Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Q

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Q
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course
Rider Training Manual
Version 1 – August 2016
The Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) would like to acknowledge the VicRoads Motorcycle Licensing Program developed by Transport and
Road Safety Research at the University of New South Wales as a key source contributing to the development of the Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course Rider Training
Manual; the pre-learner component of the VicRoads Motorcycle Licensing Program has been adapted to Queensland requirements. TMR would also like to
acknowledge the contributions of VicRoads and the Queensland Motorcycle Licensing Advisory Group in the development of this course, their assistance is
acknowledged and is greatly appreciated.
Contents
Course overview .................................................................................................................................... 1
Module plan ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Module 1.
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 4
Module 2.
Unique aspects of motorcycling ........................................................................................ 5
Module 3.
Equipment and training area safety................................................................................... 7
Module 4.
Mount and dismount a motorcycle .................................................................................... 9
Module 5.
Major controls ................................................................................................................. 11
Module 6.
Minor controls ................................................................................................................. 13
Module 7.
Straddle walk .................................................................................................................. 15
Module 8.
Riding posture ................................................................................................................ 17
Module 9.
Ride a non-powered motorcycle ..................................................................................... 18
Module 10.
Start up and shut down ................................................................................................... 20
Module 11.
Ride straight and stop ..................................................................................................... 21
Module 12.
Left and right turns .......................................................................................................... 23
Module 13.
Changing gears .............................................................................................................. 25
Module 14.
Roadcraft tactics (one) .................................................................................................... 26
Module 15.
Pre-ride safety check and maintenance .......................................................................... 28
Module 16.
Curves discussion........................................................................................................... 29
Module 17.
Riding curves .................................................................................................................. 31
Module 18.
Simulated road ride (one) ............................................................................................... 33
Module 19.
Making choices ............................................................................................................... 35
Module 20.
Protective gear ............................................................................................................... 37
Module 21.
Welcome and training area safety ................................................................................... 38
Module 22.
Review of day one .......................................................................................................... 39
Module 23.
Warm up ride .................................................................................................................. 40
Module 24.
Slow riding ...................................................................................................................... 41
Module 25.
Steering technique and obstacle avoidance .................................................................... 43
Module 26.
Steering theory ............................................................................................................... 45
Module 27.
Controlled ‘quick stop’ braking ........................................................................................ 46
Module 28.
Crash avoidance space .................................................................................................. 48
Module 29.
Judgement and giving way ............................................................................................. 50
Module 30.
Roadcraft tactics (two) .................................................................................................... 52
Module 31.
Riding strategies ............................................................................................................. 53
Module 32.
Simulated road ride (two) ................................................................................................ 54
Module 33.
Course debrief ................................................................................................................ 56
Module 34.
Course close................................................................................................................... 57
Course safety, rules and training information ....................................................................................... 58
Course overview
The pre-learner course is a training and assessment program designed to help learner licence applicants gain basic riding
knowledge and motorcycle handling skills in a safe environment before riding on the road. The objectives of the course are to
ensure learner riders have the knowledge and skills to manage, under supervision, the routine riding situations they will
encounter while learning to ride, to instil appropriate riding attitudes and a safety mindset, and to minimise the likelihood of
harm due to inadequate riding knowledge or skills. The course forms part of an integrated training and assessment program,
encompassing a theory assessment and further training at the restricted (RE) and unrestricted (R) licence stages. The course is
designed for people who have no on-road riding experience.
The course curriculum provides a balanced program, presented in a logical and progressive manner, with the sequence, structure
and timing of modules designed to support knowledge and skill acquisition. The curriculum relies on the system of specifying
the value, purpose and direction of training, emphasising and repeating critical elements, the use of key learning phrases, and
‘overlearning’ to enhance knowledge retention and reinforce skills. The course is competency based, with each competency
element assessed as competent or not yet competent; participants will only successfully complete the course if they demonstrate
all competencies.
The course adopts a blended approach to learning including theory based teaching, demonstrations, coaching and practice
through doing. Individualised feedback is provided throughout the course allowing participants to learn through experience.
This interaction also facilitates self-reflection and the use of higher order thinking, which has been shown to positively
influence on-road behaviour and attitudes to road safety.
Basic course structure
The course structure and module plan present the course over two days; the course may be delivered in an alternative structure over more
than two days, such as over four mornings, providing the sequencing of modules is preserved and equivalent breaks are provided.
Day one
Session descriptions
Duration
Modules 1 to 9
105 minutes
Example running times
Start
Start
7.30am
8.00am
 Introduction
 Unique aspects of motorcycling
 Operating a non-powered motorcycle
Morning tea break
15 minutes
9.15am
9.45am
Modules 10 to 14
105 minutes
9.30am
10.00am
Lunch break
30 minutes
11.15am
11.45am
Modules 15 to 20
120 minutes
11.45am
12.15pm
1.45pm
2.15pm
 Basics of operating a powered motorcycle
 Roadcraft tactics (one)
 Riding curves
 Simulated road ride (one)
 Making choices and protective gear
Day two
Session descriptions
Duration
Modules 21 to 26
105 minutes
Example running times
Start
Start
7.30am
8.00am
 Review day one and warm up ride
 Slow riding
 Steering
Morning tea break
15 minutes
9.15am
9.45am
Modules 27 to 30
105 minutes
9.30am
10.00am
Lunch break
30 minutes
11.15am
11.45am
Modules 31 to 34
105 minutes
11.45am
12.15pm
1.30pm
2.00pm
 Braking
 Judgement and giving way
 Roadcraft tactics (two)
 Riding strategies
 Simulated road ride (two)
 Course debrief and close
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 1
Module plan
Day one
Module
Introduction
Presenter
M2.
Unique aspects of motorcycling
Teacher →Facilitator
10 minutes
15 minutes
Relocate to training area
M3.
Equipment and training area safety
10 minutes
Mount and dismount a motorcycle
Instructor →trainer
10 minutes
M5.
Major controls
Instructor →trainer
M6.
Minor controls
Instructor →trainer
M7.
Straddle walk
Instructor→trainer
15 minutes
5 minutes
10 minutes
M8.
 Introductions
 Workplace health and safety briefing
 Overview of course content and structure
M12.
Left and right turns
Instructor→trainer
 Vulnerability of motorcycle riders
 Motivations/reasons for riding
 Key differences between motorcycles and cars
M13.
Changing gears
Instructor→trainer
Relocate to classroom
 Training area safety rules
 Hand signals
 Issue high-visibility vests, protective gear and motorcycles





 Mirrors
 Throttle
 Front brake lever
 Rear brake lever
 Clutch lever
 Gear lever








Starter button
Engine stop switch
Ignition
Lights (low/high beam)
Indictor switch
Horn
Choke lever
Fuel tap
 Look, handlebars straight, two stage braking
 Straddle walk straight and figure 8 (may walk beside)
 Parking
M15.
Start up and shut down
Instructor→trainer
20 minutes
5 minutes
Curves discussion
Instructor→facilitator
M17.
Riding curves
Instructor→trainer
10 minutes
25 minutes
M18.
Simulated road ride (one)
Instructor→facilitator
Main motorcycle crash types
Observation (12, 6, 3)
Speed management
Road positioning
Relocate to classroom
M19.
Making choices
Facilitator
M20.
Protective gear
Presenter
 Fluid levels and leaks
 Brakes
 Registration
 Wide/tight allows curves to be linked
 Priority is space from hazards (buffering)
 Physical and behavioural risk factors
 Look
 Slow down
 Move away (start wide, buffer, finish tight)
Drink break (5 minutes)
 Controls (mirrors, throttle, brakes, gears, indicators)
 Riding skills (posture, turns, move off and stop, riding
curves, parking)
25 minutes
5 minutes
20 minutes
Morning tea break (15 minutes)
 Start up sequence
 Shut down sequence




Lunch break (30 minutes)
 Chain
Pre-ride safety check and maintenance
 Tyres
Presenter→instructor
 Lights
 Horn
10 minutes
15 minutes
M10.
 Pre-position hands and feet
 Change between first and second gear
Roadcraft tactics (one)
Facilitator
M16.
 Move off (ready, check)
 Stop safely (mirrors, brakes)
Ride a non-powered motorcycle
Instructor→trainer
 Line of sight
 Use of controls
30 minutes
Approach from kerb
Steady motorcycle and check front brake
Two stage braking (set up and squeeze)
Check for pedestrians and traffic
Ready position
10 minutes
M9.
M14.
 Seven points - feet, knees, seat, back, arms, wrists and head
 Hands and feet clear of controls when not in use
Riding posture
Trainer→coach
Key content
20 minutes
5 minutes
Presenter
M4.
Module
Key content
M1.
20 minutes





Attitudes
Behaviours (speed, alcohol, drugs, sensation seeking)
Physical factors (mood, fatigue)
Social context and company (choosing a supervisor)
Riding environment (time, weather, traffic)
 Helmets, eye protection, gloves and boots
 Importance of no exposed skin - jackets and pants
 Wet weather gear
5 minutes
M11.
 Move off without the throttle
 Move off with the throttle
Ride straight and stop
Instructor→trainer
25 minutes
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 2
Day two
Module
Key content
10 minutes




Overview of the day’s course content and structure
Training area safety rules
Hand signals
Issue high-visibility vests, protective gear and motorcycles
10 minutes







Mount, dismount and the ready position
Major and minor controls
Riding posture
Move off and slow down
Roadcraft
Riding curves
Protective gear
M21. Welcome and training area safety
Presentatern
M22. Review day one
Presenterr
 Controls (mirrors, throttle, brakes, gears)
 Riding skills (posture, move off, riding curves)
M23. Warm up ride
Instructor→trainer
15 minutes
M24. Slow riding
Instructor→trainer
40 minutes
M25. Steering technique and obstacle
avoidance
Instructor→trainer





Posture
Use of controls (throttle, clutch, rear brake)
Straight
Weave
ZigZag (off-set weave)




Steering technique
Change path in a straight
Change path in a curve
Slalom
Module
M31.
Relocate to training area
M32.
Key content
Riding strategies
Facilitator
25 minutes
5 minutes
Simulated road ride (two)
Instructor→trainer
Relocate to classroom
35 minutes
5 minutes




Time of day
Route choice
Road conditions
Social context




Controls (mirrors, throttle, brakes, gears, indicators)
Road rules (giving way)
Riding skills (posture, move off, riding curves, slow ride)
Roadcraft (observing, responding to riding environment)
 Self-reflection (strengths and improvement areas)
 Feedback (strengths and improvement areas)
M33. Course debrief
Facilitator
20 minutes
M34. Course close
Presenter →facilitator
15 minutes
 Licence restrictions and motorcycle specific road rules
 Strategies to reduce risk
 Competency declarations
20 minutes
 Handlebar pressure used in every curve
 Posture, point chin and shoulder
M26. Steering theory
Presenter→trainer
10 minutes
Morning tea break (15 minutes)
M27. Controlled ‘quick stop’ braking
 Effectiveness of each brake and gears
 Seeing risks and setting up
Presenterr→trainer
 Brake from a point
 Brake to a point
35 minutes
 Braking requirements related to speed
 Response time
 3 second survival space
M28. Crash avoidance space
Presenter→facilitator
15 minutes
M29.
Judgement and giving way
Instructor→trainer
Relocate to classroom
M30.
20 minutes
5 minutes
Roadcraft tactics (two)
Facilitator
30 minutes
 Line of sight
 Use of controls
 Roadcraft (observing, responding to riding environment)
 Main motorcycle crash types
 Observation, speed management, road positioning
 Apply crash avoidance space
Lunch break (30 minutes)
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 3
Module 1.
Introduction
Time: 10 minutes
Context

Objectives

The objectives of this module are to:
 Introduce the trainer and participants to establish a
positive learning environment.
 Ensure participants understand the requirements and
structure of the course.
 Brief participants on workplace health and safety
matters.
Prerequisites

Competence assessment
Nil.
Method

Location

Classroom.

Overview of course structure (PowerPoint, whiteboard or
laminated cards).
Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Delivery – presenter
Introduction
Welcome participants and provide a brief personal
background about riding and experience as a trainer.
 Invite participants to outline their reasons for undertaking
the course and any prior riding experience.

Presentation

Overview of the course
 Introduced in 2016 as part of a holistic review of
motorcycle licensing in Queensland.
 Designed to help learner licence applicants gain basic
riding knowledge and motorcycle handling skills in a
safe environment before riding on the road.
 Consists of basic sequence of activities, from
simple to more complex skill development.
 Competency based; participants must demonstrate all
competencies to successfully complete the course.
 The course is two days in duration.
 Outline of course content, including break times.
Day one
Introduction
Unique aspects of motorcycling
Operating a non-powered
motorcycle
Morning tea break
Basics of operating a powered
motorcycle
Roadcraft tactics (one)
Lunch break
Riding curves
Simulated road ride (one)
Making choices and protective
gear
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Not applicable.
Notes
Safety
Set up

Not applicable.
Criteria
Resources

Overview of workplace health and safety matters
 Emergency procedures for evacuation.
 Amenities (toilets, smoking areas).
 No access areas.
 Mandatory use of protective gear.
 Fatigue and hydration advice.
 Following the instructions of the trainer.
 Letting the trainer know if a participant has any medical
requirements (can be raised privately).
A workplace health and safety briefing is a requirement of
all workplaces in Australia.
 If for some reason a participant is absent for all, or part, of
the workplace health and safety briefing they must not
continue the course or enter the training area until they
have received the full briefing.

Additional information
Introductions can help promote respectful and valuable
discussions throughout the course if participants don’t
know each other.
 Adult learning is enhanced if participants have a clear
understanding of the course aims and content from
commencement of the course.
 Visual reinforcement of the content (PowerPoint,
whiteboard or laminated cards) aids understanding.

Day two
Review day one
Slow riding
Steering
Morning tea break
Braking
Judgement and giving way
Roadcraft tactics (two)
Lunch break
Riding strategies
Simulated road ride (two)
Course debrief and close
Page 4
Module 2.
Unique aspects of motorcycling
Time: 15 minutes
Context
Discussion
card
Objectives
Vision of
traffic
environment
The objectives of this module are to:
 Challenge participants to think about why they want to
ride.
 Ensure participants understand the vulnerable nature of
riding.
 Correct common misconceptions about the costs and
performance of motorcycles compared to cars.
 This module is also designed to be an icebreaker.

Being seen
by other
motorists
Crash
protection
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 1.




Often riders can see over cars. If
riders check their mirrors and blind
spots they have 360 degree vision.
Cars have large block outs, and blind
spots that cannot be eliminated.

Motorcycles can be totally invisible to
other motorists, even on a fine day, let
alone when it’s dark and raining.
Bright gear and headlights help but
are not a guarantee.

Hit anything and riders come off
second best. Good gear can reduce
injury and time in hospital but a car
will always provide more crash
protection.

Motorcycles can be much more fun to
ride around curves but cars corner
much better than motorcycles.
Motorcycles actually go slower in
curves than cars because they have
limited tyre grip due to the small
contact patch of their tyres.

Motorcycles take longer to stop than
cars due to the limited tyre grip of the
small contact patch of their tyres. The
average modern passenger car can
stop in about half the distance
required by a motorcycle.

Motorcycles can out-accelerate cars
but be warned this is what often
brings riders unstuck. Many drivers
are surprised when a motorcycle is
suddenly in front of them, particularly
at intersections.
Classroom.
Stopping
quicker
Resources

Discussion cards.
 Sixth sense video tutorial.
 Participant workbooks.

Accelerating
quicker
Set up


Discussion points
Cornering
performance
Location

Motorcycle Car

WARNING
Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Transporting
things
Delivery - teacher→facilitator
Reducing
risk through
road
positioning
Discussion
Trainer opens with a scene setting question:
 Why do you want to ride?
 What’s so good about motorcycles?
 Let’s discuss some of the benefits of riding.
 Trainer divides the discussion cards between participants
and asks them to sort the cards into two groups; one for
items they rate motorcycles as better and one for items
they rate cars as better.
 Trainer leads group discussion exploring why an item was
allocated to a particular group and whether it should be in
that group. Trainer should guide the discussion, coaching
participants to provide solutions from their own
experiences.

Discussion
card
Motorcycle Car
Discussion points

Motorcycles generally have better
fuel efficiency than cars, many use
less than five litres per 100km. While
some cars have good fuel economy,
many cars use two or three times that
amount.
?
It depends on the motorcycle. Service
costs can be similar to cars but tyres
are generally more expensive and
wear out faster. Insurance for a sports
motorcycle can be expensive. Good
quality protective gear also increases
total costs.
Low petrol
consumption
Low running
costs
Feeling of
freedom

?

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Nothing beats riding on a warm sunny
day but it can be seriously not fun in
the middle of summer or winter. You
need good gear; there’s little
protection from mother nature.
Fun


straps are a pain; to move stuff
 ‘Occy’
you need a mate with a ute.
 
