Owner`s Manual and Service Guide

Owner`s Manual and Service Guide
Owner’s Manual and Service Guide
C Series:
AC48-2-AC-UB-L-D and AC48-2-AC-UB-S-D
Thanks for buying the Star EV C-Series. For better use, please read
through this manual before operating this vehicle to avoid any possible damage due to improper operation. Keep the manual handy after
reading for future reference.
If you have any questions about the operation or maintenance of
your vehicle, please consult your Star EV dealer.
Important Information:
Important information is showed in following way in this manual:
WARNING: Failure to follow Warning instructions could result in severe injury or death to the vehicle occupants, bystanders or persons
inspecting or repairing the vehicle.
CAUTION: Failure to follow Caution instructions could cause damage
to the vehicle.
Note: Remove the seat and backrest wrapping film to prevent seat vinyl fading. If you have to stock the vehicle for long time, also remove
the seat and backrest wrapping film.
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Table of Contents
Vehicle Specifications
4
Operation
Important Labels
Functions
Operational Process
Charging Batteries
5
5
7
7
Safety
8
Maintenance
Battery
Cleaning
Recharging
Watering
Specific Gravity Test
Open-Circuit Voltage Test
Installation
Gear Box
Traction/Motor
Troubleshooting
Speed Controller
Brake System
Lubrication
General Maintenance Notes
Periodical Maintenance
9
9
10
10
11
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
15
15
16
Storage
18
Troubleshooting
19
Electric Wiring
22
3
1: Vehicle Specifications
C-Series AC48-2-UB-L-D (Long) and AC48-2-UB-S-D (Standard)
Passengers
2
Top Climbing Grade
20%
Battery System
Eight 6 V (48 V) batteries,
Trojan T-105
Body Material
Reinforced fiberglass
Motor Power
7 hp AC motor
Front Suspension
Independent, coil over shock
Controller Power
450 A Curtis AC controller
Rear Suspension
Leaf spring and shock
Top Speed
19.5 mph (20-25 mph if street
legal)
Steering System
Rack and pinion
Total Load Capacity
1500 lbs
Brake System
Four-wheel hydraulic drum
brake
Cargo Capacity
1100 lbs
Tire Size
205/65-10 Comfort ride CST
tire
Towing Capacity
2,000 lbs
Tire Pressure
32 psi
Dimensions
Long: 138” x 47” x 75”
Standard: 105” x 47” x 74”
(L x W x H)
Wheel Type
10” aluminum
Box Dimensions
Long: 64” x 44” x 9.5”
Standard: 34” x 43” x 9.5”
(L x W x H)
Roof
Fiberglass
Weight w/ Batteries
Long: 2300 lbs / Standard:
1710 lbs
Windshield
AS1, DOT automotive windshield
Ground Clearance
5”
Drive Train
Direct rear drive
Turning Radius
Long: 15 ft / Standard: 11.5 ft
Voltage Reducer
20 A, 48 V to 12 V reducer
included
Wheel Base
Long: 96” / Standard: 67”
Warranty
One year bumper-to-bumper
warranty (less wear items)
4
2: Operation
Important Labels
Please read the following labels carefully before operating the vehicle, and
promptly replace any labels which become unreadable or removed.
• Security Warning label under the dashboard
• Warning label under the dashboard
• Warning label beside the parking brake handle
Functions
5
Power key: Controls the power supply of the whole vehicle. When the key is inserted into it and turned clockwise, it will switch on the lights, horn, and the control
system; when the key is turned back, the power will be switched off.
Acceleration pedal: Controls the speed. It should be depressed slowly. The vehicle
speeds up with the gradual stepping-down, and reaches the full speed when the
pedal is stepped to the bottom. The vehicle slows down when the pedal is released
gradually. When the pedal is fully released, electric brake works.
Brake pedal: Decelerates the vehicle.
F/R switch: This switch is a three-position button. Depressing the upper part (F)
makes the vehicle move forwards while depressing the lower part (R) makes the
vehicle move backwards, and the middle is neutral. NOTE: The buzzer will sound
when the lower part of this button is depressed to give warning to the people
around your electric vehicle.
