MAX77271 Multimode PA Step-Down Converter with Linear Bypass

MAX77271 Multimode PA Step-Down Converter with Linear Bypass
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
General Description
Features
The MAX77271 step-down converter is optimized for
powering the power amplifier (PA) in multistandard handsets such as LTE, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, GSM, and
EDGE. The device integrates a high-efficiency PWM stepdown converter for medium- and low-power transmission
with an 85mΩ (typ) low dropout (LDO) bypass regulator,
in parallel with the step-down converter, enabling highpower transmission.
The IC uses an analog input driven by an external DAC to
control the output voltage linearly for continuous PA power
adjustment. The bypass LDO powers the PA directly from
the battery during high-power transmission or in case of
insufficient headroom between the input and programmed
output. The bypass LDO is enabled when the output voltage is greater than 0.65V. In the case where the output
current exceeds the step-down converter current limit,
the bypass LDO provides supplementary current to the
output, ensuring a stable output voltage. The bypass LDO
also provides a smooth transition between step-down
regulation and operation in dropout.
The IC is available in a 9-bump, 1.6mm x 1.6mm WLP
package (0.69mm max height).
Applications
● PA Step-Down Converter
• 7µs (typ) Settling Time for 0.7V to 3.4V Output
Voltage Change
• Dynamic Output Voltage Setting from 0.5V to VIN
• 85mΩ PFET and 100% Duty Cycle for Low
Dropout
• 3MHz Switching Frequency
• Low Output Voltage Ripple
• 2% Output Voltage Accuracy Over Load, Line,
and Temperature
• Tiny External Components
● 2.5A Output Current Capability
● Simple Logic On/Off Control
● Low 0.1µA Shutdown Current
● 2.7V to 5.5V Supply Voltage Range
● Thermal Overload Protection
● 1.6mm x 1.6mm WLP Package (0.69mm max Height)
● Slot-to-Slot Average Power Tracking for LTE,
TD-SCDMA, and WCDMA Standards
Typical Operating Circuit
● LTE, WCDMA, GSM, and EDGE
Cell Phones/Smartphones
Ordering Information appears at end of data sheet.
BATTERY
INPUT
2.7V TO
5.5V
MAX77271
IN2
OUT
OUTPUT
0.5V TO
VBATT
UP TO
2.5A
1µF
IN1
BYPASS LDO
4.7µF
ANALOG
REFIN
CONTROL
0.2V TO
1.7V 1000pF
OFF
2G
19-6508; Rev 0; 12/12
ON
3G
EN
MODE
STEP-DOWN
LOGIC
LX
2.2µH
4.7µF
PGND
AGND
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Absolute Maximum Ratings
IN1, IN2, MODE, EN, REFIN to AGND.................-0.3V to +6.0V
OUT to AGND............................................-0.3V to (VIN2 + 0.3V)
IN1 to IN2..............................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
PGND to AGND.....................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
IN1, IN2, OUT, LX Current (Note 1)...............................1.0ARMS
OUT Short Circuit to AGND........................................Continuous
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 9-Bump WLP
0.5mm Pitch (derate 14.1mW/°C above +70°C)..............1.1W
Operating Temperature Range............................ -40°C to +85°C
Operating Temperature Range............................ -40°C to +85°C
Junction Temperature (TJMAX).........................................+150°C
Storage Temperature Range............................. -65°C to +150°C
Soldering Temperature (reflow)........................................+260°C
Note 1: LX has internal clamp diodes to PGND and IN1. Applications that forward bias this diode should take care not to exceed the
power dissipation limits of the device.
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation
of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum
rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Package Thermal Characteristics (Note 2)
WLP
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (qJA)...........71°C/W
Note 2: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer
board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.