Motorcycles are legally allowed to
use any part of the lane and good lane
positioning can significantly reduce
risk. Good road position allows riders
to create space from cars, choose the
best road surface and can improve the
rider’s view.
 
That’s why we ride, but we need to
know our shortcomings.
Trainer summarises the discussion and reinforces that in
terms of lifestyle, fun and freedom motorcycles can excel,
but when it comes to performance and handling,
motorcycles are generally outperformed by cars, are not
always the cheapest form of transport, and riders have an
increased vulnerability.
Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the vulnerability of riders, and the importance
of riding to survive.
 Now that we understand more about the unique aspects of
riding we will relocate to the training area.

Competence assessment
Method
Observation of participants during the module.
 Questions and answers during the module.

Criteria
Participants can explain how motorcycles perform
compared to cars.
 Participants demonstrate behaviour indicating they
understand the risks associated with riding, and won’t pose
a danger to themselves or others during the course.

Page 5
Notes
Additional information
Many riders believe motorcycles have superior
performance and handling over cars.
 Misperception of skills and ability or overconfidence is a
known factor in crashes among novice riders.
 Misperception or overconfidence can cause unsafe
riding behaviours, such as following too closely,
because the rider thinks they can brake quickly.
 Coaching participants to provide answers, rather than
presenting the information, aids the adoption of the ideas
as their own in keeping with adult learning principles.
 Participants from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and those who are hearing impaired might
find the discussion challenging and require support.
Models, diagrams or drawings to portray concepts might
be particularly beneficial for these participants.

Video tutorial (optional)
Trainer plays Sixth Sense video tutorial.
 Trainer highlights the vulnerability of motorcycle riders
and the ‘sixth sense’ riders develop to reduce risk.
 The average motorcycle rider is 30 times more likely to
be killed in a crash than other vehicle drivers.
 Motorcycles have less protection than cars, increasing
the risk of riders being killed or injured in a crash.
 Motorcycles are less stable than cars, making riders
more susceptible to road conditions.
 Motorcycles are harder to see than other vehicles,
increasing the risk of a crash.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants relocate to the training area.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 6
Module 3.
Equipment and training area safety
Time: 10 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants:
 Have correctly fitted protective gear for the course.
 Have an appropriate motorcycle for the course.
 Understand the hand signals and training area rules.
 Helmets must be placed on the ground flat side down, in
the shade where possible, when not in use.
 Hand signals
 Trainer demonstrates the training area hand signals.
Stop
Stop there
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 2.
Location

One hand pointing up, open palm facing
participants, with the elbow at a right angle.
Training area.
Stop engines
Resources
One hand showing the Stop signal, the other
hand, open palm facing participant,
pointing, to location to stop.
Line up to me
A high visibility vest for each participant.
 A range of protective gear (optional).
 A range of class RE training motorcycles (optional).

Set up

Arm horizontal palm down, elbow bent, move
sideways under the chin.
Participants positioned with a clear view of the trainer.
Slow down
Both arms horizontal, palms facing
participants.
Speed up
Delivery - instructor
Introduction

To support safety and clear communication participants
must wear protective gear, and understand and comply
with the training area rules and some basic hand signals.
Arms straight palms down, wave down.
Explanation
Protective gear
 Trainer explains and demonstrates how to correctly fit
and fasten a motorcycle helmet.
 The helmet should fit firmly; it should be as snug
as possible without causing discomfort.
 It’s too tight if it hurts or leaves a red line.

It’s too loose if it can swivel.
 Certification, fit and condition of participant’s
own helmets must be checked.
 Trainer explains and demonstrates the use and fit of:
 Eye protection - visor down or protective
eyewear.
 Jacket and pants - no exposed skin.
 Gloves - secured at wrists.
 Sturdy footwear.
 Trainer ensures participants have appropriate protective
gear for the course.
 Trainer allocates high visibility vests to participants.
 Rules
 High visibility vests must be worn in the training area.
 Protective gear must be worn for straddle walking, feet
up riding and when sitting on a motorcycle with the
engine running.
 All training area riding is to be under 30km/hr, and
conducted in first or second gear.
 Participants must not overtake unless instructed.
Turn your head

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Open palm on cheek, push to show head
movement to direction required.
Arms straight palms up, wave up.
Move off
Open palm facing participants, point in
direction of travel.
Recap and link to next module
Reiterate the importance of the rules and hand signals.
 Now that we understand the training area rules we will
progress to some practical training.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can state the training area rules.
 Participants can identify and interpret all hand signals.

Notes
Safety

Trainer must remain vigilant throughout the course to
ensure compliance with the training area rules.
Page 7

Trainer must monitor the correct use of protective gear, in
particular that helmets are correctly fitted and fastened and
visors are down.
Additional information
Module 20 will cover protective gear in detail, including
legal requirements, features and safety benefits.
 Trainer might supply protective gear if a participant has
inappropriate clothing; gear must be in good condition.
 Hand signals are essential due to the background noise and
impaired hearing caused by wearing a helmet.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 8
Module 4.
Mount and dismount a motorcycle
Time: 10 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants
understand and can demonstrate the:
 Correct way to mount and dismount a motorcycle.
 Ready position.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 3.
Location

Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
 Demonstration motorcycle for the trainer.

Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

 Throttle - place hand around the throttle.
Demonstration
Trainer positions participants around the front left side of
the demonstration motorcycle.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration of mounting and
dismounting.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration of mounting and
dismounting, explaining each step and reinforcing the key
phrases.
 Trainer performs a together demonstration, mounting and
dismounting with participants.
 After demonstrating mount and dismount, the trainer
demonstrates the ready position, explaining each element.

Practice
Participants practise mounting and dismounting a
minimum of five times, adopting the ready position each
time after mounting.
 At the completion of practising participants remain seated
in the ready position.

Feedback
Delivery – instructor→trainer
Introduction
To reduce the risk of personal injury and damage to the
motorcycle, riders must be able to mount and dismount
using the correct technique.
 In the ready position you are prepared to move off quickly
and can maintain steering if hit from behind.



Explanation
Mount
 Always approach and mount to the left of the motorcycle
using it to protect you from traffic.
 Front brake - straighten the handlebars and apply the
front brake to check it’s working and steady the
motorcycle. Always apply the brake in two stages, set
up and squeeze.
 Set up is the fast but gentle take up of lever free
play.
 Squeeze is the smooth increase of braking
pressure.
 Head check - ensure there are no pedestrians or traffic.
 Stand - take the motorcycle off the stand before sitting
to prevent accidentally riding off with the stand down.
 Dismount
 Always dismount to the left of the motorcycle using it to
protect you from traffic.
 Front brake - apply the front brake, using two stage
braking, to steady the motorcycle.
 Head check - ensure there are no pedestrians or traffic.
 Stand - put the stand down, and if a side stand, lean
motorcycle onto the stand.
 Ready position
 Rear brake - apply the rear brake (set up and squeeze).
 Clutch - apply the clutch.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Reiterate and reinforce front brake, head check, stand.
Encourage the use of two stage braking, and using all
fingers when applying the front brake.
Recap and link to next module
Reiterate front brake, head check, stand.
 During this module the front and rear brakes were used,
the next module will examine all major controls.

Competence assessment
Method
Observation of participants during the module.
 Questions and answers during the module.

Criteria
Participants correctly mount and dismount using the
correct sequences at least two times without instruction.
 Participants can explain the reasons for each step and state
the key phrases in sequence.
 Participants demonstrate two stage braking with the front
brake.
 Participants can demonstrate the ready position and
explain its benefits.

Notes
Safety
Motorcycles should be parked in first gear to increase
stability and reduce the risk of rolling off the stand.
 Trainers must not tamper with brakes to demonstrate fade
or loss of brakes.
 Trainers must ensure participants have the stand fully
down before dismounting; participants with short legs may
have difficulty getting the stand fully down.

Page 9
Additional information
Over time the sequence of front brake, head check, stand
should become habitual; supporting habitual head checks
when mounting and dismounting, which may also transfer
to other situations, such as changing lanes.
 The early introduction of two stage braking supports the
development of ‘muscle memory’ and can reduce the
likelihood of overreacting and locking brakes.
 The use of an additional demonstration motorcycle by the
trainer is an effective training tool that significantly
reduces demonstration time and enhances learning.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 10
Module 5.
Major controls
Time: 15 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
identify the major controls, understand their functions and
can demonstrate their correct operation.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 4.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Motorcycle for each participant.
Demonstration motorcycle for the trainer.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, in FIRST GEAR with
stands retracted.
 Trainer sitting on the demonstration motorcycle, right side
facing the participants.
 Participants sitting on motorcycles in the ready position.

Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction
To maintain control and safety, riders must be able to
correctly operate the major controls while continuing to
observe the road environment.
 Controls need to be adjusted to suit the rider’s height and
build; correct adjustment improves handling, reduces
fatigue and is necessary for safe operation.

Explanation
The major controls are:
 Mirrors
 Located on either side of the handlebars.
 Used to assist riders to see behind and beside them.
 Adjust mirrors prior to riding. You should be able to see
as much as possible of the traffic next to and behind you.
 Check mirrors prior to:
 Changing riding speed (slowing or speeding up).
 Situations that may require braking (approaching
traffic lights, or a car waiting to turn across your
path).
 Check mirrors and head check prior to:
 Changing road position (within the lane or
moving into another lane).
 Moving off from a stationary position
(intersections).
 Mirrors don’t provide a full picture; all motorcycles
have a blind spot and riders must use head checks.
 Throttle
 Located on the right side of the handlebars.
 Used to control the flow of fuel going to the engine.
 Operated with the right hand.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
 Smooth operation is essential, slowly roll on and off.
 Throttle should ‘snap’ closed when released.
Front brake lever
 Located on the right side of the handlebars.
 Used to apply brakes to the front wheel only.
 Operated with the right fingers.
 Lever angle should allow a flat wrist when
operating.
 Optimum braking is achieved using all fingers.
 Finger tips provide more feel and control; fingers
should not wrap over the lever as this lifts the wrist.
 When the front brake is not in use all fingers
should be around the handlebars, in the hands
home position.
 Used in two stages, set up and squeeze, to reduce the risk
of skidding and provide optimum braking.
 Set up is the fast but gentle taking up of the free
play.
 Squeeze is the smooth increasing of braking
pressure.
 Primary stopping brake, providing the majority of a
motorcycle’s braking performance.
 Brakes are most effective in a straight line and upright;
performance reduces as steering and lean increases.
 Front brake should be released quickly (train ‘muscle
memory’ in case of a brake induced front wheel skid).
 Rear brake pedal
 Located in front of the right footrest.
 Used to apply brakes to the rear wheel only.
 Operated with the right foot.
 Pedal height should allow for smooth operation
without having to lift the foot to reach the pedal.
 When the rear brake is not in use the foot should
be to the side, away from the pedal.
 Used in two stages, set up and squeeze, to reduce the risk
of skidding and provide optimum braking.
 Set up is the fast but gentle taking up of the free
play.
 Squeeze is the smooth increasing of braking
pressure.
 Used with the front brake when reducing speed to
stabilise the motorcycle, and alone when manoeuvring
at walking pace to aid control.
 Brakes are most effective in a straight line and upright;
performance reduces as steering and lean increases.
 Rear brake should be eased off slowly (train ‘muscle
memory’ in case of a brake induced rear wheel skid).
 Clutch lever
 Located on the left side of the handlebars.
 Used to connect and disconnect drive from the engine to
the rear wheel.
 Operated with the left fingers.
 Lever angle should allow a flat wrist when
operating.
 Finger tips provide more feel and control; fingers
should not wrap over the lever as this lifts the
wrist.

Page 11

When the clutch is not in use all fingers should be
around the handlebars, in the hands home
position.
 Pull the lever in quickly to disconnect drive, ease out
slowly to connect drive.
 Most motorcycles have oil cooled clutches and easing
the lever out slowly won’t cause excessive wear.
Holding the clutch at friction point assists with smooth
take-off and reduces the likelihood of stalling.
 Gear lever
 Located in front of the left footrest.
 Used to select the motorcycle’s gear.
 Operated with the left foot; lift up to change up, press
down to change down.
 Lever height should allow for smooth operation
without excessive ankle or leg movement.
 When the gear lever is not in use the foot should
be to the side, away from the lever.
 Motorcycles have sequential gear shift patterns,
meaning it’s necessary to go through each gear in
sequence; gears cannot be skipped.
 Generally first gear is at the bottom of the pattern,
each lift up of the lever selects the next higher
gear.
 Neutral is located between first and second gear and is
selected by a gentle lift up from first gear.
 If the engine is off, rocking the motorcycle without
using the clutch will allow all gears to be selected.
Demonstration
Controls are introduced and explained from right to left.
 Trainer demonstrates how the controls can be adjusted to
suit the rider.
 Trainer performs a combined demonstration and practice;
identifying and providing a detailed explanation of each
control followed by participants practising using the
control and the trainer reinforcing the correct operation.
 Trainer adjusts the motorcycle so participants can
clearly see the control being demonstrated.



Observation of participants during the module.
Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can identify the major controls and explain
their functions and methods of operation.
 Participants can demonstrate the correct operation of each
control, keeping their head up, at least two times.
 Moving their eyes to locate the control is acceptable.
 Participants can make observations using both mirrors
while keeping their head up.
 Participants can explain the benefits of two stage braking
and understand that to achieve optimum braking the
motorcycle must be travelling straight and upright.
 Participants can provide examples of situations where
head checks are required.

Notes
Safety

Trainers must ensure hand levers are at an angle allowing
participants to correctly use the controls.
Additional information
The early introduction of the mirrors, brakes, gears
sequence aids reinforcement and the development of
‘muscle memory’.
 Poor knowledge or skills regarding the operation of the
major controls can be a contributing factor to crashes.
 The use of an additional demonstration motorcycle by the
trainer is an effective training tool that significantly
reduces demonstration time and enhances learning.

Practice
Participants focus on an object in the distance and, while
looking at the object, operate each control on command.
 Participants practise using each control at least five times.

Feedback
Encourage participants to sit well forward (correct posture
is necessary for correct use of controls).
 Focus on the use of all fingers when applying the front
brake; if participants habitually use one or two fingers
remind them of the benefits of using all fingers.
 Encourage participants to use controls without dropping
their heads or looking down.

Recap and link to next module
Recap the major controls.
 During this module the major controls were discussed, the
next module will examine the minor controls.

Competence assessment
Method
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 12
Module 6.
Minor controls
Time: 5 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
identify the minor controls, understand their functions and
can demonstrate their correct operation.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 5.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Motorcycle for each participant.
Demonstration motorcycle for the trainer.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, in FIRST GEAR with
stands retracted.
 Trainer sitting on the demonstration motorcycle, left side
facing the participants.
 Participants sitting on motorcycles in the ready position.

Delivery – instructor→trainer
Introduction

Similar to the major controls, riders must be able to
operate the minor controls while continuing to observe the
road environment.
Explanation
The minor controls are:
 Starter
 Generally located on the right side switch block on the
handlebars (some motorcycles have a kick starter).
 Used to start the engine.
 Operated with the right thumb.
 Must be released immediately on the engine starting.
 Engine stop switch (kill switch)
 Generally located on the right side switch block on the
handlebars.
 Used to cut power to the engine.
 Operated with the right thumb.
 Must be in the RUN position to start the engine.
 Ignition
 Generally located near the centre of the handlebars.
 Used to start and stop the engine.
 Must be in the ON position to start the engine (generally
three positions LOCK, OFF and ON).
 Low/high beam
 Generally located on the left side switch block on the
handlebars.
 Used to switch between low and high beam.
 Operated with the left thumb.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Indicator switch
 Generally located on the left side switch block on the
handlebars.
 Used to advise other road users of your intention to turn
or change direction (check the manual for cancellation
instructions).
 Operated with the left thumb.
 Riders should not assume people know their intentions
as indicators may be hard to see.
 Horn
 Generally located on the left side switch block on the
handlebars.
 Used as a warning in case of danger.
 Operated with the left thumb.
 Riders should not rely on the horn as it’s often hard to
hear above traffic noise.
 Choke lever
 Generally located on the handlebars, near fuel tap or on
carburettor (not all motorcycles have a choke lever).
 Used to start a cold engine.
 Riders should turn the choke off before commencing
riding; if left on it will affect engine performance.
 Fuel tap
 Generally located under the left side of the petrol tank
(not all motorcycles have a fuel tap).
 Used to control fuel flow to the engine.
 Generally when the fuel tap is pointing down it’s in the
ON position, up is RESERVE and horizontal is OFF.

