Powerstar Technical Overview

Powerstar Technical Overview
TECHNICAL
OVERVIEW
100% British Engineered. 100% Guaranteed Results.
Powerstar is traded in Australia through EMSc (Australia) Pty Ltd
WHAT IS VOLTAGE OPTIMISATION?
THE POWERSTAR TECHNOLOGY
Voltage optimisation is beneficial when the electricity supply
to your site is at a higher voltage level than needed, resulting
in excessive energy consumption and high electricity bills.
Voltage optimisation systems work to optimise the outgoing
voltage without compromising the supply.
The Powerstar system is a uniquely designed and patented
triple-wound transformer with an efficiency of 99.91%.
By accurately controlling the incoming voltage it ensures
that energy savings are maximised without compromising
the supply.
SIMPLIFIED MOTOR SCHEMATIC CIRCUITRY
One of the reasons why voltage optimisation is so effective
is that the average voltage supplied from the National
Grid is 247V (although it can be as high as 253V), whereas
the nominal Australian voltage is 230V.
There are three
types of load
within a motor.
SIMPLIFIED MOTOR
ELECTRICAL
INDUCTIVE
C
R
L
C
R
RESISTIVE
L
CAPACITIVE
The diagram (right) shows the patented Powerstar
basic schematic.
1. Star Configuration - To eliminate harmonics. The two
windings for each phase (outer and inner windings) are
wound on the same core but in opposite directions. The
windings are connected in a cross-connected fashion. For
instance, the primary winding of Brown (L1) phase may be
connected to the secondary of Black (L2) phase; the primary
of Black phase would be connected to the secondary of
Grey (L3) phase.
L1
L2
L3
2. Delta Configuration - To further suppress any remaining
harmonics.
3. Star Configuration - To control voltage.
Resistive element of Load
Determined by V = I R Supply voltage
247V
240V
(Voltage = Current x Load)
235V
235V
Where load remains constant, a reduction in voltage will
see a corresponding reduction in current. For example a
5% reduction in the voltage at the motor will result in a 5%
reduction in current (at all times except when the motor is
on full capacity. When a motor is required to produce its full
power capacity it will do so regardless of the input voltage).
230V
230V
Nominal Voltage
225V
225V
220V
220V
0.95 V = 0.95 I * R
215V
215V
To calculate the effect on motor input power:
210V
210V
Po = V * I * √(3) * cos Φ
Optimised voltage
from a fixed voltage
optimisation system
Minimum Voltage
Additional savings
with the electronic
Powerstar MAX,
dynamic voltage
optimisation system
Where Po = original Power
Therefore
Pn = 0.95 V * 0.95 I * √(3) * cos Φ Where Pn = new Power
Reducing the input voltage by 5% will reduce consumed power by 10%.
Inductive element of Load
Determined by XL= 2Π f L The magnetic flux is proportioned to current flow
The reduction in the current flow will affect the inductance and
therefore reduce the magnetisation losses within the motor.
XL is impedance, therefore the bigger the impedance the
bigger the losses. Hence, for a 5% reduction in the current
flow, there would be a 5% reduction in the motor impedance
and a 5% reduction in the power consumption.
POWERSTAR
UNIQUE
VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
SYSTEM
POWERSTAR A- A
UNIQUE
VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
SYSTEM
Theoretically, for a 5% reduction in the voltage, the total
savings would be up to 15% (10% from resistive and
5% from inductive components).
Practically, savings will be dependent on individual site
conditions. That underlines the importance of a site survey.
Upper limit’
voltage
Average
supply
voltage
Historic
AUS
voltage
Standard voltage
Most equipment
is designed to
operate at this level
of voltage
Lower limit’
voltage
253V
247V
Your business
could be paying
for this level of
voltage
240V
230V
220V
216V
POWERSTAR
will reduce your
incoming voltage
leading to lower
electricity usage
and reduced bills
The Powerstar design ensures that it provides an efficient
and effective voltage optimisation system. For example:
1,000kVA has an impedance of 0.000178Ω and therefore
consumes extremely low power.