Electrical Characteristics
(VIN1 = VIN2 = VMODE = 4V, VEN = 1.3V, VREFIN = 0.72V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise
noted.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
5.5
V
2.70
V
INPUT SUPPLY
Input Voltage Range (VIN)
Input Undervoltage Threshold
No-Load Supply Current
Shutdown Supply Current
VIN1 = VIN2
VIN2 rising, 180mV typical hysteresis
Thermal Shutdown
2.52
2.63
VEN = VIN_, IOUT = 0A, MODE = AGND,
switching
3
VEN = VIN_, IOUT = 0A, MODE = AGND,
VREFIN = 0.2V, no switching
0.115
VEN = 0V
THERMAL PROTECTION
LOGIC CONTROL
2.7
mA
TA = +25°C
0.1
TA = +85°C
TJ rising, 20°C typical hysteresis
EN and MODE Logic-Input High Voltage
+160
V
0.4
EN Internal Pulldown Resistor
REFIN
Common-Mode Range
www.maximintegrated.com
800
VIL = 0V , VIH = 5.5V
TA = +25°C
0.01
TA = +85°C
V
kΩ
1
0.1
0.2
µA
°C
1.3
EN and MODE Logic-Input Low Voltage
MODE Logic-Input Current
1
0.1
1.7
µA
V
Maxim Integrated │ 2
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN1 = VIN2 = VMODE = 4V, VEN = 1.3V, VREFIN = 0.72V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise
noted.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
REFIN to OUT Gain
Input Resistance
CONDITIONS
VREFIN = 0.32V, ILX = 0A
VREFIN = 1.32V, ILX = 0A
MIN
TYP
MAX
2.36
2.5
2.64
2.45
2.5
2.55
REFIN Source Current
UNITS
V/V
800
kΩ
6.5
µA
LINEAR BYPASS
On-Resistance
Bypass LDO Current Limit (IBP_LIM)
Step-Down Converter Current Limit in
Bypass Mode
p-channel MOSFET bypass, IOUT = 400mA
VREFIN = 0.6V
Total Current Limit in Bypass Mode
77
1.7
2.6
1.3
1.6
3.0
TA = +25°C
150
A
1.8
4.2
0.01
mΩ
A
A
1
Bypass LDO Off Leakage Current
VIN2 = 5.5V, VOUT = 0V
Linear Bypass Regulation Threshold
Below nominal output voltage, IOUT = 0mA,
VREFIN = 0.6V or 1.0V
50
mV
Linear Bypass Regulation Enable
Threshold
Linear bypass is enabled when VOUT rises
above this threshold
0.625
V
25
mV
TA = +85°C
1
Linear Bypass Enable Threshold
Hysteresis
µA
STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
LX On-Resistance
p-channel MOSFET, ILX = 100mA
n-channel MOSFET, ILX = 100mA
LX Leakage Current
VEN = 0V, VLX = 0V
p-Channel MOSFET Peak Current Limit
TA = +25°C
TA = +85°C
0.165
0.300
0.19
0.35
0.1
5
1
Ω
µA
1.3
1.6
1.8
A
n-Channel MOSFET Valley Current Limit
1.0
1.3
1.5
A
n-Channel MOSFET Negative Current
Limit
3.0
3.4
3.85
A
Automatic Skip Mode Enable Threshold
MODE = AGND, skip mode is disabled when
VOUT rises above this threshold
1.4
V
25
mV
Static Zero-Crossing Threshold
65
mA
Minimum On and Off Times
70
Automatic Skip Mode Enable Threshold
Hysteresis
No Load Switching Frequency
TA = +25°C, VIN1 = VIN2 = 3.6V
TA = -40°C to +85°C, VIN1 = VIN2 = 3.6V
ΔREFIN to Output Voltage Comparator
(VC_OUTHI)
Voltage threshold where fast slew down is
enabled 2% hysteresis, VREFIN = 1V,
VC_OUTHI = VOUT - VREFIN x gain
www.maximintegrated.com
ns
2.4
3
3.6
2.25
3
3.75
403
538
723
MHz
mV
Maxim Integrated │ 3
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN1 = VIN2 = VMODE = 4V, VEN = 1.3V, VREFIN = 0.72V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise
noted.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
REFIN to Output Voltage Comparator
(tDEB_VC_OUTHI)
MIN
Fast slew down enabled
TYP
MAX
UNITS
35
µs
POWER-UP TIMING (Figure 2)
Time Delay from EN Until LX Starts
Switching (tEN_BUCK)
REFIN Transient (to 95% of Target)
(Note 4)
30
45
VOUT transition from 0.7V to 3.4V,
COUT = 14.1µF, L = 2.2µH, 5Ω load
7
11
VOUT transition from 3.4V to 0.7V,
COUT = 14.1µF, L = 2.2µH, 20Ω
9
12.3
37
56
-147
-95
µs
Time from EN High to VOUT Within 95%
of Regulation (Note 4)
650MHz to 2.2GHz,
30kHz resolution
bandwidth,
COUT = 15µF,
L = 2.2µH,
TA = +25°C
Output Noise (Note 4)
µs
2G mode; VIN = 4.3V,
3.8V; VOUT = 3.4V;
IOUT = 1.2A, 1.5A, 2.2A
µs
dBm/Hz
3G mode; VIN = 4.3V,
3.4V; VOUT = 3.4V;
IOUT = 400mA, 500mA,
600mA
-148
-105
Note 3: The device is 100% production tested at TA = +25°C. Limits over the operating temperature range are guaranteed by design.
Note 4: Not tested in production, guaranteed by design and characterization.