Demonstration


Controls are introduced from right to left.
Trainer performs a combined demonstration and practice;
identifying and providing a detailed explanation of each
control followed by participants practising using the
control and the trainer reinforcing the correct operation.
 Trainer adjusts the motorcycle so participants can
clearly see the control being demonstrated.
Practice
Participants focus on an object in the distance and, while
looking at the object, operate each control on command.
 Participants practise using each control at least five times.
 During practice participants remain in the ready position.

Feedback
Encourage participants to sit well forward (correct posture
is necessary for correct use of controls).
 Focus on participants using controls without dropping
their heads or looking down.

Recap and link to next module


Recap the minor controls.
Now all motorcycle controls have been explained we will
use them in practical activities.
Page 13
Competence assessment
Method


Observation of participants during the module.
Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can identify the minor controls and explain
their functions and methods of operation.
 Participants can demonstrate the correct operation of each
control, keeping their head up, at least two times.
 Moving their eyes to locate the control is acceptable.

Notes
Safety
Before the starter button is explained participants must
have the ignition in the OFF position.
 At the completion of practice the fuel tap must be in the
ON position and remain in the ON position for the duration
of training.

Additional information
Remaining in the ready position during this module will
assist participants in developing balance and strength, and
will also reinforce the behaviour.
 The use of an additional demonstration motorcycle by the
trainer is an effective training tool that significantly
reduces demonstration time and enhances learning.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 14
Module 7.
Straddle walk
Time: 10 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants:
 Can demonstrate the safe manoeuvring of a nonpowered motorcycle using the straddle walk technique.
 Can demonstrate two stage braking with the front brake.
 Understand key considerations for safe parking.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 6.
Location

Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
Demonstration motorcycle for the trainer.
 Markers to create figure 8 formations.


Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Markers set up in two figure 8 formations - 2 markers 5m
apart (each formation).
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction
Safely manoeuvring a motorcycle with the engine off is a
skill required in many situations, such as filling up at petrol
stations and parking.
Explanation
Move off
 Check - mirrors and head check to ensure it’s safe.
 Walk
 Keep your head up and eyes level.
 Look where you want to go, the motorcycle will follow.
 Stop
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Motorcycle upright and the handlebars straight.
 Brakes - apply the front brake (set up and squeeze).
 Gears - pull the clutch in fully to disengage drive.
 Parking
 Before parking check the ground is level and firm.
 Sloping ground may result in the motorcycle
toppling over, or you being unable to lift it off the
side stand.
 Unstable ground may cause your feet to slide.
 Soft ground may cause the stand to sink and the
motorcycle to topple over.
 If parking on a slope, reverse in and park so the
motorcycle is facing uphill.
 Leave the motorcycle in first gear to prevent it rolling.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Demonstration
Conducted in two stages; straight then figure 8.
Participants practise the straight straddle walk prior to the
demonstration of the figure 8.
 Straight
 Trainer positions participants to observe the
demonstration.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, straddle
walking the motorcycle forward 5m then backwards to
the starting point (looking in the direction of travel and
checking mirrors).
 Trainer demonstrates two stage braking using the front
brake.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least once.
 Figure 8
 Trainer positions participants beside the figure 8
formation.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, straddle
walking the motorcycle in a figure 8.
 Trainer demonstrates two stage braking using the front
brake
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least once.

Practice
Participants practise the skills as two activities; straight
then figure 8.
 Trainer instructs participants to put the motorcycles in
NEUTRAL and adopt the ready position.
 Straight
 Participants practise the straight straddle walk, walking
forward 5m at least three times using the correct
technique, managed by the trainer using the key phrases.
 Participants walk the motorcycle backwards to
the starting point in between practices, looking in
the direction of travel and checking mirrors.
 Figure 8
 Participants practise as two groups; two riders in the one
group, and three riders in the second group.
 Participants practise the figure 8 straddle walk at least
three times using the correct technique, managed by the
trainer using the key phrases.

Feedback
Reinforce two stage braking with straight handlebars.
Encourage participants to sit well forward.
 Encourage the use of all fingers when applying the front
brake.


Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the importance of participants keeping their
head up and looking at least 6 seconds ahead.
 Now that we can safely manoeuvre a motorcycle we will
progress to more on-motorcycle activities.

Page 15
Competence assessment
Diagrams
Method
Straight


Observation of participants during the module.
Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can straddle walk their motorcycle in a
straight line using the correct technique a minimum of
three times.
 Participants can straddle walk their motorcycle in a figure
8 using the correct technique a minimum of two times.
 Participants perform head checks prior to moving off.
 Participants keep their head up and look at least 6 seconds
ahead.
 Participants can perform two stage braking using the front
brake.
 Participants can explain key aspects of parking.

Notes
Safety

This module isn’t an assessment of physical strength or
stature - participants who are struggling to move or
balance the motorcycle might require assistance or might
need to be allocated a different motorcycle. Alternatively,
participants may walk beside and push the motorcycle.
Figure 8
Additional information
Introducing braking on a non-powered motorcycle
provides a safe introduction to the front brake.
 The early introduction of two stage braking supports
development of ‘muscle memory’ and can reduce the
likelihood of overreacting and locking brakes.
 Reinforcing head checks supports the development of a
habitual behaviour.
 The early introduction of looking at least 6 seconds ahead
aids reinforcement and supports the development of a
habitual behaviour.
 Undertaking the figure 8 activity as a group reinforces the
importance of looking ahead and traffic management.
 The use of an additional demonstration motorcycle by the
trainer is an effective training tool that significantly
reduces demonstration time and enhances learning.
 The instructor may as an additional technique demonstrate
to students how to walk beside the motorcycle and then
have students practice this.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 16
Module 8.
Riding posture
Time: 10 minutes
Context

Module objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants
understand and can demonstrate the correct riding posture.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 7.
Location

Training area.
Resources required


Motorcycle for each participant.
Demonstration motorcycle for the trainer.
Trainer performs a combined demonstration and practice;
identifying and providing a detailed explanation of each
element of riding posture followed by participants
adopting that posture element.
 Trainer adjusts the motorcycle so participants can
clearly see the element of posture being demonstrated.
Feedback
Encourage participants to sit well forward (all other
elements of posture are dependent on seating position).
 Trainers might need to adopt a coaching methodology with
participants with off-road experience; discuss the features
and benefits of different postures.

Recap and link to next module
Recap the riding posture elements from feet to head.
 Now that we understand good riding posture we will apply
the techniques on a moving motorcycle.

Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, in FIRST GEAR with
stands retracted.
 Trainer sitting on the demonstration motorcycle, left side
facing the participants.
 Participants sitting on motorcycles in the ready position.

Competence assessment
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Questions and answers during the module.
Delivery – trainer→coach

Introduction
Criteria
Correct riding posture is essential for good control of the
motorcycle, efficient operation of controls, maximising
stability and reducing rider fatigue.
 The motorcycle’s performance is greatly affected by the
posture of the rider. Poor posture will affect the braking
and steering performance, and make it difficult for the
rider to control the motorcycle.


Explanation
The seven key points of posture are:
 Feet - Arches on the footrests with toes pointed slightly
down and out. This reduces cramping and stiffness in the
calf muscles and allows quick access to the foot controls.
 Knees - Knees firmly grip the fuel tank. This allows the
upper body to relax, reducing fatigue and improving
control.
 Seat - Body seated well forward with weight over the
footrests. This balances the motorcycle, enhancing
steering and braking performance.
 Back - Back relaxed with a slight bend, but not hunched.
This reduces fatigue and improves motorcycle handling.
 Arms - Arms relaxed with a slight bend. This reduces
fatigue and improves steering and throttle control.
 Wrists - Wrists positioned slightly below the knuckles in
the hands home position, and flat when controls are used.
This reduces fatigue and allows quick access to controls.
 Head - Head level; where you look is where you go. This
improves observation and balance.
Participants can identify and explain the benefits of each
element of correct riding posture.
 Participants can demonstrate the correct riding posture.
Notes
Safety
The advanced technique of ‘putting the knee out’ is
inappropriate for on-road riding and trainers must not
introduce or encourage this technique.
 Participants failing to grip the fuel tank with their knees
will result in them supporting their body with their arms;
this will affect their steering and throttle control and
should be monitored and corrected throughout the course.
 Recheck whether adjustments are needed to levers.

Additional information
Sitting too far back reduces the weight on the front wheel,
reducing the grip for steering and braking and can be a
contributing factor in loss of control crashes.
 Many off-road riders deliberately sit back on the seat to
lighten the front wheel in sand and on rough surfaces; this
habit is potentially very dangerous on-road.
 The use of an additional demonstration motorcycle by the
trainer is an effective training tool that significantly
reduces demonstration time and enhances learning.

Demonstration

Riding posture elements are introduced and explained
from feet to head.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 17
Module 9.
Ride a non-powered motorcycle
Time: 15 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants
can:
 Balance a moving non-powered motorcycle.
 Bring a non-powered motorcycle to a controlled stop.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 8.
Location

Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
 Demonstration motorcycle for the trainer.
 Markers to show distance intervals.
Trainer positions the observing participants on the left side
of the planned stopping point (to observe the clutch).
 Trainer performs a second slow demonstration, explaining
each step and reinforcing key phrases.

Practice
Participants practise as three groups; two riders in the first
group, one rider in the second group with the trainer
pushing, and two riders in the third group.
 Trainer instructs participants to put the motorcycles in
NEUTRAL and adopt the ready position.
 Participants practise riding a non-powered motorcycle,
using the correct technique, at least five times; the pushers
push the motorcycle for 5m then the riders coast for 5m
before stopping in line with the trainer/marker.


Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Markers set up to show 5m intervals.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction
To ride safely riders must be able to balance a moving
motorcycle, steer a straight path and stop at a given point.
Explanation
Move off
 Ready - adopt the ready position.
 Check - mirrors and head check to ensure it’s safe.
 Ease the pressure off the rear brake.
 Raise left foot to the footrest.
 Ride
 Keep your head up and eyes level.
 Grip with your knees.
 Stop
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Brakes - front then rear brake (set up and squeeze).
 Smoothly pull the clutch in.
 Lower left foot to the ground.

Demonstration
Trainer performs a stationary slow demonstration of the
move off and stop sequences, explaining each step and
reinforcing the key phrases.
 Trainer selects one participant to push the motorcycle and
positions the other participants on the right side of the
planned stopping point (to observe the brakes).
 The pusher is behind the motorcycle, with one hand on
top of the other on a safe place to push the motorcycle.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing key phrases.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Feedback
Focus on good riding posture, in particular keeping the
head up and gripping the motorcycle with the knees.
 Reinforce two stage braking with straight handlebars.
 Only focus on mirror use if participants are managing the
activity.

Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the importance of two stage braking.
 Recap good riding posture.
 During this module you have ridden a non-powered
motorcycle; in the next module we will begin to apply
what we have learned to a powered motorcycle.

Competence assessment
Method
Observation of participants during the module.
 Questions and answers during the module.

Criteria
Participants can balance a moving non-powered
motorcycle.
 Participants can effectively stop a moving non-powered
motorcycle, using two stage braking with both brakes.
 Participants perform head checks prior to moving off.
 Participants demonstrate the correct riding posture on a
moving motorcycle.

Notes
Safety
Participants (riders and pushers) must be wearing
protective gear.
 Trainers should allocate pairs based on similar estimated
size/weight.
 The move off command should only be given when all
participants are ready.
 If for any reason a participant advises they cannot push the
motorcycle, they are not required to (don’t question the
participant).

Page 18
Additional information
Trainers should provide guidance to participants regarding
the placement of hands when pushing the motorcycles to
ensure the push points do not damage the motorcycles.
 The early introduction of two stage braking supports the
development of ‘muscle memory’ and can reduce the
likelihood of overreacting and locking brakes.
 Reinforcing head checks supports the development of a
habitual behaviour.
 The early introduction of looking at least 6 seconds ahead
aids reinforcement and supports the development of a
habitual behaviour.

Diagrams
Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants have a 15 minute break.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 19
Module 10.
Start up and shut down
Time: 5 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
demonstrate the correct sequences for starting and shutting
down a motorcycle.
Prerequisites

Training area.
Resources

Feedback

Participants have completed Module 9.
Location

Participants practise starting and shutting down their
motorcycle using the correct sequence at least five times,
managed by the trainer using the key phrases.
 During practice participants remain in the ready position.

Motorcycle for each participant.
Focus on participants having the rear brake on when
starting the motorcycle.
Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the importance of using the correct sequences to
start and shut down a motorcycle.
 Now that we understand the correct sequences to start and
shut down a motorcycle we will progress to riding a
powered motorcycle.

Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, in FIRST GEAR with
stands retracted.
 Participants sitting on motorcycles in the ready position.

Competence assessment
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Delivery – instructor→trainer
Criteria
Introduction

Having standard procedures for starting and shutting down a
motorcycle ensures riders can safely and quickly start up or
shut down a motorcycle.
Notes
Explanation
Safety
Start up
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Brakes - apply the rear brake to prevent the motorcycle
moving.
 Gears - pull the clutch in fully to disengage drive.
 Turn the key to the START position and press the starter
button with the right thumb.
 Shut down
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Brakes - apply the rear brake to prevent the motorcycle
moving.
 Gears - put the motorcycle in first gear to reduce the risk
of it rolling forward while parked.
 Turn the key to the OFF position, keeping the rear brake
applied.

Participants can start and shut down their motorcycles
using the correct sequence at least two times.
Participants practise this activity in NEUTRAL as a safety
precaution if they release the brake.
 Trainers are to look for participants who have lifted their
wrist to apply the front brake, potentially opening the
throttle, prior to instructing participants to start the
motorcycle.
 Use of the hand signal for ‘stop engines’ will increase
participants’ familiarity with the signal which will be used
throughout training.

Additional information
Standardised start up and shut down sequences save time
during training particularly if a participant stalls the
motorcycle.
 Remaining in the ready position will reinforce this
behaviour.

Demonstration
Trainer performs a ‘slow’ demonstration explaining the
correct start up and shut down process.
 Trainer adjusts the motorcycle so participants can clearly
see the actions demonstrated.

Practice
Trainer instructs participants to put the motorcycles in
NEUTRAL.
 Participants practise simultaneously on command.
 Trainer should use the hand signal for ‘stop engines’.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 20
Module 11.
Ride straight and stop
Time: 25 minutes
Context
Delivery - instructor→trainer
No throttle
 Trainer positions participants on the left side of the
motorcycle.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration explaining and
demonstrating the friction point, then moving forward
10-30cm and stopping in the ready position.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least three times.
 Trainer positions participants on the right side of the
motorcycle.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, moving
forward 10-30cm then stopping in the ready position.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
 With throttle
 Trainer demonstrates sensitivity of the throttle and fast
idle, using thumb and index finger.
 Trainer positions participants at the 5m mark on the left
side of the motorcycle.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration moving
forward 5m and stopping in the ready position in line
with the participants.
 Trainer moves forward another 5m then turns and
performs another demonstration moving forward 5m
and stopping in the ready position in line with the
participants.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
Introduction
Practice
Moving off smoothly and stopping at a given point are
critical for safe riding. This module focuses on developing
the correct use of the clutch, then introducing throttle.

Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants
can:
 Move off using the throttle and maintain a slow speed.
 Balance a moving powered motorcycle.
 Bring a powered motorcycle to a controlled stop.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 10.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Motorcycle for each participant.
Markers to show distance intervals.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
Markers set up to show 5m, 10m and 15m intervals.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.


Explanation
Move off
 Ready - adopt the ready position.
 Set - locate and hold friction point, increase the revs and
hold fast idle.
 Check - mirrors and head check to ensure it’s safe.
 Ease pressure off the rear brake and smoothly release the
clutch.
 Raise left foot to the footrest.
 Ride
 Keep your head up, looking where you want to go.
 Firmly grip the fuel tank with your knees.
 Stop
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Roll off the throttle.
 Brakes - front then rear brake (set up and squeeze).
 Smoothly pull the clutch in.
 Lower left foot to the ground.