Hand-brake lever: Parks and brakes the vehicle.
Steering wheel: Controls the driving direction.
Headlight switch: Controls the headlight.
Direction light switch: Controls the turning signal.
Wiper and horn switch: Controls the wiper and horn.
Emergency stop switch: Stops the power of the whole vehicle in case of emergen6
cy. NOTE: Before you switch on the vehicle, always check the status of this switch
to make sure that it is in the OFF position.
Digital display: This meter shows information including lights, speed, range, hand
brake, and battery power.
Operational Process
Starting the vehicle
1. Select F for Forward or R for Reverse from F/R button.
2. Switch on power with key.
3. Release the handbrake lever.
4. Depress the acceleration pedal smoothly.
WARNING: If you switch on power key first before selecting Forward or Reverse on
F/R Button, the vehicle will not run.
Stopping the vehicle
1. Step brake pedal to decelerate the vehicle until it stops completely and
shift F/R button to neutral position.
2. Engage the handbrake lever to park the vehicle.
3. Release the service brake.
4. Switch off all lights.
5. Switch off the power key and take out the key.
Charging Batteries
•
CAUTION: There are two different kinds of chargers for this vehicle. One
is an exterior charger and the other is a built-in (on-body) charger. Before
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you use the charger, read the charger operation manual.
Explosive hydrogen gas is produced while battery is charged. Only charge
the battery in well-ventilated areas.
Before using the charger, check if the battery charger you are using is
correctly rated for your local AC electricity network.
Do not disconnect the DC output cord from the battery receptacle when the
charger is ON, otherwise an arc could occur which may cause an explosion.
Do not open the housing of the charger. Only a qualified electrician should
open the housing of the charger.
The charger should be stored in safe and dry room with good ventilation.
The charger should be packed properly if not used for long time.
Charging Procedure
Turn off the power of the vehicle before charging.
For a exterior charger with one set of batteries:
1. Connect charger to DC receptacle on the vehicle.
2. Connect the charger to AC power.
3. Turn on the charger.
4. Turn off the charger when the batteries are fully charged. Disconnect the
charger from AC power first, and then disconnect the charger with AC
receptacle.
For on-board (built-in) charger:
1. Connect the charger with AC power.
2. Turn on the charger.
3. Turn off the charger when the batteries are fully charged, disconnect the
charger with AC power.
3: Safety
The driver should have a good knowledge of the operation system of the vehicle
and its features while following rules for safe operation.
WARNING: Drive the vehicle off streets unless it is allowed.
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8
The vehicle cannot be overloaded, or the motor will be damaged. An
overloaded vehicle can lose control and its life will be shortened.
Unqualified persons are prohibited to drive the vehicle.
•
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•
•
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•
•
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•
Make sure this vehicle runs in its rated climbing ability.
Don’t overtake other vehicles at crossroads, in blind areas or in other
dangerous zones.
Keep your entire body inside the vehicle, keep seated and holding on while
the vehicle is moving.
Do not start the vehicle until all occupants are securely seated.
Keep your hands on the steering wheel and your eyes on the path ahead.
Always back out the vehicle slowly and watch the back carefully.
Avoid starting and stopping suddenly.
Avoid turning the vehicle too sharply at high speeds.
Always drive slowly up and down slopes.
Do not make any modification or addition which may affect the capacity
or safety.
Do not allow children to play in the vehicle. Children should be seated
between adults and protected while the vehicle is moving.
4: Maintenance
WARNING: Battery electrolyte is poisonous and dangerous, may cause severe
burns, injury, etc. Always wear protective clothing, gloves, and goggles when
handling batteries, electrolyte, and charging your battery.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
Battery Maintenance
Cleaning
The exterior of the battery, the connection wires and bolts should always be kept
clean and dry. When cleaning, make sure all vent caps are tightly in place. Clean
the battery top with a cloth or brush and solution of baking soda and water. When
cleaning, do not allow any cleaning solution or other foreign matter to get inside
the battery. This should be done every week.