Typical Operating Characteristics
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
75
70
65
60
55
50
0
500
1000
1500
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
www.maximintegrated.com
2000
2500
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
REFIN VOLTAGE (V)
1.6
3500
2G AND 3G MODE
10Ω LOAD
VIN = 4V
3000
2500
MAX77271 toc03
3000
MAX77271 toc02
2G AND 3G MODE
4Ω LOAD
VIN = 4V
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
RESISTANCE (mΩ)
80
3500
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
VIN = 3.4V
VREFIN = 1.6V
MAX77271 toc01
85
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
vs. REFIN VOLTAGE
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
vs. REFIN VOLTAGE
DROPOUT RESISTANCE
vs. LOAD CURRENT
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
REFIN VOLTAGE (V)
Maxim Integrated │ 4
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
500
NO LOAD SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (3G MODE)
TA = -40°C
0.4
VREFIN = 0.8V
TA = +85°C
TA = -40°C
0.2
0.1
VREFIN = 0.2V
2.7
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ERROR (mV)
20
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.3
4.7
5.1
3
0
LOAD REGULATION ERROR
vs. LOAD CURRENT
ERROR = VOUT - 2.5 x VREFIN
2G MODE
50
0
VREFIN = 0.6V
VREFIN = 1.2V
-50
-100
VREFIN = 1.4V
VREFIN = 0.2V
-150
-200
0
500
1000
1500
2000
TA = -40°C
VREFIN = 1.7V
2.7
3.1
VREFIN = 0.2V
3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
5.1
500mA LOAD
50
0
VREFIN = 0.16V
VREFIN = 0.32V
VREFIN = 0.48V
VREFIN = 0.64V
VREFIN = 0.8V
VREFIN = 0.96V
-50
DROPOUT
-100
VREFIN = 1.28V
-150
-200
VREFIN = 1.12V
ERROR = VOUT - 2.5VREFIN
2.7
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.3
4.7
5.1
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ERROR
vs. REFIN VOLTAGE
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ERROR
vs. TEMPERATURE
EFFICIENCY
vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE
-10
-20
3G
NO LOAD
VIN = 3.7V
DROPOUT
0.5
0.9
1.3
REFIN VOLTAGE (V)
www.maximintegrated.com
1.7
20
15
10
NO LOAD
VIN = 4V
VREFIN = 0.64V, 2G
5
0
-5
VREFIN = 0.16V, 2G, AND 3G
VREFIN = 1.28V, 2G
VREFIN = 0.64V, 3G
-10
-15
-20
5.5
LINE REGULATION ERROR
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
100
2500
MAX77271 toc06
MAX77271 toc05
5.5
5.1
TA = +85°C
4
1
3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
TA = -40°C
5
20
3.1
TA = +85°C
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
2G
0.1
6
2
2.7
VREFIN = 0.8V
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
0
-40
7
40
VREFIN = 0.5V
5.5
8
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
10
-30
60
100
TA = +85°C TA = -40°C
MAX77271 toc10
0
TA = -40°C
TA = +25°C
80
TA = -40°C AND +85°C
100
95
5Ω LOAD
90
85
80
5.5
MAX77271 toc12
0.3
100
0
1.6
VREFIN = 1.7V
TA = -40°C AND +85°C
TA = +85°C
120
EFFICIENCY (%)
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
0.5
0.4
0.8
1.2
REFIN VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ERROR (mV)
0.6
0
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ERROR (mV)
0
140
NO LOAD SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (2G MODE)
MAX77271 toc09
1000
160
9
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
3G
1500
TA = +85°C
10
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ERROR (mV)
2G
2000
VREFIN = 0.35V
2G AND 3G MODE
MAX77271 toc08
2500
180
MAX77271 toc11
3000
NO LOAD SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
200
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
VIN = 4V
40Ω LOAD
MAX77271 toc07
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
3500
MAX77271 toc04
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
vs. REFIN VOLTAGE
VIN = 3.2V
VIN = 3.7V
VIN = 4.2V
75
70
65
60
55
VREFIN = 1.28V, 3G
-45 -32 -19 -6
7
20 33 46 59 72 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
Maxim Integrated │ 5
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
VIN = 3.7V
85
80
VIN = 4.2V
75
70
65
85
VIN = 3.7V
VIN = 4.2V
VIN = 3.2V
80
75
70
65
90
85
75
65
60
55
55
55
50
50
50
95
90
85
VIN = 3.7V
80
75
70
VIN = 4.2V
2G MODE
65
100
1000
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
VREFIN = 0.48V
2G AND 3G MODE
95
90
85
80
VIN = 3.7V
VIN = 3.2V
75
70
VIN = 4.2V
65
60
60
55
55
50
50
100
10
1000
100
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
LIGHT LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
90
MAX77271 toc19
VOUT
VREFIN = 0.24V
20mA LOAD
85
80
VIN = 3.7V
75
70
10mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
VIN = 4.2V
VLX
VIN = 3.2V
65
1000
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
VREFIN = 0.24V
2G AND 3G MODE
95
10
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
MAX77271 toc18
100
EFFICIENCY (%)
10