Demonstration

Conducted in two stages; no throttle then with the throttle.
Participants practise riding straight and stopping with no
throttle prior to the demonstration with the throttle.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual

Participants practise the skills as two activities; without the
throttle then with the throttle.
 No throttle
 Trainer instructs participants to put the motorcycles in
NEUTRAL and adopt the ready position.
 Trainer individually instructs participants to select first
gear and locate the friction point, then release the
pressure on rear brake to move forward 10-30cm, and
stop using the front then rear brake and pulling the clutch
in. Repeat the activity moving forward in 10-30cm
increments to the 5m mark.
 As the trainer moves from participant to
participant, those who have practised with the
trainer can straddle walk back (with the engine
off) and practise moving forward 10-30cm, back
and forth, until all participants are ready.
 Participants simultaneously, on command, practise
riding straight and stopping in 5m increments to the end
of the training area (a minimum of six forward
movements). Participants then turn off the engines and
turn the motorcycles around.
 Participants simultaneously, on command, practise
riding straight and stopping in 10m increments to the
end of the training area (a minimum of three forward
movements). Participants then turn off the engines and
turn the motorcycles around.
 With throttle
 Trainer instructs participants to put the motorcycles in
NEUTRAL, and adopt the ready position. Participants are
to remain in NEUTRAL in the ready position until
instructed to select first gear.
Page 21
 Participants practise locating fast idle, holding fast idle




then rolling the throttle off, managed by the trainer.
Trainer instructs participants to select first gear.
Participants simultaneously, on command, practise
riding straight and stopping in 5m increments to the end
of the training area (at least six forward movements).
Participants then turn off the engines and turn the
motorcycles around.
Participants simultaneously, on command, practise
riding straight and stopping in 10m increments to the
end of the training area (at least three forward
movements). Participants then turn off the engines and
turn the motorcycles around.
Participants simultaneously, on command, practise
riding straight and stopping in 15m increments to the
end of the training area (at least two forward
movements). Participants then turn off the engines and
turn the motorcycles around.
Participants practise riding straight and stopping for the
length of the range (approximately 30m), using the
correct sequences, at least three times.
Feedback
Participants should not ride past the trainer; participants
should ride up next to the trainer for each increment.
 Trainer must monitor the fatigue of participants’ left
hands, in particular watching for stalling after a participant
has demonstrated competency.

Additional information
A high number of repetitions are essential for developing
‘muscle memory’ and enhancing skill retention.
 Position participants in order of skill, starting with the least
competent rider first to allow extra practice for the least
experienced participants.
 Two stage braking and clutch in must become automated
to counter the instinct to grab the brake in a panic situation.
 Stalling is often due to poor clutch control; experiencing
stalling then restarting the engine will reduce anxiety.
 A trainer may, with experienced students, start with longer
distances between the markers but must complete all
distances.

Diagrams
Clearly advise participants that it’s ok to hop or stall while
getting the feel for the controls in this module.
 Focus on participants setting up the brakes.
 Reinforce good riding posture, in particular keeping the
head up and gripping the motorcycle with the knees.

Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the importance of using the correct sequences
for moving off and stopping.
 During this module you rode a powered motorcycle in a
straight line; in the next module we will progress to turns.

Competence assessment
Method
Observation of participants during the module.
 Questions and answers during the module.

Criteria
Participants can move off smoothly using the throttle.
 Participants can ride a powered motorcycle in a straight
line, for at least 10m, without stalling at least three times.
 Participants can effectively stop a powered motorcycle
within 1m of the given location.
 Participants demonstrate smooth two stage braking.
 Participants perform head checks prior to moving off.

Notes
Safety
During the 10-30cm no throttle practice some participants
might need to place both feet on the ground to manage the
weight of the motorcycle. However, once the throttle is
added, all participants should commence from the ready
position.
 If participants seem overloaded the trainer may initially
omit mirror use until the participants start the 10m
increments with the throttle practice.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 22
Module 12.
Left and right turns
Time: 20 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
ride a motorcycle around left and right turns in first gear.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 11.
Location

Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the importance of look, mirrors, turn your
head.
 Now that we can ride in a straight line and turn, we will
progress to changing gears.

Competence assessment
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
 Markers to create left and right turn formations.

Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
Markers set up in turn formations (tight turns, such as a
turn at an intersection).
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Criteria
Participants ride smoothly around a left turn, using the
correct sequence, at least three times.
 Participants ride smoothly around a right turn, using the
correct sequence, at least three times.
 Participants demonstrate smooth operation of the throttle.
 Participants demonstrate good balance and steering.


Notes
Safety
Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction

Effectively navigating turns is critical for safe riding.
Explanation

Turning
 Look - look 6 seconds ahead and plan your path.
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Roll off the throttle; get the speed right before
commencing the turn.
 Turn your head - point your chin where you want to go
and the motorcycle will naturally follow.
 Steer through the turn.
Demonstration
Trainer positions participants on the inside of the turn.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration of a left turn.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration of a left turn
explaining each step and reinforcing the key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Participants must remain under 20km/hr in this module.
 Participants must have at least 10m of straight riding
before they need to turn. This gives them time to get the
motorcycle under control before they are required to adjust
the steering or controls.
 Trainer should maintain a separation between moving
motorcycles of at least 3 seconds.
 If participants stop in or near a turn, they should be
relocated to a safe position to commence riding.

Additional information
A high number of repetitions are essential for developing
proficiency and enhancing skill retention; the maximum
practice time must be provided.
 Position participants in order of skill, starting with the least
competent rider first to allow extra practice for the least
experienced participants.
 Left turns are practised first as they are generally easier; if
participants put their left foot down they will still have
access to the rear brake.

Practice
Participants practise left turns, navigating a left turn at
least eight times.
 Participants practise right turns, navigating a right turn at
least eight times.

Feedback
Focus on riding posture, in particular keeping the head up
and gripping the motorcycle with the knees.
 Hands and feet should be away from the controls when not
in use; reinforce hands home.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 23
Diagrams
Left turn
Right turn
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 24
Module 13.
Changing gears
Time: 20 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
change between first and second gear.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 12.
Location

Training area.
Feedback
Focus on participants completing the down change while
the motorcycle is travelling straight.
 Encourage participants to let the clutch out slowly.
 Hands and feet should be away from the controls when not
in use; reinforce hands home.

Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the importance of smooth gear changes.
 Now that we have learned the basics for riding, we will
relocate to the classroom to discuss roadcraft tactics.

Resources

Motorcycle for each participant.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction

Changing gears is integral to operating a motorcycle and
an essential skill in everyday riding situations. Gears are
used to reduce the load on the engine and allow a rider to
increase speed without over-revving the engine.
Explanation
The correct gear is a ‘flexible’ gear; responds to speed
changes without the engine labouring or over-revving.
 Changing gears
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Roll off the throttle.
 Clutch - smoothly pull the clutch in.
 Gears - select the appropriate gear.
 Smoothly release the clutch.

Demonstration
Trainer performs a stationary slow demonstration,
explaining each step and reinforcing the key phrases.
 Trainer demonstrates pre-positioning hands and feet
prior to the gear change.
 Trainer positions participants on the inside of the training
area.
 Trainer rides a normal demonstration in an anticlockwise
direction, to allow observation of clutch and gear levers.
 Trainer rides a slow demonstration identifying the gear
change points, explaining each step and reinforcing the
key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Competence assessment
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Criteria

Participants demonstrate smooth gear changes between
first and second gears, using the correct sequence.
Notes
Safety
The introduction for this module should be very brief to
avoid participants overthinking.
 Participants must remain between 10km/hr and 20km/hr in
this module.
 If participants seem overloaded the trainer may initially
remove mirrors, and reintroduce them later in the module.
 If participants are particularly anxious, the trainer may
have them practise the changing gears with the engine off
before commencing practice with the engine on.

Additional information
The focus of this module is changing gears; brakes should
not be used.
 A high number of repetitions are essential for developing
smooth gear changing and enhancing skill retention; the
maximum practice time must be provided.
 Gear changes are practised using left turns only
(anticlockwise) to allow observation of the clutch and gear
lever actions from the inside of the training area.
 Participants on motorcycles with automatic transmissions
are to practise the skills from the previous activities.
 Revving on the down change is permitted and encouraged
for experienced riders. Ensure the rider is using the clutch
in, rev, change down sequence.
 Trainers may coach experienced riders to improve gear
changes by preloading the gear lever.

Practice
Trainer allows participants to ride one to two laps in
second gear to experience the different feel of second gear.
 Participants practise changing between first and second
gears, changing gears in the straight, at least ten times.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants relocate to the classroom.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 25
Module 14.
Roadcraft tactics (one)
Time: 30 minutes
Context
Module objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants
understand and can explain:
 How good roadcraft can reduce riding risk.
 Factors that might contribute to poor roadcraft.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 13.
Trainer should guide the discussion, coaching participants
to provide solutions from their own experiences.
 Trainer then poses a question about how attitude may
impact roadcraft, guiding the discussion to explore
solutions to promote safe riding behaviours.
 Trainer must intervene to address incorrect information or
unsafe suggestions.

Element
Discussion starters
Look


Location


Classroom.
What do you think is
meant by the word look?
What are the differences
between look, see and
perceive?
What influences where
and how we look?
Key discussion points



Resources required
Roadcraft video tutorial.
 Diagram cards.
 Participant workbooks.

Set up



Slow
down
Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.



Delivery - facilitator

Discussion
Trainer discusses the common motorcycle crash types:
 Intersections.
 Loss of control.
 Rear end.
 Hit a pedestrian, animal or object.
 Sideswipe.
 Trainer introduces roadcraft principles; observation, speed
management and road positioning. Applying roadcraft to
anticipate and respond to hazards reduces risk.
 The principles can be practically applied as:
 Look - look for hazards (12, 6, 3).
 Slow down - be able to stop before hazards.
 Move away - position to create space from hazards.
 Trainer splits the participants into two groups, and gives
each group three diagram cards. Each group discusses and
mind maps how good roadcraft could be applied to reduce
risk in the scenarios on the cards.
 Vehicle crossing motorcycle’s path (intersections defensive riding).
 Motorcycle running wide in a curve (loss of control).
 Motorcycle navigating curves (loss of control).
 Motorcycle colliding with slowing a vehicle (rear end).
 Motorcycle colliding with a kangaroo (hit animal).
 Vehicle pulling out into motorcycle’s path (sideswipe).
 Groups present their ideas, explaining the roadcraft tactics
they thought of to reduce the risk related to one scenario.
 Trainer then leads a group discussion on the roadcraft
tactics, look, slow down, move away, and their application
to the scenarios. Trainer should avoid referring to default
positions; the best position varies based on space, surface,
sight, and speed.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
How much do we slow
down?
How much space do we
really need?
What situations might
make the legal speed limit
too fast?
Why would risk increase if
we responded by speeding
up?




Move
away




What determines lane
position?
What is of greatest
importance, space from
hazards, quality of road
surface, or the ability to
see and be seen?
Why is space from hazards
most important?
Legally what part of the
lane can we use?





Attitude

What might contribute to
poor observation, speed
management and road
positioning?




Looking is more than just seeing,
it’s actively scanning for potential
hazards and perceiving situations
as something requiring action.
Always look 12 seconds ahead and
scan your surroundings; move your
eyes every few seconds.
Slow down when vision is reduced
and maintain at least 6 seconds
vision of the road ahead.
Check mirrors prior to changing
speed or situations that may require
braking.
Check mirrors and head check
prior to changing road position or
moving off.
Ride anticipating that you may
need to stop unexpectedly. Be
prepared; set up the brakes and get
ready to stop if needed.
Be able to stop to avoid a crash;
you need at least 3 seconds clear in
front of you to respond and stop.
In limited vision situations such as
curves, we need 6 seconds vision to
ensure time to respond and stop if
we encounter a hazard.
Speeding up in response to a hazard
is particularly risky as it reduces
time to respond and increases the
demands on the motorcycle.
Position is determined by space
from hazards, quality of surface,
and the need to see and be seen.
Space can be argued as the most
critical factor in choosing your
position; the more space the better.
Sometimes you might need to
compromise the road surface if it’s
less risky such as light water. But if
it’s a large oil patch you might need
to compromise sight to avoid it.
A good road position allows you to
see and be seen. But if you reduce
space just to be seen this can be
risky as it leaves no room for error.
If you cannot maximise space,
surface or sight - slow down.
Not perceiving a hazard.
Poor
concentration,
fatigue,
distraction, inattention, mood.
Relying on others to give way.
Not wanting to slow down or
deliberate risk taking.
Video tutorial
Trainer plays Roadcraft video tutorial.
 Trainer highlights the importance of good roadcraft in safe
riding.

Recap and link to next module
Recap the importance of look, slow down, move away in
anticipating and responding to hazards.
 Now that we have learned about roadcraft, after lunch we
will continue our practical training.

Page 26
Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers throughout the discussion.
Criteria
Participants can explain how roadcraft can reduce risk.
 Participants can explain factors that might contribute to
poor roadcraft.

Notes
Additional information
Trainers must not make or endorse comments that describe
car drivers as ‘dumb’, ‘stupid’, or ‘out to get you’; these
statements are counterproductive reinforcing stereotyping
and a blame mindset. Participant comments should be
defused with statements like, ‘we all make mistakes’.
 Coaching participants to provide answers, rather than
presenting the information, aids the adoption of the ideas
as their own in keeping with adult learning principles.
 Participants from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and those who are hearing impaired might
find the discussion challenging and require support.
 Trainer may show the Sixth sense road craft video and
highlight the importance of good roadcraft in safe riding.

Video tutorial (optional)


Trainer plays Roadcraft video tutorial.
Trainer highlights the importance of good roadcraft in safe
riding.
Post module preparation
At the completion
end of this module
participants
have a 30
minute
of this module
participants
have
a 30 break.
minute break.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 27
Module 15.
Pre-ride safety check and maintenance
Time: 10 minutes
Context
Competence assessment
Objectives
Method

The objective of this module is to ensure participants
understand the importance of checking that a motorcycle
is safe, serviceable and complies with legal requirements.
Prerequisites

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria

Participants can identify the key items to check before
riding and explain the reasons for checking each item.
Participants have completed Module 14.
Location


Training area.
Notes
Safety
Poor motorcycle maintenance can be a contributing factor
in crashes.
 Participants should not adjust any item, unless instructed
to, during this exercise.

Resources

Motorcycle for the demonstration.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - presenter→instructor
Additional information

This module is intended to ensure participants have an
understanding of the importance of good maintenance; it’s
not intended that mechanical instruction on how to
undertake maintenance be provided.
Introduction
To reduce the risk of injury and damage to the motorcycle,
riders should perform regular safety checks, and maintain
their motorcycle. Riders should examine their motorcycle
before every ride.
Explanation
Chain - correctly adjusted, not too tight or loose, and
appropriately lubricated.
 Tyres - in good condition; sidewalls free of cracks and
bumps, even wear across the tyre (uneven wear may
indicate problems with the steering or suspension).
 Tread depth at least 1.5mm across the entire tread
surface (use tread depth indicators).
 Pressure in line with manufacturer’s recommendations.
 Lights - headlights, tail lights, independent brake lights
and indicators clean and operational.
 Horn - operational.
 Fluid levels and leaks - brake fluid, radiator fluid and oil
at appropriate levels, and hoses free from damage or leaks.
 Brakes - front and rear brakes operational, and brake pads
in good condition.
 Registration - registration can be checked using the
RegoCheck app or online service.

Demonstration
Safety check items are introduced and explained.
 Trainer emphasises maintaining the motorcycle in line
with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

Recap and link to next module
Reiterate the importance of safety checks and regular
maintenance.
 During this module we discussed the importance of regular
maintenance, in the next module we will discuss key
elements of riding curves.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 28
Module 16.
Curves discussion
Time: 10 minutes
Context

Road changing
direction quickly.


Tightening of the
curve.

Oncoming vehicles

Head on collision.

Oil strip in the
centre of the lane

Loss of grip.

Start wide and finish tight so you
have completed steering and are
straightening up in the centre.
Wet road

Loss of grip.

Slow down.
Reduced vision due
to conditions
(smoke, fog)

Unseen hazards,
changes in the
curve, vehicles.

Slow down to maintain at least 6
seconds of vision, giving you
time to respond to any hazard.
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to:
 Ensure participants understand the correct sequence for
riding curves and can explain how it can reduce risk.
 Ensure participants can identify a low-risk line for riding
curves and explain its features and benefits.
 Challenge participants to think about human error
factors in crashes and why they need to ride defensively.

Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 15.
Location

Training area.
Markers to create curve formations.
Set up
Markers set up in left and right curve formations.
 Curve formations should replicate the road environment,
they should be at least 2.4m wide.
 Participants gathered around the trainer.

Delivery - instructor→facilitator
Discussion
Trainer positions participants around the left curve in a
‘line of ducks’ formation to mark the correct path of travel.
 Using the curve as a visual tool to aid discussion, the
trainer:
 Introduces the look, slow down, move away sequence
for riding curves.
 Emphasises start wide, buffer, finish tight line for
riding curves.
 Describes the behavioural and physical factors that
affect risk in a curve, such as the examples below.
 Prompts participants to discuss appropriate low risk
behaviours.

Behavioural
factors
Choosing not to
slow down
‘I know the road’
‘I need to keep up’
‘Going fast is fun’
Potential risks
Choosing to finish
wide


No allowance for
unforeseen events.
Mitigating behaviour





Poor concentration
Slow down to maintain at least 6
seconds of vision, giving you
time to respond.
Keep away from head-on zone.
During the discussion, the trainer instructs participants to
reposition themselves around the right curve to indicate
the correct path of travel.
 Trainer should guide the discussion, coaching participants
to provide solutions from their own experiences.
 Trainer must intervene to address incorrect information or
unsafe suggestions.