Clean battery terminals and the inside of cable clamps using a post and clamp
cleaner. Clean terminals will have a bright metallic shine. This should be done
whenever necessary.
Reconnect the clamps to the terminals and thinly coat them with petroleum jelly
(Vaseline) to prevent corrosion.
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WARNING: Before you disconnect any battery cable from any terminal on the
battery, always remove the power by disconnecting the main battery cable from
the controller.
Checking the terminals and nuts: The connection of the battery should always be
kept in good condition. Check every week on whether any battery cable terminal
or nut has become loose in order to prevent any damage to terminals. Check the
status of the battery cable weekly. A damaged battery cable should be replaced
immediately.
Foreign matter: Do not place any objects on the battery and do not connect the
positive pole to the negative pole. This may cause a short circuit and sparking.
Recharging
• As long as you use the vehicle, regardless of how long you have used it,
the battery should be recharged fully on the same day. Any delay in recharging will negatively affect the battery. The lead-acid battery does not
develop a memory, so need not be fully discharged before recharging.
• If the vehicle is going to be kept unused for a long time, the battery should
be fully recharged first. After that, the battery should be fully recharged
every two weeks.
• When driving, the driver should always be aware of the drop level of the
battery power from the battery power meter. Any drop means the battery
power is diminishing. The driver can estimate the distance needed to be
taken, and recharge the battery at a proper time in case the vehicle cannot
get back to the recharging station in time for recharging.
WARNING: Make sure the battery is recharged before the battery power meter
shows 20% power is left inside the battery. An over-discharged battery will have a
very short service life and will make recharging difficult.
WARNING: During recharge, the vehicle should be parked in a well-ventilated area
with the fill caps tightly secured. Keep far away from any flame and sparks to avoid
any explosion or fire that could cause physical injury or damage to the property.
During recharge, if the vehicle had doors, keep the doors open. Lift the seat bottom
to keep the battery compartment open to the air.
Watering
Flooded batteries need water. More importantly, watering must be done at the
right time and in the right amount or else the battery’s performance and longevity
suffers. Water should always be added after fully charging the battery. Prior to
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charging, there should be enough water to cover the plates. If the battery has
been discharged partially or fully, the water level should also be above the plates.
Keeping the water at the correct level after a full charge will prevent having to worry
about the water level at a different state of charge.
It is recommended that batteries be checked once a month until you get a feel for
how often you must water your batteries. Important things to remember:
• Do not let the plates get exposed to air. This will damage (corrode) the
plates.
• Do not fill past the water level in the filling well to the cap. This most likely
will cause the battery to overflow acid, consequently losing capacity and
causing a corrosion.
• Do not use water with a high mineral content. Use distilled or de-ionized
water only.
WARNING: The electrolyte is a solution of acid and water so skin contact should be
avoided.
Watering procedure
1. Open the vent caps and look inside the fill wells.
2. Check electrolyte level; the minimum level is at the top of the plates.
3. If necessary add just enough water to cover the plates at this time.
4. Put batteries on a complete charge before adding any additional water
(refer to the Charging section).
5. Once charging is completed, open the vent caps and look inside the fill
wells.
6. Add water until the electrolyte level is 1/8” below the bottom of the fill
well.
7. A piece of rubber can be used safely to help determine the level.
8. Clean, replace, and tighten all vent caps.
CAUTION: Never add acid to a battery.
Testing: Visual inspection alone is not sufficient to determine the overall health of
the battery. Both open-circuit voltage and specific gravity readings can give a good
indication of the battery’s charge level, age, and health. Routine voltage and gravity
checks will not only show the state of charge but also help spot signs of improper
maintenance, such as undercharging and over-watering, and possibly even locate
a bad or weak battery. The following steps outline how to properly perform routine
voltage and specific gravity testing on batteries.
Specific Gravity Test (Flooded batteries only)
1. Do not add water at this time.
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2. Fill and drain the hydrometer 2 to 4 times before pulling out a sample.
3. There should be enough sample electrolyte in the hydrometer to
completely support the float.
4. Take a reading, record it, and return the electrolyte back to the cell.
5. To check another cell, repeat the 3 steps above.
6. Check all cells in the battery.
7. Replace the vent caps and wipe off any electrolyte that might have been
spilled.