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
100
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
VIN = 3.2V VREFIN = 0.72V
3G MODE
VREFIN = 0.96V
MAX77271 toc17
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
100
2G
70
60
0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
VIN = 3.7V
VIN = 4.2V
80
60
0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
VIN = 3.2V
3G
95
MAX77271 toc15
90
MAX77271 toc16
EFFICIENCY (%)
90
10I LOAD
95
EFFICIENCY (%)
VIN = 3.2V
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
100
MAX77271 toc14
7.5Ω LOAD
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE
100
EFFICIENCY (%)
95
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE
MAX77271 toc13
100
2V/div
60
IL
55
50
10
100
1000
100mA/div
1µs/div
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 6
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
MEDIUM LOAD SWITCHING
WAVEFORMS
MEDIUM LOAD SWITCHING
WAVEFORMS
MAX77271 toc20
VREFIN = 0.72V, 500mA LOAD
VOUT
MAX77271 toc20a
10mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
VOUT
VREFIN = 1.36V, 500mA LOAD
10mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
2V/div
2V/div
VLX
500mA/div
IL
VLX
200ns/div
200ns/div
HEAVY LOAD SWITCHING
WAVEFORMS
ENABLE WAVEFORMS (NO LOAD)
MAX77271 toc21
VOUT
MAX77271 toc22
10mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
VLX
2V/div
IL
500mA/div
IL
VEN
2V/div
1V/div
VOUT
1A/div
VREFIN = 0.96V
2000mA LOAD
VREFIN = 1.28V
NO LOAD
IL
400ns/div
1A/div
20µs/div
ENABLE WAVEFORMS (5Ω LOAD)
REFIN TRANSIENT (0 TO 1.4V)
MAX77271 toc23
MAX77271 toc23a
2V/div
VEN
VOUT
1V/div
VREFIN = 1.28V
5Ω LOAD
IL
40µs/div
www.maximintegrated.com
NO LOAD
COUT = 14.1µF
1A/div
4µs/div
Maxim Integrated │ 7
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
LINE TRANSIENT 4.2V TO 3.2V TO 4.2V
REFIN TRANSIENT 1.36V TO 0.32V
MAX77271 toc24
MAX77271 toc23b
NO LOAD
COUT = 14.1µF
VIN
VREFIN = 0.72V
36Ω LOAD
2G MODE
VOUT
10mV/div
IL
50mA/div
20µs/div
2µs/div
LOAD TRANSIENT 0 TO 500mA (2G MODE)
LOAD TRANSIENT 0 TO 500mA (3G MODE)
MAX77271 toc25
VOUT
1V/div
MAX77271 toc26
VREFIN = 0.32V
VOUT
50mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
VREFIN = 0.32V
50mV/div
200mA/div
IOUT
20µs/div
www.maximintegrated.com
200mA/div
IOUT
20µs/div
Maxim Integrated │ 8
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
LOAD TRANSIENT 0 TO 2500mA (2G MODE)
MAX77271 toc27
VOUT
VREFIN = 1.28V
100mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
IL
1A/div
IOUT
1A/div
LOAD TRANSIENT 0 TO 2500mA (3G MODE)
MAX77271 toc28
VREFIN = 1.28V
100mV/div
(AC-COUPLED)
VOUT
IL
1A/div
IOUT
1A/div
20µs/div
20µs/div
REFIN TRANSIENT 0.2V TO 1.28V
MAX77271 toc29
REFIN TRANSIENT 0.48V TO 1.28V
MAX77271 toc30
5Ω LOAD
5Ω LOAD
LDO TURN-ON
10µs/div
10µs/div
REFIN TRANSIENT 0.2V TO 1.28V
MAX77271 toc31
REFIN TRANSIENT 0.48V TO 1.28V
MAX77271 toc32
NO LOAD
NO LOAD
LDO TURN-ON
10µs/div
www.maximintegrated.com
10µs/div
Maxim Integrated │ 9
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, COUT = 10µF, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
90
800
1.5
600
1.0
400
0.5
200
1600
1400
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
MAX77271 toc34
80
70
60
50
ASSUMES 1.1dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
40
30
20
10
0
0
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
GSM LOW BAND BATTERY CURRENT
vs. OUTPUT POWER
GSM HIGH BAND PA VOLTAGE/CURRENT
vs. OUTPUT POWER
MAX77271 toc35
4.0
ASSUMES 1.1dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
1200
3.5
ASSUMES 1.8dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
3.0
GSM LB W/O DC-DC
GSM LB W/ DC-DC
1000
MAX77271 toc36
800
700
600
PA VOLTAGE
PA CURRENT
2.5
800
500
2.0
400
1.5
300
400
1.0
200
200
0.5
100
600
0
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
PA CURRENT (mA)
1000
2.0
0
BATTERY CURRENT (mA)
1400
1200
PA VOLTAGE
PA CURRENT
2.5
100
PA VOLTAGE (V)
PA VOLTAGE (V)
3.0
1600
EFFICIENCY (%)
3.5
MAX77271 toc33
ASSUMES 1.1dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
GSM LOW BAND CONVERTER EFFICIENCY
vs. OUTPUT POWER
PA CURRENT (mA)
4.0
GSM LOW BAND PA VOLTAGE/CURRENT
vs. OUTPUT POWER
0
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
GSM LOW BAND CONVERTER EFFICIENCY
vs. OUTPUT POWER
MAX77271 toc37
100
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
ASSUMES 1.8dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
10
0
www.maximintegrated.com
0
8 12 16 20 24 28
4
2
6 10 14 18 22 26 30
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
Maxim Integrated │ 10
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN1 = VIN2 = 4V, TA = +25°C, L = 2.2µH, Taiyo Yuden MAKK201610 series, unless otherwise noted. PA operating
characteristics based on SKY77604 PA Module.)