Powerstar provides savings in the inductive electrical loads
within buildings. Inductive loads being motors, pumps, fans,
IT equipment (switch mode power supplies) and lighting
(non high frequency).
The actual energy savings that can be achieved by the
Powerstar system completely depend on the electrical loading
characteristics of a particular building.
For example: a building which has fixed speed devices such as
air-handling units (AHUs), multi stage compressors (i.e. chillers),
pumps and standard switch-start fluorescent fittings, will achieve
high savings. Variable speed equipment will also see savings but
at reduced levels.
It is not only unnecessary electricity that gets saved. Operating
equipment at a higher voltage than it is designed for reduces
its lifespan and there is no improvement in performance to
offset this. Reducing the voltage to that required for opitimum
performance (eg. 223V) increases equipment efficiency and
could reduce maintenance costs.
100% British Engineered. 100% Guaranteed Results.
VOLTAGE OPTIMISATION TECHNICAL OVERVIEW
THE BENEFITS OF POWERSTAR
The Powerstar unit has been proven in independent tests to be the most effective voltage optimisation system on
the market, with benefits including:
• Savings of up to 26.1% on energy consumption and related CO2 emissions
• Reduction of maximum load demand (kVA) and in turn a reduction of electricity bills
• 5 voltage settings to ensure optimum voltage output achieved
• Improved life expectancy of site equipment, therefore reducing site maintenance costs
• Provides voltage phase balancing
• No moving parts, therefore zero maintenance
• Helps protect against damaging transients (power spikes) of up to 25,000V
IMPROVES POWER FACTOR
Power factor is a way of describing how efficiently electrical
power is consumed. It is the ratio of delivered useful power
to the total power taken from the supply. An ideal ratio is
1.0.
(the inductive is a combination of reactance and resistance),
reducing the apparent and reactive power vectors, resulting
in smaller phase angle (θ θ) and therefore improving power
factor.
Poor power factor has a negative impact on a site including
drawing more power from the network, causing losses at
transformers, reducing effective capacity and incurring ‘poor
power factor’ or ‘reactive power’ charges from the supplier.
Advantages of improved power factor include reducing
power demand from the network (which will result in lower
electricity bills), prolonging lifespan of equipment, reducing
losses in supply transformers and increasing the effective
capacity of your electrical network.
Powerstar will reduce the resistive and inductive losses
Power Factor (PF) = cos
cos = Real Power (P)
Apparent Power (S)
Q
S
Real power (P) Reactive power (Q) Apparent Power (S)
WHERE VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
WORKS AND
EFFICIENCY UNDER
VARIOUS LOADS
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
Voltage optimisation works best on inductive
loads – motors and lighting for example – and
significant savings can be achieved on motors in
particular, especially if these are not loaded at
100% of the their capacity for 100% of the time.
Powerstar operates at ambient temperature plus a maximum 5°C
(i.e. if ambient is 20°C the Powerstar temperature will be between
20°C and 25°C).
All Powerstar systems are fully tested under BS171
and these tests include;
• 25,000V surge/transient protection
• 50,000A fault level tests
• Efficiency tests at 25%, 50%, 75% and
100% loading
• Impendence testing
• Overloading test at 110% of the Powerstar
capacity for 4 hours
P
REDUCES HARMONICS
Harmonics can create a large load current, overheating
of electrical supply transformers, high voltage and current
distortions and false tripping of branch circuit breakers.
The effect of reduced harmonic distortion is shown below at
a printing machine electrical supply, where the two traces are
80.20
Without Powerstar
76.74
73.29
69.84
66.39
62.93
The Powerstar unit has a design life in excess of 50 years for the
wound components; also it has been designed so that over 98%
is recyclable.
WEIGHTS & DIMENSIONS
The weights and dimensions provided in this table are for
guideline only.
