parameter to
"INT_ac E". With this parameter-setting, the internal applied ac signal is used as Y, which is the lightintensity here, instead of the cell-potential.
Note that the potentiostat potential may be set to shortcut conditions (E=0), but it may also be operated
at other potentials, such as maximum power point.
Example 2: Solarcell IMVS
The IviumStat/CompactStat AC-OUT port is used to drive the intensity of a light source, and the acphotopotential from the solar cell is to be recorded with reference to the incident light: "impedance" =
photopotential / Light. The instrument is set to "Impedance Constant I", and the MeasConfig parameter
to "INT_ac I". With this parameter-setting, the internal applied ac signal is used as X, which is the lightintensity here, instead of the cell-current.
Note that the galvanostat current may be set to OCP conditions (I=0), but it may also be operated at
other currents, such as maximum power point.
14.75 WE32_offsets
Applying a potential with the MultiWE32:
By default, the electrodes of the MultiWE32 act similar to a Bipotentiostat in Scanning mode. This means
that the potential that is selected by the user is applied to all working electrodes at the same time. For
example, when a CV is run, all 32 working electrodes will be sweeping at the same speed.
As an advanced parameter feature, it is possible to give each working electrode an individual offset. This
offset is subtracted from the base-potential. Offsets are intended to apply fixed potential differences
between the 32 working electrodes, which remain constant during a scan. Note that the value for the
real-time potential in the software measurement window, and the graph axis, will only show the "basepotential" (the potential/potential range selected by user), thus this potential does not include the offsetpart. The offset potentials for each WE are stored in the datafile/method parameters.
The offset potentials can be defined in the Method parameters: selecting "We32_offset" will open a dialog
screen that will allow the operator to set independent offsets for each electrode, either manually or with a
distribution function (within a range of -2 V to 2 V).
In this example a linear distribution is applied from -1V to +1V. Suppose the basepotential is scanned
from 0 to 1V, the WE[1] will sweep from 1V to 2V, and WE[32] will sweep from -1V to 0V.
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To show the scans for all WE's in the graph, tick the box "WE32_allchannels" in the method
parameters.
Note that when a MultiWE32 is used, there is no primary (base) electrode. For most applications, the
offset potentials would remain at 0V, because potential manipulations are more conveniently done by
setting the base potential.
14.76 WE32_allchannels
To acquire measurement data from all 32 channels of the MultiWE32 simultaneously. It is available for
the following techniques: LSV standard, CV standard and CA standard. When checked, the currents for all
32 working electrodes are recorded. Each scan will therefore produce 32 curves. Individual curves can be
stored with "save data", while all 32 scans can be stored in a single file with "save dataset".
14.77 Report
Data report: add notes to datafiles.
The operator can include notes and extra information about the experiment in the datafile. When
pressing the Report button, a window opens where notes can be typed in the "Remarks" tabsheet.
Additionally, a "Process Report" tabsheet is added, that will list important measurement and instrument
data (not user editable).
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