# Lecture 1

```Control Systems
CONTROL SYSTEM ENGINEERING
TEXT BOOK:
1.Control Systems :Anuj Jain & Naveen mehra vayu education
2.Control Systems - Principles & Design : Madan Gopal Tata
Mc Graw Hill.
3.Control System Engineering : I.J.Nagrath & M.Gopal; New
Age
4. Control System Engineering by B.S.Manke
REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Automatic Control Systems : B.C.Kuo, PHI.
2. Modern Control Engg : K.Ogata; PHI.
Syllabus
Section-A
 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS :System/Plant model, types of models,
illustrative examples of plants and their inputs and outputs, controller
servomechanism, regulating system, linear time-invariant (LTI) system, timevarying system, causal system, open loop control system, closed loop control
system, illustrative examples of open-loop and feedback control systems,
continuous time and sampled data control systems. Effects of feedback on
sensitivity (to parameter variations),stability, external disturbance (noise), overall
gain etc. Introductory remarks about non-linear control systems.
Section-B
 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING :Concept of transfer function, relationship
between transfer function and impulse response, order of a system, blockdiagram
algebra, signal flow graphs : Mason‟s gain formula & its application,
characteristic equation, derivation of transfer functions of electrical and
cascaded elements. Introduction to state variable analysis and design.
Contued…..
Section-C
 TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS :Typical test signals, time response of first order
systems to various standard inputs, time response of 2nd order system to step
input, relationship between location of roots of characteristics equation, w and
wn, time domain specifications of a general and an under-damped 2nd order
system, steady state error and error constants, dominant closed loop poles,
concept of stability, pole zero configuration and stability, necessary and sufficient
conditions for stability Hurwitz stability criterion Routh stability criterion and
relative stability. Root locus concept, development of root loci for various
systems, stability considerations..
Section-D
 FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS , COMPENSATION & CONTROL
COMPONENT :Relationship between frequency response and time-response for
2nd order system, polar, Nyquist, Bode plots, stability, Gain-margin and Phase
Margin, relative stability, frequency response specifications. Necessity of
compensation, compensation networks, application of lag and lead compensation,
basic modes of feedback control, proportional, integral and derivative controllers,
illustrative examples. Synchros, AC and DC techo-generators, servomotors,
stepper motors, & their applications, magnetic amplifier.
Scope of the Subject
• Mathematical modeling of dynamic systems
(transfer function, state space representation)
• Stability concepts
• Transient response for first and second order
systems
• Root locus analysis
• Frequency response techniques: Nyquist
criterion, Bode plots.
What is a Control System?
A Control System consists of subsystems and processes
(or plants) assembled to control the outputs of a
process.
Typical Examples
•
•
•
•
Central Temperature Control
Fluid Level maintenance systems
Battery Voltage Control
Human has numerous control systems built in
it.
Control System - another view
• A Control System is an arrangement of
physical components connected/related in
such a manner as to command, direct or
regulate itself or another system.
Main Components
Output
Control System
Input
• Output:-the actual response obtained from
the system
• Input :- the stimulus or excitation applied to a
control system from an external source
• Control:- it means direct or command a
system so that desired output is attained
• Plant:-the portion of the system which is to be
controlled or regulated is called as plant or
process
Human like Control
Autonomous planning and Exploration
Industry
…….…Everywhere
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