ASSUMES 1.8dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
2.5
GSM HB W/O DC-DC
GSM HB W/ DC-DC
800
600
400
200
4
8
12
16
20
24
WCDMA BAND 5 PA CONVERTER
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT POWER
MAX77271 toc40
DG09
EFFICIENCY
EFFICIENC Y (%)
15.0
ASSUMES
2dBm
INSERTION
LOSS
BETWEEN PA
AND
ANTENNA
70
60
50
7.5
5.0
50
www.maximintegrated.com
0
3
9 15 21
-50 -30 -15 -9 -3
-40 -20 -12 -6 0
6 12 18 24
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
WCDMA BAND 5 BATTERY CURRENT
vs. OUTPUT POWER
MAX77271 toc41
DG09
WCDMA
HB
W/ DC-DC
WCDMA HB W/O DC-DC
10
1
0
15.0
12.5
100
2.5
-50 -30 -15 -9 -3 3
9 15 21
-40 -20 -12 -6 0
6 12 18 24
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
150
0.5
1000
10.0
PA VOLTAGE
PA CURRENT
100
12.5
80
200
1.0
2
6 10 14 18 22 26 30
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
90
40
1.5
300
250
2.0
0
28
BATTERY CURRENT (mA)
100
0
DG09 (%)
0
MAX77271 toc39
ASSUMES 2dBm INSERTION LOSS
BETWEEN PA AND ANTENNA
PA CURRENT (mA)
3.0
WCDMA BAND 5 PA VOLTAGE/CURRENT
vs. OUTPUT POWER
10.0
ASSUMES
2dBm
INSERTION
LOSS
BETWEEN
PA AND
ANTENNA
-50 -30 -15 -9 -3 3
9 15 21
-40 -20 -12 -6 0
6 12 18 24
OUTPUT POWER AT ANTENNA (dBm)
7.5
DG09 (%)
BATTERY CURRENT (mA)
1000
MAX7721 toc38
PA VOLTAGE (V)
1200
GSM HIGH BAND BATTERY CURRENT
vs. OUTPUT POWER
5.0
2.5
0
Maxim Integrated │ 11
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Pin Configuration
TOP VIEW
BUMPS ON BOTTOM
MAX77271
+ AGND
REFIN
PGND
A1
A2
A3
EN
IN1
LX
B1
B2
B3
MODE
IN2
OUT
C1
C2
C3
WLP
Pin Description
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
A1
AGND
Low-Noise Analog Ground. Connect AGND to the ground plane at a single point away from high switching
currents. See the PCB Layout section.
A2
REFIN
Reference Input. REFIN typically connects to the output of an external DAC used to control the IC’s output
voltage for continuous PA power adjustment. To improve noise immunity, bypass REFIN with a 1000pF
capacitor to AGND. The output voltage regulates to 2.5 x VREFIN. REFIN is pulled down to ground through
an internal 800kΩ resistor.
A3
PGND
Power Ground. Connect PGND to the ground plane near the input and output capacitor grounds. See the
PCB Layout section.
B1
EN
Enable Input. Connect EN to IN_ or logic-high for normal operation. Connect EN to ground or logic-low to
shutdown the output. EN is internally pulled down to ground through an 800kΩ resistor.
B2
IN1
Supply Voltage Input for the Step-Down Converter. Connect IN1 and IN2 to a battery or supply voltage from
2.7V to 5.5V. Bypass IN1 with a 4.7µF ceramic capacitor as close as possible between IN1 and PGND.
B3
LX
Inductor Connection
C1
MODE
C2
IN2
Supply Voltage Input for the Bypass LDO. Connect IN1 and IN2 to a battery or supply voltage from 2.7V to
5.5V. Bypass IN2 with a 1µF ceramic capacitor as close as possible between IN2 and PGND.
C3
OUT
Output of the Linear Bypass LDO. Connect OUT to the output of the step-down converter. Bypass OUT
with a 10µF ceramic capacitor as close as possible to OUT and PGND.
www.maximintegrated.com
Mode Input. Connect MODE to IN_ or logic-high for 3G mode. Connect MODE to ground or logic-low for
2G mode. In 3G mode, the IC’s low-power skip mode is enabled at all times, regardless of the output
voltage. In 2G mode, low-power skip mode is allowed only when the output voltage is less than 1.4V
Maxim Integrated │ 12
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
IN1
IN2
OUT
BYPASS LDO
C1
R3
BYPASS LDO
CONTROL
BIAS
AGND
REFIN
PWM ERROR
COMPARATOR
R4
800kΩ
C2
LX
STEP-DOWN
LOGIC
PGND
MODE
STEP-DOWN
CURRENT LIMIT
R2
R1
OUT EN
EN
IN2
CONTROL
LOGIC
BANDGAP
MAX77271
800kΩ
Figure 1. Functional Diagram
GSM_PA_EN
VOUT
(L = 2.2µH, C = 15µF)
REFIN
MIN 11µs
MAX77271 EN
MIN 56µs
Figure 2. System Enable Timing Diagram
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 13
MAX77271
Detailed Description
The MAX77271 step-down converter is optimized for
powering the power amplifier (PA) in multistandard cellular handsets such as LTE, WCDMA, GSM, TD-SCDMA,
and EDGE. The IC integrates a high-efficiency PWM stepdown converter for medium and low-power transmission
with an 85mΩ (typ) bypass regulator, in parallel with the
step-down converter, to power the PA during high-power
transmission.
Step-Down Converter
A hysteretic PWM control scheme ensures high efficiency,
fast switching, fast transient response, low output ripple,
and physically tiny external components. The control
scheme is simple: when the output voltage is below
the regulation threshold, the error comparator begins a
switching cycle by turning on the high-side switch. This
high-side switch remains on until the minimum on-time
expires and the output voltage is within regulation, or
the inductor current is above the current-limit threshold.