Resources

time to respond to road
conditions.
Plan to finish tight, giving you
room for errors and positioning
the motorcycle for a curve in the
opposite direction.
Start wide to open your vision,
and slow down to maintain at
least 6 seconds of vision, giving
you time to respond to a
tightening curve.

Next curve in the
opposite direction.
Poor road surface
forces you wider.
Potential head on
collision.

Misjudging the
curve.



Physical factors
Potential risks
Blind curve

Unseen hazards
on the road.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Recap and link to next module
Recap look, slow down, move away.
 Reinforce start wide, buffer, finish tight.
 Now that we understand the theory of riding curves we
will put our knowledge into practice.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can explain how look, slow down, move away
can reduce riding risk.
 Participants can identify a low-risk line for riding curves,
and explain the features and benefits of a low-risk line.
 Participants can explain how the perception of a situation
might affect how they respond to it.

Treat every curve like it’s the first
time you’ve ridden it.
Ride to your capability; don’t get
sucked in by other riders.
Go to the track.
Notes
Plan to finish tight.
Keep away from head-on zone.

Additional information
Coaching participants to provide answers, rather than
presenting the information, aids the adoption of the ideas
as their own in keeping with adult learning principles.
Stop and rest; even a momentary
lapse can be dangerous.
Stay
hydrated
and
have
something to eat.
Mitigating behaviour

Slow down to maintain at least 6
seconds of vision, giving you
Page 29
Diagrams
Left curve
Right curve
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 30
Module 17.
Riding curves
Time: 25 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
demonstrate a low-risk line for riding left and right curves.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 16.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Motorcycle for each participant.
Markers to create left and right curve formations.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
Markers set up in left and right curve formations.
 Curve formations should replicate the road environment,
they should be at least 2.4m wide.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.


Trainer performs a normal demonstration, riding in an
anticlockwise direction, to show the appropriate speed for
the activity (15-20 km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing the key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Practice
Participants practise left curves, navigating left curves at
least twenty times.
 Participants practise right curves, navigating right curves
at least twenty times.

Feedback
Reinforce participants looking 6 seconds ahead; planning
the path and looking where they want to go.
 Focus on participants slowing down while the motorcycle
is travelling straight.
 Focus on participants choosing a low-risk line; start wide,
buffer, finish tight.

Recap and link to next module

Delivery - instructor→trainer

Introduction

Riders are overrepresented in crashes in curves; riding
curves using a low-risk line can reduce some of the risk.
Recap the look, slow down, move away sequence.
In this module we learned principles for low-risk riding in
curves; now we will put what we have learned today
together in a simulated road ride.
Competence assessment
Explanation
Method
The look, slow down, move away sequence is used to ride
curves safely.
 Look
 Look - look 6 seconds ahead and plan your path.
 Turn your head - look where you want to go and point
your chin and shoulder to the exit of the curve.
 Slow down
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Roll off the throttle; reducing speed and moving weight
to the front wheel will assist to ride the curve.
 Brakes - front then rear brake (set up and squeeze); get
the speed right before commencing the curve.
 Smoothly pull the clutch in.
 Gears - change gears down, selecting the appropriate
gear to ride out of the curve.
 Move away
 Start wide - position your motorcycle wide to improve
your vision and your visibility to oncoming cars.
 Buffer - choose a path through the curve that keeps you
away from the head-on zone.
 Finish tight - plan to finish tight to give yourself room
for error or unexpected hazards.


Demonstration
Conducted in two stages; left curves then right curves.
 Trainer positions participants on the inside of the training
area.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Observation of participants during the module.
Criteria
Participants smoothly navigate a left curve at least ten
times, using the correct sequence and a safe path of travel.
 Participants smoothly navigate a right curve at least ten
times, using the correct sequence and a safe path of travel.

Notes
Safety

Trainer should encourage participants to be “as quick as
you can” in setting up and then gentle in squeezing the
brakes. Trainers should avoid “as fast as you can” and
“faster”, which may be taken to mean ride at faster speed.
Additional information
Participants ride at approximately 20km/hr in this module.
Trainer should make it clear to participants that this is
about learning a new technique with plenty of time; there
is no need to rush.
 A high number of repetitions are essential for developing
good technique in riding curves and enhancing skill
retention; maximum practice time must be provided.
 This module doesn’t require a large drop in speed but is
focused on the actions required to prepare for and navigate
a curve.


Page 31

A distinction should be made between covering and setting
up the brakes; covering is fingers or foot over the lever not
applying pressure, while setting up is taking up the free
play. Trainers are to discourage covering.
Diagrams
Left curve
Right curve
Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants have a 5 minute break.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 32
Module 18.
Simulated road ride (one)
Time: 25 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants
can:
 Demonstrate a range of basic road riding skills in a
simulated traffic environment.
 Explain strategies to manage task overload.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 17.
Location

Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
 Markers to create the simulated traffic environment.

Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Markers set up to simulate the traffic environment.
 Three lanes on one side of the area - parking lane,
passing lane and stopping lane.
 Curves and turns.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - instructor→facilitator
Introduction
Riding is a complex task requiring good perception and
judgement, and the execution of numerous tasks
simultaneously.
 Participants must demonstrate a safe riding standard to
progress to day two of the course.

Explanation
This module applies the skills learned in the previous
modules in a simulated a road environment.
 Changing gears
 Smoothly change between first and second gears; first
gear for turns and curves and second gear for straights.
 Mirrors, clutch, gears.
 Left and right turns
 Effectively navigate turns using indicators.
 Look, mirrors, turn your head.
 Stop
 Safely come to a stop at a given location.
 Mirrors, brakes, gears.
 Riding curves
 Smoothly navigate curves applying a low-risk line.
 Look, slow down, move away.
 Parking
 Stop and shut down the motorcycle, straddle walk
backwards and park rear-in at an angle; dismount.
Mount, start up, indicate and move off.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual


Start up and shut down sequences.
Mount and dismount sequences, and ready
position.
 Ready, set, check.
 Roadcraft
 Apply roadcraft tactics to anticipate and respond to the
riding environment, selecting safe gaps and ‘letting in’
other participants.
 Look, slow down, move away.
 Riding posture
 Demonstrate good riding posture.
 Feet, knees, seat, back, arms, wrists, head.
 Task overload
 Overload can occur with so many things going on.
Participants should adjust their riding if they feel
overwhelmed or unsafe:
 Slow down, create more time to manage things.
 Drop a task, do less by shedding a task or tasks.
Demonstration
Trainer positions participants on the inside of the training
area.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration of the simulated
road ride circuit.
 Parking (start up and shut down, mount and dismount,
move off).
 Stopping (stop, move off).
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Practice
Participants practise parking side-by-side.
 Participants practise the simulated road ride circuit in a
clockwise direction, for at least ten minutes.
 Participants must indicate appropriately when turning
and merging.
 Participants practise the simulated road ride circuit in a
anti clockwise direction, for at least ten minutes.
 Participants must indicate appropriately when turning
and merging.

Feedback
Reinforce looking 6 seconds ahead; planning the path and
looking where participants want to go.
 Focus on participants slowing down and completing gear
changes while the motorcycle is travelling straight.
 Focus on participants choosing a low-risk line for riding
curves; start wide, buffer, finish tight.
 Reinforce good riding posture, in particular keeping the
head up and gripping the motorcycle with the knees.
 Reinforce head checks.

Recap and link to next module

Reinforce the complexities of riding in the real world and
the need to develop good riding skills and habits.
Page 33


Recap strategies to manage overload.
During this module we put together some of the riding
skills we learned throughout the day; now we will relocate
to the classroom and discuss the importance of good riding
choices.
Diagrams
Example layout
Competence assessment
Method
Observation of participants during the module.
 Questions and answers during the module.

Criteria
Participants demonstrate a safe riding standard in
operating the motorcycle’s controls, stopping, moving off,
changing gears, making turns, riding curves, parking and
roadcraft.
 Participants demonstrate smooth two stage braking.
 Participants demonstrate the correct riding posture.
 Participants perform head checks prior to moving off,
making turns and merging.
 Participants can explain strategies to manage task load.

Notes
Safety
Trainer must ensure participants maintain safe spacing.
Trainer must look for participants who are overloaded;
participants showing signs of overload (confusion, skill
regression, increased errors) should have a short break or
reduce the load by dropping parts of the activity.
 After
demonstrating competence in this module
participants are permitted to progress to day two.
 If a participant doesn’t demonstrate a safe riding
standard in this module they are to be assessed as not yet
competent, held back from attempting day two of the
course and directed to additional training or support.


Additional information
Riding a motorcycle is complex with numerous tasks
simultaneously requiring attention. Many new riders
experience difficulty in sharing their concentration across
tasks or shedding unnecessary or less critical tasks. This
module consolidates operational skills and provides
insight into the cognitive complexities of riding and
identifies a number of strategies to manage task overload.
 Participants must focus on slowing down for hazards
rather than beeping the horn or flashing the headlight; if
there is time to beep the horn, there is time to slow down.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants relocate to the classroom.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 34
Module 19.
Making choices
Time: 20 minutes

You must also have a zero BAC for the first year after
you get your RE provisional or open licence.
“I want to be a safe
rider and I know
fatigue causes
crashes, but I really
need to get home”

Why do we sometimes behave opposite to our beliefs?
Why do we do things we know to be unsafe or risky?
Is the perceived gain worth the potential cost?
“My friends have
been riding for
years and they ride
too fast for me, but I
need to keep up”

“They are facing a
stop sign, they have
to give way to me”

Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants
understand and can identity attitudinal, behavioural,
physical, social and environmental risk factors, and can
explain alternative choices that reduce risk.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 18.
Location

Classroom.
Resources
Discussion cards.
 Participant workbooks.

Set up

Discussion

Discussion point examples
“The crash wasn’t
my fault, the car in
front stopped
suddenly”




Why do we tend to blame others?
Did we contribute to the situation?
Could we prevent the situation or change the outcome?
 What if we were travelling further back?
If we consider safety outside of our control are we
expecting to crash?
The rider is externalising the event:
 Thinking we don’t have any control over a crash
makes it unlikely we will change our behaviour.
 Reflecting and considering what we could have done
differently makes it more likely we will adopt safer
riding behaviour.
Discussion card
Discussion point examples
“I’ve only had one
beer, it won’t affect
me”



What is the obvious problem here?
Will one drink affect your riding?
What are the effects of alcohol?
The rider is breaking the rules and underestimating
the effects of alcohol:
 Even small amounts of alcohol can have a negative
impact on judgement, vision, hearing, balance and
response time and can falsely increase confidence.
 Learner riders must have a zero breath alcohol
concentration (BAC), this means nothing to drink.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
The rider is justifying known risk tasking:
 Sometimes there’s a disconnect between our beliefs
and our behaviours.
 We all know fatigue is a problem and we want to be
safe but we want the rewards associated with getting
home as soon as we can. So we justify our risk taking.
 Consider the real cost to have a short break, and the
real benefit.

Why do we allow others to influence our behaviour?
Why do we do things we know to be unsafe, because
others are doing them?
The rider is being influenced by peer pressure:
 Peer pressure affects behaviour and attitudes to risk; it
can be positive or negative depending on the group.
 Choose to ride with risk-conscious riders who respect
and protect all members of the group.
 Assess and manage your riding motivations and
behaviours; ride to your ability and don’t take risks to
conform with the norms of the group.

Can you guarantee the driver can see you?
 What if the sun is in their eyes?
Should you be doing something?
If you do nothing who is preventing a crash from
happening?
The rider is relying on other road users obeying the
rules:
 Relying on the road rules or people seeing us is taking
a risk. If we don’t see the risk then we won’t take
action to protect ourselves.
 It’s better to think, ‘if they haven’t seen me what
should I do to take control of the situation’.
Delivery - facilitator
Discussion card


Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Trainer uses the discussion cards to generate discussion
about factors that increase riding risk. Trainer gives each
participant a discussion card, asking them to quietly read
the card and consider the statement.
 The statement reflects a belief or choice that could have
a negative effect on rider safety, addressing attitudinal,
behavioural, physical, social and environmental factors.
 Taking turns, participants read aloud the statement on the
card and, using the reference table, the trainer leads a
group discussion about:
 How is the rider thinking?
 What are the dangers of thinking that way?
 What might be a better way of approaching the situation
that would result in a safer riding behaviour?
 Trainer should guide the discussion, coaching participants
to provide solutions from their own experiences.


Trainer summarises the discussion and provides an
overview of factors that can increase risk, reinforcing the
importance of the way participants think about situations,
and the choices they make.
Factors
Attitude choices
Behaviour choices
Crash risks

How riders approach situations, their motivations and
attitude to riding and others influence crash risk.

Alcohol and drugs affect reflexes, coordination, depth
perception and judgement.
Behaviours, such as speeding, thrill seeking, and riding
aggressively, influence crash risk.

Physical choices
Social context and
company choices
Riding environment
choices

Riding upset or fatigued affects concentration and the
ability to judge a situation and make good decisions.

There is comfort in conformity; who you ride with can
affect your behaviour and attitude to risk.
Ride with those who value skill development and risk
management, and will ride to your ability.




Riding at night reduces vision and makes it hard for
riders to be seen.
Riding cold or wet affects concentration and the ability
to judge a situation and make good decisions.
Heavy traffic makes it hard for riders to see and be
seen, and increases frustration, impatience and fatigue.
Recap and link to next module
Reinforce that how we think about a situation affects our
response.
 During this module we have learned about the impact of
our choices on riding. In the next module we will discuss
another important choice - protective gear.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria

Participants can identity the key factors that increase risk.
Page 35
Participants can explain thinking that increases risk and
alternative thinking and choices that reduce risk.
 Participants demonstrate behaviour indicating they
understand the risks associated with riding, and won’t pose
a danger to themselves or others during the course or while
riding.

Notes
Additional information
Coaching participants to provide answers, rather than
presenting the information, aids the adoption of the ideas
as their own in keeping with adult learning principles.
 Participants from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and those who are hearing impaired might
find the discussion challenging and require support.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 36
Module 20.
Protective gear
Time: 20 minutes
Context

Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants:
 Understand the legal requirements for protective gear.
 Can identify features and benefits of protective gear.
 Know how to check if protective gear is correctly fitted.

Classroom.
Resources

A range of protective gear for demonstration; helmets, eye
protection, jackets, gloves, pants and boots.
Set up

Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Gear designed for motorcycle riding maximises comfort
and protection (weather and crash).
Fasteners
Helmets, boots, jackets and gloves must have straps or zips
to keep them in place.
Armour
Jackets and pants with impact protectors over your joints,
shoulders, elbows, knees, hips, offer greater protection.
Light and bright
Light colours make you easier to see and are cooler in
summer.
Good protective gear improves riding comfort, reduces
fatigue, and in the event of a crash may significantly
reduce injury and recovery time.
Recap and conclude day one
Explanation
Legal requirements
 In Queensland riders and passengers must wear an
approved helmet. Other protective gear is not
compulsory but is strongly recommended; gear is not
mandated due to limitations in defining and enforcing its
use (no Australian standards), not because it’s not
important.
 Protective gear

Features
Helmet



Eye
protection


Jacket




Gloves




Pants




Boots




Benefits
Legal requirement.
Comply with AS/NZS1698 or ECE
22.05 standards.
Label certifying the standard.

Shatterproof visor or goggles that are
clean and not scratched.
Clear visor or goggles should be
used at night.

Protect eyes from wind,
rain, dust, insects, and
stones
or
material
thrown up by other
vehicles.
Completely covers the arms and
body.
Highly abrasion and tear resistant.
Armour for back, shoulders and
elbows.
Zipped up, secured at the wrists.

Protects the rider’s arms
and torso in a crash and
from the elements.
Enhances rider comfort.


Protects the rider in a
crash.
Full face helmets offer
better protection than
open face helmets.
Reiterate the importance of wearing protective gear.
 Summarise and close day one of training.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can explain the legal requirements for
protective gear.
 Participants can identify the key features and benefits of
specified protective gear.
 Participants can explain how to check if protective gear is
correctly fitted.

Notes
Additional information
Trainers must not use shock tactics or gory photographs.
Trainers must promote benefits and features, not brands.
 Many motorcycle crashes don’t involve severe injuries,
but abrasions and lacerations result in hospitalisation due
to riders not wearing protective gear.

Gauntlet style.
Strengthened palm area.
Armour for knuckles and wrists.
Fastenings around the wrists.

Completely cover the legs.
Highly abrasion and tear resistant.
Armour for hips and knees.
Secured at the ankles.