8. Correct the readings to 80° F:
a. Add .004 to readings for every 10° above 80° F.
b. Subtract .004 for every 10° below 80° F.
9. Compare the readings.
10. Check the state of charge using the table below.
The readings should be at or above the factory specification of 1.277 +/- .007. If any
specific gravity readings register low, then follow the steps below.
1. Check and record voltage level(s).
2. Put battery/batteries on a complete charge.
3. Take specific gravity readings again.
If any specific gravity reading still registers lower than the factory specification of
1.277+/- .007 then one or more of the following conditions may exist:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The battery is old and approaching the end of its life.
The battery was left in a state of discharge too long.
Electrolyte was lost due to spillage or overflow.
A weak or bad cell is developing.
Battery was watered excessively previous to testing.
Batteries in conditions 1 - 4 should be taken to a specialist for further
evaluation or retired from service.
Open-Circuit Voltage Test
For accurate voltage readings, batteries must remain idle (no charging, no
discharging) for at least 6 hrs, preferably 24 hrs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Disconnect all loads from the batteries.
Measure the voltage using a DC voltmeter.
Check the state of charge with the table below.
Charge the battery if it registers 0% to 70% charged.
If battery registers below the Table 1 values, the following conditions may exist:
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The battery was left in a state of discharge too long.
The battery has a bad cell.
These batteries should be taken to a specialist for further evaluation or retired from
service.
State of charge as related to specific gravity and open circuit voltage
Percentage of
Charge
Specific Gravity
Corrected to
80°F
Open-Circuit Voltage
6V
8V
12 V
24 V
36 V
48 V
100%
1.277
6.37
8.49
12.73
25.46
38.20
50.93
90%
1.248
6.31
8.41
12.62
25.24
37.85
50.47
80%
1.238
6.25
8.33
12.50
25.00
37.49
49.99
70%
1.217
6.19
8.25
12.37
24.74
37.12
49.49
60%
1.195
6.12
8.16
12.24
24.48
36.72
48.96
50%
1.172
6.05
8.07
12.10
24.20
36.31
48.41
40%
1.148
5.98
7.97
11.96
23.92
35.87
47.83
30%
1.124
5.91
7.88
11.81
23.63
35.44
47.26
20%
1.098
5.83
7.77
11.66
23.32
34.97
46.63
10%
1.073
5.75
7.67
11.51
23.02
34.52
46.03
Installation
Tighten the battery cables to battery terminals with torque of 95 - 105 lbs. in. (10.7
- 11.9 N.M.) Make sure there is nothing else between the battery cable lug and
battery terminal post.
WARNING: When working with the battery, DO NOT put wrenches or any other
metal objects across the battery terminals, otherwise, an arc can occur, and it may
cause explosion of the battery and physical injury.
Battery should be installed or replaced only by a qualified electrician.
Gear Box Maintenance
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The clearance for the clutch should be kept at 2 – 3 mm.
The friction plate should be changed periodically; the friction value on one
side should not exceed 2 mm.
Adjust the flatness of the platen spring plate (feeling manually). First,
tighten the screws diagonally, using your hand to check the flatness of the
spring plate. If not flat, tighten the screws.
Change the gear oil inside the gear box periodically. For a new vehicle,
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change the oil after one month or accumulated running distance exceeding
750 miles; change the oil again two months later, then change the oil every
six months. The oil type is 85W/90GL.
Clean the gear box before changing the oil.
CAUTION: Never mix different oils.
Traction/Motor Maintenance
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The motor is designed for use up to 4000 feet above sea level and in a
temperature between -15° F and 105° F.
Never keep the motor running idly. Any mud, sand, and other clinging
objects should be cleaned away.
Check the carbon brush every three months. To change a worn or
weakened carbon brush, press spring.
Troubleshooting for Motor
Warning: Only a qualified electrician should change and adjust the carbon brush.
Symptoms
Possible Causes
All copper plates turn black
The pressure of brush is incorrect.