Once off, the high-side switch remains off until the minimum off-time expires and the output voltage falls again
below the regulation threshold. During the off period,
the low-side synchronous rectifier turns on and remains
on until the high-side switch turns on again. The internal
synchronous rectifier eliminates the need for an external
Schottky diode.
Hysteretic control is sometimes referred to as ripple
control, since voltage ripple is used to control when the
high-side and low-side switches are turned on and off. To
ensure stability with low ESR ceramic output capacitors,
the IC combines ripple from the output with the ramp signal generated by the switching node (LX). This is seen in
Figure 1 with resistor R1 and capacitor C1 providing the
combined ripple signal. Injecting ramp voltage from the
switching node also improves line regulation because the
slope of the ramp adjusts with changes in input voltage.
Hysteretic control has a significant advantage over fixedfrequency control schemes: fast transient response.
Hysteretic control uses an error comparator, instead of
an error amplifier with compensation, and there is no
fixed-frequency clock. Therefore, a hysteretic converter
reacts virtually immediately to any load transient on the
output without having to wait for a new clock pulse or for
the output of the error amplifier to move as with a fixedfrequency converter.
www.maximintegrated.com
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
With a fixed-frequency step-down converter, the magnitude of output voltage ripple is a function of the switching
frequency, inductor value, output capacitor and ESR, and
input and output voltage. Since the inductance value and
switching frequency are fixed, the output ripple varies
with changes in line voltage. With a hysteretic step-down
converter, since the ripple voltage is essentially fixed, the
switching frequency varies with changes in line voltage.
Some variation with load current can also be seen, however, this is part of what gives the hysteretic converter its
great transient response.
The IC is trimmed to provide a 3MHz switching frequency
during 50% duty cycle condition (3.6V input and 1.8V
output). See the Typical Operating Characteristics section
for more information on how switching frequency can vary
with respect to load current and supply voltage.
Voltage-Positioning Load Regulation
The IC step-down converter utilizes a unique feedback
network. By taking DC feedback from the LX node
through R1 of Figure 1, the usual phase lag due to the
output capacitor is removed, making the loop exceedingly
stable and allowing the use of very small ceramic output
capacitors. To improve the load regulation, resistor R3 is
included in the feedback. This configuration yields load
regulation equal to half of the inductor’s series resistance
multiplied by the load current. This voltage-positioning
load regulation greatly reduces overshoot during load
transients and when changing the output voltage from
one level to another. However, when calculating the
required REFIN voltage, the load regulation should be
considered. Because inductor resistance (RL) is typically
well specified and the typical PA is a resistive load, the
VREFIN to VOUT gain is slightly less than 2.5V/V. The
output voltage is approximately:
VOUT = 2.5 × VREFIN -
1
× R L × ILOAD
2
When the output voltage drops by more than 60mV (typ)
due to load regulation (0.5 x RL x ILOAD > 60mV) and
the output voltage is above the linear bypass threshold
(1.4V typ), the linear bypass regulator starts to supplement current to the output ensuring that the output is kept
in regulation. While the linear bypass regulator is sourcing
current, the step-down converter continues to supply most
of the load to maximize efficiency.
Maxim Integrated │ 14
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Skip Mode
Skip mode improves the IC’s light-load efficiency by only
switching only often enough to maintain the output voltage. When skip mode is enabled, the IC’s skip mode
operates when the inductor current crosses zero allowing switching frequency to decrease under light load
conditions. In 2G mode (MODE is logic-low), skip mode
operation is enabled when the output voltage is below
1.4V (default version). In 3G mode (MODE is logic-high),
skip mode operation is enabled at all output voltages. In
addition, if the bypass LDO sources current, skip mode
is automatically enabled to prevent the DCDC converter
from sinking current.
During skip mode, the hysteretic comparator turns on the
high-side switch based on the output voltage value. Once
the output voltage is high enough, the high-side switch is
turned off and the low-side switch is turned on to return
the inductor-current to zero. A zero-crossing comparator
is enabled in this mode to minimize power consumption
by turning off the low-side switch as close to the true
inductor current zero-crossing as possible.
Linear Bypass and Dropout
A low-dropout linear regulator is connected in parallel with
the step-down converter. The output voltage of the linear
regulator is set slightly lower than the nominal regulation voltage of the step-down converter (60mV typ). This
allows the output to maintain regulation when the output
is slewed at a rate faster than the bandwidth of the stepdown converter and when the load current exceeds the
current limit of the step-down converter. Linear bypass
operation is disabled when the output voltage is below
the linear bypass regulation enable threshold (0.65V typ).
The IC enters full dropout under two conditions:
• The IC is commanded to regulate to a setting higher
than VIN.
• REFIN is set to more than 2.1V (min).
Under either condition, the step-down converter goes to
100% duty cycle by turning on its p-channel MOSFET,
and the linear regulator enters dropout by turning on fully.
Note that forced dropout mode (the second condition)
does not implement hysteresis on REFIN.
Output Voltage Rise Time Transition
The output voltage rising transition curve is illustrated in
Figure 3.