Highly abrasion resistant.
Armour for shins and ankles.
Fasteners around the leg.
Overlap the pants.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Trainer repeats the demonstration of how to correctly fit
and fasten a motorcycle helmet. The helmet should fit
firmly; as snug as possible without causing discomfort.
 Trainer performs a demonstration of how to ensure
jackets, gloves, pants and boots are correctly fitted.

Introduction
Item
Useful tips
 Don’t carry things in pockets; falling on objects hurts.
 Always carry rainwear and clear eye protection.
 Wear a fluorescent vest or use reflective strips.
 Helmets should be replaced at least every five years and
immediately after a crash or significant impact.
 Don’t buy a second-hand helmet.
 Be wary of buying protective gear on the internet; it may
look real but how do you know what you’re buying.
Demonstration
Delivery - presenter

Benefits
Fit for purpose
Participants have completed Module 19.
Location

Features
Abrasion resistant Jackets, pants and gloves should be thick leather or multilayered textile.
Prerequisites

Key features and benefits



Protects the rider’s
hands in a crash and
from the elements.
Enhances rider comfort.
Protects the rider’s legs
in a crash and from the
elements.
Enhances rider comfort.
Protects the rider’s feet
and ankles in a crash
and from the elements.
Enhances rider comfort.

Post module preparation
This module completes day one of the course; at the end of the module
the trainer answers any questions, provides any instructions for day two,
and participants collect their personal belongings and depart.
Page 37
Module 21.
Welcome and training area safety
Time: 10 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants:
 Understand the requirements and structure of the day.
 Understand the workplace health and safety
considerations, training area rules and hand signals.
 Have correctly fitted protective gear.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 20.
Location

Training area.
Resources
A high visibility vest for each participant.
A range of protective gear (optional).
 A range of class RE training motorcycles (optional).


Set up

Participants positioned with a clear view of the trainer.
Delivery – presenter
Introduction
Welcome participants back for day two.
 Invite participants to outline their course experiences from
day one.

Protective gear
 Trainer ensures participants have:
 Helmet - compliant, correctly fitted and fastened.
 Eye protection - visor or protective eyewear.
 Jacket and pants - no exposed skin.
 Gloves - secured at wrists.
 Sturdy footwear.
 High visibility vest.
 Rules
 High visibility vests must be worn in the training area.
 Protective gear must be worn for straddle walking, feet
up riding and when sitting on a motorcycle with the
engine running.
 All training area riding is to be under 30km/hr, and
conducted in first or second gear.
 Participants must not overtake unless instructed.
 Helmets must be placed on the ground flat side down, in
the shade where possible, when not in use.
 Hand signals
 Stop.
 Stop there.
 Stop engines.
 Line up to me.
 Slow down.
 Speed up.
 Turn your head.
 Move off.

Recap and link to next module
Explanation

Overview of the course
 Outline of day’s training, including break times.


Day two
Review day one
Slow riding
Reiterate the importance of the rules and hand signals.
Now that we have refreshed the training area rules we will
review what we learned yesterday.
Competence assessment
Steering
Method
Morning tea break
Not applicable.
Braking
Judgement and giving way
Criteria
Roadcraft tactics (two)
Not applicable.
Lunch break
Riding strategies
Notes
Simulated road ride (two)
Course debrief and close

Overview of workplace health and safety matters
 Emergency procedures for evacuation.
 Amenities (toilets, smoking areas).
 No access areas.
 Mandatory use of protective gear.
 Fatigue and hydration advice.
 Following the instructions of the trainer.
 Letting the trainer know of any medical requirements
(can be raised privately).
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Safety
A workplace health and safety briefing is a requirement of
all workplaces in Australia.
 If for some reason a participant is absent for all or part of
the workplace health and safety briefing they must not
continue on the course or enter the training area until they
have received the full briefing.

Additional information

Adult learning is enhanced if participants have a clear
understanding of the course aims and content.
Page 38
Module 22.
Review of day one
Time: 10 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants recall
the key phrases and information from day one, to prepare
participants for day two.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Modules 1 to 21.

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria

Participants can recall the key phrases and information
from Modules 1 to 21.
Notes
Additional information

Reinforcement of content aids learning and retention.
Location

Training area.
Resources

Motorcycle for the demonstration.
Set up

Participants gathered around the trainer.
Delivery - presenter
Discussion
Trainer reviews the day one modules using question and
answer techniques.
 Trainer uses the demonstration motorcycle as a prop to aid
the discussion.
 Review of day one
 Mount and dismount a motorcycle
 Front brake, head check, stand.
 Ready position
 Rear brake, clutch, throttle.
 Major controls
 Mirrors, throttle, front brake, rear brake, clutch,
gears.
 Minor controls
 Starter, engine stop switch, ignition, low/high
beam, indicator switch, horn, choke lever, fuel
tap.
 Riding posture
 Feet, knees, seat, back, arms, wrists, head.
 Moving off sequence
 Ready, set, check.
 Slowing sequence
 Mirrors, brakes, gears.
 Roadcraft
 Look, slow down, move away.
 Riding curves
 Look, slow down, move away.
 Protective gear
 Fit and fasten, abrasion and armour, light and
bright.
 Reinforce that how we think about a situation affects how
we choose to respond to it. Making good choices will help
ensure your safety when riding.

Competence assessment
Method
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 39
Module 23.
Warm up ride
Time: 15 minutes
Context

Objectives
Reinforce good riding posture, in particular keeping the
head up and gripping the motorcycle with the knees.
The objectives of this module are to:
 Ensure participants can demonstrate the riding skills from
day one.
 Prepare participants for day two.
Recap and link to next module
Prerequisites
Competence assessment


Participants have completed Module 22.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Recap look, slow down, move away for riding curves.
Now that we are warmed up and have refreshed the core
skills from day one, we will progress to slow riding.
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Criteria
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Participants sitting on motorcycles in the ready position.
Participants smoothly navigate the curves, using the
correct sequence and a safe path of travel.
 Participants demonstrate smooth gear changes between
first and second gear, using the correct sequence.
 Participants demonstrate smooth two stage braking.
 Participants demonstrate the correct riding posture.
Delivery - instructor→trainer
Notes
Introduction
Safety
After a break a warm up ride prepares both the motorcycle
and rider for further training.


Motorcycle for each participant.
Set up

Explanation
This module reviews and refreshes riding posture, moving
off and stopping, changing gears and riding curves.
 Riding posture
 Feet, knees, seat, back, arms, wrists, head.
 Move off
 Ready, set, check.
 Stop
 Mirrors, brakes, gears.
 Changing gears
 Mirrors, clutch, gears.
 Riding curves
 Look, slow down, move away.


Trainer instructs participants to start and warm up engines,
to ensure they are as close to normal operating temperature
as possible, before commencing the warm up ride.
 Trainer reminds participants to move to the inside of the
training area to get clear of moving motorcycles if they
need to stop.
Additional information


Participants ride at approximately 20km/hr in this module.
Warm up ride is undertaken anticlockwise first to allow
the trainer to observe the clutch and gear lever action, then
clockwise to allow observation of braking actions.
Demonstration

No demonstration for this module.
Practice
Participants ride in an anticlockwise direction practising
left curves, and alternating between first and second gear
for each curve, for at least 10 laps (20 curves).
 Participants ride in a clockwise direction, practising right
curves, and alternating between first and second gear for
each curve, for at least 10 laps (20 curves).

Feedback
Reinforce slowing down and completing the down change
while the motorcycle is travelling straight.
 Focus on choosing a low-risk line for riding curves; start
wide, buffer, finish tight.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 40
Module 24.
Slow riding
Time: 40 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
ride slowly in a straight path and through turns using a
combination of controls.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 23.
Location

Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
Markers to create lane, weave and zigzag formations.
 Stop-watch/timer.


Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Markers set up in lane, weave, and zigzag formations.
 Lane - 15m in length and 1.5m wide.
 Weave - 5 markers, 6m to 8m apart.
 Zigzag - 5 markers, 6m to 8m apart, 2nd and 4th markers
offset 50cm.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction

Riders require low speed manoeuvring skills to manage a
range of situations such as congested traffic, parking areas,
petrol stations and sharp turns.
Explanation

Two key aspects to riding slowly; posture and controls.
 Posture
 Keep your head up and eyes level.
 Grip with your knees.
 Lean your upper body out (weave and zigzag).
 Controls
 Hold the clutch at friction point.
 Maintain the throttle at just above idle.
 Apply the rear brake to stabilise and control
speed.
Demonstration
Conducted in three stages; straight line, then weave, then
zigzag. Participants practise the straight line prior to the
demonstration for the weave, then practise the weave prior
to the demonstration for the zigzag.
 Straight line
 Trainer positions participants beside the lane.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed to approach and perform the ride
(5km/hr).

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual

The straight line slow ride should take about 10
seconds; it’s not to take more than 12 seconds.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing good riding posture.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
 Weave
 Trainer positions participants beside the weave.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed to perform the ride (6km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and emphasising leaning the upper body out.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
 ZigZag
 Trainer positions participants beside the zigzag.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed to perform the ride (6km/hr).
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
Practice
Participants practise the skills as three activities; straight
line, then weave, then zigzag.
 Straight line
 Participants practise the straight slow ride, using the
clutch, throttle and rear brake to control speed, at least
five times.
 Weave
 Participants practise the weave slow ride, using the
clutch, throttle and rear brake to control speed and
leaning the upper body out, at least five times.
 ZigZag
 Participants practise the zigzag slow ride, using the
clutch, throttle and rear brake to control speed and
leaning the upper body out, at least three times.

Feedback
Focus on head up, eyes level, knees tight (lean for turns).
Emphasise smooth use of the clutch.
 Reinforce use of the rear brake.
 Encourage ‘a little bit faster/slower’ if required.


Recap and link to next module
Recap the importance of posture and control.
 During this module you rode at low speed in a straight line
and through turns; in the next module we will look at
steering principles more closely.

Competence assessment
Method

Observation and timing of participants during the module.
Criteria

Participants ride the length of the straight line, staying
within the markers, in not less than 10 seconds, at least
three times.
 Participants maintain good posture.
Page 41
 Participants don’t put a foot on the ground, stall the
motorcycle, or touch the markers.
 Participants ride the weave at the same speed as
straight line slow ride, at least three times.
 Participants maintain good posture.
 Participants don’t put a foot on the ground, stall
motorcycle, or touch the markers.
 Participants ride the zigzag at the same speed as
straight line slow ride, at least two times.
 Participants maintain good posture.
 Participants don’t put a foot on the ground, stall
motorcycle, or touch the markers.
Weave
the
the
the
the
Notes
Safety
Trainer must manage participants to ensure safe spacing
during this module.
 Trainer must monitor the fatigue of participants’ left
hands, in particular watching for stalling after a participant
has demonstrated competency.

Additional information
Participants remain in first gear in this module.
 Activities in this module may be layered with the
preceding activity. For example during the weave practice
participants may practise the straight line slow ride on one
side of the training area and the weave on the other side.
 Low speed manoeuvring uses many of the skills that are
critical for controlling a motorcycle at speed.
 Speed is set where most motorcycles require use of the
clutch and rear brake to achieve the required time.
 Experienced riders can be encouraged to ride the weave
and zigzag slower and with more space from the markers.
 Trainers must not characterise this module as teaching
skills for lane filtering. If raised by participants, it should
be made clear that lane filtering as a learner rider is illegal.

ZigZag
Diagrams
Straight
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 42
Module 25.
Steering technique and obstacle avoidance
Time: 20 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants:
 Understand how a motorcycle steers.
 Can demonstrate steering around an object in a straight.
 Can demonstrate changing path in a curve.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 24.
Location

Training area.
Resources
Motorcycle for each participant.
 Markers to create obstacle and slalom formations.

Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
Markers set up to create obstacle scenarios and slalom.
 Change path in a straight - markers creating entry and
exit gates to a lane, 15m in length and 1.5m wide, and
marker/s in the centre of the lane to create the obstacle.
 Slalom - 5 markers, 6m to 8m apart.
 Change path in a curve - markers creating a curve at least
2.4m wide, and marker/s in the centre of the lane to
create the obstacle.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.


Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction

Riders are overrepresented in single vehicle loss of control
crashes. Understanding how a motorcycle steers allows
riders to accurately adjust their path of travel in a straight
line or a curve to avoid hazards and objects on the road.
Explanation
Good steering technique allows riders to safely change
direction, complete curves and avoid objects. Reducing
speed will make steering easier, however the brakes must
be fully released prior to steering.
 The look, push, go technique (‘look left, push left, go left’)
is used to change direction.
 Look - look in the direction of travel.
 Push - push the handlebar in the direction of travel.
 Go - move in the direction of travel.
 Avoid object fixation; don’t look at an obstacle, look in the
direction of travel.
 The best option might be to stop before the object rather
than swerve.

Demonstration

Conducted in three stages; changing path in a straight, then
slalom, then changing path in a curve.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Change path in a straight
 Trainer positions participants beside the change path in
a straight.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (20-25km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least three times,
alternating to each side of the marker.
 Slalom
 Trainer positions participants beside the slalom.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (20-25km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least three times.
 Change path in a curve
 Trainer positions participants on the inside of the
training area beside the change path in a curve.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (20-25km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least three times,
alternating to each side of the marker.

Practice
Participants practise the skills as three activities; changing
path in a straight, then slalom, then changing path in a
curve.
 Change path in a straight
 Participants practise changing path around the obstacle,
using the correct technique and alternating to the left and
right of the obstacle, at least five times.
 Slalom
 Participants practise the slalom, at least five times.
 Change path in a curve
 Participants practise changing path around the obstacle,
using the correct techniques and alternating to the left
and right of the obstacle, at least five times.

Feedback
Focus on a smooth steering technique.
Reinforce look, push, go.
 Reinforce the importance of start wide, buffer, finish tight
in navigating curves.
 Emphasise good riding posture, in particular keeping the
head up and gripping the motorcycle with the knees.


Recap and link to next module


Recap look, push, go.
During this module we practised changing path as a
collision avoidance manoeuvre, next we will discuss
steering technique.
Page 43
Competence assessment
Change path in a curve
Method


Observation of participants during the module.
Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can smoothly steer around an object in a
straight, at least three times.
 Participants can smoothly steer through the slalom at least
two times.
 Participants can smoothly steer around an object in a curve
using a safe path of travel, at least three times.
 Participants are able to explain the risks associated with
sudden steering and identify safer options.

Notes
Safety

The introduction for this activity should be brief to avoid
participants overthinking.
Slalom
Additional information
Participants remain in second gear and ride at
approximately 20-25km/hr in this module.
 Activities in this module may be layered with the
preceding activity. For example during the change path in
a curve practice participants may complete a circuit
practising the change path in a straight in one section and
the change path in a curve in another section.
 Demonstrations should not be overemphasised or focus on
sharp dip of the shoulder.
 The bike in - body out method, is not to be demonstrated.
If riders with off-road experience use this method, explain
that leaning in with the motorcycle upright improves
clearance and grip, the dirt technique encourages the rear
wheel to slide and makes it difficult to tighten up a curve.
 In multiple vehicle crashes, most riders attempt a collision
avoidance manoeuvre, braking or swerving, with swerving
often resulting in a collision.

Diagrams
Change path in a straight
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 44
Module 26.
Steering theory
Time: 10 minutes
Context

Objectives


The objective of this module is to ensure participants
understand how a motorcycle steers.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 25.
Location

Training area.
Resources

Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
On-motorcycle activity
Trainer asks participant to mount their motorcycles, and
place both feet on the ground.
 Trainer then asks participants to slowly push on the left
handlebar, and observe which way the motorcycle wants
to lean.
 If done correctly the motorcycle will lean to the left.
 Trainer then asks the participants to slowly push on the
right handlebar, and observe which way the motorcycle
wants to lean.
 If done correctly the participants will lean to the right.
Recap and link to next module

Set up


Participants gathered around the trainer.
Reinforce look, push, go.
During this module we examined steering technique, in the
next module we will look at quick stop braking.
Delivery - presenter→trainer
Competence assessment
Riders are overrepresented in single vehicle loss of control
crashes.
 A rider confronted with a problem on the road surface,
such as water, oil, potholes, road debris or train tracks, has
two options; steer around the object, or ride over the
problem with the motorcycle straight and upright.
 Understanding how a motorcycle steers allows riders to
accurately adjust their line of travel in a curve and to avoid
objects when travelling in a straight line.
 Motorcycles naturally want to travel straight; this is
designed into the motorcycle to aid stability. The rider has
to make the motorcycle turn but the faster the motorcycle
is travelling the more it will want to continue straight.
 There are many things that help the rider turn, such as
leaning, but the most effective and accurate is steering.
 Steering is used for all changes in direction, commencing
a turn, travelling around an object or adjusting the path of
travel in a curve.
Method

Interactive demonstration

Standing presentation
 Trainer places their left foot about 1m directly in front
of their right foot with their toes and feet pointing in a
straight line.
 Trainer asks participants to imagine the trainer’s feet as
the contact patches of the motorcycle’s tyres; feet
pointing in a straight line means the ‘motorcycle’ is
going straight.
 Trainer simulates turning the handlebars to the right by
moving their left foot sideways to the right, and asking
participants to observe which way the ‘motorcycle’
leans. If done correctly the trainer will lean to the left.
 Trainer asks participants:
 Which way did the ‘motorcycle’ lean?
 Which way did it turn?
 Trainer reinforces look, push, go.