Dimensions
kVA
Amps
L
Weight
D
H
Kg
70
500
350
500
67
72
100
500
350
500
87
90
125
600
400
600
98
100
140
600
400
600
120
144
200
600
400
600
129
150
210
770
485
760
195
200
280
770
485
760
223
POWERSTAR TYPICAL OPERATING EFFICIENCIES
226
315
770
485
760
234
TABLE
250
348
770
485
760
245
288
400
770
485
760
251
300
420
850
630
1250
300
Efficiency
350
490
850
630
1250
395
359
500
850
630
1250
418
0%
99.97%
400
560
1000
670
1470
556
453
630
1000
670
1470
644
25%
99.95%
500
700
1000
670
1470
706
575
800
1000
670
1470
732
99.94%
719
1000
1400
730
1610
785
750
1048
1400
730
1610
816
99.93%
800
1120
1400
730
1610
865
898
1250
1400
730
1610
885
99.91%
1000
1400
1400
730
1610
910
1150
1600
1400
730
1610
1054
1250
1740
1400
730
1610
1063
1438
2000
1400
730
1610
1110
1500
2088
1400
730
1610
1157
1797
2500
1650
830
1610
1420
2000
2784
1650
830
1610
1530
2200
3080
1650
830
1610
1720
2500
3480
1650
830
1610
1900
3000
4200
50%
measured concurrently either side of the Powerstar unit. Total
current harmonic distortions were significantly reduced by
nearly 50%.
They are manufactured to BS171-IEC60076-IEC60726, using low
loss core steel, close coupled copper, and high quality components.
50
Load rating
With Powerstar
MANUFACTURING OVERVIEW
The Powerstar systems are designed and manufactured by
EMSc (UK) Ltd in the UK using locally sourced components
wherever feasible.
75%
100%
Designed to site conditions
59.48
THD (Amps)
56.03
52.58
49.12
With Powerstar
45.67
42.22
38.77
35.31
31.86
28.41
24.96
21.50
18.05
14.60
11.15
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Day 5
Day 6
Day 7
TIME (Week)
POWERSTAR
VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
SYSTEM
POWERSTARA- UNIQUE
A UNIQUE
VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
SYSTEM
VOLTAGE OPTIMISATION TECHNICAL OVERVIEW
HOW WE CALCULATE SAVINGS
CALCULATING ESTIMATED SAVINGS
When calculating the savings, voltage data logging and site
surveys are carried out to identify any energy consumption
where voltage optimisation will achieve zero or reduced
savings (i.e. high frequency lighting, inverter drives, etc).
By analysing the data logging information the optimum
voltage for the site can be determined.
The site survey determines how much of the total site
electricity load (as a percentage) will benefit from the full,
reduced or zero percentage saving. When specifying the
percentages the engineer takes into consideration the
operating load and operational period of the equipment.
Dividing the voltage drop into the original voltage figure
gives the voltage percentage saving. This figure is doubled
because according to the IET (The Institution of Engineering
and Technology) on average a 1% reduction in voltage will
produce a 2.1% reduction in electricity consumption. We then
take into consideration the site loads that will yield less than
optimum savings and we calculate a guaranteed saving as
a percentage of kWh.
Using the guaranteed savings, a payback period for the
customer is calculated. Our savings are 100% guaranteed.
CALCULATING ACTUAL SAVINGS
1. HHD – A comparison of half hour data over a 3 month
period from before and after the installation. We also take
into consideration if the site loading has changed (e.g.
installing or removing equipment, changing occupancy
levels, etc), any weather affected loads (using the relevant
degree days) and how they would affect electricity
consumption. HHD is the option recommended by EMSc
(UK) Ltd due to the accuracy of the results received from this
calculation method.
2. Independent verification – Saving results independently
verified by Third Party Evaluation (MRA(Multiple Regression
Analysis) is carried out independently by a third party). An
accuracy of +/- 1% is guaranteed. For more information
see FAQs.
3. IPMVP - An independent company verifies the savings
using the International Performance Measurement and
Verification Protocol (IPMVP) method. IPMVP uses variables
which can also be assigned to the user. Accuracy could
significantly vary dependant upon the number of variables.
HOW WE WORK
Enquiry received
Sales Engineer visit to customer site
Information retrieval
(HHD & data logging)
Proposal & presentation
Order received, checked and
acknowledged
n Australian based Powerstar
A
representative is allocated
The Quality Assurance System applies to all activities, and has been developed based on principles defined within BS EN ISO
9001: 2008. The Quality Assurance System is fully documented and structured in three levels:
Level 1: Quality Manual
This document details the corporate quality policy and
structure of the company and references appropriate
operating procedures.
operation in accordance with the documented quality
system. Specific customer requirements are identified and
documented during the contract/tendering review process,
allowing these requirements to be communicated and
achieved, ensuring satisfaction of all customer declared needs.
Level 2: Supporting/Operating Procedures
These documents describe the actual process, and controlls
applied, to all activities concerned with the attainment of a
quality assured contracting service.
The Quality Assurance Manual, Procedures and Quality Plans
are maintained by the Quality Manager who ensures that the
appropriate items, at the correct revision levels, are issued to
all who need them within the company.
Level 3: Quality Planning
As the company operates a standard type and range of
services, customer satisfaction and quality are achieved by
POWERSTAR INSTALLATION
When calculating the actual savings we provide three options:
How we work
QUALITY SYSTEM
‘Draft’ Project Installation Plan (PIP)
is presented it to the client and
installation team representative and,
if applicable, amended as agreed
All parties go through the installation
and responsibilities, availabilities and
timescales are agreed on
The Project Engineer:
Arranges a site meeting with the client
and installation team - the Powerstar
representative is in attendance
Issue of the ‘Official’ PIP to all parties
Lift equipment into selected area
Construct ramp and prepare route
All progress in the PIP is tracked
and timescales are adhered to
All parties involved are kept
informed of the progress and any
agreed upon changes
Powerstar representative attends
site during installation and
commissioning, if required
Necessary documentation issued
after the installation (i.e. O&M
manuals, certificates, as fitted
drawings, etc)
Electrical Prep Work
Shutdown & Changeover
Prepare working area
Isolate and lock off existing circuits.
Connect into distribution board.
Energise terminated circuits
(generally 2-4 hours)
Prepare cable entries on new
equipment
Make final connections
Install cable containment
Energise circuits
Install new cable
Position Powerstar unit
The above chart illustrates how EMSc (Australia) Pty Ltd work with our clients from enquiry through to completion. Our
installations range from one-off installations to roll-out programmes. We always work with you throughout the project and
installations occur at your convenience.
POWERSTAR
VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
SYSTEM
POWERSTARA- UNIQUE
A UNIQUE
VOLTAGE
OPTIMISATION
SYSTEM
Lift and Position Powerstar unit delivery to site
Testing and commissioning
Test new circuit
After discussions with you a delivery date and time
is arranged. Appropriate transportation is arranged
and the installation team will be on site to receive
the delivery of the Powerstar unit and transport this
to the install location.
L1 L2 L3
Main incoming transformer
(11kVA to 400V)
The installation team will remove the packaging
from the Powerstar unit and remove from site,
recycling material where appropriate.
EMSc (UK) Ltd will use either our own installation
teams or an approved subcontractor (all are NICEIC
registered) who has undergone a competency
verification procedure.
*
Powerstar
Unit
A list of current approved subcontractors is available
on request and we may use any one of them to
install Powerstar on your site.
All of our installation sub-contractors are subjected
to regular competency criteria checks where they
have to meet our high standards.
Main Electrical Distribution Board
* Neutral is not
connected if the
site voltage is not
well balanced.
This will enable an
absolute voltage
balanced system
VOLTAGE OPTIMISATION TECHNICAL OVERVIEW
TEMPLATE HEADER
GUARANTEED.
HEALTH & SAFETY
EMSc (Australia) Pty Ltd operates within the guidelines of health and
safety risk assessments and method statements and within the clients
site-specific requirements.
In most cases the connection is done outside normal working
hours, therefore any risks to employees and the general public are
minimised. For any work done during normal working hours, these
will occur within authorised personnel areas where site-specific safe
working conditions apply and will be followed.
All installation subcontractors have gone through a competency
procedure that ensures they are capable of installing Powerstar,
that they do so safely and they will always comply to local and
other authorities regulations and by-laws. They also conform to
the provisions of every act of parliament applicable to the work,
as well as with the clients health and safety rules.
EMSc (Australia) Pty Ltd has never had any Health and Safety
Executive enforcement action or reported incidents.
FAQ’s
What level of savings are guaranteed?
Savings are 100% guaranteed.
We guarantee the savings as per our proposal. If the minimum
savings are not achieved, we will provide payment to compensate
for the difference between your actual savings and our
guaranteed savings.
What warranty is offered?
Our warranty includes parts and labour for a 15 year period.
It excludes damage due to overloading the Powerstar system
(i.e. if your company purchases and installs a 250kVA Powerstar
system and loads it to 300kVA, this will damage the system).
How are the savings calculated by the Independant
Third Party?
A regression line is fitted to the daily consumption (that is summed
interval data, 48 half hours for 24hrs) prior to the project (device)
being commissioned. This regression (formula) takes a baseline
figure and six factors into account to calculate a forecasted
consumption figure. Therefore, the methodology predicts what the
consumption would have been without any energy saving devices.
The base line and coefficients are calculated by multivariate
regression analysis using the historic consumption.
With the energy saving device in place, the actual consumption
would be less than the predicted consumption and this difference is
the device savings. Using this methodology, an accuracy of +/- 1%
is guaranteed.
Does Powerstar have an automatic by-pass?
Yes, as an optional extra the automatic under voltage by-pass system
is designed to remove the voltage reduction applied by the Powerstar
system if the mains incoming voltage falls below a pre defined level
for a period of time (e.g. mains sag or fluctuation).
In the by-passed state, the output voltage from the Powerstar is equal
to that of the mains voltage being supplied from the Grid. Once the
mains supply voltage returns to its normal level, the reduction can be
reapplied to the Powerstar either via a manual (push button) reset or
through an automatic timer based reset.
What are the maintenance requirements of the
Powerstar (fixed) system?
The Powerstar unit has 100% reliability, no moving parts and is
maintenance free.
Is there a need for cooling?
No, the unit is naturally ventilated within its enclosure and emits
minimal sound and vibration while operating with a maximum
heat output of 5ºC above ambient.
What is the procedure if the optimisation levels need
to be adjusted at a site following installation?
Powerstar has 5 tappings, 2.5V between. It is a very simple
procedure to adjust (off-line) should a change be required.
A visit from an engineer will be arranged, free of charge,
to carry this out and train site electricians.
SUMMARY
Does the unit have incoming circuit protection
as standard?
Powerstar will always have incoming protection as standard.
If possible, we will utilise existing protection or install new protection.
In either instance the protection will be rated to the installed
Powerstar system. As part of the installation process we will always
ensure that discrimination is never compromised therefore incoming
circuit protection is always essential.
What is different about the way the Powerstar system
deals with harmonics?
The Powerstar system uses a star-wound cross-connected winding
followed by a delta winding as opposed to a single delta wound
‘tertiary or harmonic trap’.
A tertiary trap captures the triplens and then seeks to get rid of them,
which generates a lot of heat and wasted kWh. The Powerstar system
eliminates (rather than traps) triplens before moving on to the others.
Patented design
UK manufactured
Project & installation management
Verified savings, 100% guaranteed
as per proposal
Results proven via independent tests
Turnkey solution
100% British Engineered. 100% Guaranteed Results.
T: 1300 659 463 | E: [email protected]
EMSc Australia Pty Ltd, Suite 205, 17-33 Milton Parade, Malvern VIC 3144
www.powerstar.com
POWERSTAR - A UNIQUE VOLTAGE OPTIMISATION SYSTEM
100% British Engineered. 100% Guaranteed Results.
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