In the A region, the step-down regulator ramps the output
voltage. The ramp rate of the output voltage is limited
by the step-down regulator’s current limit, output capacitance, and switching frequency. In the B region, the linear
regulator is enabled (0.625), speeding up the output voltage ramp. This allows the linear regulator to ramp the
output voltage fast while maintaining the SKIP enable
threshold in 2G at 1.4V. In the C region, the output voltage
is limited by the current limit (IBP_ILIM) (see the Electrical
Characteristics table) of the linear regulator. As the output
voltage rise gets closer to the final programmed REFIN x
gain, the linear regulator comes out of current limit. Both
step-down and linear regulator continues to ramp the output voltage. The IC’s control scheme prevents overshoot,
giving the output rise time a smooth transition to its final
programmed value.
Output Voltage Fall Time Transition
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE (V)
The output voltage falling transition curve is illustrated in
Figure 4.
REFIN x GAIN
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE (V)
INITIAL OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
∆ REFIN CHANGE
FOR FASTER SLEW
DOWN
REFIN
VOUT
0.625V
0.4V
A
B
FINAL PROGRAMMED
REFIN x GAIN
C
TIME (μs)
Figure 3. Output Voltage Rising Transient
www.maximintegrated.com
TIME (μs)
tDEB_VC_OUTHI
Figure 4. Output Voltage Falling Transient
Maxim Integrated │ 15
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
In the first phase, when REFIN changes to lower value
(VOUT required is lowered), the step-down converter
is pulled down to VOUT - VC_OUTHI (see the Electrical
Characteristics table) voltage based on the load and the
amount of capacitance on the output. At medium to heavy
loads, the step-down converter operates in PWM mode
and can actively pull the output voltage down. At light
loads, the step-down converter operates in SKIP mode
to reduce the quiescent current of the IC. At low power
levels, this results in long transition time for VOUT going
to lower set point.
In the second phase, to speed up transition of VOUT going
to lower output value, a comparator is used to compare the
REFIN to the real output voltage. If REFIN is lower than the
actual output voltage by VC_OUTHI, the step-down converter is forced into PWM mode and the output is actively
pulled down with negative current limit (INEG_ILIM) (see the
Electrical Characteristics table). Unlike the MAX77100, the
step-down converter stays in the quick slew-down mode
until it reaches target regulation voltage (REFIN x gain). A
35µs (tDEB_VC_OUTHI) (see the Electrical Characteristics
table) typical debounce filter ensures that the converter
stays in this mode. During the time duration where the
converter is operating in PWM mode, the linear regulator
is enabled to prevent the output from undershooting when
reaching the final programmed value.
The amount of REFIN change required for entering forced
PWM mode calculation is:
=
∆REFIN (REFIN START × 0.2) + VOS + VHYS
∆VOUT =2.5 × ((REFIN START × 0.2) + VOS + VHYS )
VOS = 0mV
VOS = 15mV
Shutdown
Connect EN to ground or logic-low to place the IC in
shutdown mode, reducing the input current to 0.1µA (typ).
In shutdown, the control circuitry, bypass linear regulator,
internal switching MOSFET, and synchronous rectifier
turn off, and LX becomes high impedance. Connect EN
to IN_ or logic-high for normal operation.
Thermal Overload Protection
Thermal overload protection limits total power dissipation
in the IC. If the junction temperature exceeds +160°C, the
IC turns off, allowing it to cool. The IC turns on and begins
soft-start after the junction temperature cools by 20°C.
This results in a pulsed output during continuous thermaloverload conditions.
Table 2. REFIN Steps in SKIP Mode
STEPS (dBm)
REFIN (V)
Level 1
0.6
Level 2
0.391
0.9775
Level 3
0.222
0.555
500
VOUT (V)
1.5
REFIN CHANGE REQUIRED
450
∆REFIN VOLTAGE (mV)
MAX77271
400
350
300
250
200
150
∆REFIN (max)
100
50
Here is an example of the amount of REFIN steps in SKIP
mode from Vout 0.5V to 1.5V:
VOS_TYP is defined as VC_OUTHI comparator offset and
VHYS is VC_OUTHI comparator hysteresis.
0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
REFIN START VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 5. REFIN Change Required
Table 1. Suggested Inductors
MANUFACTURER
SERIES
INDUCTANCE
(µH)
DCR
(typ) (Ω)
SATURATION
CURRENT RATING (mA)
DIMENSIONS
(mm)
TDK
TFA201610G
2.2
0.15
1700
2.0 x 1.6 x 1.0
Taiyo Yuden
MAKK201610
2.2
0.131
1500
2.0 x 1.6 x 1.0
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 16
MAX77271
Applications Information
Inductor Selection
The step-down converter in the IC operates with a switching frequency of 3MHz. A 2.2μH inductor is recommended
for best performance. Converter efficiency can be traded
off for physical inductor size and output ripple voltage.
Choosing a larger inductance reduces the current, but
necessitates an inductor with higher DCR or larger physical size. Higher inductance also reduces the negative
inductor current, hence increasing the efficiency of the
converter during skip mode operation.
The inductor’s saturation current rating only needs to
match the maximum load of the application plus an allowance for ripple current because converter features zero
current overshoot during startup and load transients. Also,
since the bypass LDO is available to supplement the output current, a saturation rating above 1.8A is not required.
For optimum transient response and high efficiency,
choose an inductor with DC series resistance in the 50mΩ
to 150mΩ range. See Table 1 for suggested inductors and
manufacturers.