Questions and answers during the module
Criteria

Participants demonstrate an understanding of how a
motorcycle steers.
Notes
Safety

Motorcycles must be in first gear to prevent rolling
forward.
Additional information
The interactive approach allows participants to experience
and understand the need for good steering technique in
safe conditions, keeping the explanation simple and
suitable for novices.
 The on-motorcycle activity may be performed with the
stand down.
 Trainer is to keep to a minimum any discussion of other
factors that influence steering including footrest pressure,
knee pressure, upper body position, throttle and brakes.
The focus of this discussion is handlebar pressure.
 Trainer must not discuss complex concepts such as
gyroscopic precession, centrifugal force or steering
geometry, such as rake, trail or caster; these concepts are
not appropriate for novices.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants have a 15 minute break.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 45
Module 27.
Controlled ‘quick stop’ braking
Time: 35 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
demonstrate a safe and controlled quick stop.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 26.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Motorcycle for each participant.
Markers to indicate lanes and braking points.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
Markers set up to create three lanes (two braking lanes and
one set up lane) and to indicate set up and braking points.
 Set up lane - 2 markers 5m apart.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.


Delivery - presenter→trainer
Introduction
Being able to correctly brake and accurately judge the
crash avoidance space are essential for safe riding.
 Many riders respond poorly in emergency braking
situations, panicking and either overreacting by grabbing
the brakes and skidding, attempting to swerve and
colliding with an object, or freezing and doing nothing.

Explanation
Braking safely uses the slow down sequence.
 Mirrors - check around you to ensure it’s safe.
 Roll off the throttle.
 Brakes - front then rear brake (set up and squeeze).
 Smoothly pull the clutch in.
 Gears - change gears down to first.
 Separating the braking actions, front then rear brake,
focuses on the critical control first, allows different
pressure to be applied, and sequences the braking task as
hands then feet.
 Using the gears won’t reduce stopping distance but it’s
important to stop in first gear, in the ready position, so you
are ready to move off quickly if required.
 The clutch can be pulled in and the gears tapped down to
first without releasing the clutch for each gear change;
letting out the clutch during a quick stop could result in a
compression lock up and the rear tyre skidding.

Demonstration

Conducted in three stages; setting up, then braking from a
point, then braking to a point. Participants practise setting
up prior to the demonstration for braking from a point,
then practise braking from a point prior to the
demonstration for braking to a point.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Setting up
 Trainer positions participants on the inside of the
training area beside the braking lanes.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (25-30km/hr) and
indicating where participants should start looking to
select which lane they will enter.
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration of the set up
lane, explaining why and where to set up the brakes.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
 Braking from a point
 Trainer positions participants on the inside of the
training area beside the braking lanes.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (25-30km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and indicating where to commence braking.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.
 Braking to a point
 Trainer positions participants on the inside of the
training area beside the braking lanes.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (25-30km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and indicating where to commence braking in order
to stop at the marker.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Practice
Participants practise the skills as three activities; braking
from a point, then braking to a point.
 Setting up
 Participants practise setting up the brakes between the
two markers using the correct sequence, at least three
times.
 Participants must do a head check and give way
to participants in the other lanes when exiting the
lane.
 Braking from a point
 Participants practise braking from a point using the
correct sequence, and stopping in first gear in the ready
position, at least five times.
 Participants must do a head check and give way
to participants in the other lanes when moving off.
 When no braking lane is free, participants enter the set
up lane and set up in preparation for a braking lane
participant to merge.
 Braking to a point
 Participants practise braking to a point using the correct
sequence, stopping at the marker in first gear in the
ready position, at least five times.
 Participants must do a head check and give way
to participants in the other lanes when moving off.
 When no braking lane is free, participants enter the set
up lane and set up in preparation for a braking lane
participant to merge.

Page 46
Feedback
Focus on getting the technique correct first; mirrors,
brakes, gears and stopping in the ready position.
 Hands and feet should be away from the controls when not
in use; reinforce hands home.
 Reinforce head checks when moving off.

Diagrams
Braking from a point
Recap and link to next module
Recap mirrors, brakes, gears.
Reinforce the importance of setting up the brakes.
 During this module we learned ‘quick stop’ braking
techniques; in the next module we examine the importance
of crash avoidance space to braking safely.


Competence assessment
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Criteria
Participants stop smoothly using two stage braking with
the front and rear brakes.
 Participants stop at the given location in the braking to a
point activity.
 Participants stop in first gear in the ready position.
 Participants keep their hands and feet away from the
controls when they are not in use.
 Participants perform head checks prior to moving off.

Braking to a point
Notes
Safety
The introduction for this activity should be very brief to
avoid participants overthinking.
 The focus of this module is correct braking technique. The
module isn’t aimed at achieving the shortest possible
stopping distance but ‘firm stops’ that participants can
reasonably expect to reproduce post training. The trainer
is not to push or encourage participants to achieve shorter
and shorter stops.
 Once a participant demonstrates correct technique then
focus on achieving firmer braking.
 Once a participant achieves firm stops with the correct
technique and full front fork compression, focus on skill
consolidation, not shorter and shorter stops.

Additional information
Participants should commence riding at approximately
25km/hr, and may increase speed up to 30km/hr provided
they are using the correct technique.
 In many crashes the motorcycle becomes unstable due to
over-braking and hits the ground before colliding with the
object.
 Participants achieving extremely short stops during
training is associated with significant risks:
 Applying the sequence incorrectly due to rushing.
 Crashing due to excessive braking force.
 Fostering overconfidence and optimism bias; success on
the training area may not be replicated on a road.
 Trainers should give instructions to increase speed calmly
using phrases such as ‘a little bit more’ and ‘nearly there’.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 47
Module 28.
Crash avoidance space
Time: 15 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
explain the crash avoidance space.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 27.
Location

Training area.
Resources

Markers to represent the turning car scenario.
Set up
Markers set up to simulate turning car scenario.
 Participants gathered around the trainer.

Delivery - presenter→facilitator
Discussion
Trainer explains the importance of defensive riding:
 Scan 12 seconds ahead to observe potential hazards.
 Keep 6 seconds of vision to allow time to respond.
 Maintain a 3 second survival space to avoid a crash.
 Trainer then sets the scene, explaining that the markers
represent a car that has turned across the rider’s path; the
driver has seen the rider at the last second and stopped
across the lane. Swerving to around the back of the car
isn’t an option as there are oncoming cars and swerving
around the front isn’t an option as the driver may try to
move forward. The only option is to stop.
 Braking distance
 Referencing the participants’ braking in the previous
module as a guide, the trainer asks participants to stand
at the point the rider would need to commence braking
to stop before hitting the car if travelling 30km/hr.
 Trainer identifies the point braking would need to
commence; 6-6.5m back.
 Trainer discusses ABS brakes; how they work
and the key benefits.
 Trainer then asks participants to stand at the point a rider
would need to commence braking if travelling 60km/hr.
 Trainer identifies the point braking would need to
commence; 25m back.
 Trainer explains that when speed is doubled, braking
distance is quadrupled. However this is braking distance
alone without allowing for response time.
 Trainer explains that to start braking at this point the
rider would need to see and anticipate the car’s
movement further back.
 An alert, experienced rider needs at least 1.5
seconds to observe, perceive and respond to a
hazard. A novice rider can require much longer.
 Riders should allow at least 3 seconds; the crash
avoidance space.
 Crash avoidance space

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
 Trainer then walks the participants a further 25m back
to a total distance of 50m from the markers. Explain that
if the rider was travelling 60km/hr and the car started to
turn, this is the point where they would need to be to
respond and brake, and still stop before the markers.
 Crash avoidance space is the rider’s response time
(1.5 seconds) plus the time it takes to stop from
the point the rider starts braking.
 Trainer explains that it’s easier to judge stopping
distances in seconds rather than estimating distances in
metres, and 3 seconds as a judgement tool works at all
speeds.
 Crash avoidance space can be used for judging
following distance and stopping needs, including
situations that need more than 3 seconds (wet
conditions or at night).
 Trainer discusses why riders might not keep 3 seconds
following distance, exploring perceived and actual issues.
 Setting up the brakes
 Trainer brings the discussion back to the turning car
scene and discusses ways to take control of the situation.
 The best solution is to set up the brakes.
 Trainer walks the group 15m closer to the markers and
discusses the different outcome between a rider who sets
up the brakes and is travelling 55km/hr compared to a
rider who has taken no action and is travelling 60km/hr.
 Both riders will impact the car. The rider who set
up will impact at walking pace. The rider who
took no action will impact at just above 40km/hr.
 During braking, half the speed is reduced in the
last quarter of the stop.
 A small change before the event can result in a
huge change in the outcome should something
happen.
 Trainer discusses the costs of setting up the brakes (a bit
of effort, slight speed reduction) and the benefits (a
significant change to the outcome of the event).
Recap and link to next module
Reinforce the braking distance needed to stop safely and
the importance of maintaining at least a 3 second crash
avoidance space.
 Now that we understand crash avoidance space, in the next
module we will apply crash avoidance space together with
judgement in a practical activity.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can explain braking distance and the impact
of speed on braking distance.
 Participants can explain how crash avoidance space and
setting up the brakes can reduce riding risk.
 Participants can understand that how they perceive a
situation can affect how they respond to it.

Page 48
Notes
Additional information
Trainer always explains distance in time rather than
metres; using metres detracts from the main message and
needs to be adjusted for different speeds.
 If participants have seen 2 second gap rules and question
3 seconds, the trainer should explain that 2 seconds is a
minimum guide for drivers in good conditions. Reinforce
the need for a 3 second gap for motorcycles, emphasising
that motorcycles take longer to stop, and novice riders
need more time when developing their skills.
 Participants from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and those who are hearing impaired might
find the discussion challenging and require support.

Reference information
If speed is doubled braking distance is four times greater.
 A 2.8m braking distance at 20km/hr, increases to 11.2m
at 40km/hr.
 A 6.3m braking distance at 30km/hr, increases to 25.3m
at 60km/hr.
 If a rider at 60km/hr sets up the brakes, reducing their
speed to 55km/hr and their response time to 1 second, they
can stop in 36.5m. A rider still at 60km/hr would hit the
object at over 40km/hr, still needing 13.8m to stop.
 In a 60km/hr zone, risk increases as follows:
 At 65km/hr, crash risk is 2 times greater.
 At 70km/hr, crash risk is 4 times greater.
 At 75km/hr, crash risk is 11 times greater.
 At 80km/hr, crash risk is 32 times greater.

Speed
(km/hr)
Metres
per
second
Response
[1.5 seconds]
(metres)
Braking
distance
Total stopping CAS
distance
(seconds)
[5.5m/second]
(metres)
(metres)
20
5.56
8.3
2.8
11.1
2.0
25
6.94
1.4
4.4
14.8
2.1
30
8.33
12.5
6.3
18.8
2.3
40
11.1
16.7
11.2
27.9
2.5
50
13.9
20.8
17.5
38.4
2.8
55
15.3
15.3
21.2
36.5
set up
60
16.7
25.0
25.3
50.3
3.0
80
22.2
33.3
44.9
78.2
3.5
100
27.8
41.7
70.1
111.8
4.0
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 49
Module 29.
Judgement and giving way
Time: 20 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
demonstrate good judgement in the riding environment.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 28.
Location

Training area.
Reinforce the complexities of riding in the real world and
the need to develop good riding skills and habits.
 During this module we put together judgement with some
of the riding skills we learned throughout the course; in the
next module we will examine a range of situations where
crash avoidance space can be applied to reduce risk.

Competence assessment
Method

Observation of participants during the module.
Resources
Criteria
Motorcycle for each participant.
 Markers to create a simulated traffic environment.


Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
Markers set up in a single circuit with a slip lane on the
inside.
 Markers to indicate a stop sign at the end of the slip lane.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.


Participants ride smoothly around the layout, selecting a
safe gap, and giving way from the stop sign if required, at
least five times.
 Participants demonstrate the correct riding posture.
Notes
Safety


Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction

Being able to respond to the riding environment,
accurately judging gaps in traffic, managing speed, and
giving way are essential for safe riding.
Explanation
Look - look at least 6 seconds ahead and plan your path.
 Assess - check around you, identify potential hazards,
assess the gap, and give way if required.
 Turn your head - point your chin where you want to go.
 Judgement - enter the slip lane based on the position of
the other riders. Stop, give way, move off when safe.

Trainer must ensure participants maintain safe spacing.
Trainer advises participants to move to the inside of the
training area away from the circulating riders if they need
to stop.
Additional information

Riding is complex requiring good judgement and the
execution of numerous tasks simultaneously. Many new
riders experience difficulty sharing their concentration
across tasks. This module consolidates operational skills
with judgement, which are required to effectively manage
situations such as intersections.
Demonstration
Trainer positions participants beside the lane.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration, showing the
appropriate speed for the activity (20-25km/hr).
 Trainer performs a slow demonstration, explaining each
step and reinforcing the key phrases.
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Practice

Participants practise the manouevre, making a judgement
to enter the slip lane based on the position of other riders
in an anti-clockwise direction, for at least five minutes.
Feedback
Reinforce looking 6 seconds ahead; planning the path.
 Focus on participants slowing down and assessing the gap.

Recap and link to next module
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 50
Diagrams
Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants relocate to the classroom.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 51
Module 30.
Roadcraft tactics (two)
Time: 30 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants
understand how crash avoidance space can be applied to
enhance roadcraft tactics.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 29.
Location

Classroom.
Resources
Diagrams cards.
 Whiteboard or large sheets of paper, and markers.
 Participant workbooks.

Set up

Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Trainer should also challenge participants’ thinking by
asking questions about hypothetical circumstances.
 How might the rider respond in that situation if they
were being tailgated?
 What if there was also a pedestrian standing in the
middle of the road waiting to cross?
 What if it was raining?
 Trainer summarises the discussion and reinforces that
riding involves a constantly changing environment and
there is no perfect speed or position. A rider needs to
constantly adjust their riding proactively to be ready for
situations before they start to unfold.

Recap and link to next module
Emphasise the importance of crash avoidance space.
Reinforce that how we perceive a situation affects how we
respond to it.
 During this module we discussed approaches to make you
safer riders, in the next module we will examine how
strategies can reduce riding risk.


Delivery - facilitator
Competence assessment
Trainer reminds participants of the common motorcycle
crash types:
 Intersections.
 Loss of control.
 Rear end.
 Hit a pedestrian, animal or object.
 Sideswipe.
 Trainer splits the participants into two groups, and gives
each group three discussion cards. Each group discusses
how crash avoidance space could be applied with look,
slow down, move away to reduce risk in the scenarios on
the cards.
 Vehicle turning across motorcycle’s path (intersections
- defensive riding).
 Motorcycle turning across vehicle’s path (intersections
- gap selection).
 Motorcycle and vehicle in blind curve (loss of control).
 Motorcycle colliding with stopped vehicle (rear end).
 Motorcycle colliding with person stepping onto road (hit
pedestrian).
 Vehicle changing lanes into motorcycle’s path
(sideswipe).
 Groups present their ideas on how crash avoidance space
would work with look, slow down, move away in the six
scenarios. Presentations may be verbal or drawn on the
whiteboard or sheets of paper.
 Trainer asks questions to generate discussion during the
presentations.
 How far ahead would the rider need to be looking?
 How much would the rider need to slow down?
 When should the rider start creating space?
 Should the rider wait until the crash avoidance space is
affected?
 Where is the best place to position the motorcycle?
Method

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria

Participants can explain how crash avoidance space can be
applied to enhance look, slow down, move away.
Notes
Additional information
Coaching participants to provide answers, rather than
presenting the information, aids the adoption of the ideas
as their own in keeping with adult learning principles.
 Participants from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and those who are hearing impaired might
find the discussion challenging and require support.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants have a 30 minute break.
Page 52
Module 31.
Riding strategies
Time: 25 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants
understand strategies to eliminate or reduce risk.
Risk
factors
Reasons that risk Strategies to
is increased
eliminate
risk
Bad weather
and poor
lighting




Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 30.

Reduced vision.
Reduced traction.
Hard for motorists
to see riders.
Additional load on
rider
concentration.
Rushing to get
home before rain.

Avoid riding
in bad
weather; drive
or take public
transport.

Unfamiliar
area

Group riding
Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.


Trainer explains that in addition to roadcraft tactics, look,
slow down, move away, a rider can apply strategies to
eliminate or reduce risk.
 For example, riders with alcohol in their system have an
increased risk of a crash; the obvious strategy to
eliminate this risk is to not drink if you plan to ride.
 Trainer facilitates a discussion around the situations and
factors that increase risk, and the strategies to eliminate or
reduce risk.
 Trainer prompts discussion about:
 Why risk is increased by these situations and factors?
 How could you eliminate the risk?
 How could you reduce the risk?

Risk
factors
Reasons that risk Strategies to
is increased
eliminate
risk
Night



Reduced vision.
Hard for motorists
to see riders.
Additional load on
rider
concentration.
Eyes take time to
adjust to changed
light conditions
(twilight).

Hard for motorists
to see riders.
Traffic can come
to a sudden stop.
More vehicles
turning and
changing lanes.
Greater levels of
fatigue, frustration
and impatience.

Lack of skills.
Insufficient
practice.
Poor
concentration.
Focus on tasks not
yet automated
(looking for
indicator).
Overconfidence.

Plan your trip
to avoid
riding at
night.
Strategies to
reduce risk










Inexperience







Delivery - facilitator



Whiteboard or large sheets of paper, and markers.
Participant workbooks.
Heavy or
congested
traffic



Classroom.
Set up



Resources



Location

Strategies to
reduce risk

Choose a time
to avoid
heavy traffic;
leave earlier.
Choose a
route to avoid
heavy traffic
even if it’s
longer.
Cannot be
eliminated.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual











Choose a well-lit
route.
Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Take more breaks.
Avoid areas where
there might be
impaired persons
(clubs and pubs).
Wear bright colours.
Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Allow more time for
the journey.
Avoid unnecessary
lane changes; stay in
one lane.
Don’t lane or edge
filter; learner riders
are not allowed.
Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Practise controls.
Limit riding to areas
within skill level.
Take more breaks.
Gradually increase
ride duration and
frequency.

Focus on
navigation.
Unexpected
hazards.
Unexpected traffic
or road features.

Range of skill
levels.
Differing
concentration and
fatigue levels.
Peer pressure.
Rubber-banding
(concertina effect).
Unfamiliar roads.


Choose a
route you
know even if
it’s longer.
Check out the
area using
other
transport.

Don’t ride in
groups.











Rural roads





Higher speed
curves.
Concealed
driveways.
Wider range of
road surfaces.
Wildlife and
livestock.
Roadkill.

Don’t ride at
twilight when
wildlife and
livestock are
more active.





Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Brake earlier and
more gently.
Avoid painted road
markings and train
tracks.
Take more breaks.
Wear bright colours.
Carry wet weather
gear.
Allow more time for
the journey.
Plan the trip in
detail.
Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Take more breaks.
Find out destination
before the ride.
Ride apart from the
main group.
Take more breaks.
Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Ride in small groups.
Assess and manage
riding motivations
and behaviours.
Look further ahead.
Reduce speed.
Increase crash
avoidance space.
Don’t combine with
other risk factors
(night or rain).
Take more breaks.
Recap and link to next module
Emphasise the best strategies are generally to avoid the
risk or reduce speed and increase crash avoidance space.
 During this module we discussed strategies to make you
safer riders, in the next module we will put it all together
and complete a second simulated road ride.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria

Participants can explain strategies to eliminate or reduce
risk.
Notes
Additional information
Coaching participants to provide answers, rather than
presenting the information, aids the adoption of the ideas
as their own in keeping with adult learning principles.
 Participants from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and those who are hearing impaired might
find the discussion challenging and require support.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants relocate to the training area.
Page 53
Module 32.
Simulated road ride (two)
Time: 35 minutes
Context
Objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants can
demonstrate a range of basic road riding skills and tactics
in a simulated traffic environment.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 31.
Location

Training area.
Resources


Motorcycle for each participant.
Markers to create the simulated traffic environment.
Set up
Motorcycles side-by-side in a line, parked in FIRST GEAR.
 Markers set up to simulate the traffic environment.
 Two lanes on each side of the area - one stopping
lane/manouevring (parking or obstacle avoidance) and
one flowing or passing lane, plus provision for a
controlled stop at a point.
 Obstacle avoidance scenario.
 Curves and turns.
 Participants positioned to observe the demonstration.

Delivery - instructor→trainer
Introduction
Riding is a complex task requiring good perception and
judgement, and the execution of numerous tasks
simultaneously.
 Participants must demonstrate a safe riding standard to
successfully complete the course.

Explanation
This module applies the skills learned in the previous
modules in a simulating road environment.
 Controlled braking
 Safely and quickly come to a controlled stop at a given
location.
 Mirrors, brakes, gears.
 Steering and obstacle avoidance
 Effectively avoid obstacles when travelling straight.
 Look, push, go.
 Changing gears
 Smoothly change between first and second gears,
choosing the appropriate gear for the situation.
 Mirrors, clutch, gears.
 Left and right turns
 Effectively navigate turns using indicators.
 Look, mirrors, turn your head.
 Riding curves
 Smoothly navigate curves applying a low-risk line.
 Look, slow down, move away.

Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Slow riding
 Effectively use low speed riding skills to navigate turns
and when travelling straight.
 Posture, controls.
 Parking
 Stop and shut down the motorcycle, straddle walk
backwards and park rear-in at an angle; dismount.
Mount, start up, indicate and move off.
 Start up and shut down sequences.
 Mount and dismount sequences, and ready
position.
 Ready, set, check.
 Roadcraft
 Apply roadcraft tactics to anticipate and respond to the
riding environment, selecting safe gaps and ‘letting in’
other participants.
 Look, slow down, move away.
 Riding posture
 Demonstrate good riding posture.
 Feet, knees, seat, back, arms, wrists, head.
 Task overload
 Overload can occur with so many things going on.
Participants should adjust their riding if they feel
overwhelmed or unsafe:
 Slow down, create more time to manage things.
 Drop a task, do less by shedding a task or tasks.

Demonstration
Trainer positions participants on the inside of the training
area.
 Trainer performs a normal demonstration of the simulated
road ride circuit.
 Approaching and moving off from the ‘STOP sign’
(slow riding, turns, indicating).
 Avoiding an obstacle in a straight (steering).
 Parking (start up and shut down, mount and dismount,
move off).
 Stopping to avoid an obstacle (braking to a point, move
off).
 Trainer repeats the demonstration at least two times.

Practice
Participants practise the simulated road ride circuit in a
clockwise direction, for at least ten minutes.
 Participants must indicate appropriately when turning
and merging.
 Participants practise the simulated road ride circuit in an
anticlockwise direction, for at least ten minutes.
 Participants must indicate appropriately when turning
and merging.

Feedback
Focus on roadcraft tactics look, slow down, move away.
Emphasise look, push, go.
 Reinforce two stage braking.
 Focus on start wide, buffer, finish tight for riding curves.


Page 54

Reinforce using mirrors and head checks.
Recap and link to next module
Diagrams
Example layout
Reinforce the complexities of riding in the real world and
the need to develop good riding skills and habits.
 Recap strategies to manage overload.
 Provide each participant with feedback on their
performance, reinforcing strengths, identifying areas for
improvement and providing feedback for development.
 This module is the last module on the training area; we will
now discuss your experiences and performance on the
course.

Competence assessment
Method
Observation of participants during the module.
 Questions and answers during the module.

Criteria
Participants demonstrate a safe riding standard in
operating the motorcycle’s controls, braking, steering,
making turns, riding curves, slow riding, parking and
roadcraft.
 Participants demonstrate smooth two stage braking.
 Participants perform head checks prior to moving off,
making turns and merging.
 Participants can explain strategies to manage task load.

Notes
Safety
Trainer must ensure participants maintain safe spacing.
 Trainer must look for participants who are overloaded;
participants showing signs of overload (confusion, skill
regression, increased errors) should have a short break or
reduce the load by dropping parts of the activity.
 If a participant doesn’t demonstrate a safe riding standard
in this module they are to be assessed as not yet competent,
and directed to additional training or support.

Additional information
Riding is complex with numerous tasks simultaneously
requiring attention. Many new riders experience difficulty
in sharing their concentration across tasks or shedding
unnecessary or less critical tasks.
 This module consolidates operational skills and provides
insight into the cognitive complexities of riding and
identifies a number of strategies to manage task overload.

Post module preparation
At the end of this module participants relocate to the classroom.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 55
Module 33.
Course debrief
Time: 20 minutes
Context
Module objectives

The objective of this module is to ensure participants:
 Understand their strengths and areas for improvement.
 Can identify tactics or strategies to develop their riding.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 32.
Location

Classroom.
Resources required

Nil.
Set up

Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Delivery - facilitator
Discussion
Trainer asks participants, in turn, to reflect on their
performance over the course; discussing their riding
strengths, areas for improvement, and strategies to develop
their riding.
 Trainer provides coaching and feedback on riding
performance.
 Trainer should be as positive as possible; reinforcing
areas of strength and identifying and providing advice
on areas for improvement.
 Trainer debriefs the group on tactics and strategies to
strengthen all areas of their riding.

Competence assessment
Method

Questions and answers during the module.
Criteria
Participants can explain their riding strengths and areas for
improvement.
 Participants can identify tactics or strategies to develop
their riding.

Notes
Additional information

Reflection and feedback support the onging development
of safe riding and decision making skills.
 Individual, personalised feedback supports ongoing
learning and skill development.
 Providing feedback in a group provides all participants
with additional learning opportunities.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 56
Module 34.
Course close
Time: 20 minutes
 Don’t ride unsupervised, if you don’t have a supervisor,
Context
Objectives

The objectives of this module are to ensure participants
understand:
 The learner licence restrictions and requirements.
 Strategies to reduce risk as a learner rider.
Prerequisites

Participants have completed Module 33.
Location

consider further training or professional instruction to
practise your riding skills.
 Minimise pressure; don’t ride in a group too soon.
 Trainer emphasises the risk of miscalibration; just because
the participants have successfully completed the course
doesn’t mean they are ready for riding in all conditions.
Closing

Process competency declarations (online or hardcopy) for
successful participants.
Classroom.
Resources
Participant workbooks.
 Course completion records for each participant, and a pen.
 Competency declarations or access to the online service.

Set up

Participants seated with a clear view of the trainer.
Delivery - presentater→facilitator
Learner licence restrictions
Trainer prompts participants to discuss the motorcycle
learner licence restrictions and laws.
 Trainer confirms all points have been covered and
explained if required.
 Must only ride a learner approved motorcycle.
 Must be supervised by an appropriately licensed rider.
 Must display an L-plate clearly visible from 20m to the
rear of the motorcycle.
 Must not carry a pillion passenger.
 Must have zero blood alcohol concentration.
 Must wear an approved helmet.
 Must not lane or edge filter.
 Must carry their licence (driver licence receipt if waiting
for the licence in the mail).
 Trainer emphasises that completing the course doesn’t
give participants a learner licence; participants must
complete the online motorcycle knowledge test to obtain
their learner licence.

Strategies to reduce risk as a learner rider

Trainer discusses strategies to reduce risk as a new rider.
 Start in quiet streets; avoid heavy traffic and complex
intersections.
 Ride at quiet times; avoid congested traffic.
 Ride in good conditions; avoid riding on poorly lit roads
at night, and in bad weather.
 Practise where you know what to expect; avoid
unfamiliar areas.
 Choose a supervisor who values skill development and
will ride to your ability.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Page 57
Course safety, rules and training information
Safety
Training area safety
Never stand directly in front of a motorcycle that is
running.
 Never turn your back on a motorcycle that is running and
is pointed in your direction.
 Always turn off engines immediately after stopping.
 Never exceed 30km/hr on the training area.
 Always remove keys from motorcycles left unattended.
 Unused motorcycles must be located clear of training area.
 Untrained observers must be off the training area or
standing beside the trainer.

Safety in riding activities
Protective gear must be worn for feet up riding and when
sitting on a motorcycle with the engine running.
 Visors must be down or other eye protection worn.
 Monitor motorcycle allocation and reallocate motorcycles
if a more appropriate choice becomes apparent (if
motorcycles provided).
 Always stand with your back facing a safe area and
maximise the area you can observe. Never stand on the
outside of a curve in the run wide area.
 Keep your eyes moving, never fix your attention to one
area for more than a few seconds.
 Regularly check on the other participants when coaching
an individual.
 Always control the moving off of participants.
 Move off and stop participants in order of skill, starting
with the least competent rider first.
 Ensure participants have at least 10m of straight riding
before they need to turn when moving off.
 Participants should be stopped side-by-side, not nose-totail, on the outside of the previous rider. It’s often safest to
stop the least competent riders first.
 Avoid making participants perform a tight turn to stop.
 If a participant stops in or near a turn, they should be
relocated to a safe position to commence riding.
 Keep safe gaps between participants (moving or stopped).
 If participants stop or need to be stopped for instruction,
they need to get clear of moving motorcycles; it’s
generally safer on the inside of the training area.

Fatigue management
Breaks are essential and must not be skipped. Trainers
should avoid discussing riding techniques during the
breaks to give participants time to refresh.
 Encourage participants to drink water during all breaks to
minimise the effects of dehydration.

Rules
Participants

A course may have a maximum of five participants.
Q-Ride Pre-Learner Course - Rider Training Manual
Motorcycles
Trainers must pre-ride and check all provided motorcycles
to ensure they are in safe working order.
 Hand levers must be slightly loose to allow for angle
adjustment to suit participants (if motorcycles provided).
 Clutch free play must be set to suit novice riders, for
example set closer to hand grip (if motorcycles provided).
 Trainer must ensure lever positions suit each participant.
 Learning can be enhanced or impaired by the motorcycle.
 Inexperienced riders will develop faster on a motorcycle
with a seat height allowing them to place both feet flat
on the ground, is light enough to physically manoeuvre,
and has a smooth and predictable power delivery.
 More experienced riders might benefit from using a
motorcycle that is different to their experiences, is
heavier, or has a more powerful engine.
 If a participant brings their own motorcycle the trainer
must assess whether it’s appropriate.
 Participants should ride the same motorcycle throughout
the course.

Dos and don’ts
Do promote look, slow down, move away for hazards.
 Do promote the use of both brakes, with use of only the
rear brake for manoeuvres at ‘walking pace’.
 Don’t promote beeping the horn or flashing headlights to
manage a hazard as these can be misinterpreted and take
focus and time from reducing speed and preparing to stop.
 Don’t promote ‘speeding up’ as a response to a hazard;
promote ‘slowing down’ as the most important response.
 Don’t promote ‘swerving’ as an option to avoid an object;
promote ‘slowing down’ as the most important response.
 Don’t describe the rear brake as ‘the slow speed brake’.
 Don’t use the phrase ‘cover the brakes’, use the phrase ‘set
up the brakes’.
 Don’t promote ‘dragging the rear brake’ into a curve;
promote ‘look ahead and gently roll off the throttle’.
 Don’t make or endorse comments that describe car drivers
as ‘dumb’, ‘stupid’, or ‘out to get you’; defuse such
comments with statements like, ‘we all make mistakes’.
 Don’t simply use the phrase ‘make eye contact’, rather
raise the question ‘what might prevent others seeing you?’.

Training
Demonstrations
Always position participants to the side of riding
demonstrations. Never ride towards the participants.
 Position participants on the side they can best view the
skill.
 Always demonstrate activities at least three times.
 Ride demonstrations at a low speed; fast demonstrations
can intimidate, confuse or hype up participants.
 Demonstrate how you want the activity performed; never
demonstrate incorrect riding techniques.
 A demonstration motorcycle will be required for the entire
course if all participants are using their own motorcycles.

Page 58
Signs of possible problems
Stalling - focus on clutch control. Participants might have
tired fingers or hands and reduced strength.
 Errors in skills previously demonstrated - reduce the load,
slow the module down, revise previous modules or stop
riding.
 High right wrist, potential to ‘launch’ motorcycle - correct
wrist position and check the height of front brake lever.
 Applying the throttle while trying to use front brake check the height of front brake lever and wrist position.

Tips
Minimise talking, maximise riding - keep explanations to
essential information.
 Never ask questions participants won’t know the answer
to; question to confirm learning or encourage reflection.
 Keep participants calm; people don’t learn if they feel
anxious, threatened or afraid.
 Focus feedback on one key area; don’t overload
participants. Be positive and immediate.
 Always use and demonstrate key concepts and phrases;
always use the recommended techniques.
 Don’t group skills together if they have been separated in
the curriculum; the course content is layered with skills
introduced in small portions to facilitate learning, for
example the clutch is mastered without throttle and then
the throttle is added.
 Make a distinction between curves and corners; curves
(start wide, finish tight), corners (tight in, tight out).

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Page 59
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