The commutator turns black in a
certain order and in groups
Short circuit in the commutator or armature coil; poor welding or disconnection between the commutators and the armature coil.
The commutator turns black
The central line of the commutator deviates or its surface is not round
and smooth.
The brush wears out, turns colors
and becomes broken
The motor vibrates; the clearance between the brush and its holder is
too big; the clearance between the brush and commutators is too big;
the brush is made by wrong materials; the brush is the wrong type.
Sparks
The motor is overloaded; the commutators are not clean, round or
smooth; mica or some commutators extrude; the brush is not ground
properly; the brush is the wrong type; the brush is jammed in the brush
holder; the brush holder become loose or vibrating; the polarity and
sequence of magnetic poles is wrong.
The brush and its wires get hot
Big sparks of the brush; poor contact between brush and soft wires.
The brush is noisy
The surface of the commutators is not smooth.
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Speed Controller Maintenance
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The speed controller of the vehicle is wholly imported, which adopts high
frequency MOS technology to realize the control of speed, torque and
brake with smoothness, silence, and high energy efficiency.
When the vehicle starts, the controller will inspect signals from the
accelerator. If signal exceeds 20%, the HPD (protection unit in the
controller) will prohibit the output of the controller.
The controller will self-check when the vehicle is running. If any defect
inspected, the controller will stop the vehicle to protect the operator and
the vehicle.
Brake System Maintenance
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Depress the brake pedal with a force of 65 lbs. The pedal travel shouldn’t
exceed 2/3 of the full free pedal travel.
The clearance for the brake plate is self-adjusted. Under a force of around
45 lbs, the parking brake handle should be fixed in one gear from 5 to 10
ratchets. When the brake handle is released completely, the brake function
will stop.
Inspect and change brake shoe, and add lubrication into the brake bearing
periodically.
Lubrication
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Use 901 vehicle brake oil DOT3 as brake oil. Use 1L of 85W/90GL lubrication
oil for gear box. Use 1L of 90GL hypoid gear oil for the rear axle.
Lubrication points: steering gears, horizontal bars, steering ball joints, and
bearings.
General Maintenance Notes
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To avoid any damage on the brake shoe, the handbrake should be released
to its bottom before staring the vehicle.
The lubricant for rear power assembly must be applied and changed as
per user’s manual.
The brake system must be adjusted once every 3 months.
The electricity system must be checked once every 3 months (especially
main circuit) for its fastening parts and wiring connections. Meanwhile
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the contactor should be checked. Any defective parts should be replaced
immediately. Dust should be cleaned with low pressure air.
The electric contactors easily become hot if their mutual contact is not
in good condition, so special attention should be paid regularly to the
electric contactors.
When changing a fuse, make sure that the new fuse is right in rated current.
Disconnect the positive pole from the battery when maintenance is done.
Never step the accelerator hard and frequently, which may shorten the life
of the controller.
It is prohibited to pour any other liquids (such as battery additives,
mineral water and tap water) into the battery. Only distilled water should
fill battery.
Periodical Maintenance
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Check if the contact between contacting points of the contactor is in good
condition, check for any mechanical sticking or jamming.
Check if the micro switch in the accelerator can be switched on and off
properly.
Check if the switch for the turn signal can be switched on and off properly.
Check if all the connections between the motor, the battery, and the
controller are in good condition.
Use the following cleaning procedure for routine maintenance:
1. Turn the power key to OFF position.
2. Remove power by disconnecting the battery.
3. Discharge the capacitors in the controller by connecting a load (such as a
contactor coil or a horn) across the controller’s B+ and B- terminals.
4. Remove any dirt or corrosion from the connector areas. The controller
should be wiped clean with moist rag. Dry it before reconnecting the
battery. The controller should not be subjected to pressured water flow
from either a standard hose or a power washer.
5. Make sure the connections are tight, but do not over-tighten them.
NOTE: All above checks should be performed with the power off. Above checks
shall be carried out once every 3 months; after the power is turned off, the wavefilter capacitor in the controller unit should continue discharging for a few minutes
more; don’t wash the electrical parts with water. You can remove dust with a brush
or high–pressure air.
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Periodical Maintenance Chart
Regular maintenance is required for the best performance and safe operation of
the vehicle.
WARNING: Make sure to turn off the power key and apply the park brake when
you do the maintenance unless specified. If the owner is not familiar with the
maintenance of this vehicle, the dealer should do the work.
Item
Description
Check the liquid level. Add distilled water if necessary.
Charge the battery.
Daily
Battery
Check the liquid density of the
battery; standard density should
be 1.275±0.005.
Check if the battery is charged
fully by using the hydrometer
and checking the battery power
meter.
Charger
Controller
Quarterly
☑
☑
☑
☑
☑
Clean the surface of the charger.
Do not get any water inside the
charger.
☑
Check if all terminals are tightened properly. Do this after the
power is off.
☑
Clean the surface of the controller.
☑
Check if the solenoid is in order,
checking its touching point.
Check if any water gets in. Check
if it becomes too hot.
Motor
☑
☑
Check if the carbon brush should
be replaced.
Check if the accelerator pedal
works well and if it can be released freely and automatically.
Yearly
☑
Clean the surface of battery.
Observe the charging status,
check if the charger plug becomes hot.
Monthly
☑
☑
Tighten the nut on the battery
cable.
Check if the battery is over-discharged (the battery power
meter flashing).
Weekly
☑
☑
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Periodical Maintenance Chart, continued
Item
Chassis and
body
Description
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Quarterly
Check if the brake drum and the
brake shoe should be replaced.
☑
Check if the hand brake functions.
☑
Check if the hose and tube for the
brake liquid leaking.
☑
Check if the brake liquid inside
the brake liquid tank is enough.
☑
Check the air pressure inside the
tire, check if the tire surface is
worn, and check if the nuts are
tightened properly.
Check if the shock absorber has
any oil leaking, flat or abnormal
noise.
Check if there is oil leaking on the
gear box and the rear end.
Add the lubricant inside the
wheel hub, steering system.
Adjust the toe-in of the front end.
Clean the body and seat.
Yearly
☑
☑
☑
☑
☑
☑
5: Storage
Follow the steps below when the vehicle is stored.
1. Check the liquid level inside the battery; recharge it fully before storing the
vehicle. WARNING: Charge the battery once a month if your vehicle will be
stored more than one month.
2. Turn the power key to OFF position, remove the key, and store the key in
a safe place.
3. Engage the handbrake.
4. Check the tire pressure to make sure its pressure is set to recommended
pressure.
5. Clean the exterior of the vehicle and apply a rust inhibitor.
6. Cover the vehicle with a breathable cover and store it in a dry, safe, and
well-ventilated place.
7. If you plan to store the vehicle for a longer time, check the liquid level
inside the battery and recharge the battery monthly.
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6: Troubleshooting
There is no settled mode to diagnose and eliminate malfunctions. During
maintaining and checking, we suggest you first listen, then look and feel. Below is
the diagnoses and maintenance of some common malfunctions.
1. The vehicle doesn’t move
Malfunction
Turn on power key; no
display on instrument
panel
Turn on power key; instrument panel displays
signs
Possible Reason
Troubleshooting
Connector(s) in circuit is loose or open
Tighten or connect
Fuse of controller or main circuit is open
Change fuse
Battery cable(s) is loose or disconnected
Tighten or change
Power key is broken
Change
Voltmeter is broken
Change
Battery terminals connect improperly
Adjust
Improper operating procedure
Operate properly
Controller failure
Check or change
Solenoid failure
Check, repair, change
Accelerator failure
Repair or change
Motor failure
Repair or change
Parking brake doesn’t loosen
Loosen parking brake
Over-heat protection
Check, eliminate
2. Locking control when vehicle starts funning, speed cannot be adjusted
Malfunction
Vehicle runs at full speed
when it starts
Possible Reason
Troubleshooting
Terminals of solenoid stick together
Check or repair
Controller failure
Change
Potentiometer failure
Repair or change
Internal short of motor
Repair or change
Vehicle stops immediately after it starts
Motor is assembled too tight or blocked
Repair or change
Controller failure
Repair or change
Accelerator failure
Repair or change
Normal power at low
speed, weak power at
high speed
Controller failure
Check or repair
Motor failure
Check or repair
Accelerator failure
Check or repair
3. Vehicle cannot change direction, only runs in one direction
Malfunction
Vehicle can only run in
one direction
Possible Reason
Troubleshooting
F&R switch failure
Change
Controller failure
Change
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4. Possible reason and troubleshooting for other malfunctions
System
Malfunction
Abnormal sound when
running
Transmission
system
Hard to shift gear, or gear
shift jumps to different
positions
Steering
system
Steering
system
Steering heavy
Unstable wheels
Deflected running
Driving
system
Abnormal tire fray
Possible Reason
Troubleshooting
Clearance of rear axle decelerating gear is
too big, or the decelerating gear is broken
Adjust, change
Transmission cross shaft is worn out
Change
Gear of transmission is worn out or
damaged
Change
Flange bearing is damaged
Change
Motor bearing is damaged
Change
Gear liquid is deficient or empty
Add gear liquid
Clutch cannot separate smoothly
Adjust
Gear shift wire is damaged
Change
Gear inside transmission case is worn out
Change
Orientation pin is loose
Change
Pressure of front tire is deficient
Check the pressure
and inflate
Screw plug of redirector is too tight
Adjust
Lack of lube in redirector
Maintain/add lube
Toe-in is abnormal
Adjust
Clearance of tension rod ball is too big
Change
Steering knuckle and master pin is not
lubricated
Add lube
Steering shaft or its plastic cover is worn
out
Change
Rack of redirector is worn out
Change redirector
Screw plug of redirector is too tight
Adjust
Toe-in is adjusted improperly
Adjust
Bearing of front wheel is worn out
Change
Tie rod ball and joint is worn out
Change tie rod
Redirector is loose
Tighten
The pressure of the two front tires is
different
Inflate
Toe-in is too big or too small
Adjust
Tightness of the left and right drum bearing of front wheels is different
Adjust
Brake of one wheel is too tight
Adjust of change
Spring shock absorber is abnormal
Change
Front suspension is loose
Change
Tire pressure in abnormal
Inflate
Toe-in is improper
Adjust
Drum bearing loose
Change
U type bolt of leaf spring is loose
Tighten
Rim is distorted or frame is distorted
Tighten
Brake force of each wheel is different
Adjust
Overexerting accelerator or braking
frequently
Alter operation
System
Malfunction
Brake fail
Brake system
Braking deviation
Braking drag
Braking noise
Possible Reason
Troubleshooting
Master cylinder and/or wheel cylinder is
damaged or leaking oil
Check, eliminate,
change
Brake fluid is insufficient or empty
Add fluid
Air enters into oil pipe
Bleed air
Free travel of brake pedal is too long or
the clearance of arrester is too big
Adjust
Brake drum is worn out or distorted
Change
Master cylinder leaks oil internally
Change
The clearance of left brake drum shoe and
right brake drum shoe is different
Adjust
Oil is on one arrester’s brake shoe
Dispose or change
Tire pressures are different
Repair or change
One wheel cylinder’s piston is blocked
Adjust
Wheels are aligned improperly
Adjust
Brake drum out of round
Change
Brake pedal has no free travel
Adjust
Clearance between brake shoe and drum
is too small or releasing spring is disabled
Adjust or change
Piston of wheel cylinder is ineffective
Check or change
Piston of master cylinder is ineffective
Change
Parking brake is ineffective
Change spring
Shoe distorted
Change
Brake facing worn out
Change
Brake drum breach, scraped to uneven
Change
21
7: Wiring Diagram
22
This manual tries to be as sound and elaborate as possible in literal
and figurative description as well as technical description on the basis of existing data. At the same time, JH Global reserves the right to
alter the content of this manual and this manual is subject to change
without prior notice; in addition, JH Global has the final say on the
interpretation of this manual.
All rights reserved.
23
STAR EV, a brand of JH Global Services, Inc.
378 Neely Ferry Road | Simpsonville, SC 29680
www.starev.com
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