Output Capacitor Selection
The output capacitor keeps the output voltage ripple
small and ensures regulation loop stability. COUT must
have low impedance at the switching frequency. Ceramic
capacitors with X5R or X7R temperature characteristics
are highly recommended due to their small size, low
ESR, and small temperature coefficients. Note that some
ceramic dielectrics exhibit large capacitance and ESR
variation with temperature and DC bias. Ceramic capacitors with Z5U or Y5V temperature characteristics should
be avoided. Tantalum capacitors are not recommended.
A 10μF output capacitor is recommended for most applications. For optimum load-transient performance and
very low output ripple, the output capacitor value can be
increased, however, care should be taken with regards to
output voltage slew rate requirements.
Input Capacitor Selection
The input capacitors reduce the current peaks drawn from
the battery or input power source and reduce switching
noise in the IC. The impedance of CIN1 and CIN2 at the
switching frequency should be kept very low. Ceramic
www.maximintegrated.com
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
capacitors with X5R or X7R temperature characteristics
are highly recommended due to their small size, low
ESR, and small temperature coefficients. Note that some
ceramic dielectrics exhibit large capacitance and ESR
variation with temperature and DC bias. Ceramic capacitors with Z5U or Y5V temperature characteristics should
be avoided.
For most applications, connect a 4.7μF capacitor from
IN1 to PGND and a 1μF capacitor from IN2 to PGND. For
optimum noise immunity and low input ripple, the input
capacitor value can be increased.
Thermal Considerations
In applications where the IC runs at high ambient temperatures or with heavy loads, the heat dissipated may
exceed the maximum junction temperature of the part. If
the junction temperature reaches approximately +160°C,
the thermal overload protection is activated.
The IC maximum power dissipation depends on the thermal resistance of the package and circuit board, the temperature difference between the die junction and ambient
air, and the rate of airflow. The maximum allowed power
dissipation is:
PMAX = (TJMAX - TA)/θJA
where TA is the ambient temperature, TJMAX is the
maximum junction temperature, and θJA is the junction to
ambient thermal resistance. See the Absolute Maximum
Ratings section.
The power dissipated in the device is approximately:
(
)
1 
PD =
VOUT × ILOAD x  - 1 - IL2 × R L
η 
where η is the efficiency of the MAX77271 (see the
Typical Operating Characteristics section), ILOAD is the
RMS load current, IL is the RMS inductor current, and RL
is the inductor resistance.
PCB Layout
High switching frequencies and relatively large peak
currents make the PCB layout a very important part of
design. Good design minimizes excessive EMI on the
feedback paths and voltage gradients in the ground
plane, resulting in a stable and well-regulated output.
Maxim Integrated │ 17
MAX77271
For the input supplies, it is critical to route them as separate lines from the power source with separate decoupling
capacitors on IN1 and IN2. This is necessary to prevent
switching noise on IN1 from coupling into IN2.
Grounding of the IC is also critical. The AGND and PGND
must be routed as separate nets, and connected together
as close as possible to the PGND bump of the IC. AGND
can be used to shield REFIN along its routing. AGND
must be connected to the ground of the source generating
REFIN. To avoid noise coupling into AGND, care must be
taken in the layout to ensure isolation from AGND to PGND,
having cuts in the ground plane wherever necessary.
The input decoupling capacitor on IN1 filters the input
supply of the step-down converter. The layout needs to
ensure as short a path as possible from IN1, through
CIN1, to PGND for optimal decoupling. The point in the
layout where this input capacitor connects to PGND
serves as the star-connection ground point for all three
critical capacitors (CIN1, CIN2, and COUT).
The input decoupling capacitor on IN2 filters the input
supply for the linear regulator. Its bottom plate should be
routed to the star-ground point in the layout.
The OUT trace needs to be short and wide because it
carries the current from the linear regulator.
The trace between the inductor and LX should also be low
impedance as this trace has a noisy, switching waveform.
Keep LX away from noise-sensitive traces such as REFIN
and AGND.
www.maximintegrated.com
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
The capacitor from REFIN to AGND is optional. The
REFIN capacitor can be used when needed to prevent
high-frequency noise from coupling into REFIN.
The ground connection among CIN, COUT, and the PA
ground is also extremely critical. Parasitic impedance
in this ground connection results in degraded RF performance. Contact your Maxim representative for more
detailed information and assistance.
For a PCB layout example, refer to the MAX77271
Evaluation Kit data sheet.
Chip Information
PROCESS: BiCMOS
Ordering Information
PART
MAX77271EWL+T
TEMP RANGE
PINPACKAGE
TOP
MARK
-40°C to +85°C
9 WLP
+AKC
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
T = Tape and reel. This device has a minimum order increment
of 2500 pieces.
Maxim Integrated │ 18
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Package Information
For the latest package outline information and land patterns (footprints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note that a “+”,
“#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but the drawing
pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
PACKAGE TYPE
PACKAGE CODE
OUTLINE NO.
LAND PATTERN NO.
9 WLP
W91B1+1
21-0067
Refer to Application Note 1891
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 19
MAX77271
Multimode PA Step-Down Converter
with Linear Bypass Mode
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
0
12/12
DESCRIPTION
Initial release
PAGES
CHANGED
—
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent licenses
are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and max limits)
shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
© 2012 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. │ 20
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement