Chapter 10
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FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY SANITATION AND SAFETY TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FOOD SCIING
ENCE MENUS RECIPES COST MANAGEMENT NUTRITION MISE EN PLACE STOCKS AND SAUCES SOUPS UNDER VEG
STANDING MEATS COOKING MEATS AND GAME UNDERSTANDING POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS COOKING POULDAI
TRY AND GAME BIRDS UNDERSTANDING FISH AND SHELLFISH COOKING FISH AND SHELLFISH UNDERSTANDTIO
Chapter 10
Stir-Fried Beef with Bell Peppers, page 342.
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SCIING VEGETABLES COOKING VEGETABLES POTATOES LEGUMES GRAINS PASTA OTHER STARCHES COOKING FOR
DERVEGETARIAN DIETS SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS SANDWICHES HORS D’OERVES BREAKFAST PREPARATION
OULDAIRY AND BEVERAGES SAUSAGES AND CURED FOODS PATES TERRINES AND COLD FOODS FOOD PRESENTA
ANDTION AND GARNISH BAKESHOP PRODUCTION YEAST PRODUCTS QUICK BREADS CAKES AND ICINGS COOKIES
Understanding
Meats and Game
M
eat is muscle tissue. It is the flesh of domestic animals
(cattle, hogs, and lambs) and of wild game animals (such as
deer). As a cook, chef, or food-service operator, you will spend
After reading this chapter, you should
be able to
1. Describe the composition and structure of
more of your time and money on meats than on any other food.
It is important, then, to understand meats thoroughly in order to
2.
cook them well and profitably. Why are some meats tender and some
tough? How can you tell one cut from another when there are so many?
3.
How do you determine the best way to cook each cut?
In order to answer questions like these, it is helpful to start at the most
4.
basic level of composition and structure. We then proceed to discuss
grading and inspection, basic cuts, and appropriate cooking and storage
5.
methods. In addition, we discuss the characteristics of variety meats and
of popular game meats. Only then can we best approach the individual
cooking methods and recipes presented in the following chapters.
6.
7.
8.
9.
meat, and explain how they relate to meat
selection and cooking methods.
Explain the use of the federal meat inspection and grading system in selecting and
purchasing meats.
Explain the effect of aging on meat, and
identify the two primary aging methods.
Identify the primal cuts of beef, lamb, veal,
and pork, and list the major fabricated cuts
obtained from each of them.
Select appropriate cooking methods for the
most important meat cuts, based on the
meat’s tenderness and other characteristics.
Prepare variety meats.
Identify the characteristics of game meats,
and select the appropriate cooking methods for them.
Determine doneness in cooked meat.
Store fresh meat and frozen meat to gain
the maximum shelf life.
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UNDERSTANDING MEATS AND GAME
Composition, Structure,
and Basic Quality Factors
Composition
Muscle tissue consists of three major components: water, protein, and fat.
Water
Water is about 75 percent of muscle tissue. With such a high percentage of water, you can
see why shrinkage can be a big problem in cooking meat. Too much moisture loss means dry
meat, loss of weight, and loss of profit.
Protein
Protein is an important nutrient and the most abundant solid material in meat. About 20 percent of muscle tissue is protein.
As we learned in Chapter 4, protein coagulates when it is heated. This means it becomes
firmer and loses moisture. Coagulation is related to doneness. When protein has coagulated to the desired degree, the meat is said to be “done.” Doneness is discussed later in
this chapter.
After protein has coagulated, applying higher heat toughens it.
Fat
Fat accounts for up to 5 percent of muscle tissue. Of course, more fat may surround the
muscles. A beef carcass can be as much as 30 percent fat.
Because of health and dietary concerns, many meat animals are being bred and raised
with a lower fat content than in past years. Nevertheless, a certain amount of fat is desirable
for three reasons:
1. Juiciness.
Marbling is fat deposited within the muscle tissue. The juiciness we enjoy in wellmarbled beef is due more to fat than to moisture.
Surface fat protects the meat—especially roasts—from drying out during cooking
as well as in storage. Adding surface fats where they are lacking is called barding.
2. Tenderness.
Marbling separates muscle fibers, making them easier to chew.
3. Flavor.
Fat is perhaps the main source of flavor in meat. A well-marbled Prime (top grade) steak
tastes “beefier” than the same cut of a lower grade.
Carbohydrate
Meat contains a very small amount of carbohydrate. From the standpoint of nutrition, its
quantity is so small that it is insignificant. It is important, however, because it plays a necessary part in the complex reaction, called the Maillard reaction (see p. 65), that takes place
when meats are browned by roasting, broiling, or sautéing. Without these carbohydrates, the
desirable flavor and appearance of browned meats would not be achieved.
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COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE, AND BASIC QUALITY FACTORS
Structure
Muscle Fibers
Lean meat is composed of long, thin muscle fibers bound together in bundles. These determine the texture or grain of a piece of meat. Fine-grained meat is composed of small fibers
bound in small bundles. Coarse-textured meat has large fibers.
Feel the cut surface of a tenderloin steak, and compare its smooth texture to the rough
cut surface of brisket or bottom round.
Connective Tissue
Muscle fibers are bound together in a network of proteins called connective tissue. Each
muscle fiber also is covered in a sheath of connective tissue.
It is important for the cook to understand connective tissue for one basic reason:
Connective tissue is tough. To cook meats successfully, you should know
• Which meats are high in connective tissue and which are low.
• What are the best ways to make tough meats tender.
1. Meats are highest in connective tissue if
• They come from muscles that are more exercised. Muscles in the legs, for example,
have more connective tissue than muscles in the back.
• They come from older animals. Veal is more tender than meat from a young steer,
which, in turn, is more tender than meat from an old bull or cow. (Young animals have
connective tissue, too, but it becomes harder to break down as the animal ages.)
2. Meats high in connective tissue can be made more tender by using proper cooking
techniques.
There are two kinds of connective tissue: collagen, which is white in color, and elastin,
which is yellow.
• Collagen.
Long, slow cooking in the presence of moisture breaks down or dissolves collagen
by turning it into gelatin and water. Of course, muscle tissue is about 75 percent
water, so moisture is always present when meats are cooked. Except for very large
roasts, however, long cooking by a dry-heat method has the danger of evaporating
too much moisture and drying out the meat. Therefore, moist-heat cooking methods at low temperatures are most effective for turning a meat high in connective tissue into a tender, juicy finished product.
Other factors also help tenderize collagen:
Acid helps dissolve collagen. Marinating meat in an acid mixture, or adding
an acid such as tomato or wine to the cooking liquid, helps tenderize it.
Enzymes are naturally present in meats. They break down some connective
tissue and other proteins as meat ages (see “Aging,” pp. 278–280). These
enzymes are inactive at freezing temperatures, slow-acting under refrigeration, active at room temperature, and destroyed by heat above 140°F (60°C).
Tenderizers are enzymes such as papain (extracted from papaya) that are
added to meats by the cook or injected into the animal before slaughter. Exercise care when using enzyme tenderizers. Too long an exposure at room
temperature can make the meat undesirably mushy.
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• Elastin.
Older animals have a higher proportion of elastin than younger animals.
Elastin is not broken down in cooking. Tenderizing can be accomplished only
by removing the elastin (cutting away any tendons) and by mechanically breaking
up the fibers, as in
Pounding and cubing (cubed steaks)
Grinding (hamburger)
Slicing the cooked meat very thin against the grain (as in London broil)
Inspection and Grading
Cooks and food-service operators in the United States are assisted in their evaluation of
meats by a federal inspection and grading system.
Figure 10.1
USDA inspection stamp for meat
Inspection
1. Inspection is a guarantee of wholesomeness, not of quality or tenderness. It means
the animal was not diseased and the meat is clean and fit for human consumption.
2. That the meat passed inspection is indicated by a round stamp (Figure 10.1).
3. Inspection is required by U.S. federal law. All meat must be inspected.
Quality Grading
1. Grading is a quality designation.
Figure 10.2
USDA grade stamp for meat
2. The grade is indicated by a shield stamp (Figure 10.2).
3. Grading is not required by U.S. law. (Some packers use a private grading system and
give different brand names to different grades. Reliability of private grades depends
on the integrity of the packer.)
Quality grading is based on the texture, firmness, and color of the lean meat, the age or
maturity of the animal, and the marbling (the fat within the lean).
All these factors must be considered together. For example, old, tough meat can still
have marbling, but it would rate a low grade because of the other factors. Table 10.1 summarizes USDA meat grades.
Yield Grading
In addition to quality grading, beef and lamb are graded according to how much usable meat in
proportion to fat they have. This is called yield grading. The meatiest grade is Yield Grade 1.
Poorest yield (much exterior fat) is Yield Grade 5.
Pork is yield-graded from 1 to 4, but most pork is sold already cut and trimmed.
Veal, which has little fat, is not yield-graded.
Aging
Green Meat
Soon after slaughter, an animal’s muscles stiffen due to chemical changes in the flesh. This
stiffness, called rigor mortis, gradually disappears. Softening takes three to four days for
beef, less time for smaller carcasses like veal, lamb, and pork. This softening is caused by
enzymes in the flesh.
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279
Table 10.1 USDA Meat Grades
Char acteristic s
Beef
Veal
Lamb
Pork
Highest quality, highest price,
limited supply.
Prime
Prime
Prime
Pork used in food
service is consistent
in quality and is not
quality-graded. It is
inspected for wholesomeness and
graded for yield.
High in quality, generally tender
and juicy. Abundant supply.
Widely used in food service
as well as in retail.
Choice
Choice
Choice
Lean meat, not as fine or tender.
Economical. Can be tender and
flavorful if cooked carefully.
Used in many institutional foodservice operations.
Select
Good
Good
Least frequently used in food
service. Highest of these grades
are sometimes used in
institutional food service. Lowest
of these grades are used by
canners and processors.
Standard
Commercial
Utility
Cutter
Canner
Standard
Utility
Cull
Utility
Cull
Note: Quality varies within grades. For example, the best Choice beef is close to Prime, while the lowest Choice beef is close to Select.
Green meat is meat that has not had enough time to soften. It is tough and relatively flavorless. Because it takes several days for meats to reach the kitchen from the slaughterhouse,
green meat is seldom a problem with commercially available meats, except when meat is
frozen while still green. The problem is sometimes encountered with game killed for home
consumption, if the hunter cuts and freezes the meat when it is too fresh.
Aged Meat
Enzyme action continues in muscle tissue even after meat is no longer green. This tenderizes
the flesh even more and develops more flavor. Holding meats in coolers under controlled conditions to provide time for this natural tenderizing is called aging.
Beef and lamb can be aged because high-quality carcasses have enough fat cover to
protect them from bacteria and from drying. Veal has no fat cover, so it is not aged. Pork does
not require aging.
Aging does not mean just storing meat in the refrigerator. There is a difference between
aged meat and old meat. Conditions must be carefully controlled so the meat becomes naturally tender without spoiling. There are two primary methods used for aging.
1. Wet aging.
Today, most wholesale meat carcasses are broken down into smaller cuts and enclosed in plastic vacuum packs. These packs are usually known by the trade name
Cryovac®. The air- and moistureproof packaging protects the meat from bacteria
and mold, and it prevents weight loss due to drying. (However, Cryovac-aged meats
often lose more weight in cooking than do dry-aged meats.) Vacuum-pack meats must
be refrigerated.
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KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
• What are the three main components
of meat?
• What is connective tissue? How does it
affect our choice of cooking techniques
for meat?
• What is the difference between inspection and grading?
• What are the best two grades of beef?
of lamb? of pork? of veal?
• What are the two types of aging? What
effect does aging have on meat?
2. Dry aging.
Dry aging is the process of storing meats, usually large cuts, under carefully controlled
conditions. The meat is not packaged or wrapped, and it is exposed to air on all sides.
Temperature, humidity, and air circulation are precisely controlled to prevent spoilage.
Ultraviolet lights are sometimes used in aging coolers to kill bacteria.
Dry-aged meat can lose up to 20 percent of its weight through moisture loss, depending on the size of the cut and how long it is aged. Consequently, dry aging is a
more expensive process than wet aging. Dry-aged meats are usually available from
specialty purveyors only, and at a higher price than wet-aged meats. Many customers
are willing to pay a premium for fine dry-aged steaks because they are considered the
best for flavor and texture.
Aging increases tenderness and flavor. An off taste is not characteristic of aged
meat. If a meat smells or tastes spoiled, it probably is. Sometimes meats in vacuum
packs have a musty aroma when first opened, but this disappears quickly.
Aging costs money. Storage costs, weight loss due to drying, and heavier trimming due to dried and discolored surfaces all add to the price of aged meat (although
wet aging costs less than dry aging). As a meat purchaser, you must decide how much
quality is worth how much cost for your particular establishment.
Understanding
the Basic Cuts
The following discussion of meat cuts focuses on the four primary meat categories in the
wholesale and retail markets: beef, lamb, veal, and pork. Keep in mind, however, that game
animals, discussed later in the chapter, have the same bone and muscle structure and are
generally divided into the same or similar cuts as nongame animals.
Meat cuts are based on two factors:
IMPS/NAMP
CLASSIFICATIONS
1. The muscle and bone structure of the meat.
2. Uses of and appropriate cooking methods for various parts of the animal.
The IMPS/NAMP system assigns a series of numbers to each major category
of meat, as detailed in Table 10.2. Beef,
for example, is the 100 series. This
means all large beef cuts, from whole
carcass to primals and prepared roasts,
are assigned a three-digit number from
100 to 199. Portion-size and smaller
cuts of beef, such as steaks and stew
meat, are assigned a four-digit number,
also beginning with 1. For example, a
whole beef rib, roast-ready, has the
number 109; a beef rib steak, bone in,
is 1103.
Note that variety meats and processed
meat products, such as cured and
smoked meats and sausages, are also
categorized (see Table 10.2).
Food-service suppliers in the United States may follow a set of specifications called
Institution Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS). (IMPS, including numbers and names of
cuts, are the same as the North American Meat Processors Association, or NAMP, specifications.) All cuts are described in detail and listed by number. This simplifies purchasing, as
you can order by number exactly the cut you want.
Available Forms: Carcasses,
Partial Carcasses,
Primals, and Fabricated Cuts
Beef, lamb, veal, and pork may be purchased in some or all of these forms. Mutton and goat
are also given NAMP classification numbers, as indicated in Table 10.2, but they have minimal importance in North American food service and are not covered here.
Carcasses
The carcass is the whole animal, minus the entrails, head, feet, and hide (except pork, from
which only the entrails and head are removed). Whole carcasses are rarely purchased by
food-service operators because of the skill and labor required in cutting and because of the
problem of total utilization.
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281
Sides, Quarters, Foresaddles, Hindsaddles
These represent the first step in breaking down a carcass.
Again, these larger cuts are no longer frequently used in food service. Fewer establishments cut their own meats.
1. Beef is split first through the backbone into sides. Sides are divided between the 12th
and 13th ribs into forequarter and hindquarter.
2. Veal and lamb are not split into sides but are divided in half into foresaddle and hindsaddle. For veal, the cut is made between the 11th and 12th ribs. Lamb, on the other
hand, is split either between the 12th and 13th rib or after the 13th rib, depending on
the cutting style. For more information, see the charts on pages 286–287.
3. Pork carcasses are not divided in this way. They are cut directly into primal cuts (see
below).
Primal or Wholesale Cuts
These are the primary divisions of quarters, foresaddles, hindsaddles, and carcasses. These
cuts, called primal cuts, are still used, to some extent, in food service, because they
Table 10.2
IMPS/NAMPS Meat Categories
Series
Number
Series
Name
100
Fresh Beef
200
Fresh Lamb
and Mutton
300
Fresh Veal and Calf
400
Fresh Pork
500
Cured, Cure and
Smoked, and
Cooked Pork
Products
600
Cured, Dried, and
Smoked Beef
Products
700
Variety Meats and
Edible Byproducts
800
Sausage Products
11
Fresh Goat
1. Are small enough to be manageable in many food-service kitchens.
2. Are still large enough to allow a variety of cuts for different uses or needs.
3. Are easier to utilize completely than quarters or halves.
Each primal may be fabricated, or cut up and trimmed, in several ways. Primal cuts are
always the starting point for smaller cuts. For this reason, it will benefit you to be able to identify each one. Study the charts and photos in Figures 10.3 through 10.6. (Please note the
lamb chart in Figure 10.5 shows the traditional cuts, not the alternative cuts mentioned in
the preceding section.) Learn the names of the primals, their location on the carcass, and the
most important cuts that come from each. Then, whenever you work with a piece of meat, try
to identify it exactly and match it with its primal cut.
Fabricated Cuts
Primal cuts are fabricated into smaller cuts for roasts, steaks, chops, cutlets, stewing meat,
ground meat, and so forth, according to individual customer requirements and, if applicable, IMPS/NAMP specifications.
The amount of trim and exact specifications can have many variations. For example, a
beef primal rib can be trimmed and prepared for roasting at least nine ways.
Portion-controlled cuts are ready-to-cook meats cut according to customer’s specifications. Steaks and chops are ordered either by weight per steak or by thickness. Portioncontrolled cuts require the least work for the cook of all meat cuts. They are also the most
expensive per pound of all categories of cuts.
Bone Structure
Knowing the bone structure of meat animals is essential for:
1. Identifying meat cuts.
The distinctive shapes of the bones are often the best clue to the identification of a
cut. Note how the shapes of the bones in the photographs in Figures 10.3 through 10.6
help your recognition.
2. Boning and cutting meats.
Bones are often surrounded by flesh. You need to know where they are even if you can’t
see them.
3. Carving cooked meats.
Same reason as number 2.
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Figure 10.3 Beef.
(a) Primal (wholesale) beef meat cuts
(b) Primal (wholesale) beef cuts and their bone structure
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
Beef chuck, boneless, separated into
blade, clod, and arm (IMPS/NAMPS 115)
Beef rib, roast ready
Beef rib steak
(IMPS/NAMPS 109)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1103)
(Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
Beef short loin
Beef porterhouse steak
(IMPS/NAMPS 1173)
(IMPS/NAMPS 174)
(Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
Beef loin
(IMPS/NAMPS 172)
(Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
Beef T-bone steak
Beef tenderloin, trimmed
(IMPS/NAMPS 1174)
(IMPS/NAMPS 189A)
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UNDERSTANDING THE BASIC CU TS
Beef strip loin
Beef outside (bottom) round
Beef round steak
(IMPS/NAMPS 175)
(IMPS/NAMPS 170)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1170)
(Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
Beef shank, cross-cuts
(IMPS/NAMPS 117)
Beef inside (top) round
Beef knuckle, untrimmed
Beef flank steak
(IMPS/NAMPS 168)
(IMPS/NAMPS 167)
(IMPS/NAMPS 193)
(Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
Figure 10.4 Veal
(a) Primal (wholesale) veal meat cuts
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
(b) Primal (wholesale) veal cuts and their bone structure
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
Veal rib roast
Veal breast
(IMPS/NAMPS 306)
(IMPS/NAMPS 313)
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UNDERSTANDING MEATS AND GAME
Figure 10.5 Lamb.
(a) Primal (wholesale) lamb meat cuts
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
(b) Primal (wholesale) lamb cuts and their bone structure
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
Lamb loin roast
Lamb arm chop
Lamb shoulder blade chop
Lamb rib chop
Lamb loin chop
(IMPS/NAMPS 232A)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1207)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1207)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1204)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1232a)
Lamb, square-cut shoulder, whole
Lamb, whole leg
Lamb, boneless shoulder, rolled and tied
Lamb foreshank
(IMPS/NAMPS 207)
(IMPS/NAMPS 233)
(IMPS/NAMPS 208)
(IMPS/NAMPS 210)
Figure 10.6 Pork.
(a) Primal (wholesale) pork meat cuts
(b) Primal (wholesale) pork cuts and their bone structure
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board
Pork tenderloin
Pork shoulder butt
(IMPS/NAMPS 415)
(IMPS/NAMPS 406)
Full pork loin (includes ribs)
Pork loin chops
Pork rib half and loin half roasts
(IMPS/NAMPS 410)
(IMPS/NAMPS 1410)
(IMPS/NAMPS 410)
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Study the chart of the beef skeleton in Figure 10.7 and learn the names of the major
bones. Then compare the charts in Figures 10.3 through 10.6. You will see the bone structures for all the animals are identical (except for pork, which has more than 13 ribs). Even the
names are the same.
Figure 10.7 Beef bone structure
1. Neck bone
2. Backbone
2a. Feather bone
2b. Finger bone
2c. Chine bone
3. Tailbone
4. Blade bone
5. Arm bone
6. Foreshank bone
7. Breastbone
8. Rib cartilage
9. Ribs
10. Pelvis
10a. Hip bone
10b. Rump or aitch bone
285
MEAT-CUT TING
TERMINOLOGY
Although the public refers to retail
meat cutters as butchers, the meat industry uses this term another way. To
butcher means to kill and dress a meat
animal. To fabricate means to cut raw
meat into smaller pieces.
A third term, carve, also means to
cut meat, but this always refers to
cooked meat.
11. Leg or round bone
12. Kneecap
13. Hindshank bone
The photographs in Figures 10.3 through 10.6 depict typical primal and fabricated cuts
of beef, lamb, veal, and pork (courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board and National Pork
Producers Council).
Beef, Lamb, Veal, and Pork Cuts
Beef Primal Cuts and Fabricated Cuts
Primal
Major Bones
Common Fa bric ated Cu ts
Primary Cooking Methods
Chuck (square cut)
Ribs 1–5
Blade bone
Backbone (including chine
and feather bones)
Neck bones
Arm bone
Shoulder clod
Triangle
Boneless inside chuck
Chuck tender
Chuck short ribs
Cubed steaks
Stew meat
Ground chuck
Moist heat
Brisket
Rib bones
Rib cartilage
Breastbone
Boneless brisket and
corned beef brisket
Ground beef
Moist heat
Shank
Shankbone
Stew meat
Ground beef
Moist heat
Forequarter
Note: Square-cut chuck, brisket, and shank, in one piece, are called cross-cut chuck.
Rib
Short plate
Ribs 6–12
Backbone (chine and
feather bones)
Rib roasts (prime rib)
Rib steaks
Short ribs
Rib bones
Tip of breastbone
Rib cartilage
Short ribs
Stew meat
Ground beef
Dry heat
Moist heat
Moist heat
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Beef Primal Cuts and Fabricated Cuts (continued)
Primal
Major Bones
Common Fa bric ated Cu ts
Primary Cooking Methods
Full tenderloin (to have tenderloin
in one piece, it must be stripped out
of loin before loin is split into short
loin and sirloin)
Club steaks
T-bone steaks
Porterhouse steaks
Strip loin
Strip loin steaks
Short tenderloin
Top sirloin butt
Bottom sirloin butt
Butt tenderloin
Flank steak
Ground beef
Dry heat
Hindquarter
(Full loin)
Short loin
Rib 13
Backbone (chine, feather
bones, finger bones;
see Note 1)
Sirloin
Backbone
Hip bone (part of pelvis)
Flank
Tip of rib 13
Round
Round (leg) bone
Aitch bone (part of pelvis)
Shankbone
Tailbone
Knuckle (sirloin tip)
Inside (top) round
Outside (bottom) round
Eye of round (part of outside round)
Rump
Hind shank
Dry heat
Dry heat
Moist heat (exception:
flank steak cooked as
London broil)
Moist heat and dry heat
Note 1: Finger bones are the short horizontal bones attached to those chine bones that have no ribs attached. They are stems of the Ts in T-bones.
Lamb Primal Cuts and Fabricated Cuts
Primal
Major Bones
Common Fa bric ated Cu ts
Primary Cooking Methods
Foresaddle
Shoulder
Breast and shank
Hotel rack
Ribs 1–4 or 1–5 (see Note 2)
Arm
Blade
Backbone (chine and feather bones)
Neck bones
Rib bones
Rib cartilage
Breastbone
Shankbone
Ribs 5–12 or 6–13 (see Note 2)
Backbone
Shoulder roasts
Shoulder chops
Stew meat
Ground lamb
Moist heat and dry heat
Riblets
Breast
Stew meat
Ground lamb
Rib roasts (rack)
Crown roast
Ribs, chops
Moist heat
Loin roast
Loin chops
Leg roast
Leg chops
Sirloin chops
Shank
Dry heat
Dry heat
Note: Hotel rack plus connecting portions of breast is called a bracelet.
Hindsaddle
Loin (with or
without flank)
Leg
Rib 13 (optional; see Note 2)
Backbone (chine, feather bones, finger bones)
Backbone
Tailbone
Pelvis
Round bone
Hindshank
Dry heat
Moist heat
Note: Hotel rack and loin attached are called lamb back; used mostly for chops.
Note 2: There are two cutting styles for lamb carcasses. In style A, the carcass is divided between the 4th and 5th ribs and again between the 12th and 13th ribs. In style B,
the cuts are made between the 5th and 6th ribs and again behind the 13th rib. Both styles yield 8-rib racks. Style B produces a rack with a more uniform eye muscle through
the length of the rack.
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287
Veal Primal Cuts and Fabricated Cuts
Primal
Major Bones
Common Fa bric ated Cu ts
Primary Cooking Methods
Foresaddle
Shoulder
(square cut)
Ribs 1–4 or 1–5 (see Note 3)
Blade bone
Backbone (chine and feather bones)
Neck bones
Arm bone
Breast
Rib bones
Rib cartilage
Breastbone
Shankbone
Ribs 5–11 or 6–11 (see Note 3)
Backbone (chine and feather bones)
Shank
Hotel rack
Shoulder roasts
Shoulder chops
Shoulder clod steaks
Cubed steaks
Stew meat
Ground veal
Boneless breast
Cubed steaks
Ground veal
Shank cross-cut (osso buco)
Rib roast
Rib chops
Moist heat and dry heat
Moist heat
Moist heat
Dry heat and moist heat
Note: Hotel rack plus connecting portions of breast is called a bracelet.
Hindsaddle
Loin (with or
without flank)
Leg
Ribs 12 and 13
Backbone (chine, feather bones, finger bones)
Backbone
Tailbone
Pelvis (hip bone, aitch bone)
Round bone
Hindshank
Saddle (loin roast)
Loin chops
Leg roast
Scaloppine or cutlets
Shank cross-cut (osso buco)
Dry heat and moist heat
Dry heat
Moist heat
Note: Hotel rack and loin attached are called veal back; used mostly for chops.
Note 3: The shoulder may be separated from the rack between the 4th and 5th ribs to yield a 7-rib rack, or between the 5th and 6th ribs to yield a 6-rib rack.
Pork Primal Cuts and Fabricated Cuts
Primal
Major Bones
Shoulder picnic
Shoulder (arm) bone
Shankbone
Boston butt
Blade bone (rib bones, back and neck bones
are removed)
Loin
Rib bones (see Note 4)
Backbone (chine, feather bones, finger bones)
Hip bone
Ham
Aitch bone
Leg bone
Hindshank bone
None
Rib bones
Breastbone
None
Belly
Spare ribs
Fatback and
clear plate
Jowl
Feet
None
Foot bones
Common Fa bric ated Cu ts
Primary Cooking Methods
Fresh and smoked picnic
Hocks
Ground pork
Sausage meat
Butt steaks
Shoulder roasts
Daisy (smoked)
Ground pork
Sausage meat
Loin roast
Loin and rib chops
Boneless loin
Country-style ribs
Canadian-style bacon
(smoked)
Fresh ham
Smoked ham
Ham steaks
Bacon
Spareribs
Moist heat
Fresh and salt fatback
Salt pork
Lard
Jowl bacon
(Used as cooking fats)
Note 4: Pork has more than 13 ribs (unlike beef, lamb, and veal) due to special breeding to develop long loins.
Dry heat and moist heat
Dry heat and moist heat
Dry heat and moist heat
Dry heat and moist heat
Moist heat
Moist heat
Moist heat
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Selecting Meats
for Your Operation
Deciding Which Forms to Purchase
Whether you buy whole carcasses, fabricated cuts, or anything in between depends on four
factors:
1. How much meat-cutting skill you or your staff has.
2. How much work and storage space you have.
3. Whether or not you can use all cuts and lean trim on your menu.
4. Which form gives you the best cost per portion after figuring in labor costs.
Meat purveyors can usually cut meat more economically than food-service operators can
because they deal in large volume. Carcasses or primal cuts cost less per pound than fabricated cuts, but they have more waste (fat and bone) and require more labor (which costs
money). However, some operators still do some of their own cutting, depending on how they
answer the four questions above. They feel cutting their own meat gives them greater control
over quality.
Some compromises are available. If you want the quality of freshly cut steaks, for example, you might buy boneless strip loins and cut your own steaks to order. You need not buy
primal loins.
Specifications
When buying meat, you must indicate the following specifications:
1. Item name.
Include IMPS/NAMPS number, if applicable.
Example: 173 Beef Short Loin, Regular
2. Grade.
Example: U.S. Choice
(You may also want to specify division of grade, such as the upper half or lower half of
U.S. Choice.)
3. Weight range for roasts and large cuts.
Portion weight or thickness (not both) for steaks and chops.
4. State of refrigeration.
Chilled or frozen.
Figure 10.8
The radura is the international symbol for
irradiation.
5. Fat limitations, or average thickness of surface fat.
Example: 3⁄4 inch average, 1 inch maximum.
(This does not apply to veal.)
Meat purchasers may also have to choose whether or not to purchase irradiated meat.
Irradiation is the process of exposing foods to radiation in order to kill bacteria, parasites,
and other potentially harmful organisms. Irradiation does not harm the meat, make it
radioactive, or change its structure, flavor, or nutritional value. Foods treated with radiation
must be labeled as such. In the United States, for example, the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) requires that irradiated foods include labeling with either the statement “treated with
radiation” or “treated by irradiation” and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura
(Figure 10.8).
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289
Some operators refuse to purchase irradiated foods because they or their customers
have concerns about their health effects. The procedure has generated much controversy for
other reasons as well. For example, some see the availability of the process as an excuse to
avoid normal sanitation procedures. Nevertheless, there is so far no evidence that these
foods are harmful for human beings to eat.
Fabricating Meat
Even though few operations today purchase large cuts, such as primals, and break them
down in-house, you still need to know a number of trimming and fabricating techniques to
finish or modify the fabricated cuts you purchase. The illustrations in this section demonstrate important procedures. These procedures are used for recipes in Chapter 11.
One term you will encounter often when trimming meat is silverskin, a thin layer or membrane of connective tissue that often covers the surface of a muscle. For braised meats, it is
not always necessary to remove silverskin, unless it is very heavy, because slow cooking
breaks down the collagen of the tissue. However, for roasts, sautés, and grills of tender
meats, it should be removed for two reasons: (1) It is tough and would be unpleasantly chewy
in the cooked product; (2) It usually shrinks when cooked, making the meat deform or curl.
To remove silverskin:
1. Hold the blade of the knife parallel to the silverskin and perpendicular to the grain of
the meat.
2. Insert the tip of the blade just under the silverskin.
3. Hold the knife so the edge of the blade angles slightly upward. Carefully slip the blade
under the silverskin in the direction of the grain of the meat while holding the meat
steady with your other hand. (Angling the blade upward keeps it from digging into the
meat.)
4. Repeat until all silverskin is removed.
This technique is illustrated in Figures 10.9, 10.15, and 10.16.
Figure 10.9 Preparing beef tenderloin.
(a) A whole, untrimmed beef
tenderloin.
(b) Pull off the heavy fat from the
outside of the tenderloin, freeing it
with a knife as necessary.
(e) The fully trimmed tenderloin before cutting.
(c) Separate the strip of gristly meat, or
chain, from the side of the tenderloin.
Use this piece for ground meat.
(f) Cut into steaks of the desired size.
(d) Carefully remove the silverskin.
(g) This tenderloin has been cut into a variety of
steaks as a demonstration. From left to right: four
fillet steaks, two large pieces for Châteaubriand,
two tournedos, four fillets mignons. In front:
trimmings from both ends.
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Figure 10.10 Shaping medallions.
Figure 10.11 Preparing a leg of lamb for roasting.
(a) Begin by removing the hip and tail bones.
(b) With a sharp-pointed boning knife, cut along
the hip bone to separate bone from meat. Always
cut against the bone.
(c) Continue until the hip bone and tailbone are
completely removed. Note the round ball joint at
the end of the leg bone in the center of the meat.
(d) Trim off excess external fat, leaving a thin
covering.
(e) Pull off the skin or fell on the outside of
the leg.
(f) Full leg of lamb, ready for roasting. The end of
the shankbone and part of the shank meat have
been removed.
(g) The leg may be tied into a more compact shape.
(h) The sirloin portion may be cut off and used for
another purpose, such as shish kebabs.
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Figure 10.12 Preparing a rack of lamb for roasting.
(a) Begin by cutting down on both sides of the
feather bones all the way to the chine bone.
(b) If a meat saw is available, turn the rack over and
cut through the rib bones where they attach to the
chine bone.
(c) If a meat saw is not available, use a cleaver.
Stand the roast on end and cut through the rib
bones where they join the chine bone. This
separates one rack.
(d) Repeat the procedure on the other side of the
chine.
(e) The two halves are separated from the chine.
(f) Trim excess fat from the top of the meat, leaving
a thin protective covering. During this step, you
should also remove the shoulder blade cartilage,
which is embedded in the layers of fat.
(g) To trim the fat and meat from the ends of the
bones (called frenching the bones), first cut
through the fat in a straight line down to the bone,
keeping the cut about 1 in. (2.5 cm) from the tip of
the eye muscle.
(h) Score the membrane covering the rib bones. Pull
and cut the layer of fat from the bones.
(i) The roast is trimmed and ready to cook.
(b) Open the cut meat and spread the filling on the
bottom half.
(c) Fold the top half over the filling to reform the loin.
Figure 10.13 Butterflying and stuffing a pork loin.
(a) To butterfly, hold the knife blade parallel to the
table and cut through the center of the loin as
shown. Do not cut all the way through, but leave the
meat attached at one edge.
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Figure 10.14 Tying a roast.
(a) Tie a length of butcher’s twine tightly around
one end of the roast. After tying the knot securely,
twist the length of twine into a loop as shown.
(b) Pass the loop over the end of the roast.
(c) Position the loop an inch or two (2.5-5 cm) from
the first loop and pull the loose end to tighten.
(d) Continue making loops and tightening them
until the whole length of meat is tied.
(e) Turn the meat upside down. Pass the loose end
of the twine under the last loop and wind it once
around as shown.
(f) Repeat step e with each of the loops. When you
reach the end of the roast, tie it off securely to the
short length of twine from the knot made in the
first step.
Figure 10.15 Trimming, cutting, and pounding veal for scaloppine.
(a) Remove all tendons and connective tissue (silverskin)
from the veal. Slip the point of a thin boning knife under
the skin. Angle the edge of the blade upward against the
skin and cut it away carefully without cutting through
the meat.
(d) . . . leave it attached.
(b) Holding the blade of the knife at an angle if necessary
to get a broader slice, cut across the grain of the meat as
shown to make thin slices.
(e) Then cut a second slice the same
way, but cut all the way through.
(f) A butterflied scaloppine is twice as
large as a single slice. Unfortunately,
it has a seam in the center that often
detracts from the appearance of the
finished dish, unless the veal is
breaded or covered with a topping.
(c) Broader slices can be cut from
narrower pieces of meat by
butterflying. Cut the slice almost
through the meat but . . .
(g) If desired, pound the cutlet to an
even thickness with a cutlet mallet.
This helps disguise the seam in a
butterflied cutlet.
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Figure 10.16 Trimming a pork tenderloin.
Figure 10.17 For stuffed pork chops, cut a pocket in the
chops as shown.
Figure 10.18 Larding meat using a larding needle.
(a) Cut a strip of fatback to fit inside the needle.
(b) Insert the needle through the meat. Pull out the needle,
holding the strip of fat so it stays inside the meat.
Cooking and Handling Meats
Tenderness and Appropriate
Cooking Methods
The heat of cooking affects tenderness in two ways:
1. It tenderizes connective tissue if moisture is present and cooking is slow.
2. It toughens protein. Even meats low in connective tissue can be tough and dry if
cooked at excessively high heats for too long.
The Principles of Low-Heat Cooking
1. High heat toughens and shrinks protein and results in excessive moisture loss. Therefore, low-heat cooking should be the general practice for most meat cooking methods.
2. Broiling seems to be a contradiction to this rule. The reason carefully broiled meat
stays tender is that it is done quickly. It takes time for the heat to be conducted to the
interior of the meat, so the inside never gets very hot. Meat broiled to the point of being well done, however, is likely to be dry.
293
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3. Roasts cooked at low temperatures have better yields than those roasted at high
heat—that is, they shrink less and lose less moisture.
4. Because both liquid and steam are better conductors of heat than air, moist heat
penetrates meat quickly. Therefore, to avoid overcooking, meat should be simmered,
never boiled.
Breaking Down Connective Tissue
MILK-FED, GRAIN-FED,
OR GRASS-FED
The properties of meats are determined,
in part, by the diet of the animals. Most
of the beef on the market in North
America is grain-fed, even though
grass, not grain, is the natural diet of
cattle. Feeding cattle grain enables
producers to raise and fatten them for
market more quickly than letting them
browse on grass does. Grain-fed beef is
tender and has more marbling than
grass-fed beef, and it is preferred by
most North American consumers.
Grass-fed or pastured beef is usually
perceived as less tender and less juicy,
although it is lower in saturated fat and
may have more health benefits. Its
flavor is often described as “beefier”
than that of grain-fed beef. Grass-fed
beef is common in some other countries, such as the beef-eating and beefproducing nation of Argentina. In
North America, producers of pastured
beef are campaigning for more consumer recognition.
(continues next page)
Remember that connective tissue is highest in muscles that are frequently exercised and in
mature animals.
Look again at the primary cooking methods (column 4) in the table of meat cuts (p. 285).
You should detect a pattern of tender cuts, cooked primarily by dry heat; slightly less tender
cuts, cooked sometimes by dry and sometimes by moist heat; and least tender cuts, cooked
almost always by moist heat.
The concept of moist-heat cooking needs further explanation as it applies to breaking
down connective tissue in meat. The usual explanation of the effect of moist heat on connective tissue is that heat breaks down collagen in the presence of moisture. But meat is
about 75 percent water, so moisture is always present. Collagen breaks down because of
long, slow cooking, no matter what cooking method is used.
The catch is that, for small cuts of meat, dry-heat cooking methods are usually short,
quick methods. Cooking must be short, in part because too long an exposure to dry heat results in excessive moisture loss from the product. The terms moist-heat cooking method and
dry-heat cooking method refer to the way in which heat is transferred from the heat source to
the food, whether by dry means, like hot air or radiation, or moist means, like steam or simmering liquid. Because the product is surrounded by moisture when it is simmered, steamed,
or braised, moist-heat cooking methods promote moisture retention, not moisture loss, so
cooking time can be as long as desired.
A tough steak on the grill or in the oven doesn’t have enough time to become tender before it is dried out. On the other hand, large cuts of less tender meat can be roasted successfully because they are too large to dry out during a long roasting time. A 40-pound (18-kg)
roast steamship round of beef can be tender because it takes hours to cook even to the rare
stage. A grilled steak cut from the same round, however, is likely to be tough.
To summarize: Long, slow cooking tenderizes collagen. Moist-heat methods are most
suitable for long, slow cooking. Dry-heat methods usually are short, quick cooking methods,
suitable only for tender cuts, except when larger items are roasted for a relatively long time.
The following list summarizes the cooking characteristics of the major cuts.
1. Rib and loin cuts.
Always the most tender cuts, used mostly for roasts, steaks, and chops.
Beef and lamb. Because these meats are often eaten rare or medium done, the rib and
loin are used almost exclusively for roasting, broiling, and grilling.
Veal and pork. Pork is generally eaten well done, and veal is most often eaten well
done, although many people prefer it slightly pink in the center. Therefore, these meats
are occasionally braised, not to develop tenderness but to help preserve juices. Veal
chops, which are very low in fat, may be broiled if great care is taken not to overcook
them and dry them out. A safer approach is to use a method with fat, such as sautéing
or pan-frying, or to use moist heat.
2. Leg or round.
Beef. The cuts of the round are less tender and are used mostly for braising.
Top grades, such as U.S. Prime, U.S. Choice, Canada Prime, and Canada AAA, can
also be roasted. The roasts are so large that, roasted at low temperatures for a long
time, the beef’s own moisture helps dissolve collagen. Inside round (top round) is favored for roasts because of its size and relative tenderness.
Beef round is very lean. It is best roasted rare. Lack of fat makes well-done round
taste dry.
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Veal, lamb, and pork. These meats are from young animals and therefore tender
enough to roast.
Legs make excellent roasts because large muscles with few seams
and uniform grain allow easy slicing and attractive portions.
Figure 10.19 shows the muscle structure of the round
in cross section. A center-cut steak from a whole
round of beef, lamb, veal, or pork has this same
Knuckle
or tip
basic structure.
Inside (top) round
3. Chuck or shoulder.
Beef. Beef chuck is a tougher cut that is usually braised.
Although chuck is not the ideal choice for braising if
uniform slices are desired, it makes braised dishes of
Leg or
excellent eating quality. Its connective tissue is easily round bone
broken down by moist cooking, yielding moist, tender
meat with abundant gelatin content.
Veal, lamb, and pork. These are most often braised but are
young enough to be roasted or cut into chops for broiling.
Shoulder roasts are not the most desirable because they consist of many
small muscles running in several directions. Therefore, they do not produce
attractive, solid slices.
4. Shanks, breast, brisket, and flank.
These are the least tender cuts, even on young animals, and are almost always cooked
by moist heat.
Shanks are desirable for braising and simmering because their high collagen
content is converted into gelatin that gives body to braising liquids and good eating
quality to the meat.
Beef flank steaks can be broiled (as London broil) if they are cooked rare and cut
across the grain into thin slices. This cuts the connective tissue into chewable pieces
(see mechanical tenderization, p. 278).
5. Ground meat, cubed steaks, and stew meat.
These can come from any primal cut. They are usually made from trimmings, although
whole chucks are sometimes ground into chopped meat. Ground meat and cubed
steaks can be cooked by dry or moist heat because they are mechanically tenderized.
Stew meat is, of course, cooked by moist heat.
Other Factors Influencing Choice of Cooking Methods
1. Fat content.
Meats high in fat, such as Prime beef or lamb, are generally cooked without added fat,
such as by roasting or broiling.
Meats low in fat, such as veal, are often cooked with added fat to prevent dryness.
Sautéing, pan-frying, or braising is generally preferable to broiling for veal chops that
are cooked well done.
Fat can be added to lean meats in two ways:
• Barding. Tying slices of fat, such as pork fatback, over meats with no natural fat
cover to protect them while roasting.
• Larding. Inserting strips of fat with a larding needle into meats low in marbling.
These two techniques were developed in Europe when meats were much leaner
and not as tender. They are not often used with today’s tender, grain-fed meats. These
techniques are useful, however, when cooking lean game, such as venison.
Eye round
Outside (bottom) round
Figure 10.19 Location of the muscles in a
whole center-cut round steak of beef, veal,
lamb, or pork.
The effect of diet can be seen in
other meat animals. Traditionally, the
highest-quality veal is considered to be
so-called milk-fed veal, more properly
called formula-fed. The meat is light
pink in color and mild and delicate in
flavor. Calves fed solid food or allowed
into a pasture have darker, more reddish meat with a somewhat beefier flavor. Ethical objections exist about the
raising of formula-fed veal because the
animals are penned and not allowed
much movement. As for the flavor of
milk-fed versus pastured veal, this is a
matter of personal preference.
The youngest lamb is called spring
lamb. It is slaughtered before it begins
a diet of solid food, and its meat is light
in color and delicate in flavor. Older
lamb is darker in color and has a more
pronounced flavor. After the age of one
year, this meat is no longer called lamb
but mutton, and it has a still darker
color and stronger flavor. Little mutton
is sold in North America. (In some markets the name mutton may also be used
for goat meat, although this is not traditional English usage.)
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2. Developing tenderness is not the only goal of cooking.
Other goals are
• Developing flavor.
• Preventing excessive shrinkage and nutrient loss.
• Developing appearance.
You must often compromise to get a balanced result. For example, preliminary browning of a roast at high heat increases shrinkage but may be desirable for some roasts to
develop flavor and appearance.
Searing and “Sealing”
SEARING
Searing meats at high heat creates desirable flavor and color by browning the surfaces. It was
long believed that searing the surface of meat “seals the pores,” keeping in juices.
This does not actually happen. Meat does not have pores but rather an open network of
fibers. Think of the surface of a steak as resembling the cut end of a thick rope. There are no
pores to seal. It is true that heavy browning creates a kind of crust on the surface of the meat,
but this crust is no more waterproof than an unbrowned surface.
You can easily demonstrate this. Place a steak or chop on a hot griddle or grill and sear it
well. Turn it over and continue cooking. As it cooks, you will see meat juices driven up through
the seared top surface. You will continue to hear a sizzling sound, which is the sound of moisture escaping from the meat and quickly vaporizing. Remove the finished steak from the grill
and let it set on a plate for a few minutes, and you will see a small pool of juices collect. Everyone who has cooked a steak has seen this demonstration that searing doesn’t seal.
Roasts cooked from the start at a low temperature retain more juices than roasts that are
seared at high heat first.
Steaks, chops, and cutlets cooked quickly at high heat retain more moisture at first because the intense heat instantly evaporates the juices from the surface of the meat and forces
internal juices further into the meat. This permits browning, because moisture creates steam
and inhibits browning. However, overcooked steaks are dry whether or not they were seared.
BLANCHING AND “SEALING”
Dropping meat into boiling water doesn’t seal the pores either. What actually happens is this:
Many proteins dissolve in cold water. When heated, these proteins coagulate and become
froth or scum on the surface of the water. When meat is placed into boiling water, some of
the protein coagulates inside that meat, and not as much is carried out of the meat with the
lost moisture. Prolonged cooking shrinks meat as much if started in boiling water as if started
in cold water.
Cooking Frozen Meats
Some sources recommend cooking some meats from the frozen state, without thawing, in
order to eliminate drip loss that occurs during defrosting. However, it is usually better to thaw
before cooking because of the following reasons:
1. Frozen meats lose no moisture from defrosting but lose more during cooking. The total
loss is about the same as for thawed meats. Besides, the perception of juiciness depends as much or more on fat content than on moisture content.
2. Cooking frozen meats complicates the cooking process and requires adjustments in
procedure. It is possible for roasts to be cooked on the outside but still frozen in the
center. Frozen steaks, too, are more difficult to cook evenly than thawed steaks.
Thawed meats, on the other hand, are handled like fresh meats.
3. Cooking frozen meats requires extra energy, and energy is expensive. A hard-frozen
roast may take 3 times as long to cook as a thawed roast.
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Doneness
Definitions
The meaning of the term doneness depends on whether the cooking method uses dry heat or
moist heat.
1. Dry heat.
Meat is “done” when the proteins have reached the desired degree of coagulation (see
p. 65), as indicated by internal temperature.
2. Moist heat.
Meat is “done” when connective tissues have broken down enough for the meat to be
palatable. With a few exceptions, meat cooked by moist heat is always well done.
Dry-Heat Cooking
The object of dry-heat cooking is to achieve the desired degree of doneness (protein coagulation)
while preserving natural tenderness and juiciness.
DEGREE OF DONENESS
As meat cooks, its pigments change color. These color changes indicate degrees of doneness.
Red meat (beef and lamb) changes from red to pink to gray or gray-brown.
• Rare: browned surface; thin layer of cooked (gray) meat; red interior
• Medium: thicker layer of gray; pink interior
• Well done: gray throughout
(Of course, there are stages in between.)
White meat (veal and pork) changes from pink or gray-pink to white or off-white. It is
generally cooked well done, although many cuts of veal may be considered done when
still slightly pink in the center.
As explained on page 23, trichinosis is a disease caused by a parasite that lives in the
muscle tissue of hogs and some wild animals. In countries in which this disease is a problem, pork must be cooked long enough to eliminate this danger. This parasite is killed at
137°F (58°C), but, to be safe, pork should be cooked to at least 150° to 155°F (66° to 68°C).
At this stage, pork is only medium to medium-well done. Some people are happy to eat pork
that is still pink in the center, but most people prefer it to be cooked slightly more than this.
On the other hand, it is not necessary to cook pork to 185°F (85°C), as older guidelines said. At
this temperature, pork is overcooked and dry. For diners who avoid any trace of pink in pork,
perhaps the best doneness range is 160° to 170°F (71° to 77°C).
TESTING DONENESS
Determining doneness is one of the most difficult and critical aspects of meat cooking. Anyone
can put a steak on the grill or a roast in the oven. But it takes experience and skill to take it
off the fire at the right time.
Color change cannot be used to test doneness because it would be necessary to cut the
meat. Piercing the meat and examining the color of the juices is not a reliable method.
I N T E R N A L T E M P E R AT U R E
Testing the interior of meat with a meat thermometer is the most accurate method of testing
doneness. Thermometers are of two types: standard, which are inserted before roasting and
left in the roast; and instant-read, which are inserted at any time, read as soon as the needle
stops moving, and pulled out. Whatever thermometer you use, make sure it is clean and
sanitary before inserting it in the meat.
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The tip of the thermometer should be inserted into the center of the thickest part of the
flesh, not touching fat or bone. Table 10.3 gives internal temperatures of meats at various
degrees of doneness.
In general, regional traditions of eating well-done or overcooked meats are decreasing,
and more people are eating meat cooked rare. For decades, meats cooked to an internal temperature of 140°F (60°C) were called rare, but by today’s standards, this is more like medium.
Current preferences are reflected in the temperatures given in Table 10.3.
It should be stated that the USDA and other agencies caution that meats may contain harmful bacteria and parasites. Although studies are still being done, these agencies
suggest meats be cooked to at least 145°F
(63°C) in order to be completely safe. The
Table 10.3 Interior Temperatures of Cooked Meats
USDA requires that beef precooked for foodservice sale (such as precooked roast beef
Meat
Rare
Medium
Well Done
for sandwiches) be heated to an internal
Beef
130°F (54°C)
140°–145°F (60°–63°C)
160°F (71°C)
temperature of at least 145°F (63°C) when it
is processed.
130°F (54°C)
145°F (63°C)
160°F (71°C)
Lamb
You may recall from Chapter 2 that cookVeal
—
145°–150°F (63°–66°C)
160°F (71°C)
ing foods to lower temperatures can make
them safe. Note, however, that according to
Pork
—
—
160°–170°F (71°–77°C)
Table 2.5 on page 30, the lower the final
internal temperature, the longer the product
must be held at that temperature. Thus, for example, a roast may be brought to an internal
temperature of only 130°F (54°C), but it can be considered safe only if it is held at that temperature at least 112 minutes.
Clearly, it is not possible to keep a rare steak at its final temperature for 112 minutes before serving it. According to safety standards, then, rare steaks are not considered safe. Those
who prefer their steaks rare, however, are not likely to be swayed by this argument and will
continue to request meat done to their liking. Each food-service operator must decide
whether to please these customers or to follow food safety guidelines.
In any case, whether or not 145°F (63°C) is the lowest safe temperature for cooking most
meats, it is not really accurate to call it rare.
C A R R YOV E R CO O K I N G
Internal temperature continues to rise even after the meat is removed from the oven. This is
because the outside of roasting meat is hotter than the inside. This heat continues to be conducted into the meat until the heat is equalized throughout the roast.
Carryover cooking can raise internal temperatures from 5°F (3°C) for small cuts to as
much as 25°F (14°C) for very large roasts, such as a steamship round. The usual range is 10°
to 15°F (6° to 8°C) for average roasts. Exact temperature change depends on the size of the
cut and on the oven temperature.
Remove roasts from the oven when internal temperature is 10° to 15°F (6° to 8°C) below
the desired reading. Let the roast stand 15 to 30 minutes before slicing. For example, a beef
rib roast cooked rare should be removed from the oven when the thermometer reads 115° to
120°F (46° to 49°C). Carryover cooking will bring the temperature to 130°F (54°C) after the
roast has stood for 30 minutes.
TOUCH
The small size of steaks and chops makes using a thermometer impractical. The cook must
depend on his or her sense of touch.
Meat gets firmer as it cooks. Pressing it lightly with the finger indicates its doneness.
Press the center of the lean part, not the fat.
Rare. Feels soft, gives to pressure, though not as soft and jellylike as raw meat.
Medium. Feels moderately firm and resilient, springs back readily when pressed.
Well done. Feels firm, does not give to pressure.
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T I M E - W E I G H T R AT I O
Many charts give roasting times per pound of meat. However, these can be approximate only
and should be used in estimating and planning cooking times, not in determining doneness.
Many factors other than weight and oven temperature determine cooking time:
1. Temperature of the meat before roasting.
2. Amount of fat cover (fat acts as an insulator).
3. Bones (bones conduct heat faster than flesh, so boneless roasts cook more slowly than
bone-in roasts of the same weight).
4. Size, type, and contents of the oven.
5. Number of times the oven door is opened.
6. Shape of the cut (a flat or a long, thin cut cooks more quickly per pound than a round,
compact cut).
You can see why roasting requires experience and judgment. To be really accurate and
useful, a complete roasting chart that took all variables into consideration, including all meat
cuts, sizes, oven temperatures, and so on, would be the size of a small book.
Point 6 above is a key point. It is the thickness of a cut, not its weight, that determines
cooking time—the time needed for the heat to penetrate to the center. Half a pork loin roasts
in about the same time as a whole pork loin, even though it weighs half as much. The thickness is the same.
Perhaps the most useful roasting time charts are those you make yourself. When you
regularly roast the same cuts in the same way with the same equipment and find they always
take the same length of time, you may use those times as indicators of doneness. Many foodservice operators have developed charts based on their own practices, and the correct times
are indicated on their individual recipe cards.
Moist-Heat Cooking
Meat cooked by moist heat is cooked well done and actually beyond well done. Doneness is
indicated by tenderness, not by temperature.
Piercing with a meat fork is the usual test for doneness. When the prongs of the fork go in
and slide out easily, the meat is done.
Low temperatures—no higher than simmering—are essential to avoid toughening
protein in moist-cooked meats. Oven temperatures of 250° to 300°F (120° to 150°C) are
usually sufficient to maintain a simmer.
Juiciness
Three main factors determine the juiciness—or, more accurately, the perception of juiciness—
in cooked meat. Despite the myths about basting with stock and about searing meat to “seal
in the juices,” the following are the only factors that have any significant effect on juiciness.
1. Internal fat.
Fat makes meat taste juicy. This is why well-marbled meats taste juicier than lean
meats. We understand the health effects of too much fat in the diet, but there is no getting around the fact that high fat content makes meat taste juicier. When lean meats
are cooked, other measures (such as using sauces and, especially, avoiding overcooking) are used to increase palatability.
2. Gelatin.
This factor is most important in braised meats. Gelatin, converted from connective tissue, helps bind water molecules and hold them in the meat. Also, the texture of the
gelatin improves the texture of the meat in the mouth. This is why braised beef shank
tastes so much juicier than braised outside round.
3. Protein coagulation.
As you know, as protein coagulates or is cooked, it breaks down and begins to lose
water. The more it is cooked, the more it contracts and forces out moisture. No matter
how much you try to sear to “seal in the juices,” this moisture will be lost. The only way
to minimize the loss is to avoid overcooking.
KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
• What are the primal cuts of beef? of
lamb? of veal? of pork? What are the
main fabricated cuts from each of
these primal cuts?
• How do you determine the most
appropriate cooking methods for the
various fabricated cuts of meat?
• How can you tell when meat is done?
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Cooking Variety Meats
Variety meats, also known as offal, include the organs, glands, and other meats that don’t
form a part of the dressed carcass of the animal.
For cooking purposes, we can divide the most popular variety meats into two groups:
Glandular Meats
Liver
Kidneys
Sweetbreads
Brains
Muscle Meats
Heart
Tongue
Tripe
Oxtails
Glandular meats do not consist of muscle tissue like regular meats but instead are
internal organs or glands. This fact is important for two reasons.
First, because they do not consist of bundles of muscle fibers, the texture of glandular
meats is unlike that of regular meats. Because they are not muscle tissue, they are naturally
tender and do not need long, slow cooking like muscular variety meats do. If organ meats are
dry and tough, it is usually because they have been overcooked.
Second, glandular meats are much more perishable than muscle meats. While some
muscle meats, especially beef, benefit from aging, organ meats must be very fresh to be of
the best quality. Liver, sweetbreads, and brains must be used within a day or two after purchase. If brains or sweetbreads must be kept longer, they should be blanched as described
below so they will keep another day or two.
Heart, tongue, oxtails, and tripe are made of muscle tissue, just like other meats from
the carcass. They are all tough, however, and must be cooked for a long time by simmering or
braising in order to be made tender.
Liver
Calf’s liver is the most prized because it is tender and delicate in flavor. It is easily recognized
by its pale, pinkish color. Most calf’s liver is served pan-fried, sautéed, or broiled.
Beef liver is darker in color (see accompanying photo), stronger in flavor, and tougher
than calf’s liver. It is also pan-fried or broiled, and it is frequently braised.
Pork liver is also available, but it is used mostly in pâtés and sausages.
P R E P A R AT I O N
• Remove outer skin.
• Slice on the bias about 1/4 inch (0.5 cm) thick. Slicing is easier if the liver is partially
frozen.
• Remove tough membranes.
Top: calf ’s-liver slice. Bottom: beef-liver slice.
CO O K I N G
Cook to order. Do not cook ahead.
• To broil: Brush with (or dip in) oil or melted butter. Broil according to basic procedure
for meats.
• To pan-fry, griddle, or sauté: Dredge in seasoned flour. Cook in desired fat over moderately high heat.
• Do not overcook, unless customer requests well done. To be moist, liver must be
slightly pink inside. Liver cooked well done is very dry.
• Serve with bacon, French-fried or smothered onions, or seasoned butter.
Kidneys
Veal and lamb kidneys are the most popular, especially in the more upscale restaurants. They
are usually prepared by sautéing and broiling. Beef kidneys are tougher and more strongly
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flavored. They are often cooked by braising and served in specialty items, like steak and kidney pie. Pork livers are not often used.
Veal kidneys weigh 8 to 12 oz (225 to 350 g) each. Lamb kidneys are very small, 11⁄2 to
3 oz (40 to 85 g) each. If you purchase whole lamb or veal carcasses, you will find a pair of
kidneys inside the cavity, attached to the small of the back in the region of the tenderloin and
surrounded by a heavy layer of fat or suet.
P R E P A R AT I O N
If the kidney is encased in fat, pull the fat away with your hands and use a knife to cut it away
from the core area where the ducts emerge from inside the kidney.
Lamb kidneys are usually broiled and served two or three per portion, or as part of a
mixed grill. Butterfly them by splitting them almost in half, starting at the curved or convex
side. Spread them open and skewer them to hold them open during cooking.
Veal kidneys can be broiled like lamb kidneys, but they are most often cut up, sautéed,
and served in a sauce. To prepare them for sautéing, first split them in half. Remove the white
ducts from the center. Then cut into large dice or thick slices.
CO O K I N G
There are two main pitfalls to cooking kidneys. First, they become tough and rubbery if overcooked. Properly cooked, they are pink in the middle and still tender and juicy. Cooking time
is very short.
Second, they have a high moisture content, which can interfere with proper sautéing.
Make sure the pan is very hot before adding the kidneys, and do not overcrowd the pan. Failure to do this results in kidneys that are boiled in their juices rather than sautéed.
To avoid overcooking when sautéing over high heat, do not try to brown the kidneys too
heavily. Brown them only lightly and remove them from the pan when they are still somewhat
rare. Set them aside while you deglaze the pan and prepare the sauce. During this time, some
juices will be released from the kidneys. Drain this juice and add it to the sauce if desired, or
discard it if you feel the flavor is too strong. Finally, add the kidneys to the sauce and warm
them gently. Do not let them simmer long. Serve at once.
Sweetbreads
Sweetbreads are the thymus glands of calves and young beef animals. (The gland gradually
disappears as the animal matures.) They are considered a delicacy and are often expensive.
Sweetbreads are mild in flavor and delicate in texture. They are usually braised or breaded
and sautéed in butter.
Before cooking, sweetbreads should be prepared according to the following procedure
(see Figure 10.20):
1. Soak in several changes of cold water for several hours or overnight. This removes
blood, which would darken the meat when cooked.
2. Blanch in simmering salted water for 10 minutes. Some chefs like to add a little lemon
juice or vinegar to the water to preserve whiteness and make the meat firmer.
3. Refresh under cold water and peel off membranes and connective tissue.
4. Press between two trays, with a light weight on top, and refrigerate for several hours. If
desired, wrap in cheesecloth before pressing, as shown in Figure 10.20.
5. Prepare for cooking:
• For braising, leave whole or cut into large dice.
• For breading and sautéing, split in half horizontally. Pass through Standard Breading Procedure (p. 153) or dredge in flour.
Brains
Brains are not a popular item, but they are delicate in both flavor and texture. Calf ’s brains
are the most frequently used.
Left: lamb kidney. Right: veal kidney.
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Figure 10.20 Preparing sweetbreads.
(a) Raw sweetbreads.
(b) After the sweetbread has been blanched, peel
off the membrane.
(c) Wrap the sweetbreads in clean cheesecloth.
(d) Tie the ends securely.
(e) Place in a hotel pan or other flat pan and top
with another pan.
(f) Place weights in the top pan and refrigerate
for several hours.
Brains are very perishable and should be cooked as soon as possible. They are also
fragile and must be handled carefully.
Brains must be pre-prepared according to the following procedure. They may then be
served hot with black butter (p. 192) or cooled and then dipped in batter, deep-fried, and
served with tomato sauce.
1. Soak in fresh water, as for sweetbreads.
2. Peel off outer membrane (this may be done before or after poaching).
3. Poach 20 minutes in court bouillon made of 1 oz (25 mL) lemon juice or vinegar per
pint (500 mL) of salted water, plus a bouquet garni.
4. Drain and serve immediately, or cool in fresh, cold water.
Heart
Heart, usually from veal or beef, is very tough and lean. It can be braised or simmered, or it
may be ground and added to chopped meat for casserole dishes and meatloaf.
Before cooking, trim coarse fibers and veins inside and at top.
Tongue
Cooked beef tongue is popular as a cold, sliced meat for sandwiches. It may be fresh, cured,
or smoked. Veal and lamb tongues are also available.
Tongue is almost always cooked by simmering. After simmering, remove the skin and
trim the gristle at the base of the tongue before slicing.
Oxtails
Oxtails contain flavorful meat and a rich gelatin content, making them highly desirable for
soups and stews.
To disjoint oxtails, cut into sections at the joints with a French knife or butcher knife. Do
not use a cleaver, or you may splinter the bones.
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Tripe
Tripe is the muscular stomach lining of meat animals. Although lamb and pork tripe are sometimes available, beef tripe is by far the most widely used. Because cattle have four stomachs,
there are four kinds of beef tripe. Honeycomb tripe, from the second stomach, is the kind
most widely available. Other kinds, however, can be substituted in recipes that call for honeycomb tripe. In France, another type of beef tripe, known as gras-double, is popular; it is
smooth rather than honeycombed.
Most tripe that comes from the market has been partially cooked, but it still requires several hours of simmering to be made tender. Undercooked tripe is chewy and somewhat rubbery, but tripe that has simmered long enough is tender, with a pleasant gelatinous texture.
To prepare, first remove any lumps of fat by pulling or cutting them off. Next, blanch the
tripe, if desired. Although it is already partially cooked when purchased, blanching freshens
it. Place it in a pot with cold, salted water. Bring to a boil, simmer 5 to 10 minutes, drain, and
rinse under cold water.
Tripe
Other Variety Meats
INTESTINES
The most common use for intestines is to make sausage casings. These are discussed in
Chapter 26.
Chitterlings are pork intestines that are treated like tripe. They are blanched or simmered, and then braised or fried. Chitterlings are generally available in 10-pound (4.5-kg)
pails. Because they shrink a great deal when simmered, this quantity yields only 3 pounds
(1.3 kg) or less of finished product.
KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
CAUL
Pig’s caul is a fatty membrane covering the animal’s stomach. It looks somewhat like a delicate piece of lace. Its main uses are to line terrines and to wrap forcemeats and other foods so
they hold their shape during cooking and do not dry out. Sausage patties wrapped in caul
are called crépinettes (see p. 867). The advantage of using caul instead of fatback to line terrines is that the caul is so thin it melts away almost completely during cooking.
• What is the difference between
glandular variety meats and
muscular variety meats? List the
most important types of each.
FEET
• Muscular variety meats are nearly
always cooked by what cooking
methods? Why?
Feet are exceptionally rich in gelatin. For this reason, they are added to soups, stews, and
stocks to add richness and body. Indeed, some stews made with feet, such as Tripes à la
Mode de Caen, may be so rich in gelatin that not only do they solidify when cold but they can
even be unmolded and sliced like cold cuts.
Pig’s feet are readily available in most markets. Calf’s feet and ox’s feet are also available,
but often only on the wholesale market. The feet from older animals have less gelatin. If a recipe
calls for a calf’s foot but none is available, in most cases you can substitute two pig’s feet.
Game and Specialty Meats
The term game is used to refer to poultry and meat animals normally found in the wild. However, most of the “wild” game that has become so popular on restaurant menus is actually
from farm-raised animals. Venison farms, in particular, have become numerous and productive, supplying a growing demand.
Farm-raised game birds are discussed along with other poultry in Chapter 12. This section
is concerned with furred game.
Although a great variety of game, large and small, can be found on hunters’ tables, the
supply of game for the restaurant and retail markets is more limited. Venison, the most popular game item, is the main subject of this section. Other products, such as boar and hare,
are occasionally available as well. In addition, domestic rabbit is considered here, although
its meat has little in common with true game.
• What are the most appropriate cooking
methods for liver?
• How are sweetbreads prepared for
cooking?
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Note that the term venison is sometimes used in a broader sense to mean meat from
deer, elk, moose, caribou, antelope, and pronghorn. However, when any of these meats is
offered for sale, the name of the animal must appear on the packaging.
The French terms for game meats are often used on menus and in cooking manuals and
references. To clarify these terms, a list of those most commonly used follows:
BONE STRUCTURE
OF GAME
The bone and muscle structure of furred
game such as venison and elk is the
same as that of familiar meats such as
beef and lamb. The carcasses are also
broken down and fabricated in the same
ways. After you have become familiar
with the charts and diagrams on pages
282–285, you can apply the same cuts
to venison and other large game.
Unlike those larger game animals,
however, rabbit is cut differently, so
separate illustrations are provided in
this section beginning on page 306.
Chevreuil: often translated as “venison”
but refers specifically to the roe deer,
the most prized European variety
Cerf: red deer; often farm raised
Daim: fallow deer; often farm raised
Marcassin: young boar, especially under
six months of age
Sanglier: boar
Lapin: rabbit
Lapereau: young rabbit
Lièvre: hare
Levraut: young hare
Venaison: usually translated as “venison,”
the term in fact refers to the meat of any
game animal
Venison
Several varieties of deer are raised on farms for use as meat, including the red deer and the
smaller fallow deer. Deer meat is typically called venison. An important advantage of farmraised venison, besides its year-round availability, is that the cook can be assured it is from
young, tender animals. In the wild, young animals less than two years old are likely to have
tender meat, but the meat rapidly becomes tough as the animal matures and ages. The tradition of marinating game for several days in strong wine marinades originates, in large part,
from efforts to tenderize hunted game enough to make it palatable.
M A R I N AT I O N , F L A V O R , A N D T E N D E R N E S S
The first thing to be said about farm-raised venison is that it is milder in flavor than venison
hunted in the wild. It has little, if any, of the strong, gamy flavor usually associated with wild
game. In fact, a farm-raised venison steak tastes rather like an especially flavorful lean cut of
beef. Those who enjoy strong, gamy flavors may even find farmed venison a little bland. Although it does have some tenderizing effect, marination is not necessary for commercially
raised venison because the meat is already tender. Nevertheless, marinating is widely used
as a flavoring technique. Much of the flavor traditionally associated with venison, in fact, is
due less to its gaminess than to the red wine marinades that were invariably used.
To retain more of the natural flavor of the meat, cook it without marination, or let it marinate for only a short period (30 minutes to 3 or 4 hours) with the desired seasonings and
flavoring ingredients. Modern quick marinades are often simple and may contain only a
few ingredients.
F AT C O N T E N T
Venison, like other game, is very low in fat. This makes it especially popular with healthconscious diners. The meat is likely to become dry unless the cook takes great care.
The loin and leg, being tender, are best cooked by dry-heat methods and served rare or
medium done. If cooked longer, they will dry out. Roast these cuts whole, either bone-in or
deboned, or cut them into steaks, cutlets, and medallions, and sauté, pan-fry, or broil them,
taking care not to overcook.
Whole leg of venison, completely boned, seamed, and vacuum packed, is available.
Weights range from 5 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kg). Whole bone-in saddle weighs 5 to 20
pounds (2.3 to 9 kg), while the loin muscle weighs about half that after boning and trimming.
Tougher cuts, chiefly the shoulder, neck, and breast, are braised, stewed, or made into
ground meat or sausage. These cuts are also lean, but because they are higher in connective
tissue and gelatin, they take more readily to stewing and braising.
To generalize, farm-raised venison can be treated like very lean beef. Take care not to
cook it to the point of dryness.
Boar
Boar is a type of wild pig. Its meat is somewhat similar to pork, except it is leaner and its
flavor fuller and richer. Boar is now raised commercially on a few farms and is available in
limited quantities.
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Boar is somewhat more difficult to cook than venison and other game because, like
pork, it must be cooked until well done. At the same time, it is leaner and less tender than
domestic pork, so it tends to be somewhat dry and chewy. Special care must be taken to cook
it adequately without overcooking. Because boar is usually tougher than farm-raised venison, its legs or hams are better suited for braising or slow roasting, while the loins can be
used for roasts or cut into medallions and sautéed.
Traditionally, boar is handled much like venison, and typical recipes call for red wine
marinades. Although marinating a white meat in red wine may seem strange at first, this treatment actually works very well with boar. The red wine accentuates the more pronounced
flavor of boar (as compared to pork) and makes it taste more like game.
Other Large Game
Other meats are sometimes found in food service kitchens. Elk, caribou, moose, and
antelope are all similar to venison and are handled in much the same way. The first three of
these, especially moose, are larger than deer, so it may be necessary to allow for longer cooking times when using venison recipes for them.
Buffalo, or American bison, is raised on ranches in the western United States and
Canada and handled like beef. Flavor and cooking characteristics are similar to those of beef,
but the meat is somewhat richer in flavor and has less fat and cholesterol than beef.
Rabbit
Domestic rabbit is a versatile meat that can be cooked in most of the same ways as chicken.
In fact, in some countries it is classified as poultry. Some typical recipes for rabbit are included in Chapter 11, but nearly any chicken recipe can be used for domestic rabbit as well.
In addition, many recipes for veal or pork are adaptable to rabbit.
Rabbit’s light, delicate meat is often compared to chicken, but there are differences. It is
somewhat more flavorful than chicken, with a mild but distinctive taste that is not exactly like
that of other poultry or meat. Also, it is very lean (more like chicken or turkey breast than legs)
and can become dry if overcooked.
Rabbit takes well to marination; it can also be cooked without prior marination. Either
way, it can be cooked by long, slow simmering, braising, or stewing, or it can be quickly
cooked by sautéing, grilling, or roasting.
The structure of rabbit, of course, is like that of other land mammals rather than like that
of poultry. Cutting methods divide the meaty hind legs, the bonier forelegs, and the choice
saddle or back section (râble in French). The whole carcass, cut up, is used for stews and
sautés, while the saddle alone is often roasted. It may be boned or bone-in. (See Figure 10.21.)
Small rabbits, 3 pounds (1.5 kg) or less, are the best for cooking. Mature rabbits, weighing 4 to 5 pounds (about 2 kg), tend to be tougher and drier.
Hare
Hare is a wild cousin of the rabbit. (Please note that rabbits and hares are different animals.
The American jackrabbit, for example, is actually a hare, not a rabbit.) Unlike domestic rabbit,
with its light-colored, delicate meat, hare has flesh that is dark reddish-brown and gamy.
Hares 7 to 8 months old and weighing about 6 pounds (2.7 kg) make the best eating.
Larger ones, over 8 pounds (3.6 kg), are likely to be tough and stringy.
Because its structure is the same, hare is cut the same way as rabbit.
ROAST SADDLE OF HARE
Like other game, hare is very lean and therefore becomes dry if overcooked. If roasted, it
should be removed from the oven while rare or at least still pink. Rare roast hare has an attractive, deep red color. A typical classic preparation of saddle of hare is as follows. Note that
this is also the classic treatment for roast venison.
1. Marinate the saddle of hare in a red wine marinade (such as the venison marinade
on p. 324).
305
HANGING GAME
Much of the strong flavor associated
with game comes from the practice of
hanging. Hunters, processing game for
their own use, often allow a dressed carcass to hang much longer than necessary to soften the meat (see “green
meat,” p. 279), or long enough for it to
become high, or actually near spoilage.
The farm-raised game discussed
here and used in commercial kitchens
is not hung. Thus, its flavor is milder.
INSPECTION OF GAME
In the United States, wild game that can
be hunted legally under federal or state
authority may not be sold. Farm-raised
game species, if raised under the appropriate regulations, may be sold. Some
animals are inspected by the USDA and
others by the FDA. Imported game
must meet the same standards of
wholesomeness as domestically produced game.
In Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) oversees inspection of game offered for sale. Just
as for domesticated meats, federal and
provincial inspection of farm-raised
game for wholesomeness is mandatory.
Game may be imported only from countries that have approved inspection systems. As in the United States, hunted
game may not be sold.
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Figure 10.21 Cutting rabbit for stews and sautés.
(a) Cut off the hind legs, separating them at the
hip joint.
(b) Cut off the forelegs by cutting under the
shoulder blade.
(c) Cut off the hip bone.
(d) Cut through the backbone to separate the bony
rib section from the meaty loin or saddle.
(e) Carefully separate the remaining rib bones from
the loin and remove them. The saddle can then be
cut crosswise through the backbone into pieces if
desired.
(f) This is the cut-up rabbit, with the forelegs and
rib section on the left, the saddle in the center, and
the hind legs and hip bone on the right.
2. Brown it on top of the stove and roast it rare or medium done, about 15 minutes at
425°F (220°C).
3. Remove the loin muscles from the bone and cut lengthwise into thin slices. Remove
the tenderloins from the underside of the saddle and leave whole or slice as desired.
4. Serve with a poîvrade sauce (p. 189).
Storage of Meats
The quality of a finished meat product depends not only on proper selection and cooking of
the meat but also on its proper storage. Fresh meat is highly perishable. The high cost of meat
makes it essential to avoid spoilage.
Fresh Meats
1. Check purchases on arrival to ensure the purchased meat is of good quality.
2. Do not wrap tightly. Bacteria and mold thrive in moist, stagnant places. Air circulation
inhibits their growth. Store meat loosely arranged on pans or racks to allow air circulation between pieces, but cover cut surfaces to prevent excessive drying.
3. Do not open vacuum-packed meats until ready to use.
4. Store at 32° to 36°F (0° to 2°C). Meat does not freeze until about 28°F (–2°C).
5. Keep meats separated in the cooler (or, even better, in separate coolers) and on the
worktable to avoid cross-contamination.
6. Use as soon as possible. Fresh meats keep well only two to four days. Ground meats
keep even less well because so much surface area is exposed to bacteria. Cured and
smoked products may keep up to one week. For these reasons, frequent deliveries are
better than long storage.
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QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
307
7. Do not try to rescue meats that are going bad by freezing them. Freezing will not improve the quality of spoiling meat.
8. Keep coolers clean.
F R O Z E N M E AT S
KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
1. Wrap frozen meats well to prevent freezer burn.
2. Store at 0°F (–18°C) or colder.
• What are the most important kinds of
game used in food service?
3. Rotate stock—first in, first out. Frozen meats do not keep indefinitely. Recommended
shelf life at 0°F (–18°C) for beef, veal, and lamb: 6 months; for pork: 4 months (pork
fat turns rancid easily in the freezer).
• How does the fat content of game
meats affect its cooking qualities?
4. Defrost carefully. Tempering in the refrigerator is best. Defrosting at room temperature
encourages bacterial growth.
• What are the proper ways to store fresh
meats? frozen meats?
5. Do not refreeze thawed meats. Refreezing increases loss of quality.
6. Keep freezers clean.
TE RMS
coagulation
marbling
connective tissue
collagen
elastin
inspection
grading
yield grade
green meat
FO R
irradiation
silverskin
barding
larding
doneness
carryover cooking
variety meats
sweetbreads
tripe
aging
Cryovac
dry aging
primal cuts
fabricated (cuts)
portion-controlled cuts
butcher
fabricate
carve
Q U E ST I O N S
F O R
1. Many people assume that the leaner a meat is, the better it is.
Do you agree? Explain.
2. What is connective tissue? Why is it important for the cook to
understand connective tissue?
3. Flank steak (beef) is high in connective tissue, yet it is often
broiled and served in thin slices as London broil. How is this
possible?
4. Why are portion-controlled meats so widely used in food
service, even though their per-pound cost is higher?
5. Can you explain why veal loin, a tender cut, is sometimes
braised, while veal shoulder, a less tender cut, is sometimes roasted?
6. Which of the following cuts are you more likely to braise?
Which might you roast?
Beef chuck
Corned beef
brisket
Lamb shanks
Ground pork
Veal rib
Beef strip loin
Beef rib
Lamb leg
Pork shoulder
R EVI EW
gras-double
caul
game
venison
boar
hare
D I S C U S S I O N
7. You wish to cook a roast rib of beef to a final internal temperature of 145°F (63°C). Why, then, would you remove the roast
from the oven when the temperature on the meat thermometer reads 130°F (54°C)?
8. Why are weight-time roasting charts inadequate for determining the doneness of roast meats?
9. Describe the fat content of game meats such as venison, boar,
and elk. Explain how the fat content affects how these meats
are handled and cooked.
10. How does farm-raised venison differ from wild venison?
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FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY SANITATION AND SAFETY TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FOOD SCIING
ENCE MENUS RECIPES COST MANAGEMENT NUTRITION MISE EN PLACE STOCKS AND SAUCES SOUPS UNDER VEG
STANDING MEATS COOKING MEATS AND GAME UNDERSTANDING POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS COOKING POULDAI
TRY AND GAME BIRDS UNDERSTANDING FISH AND SHELLFISH COOKING FISH AND SHELLFISH UNDERSTANDTIO
Chapter 11
Duet of Beef and Corn, page 362.
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SCIING VEGETABLES COOKING VEGETABLES POTATOES LEGUMES GRAINS PASTA OTHER STARCHES COOKING FOR
DERVEGETARIAN DIETS SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS SANDWICHES HORS D’OERVES BREAKFAST PREPARATION
OULDAIRY AND BEVERAGES SAUSAGES AND CURED FOODS PATES TERRINES AND COLD FOODS FOOD PRESENTA
ANDTION AND GARNISH BAKESHOP PRODUCTION YEAST PRODUCTS QUICK BREADS CAKES AND ICINGS COOKIES
Cooking Meats and Game
T
his chapter presents basic cooking methods as they apply to
beef, lamb, veal, pork, and game such as venison. It is important that
you have read and understood the basic material in Chapter 10,
especially the sections on matching particular cuts to appropriate cooking methods and on testing for doneness. If necessary, please review
those sections as well as the discussion of basic cooking methods in
Chapter 4.
The procedures given here are general. Be aware they may be modi-
After reading this chapter, you should
be able to
1. Cook meats by roasting and baking.
2. Cook meats by broiling, grilling, and
pan-broiling.
3. Cook meats by sautéing, pan-frying,
and griddling.
4. Cook meats by simmering.
5. Cook meats by braising.
6. Cook variety meats.
fied slightly in specific recipes. Nevertheless, the basic principles still
hold. In addition, your instructors may wish to show you variations or
methods that differ from those presented here.
The recipes that follow each of the procedures—for roasting, sautéing,
braising, and so on—are intended to illustrate the basic techniques. Each
time you prepare one of these recipes, you should be thinking not just
about the product you are making but also about the techniques you are
using and how they can be applied to other products. It is helpful to compare the recipes in each section, how they are alike and how they are different. This way you will be learning to cook, not just to follow recipes.
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Roasting and Baking
Remember the definitions of roast and bake (Chapter 4): to cook foods by surrounding them
with hot, dry air, usually in an oven. Roasting is a dry-heat method. No water is used, and the
meat is not covered, so steam can escape. There is no real distinction between the terms
roast and bake. Both terms are used for the same procedure, but the word bake is more likely
to be used for small cuts of meat, vegetables, fish, breads, and pastries.
In principle, roasting meats is a simple procedure. The prepared cut of meat is placed in
an oven at a selected temperature, and it is removed when done. What could be easier?
However, there are many variables, and chefs often disagree about proper roasting procedures, especially when it comes to the fine points. In this section, you will learn a roasting
procedure you can apply to most meats. But first we discuss in more detail several of the
points of disagreement and some of the possible variations.
Seasoning
Salt added to the surface of meat just before roasting penetrates the meat only a fraction of
an inch during cooking. The same is true of the flavors of herbs, spices, and aromatics. In the
case of smaller cuts of meat, such as beef tenderloin and rack of lamb, the seasoned,
browned crust that forms during roasting is an important part of the flavor of the finished
dish. Although opinions vary, many chefs advocate seasoning such roasts immediately before roasting so the salt doesn’t have time to draw moisture to the surface, which inhibits
browning.
In the case of large roasts, such as beef ribs and steamship rounds, there is so little crust
in proportion to meat that seasoning before roasting has little effect. Also, if the surface of
the roast is mostly fat covering or bone, the seasoned fat and bones may not even be served,
so the seasoning has little effect.
With roasts of any size, two alternatives to seasoning just before roasting are often used:
• Marinate the meat or apply seasonings in advance, to give the time for flavors to penetrate. See pages 150–151 for a discussion of marinades and dry seasoning rubs. See
also the discussion of brining on page 151. Brining is most suitable for pork. It is not often used for red meats.
• Serve the meat with a flavorful sauce, gravy, or jus. The sauce serves as a seasoning
and flavoring for the meat.
Another way to add flavor to roasted meats is to smoke-roast them. Commercial smoker
ovens roast meats in the same way as conventional ovens, except they also have a smokegenerating unit that passes smoke through the oven chamber, flavoring foods as they cook.
The flavor of wood smoke in cooked meats is so popular that some restaurants have even installed wood-burning hearth ovens to bake and roast meats, pizza, and other items.
Stovetop smoke-roasting is an alternative to smoker ovens. The procedure is explained
on page 73. Although there are no recipes for smoke-roasted meats in this chapter, examples of smoke-roasted fish and poultry can be found on pages 394 and 476.
Temperature
L O W - T E M P E R AT U R E R O A S T I N G
As we discussed on page 296, it was once thought that starting the roast at a high temperature “seals the pores” by searing the surface, thus keeping in more juices.
We now know this is not the case. Repeated tests have shown that continuous roasting
at a low temperature gives a superior product with
1. Less shrinkage.
2. More flavor, juiciness, and tenderness.
3. More even doneness from outside to inside.
4. Greater ease in carving.
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Low roasting temperatures generally range from 250° to 325°F (120° to 160°C),
depending on
1. The size of the cut. The larger the cut, the lower the temperature. This ensures the outer
portion is not overcooked before the inside is done.
2. The operation’s production schedule. Lower temperatures require longer roasting
times, which may or may not be convenient for a particular operation.
SEARING
If a well-browned, crusted surface is desired for appearance, as when the roast is to be carved
in the dining room, a roast may be started at high temperature (400°–450°F/200°–230°C)
until it is browned. The temperature should then be lowered to the desired roasting temperature and the meat roasted until done, as for low-temperature roasting.
H I G H - T E M P E R AT U R E R O A S T I N G
Very small pieces of meat that are to be roasted rare may be cooked at a high temperature,
from 375° to 450°F (190° to 230°C). The effect is similar to that of broiling: a well-browned,
crusted exterior and a rare interior. The meat is in the oven for so short a time that shrinkage
is minor. Examples of cuts that may be roasted at a high temperature are rack of lamb and
beef tenderloin.
CO N V EC T I O N OV E N S
If a convection oven is used for roasting, the temperature should be reduced about 50°F
(25°C). Many chefs prefer not to use convection ovens for large roasts because the drying effect of the forced air seems to cause greater shrinkage. On the other hand, convection ovens
are effective in browning and are good for high-temperature roasting.
Fat Side Up or Fat Side Down
Roasting meats fat side up provides continuous basting as the fat melts and runs down the
sides. This method is preferred by perhaps the majority of chefs, although there is not complete agreement.
In this book, we use the fat-side-up method. In the classroom, you should be guided by
the advice of your instructor.
Basting
Basting is unnecessary if the meat has a natural fat covering and is roasted fat side up. For
lean meats, barding has the same effect. Barding is covering the surface of the meat with a
thin layer of fat, such as sliced pork fatback or bacon.
If a roast is basted by spooning pan drippings over it, use only the fat. Fat protects the
roast from drying, while moisture washes away protective fat and allows drying. Juices used
in basting will not soak into the meat.
Basting with drippings or juices may be used to increase the appetite appeal of the roast
because it enhances browning. Gelatin and other solids dissolved in the juices are deposited
on the surface of the meat, helping form a flavorful brown crust. This does not increase juiciness, however. Some cookbooks claim basting forms a waterproof coating that seals in
juices, but this is not the case.
Basting sometimes produces more tender roasts for an unexpected reason: Frequent
basting interrupts and slows the cooking. Every time the oven door is opened, the temperature in the oven drops considerably, so the roasting time is longer and more connective tissue
breaks down. Thus, it is not the basting but the lower temperature that increases tenderness.
Use of Mirepoix
Mirepoix is often added during the last part of the roasting time to flavor the roast and to add
extra flavor to the pan juices.
Many chefs feel, however, that mirepoix adds little flavor, if any, to the roast and that it is
actually harmful because the moisture of the vegetables creates steam around the roast.
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Mirepoix can be more easily added when the gravy is being made. If no gravy or juice is to be
served, mirepoix may not be needed at all.
The use of mirepoix is more important for white meats—veal and pork—which, because
they are usually cooked well done, lose more juices and need a good gravy or jus to give them
moistness and flavor.
Gravy and Jus
The general procedures for making pan gravy are given in Chapter 8 (p. 198). Read or review
this section if necessary. The procedure for making jus, given here in the recipe for roast
prime rib of beef au jus, is the same, except no roux or other thickening agents are used. In
other words, use the methods for making pan gravy (p. 199), but eliminate steps 5 and 6 from
Method 1 and step 3 from Method 2.
Basic Procedure for Roasting Meats
1. Collect all equipment and food supplies. Select roasting pans that have low sides (so
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
moisture vapor does not collect around the roast) and that are just large enough to hold
the roast. If pans are too large, drippings will spread out too thin and burn.
1
Prepare or trim the meat for roasting. Heavy fat coverings should be trimmed to about ⁄
2
inch (1 cm) thick.
If desired, season the meat several hours ahead or the day before.
Place the meat fat side up on a rack in the roasting pan. The rack holds the roast out of the
drippings. Bones may be used if no rack is available. Bone-in rib roasts need no rack because the bones act as a natural rack.
Insert a meat thermometer (clean and sanitary) so the bulb is in the center of the meat,
not touching bone or fat. (Omit this step if you are using an instant-read thermometer.)
Do not cover or add water to the pan. Roasting is a dry-heat cooking method.
Place the meat in a preheated oven.
Roast to desired doneness, allowing for carryover cooking.
If desired, add mirepoix to the pan during the last half of the cooking period.
Remove the roast from the oven and let stand in a warm place 15 to 30 minutes. This allows the juices to be reabsorbed through the meat so less juice is lost when the meat is
sliced. Also, resting the meat makes slicing easier.
If the meat must be held, place it in an oven or warmer set no higher than the desired
internal temperature of the roast.
While the roast is resting, prepare jus or pan gravy from the drippings. Mirepoix may be
added to the drippings now if it was not added in step 8.
Slice the roast as close as possible to serving time. In almost all cases, slice the meat
against the grain for tenderness.
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313
Roast Rib of Beef au Jus
YIELD: 10 LB (4.5 KG) BONELE SS, TRIMMED MEAT
U.S.
METRIC
20 lb
9 kg
PORTIONS: 25
20
INGREDIENTS
Beef rib, roast ready, bone in
(one average-size rib roast)
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 6 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 1 7 5 G ) , 1 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 5 0 M L ) J U S
8 O Z ( 2 2 5 G ) , 1 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 5 0 M L ) J U S
PROCEDURE
1. Place the meat fat side up in a roasting pan.
2. Insert a meat thermometer so the bulb is in the center of the meat, not
touching bone or fat.
3. Place meat in a preheated 300°F (150°C) oven. Roast until rare or
medium done, as desired, allowing for carryover cooking.
Thermometer readings:
Rare: 120°F (49°C)
Medium 130°F (54°C)
(Outer slices will be cooked more than center.)
Roasting time will be at least 3–4 hours.
4. Remove the meat from the pan and let stand in a warm place 30
minutes before carving.
8 oz
4 oz
4 oz
2 qt
to taste
to taste
250 g
125 g
125 g
2L
to taste
to taste
Mirepoix:
Onion
Carrot
Celery
Brown stock
Salt
Pepper
Per serving: Calories, 810; Protein, 52 g; Fat, 65 g (74% cal.);
Cholesterol, 180 mg; Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 150 mg.
VARIATIONS
Roast Rib-Eye Roll, Top Round,
Sirloin, or Strip Loin
These cuts may be roasted by the same procedure; roast them
on a rack.
Roast Beef with Gravy
Roast the desired cut of beef according to the basic recipe.
Prepare gravy according to the following recipe.
5. Drain off all but 3–4 oz (100 g) of the fat from the roasting pan. Be
careful to retain any juices in the pan. Add the mirepoix to the pan
(see Figure 11.1).
6. Set the pan over high heat and cook until mirepoix is brown and
moisture has evaporated, leaving only fat, mirepoix, and browned
drippings.
7. Pour off any excess fat.
8. Pour about 1 pt (500 mL) stock into the roasting pan to deglaze it. Stir
over heat until brown drippings are dissolved.
9. Pour the deglazing liquid and mirepoix into a saucepot with the
remaining stock. Simmer until mirepoix is soft and liquid is reduced by
about one-third.
10. Strain through a china cap lined with cheesecloth into a bain-marie.
Skim fat carefully. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
11. For service, stand the roast on its widest end. Cut down beside the
bones to free the meat, and slice the meat across the grain.
12. Serve each portion with 11⁄2 oz (50 mL) jus.
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Figure 11.1 Preparing pan jus.
(a) After removing the cooked meat from the
roasting pan, degrease the pan. Add mirepoix to
the pan and brown on the stovetop or in the oven.
(b) Deglaze with brown stock.
(c) Pour the mirepoix and deglazing liquid into a
saucepan. Simmer for the desired time.
(d) Strain through a fine chinois or a china cap
lined with cheesecloth.
Roast Beef Gravy
Y I E L D : A B O U T 1 1⁄ 2 Q T ( 1 . 5 L )
U.S.
METRIC
as needed as needed
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 2 FL OZ (60 ML)
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
8 oz
4 oz
4 oz
250 g
125 g
125 g
Pan drippings from roast beef
(previous recipe)
Mirepoix:
Onion
Carrot
Celery
2 qt
4 oz
2L
125 g
Brown stock
Tomato purée
4. Deglaze the pan with some of the stock. Pour the deglazing liquid and
mirepoix into a saucepot with the remaining stock. Add the tomato
purée. Bring to a boil and reduce heat to a simmer.
Flour
Salt
Pepper
Worcestershire sauce
5. Make a brown roux with the flour and 4 oz (125 g) of the reserved fat.
Cool the roux slightly and beat it into the simmering stock to thicken it.
6. Simmer 15–20 minutes, or until all raw flour taste is cooked out and
the liquid is reduced slightly.
7. Strain through a china cap into a bain-marie.
8. Season to taste with salt, pepper, and Worcestershire sauce.
4 oz
to taste
to taste
to taste
125 g
to taste
to taste
to taste
Per serving: Calories. 35; Protein, 1 g; Fat, 1.5 g (40% cal.); Cholesterol, 5 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 10 mg.
VARIATION
Jus Lié
Omit tomato purée and roux. Thicken liquid with 11⁄2 oz (50 g)
cornstarch or arrowroot blended with 1⁄2 cup (100 mL) cold water
or stock.
1. After removing the roast, add the mirepoix to the drippings in the
roasting pan.
2. Set the pan over high heat and cook until mirepoix is brown and
moisture has evaporated, leaving only fat, mirepoix, and browned
drippings (see Figure 11.1).
3. Pour off and save the fat.
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315
Roast Loin of Pork with Sage and Apples
PORTIONS: 25
U.S.
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1 C H O P, A B O U T 6 O Z ( 1 7 5 G ) W I T H B O N E , 2 F L O Z ( 6 0 M L ) G R A V Y
METRIC
14 ⁄2 lb
1 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
1 tbsp
6.6 kg
5 mL
2 mL
15 mL
8 oz
4 oz
4 oz
8 oz
250 g
125 g
125 g
250 g
1
21⁄2 qt
5 oz
to taste
to taste
8
2 oz
1 tbsp
2.5 L
150 g
to taste
to taste
8
60 g
15 mL
INGREDIENTS
Pork loins, center cut, bone in
Salt
Pepper
Dried sage
Mirepoix:
Onion
Carrot
Celery
Apples, peeled, cored, and diced
Chicken stock, veal stock, or pork stock
Flour
Salt
Pepper
Tart apples
Butter
Sugar
Per serving: Calories, 420; Protein, 40 g; Fat, 22 g (48% cal.); Cholesterol, 105 mg;
Carbohydrates, 13 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 210 mg.
VARIATIONS
Other pork cuts may be roasted as in the basic recipe: full loin,
loin ends, boneless loin, fresh ham, shoulder.
Roast Loin or Rack of Veal
with Sage and Apples
Substitute loin or rack of veal for pork in the basic recipe.
Use brown stock instead of white stock.
PROCEDURE
1. With a meat saw, cut off the chine bones so the loins can be carved into
chops after roasting.
2. Rub the pork with salt, pepper, and sage.
3. Place the chine bones in a roasting pan. Place the pork loins fat side up
on top of the bones. Insert a meat thermometer into the thickest part of
the muscle.
4. Place in oven at 325°F (165°C) and roast for 1 hour.
5. Place the mirepoix and the apples in the bottom of the pan and
continue to roast until the thermometer reads 160°F (71°C). Total
cooking time is 2–21⁄2 hours.
6. Remove the roast from the pan and hold in a warm place.
7. Set the roasting pan over moderate heat and cook until moisture has
evaporated and mirepoix is well browned. Drain off and reserve the fat.
8. Deglaze the pan with the stock and pour the contents into a saucepot.
Skim well.
9. Make a brown roux with the flour and 5 oz (150 g) of the pork fat.
Thicken the gravy with the roux and simmer 15 minutes, or until
thickened and slightly reduced.
10. While the gravy is simmering, core the apples. They may be peeled or
not, as desired. Cut the apples crosswise into slices about 3⁄8 in. (1 cm)
thick. Sauté the slices in a little butter over moderately high heat.
Sprinkle them with sugar as they cook. Continue to sauté on both sides
until browned and caramelized.
11. Strain the gravy and adjust the seasonings.
12. Cut the roast into chops between the rib bones. Serve each portion with
2 oz (60 mL) gravy. Garnish with caramelized apple slices.
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Roast Stuffed Shoulder of Lamb
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G) MEAT AND STUFFING, 2 FL OZ (60 ML) GRAV Y
METRIC
4 oz
1 tsp
2 fl oz
3 oz
125 g
5 mL
60 g
100 g
⁄3 cup
⁄2 tsp
1
⁄4 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
1
80 mL
2 mL
1 mL
2 mL
1
1
1
1
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
1
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
4 oz
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 qt
4 oz
to taste
to taste
125 g
60 g
60 g
60 g
1L
125 g
to taste
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Stuffing:
Onion, fine dice
Garlic, chopped fine
Olive oil, vegetable oil, or butter
Soft, fresh bread crumbs
(about 2 cups)
Chopped parsley
Dried rosemary
Black pepper
Salt
Egg, beaten
1. Sauté the onion and garlic in oil until soft. Remove from heat and cool.
2. Combine onion and garlic with the remaining stuffing ingredients and
mix lightly.
Boneless lamb shoulder,
about 4 lb (1.8 kg)
Oil
Salt
Pepper
Dried rosemary
3.
4.
5.
6.
Mirepoix:
Onion, chopped
Carrot, chopped
Celery, chopped
8. Place the mirepoix in the bottom of the roasting pan. Baste the meat
with fat and continue to roast until the thermometer reads 160°F
(71°C). Total cooking time is about 21⁄2 hours.
9. Remove the roast from the pan and let stand in a warm place.
Flour
Brown beef stock or lamb stock
Tomatoes, canned
Salt
Pepper
Per serving: Calories, 390; Protein, 31 g; Fat, 25 g (57% cal.); Cholesterol, 120 mg;
Carbohydrates, 11 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 275 mg.
VARIATIONS
Lay the lamb shoulder out flat, fat side down (see Figure 11.2).
Spread the lamb with the stuffing and roll it up. Tie the roll tightly.
Rub the meat with oil, salt, pepper, and rosemary.
Place the meat on a rack in a roasting pan. Insert a meat thermometer
into the thickest part of the meat (not into the stuffing).
7. Place in a 325°F (165°C) oven. Roast the meat about 11⁄2 hours.
10. Set the roasting pan over high heat to clarify the fat and finish browning
the mirepoix. Drain off about three-fourths of the fat.
11. Add the flour to the pan to make a roux, cooking it until it is brown.
12. Stir in the stock and tomatoes and bring to a boil. Simmer, stirring, until
the gravy is thickened and reduced to about 11⁄2 pt (750 mL).
13. Strain and skim excess fat.
14. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
15. Slice the roast crosswise, so each slice contains stuffing in the center.
When slicing, be careful to keep the slices from falling apart. Serve each
portion with 2 oz (60 mL) gravy.
Roast Boneless Shoulder of Lamb
Roast a tied, boneless lamb shoulder as in basic recipe, without
stuffing.
Roast Leg of Lamb
Prepare leg of lamb for roasting as shown in Figure 10.11. Rub with
oil, salt, pepper, rosemary, and garlic. Roast as in basic recipe
(without stuffing) to rare, medium, or well-done stage. Leg of lamb
may be served with natural juices (au jus) instead of thickened
gravy, if desired. 8 lb (3.6 kg) AP leg of lamb yields about 31⁄2 lb
(1.6 kg) cooked meat. Yield is less if cooked well done. See
Figure 11.3 for carving technique.
Roast Leg of Lamb Boulangère
About 11⁄2 hours before lamb is done, transfer the meat to a rack
over a pan of Boulangère Potatoes (p. 618) and finish cooking.
Roast Stuffed Shoulder of Lamb
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ROASTING AND BAKING
317
Figure 11.2 Stuffing a lamb shoulder.
(a) Bone out the shoulder. To remove the blade bone, slide
the knife against the bone to separate it from the meat.
(b) Spread the boned shoulder with the stuffing.
(c) Roll the shoulder and tie it securely. (See Figure 10.14 for
tying procedure.)
Figure 11.3 Carving a leg of lamb. Hams and other leg roasts may be carved using the same basic technique shown here.
(a) Place the roast on a clean, sanitary cutting
board. Begin by making a vertical cut through to
the bone about 1 in. (2.5 cm) from the end of the
shank meat. The small collar of shank meat
forms a guard to protect the hand in case the
knife slips.
(b) Using long, smooth strokes, cut thin slices
on a slight bias as shown.
(c) When slices become too large, angle the
knife. When the top of the roast is completely
sliced, turn over and repeat the procedure on
the bottom of the roast.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Roast Rack of Lamb
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 2 CHOPS, 1 FL OZ (30 ML) JUS
METRIC
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
2
to taste
to taste
to taste
2
to taste
to taste
to taste
Racks of lamb, 8 ribs each
Salt
Pepper
Dried thyme
1. Prepare lamb for roasting as shown in Figure 10.12.
2. Place any trimmed-off bones in the bottom of a roasting pan. Place the
meat fat side up on top of the bones. Season with salt, pepper, and
thyme.
3. Place in a hot oven (450°F/230°C) and roast to desired doneness. Rack
of lamb is usually roasted rare or medium. Test doneness with a meat
thermometer or by the touch method, as for steaks. Total time is about
30 minutes.
4. Remove the lamb from the roasting pan and hold in a warm place. Leave
the bones in the pan.
5. Set the roasting pan over moderate heat to caramelize the juices and
clarify the fat. Pour off the fat.
2
1 pt
2
500 mL
Garlic cloves, chopped
White or brown veal stock
6. Add the garlic to the pan and cook 1 minute.
7. Deglaze the pan with the stock and reduce by half. Strain, degrease,
and season to taste.
8. Cut the meat between the ribs into chops. Serve 2 chops per portion
with 1 oz (30 mL) jus.
Per serving: Calories, 280; Protein, 19 g; Fat, 22 g (72% cal.); Cholesterol, 75 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber 0 g; Sodium, 70 mg.
VARIATIONS
Rack of Lamb aux Primeurs
(with Spring Vegetables)
Place the racks on one or two heated serving platters. Garnish the
platters with an assortment of spring vegetables, cooked separately:
tournéed carrots, tournéed turnips, buttered peas, green beans,
rissolé potatoes. Pour the jus into a warm gooseneck or sauceboat.
Carve and serve the meat, vegetables, and jus in the dining room.
Rack of Lamb Persillé
Prepare as in basic recipe. Combine the ingredients for Persillade,
listed below. Before carving and serving, spread the top (fat side) of
each rack with 1 tbsp (15 g) soft butter. Pack the persillade onto
the top of the racks and brown under the salamander.
Persillade
4 cloves garlic, minced
2 oz (60 g) fresh bread crumbs (about 1 cup)
⁄3 cup (80 mL) chopped parsley
1
Roast Rack of Lamb; White Beans Bretonne; Steamed Brussels Sprout Leaves
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319
Roast Brined Pork Loin
with Date and Gorgonzola Stuffing
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
6 oz
1 tsp
1
⁄8 tsp
3 fl oz
2 oz
3 lb
2 qt,
or as needed
to taste
to taste
to taste
PORTION SIZE: APPROX. 5 OZ (150 G)
METRIC
180 g
5 mL
0.5 mL
90 mL
60 g
1.5 kg
2 L,
or as needed
to taste
to taste
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Pitted dates, chopped
Butter
Dried rosemary
Water
Gorgonzola cheese
1. In a saucepan, briefly cook the dates in butter until slightly
softened.
2. Add the rosemary and water. Cook until the mixture forms a thick
paste. Cool.
3. When the date mixture is completely cool, add the gorgonzola
and mix in well.
Pork loin, center cut, boneless
Brine (p. 151)
4. If the loin has a fat covering, trim the excess fat from it, leaving
only a thin covering. If the loin was purchased without a fat
covering, trim off all silverskin.
5. Marinate in enough brine to cover, refrigerated, 24 hours.
6. Stuff the meat. This can be done in either of two ways:
a. Butterfly the meat as shown in Figure 10.13. Spread the date
mixture inside and refold the meat to enclose the stuffing. Tie
the meat well (Figure 10.14).
b. Poke a hole lengthwise through the center of the loin with a
clean, sanitized spoon handle or similar rod-shaped item. Force
the date mixture into the hole so it fills the hole completely.
7. If the loin has no fat covering and was trimmed of silverskin in
step 4, oil the surface well. Season the surface of the meat
lightly with salt, pepper, and ground coriander. Hold in the
refrigerator until ready to cook.
8. Preheat the oven to 425°F (220°C). Place the roast in the oven. After
10 minutes, reduce the heat to 325°F (160°C). (The initial roasting
at high heat is optional; its purpose is to help brown the roast.)
Continue to roast until the internal temperature is 160°F (70°C).
9. Remove from the heat and let stand in a warm place at least 10
minutes before slicing.
Salt
Pepper
Ground coriander
Per serving: Calories, 420; Protein, 38 g; Fat, 21 g (18% cal.); Cholesterol, 120 mg;
Carbohydrates, 19 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 540 mg.
Roast Brined Pork Loin with Date and Gorgonzola Stuffing, Spaetzle, Glazed Carrots
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Smoke-Roasted Pork Shoulder
YIELD: APPROX. 4 LB (2 KG) TRIMMED, BONELE SS MEAT
U.S.
8 lb
2 oz,
or as needed
METRIC
4 kg
60 g,
or as needed
INGREDIENTS
Pork shoulder or butt
Spice Rub I (below)
Per serving: Calories, 60; Protein, 7 g; Fat, 3 g (49% cal.); Cholesterol, 25 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 140 mg.
VARIATION
Smoke-Roasted Shoulder of Boar
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Trim excess external fat from the meat.
Rub the meat with the spice rub so it is completely coated with a thin layer.
Refrigerate the meat overnight.
Cook the meat on racks in a smoke roaster at 250°–275°F (120°–135°C)
until very tender, about 6 hours. When done, the meat should be tender
enough to pull apart with a fork.
5. The pork may be cut from the bones and sliced or cut into chunks and
served with a barbecue sauce on the side, or it may be shredded, mixed
with a little barbecue sauce, and used as a sandwich filling.
Substitute shoulder of boar for the pork shoulder.
Spice Rub I
YIELD: APPROX. 6 OZ (180 G)
U.S.
1 ⁄2 oz
1 oz
2 tbsp
2 tbsp
4 tsp
4 tsp
2 oz
2 tbsp
1
METRIC
45 g
30 g
30 mL
20 mL
20 mL
20 mL
60 g
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
Paprika
New Mexico chili powder
Dried oregano
Dried thyme
Ground coriander
Ground cumin
Salt
Black pepper
PROCEDURE
1. Combine all ingredients and mix well.
2. Store in a tightly sealed container in a dark place.
Per serving: Calories, 60; Protein, 7 g; Fat, 3 g (49% cal.); Cholesterol, 25 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 140 mg.
Spice Rub II
YIELD: APPROX. 7 OZ (200 G)
U.S.
1 ⁄2 oz
11⁄2 oz
2 tsp
2 tbsp
1 tsp
2 tsp
1 oz
2 oz
2 tbsp
1
METRIC
45 g
45 g
10 mL
30 mL
5 mL
10 mL
30 g
60 g
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
Paprika
Chili powder
Dry mustard
Onion powder
Celery seed
Dried thyme
Sugar
Salt
Black pepper
Per serving: Calories, 60; Protein, 7 g; Fat, 3 g (49% cal.); Cholesterol, 25 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 140 mg.
PROCEDURE
1. Combine all ingredients and mix well.
2. Store in a tightly sealed container in a dark place.
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ROASTING AND BAKING
321
Barbecued Spareribs
PORTIONS: 24
PORTION SIZE: 10 OZ (300 G)
U.S.
METRIC
18 lb
8.5 kg
6 oz, or as needed 180 g, or as needed
21⁄2 qt
2.5 L
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Fresh pork spareribs
Spice Rub I or II (p. 320)
Barbecue Sauce (p. 214) or
Chili Barbecue Sauce (p. 215)
Per serving: Calories, 730; Protein, 47 g; Fat, 54 g (68% cal.); Cholesterol, 190 mg;
Carbohydrates, 11 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 1010 mg.
1. Weigh the spareribs and cut them into 12-oz (350 g) portions.
2. Rub the ribs with the spice rub so they are completely coated
with a thin layer.
3. Refrigerate overnight.
4. Place the ribs in a roasting pan with the inside of the ribs down.
5. Place the ribs in a smoker oven or a conventional oven at 300°F
(150°C). Bake 1 hour.
6. Drain the fat from the pans.
7. Spoon about 1 pt (500 mL) barbecue sauce over the ribs to coat
them with a thin layer. Turn them over and coat with more sauce.
8. Bake 45 minutes. Turn and coat the ribs with the remaining sauce.
9. Bake until tender, 30–60 minutes more.
10. Serve the portions whole, or cut into separate ribs for easier eating.
Barbecued Spareribs
Roast Pork Tenderloin with Kalbi Marinade
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G)
METRIC
8 fl oz
2 oz
1 tbsp
4
2 fl oz
1
⁄4 tsp
250 mL
60 g
15 mL
4
60 mL
1 mL
4 lb
1 fl oz
2 kg
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Soy sauce, preferably Korean or Japanese
Brown sugar
Garlic, crushed
Scallions, sliced
Sesame oil
Black pepper
1. In a nonreactive container large enough to hold the pork tenderloins,
combine the soy sauce, brown sugar, garlic, scallions, sesame oil, and
pepper to make a marinade.
Pork tenderloins
Vegetable oil
2. Trim all fat and silverskin from the tenderloins (see Figure 10.16).
3. Add the tenderloins to the marinade, turning them so they are coated
on all sides. Cover and refrigerate overnight.
4. Remove the tenderloins from the marinade. Blot them dry on clean
towels, making sure no particles of scallion or garlic cling to them, as
these can burn during cooking.
5. Heat the oil in a sauté pan over moderately high heat. Brown the meat
lightly on all sides. Keep in mind the sugar in the marinade can burn
easily, so watch the meat carefully as it browns.
6. Place the pan in a preheated 425°F (220°C) oven about 15 minutes, or
until a meat thermometer indicates an interior temperature of 150°F
(66°C) or desired doneness.
7. Remove the tenderloins from the oven. Let stand 10 minutes in a warm
place, then slice across the grain into medallions.
Per serving: Calories, 240; Protein, 37 g; Fat, 8 g (32% cal.); Cholesterol, 105 mg;
Carbohydrates, 1 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 250 mg.
KALBI
The word kalbi is Korean and refers to
ribs, usually beef ribs. In Korean cuisine,
the meat is sliced, marinated in a sweetened soy sauce mixture, and grilled. In
Western kitchens, the marinade for the
ribs has become popular and is adapted
to a variety of dishes not typically Korean,
such as the pork tenderloin recipe here.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Baked Pork Chops with Prune Stuffing
PORTIONS: 25
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1 C H O P, 2 F L O Z ( 6 0 M L ) G R A V Y
U.S.
METRIC
25
11⁄2 lb
25
750 g
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Prunes, pitted
Basic Bread Dressing (p. 439)
1. Soak the prunes in hot water for 15 minutes. Drain and cool.
2. Prepare the dressing and add the prunes. Keep refrigerated until ready
to use.
25
25
as needed as needed
to taste
to taste
to taste
to taste
Pork chops, cut thick (at least 3⁄4 in./2 cm)
Oil
Salt
Pepper
3. Cut a pocket in the pork chops as shown in Figure 10.17.
4. Stuff the pockets with the prune dressing, using 1 prune per chop.
Fasten the openings with picks or skewers.
5. Oil a baking pan and place the chops in it. Brush them with oil and
season with salt and pepper.
6. Place the chops under the broiler just until lightly browned.
7. Transfer the pan to a 350°F (175°C) oven and bake about 1⁄2 hour, until
chops are cooked through.
8. Remove the chops from the pan and place in a hotel pan for holding.
Remove picks.
8 fl oz
31⁄2 pt
2 fl oz
Water or white wine
Brown sauce or demi-glace
Sherry (optional)
250 mL
1.75 L
60 mL
Per serving: Calories, 500; Protein, 49 g; Fat, 26 g (47% cal.); Cholesterol, 125 mg;
Carbohydrates, 16 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 290 mg.
9. Deglaze the baking pan with the water or wine, degrease, and strain the
liquid into the hot brown sauce.
10. Bring to a boil and reduce the sauce slightly to bring to the proper
consistency.
11. Add the sherry (if using) and adjust seasoning.
12. Serve 1 chop per portion with 2 oz (60 mL) gravy.
Glazed Ham with Cider Sauce
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G) HAM, 2 FL OZ (60 ML) SAUCE
U.S.
METRIC
15 lb
7 kg
3–4 tbsp
6 oz
1
⁄4 tsp
11⁄2 qt
8 oz
3 oz
1
⁄3 tsp
1 tsp
6 tbsp
to taste
45–60 mL
175 g
1 mL
1.5 L
250 g
100 g
2 mL
5 mL
50 g
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Smoked ham
1. Place the ham(s) in a stockpot with enough water to cover. Bring to a
boil and reduce heat to a simmer. Simmer 1 hour. Drain.
2. Cut off skin and excess fat. Leave fat covering about 1⁄2 in. (1 cm) thick.
Score the fat with a knife.
Prepared mustard
Brown sugar
Ground cloves
3. Place the ham fat side up in a roasting or baking pan. Spread with a thin
layer of prepared mustard. Mix the sugar and cloves and sprinkle over
the ham.
4. Bake at 350°F (175°C) about 1 hour. (Caution: Sugar burns easily, so
check ham after 30–45 minutes.)
Apple cider
Raisins, seedless (optional)
Brown sugar
Nutmeg
Grated lemon rind
Cornstarch
Salt
5. Place cider, raisins, sugar, nutmeg, and lemon rind in a saucepan and
simmer 5 minutes.
6. Mix cornstarch with a little cold water or cold cider and stir into the
sauce. Simmer until thickened.
7. Add salt to taste.
8. Slice ham (as for leg of lamb, Figure 11.3). Serve 5-oz (150-g) portion
with 2 oz (60 mL) sauce on the side.
VARIATIONS
Per serving: Calories, 300; Protein, 32 g; Fat, 7 g (21% cal.); Cholesterol, 70 mg;
Carbohydrates, 25 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 1680 mg.
Ham with Brown Cider Sauce
Note: The amount of cooking required depends on the type of ham. Aged country
hams must be soaked 24 hours in cold water, scrubbed, and simmered about
20 minutes per pound (500 g). Hams labeled tenderized or ready to cook may be
baked without simmering (starting with step 2) or just blanched before baking
(place in cold water, bring to a boil, and drain).
When ham is baked, drain fat from pan and deglaze with 11⁄2 pt (750 mL)
cider. Add 11⁄2 qt (1.5 L) demi-glace or espagnole and simmer until
reduced and thickened. Flavor to taste with mustard and a little sugar.
Fruit-Glazed Ham
Omit mustard-sugar glaze. During last half of baking, spoon fruit
preserves (apricot, pineapple, or peach) over ham to glaze.
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ROASTING AND BAKING
323
Home-Style Meatloaf
PORTIONS: 25
U.S.
1 lb
8 oz
2 oz
12 oz
12 fl oz
21⁄2 lb
21⁄2 lb
21⁄2 lb
5
1 tbsp
1
⁄2 tsp
3 pt
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G)
METRIC
500 g
250 g
60 mL
375 g
375 mL
1.25 kg
1.25 kg
1.25 kg
5
15 mL
2 mL
1.5 L
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Onions, fine dice
Celery, fine dice
Oil
Soft bread crumbs
Tomato juice, stock, or milk
Ground beef
Ground pork
Ground veal
Eggs, beaten slightly
Salt
Black pepper
1. Sauté the onions and celery in oil until tender. Remove from pan and
cool thoroughly.
2. In a large bowl, soak the bread crumbs in the juice, stock, or milk.
3. Add the sautéed vegetables and the meat, eggs, salt, and pepper. Mix
gently until evenly combined. Do not overmix.
4. Form the mixture into 2 or 3 loaves in a baking pan, or fill loaf pans with
the mixture.
5. Bake at 350°F (175°C) 1–11⁄2 hours, or until done. Test with a meat
thermometer for an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C).
Tomato sauce, Spanish sauce,
Creole sauce, or sour cream sauce
6. For service, cut the loaves into 4-oz (125 g) slices. Serve with 2 oz (60 mL)
sauce per portion.
Per serving: Calories, 360; Protein, 27 g; Fat, 21 g (53% cal.); Cholesterol, 135 mg;
Carbohydrates, 16 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 680 mg.
VARIATIONS
Home-Style All-Beef Meatloaf
In place of the mixture of beef, pork, and veal, use 71⁄2 lb (3.75 kg)
ground beef.
Italian-Style Meatloaf
Add the following ingredients to the basic mix:
4 tsp (20 mL) chopped garlic, sautéed with the onion
1 oz (30 g) parmesan cheese
⁄3 cup (150 mL) chopped parsley
2
11⁄2 tsp (7 mL) basil
1 tsp (5 mL) oregano
Salisbury Steak
Divide meat mixture for all-beef meatloaf into 6-oz (175 g) portions.
Form into thick, oval patties and place on a sheet pan. Bake at 350°F
(175°C) about 30 minutes.
Baked Meatballs
Divide basic meat mixture or Italian-Style Meatloaf mixture into
21⁄2-oz (75 g) portions using a No. 16 scoop. Form into balls and
place on sheet pans. Bake at 350°F (175°C). May be served with
tomato sauce over pasta.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Loin or Rack of Venison Grand Veneur
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1⁄ 4 L O I N O R R A C K ( 2 C H O P S )
METRIC
2
2
2 qt
12 oz
(approx.)
1 pt
1 oz
3 fl oz
1 lb
2L
350 g
(approx.)
500 mL
30 g
90 mL
480 g
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Loins or racks of venison
(21⁄2–3 lb/1.1–1.4 kg each)
Red Wine Marinade for Game (below)
1. Trim the venison, removing all silverskin. Because venison is
very lean, there will be very little fat to remove.
2. Marinate the venison for 2 days, using enough marinade to cover
the meat completely. (The quantity indicated is approximate.)
Pork fatback for barding
3. Cut the fatback into thin sheets on a slicing machine. Bard the
venison by covering the meat with the sheets of fat and tying
them in place.
4. Roast the meat at 450°F (230°C) until rare, 30–45 minutes.
Poîvrade Sauce (p. 189)
Red-currant jelly
Heavy cream
Chestnut purée (fresh or canned),
thinned to a soft texture with alittle
demi-glace and cream
5. When the meat is done, set it aside in a warm place for 15 minutes.
Degrease the roasting pan and deglaze it with a little of the
marinade. Reduce slightly and strain it into the poîvrade sauce.
6. Heat the sauce with the jelly until the jelly is melted and
dissolved.
7. Temper the cream with a little of the sauce, then add to the rest
of the sauce.
8. Cut the meat into chops, or else cut the meat from the bones in
one piece and slice it into medallions.
9. Serve each portion with 2 oz (60 mL) sauce and garnish with 2 oz
(60 g) chestnut purée.
Per serving: Calories, 990; Protein, 67 g; Fat, 65 g (60% cal.); Cholesterol, 345 mg;
Carbohydrates, 8 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 200 mg.
VARIATION
Leg of Venison Grand Veneur
Leg of venison can be prepared and served in the same way. A whole leg of
venison weighing 4–5 lb (about 2 kg) yields 8–10 portions. This larger cut
should be marinated slightly longer, 2–3 days.
Red Wine Marinade for Game
YIELD: 2 QT (2 L)
U.S.
4 oz
4 oz
4
25
2 tsp
4
2 tsp
1 tsp
4
8 fl oz
2 qt
METRIC
125 g
125 g
4
25
10 mL
4
10 mL
5 mL
4
250 mL
2L
INGREDIENTS
Carrot, chopped fine
Onion, chopped fine
Garlic cloves, crushed
Parsley stems
Dried thyme
Bay leaves
Dried ground sage
Peppercorns, crushed
Cloves
Red wine vinegar
Red wine
Per serving: Calories, 25; Protein, 0 g; Fat, 0 g (0% cal.); Cholesterol, 0 mg;
Carbohydrates, 23 g; Fiber, 5 g; Sodium, 200 mg.
PROCEDURE
1. Combine all ingredients in a nonreactive container (e.g., stainless steel,
glass, plastic; do not use aluminum).
2. Marinate meat as desired or as indicated in recipe. Marinating times
may vary from a few hours to several days. After marinating, use the
liquid as a cooking medium and as the base for a sauce.
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BROILING, GRILLING, AND PAN-BROILING
325
Roast Loin of Rabbit with Risotto
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
2 ⁄2–3 lb
as needed
1
PORTION SIZE: 5–6 OZ (140–160 G) RABBIT, 4 OZ (125 G) RISOTTO, SAUCE AND GARNISH
METRIC
1–1.3 kg
as needed
INGREDIENTS
Boneless saddles of rabbit
Oil
1. Trim the meat as necessary, leaving the meat in whole pieces.
2. Heat the oil in a sauté pan. Add the rabbit meat and brown it on all sides.
3. Transfer to an oven heated to 450°F (230°C) and roast 5–10 minutes,
or until medium done (slightly pink in center). Remove the meat from
the pan and keep warm.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Add the shallots, carrots, mushrooms, and garlic. Brown lightly.
Add the vermouth or wine and reduce by half.
Add the stock and reduce by half.
Strain. Season to taste with salt.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Place a mound of risotto in the center of each plate.
Cut the rabbit meat into thick slices and arrange over the risotto.
Place a few pieces of diced carrot and zucchini on the plate.
Spoon the sauce onto the plate around the meat.
2 oz
2 oz
4 oz
1
4 fl oz
1 pt
60 g
60 g
125 g
1
125 g
500 mL
to taste
to taste
Shallot, chopped fine
Carrot, chopped fine
Mushroom, chopped fine
Garlic clove, chopped fine
Dry white vermouth or white wine
Rabbit stock or chicken stock,
rich and concentrated
Salt
1 kg
as desired
as desired
Risotto alla Parmigiana (p. 648)
Carrot, small dice, cooked, hot
Zucchini, small dice, cooked, hot
2 lb
as desired
as desired
PROCEDURE
Per serving: Calories, 490; Protein, 35 g; Fat, 22 g (27% cal.); Cholesterol, 100 mg;
Carbohydrates, 32 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 224 mg.
Roast Loin of Rabbit with Risotto
Broiling, Grilling, and Pan-Broiling
Broiling and grilling are dry-heat cooking methods, which use very high heat to cook meat
quickly. Properly broiled meats have a well-browned, flavorful crust on the outside, and the
inside is cooked to the desired doneness and still juicy.
It may be helpful to think of broiling and grilling as browning techniques rather than
cooking techniques. This is because the best, juiciest broiled meats are those cooked to the
rare or medium-done stage. Because of the intense heat, it is difficult to broil meats to the
well-done stage and still keep them juicy. Pork and veal, which are usually eaten well done,
are generally better griddled, sautéed, or braised than broiled or grilled. (Veal can be broiled
successfully if the customer prefers it a little pink inside.)
For best results, only high-quality, tender cuts with a good fat content should be broiled.
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Temperature Control
The object of broiling is not just to cook the meat to the desired doneness but also to form a
brown, flavorful, crusty surface.
The goal of the broiler cook is to create the right amount of browning—not too much or
too little—by the time the inside is cooked to the desired doneness. To do this, he or she must
broil the item at the right temperature.
In general, the shorter the cooking time, the higher the temperature, or else the meat
won’t have time to brown. The longer the cooking time, the lower the temperature, or the
meat will brown too much before the inside is done.
Cooking time depends on two factors:
1. The desired doneness.
2. The thickness of the cut.
In other words, a well-done steak should be cooked at a lower heat than a rare one. A
thin steak cooked rare must be broiled at a higher temperature than a thick one cooked rare.
To control the cooking temperature of a broiler, raise or lower the rack. On a grill, set
different areas for different temperatures and grill meats in the appropriate area.
Seasoning
As with roasting, chefs disagree on when to season. Some feel that meats should not be seasoned before broiling. This is because salt draws moisture to the surface and retards browning.
Procedure for Broiling or Grilling Meats
In a broiler, the heat source is above the food. In a grill, the heat is below the food. Except for this difference, the basic procedure is the same for both.
Make sure you understand how to test broiled meats for doneness (p. 297) before starting.
1. Collect and prepare all equipment and food supplies. Trim excess fat from meats to avoid flare-ups that can char the meat too much and coat
it with smoky residue. If necessary, score the fatty edges of meats to prevent curling.
2. Preheat the broiler or grill.
3. If necessary, brush the grill with a wire brush to clean off any charred food particles.
4. Brush the meat with oil, or dip it in oil and let the excess drip off. Place the item on the broiler or grill. The oil helps prevent sticking and
keeps the product moist. This step may be unnecessary for meats high in fat. Using too much oil can cause grease fires. Alternatively,
wipe the grill with an oiled towel before placing the meat on it.
5. When one side is brown and the meat is cooked halfway, turn it over with a fork (piercing only the fat, never the meat, or juices will be
lost) or with tongs. Figure 11.4 illustrates the technique for grill-marking steaks and other meats.
6. Cook the second side until the meat is cooked to the desired doneness. If the meat is to be brushed with a glaze or sauce, such as a
barbecue sauce, it is usually best to wait until the product is partially cooked on each side before applying the first coat. Many glazes or
sauces burn if cooked too long. After the item has cooked on both sides and is one-half to three-fourths done, brush the top with a light coat
of the sauce. Turn over and repeat as necessary.
7. Remove from the broiler or grill and serve immediately.
Figure 11.4 Grill-marking steaks.
(a) Place the meat on a preheated grill at an
angle as shown.
(b) When the meat is about one-fourth done,
turn the meat 60–90 degrees, as shown. Do
not turn it over.
(c) When the steak is about half done, turn it
over. The grill marks will appear as shown.
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Others feel that seasoning before broiling improves the taste of the meat because the seasonings become part of the brown crust rather than something sprinkled on afterward.
Generally, if you have a professional broiler that has been properly preheated, it is not
difficult to brown meat that has been salted. Low-powered broilers such as those found in
home kitchens, on the other hand, do not get as hot. In such cases, it is better to salt after
broiling, not before.
One way around this problem is to serve the meat with a seasoned butter (p. 193).
Another option is to marinate the meat in seasoned oil 30 minutes or more before broiling.
Be sure to dry marinated meats well before placing them on the broiler.
Sauces and Accompaniments
for Grilled and Broiled Meats
327
KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
• What are the steps in the basic procedure for roasting meats?
• What are the factors to consider when
determining at what temperature to
roast meats?
Many kinds of sauces and accompaniments are appropriate for grilled meats, including compound butters; butter sauces such as béarnaise; brown sauce variations such as Bercy,
• What are the steps in the basic procemushroom, and bordelaise; tomato sauce variations; and salsas and relishes. For other exdure for broiling and grilling meats?
amples, see the recipes in this section. Note that, unlike pan sauces made by deglazing sauté
• What are the steps in the basic procepans (see p. 333), all these sauces are prepared in advance because broiling or grilling does
dure for pan-broiling meats?
not give you the opportunity to deglaze a pan.
Part of the appeal of broiled and grilled meats is their brown, crisp surface. For this reason, it is best not to cover the item with the sauce. Also, less sauce is usually served with
grilled items than with sautéed items. Serve the sauce on the side or around the meat or, at
most, in a thin ribbon across only part of the meat.
Procedure for Pan-Broiling Meats
Similarly, vegetables and accompaniments for broiled and grilled meats should,
in most cases, not be heavily sauced. Grilled vegetables are often good choices as
1. Preheat an iron skillet over a high flame until it
accompaniments.
Pan-Broiling
Broiling very thin steaks (minute steaks) to the rare stage is difficult because the
heat is not high enough to form a good brown crust without overcooking the inside.
Pan-broiling in a heavy iron skillet is an answer to this problem.
is very hot. Do not add fat. (The pan should, of
course, be well seasoned.)
2. Proceed as for grilling. Pour off any fat that accumulates during cooking, if necessary.
Broiled Strip Loin Steak Maître d’Hôtel
YIELD: 10 PORTIONS
U.S.
METRIC
10
10
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
to taste
to taste
to taste
to taste
as needed as needed
Strip loin steaks, boneless, 10–12 oz
(300–350 g) each
Salt
Black pepper
Vegetable oil
1.
2.
3.
4.
5 oz
Maître d’Hôtel Butter (p. 194)
6. Remove the steaks from the broiler and immediately place on a hot
plate. Top each steak with a 1⁄2-oz (15-g) slice of seasoned butter.
150 g
Per 8 ounces: Calories, 550; Protein, 60 g; Fat, 33 g (55% cal.); Cholesterol, 185 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 250 mg.
Trim steaks as necessary, leaving a thin layer of fat on the edge.
Season the steaks to taste with salt and pepper. Brush lightly with oil.
Place the steaks on a preheated grill or broiler.
When the steak is about one-fourth done, turn it 60–90 degrees to grillmark it (see Figure 11.4).
5. When the steak is half done, turn it over and complete the cooking to
the desired doneness. If turning with a fork, pierce the fat, not the
meat, or juices will be lost.
VARIATIONS
Other steaks may be cooked by the same method, including rib steak, rib-eye steak, tenderloin, club steak, porterhouse, T-bone, and sirloin.
Chopped beef patties may also be prepared using this recipe.
Other seasoned butters and sauces make good accompaniments to broiled steaks, including:
Garlic Butter Chasseur Sauce Mushroom Sauce (brown) Béarnaise Sauce Anchovy Butter Madeira Sauce
Bercy Sauce (brown)
Foyot Sauce Bordelaise Sauce Périgueux Sauce
Lyonnaise Sauce Choron Sauce Marchand de Vin Sauce
Broiled Lamb Chops
Prepare as for broiled steaks, using rib, loin, or shoulder chops.
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London Broil
PORTIONS: 24
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G)
U.S.
METRIC
10 lb
4.75 kg
1 pt
2 fl oz
2 tsp
2 tsp
1 tsp
500 mL
60 mL
10 mL
10 mL
5 mL
11⁄2 qt
1.5 L
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Flank steak (5 steaks)
Marinade:
Vegetable oil
Lemon juice
Salt
Black pepper
Dried thyme
1. Trim all fat and connective tissue from the beef.
2. Combine the marinade ingredients in a hotel pan. Place the steaks in
the pan and turn them so they are coated with oil. Cover and refrigerate
at least 2 hours.
3. Remove the meat from the marinade and place in a preheated broiler or
grill. Broil at high heat 3–5 minutes on each side, until well browned
outside but rare inside (see Note).
4. Remove from broiler and let rest 2 minutes before slicing.
5. Slice the meat very thin on a sharp angle across the grain(see Figure 11.5).
Mushroom Sauce (brown) (p. 189)
6. Weigh 5-oz (150-g) portions. Serve each portion with 2 oz (60 mL) sauce.
Per serving: Calories, 520; Protein, 41 g; Fat, 37 g (65% cal.); Cholesterol, 110 mg;
Carbohydrates, 3 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 370 mg.
Figure 11.5 Slicing London broil flank steak.
Note: Flank steak should be broiled rare. If cooked well done, it will be tough and dry.
VARIATIONS
Thick-cut steaks from the round or chuck are sometimes used for
London broil.
Teriyaki-Style London Broil
Marinate the steaks in a mixture of the following ingredients:
21⁄2 cups (600 mL) Japanese soy sauce, 6 oz (200 mL) vegetable oil,
4 oz (125 mL) sherry, 6 oz (175 g) chopped onion, 2 tbsp (30 g) sugar,
2 tsp (10 mL) ginger, 1 crushed garlic clove. Marinate at least
4 hours or, preferably, overnight. Broil as in basic recipe.
(a) Holding the knife at a sharp angle, slice the meat in very
thin slices across the grain. Use a table fork or kitchen fork
to hold the meat steady. Some chefs slice the meat toward
the fork.
(b) Others prefer to slice away from the fork. The result is
the same.
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329
Beef Fajitas
PORTIONS: 12
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (150 G), PLUS GARNISH
U.S.
METRIC
3 fl oz
6 fl oz
4 tsp
4 tsp
4
4 tsp
2 tsp
4 lb
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
90 mL
180 mL
20 mL
20 mL
4
20 mL
10 mL
1.9 kg
Vegetable oil
Lime juice
Ground cumin
Chili powder
Garlic cloves, chopped fine
Salt
Pepper
Beef skirt steak or flank steak,
trimmed of fat
1. To make a marinade, mix together the oil, lime juice, cumin, chili
powder, garlic, salt, and pepper.
2. Place the meat in a nonreactive container with the marinade,
turning the meat so it is coated on all sides. Refrigerate 2–4
hours.
3. Remove the meat from the marinade. Grill the meat on both
sides on a grill or under a broiler until it is lightly charred and
rare to medium done, as desired.
1 fl oz
1 lb 8 oz
30 mL
700 g
1 lb 8 oz
700 g
Vegetable oil
Bell peppers, assorted colors,
cut into strips
Onion, in thick slices
4. While the beef is grilling, heat the oil in a large sauté pan over
high heat.
5. Add the peppers and sauté briefly, keeping them slightly crisp.
6. Remove the peppers from the pan, and then sauté the onions in
the same way.
7. When the beef is done, remove it from the grill and let it rest 5
minutes.
8. Slice the meat across the grain into thin slices.
Flour tortillas, steamed to soften
Garnishes:
Guacamole or sliced avocado
Sour cream
Shredded lettuce
Diced tomato
Salsa Cruda (p. 206)
9. Serve the meat strips and vegetables on a hot plate or sizzle
platter. Serve the tortillas and the garnishes on the side in
separate containers. Diners make their own soft tacos by rolling
meat, vegetables, and choice of condiments in tortillas.
24, or as desired 24, or as desired
as desired
as desired
Per serving: Calories, 740; Protein, 44 g; Fat, 22 g (27% cal.); Cholesterol, 60 mg;
Carbohydrates, 88 g; Fiber, 6 g; Sodium, 830 mg.
Broiled Smoked Pork Chop
with Flageolet Beans and Wilted Arugula
PORTIONS: 15
U.S.
15
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1 8 - O Z ( 2 5 0 - G ) P O R K C H O P, A B O U T 5 O Z ( 1 5 0 G ) V E G E T A B L E
METRIC
15
as needed as needed
4 lb 12 oz
2.2 kg
INGREDIENTS
Smoked pork loin chops, bone in,
about 8 oz (250 g) each
Vegetable oil
Flageolet Beans with Wilted Arugula
(see Note)
Per serving: Calories, 620; Protein, 57 g; Fat, 26 g (39% cal.); Cholesterol, 110 mg;
Carbohydrates, 26 g; Fiber, 9 g; Sodium, 3110 mg.
Note: The quantity of beans and arugula required for this recipe is equal to the yield
of the recipe on page 637.
Broiled Smoked Pork Chop with Flageolet Beans and Wilted Arugula
PROCEDURE
1. Brush the chops very lightly with oil. Place on a preheated grill or broiler
until grill-marked on both sides and heated through. Smoked pork
chops are fully cooked, so it is necessary only to heat them through.
2. Serve each chop with 5 oz (150 g) of the beans with arugula.
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Grilled Marinated Pork Tenderloin
with Sweet Potato Purée and Warm Chipotle Salsa
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G) MEAT
METRIC
4 lb
2 oz
1
2 tbsp
2 kg
60 g
1
30 mL
1 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
1
⁄4 tsp
1
⁄8 tsp
2 fl oz
1 fl oz
5 mL
2 mL
1 mL
0.5 mL
60 mL
30 mL
1
1 lb
2
1
500 g
2
⁄2 tsp
2–3 tsp
2 mL
10–15 mL
3 lb
to taste
1.5 kg
to taste
1
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Pork tenderloin
Onion, chopped fine
Garlic clove, chopped fine
Powdered red New Mexico chile
(see Note)
Salt
Dried oregano
Ground cumin
Cinnamon
Lime juice
Olive oil
1. Trim fat and membranes from the tenderloins (see Figure 10.16).
2. Mix together the onion, garlic, powdered chile, salt, oregano, cumin,
cinnamon, lime juice, and oil.
3. Coat the meat with this mixture. Wrap and refrigerate several hours or
overnight.
Garlic clove, unpeeled
Plum tomatoes or other
small tomatoes
Whole chipotle chiles in
adobo (canned)
Salt
Sauce from the canned chiles
4. Roast the garlic and tomatoes in a preheated 450°F (230°C) oven for 10
minutes.
5. Remove the skins from the tomatoes and garlic. Place the tomatoes and
garlic in a blender.
6. Carefully cut open the chiles. Scrape out and discard the seeds. Chop
the chiles.
7. Add the chiles, salt, and the sauce from the chiles to the blender. Blend
to make a coarse purée. Add more salt if needed.
Sweet potatoes
Salt
Per serving: Calories, 410; Protein, 41 g; Fat, 10 g (22% cal.); Cholesterol, 110 mg;
Carbohydrates, 38 g; Fiber, 5 g; Sodium, 630 mg.
Note: For a slightly different flavor, or if powdered New Mexico chile is not available,
use a regular chili powder blend.
8. Bake the sweet potatoes at 400°F (200°C) until soft. Cut in half and
scoop out the flesh. Pass through a food mill to purée. Season lightly.
9. Scrape the onions and garlic off the meat (they will burn if left on).
10. Grill the meat until just well done. Be careful not to overcook, or the
meat will be dry.
11. To serve, place 3 oz (90 g) sweet potato purée on the plate. Slice the
meat across the grain into medallions. Arrange 5 oz (150 g) meat on top
of the sweet potato. Drizzle with 11⁄2 oz (45 mL) tomato chipotle salsa.
Grilled Marinated Pork Tenderloin with
Sweet Potato Purée and Warm Chipotle Salsa
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331
Grilled Chopped Lamb “Steaks”
with Rosemary and Pine Nuts
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G)
U.S.
METRIC
INGREDIENTS
6 oz
2 fl oz
61⁄2 lb
8 oz
8 oz
10 fl oz
1
⁄2 cup
2 tsp
21⁄2 tsp
1 tsp
25 strips
175 g
60 g
3.25 kg
250 g
250 g
300 mL
30 g
10 mL
12 mL
5 mL
25 strips
Onion, chopped fine
Salad oil
Ground lamb
Soft, fresh bread crumbs
Toasted pine nuts
Milk
Chopped parsley
Rosemary
Salt
White pepper
Bacon
PROCEDURE
1. Sauté the onion in oil until tender. Do not brown. Cool thoroughly.
2. Combine all ingredients except bacon in a bowl. Mix gently until evenly
combined. Do not overmix.
3. Scale the meat into 5-oz (150-g) portions. Form the portions into thick
patties, about 3⁄4 in. (2 cm) thick.
4. Wrap a strip of bacon around each patty and fasten with picks.
5. Grill or broil the patties under moderate heat until done, turning once
(see Note).
6. Remove the picks before serving.
VARIATIONS
Ground beef or veal may be used instead of the lamb.
Per serving: Calories, 460; Protein, 25 g; Fat, 37 g (72% cal.); Cholesterol, 95 mg;
Carbohydrates, 7 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 520 mg.
Note: The patties may be browned under the broiler, arranged on a sheet pan,
and finished in the oven at 375°F (190°C).
Grilled Chopped Beef “Steaks”
with Marjoram
Substitute ground beef for the ground lamb. Substitute marjoram
for the rosemary. Omit the pine nuts.
Shish Kebab
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 6 OZ (175 G)
U.S.
METRIC
10 lb
4.5 kg
1 qt
⁄2 cup
5
4 tsp
11⁄2 tsp
1 tsp
1
1L
125 mL
5
20 mL
7 mL
5 mL
INGREDIENTS
Lamb leg, boneless, trimmed
Marinade:
Olive oil, or part olive and
part vegetable oil
Lemon juice
Garlic cloves, crushed
Salt
Pepper
Dried oregano
Per serving: Calories, 280; Protein, 37 g; Fat, 14 g (46% cal.); Cholesterol, 115 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 125 mg.
Note: Shish kebabs are sometimes made with vegetables (onions, green peppers,
cherry tomatoes, mushrooms) on the same skewer with the meat. However,
it is easier to control cooking times if vegetables are broiled on separate skewers.
Also, the meat is less likely to steam in the moisture from the vegetables.
PROCEDURE
1. A day before cooking, trim any remaining fat and connective tissue from
the lamb. Cut into 1-in. (2.5-cm) cubes. Keep all the cubes the same
size for even cooking.
2. Combine the marinade ingredients and pour over the lamb in a hotel
pan. Mix well. Refrigerate overnight.
3. Drain the meat and weigh out 6-oz (175-g) portions. Thread each
portion onto a skewer.
4. Place skewers on a grill or broiler rack and broil at moderate heat until
medium done, turning over once when they are half cooked.
5. To serve, place each portion on a bed of Rice Pilaf (p. 647). The skewers
should be removed by the waiter in the dining room or by the cook in
the kitchen.
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Broiled Lamb Kidneys with Bacon
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
20
20
as needed
to taste
to taste
PORTION SIZE: 2 KIDNEYS, 2 STRIPS BACON
METRIC
20
20
as needed
to taste
to taste
INGREDIENTS
Bacon strips
Lamb kidneys
Melted butter or oil
Salt
Pepper
Per serving: Calories, 410; Protein, 26 g; Fat, 33 g (73% cal.);
Cholesterol, 515 mg; Carbohydrates, 1 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 580 mg.
PROCEDURE
1. Cook the bacon on a griddle or in the oven on a sheet pan until crisp. Drain off the
fat and keep the bacon warm.
2. Split the kidneys in half lengthwise and cut out the white fat and gristle in center.
3. Arrange the kidneys on skewers, 4 half-kidneys per skewer.
4. Brush the kidneys well with melted butter or oil and season with salt and pepper.
5. Broil the kidneys under high heat, turning once, until browned on the outside but
still slightly rare. (Test by pressing with finger, as for testing steaks.)
6. Serve immediately with 2 slices of bacon per portion. Mustard is often served
with kidneys.
Grilled Venison with Lime Butter
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 3–4 OZ (90–125 G))
METRIC
2 lb
1 kg
1 tsp
1 fl oz
to taste
5 mL
30 mL
to taste
2 oz
1
⁄2 tsp
60 g
2 mL
2 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
to taste
10 mL
2 mL
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Boneless, trimmed venison
(see step 1)
Whole Sichuan peppercorns, toasted
Lime juice
Salt
1. Select a piece or pieces of venison suitable for broiling and slicing in
the manner of London broil. Make sure the venison is well trimmed of
all silverskin.
2. Rub the meat with Sichuan peppercorns. Sprinkle with lime juice and
salt. Let marinate 30 minutes.
Butter
Sichuan peppercorns,
toasted and crushed
Grated lime zest
Lime juice
Salt
3. Soften the butter and mix in the crushed peppercorns, lime zest, lime
juice, and salt. Refrigerate until needed.
4. Grill or broil the venison until rare or medium rare. Remove from the
heat and let rest for a few minutes.
5. Cut on the bias, across the grain, into thin slices, like London broil.
6. Arrange the slices on plates. Top each portion with a small slice of lime
butter, about 11⁄2 tsp (8 g).
Per serving: Calories, 190; Protein, 26 g; Fat, 9 g (43% cal.); Cholesterol, 110 mg;
Carbohydrates, 1 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 115 mg.
Grilled Loin of Elk
PORTIONS: 12
U.S.
8 fl oz
2 fl oz
2 oz
1 tbsp
1
⁄4 tsp
1 tbsp
1 tsp
12
PORTION SIZE: 5–6 OZ (150–180 G)
METRIC
250 mL
60 mL
60 g
15 mL
1 mL
15 mL
5 mL
12
INGREDIENTS
Red wine
Vegetable oil
Shallot, sliced
Lemon zest, grated
Cayenne
Salt
Black pepper
Steaks, 5–6 oz (150–180 g)
each, cut from trimmed,
boneless loin of elk
Per serving: Calories, 180; Protein, 33 g; Fat, 45 g (75% cal.); Cholesterol, 80 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 115 mg.
PROCEDURE
1. Mix together the wine, oil, shallot, lemon zest, cayenne, salt, and
pepper in a nonreactive container big enough to hold the elk steaks.
2. Place the steaks in the container, turning them to coat them with the
marinade.
3. Refrigerate 2 hours. The steaks should remain in the marinade only
long enough to flavor them lightly.
4. Remove the steaks from the marinade and pat them dry with clean
towels.
5. Broil or grill to rare or medium doneness.
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333
Sautéing, Pan-Frying,
and Griddling
If you review the general definitions of sautéing, pan-frying, and griddling in Chapter 4, you
will see the differences among these methods are largely a matter of degree. Sautéing uses
high heat and a small amount of fat and is usually used for small pieces of food. Pan-frying
uses moderate heat, a moderate amount of fat, and is usually employed for larger items, such
as chops. But at what point does moderate heat become high heat and a small amount of fat
become a moderate amount of fat? It is impossible to draw an exact dividing line between
sautéing and pan-frying.
Each time you cook a piece of meat, you must judge how much heat and how much fat to
use to do the job best. This depends on the kind of food and the size of the pieces. Following are guidelines to help you make the right judgments.
Guidelines for Sautéing, Pan-Frying, and Griddling
1. Use only tender cuts for sautéing.
2. Smaller or thinner pieces of meat require higher heat. The object is to brown or sear the meat in the time it takes to cook it to the desired
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
doneness. Very small or thin pieces cook in just a few moments.
If large or thick items are browned over high heat, it may be necessary to finish them at lower heat to avoid burning them.
The amount of fat needed is the amount required to conduct the heat to all surfaces so the item cooks evenly. Flat items need much less fat
than irregularly shaped items like chicken pieces. Sautéing small pieces of meat requires little fat because the items are tossed or flipped
so all sides come in contact with the hot pan.
When sautéing small pieces of food, do not overload the pan, and do not flip or toss the food more than necessary. This will cause the temperature to drop too much, and the meat will simmer in its juices rather than sauté.
Use clarified butter or oil or a mixture of the two for sautéing. Whole butter burns easily.
Dredging meats in flour promotes even browning and helps prevent sticking. Flour meats immediately before cooking, not in advance, or
the flour will get pasty. Also, shake off excess flour before adding meat to the pan.
Meats to be pan-fried are often breaded. Review page 152 for Standard Breading Procedure.
When pan-frying several batches, strain or skim the fat between batches. Otherwise, burned food particles from previous batches may
mar the appearance of the meat.
Griddling and pan-frying are preferable to broiling and grilling for cooking pork and veal chops because the lower temperatures keep
these meats moister when cooked well done. Hamburgers cooked well done are also moister if cooked on a griddle.
Deglazing the Pan
A sauce made by deglazing the pan often accompanies sautéed meats. To deglaze means to
swirl a liquid in a sauté or other pan to dissolve cooked particles of food remaining on the
bottom. (Review discussions of deglazing in Chapter 4, p. 74, and in Chapter 8, p. 165 and
p. 178). The deglazing liquid can be used to flavor a sauce in one of two ways:
1. Add the reduced deglazing liquid to a prepared sauce. The deglazing liquid adds
flavor and color to the sauce.
2. Use the deglazing liquid to make a freshly prepared sauce. Add stock or other liquids
and other flavoring and thickening ingredients and finish the sauce as indicated in the
recipe.
Stir-Frying
The Chinese technique of stir-frying is very much like sautéing, except that in sautéing, the
food items are usually tossed by flipping the pan, while in stir-frying, the pan is left stationary
and the foods are tossed with spatulas or other tools. Although true Chinese stir-frying is
done in a round-bottomed pan, called a wok, set over a special burner, you can use the same
technique with a standard sauté pan.
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General Procedures for Sautéing and Pan-Frying Meats
The following procedures are presented together so you can compare them. Keep in mind that these are the two extremes and that many
recipes require a procedure that falls somewhere between the two.
The procedure for pan-frying applies to griddling as well, although only a small amount of fat can be used on a griddle.
Sautéing
1. Collect all equipment and food supplies.
2. Prepare meats as required. This may include dredging with flour.
3. Heat a small amount of fat in a sauté pan until very hot.
4. Add the meat to the pan. Do not overcrowd the pan.
5. Brown the meat on all sides, flipping or tossing it in the pan as
necessary so it cooks evenly.
6. Remove the meat from the pan. Drain excess fat, if any.
7. Add any sauce ingredients to be sautéed, such as shallots or
mushrooms, as indicated in the recipe. Sauté them as necessary.
8. Add liquid for deglazing, such as wine or stock. Simmer while
swirling and scraping the pan to release food particles on the bottom
so they can dissolve in the liquid. Reduce the liquid.
9. Add a prepared sauce or other sauce ingredients, and finish the sauce
as indicated in the recipe.
10. Serve the meat with the sauce, or return the meat to the sauce in
the pan to reheat briefly and coat it with the sauce. Do not let the meat
cook in the sauce. Serve.
Pan-Frying
1. Collect all equipment and food supplies.
2. Prepare meats as required. This may include breading or
dredging with flour.
3. Heat a moderate amount of fat in a sauté pan or skillet
until hot.
4. Add the meat to the pan.
5. Brown the meat on one side. Turn it with a spatula and
brown the other side. Larger pieces may need to be finished
at reduced heat after browning. If required, they may finish
cooking, uncovered, in the oven.
6. Serve immediately.
Basic Procedure for Stir-Frying
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Heat a wok or sauté pan over high heat until very hot.
Add a small quantity of oil and let it heat.
Add seasonings for flavoring the oil—one or more of the following: salt, garlic, ginger root, scallions.
If meat, poultry, or seafood items are part of the dish, add them at this point. As when sautéing, do not overload the pan. Leave the food
pieces untouched for a few moments so they begin to brown properly. Then stir and toss them with a spatula so they sear and cook evenly.
If any liquid seasoning for the meat, such as soy sauce, is used, add it now, but only in small quantities, so the meat continues to fry and
does not start to simmer or stew.
Remove the meat from the pan or leave it in, depending on the recipe. If a small quantity of quick-cooking vegetables is used, the meat can
sometimes be left in the pan and the vegetables cooked with it. Otherwise, remove the meat when it is almost done and keep it on the side
while cooking the vegetables.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 if necessary.
Add the vegetables to the pan and stir-fry. If more than one vegetable is used, add the longer-cooking ones first and the quicker-cooking
ones last.
Some dishes are dry-fried, meaning prepared without liquid or sauce. In this case, simply return the meat item, if any, to the pan to
reheat with the vegetables, then serve. Otherwise, proceed to the next step.
Add liquid ingredients, such as stock or water, and continue to cook and stir until the vegetables are almost cooked.
Add the meat item, which was removed in step 6, to the pan to reheat.
Optional but widely used step: Add a mixture of cornstarch and water to the pan and cook until lightly thickened.
Serve at once.
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335
KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
•
•
•
•
When sautéing meats, what are the factors to consider when deciding on how much heat to use?
What are the steps in the basic procedure for sautéing meats?
What are the steps in the basic procedure for pan-frying meats?
What are the steps in the basic procedure for stir-frying meats?
Breaded Veal Cutlets
PORTIONS: 24
U.S.
6 lb
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G)
METRIC
3 kg
to taste
to taste
to taste
to taste
4 oz
4
1 cup
11⁄2 lb
8 oz
125 g
4
250 mL
750 g
250 mL
12 oz
375 g
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Veal cutlets (scaloppine): 24 pieces,
4 oz (125 g) each (See Figure 10.15
for preparation of veal)
Salt
Pepper
Standard Breading Procedure (see Note):
Flour
Eggs
Milk
Bread crumbs, dry or fresh
Oil or clarified butter, or a mixture of oil
and butter
1. Lightly flatten each piece of veal with a meat mallet. Do not pound too
hard, or you may tear the meat.
2. Season the meat with salt and pepper and pass through Standard
Breading Procedure (see p. 152).
3. Heat about 1⁄4 in. (5 mm) oil or butter in a large sauté pan. Place the
cutlets in the pan and pan-fry until golden brown. Turn and brown the
other side. Remove from the pan and place on hot plates.
Butter
4. Heat the butter in a small saucepan or sauté pan until lightly browned.
Pour 1⁄2 oz (15 g) brown butter over each portion.
Per serving: Calories, 550; Protein, 31 g; Fat, 38 g (63% cal.); Cholesterol, 165 mg;
Carbohydrates, 19 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 380 mg.
Note: Quantities given for breading materials are only guidelines. You may need
more or less, depending on the shapes of the meat pieces, the care used in breading,
and other factors. In any case, you will need enough so even the last piece to be
breaded can be coated easily and completely.
VARIATIONS
Veal Cutlet Sauté Gruyère
Top each cooked cutlet with 1 or 2 thin slices of tomato and 1 slice
of Gruyère cheese. Pass under a broiler to melt cheese. Serve with
tomato sauce placed under the cutlet or in a ribbon (cordon) around
the cutlet.
Schnitzel à la Holstein
Top each portion with a fried egg and 4 anchovy fillets placed around
the edge of the egg.
Veal Cutlet Viennese-Style
(Wiener Schnitzel)
Top each cutlet with 1 peeled lemon slice and 1 anchovy fillet rolled
around a caper. Garnish the plate with chopped hard-cooked egg
white, sieved egg yolk, and chopped parsley.
Veal Parmigiana
Top each cutlet with 2 fl oz (60 mL) tomato sauce, 1 slice of
mozzarella cheese, and 2 tbsp (30 mL) parmesan cheese.
Pass under a broiler to melt cheese.
Veal Cordon Bleu
Use 2 thin 2-oz (60-g) cutlets per portion. Sandwich 1 thin slice
ham and 1 thin slice of Swiss cheese between 2 cutlets. Pound
edges lightly to seal. Bread and fry as in basic recipe.
Breaded Pork Cutlets
Veal Cutlet, Viennese-Style
Cutlets from pork leg or loin may be breaded and pan-fried like veal.
They must be cooked well done.
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Veal Scaloppine alla Marsala
PORTIONS: 10
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G)
U.S.
METRIC
2 ⁄2 lb
1.25 kg
1
to taste
to taste
for dredging
2 fl oz
to taste
to taste
for dredging
60 mL
4 fl oz
8 fl oz
125 mL
250 mL
2 oz
2 tbsp
60 g
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Small veal scaloppine: 20 pieces,
2 oz (60 g) each (See Figure 10.15
for preparation of veal)
Salt
White pepper
Flour
Oil
1. Lightly flatten each piece of veal with a meat mallet. Do not pound
hard, or you may tear the meat.
2. Dry the meat, season it with salt and pepper, and dredge it in
flour. Shake off excess. (Do not do this step until immediately
before cooking.)
3. Heat the oil in a large sauté pan until very hot. Add the veal and
sauté over high heat just until lightly browned on both sides. (If
necessary, sauté the meat in several batches.)
4. Remove the meat from the pan and drain the excess oil.
Marsala wine
Strong white stock, veal or chicken
(see Note)
Butter, cut in pieces
Chopped parsley
5. Add the Marsala to the pan and deglaze.
6. Add the stock and reduce over high heat by about half.
7. Add the pieces of butter and swirl the pan until they are melted
and blended with the sauce.
8. Add the veal to the pan and bring just to the simmer. Turn the meat
to coat it with the sauce.
9. Serve immediately, 2 pieces per portion, sprinkled with chopped
parsley.
Per serving: Calories, 360; Protein, 27 g; Fat, 26 g (65% cal.); Cholesterol, 115 mg;
Carbohydrates, 2 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 120 mg.
Note: Brown sauce may be used instead of white stock. However, the white stock
makes a more delicate product without masking the flavor of the veal.
VARIATIONS
Veal Scaloppine with Sherry
Substitute sherry for the Marsala.
Veal Scaloppine à la Crème
Prepare as in basic recipe, but omit the wine. Deglaze the pan with the
stock. Add 1 cup (250 mL) heavy cream and reduce until thickened.
Omit the butter. Season the sauce with a few drops of lemon juice.
Taste carefully for salt.
Veal Scaloppine with Lemon
Substitute 3 fl oz (90 mL) lemon juice for the 4 fl oz (125 mL) wine.
After plating, top each piece of veal with 1 lemon slice and sprinkle
with chopped parsley.
Veal Scaloppine with Mushrooms
and Cream
Prepare as for Veal Scaloppine à la Crème, but sauté 1⁄2 lb (250 g)
sliced mushrooms in butter in the sauté pan before deglazing.
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Tournedos Vert-Pré
PORTIONS: 1
U.S.
1 oz
2
2 slices
as needed
as needed
PORTION SIZE: 5–6 OZ (150–175 G))
METRIC
30 g
2
2 slices
as needed
as needed
INGREDIENTS
Clarified butter
Tournedos (see Note),
21⁄2–3 oz (75–90 g) each
Maître d’Hôtel Butter (p. 194)
Allumette Potatoes (p. 625)
Watercress
Per serving: Calories, 640; Protein, 27 g; Fat, 59 g (83% cal.); Cholesterol, 185 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 410 mg.
Note: Tournedos (TOOR-nuh-doe; singular form: one tournedos) are small
tenderloin steaks cut about 11⁄2 in. (4 cm) thick. The same recipe may be used for
fillet steaks, which are larger but thinner cuts from the tenderloin.
See Figure 10.9 for cutting tenderloin.
PROCEDURE
1. Heat the butter in a small sauté pan over moderately high heat.
2. Place the tournedos in the pan and cook until well browned on the
bottom and about half cooked.
3. Turn the meat over and continue to cook until rare or medium done,
according to customer’s request.
4. Place the tournedos on a hot dinner plate and top each with a slice of
maître d’hôtel butter. Garnish the plate with a portion of allumette
potatoes and a generous bunch of watercress. Serve immediately,
while the butter is still melting.
VARIATIONS
Tournedos Béarnaise
Pan-fry tournedos as in basic recipe and serve with béarnaise sauce
(p. 197).
Tournedos Bordelaise
Pan-fry as in basic recipe. Top each steak with 1 slice poached beef
marrow and coat lightly with bordelaise sauce (p. 189).
Tournedos Chasseur
Pan-fry as in basic recipe. Plate the steaks and deglaze the sauté pan
(drained of cooking fat) with 1⁄2 fl oz (15 mL) white wine. Add 2 fl oz
(60 mL) chasseur sauce (p. 189), bring to a simmer, and pour around
the tournedos.
Tournedos Rossini
\
Tournedos Rossini; Berny Potatoes; Braised Lettuce
Pan-fry as in basic recipe. Set the tournedos on croûtons (rounds of
bread cut the same size as the steaks and fried in butter until golden).
Top each steak with 1 slice pâté de foie gras (goose liver pâté) and
1 slice truffle (if available). Coat lightly with Madeira sauce (p. 189).
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Pork Chops Charcutière
PORTIONS: 24
U.S.
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 6 O Z ( 1 7 5 G ) C H O P, 2 F L O Z ( 6 0 M L ) S A U C E
METRIC
24
as needed
24
as needed
11⁄2 qt
1.5 L
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Pork chops, 6 oz (170 g) each
Oil
1. Trim excess fat from chops if necessary.
2. Add enough oil to a skillet, sauté pan, or griddle to make a thin film.
Heat over moderate heat.
3. Place the chops in the hot pan or on the griddle and cook until browned
and about half done. Turn over and cook until well done and browned
on the second side.
Charcutière Sauce (p. 189)
4. Place the chops on hot dinner plates for service (or place them in a hotel
pan if they must be held).
5. Spoon a ribbon of sauce (2 oz/60 mL) around each plated chop.
Per serving: Calories, 260; Protein, 28 g; Fat, 13 g (46% cal.); Cholesterol, 90 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 180 mg.
VARIATIONS
Pork Chops Robert
Use Robert Sauce (p. 189) instead of charcutière sauce.
Pork Chops Piquante
Use Piquante Sauce (p. 189) instead of charcutière sauce.
Veal Chops
These may be cooked by the same basic procedure and served with an
appropriate sauce, such as a well-seasoned demi-glace or a mixture of
demi-glace and cream. Other suggestions; Ivory Sauce (p. 186),
Hungarian Sauce (p. 186), Mushroom Sauce (white) (p. 186), Aurora
Sauce (p. 186).
Sautéed Veal Chop; Zucchini with Tomatoes
Thai Green Curry of Pork with Vegetables
PORTIONS: 12
U.S.
2 fl oz
2 lb
1 lb
10 oz
8 oz
6 oz
1 tbsp
12
18 fl oz
PORTION SIZE: 7 OZ (200 G)
METRIC
60 mL
1 kg
500 g
300 g
250 g
180 g
15 mL
12
550 mL
INGREDIENTS
Vegetable oil
Boneless pork loin, cut into thin slices
Bok choy, cut into 1-in. (2.5-cm) pieces
Yellow summer squash, sliced
Green bell pepper, medium dice
Shiitake mushrooms, sliced
Garlic, chopped
Scallions, sliced
Thai Green Curry Sauce (p. 210), hot
Per serving: Calories, 250; Protein, 18 g; Fat, 19 g (64% cal.); Cholesterol, 40 mg;
Carbohydrates, 6 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 310 mg.
Note: This method of making a curry is designed for advance preparation and quick,
last-minute cooking. A more traditional method is to make the sauce as an integral
sauce. Stir-fry the meat and vegetables, add curry paste (see sauce recipe, p. 186),
and cook until aromatic. Add the coconut milk, other liquids, flavorings, and any
other ingredients indicated in the sauce recipe, and finish cooking.
Thai Green Curry of Pork with Vegetables
PROCEDURE
1. Heat half the oil in a large sauté pan or wok.
2. Over high heat, stir-fry the pork just until it loses its pink color. Cook
it in several batches if necessary. Remove from pan.
3. Add the rest of the oil to the pan.
4. With the pan still over high heat, add the bok choy, squash,
peppers, mushrooms, garlic, and scallions. Stir-fry for a few
minutes, keeping the vegetables crisp.
5. Return the pork to the pan and add the sauce. Simmer until the pork
is cooked through.
6. Serve immediately with steamed rice.
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Thyme-Scented Medallions of Lamb with Balsamic Glaze
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G)
METRIC
2 lb 8 oz
21⁄2 fl oz
2 tbsp
1.2 kg
75 mL
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Boneless lamb loin (see Note)
Olive oil
Fresh thyme leaves, lightly crushed
1. Trim the lamb of all fat and silverskin. Slice into uniform 21⁄2-oz (75-g)
medallions. Flatten them slightly with the side of a cleaver or chef’s
knife blade.
2. Rub the medallions with olive oil and fresh thyme.
3. Refrigerate several hours or overnight.
to taste
to taste
to taste
to taste
as needed as needed
Salt
Pepper
Olive oil
4. Remove the lamb from the refrigerator and scrape the thyme leaves
from each medallion.
5. Season the meat with salt and pepper.
6. Heat a thin film of oil in a sauté pan and sear the medallions well on
both sides. Continue to sauté until the meat reaches medium rare or
medium doneness, or as requested by the customer.
2 fl oz
1 fl oz
3 fl oz
1 oz
Balsamic vinegar
Water
Glace de viande
Raw butter
60 mL
30 mL
90 mL
30 g
Per serving: Calories, 460; Protein, 28 g; Fat, 37 g (74% cal.); Cholesterol, 115 mg;
Carbohydrates, 2 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 80 mg.
Note: Boneless lamb loin yields tender, uniform, oval medallions, but it is costly.
For more economical medallions, cut uniform portions from seamed, trimmed
leg of lamb and shape medallions as shown in Figure 10.10.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Remove the medallions from the pan and keep warm.
Deglaze the pan with the vinegar. Reduce au sec.
Add the water and glace to the pan. Heat briefly and stir to mix.
Finish the glaze by swirling in the raw butter.
Dip each medallion in the glaze to coat, then plate 2 medallions per
portion. Alternatively, plate the medallions first, then drizzle the glaze
over or around the meat.
Beef Stroganoff
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 6 OZ (180 G)
METRIC
2 oz
4 oz
8 oz
2 fl oz
1 oz
2 tsp
11⁄2 pt
10 fl oz
to taste
to taste
60 g
120 g
240 g
60 mL
30 g
10 mL
720 mL
300 mL
to taste
to taste
2 fl oz
21⁄2 lb
60 mL
1.2 kg
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Clarified butter
Onion, brunoise
Mushrooms, sliced
White wine
Tomato paste
Prepared mustard
Demi-glace
Sour cream
Salt
Pepper
1. Heat the butter in a sauté pan and sauté the onion and mushrooms briefly without
letting them brown.
2. Add the white wine. Reduce by half over high heat.
3. Stir in the tomato paste and mustard, and then add the demi-glace. Reduce over
high heat until lightly thickened.
4. Stir in the sour cream. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
5. Keep the sauce hot in a bain-marie.
Vegetable oil
Beef tenderloin,
trimmed of all fat,
cut into thin strips
about 11⁄2 × 1 in.
(4 × 2.5 cm) (see Note)
6. Heat the oil in a sauté pan over high heat until almost to the smoke point. Sauté
the beef quickly, until well browned but not overcooked. It should still be slightly
pink inside. If necessary, sauté in several batches or in more than one pan to
avoid overcrowding the pan.
7. Remove the meat from the pan and discard excess fat.
8. Add the sour cream sauce to the pan and bring to a simmer. Stir in the meat and
adjust the seasonings.
9. Serve immediately with noodles or spaetzle (p. 677).
Per serving: Calories, 410; Protein, 28 g; Fat, 29 g (7% cal.);
Cholesterol, 120 mg; Carbohydrates, 7 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 160 mg.
Note: Trimmings and ends left after cutting steaks from the center
portion of the tenderloin are usually used for this dish. Less tender cuts
of beef may be used if the meat is simmered in the sauce until tender.
The item will then be braised rather than sautéed.
Beef Stroganoff
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Calf’s Liver Lyonnaise
PORTIONS: 10
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1 S L I C E L I V E R , 1 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 5 0 G ) O N I O N G A R N I S H
U.S.
METRIC
2 lb
3 oz
1 cup
to taste
to taste
1 kg
90 g
250 mL
to taste
to taste
10 slices
10 slices
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Onions
Butter
Demi-glace or strong brown stock
Salt
Pepper
1. Peel and slice the onions.
2. Heat the butter in a sauté pan and add the onions. Sauté them
over medium heat until tender and golden brown.
3. Add the demi-glace or stock and cook a few minutes, until the
onions are nicely glazed. Season to taste.
4. Place in a bain-marie and keep warm for service.
Calf ’s liver, 1⁄2 in. (6 mm) thick,
about 4 oz (125 g) each
Salt
Pepper
Flour
Clarified butter or oil
5. Season the liver and dredge in flour. Shake off excess flour.
6. Pan-fry the liver in butter or oil over moderate heat until browned
on both sides and slightly firm to the touch. Do not overcook or
use high heat.
7. Serve each portion with 11⁄2 oz (45 g) onion mixture.
Per serving: Calories, 310; Protein, 24 g; Fat, 19 g (54% cal); Cholesterol, 445 mg;
Carbohydrates, 13 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 250 mg.
Calf ’s Liver Lyonnaise
Medallions of Venison Poîvrade with Cassis
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
16
to taste
to taste
as needed
4 fl oz
12 fl oz
1 fl oz
PORTION SIZE: 2 MEDALLIONS, 2–3 OZ (60–90 G) EACH
METRIC
16
to taste
to taste
as needed
125 mL
375 mL
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Medallions of venison, cut from
the loin, 3⁄4 in. (2 cm) thick,
2–3 oz (60–90 g) each
Salt
Pepper
Butter or oil
1. Season the meat with salt and pepper. Sauté in butter or oil, keeping
the meat rare.
2. Remove the meat from the sauté pan and set it aside in a warm place.
Chicken stock
Poîvrade Sauce (p. 189)
Crème de cassis
(black-currant liqueur)
3. Degrease the sauté pan. Deglaze it with the chicken stock and reduce
the stock by half.
4. Add the sauce and the cassis to the pan and bring to a simmer. Strain
the sauce.
5. Serve 2 medallions per portion. Spoon the sauce around the meat,
using about 11⁄2 oz (45 mL) per portion. Garnish the plate with
appropriate seasonal vegetables.
Per serving: Calories, 260; Protein, 26 g; Fat, 11 g (39% cal.); Cholesterol, 120 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 150 mg.
VARIATION
Medallions of Boar Poîvrade with Cassis
Prepare as in the basic recipe, substituting loin of boar for the
venison. Cook the meat until it is almost well done but still a little
pink inside. Do not overcook, or the meat will be dry.
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Steak en Chevreuil
PORTIONS: 4
PORTION SIZE: VARIABLE
U.S.
METRIC
4
1–11⁄2 pt
4
500–750 mL
8 fl oz
240 mL
as needed
as needed
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Beef steaks, size and type
(tenderloin, strip, etc.) desired
Red Wine Marinade for Game
(p. 324)
Poîvrade Sauce (p. 189)
1. Trim the steaks as necessary.
2. Place the steaks in a nonreactive container and add enough
marinade to cover. Refrigerate 1–2 days. Turn the steaks several
times so they marinate evenly.
3. Drain the marinade into a separate container and return the
steaks to the refrigerator. Use the marinade to prepare the
poîvrade sauce.
Oil for cooking
4. Before cooking, dry the steaks on clean towels.
5. Heat a thin film of oil in a sauté pan and cook the steaks to the
desired doneness.
6. Plate the steaks as desired. Serve the sauce in a separate
sauceboat, or ladle it around the steaks.
Per serving: Calories, 520; Protein, 51 g; Fat, 29 g (3% cal.); Cholesterol, 150 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 190 mg.
STEAK EN CHEVREUIL
Chevreuil means “venison,” and en chevreuil (on shev roy) means
“cooked like venison.” It has long been a tradition to marinate game,
especially venison, in a wine marinade, and much of the flavor we
associate with venison dishes comes from the marinade rather than
the meat itself. Marinating beef in a red wine game marinade
makes the beef taste like venison. In addition, the steak is served
with a poîvrade sauce, also a traditional game accompaniment.
Sautéed Veal Sweetbreads
with Shiitake Mushrooms and Port Wine Sauce
PORTIONS: 10
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G) SW EETBREADS, PLUS SAUCE AND GARNISH
U.S.
METRIC
21⁄2 lb
1.25 kg
to taste
to taste
as needed
as needed
to taste
to taste
as needed
as needed
as needed
11⁄4 lb
as needed
625 g
to taste
to taste
1 pt
to taste
to taste
500 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Sweetbreads, blanched, trimmed,
and pressed according to the
procedure on p. 301
Salt
Pepper
Flour
Clarified butter
1. Slice the sweetbreads in half horizontally.
2. Season the sweetbreads with salt and pepper. Dredge them with flour
and shake off the excess.
3. Heat butter in a sauté pan over moderately high heat. Sauté the
sweetbreads until golden brown on both sides. Place on hot dinner
plates.
Clarified butter
Shiitake mushrooms, caps only,
cut into strips
Salt
Pepper
Port Wine Sauce (p. 189)
4. Heat additional butter in the sauté pan and quickly sauté the
mushrooms over high heat just until tender, about 1 minute. Add salt
and pepper to taste.
5. Spoon the sauce around (not over) the sweetbreads. Distribute the
mushrooms around the sweetbreads.
6. Serving suggestion: A green vegetable, such as small green beans,
makes a good complement to the plate.
Per serving: Calories, 330; Protein, 23 g; Fat, 16 g (43% cal.); Cholesterol, 340 mg;
Carbohydrates, 17 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 270 mg.
VARIATION
Instead of dredging the sweetbreads in flour, bread them using
the Standard Breading Procedure (p. 152). Omit the port wine
sauce and top each portion with a little beurre noisette.
Sautéed Veal Sweetbreads with
Shiitake Mushrooms and Port Wine Sauce
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Stir-Fried Beef with Bell Peppers
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G)
METRIC
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
2 ⁄2 lb
4 fl oz
1 fl oz
5 tsp
1.2 kg
125 mL
30 mL
25 mL
Flank steak
Soy sauce
Sherry or Shaoxing wine
Cornstarch
1. Cut the flank steak lengthwise (with the grain) into strips 2 in. (5 cm)
wide. Then cut the strips crosswise into very thin slices. (This is easier if
the meat is partially frozen.)
2. Toss the meat with the soy sauce, sherry, and cornstarch. Let marinate
30 minutes or longer.
6
4 slices
1–2
2 fl oz
6
4 slices
1–2
60 g
Bell peppers, 2 or 3 colors
Fresh ginger root
Garlic cloves, sliced
Scallion, sliced
3. Core and seed the peppers. Cut them into strips 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) wide.
4. Have the ginger, garlic, and scallions ready in separate containers.
1
3–4 fl oz
1
⁄2 tsp
2 fl oz
90–125 mL
2 mL
60 mL
Oil
Salt
Chicken stock
Per serving: Calories, 180; Protein, 16 g; Fat, 11 g (54% cal.); Cholesterol, 35 mg;
Carbohydrates, 5 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 525 mg.
VARIATIONS
Other vegetables may be used instead of the peppers, such as
celery, broccoli, snow peas, green beans, asparagus, mushrooms,
bok choy. Or use 2 or 3 fresh vegetables, plus water chestnuts and/
or bamboo shoots.
5. Stir-fry the beef in 3 or more batches, depending on the size of the pan
or wok. Use a little of the oil for each batch, as needed.
6. As each batch of the beef is cooked, remove it from the pan and set it
aside.
7. Heat additional oil in the pan and add the salt, ginger, garlic, and
scallions. Stir-fry for a few seconds to develop flavor.
8. Add the peppers and stir-fry until lightly cooked but still crisp.
9. Add the stock and toss the vegetables a few times.
10. Return the meat to the pan. Toss the meat with the vegetables until it is
hot and evenly combined with the peppers. Serve at once.
Chicken or pork may be used instead of beef. If chicken is used, cut
it into medium dice or bâtonnet. Also, reduce the quantity of soy
sauce to avoid discoloring the light meat of the chicken.
CHINESE STIR-FRIES
Chinese restaurants in North America
often finish stir-fried dishes by adding a
quantity of commercially prepared sauce
to the mixture. In traditional Chinese
cooking, however, the sauce is more often
made as part of the stir-frying procedure.
Far less liquid is used, so the finished dish
has much less sauce than the Chinesestyle dishes that most North Americans
are familiar with. The recipe included
here is an example of this dryer style of
stir-frying.
Stir-Fried Beef with Bell Peppers
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Costolette di Vitello Ripiene alla Valdostana
(Veal Cutlets Val d’Aosta-Style)
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
METRIC
16
16
12 oz
to taste
to taste
11⁄2 tsp
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
PORTION SIZE: 1 CHOP
350 g
to taste
to taste
7 mL
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Veal rib chops
1. Remove the chine and feather bones so only the rib bone is attached to
each chop.
2. Cut a pocket in each, as shown in Figure 10.17.
3. Flatten the chops lightly with a cutlet pounder to increase the diameter
of the eye. Be careful not to tear a hole in the meat.
Fontina cheese
Salt
White pepper
Rosemary
Standard Breading Procedure:
Flour
Egg wash
Bread crumbs
Butter
4. Cut the cheese into thin slices.
5. Stuff the chops with the cheese, making sure all of the cheese is inside
the pockets, with none hanging out. Press the edges of the pockets
together and pound lightly to seal. If this is done carefully, you don’t
need to skewer them shut.
6. Season the chops with salt and pepper.
7. Set up a breading station. Crumble the rosemary and mix it with the
bread crumbs.
8. Bread the chops.
9. Sauté the chops in butter and serve immediately.
Per serving: Calories, 500; Protein, 35 g; Fat, 30 g (56% cal.); Cholesterol, 185 mg;
Carbohydrates, 19 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 530 mg.
VARIATIONS
Costolette alla Milanese
(Cutlets Milan-Style)
Omit the cheese stuffing and the rosemary. Do not cut pockets in
the meat. Flatten the chops with a cutlet pounder until they are half
their original thickness. Bread and sauté them as in the basic recipe.
Simmering
Meats are not often simmered. Part of the reason simmered meats are not as popular as
meats cooked in other ways may be that they lack the kind of flavor produced by browning
with dry heat.
However, simmering is used effectively for less tender cuts for which browning is not desired or not appropriate. Popular examples of simmered meats are cured products such as
ham and corned beef, fresh or cured tongue, fresh beef brisket, and white stews such as veal
blanquette.
The term stewing means cooking small pieces of meat by simmering or braising (a composite method that includes both browning and simmering). Stews cooked by braising are
covered in the next section. See also the discussion of stewing and braising on pages
352–353.
One difference between stews and many other simmered meats is that stews are served
in a sauce or gravy made of the cooking liquid.
This section also contains a recipe for short ribs cooked sous vide. Although this is not a
standard simmering method, it is included here because no dry heat is used except for finishing, and the meat cooks in its own moisture. It is essential that you read the discussion of sous
vide cooking, and especially the safety precautions, on page 78 before you try this recipe.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Liquids and Flavoring Ingredients
for Simmered Meats
The kind of meat to be cooked determines the kind and amount of cooking liquid to use as
well as the flavorings and seasonings to use.
• For fresh meats, use enough liquid to cover the meat completely, but don’t use too
much, as flavors will be diluted. Water is the main cooking liquid, but other liquids,
such as wine, can be added to flavor the meat. Use herbs, spices, and a generous
amount of mirepoix to give a good flavor to the meat.
• For cured meats, especially those that are heavily salted or smoked, use a generous
amount of water to help draw excess salt or smoky flavor from the meat. In some cases,
such as country hams, the water may even have to be changed during cooking to
remove salt from the meat. Heavily seasoned cured meats, such as corned beef, are
often simmered in pure, unseasoned water, but milder cured meats may be simmered
with mirepoix and herbs. Do not add salt, however, because cured meats already
contain a great deal of salt.
Basic Procedure for Simmering Meats
1. Collect all equipment and food supplies.
2. Prepare meat for cooking. This may include cutting, trimming, tying, or blanching.
3. Prepare the cooking liquid:
4.
5.
6.
7.
• For fresh meats, start with boiling liquid, usually seasoned.
• For cured and smoked meats, start with cold, unsalted liquid to help draw out some
of the salt from the meats.
• For both kinds of meats, use enough liquid to cover the meat completely.
• Add mirepoix and seasonings as desired. (See the discussion of seasonings and
flavorings above.)
Place the meat in the cooking liquid and return (or bring) to a boil.
Reduce heat to a simmer and skim the surface. Meat must never boil for any length of
time. Simmering yields a more tender, juicier product than boiling.
Simmer until the meat is tender, skimming as necessary. To test for doneness, insert a
kitchen fork into the meat. The meat is tender if the fork slides out easily. This is called
fork tender.
If the meat is to be served cold, cool it in its cooking liquid to retain moistness. Cool
rapidly in a cold-water bath, as for stocks.
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345
Simmered Fresh Beef Brisket (“Boiled Beef”)
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G)
U.S.
METRIC
10 lb
5 kg
8 oz
4 oz
4 oz
2
1
1
⁄2 tsp
2
6
to taste
250 g
125 g
125 g
2
1
2 mL
2
6
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Fresh beef brisket, well trimmed
Mirepoix:
Onion, coarsely chopped
Carrot, coarsely chopped
Celery, coarsely chopped
Garlic cloves
Bay leaf
Peppercorns
Whole cloves
Parsley stems
Salt
1. Place beef in a stockpot with enough boiling water to cover. Return the
water to a boil, reduce heat to a simmer, and skim the scum carefully.
2. Add the mirepoix and seasonings.
3. Simmer until the meat is tender when tested with a fork.
4. Transfer the meat to a steam-table pan and add enough of the broth to
barely cover (to keep the meat moist), or cool the meat with some of the
broth in a cold-water bath and refrigerate.
5. To serve, cut the meat into thin slices across the grain. Slice at an angle
to make the slices broader. Serve each portion with Horseradish Sauce
(p. 186), prepared horseradish, or mustard and with boiled vegetables,
such as carrots, potatoes, or turnips.
6. Strain the broth and save for soups or sauces. If desired, use some of
the broth to make horseradish sauce to accompany the meat.
Per serving: Calories, 280; Protein, 35 g; Fat, 15 g (49% cal.); Cholesterol, 110 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 90 mg.
VARIATIONS
Beef tongue (fresh, cured, or smoked), beef shank, various cuts of
beef chuck, beef short ribs, fresh or smoked ham, pork shoulder,
and lamb shoulder or leg may be cooked using the same method.
Simmered Pork Shoulder with Cabbage
Cook fresh or smoked pork shoulder or pork butt as in basic recipe.
Cut 5 lb (2.3 kg) cabbage (for 25 portions) into wedges and simmer
in some of the pork broth. Serve each portion of meat with a cabbage
wedge. For 25 portions, 4 oz (125 g) each, use about 15 lb (7.5 kg)
bone-in, skin-on shoulder.
Simmered Pork Shoulder, Braised Red Cabbage, Kasha Pilaf with Parsley, Roasted Onions
New England Boiled Dinner
PORTIONS: 16
PORTION SIZE: 3 OZ (90 G) MEAT, PLUS A SSORTED VEGETABLE S
U.S.
METRIC
5 ⁄2 lb
2.75 kg
Corned beef brisket
1. Trim excess fat from corned beef if necessary.
2. Place the beef in a stockpot or steam kettle. Cover with cold water.
3. Bring to a boil and reduce heat to a simmer. Simmer until the meat feels tender
when pierced with a fork. Cooking time will be 2–3 hours.
4. To hold and serve hot, place the cooked meat in a steam-table pan and add some
of the cooking liquid to keep it moist.
2 heads
2 lb
2 lb
48
32
32
2 heads
1 kg
1 kg
48
32
32
Green cabbage
Turnips
Carrots
Pearl onions
Baby beets
Small red-skinned potatoes
5. Prepare the vegetables: Cut each cabbage into 8 wedges; pare the turnips and
carrots and cut them into serving-size pieces; peel the onions; scrub the beets
and potatoes.
6. Cook the cabbage, turnips, carrots, onions, and potatoes separately in a little of
the beef cooking liquid.
7. Steam the beets, then peel them.
as needed as needed
Horseradish Sauce (p. 186)
or prepared horseradish
8. To serve, cut the meat across the grain into slices, holding the knife at an angle to
get broader slices. Serve with horseradish sauce or prepared horseradish.
1
INGREDIENTS
Per serving: Calories, 700; Protein, 35 g; Fat, 26 g (46% cal.);
Cholesterol, 75 mg; Carbohydrates, 81 g; Fiber, 17 g; Sodium, 2240 mg.
PROCEDURE
VARIATION
To serve the corned beef cold, cool the beef in some of its cooking liquid, to keep
it moist, in a cold-water bath. When cool, remove from the liquid and refrigerate,
covered. Cold corned beef may be reheated in its cooking liquid.
New England Boiled Dinner
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Blanquette of Veal
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G)
U.S.
METRIC
10 lb
5 kg
1
1
1
1
4 tsp
20 mL
21⁄2 qt
2.5 L
(approximately) (approximately)
4 oz
4 oz
5
1 pt
to taste
pinch
pinch
125 g
125 g
5
500 mL
to taste
pinch
pinch
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Boneless, trimmed veal breast,
shoulder, or shank
1. Cut the veal into 1-in. (2.5- cm) dice.
2. Blanch the meat: Place in a saucepot and cover with cold water. Bring
to a boil, drain, and rinse the meat under cold water (see Note).
Medium onion stuck with 2 cloves
Bouquet garni
Salt
White veal stock
3. Return the meat to the pot and add the onion stuck with cloves,
bouquet garni, and salt.
4. Add enough stock to just cover the meat.
5. Bring to a boil, skim, cover, and lower heat to a slow simmer.
6. Simmer until meat is tender, about 11⁄2 hours. Skim when necessary.
7. Strain the stock into another pan. Reserve the meat and discard
the onion and bouquet garni.
Roux:
Butter, clarified
Flour
Liaison:
Egg yolks
Heavy cream
Lemon juice
Nutmeg
White pepper
8. Reduce the stock to about 21⁄3 pt (1.25 L).
9. Meanwhile, prepare a white roux with the butter and flour. Beat
into the stock to make a velouté sauce and simmer until
thickened and no raw flour taste remains.
10. Remove the sauce from the heat. Beat the egg yolks and cream
together, temper with a little of the hot sauce, and stir into the sauce.
11. Combine the sauce and meat. Heat gently; do not boil.
12. Season to taste with a few drops of lemon juice, a pinch of
nutmeg and white pepper, and more salt if needed.
VARIATIONS
Per serving: Calories, 350; Protein, 35 g; Fat, 21 g (55% cal.); Cholesterol, 230 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 550 mg.
Note: Blanching eliminates impurities that discolor the sauce. This step can be omitted,
but the product will have a less attractive appearance.
Blanquette of Lamb
Prepare as in basic recipe, using lamb shoulder or shank. If desired,
use white lamb stock.
Blanquette of Pork
Prepare as in basic recipe, using pork shoulder or butt. If desired,
use white pork stock.
Irish Lamb Stew
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 8 OZ (250 G) MEAT, VEGETABLE S, AND BROTH
METRIC
31⁄2 lb
1.75 kg
3 pt
1.5 L
(approximately) (approximately)
1
1
1
1 clove
4
6
1
⁄4 tsp
to taste
1 lb
8 oz
2 lb
as needed
1
1 clove
4
6
1 mL
to taste
500 g
250 g
1 kg
as needed
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Lean, boneless lamb shoulder or shanks
Water or white lamb stock
1. Cut meat into 1-in. (21⁄2 -cm) cubes.
2. Bring the water to a boil in a large, heavy saucepot. Add the
lamb. There should be just enough liquid to cover the meat;
add more liquid if necessary.
3. Return to a boil, reduce heat to a simmer, and skim the scum
carefully.
4. Add the onion stuck with cloves, the sachet ingredients tied
in a piece of cheesecloth, and salt to taste. Simmer 1 hour.
Small onion stuck with 2 cloves
Sachet:
Bay leaf
Garlic
Whole peppercorns
Parsley stems
Dried thyme
Salt
Onions, sliced thin
Leeks (white part), sliced
Potatoes, peeled and sliced thin
Chopped parsley
Per serving: Calories, 200; Protein, 18 g; Fat, 7 g (33% cal.); Cholesterol, 60 mg;
Carbohydrates, 14 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 55 mg.
5. Add the onions, leeks, and potatoes. Continue to simmer
until the meat is tender and the vegetables are cooked. The
potatoes should break down somewhat and thicken the stew.
6. Remove and discard the sachet and the onion stuck with
cloves. Correct the seasoning.
7. Garnish each portion with chopped parsley.
VARIATION
Carrots and white turnips may be cooked with the stew or cooked separately and added as a garnish.
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Tripes à la Mode de Caen
YIELD: ABOUT 5 LB (2.4 KG)
U.S.
METRIC
4 lb 8 oz
2
8 oz
6 oz
6 oz
2.2 kg
2
250 g
185 g
185 g
12
2
12
1
⁄2 tsp
4
2 pt
1 pt
to taste
3 oz
12
2
12
2 mL
4
1L
500 mL
to taste
90 mL
PORTIONS: 8
PORTION SIZE: 10 OZ (300 G)
INGREDIENTS
Beef tripe
Calf’s feet (see Note)
Onion, medium dice
Carrot, sliced
Leek, sliced
Sachet:
Peppercorns, lightly crushed
Bay leaf
Parsley stems
Dried thyme
Whole cloves
Dry white wine
White stock
Salt
Calvados (apple brandy)
PROCEDURE
1. Trim all fat from the tripe. Put the tripe in a pot of cold water and bring it
to a boil. Simmer 5 minutes. Drain and rinse in cold water. Cut the tripe
into 11⁄2-in. (4-cm) squares.
2. Cut the feet into pieces with a meat saw as necessary so they fit into the
braising pan.
3. Combine all the ingredients, except the Calvados, in a braising pan or
other heavy pot. Salt lightly. Bring to a boil, cover tightly, and put in an
oven at 325°F (160°C). Cook 5 hours or longer, until the tripe is very
tender.
4. Remove the feet and bone them out. Dice the skin and meat and return
it to the pot. Discard the bone, fat, and connective tissue.
5. Stir in the Calvados. Adjust the seasoning. Simmer a few minutes to
blend in the flavor of the Calvados.
6. Serve with boiled potatoes.
Per serving: Calories, 640; Protein, 159 g; Fat, 28 g (40% cal.); Cholesterol, 345 mg;
Carbohydrates, 8 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 200 mg.
Note: If calf ’s feet are not available, substitute twice the number of pig’s feet. Do not
omit, or the tripe stew will not have enough gelatin to give it the proper texture.
This dish is from the Normandy region of France, famed for, among other things,
its apples. The traditional recipe calls for hard cider, but white wine is an acceptable
substitute.
Tripes à la Mode de Caen
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Pearl Balls
YIELD: ABOUT 40 PIECES
U.S.
METRIC
2 cups
500 mL
3 tbsp
1 fl oz
2 lb
4
8
2 tsp
2
1 fl oz
1 fl oz
2 tsp
11⁄2 tsp
45 mL
30 mL
900 g
4
8
10 mL
2
30 mL
30 mL
10 mL
7 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Glutinous rice (also called sweet rice)
1. Wash the rice in several changes of cold water. Drain. Add enough fresh
water to cover by 1 in. (2.5 cm). Let soak at least 30 minutes.
Cornstarch
Water, cold
Ground pork
Scallions, minced
Water chestnuts, minced
Minced fresh ginger root
Eggs, beaten
Soy sauce
Sherry or Shaoxing wine
Sugar
Salt
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Mix together the cornstarch and water.
Combine all ingredients except the glutinous rice and mix together.
Form the meat mixture into small meatballs, about 1 oz (30 g) each.
Drain the rice. Roll the balls in the rice so they are well coated.
Line a rack or perforated steamer pan with cheesecloth. Arrange the
meatballs in the pan, allowing about 1⁄2 in. (1–2 cm) between them.
7. Steam 30–45 minutes, or until the rice is translucent and the pork is done.
Per 1 piece: Calories, 70; Protein, 5 g; Fat, 3.5 g (49% cal.); Cholesterol, 25 mg;
Carbohydrates, 3 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 145 mg.
VARIATIONS
Fried Pork Balls
Omit the rice coating and cook the meatballs by deep-frying them.
Wontons
The pork mixture can be used for wonton filling. Put a small spoonful
of meat in the center of a wonton skin. Moisten the edges of the skin
with beaten egg, and then fold the skin in half to make a triangle
(or, if you are using round wonton skins, a semicircle) enclosing the
filling. Moisten one of the two corners (on the folded edge) with egg,
then twist the wonton to bring the two corners together. Press the
corners together to seal. Makes 60 or more wontons, depending on
Pearl Balls
size. Wontons can be cooked by simmering, steaming, or deepfrying. They are often served in chicken broth as wonton soup.
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Shredded Pork (Carnitas)
Y I E L D : A B O U T 3 1⁄ 2 L B ( 1 . 6 K G )
U.S.
METRIC
6 lb
1
1
1 tbsp
1
⁄4 tsp
1 tsp
1 tsp
2.8 kg
1
1
15 mL
1 mL
5 mL
5 mL
INGREDIENTS
Pork butt or shoulder, boned
Onion, medium, cut in half
Garlic clove, chopped
Salt
Pepper
Dried oregano
Cumin seeds
Per ounces: Calories, 390; Protein, 31 g; Fat, 28 g (67% cal.); Cholesterol, 120 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium 590 mg.
VARIATIONS
PROCEDURE
1. Remove most of the large chunks of fat from the pork, leaving a little of
it on. Cut the meat into strips measuring 1 × 2 in. (2.5 × 5 cm).
2. Put the pork in a large pot with the rest of the ingredients. Add water to
barely cover the meat.
3. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer slowly, uncovered, until all the
liquid has evaporated. By this time, the meat should be tender. If it is
not, add more water and continue to cook until it is.
4. Remove the onion and discard it.
5. Lower the heat and let the meat cook in the rendered fat, stirring from
time to time, until browned and very tender. Shred the meat slightly.
6. Serve as a snack, an appetizer, or a filling for tortillas, either as it is or
moistened with any of the sauces in this section or with guacamole.
Picadillo
Add a little extra water to the basic recipe so some liquid is left when
the meat is tender. Drain and degrease the liquid and use it to make
Tomato Broth for Chiles Rellenos (p. 206). Heat 3 oz (90 g) oil or lard
and sauté 6 oz (175 g) onion, medium dice, and 4 cloves garlic,
chopped. Add the meat and a sachet containing 10 peppercorns,
1 small cinnamon stick, and 6 cloves, and brown slowly. Add 4 oz
(125 g) raisins, 4 oz (125 g) slivered almonds, and 2 lb (900 g)
peeled, seeded, chopped tomatoes. Cook slowly until almost dry.
Serve as is or as a stuffing for Chiles Rellenos (p. 600).
Shortcut Picadillo
Instead of preparing Shredded Pork, use 5 lb (2.3 kg) raw ground
pork. Sauté it with the onion and garlic in the picadillo recipe, then
proceed as directed with the rest of the recipe.
Dillkött
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
7 lb
PORTION SIZE: 6 OZ (175 G)
METRIC
1
5–6
6
2 qt
1 tbsp
2 tbsp
1
5–6
6
2L
15 mL
30 mL
Boneless, trimmed veal shoulder,
breast, or shank
Medium onion stuck with 2 cloves
Sachet:
Bay leaf
Parsley stems
Peppercorns
Water
Salt
Fresh dill weed, chopped (see Note)
2 oz
2 oz
1 fl oz
11⁄2 tsp
2 tbsp
2 tbsp
60 g
60 g
30 mL
7 mL
30 mL
30 mL
Roux:
Butter
Flour
Lemon juice or wine vinegar
Brown sugar
Fresh dill weed, chopped
Capers, drained
1
3.2 kg
INGREDIENTS
1
Per serving: Calories, 280; Protein, 36 g; Fat, 12 g (41% cal.); Cholesterol, 165 mg;
Carbohydrates, 3 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 640 mg.
Note: If fresh dill is not available, substitute one-third its quantity of dried dill.
PROCEDURE
1. Cut the veal into 1-in. (2.5-cm) dice.
2. Put the meat in a pot with the onion, sachet, water, and salt. Bring to a
boil and skim well.
3. Reduce the heat and add the dill. Simmer slowly until the meat is very
tender, 11⁄2–2 hours.
4. Strain off the broth into another pan. Discard the onion and the sachet.
5. Reduce the broth over high heat to 1 qt (1 L).
6. Make a blond roux with the flour and butter. Thicken the broth with it.
7. Add the lemon juice, brown sugar, dill, and capers. Adjust the seasonings.
VARIATION
Dillkött på Lamm
Substitute lamb shoulder or shank for the veal.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Lamb Tagine with Chickpeas
PORTIONS: 12
U.S.
3 fl oz
8 oz
1
⁄2 oz
1 tsp
1 tsp
1 oz
2 tsp
1 tsp
51⁄2 lb
1 pt
PORTION SIZE: 10 OZ (285 G) MEAT, VEGETABLE S, AND SAUCE
METRIC
90 mL
240 g
15 g
5 mL
5 mL
30 g
10 mL
5 mL
2.5 kg
500 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Vegetable oil
Onion, chopped fine
Garlic, crushed
Ground ginger
Turmeric
Fresh cilantro, chopped
Salt
Pepper
Lamb shoulder, boneless, trimmed of fat,
cut into 11⁄2-in. (4-cm) pieces
Water
1. In a heavy braising pan or casserole or in the base of a tagine (see
sidebar), mix together the oil, onion, garlic, ginger, turmeric, cilantro,
salt, and pepper.
2. Add the lamb to the pan and toss with the spice mixture to coat all the
pieces.
3. Add the water. Bring to a boil, and then cover tightly. Simmer slowly on
top of the stove or in an oven heated to 325°F (165°C) for 11⁄2 hours.
11⁄2 lb
11⁄2 lb
675 g
675 g
Chickpeas, cooked or canned, drained
Carrots, cut into 1-in. (2.5-cm) pieces
4. Add the chickpeas and carrots to the pan. If necessary, add a little more
water if the tagine is becoming dry.
5. Return to the heat and cook until the carrots and meat are very tender.
6 oz
180 g
Mediterranean-type olives, such as
Kalamata, pitted
Lemon juice
Salt
6.
7.
8.
9.
3 fl oz
to taste
90 mL
to taste
Per serving: Calories, 620; Protein, 43 g; Fat, 40 g (57% cal.); Cholesterol, 145 mg;
Carbohydrates, 24 g; Fiber, 7 g; Sodium, 640 mg.
Add the olives and lemon juice and stir. Simmer another 5 minutes.
Remove the meat and vegetables with a slotted spoon.
Degrease the cooking liquid.
Reduce the cooking liquid over moderate heat until it has the
consistency of thick gravy.
10. Season the liquid with salt if necessary. Pour over the meat and
vegetables.
TAG INE S
A tagine (tah zheen) is a type of stew
originating in North Africa. It is traditionally cooked in an earthenware pot
also called a tagine. In Morocco, the traditional tagine consists of a round, shallow base and a cone-shaped lid. The stew
is usually cooked on the stovetop over
low heat. The dish is usually made with
poultry or less expensive cuts of meat,
such as lamb neck or shoulder, which
are made tender by long, slow cooking.
Traditional spices used to flavor tagines
include cinnamon, saffron, ginger,
turmeric, cumin, paprika, and black
pepper, Vegetables, fruits, nuts, and
legumes may also be added to the stew.
The lamb tagine in this book is shown
in a classic tagine pot to illustrate the
appearance of this vessel. In a commercial
kitchen, you are more likely to cook such
stews in a brazier or other heavy pan.
Lamb Tagine with Chickpeas
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351
Poached Beef Tenderloin with Beef Short Rib Ravioli
in Morel Consommé
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
2 lb
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G) MEAT, 3 OZ (90 G) RAVIOLI, 3 MUSHROOMS, 3 FL OZ (90 ML) CONSOMMÉ
METRIC
PROCEDURE
Trimmed meat from Braised Short
Ribs (p. 356)
Chopped parsley
Grated parmesan cheese
Fresh Egg Pasta (p. 662)
1. Prepare the ravioli filling: Shred the meat and place it in a bowl. Add the
chopped parsley and cheese. Mix well.
2. If the meat mixture is dry, moisten with a little of the short rib braising
liquid or brown stock.
3. Roll out the pasta and, using the meat mixture as a filling, make ravioli
following the procedure illustrated on page 663.
4 If desired, cook the ravioli in advance. Simmer in salted water until just
tender. Drain. Rinse briefly with cold water to stop the cooking. Toss
with a little vegetable oil to keep the ravioli from sticking. Refrigerate,
covered, until needed.
48
48
as needed as needed
3 pt
1.5 L
Dried morel mushrooms
Hot water
Consommé (p. 230)
5. Place the mushrooms in a bowl and add hot water to cover. Let soak
until soft.
6. Drain the mushrooms, squeezing them lightly. Strain and reserve the
soaking liquid.
7. Combine the soaking liquid with an equal volume of the consommé.
Bring to a simmer. Add the mushrooms and cook until they are tender.
8. Drain the mushrooms. Strain the cooking liquid again and add it to the
consommé.
4 lb
Beef tenderloin, completely trimmed
of fat and silverskin, in 1 or 2 pieces
Salt
Pepper
Brown stock
⁄2 cup
⁄4 cup
2 lb
1
1
to taste
to taste
4 qt
1 kg
INGREDIENTS
125 mL
60 mL
1 kg
2 kg
to taste
to taste
4L
Per serving: Calories, 680; Protein, 46 g; Fat, 40 g (55% cal.); Cholesterol, 210 mg;
Carbohydrates, 29 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 180 mg.
9. Season the beef with salt and pepper.
10. Bring the stock to a boil in a pot large enough to hold both the stock and
the beef.
11. Lower the beef into the stock. Adjust the heat and cook at a slow
simmer until the meat reaches the desired doneness, as determined by
a meat thermometer. The temperature at the center of the meat should
be 120°F (49°C) for rare, 130°F (54°C) for medium. Cooking time will be
20–30 minutes for rare, slightly longer for medium.
12. Remove the meat from the liquid and let rest in a warm place about 15
minutes.
13. Reserve the stock for another use, such as for making the next batch of
consommé.
14. While the meat is cooking, bring the consommé to a simmer and hold.
15. If the ravioli were cooked in advance, reheat them by dropping them for
a moment into boiling water. Drain. If they were not cooked ahead, cook
them now in simmering salted water until just tender.
16. Slice the meat. Arrange it in heated broad soup plates with the ravioli
and the morels. Ladle 3 fl oz (90 mL) consommé into each bowl.
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Beef Short Ribs Sous Vide with Bordelaise Sauce
PORTIONS: 1
U.S.
5 oz
to taste
to taste
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ (150 G)
METRIC
150 g
to taste
to taste
as needed as needed
1 fl oz
30 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Beef short ribs, boneless, in one piece
Salt
Pepper
1. Review the guidelines for safe sous vide cooking on page 78.
2. Season the meat with salt and pepper. Place the meat in a plastic bag
appropriate for sous vide cooking and seal it under vacuum.
3. Place the sealed meat in a hot bain-marie set at 158°F (70°C) and cook
20 hours. At the end of cooking time, the interior of the meat should be
158°F (70°C).
4. If the meat is not to be finished and served immediately, chill it as
quickly as possible in an ice bain-marie or blast cooler. The interior of
the meat must reach 37°F (3°C) or colder in less than 90 minutes.
Oil
Bordelaise Sauce (p. 189; omit the
marrow garnish)
5. For finishing and serving, rewarm the meat, still sealed in its plastic
bag, in a warm bain-marie at 140°F (60°C).
6. Open the bag and remove the meat.
7. Heat a thin film of oil in a sauté pan. Brown the meat lightly on top and
bottom.
8. Serve the meat with the sauce around it.
Per serving: Calories, 290; Protein, 21 g; Fat, 22 g (3% cal.); Cholesterol, 70 mg;
Carbohydrates, 2 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 60 mg.
Beef Short Ribs Sous Vide with Bordelaise Sauce
Braising
Braising is a combination of dry-heat and moist-heat cooking methods. Meats are first
browned or seared in fat or in a hot oven, then simmered in a flavorful liquid until tender.
The popularity of properly braised items is due to the flavor imparted by the browning
and by the sauce made from the braising liquid. Clearly, the quality of a braised meat depends greatly on the quality of the stock the meat is cooked in. Other liquids used in braising
include wine, marinades, tomato products, and, occasionally, water.
Popular Types of Braised Meat Dishes
1. Large cuts.
Large cuts of meat braised whole, sliced, and served with a sauce or gravy are sometimes called pot roasts.
2. Individual portion cuts.
Meats may be cut into portion sizes before braising instead of afterward. When portion cuts of beef round are braised in a brown sauce, the process is sometimes called
swissing, and the product is called Swiss steak.
Other braised portion-cut meats include short ribs, lamb shanks, and pork chops.
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3. Stews.
Stews are made of meats cut into small pieces or cubes. Most stews are made by braising, but some are cooked by simmering only, without first browning or searing the meat.
Stews are usually made with enough liquid or gravy to cover the meat completely
while cooking. However, so-called dry stews are braised in their own juices or in a very
little added liquid.
Brown stews are made by browning the meat thoroughly before simmering. A
fricassée (free kah say) is a white stew made by cooking white meat in fat over low heat
without letting it brown, then adding liquid. Compare this to a blanquette (blawn ket),
which is a white stew made by simmering the meat in stock without first cooking it in
fat. The cooking method for blanquettes, therefore, is simmering rather than braising.
Note: This use of the term fricassée is its traditional or classical usage. Today the
word is used for many kinds of stews.
Many other dishes can be classified as braised stews, even if we don’t normally
think of them that way. Chili, for example, is a braised dish made of finely cut or ground
beef or pork. Even meat sauce for spaghetti (p. 664) is actually a braised meat or a stew.
Many chefs prefer to use the term braising only for large cuts of meat, and they use
the term stewing for small cuts. However, the basic cooking method—using first dry heat,
then moist heat—is the same for both large and small cuts. (Review the discussion of
stews on pages 343–344.)
Guidelines for Braising Meats
The basic principle of braising is a combination of searing or browning and then simmering. This process accomplishes two things: it cooks
the meat, and it produces a sauce. (You will use some of your sauce-making techniques when you braise meats.)
Before giving basic procedures that apply to most popular braised meats, we discuss factors that affect the quality of the finished product.
1. Seasoning.
The meat may be seasoned before browning, or it may receive its seasonings from the cooking liquid while braising. But remember that
salt on the surface of meat retards browning. Also, herbs may burn in the high heat necessary for browning.
Marinating the meat for several hours or even several days before browning is an effective way to season meat because the seasonings
have time to penetrate it. The marinade is often included as part of the braising liquid.
2. Browning.
Dry the meat thoroughly before browning. Small pieces for stew may be dredged in flour for better browning. In general, red meats are
well browned; white meats are browned less heavily, usually until they are golden.
3. Amount of braising liquid.
The amount of liquid to be added depends on the type of preparation and on the amount of sauce required for serving. Do not use more
liquid than necessary, or the flavors will be less rich and less concentrated.
Pot roasts usually require about 2 oz (60 mL) sauce per portion, and this determines the amount of liquid needed. The size of the
braising pot used should allow the liquid to cover the meat by one-third to two-thirds.
Stews usually require enough liquid to cover the meat.
Some items are braised with no added liquid. They are browned, then covered, and the item cooks in its own moisture, which is trapped
by the pan lid. Pork chops are frequently cooked in this way. If roasted, sautéed, or pan-fried items are covered during cooking, they become,
in effect, braised items.
4. Vegetable garnish.
Vegetables to be served with the meat may be cooked along with the meat or cooked separately and added before service.
If the first method is used, the vegetables should be added just long enough before the end of cooking for them to be cooked through
but not overcooked.
5. Adjusting the sauce.
Braising liquids may be thickened by a roux either before cooking (Method 2) or after cooking (Method 1). In some preparations, the
liquid is left unthickened or is naturally thick, such as tomato sauce.
In any case, the sauce may require further adjustment of its consistency by
• Reducing.
• Thickening with roux, beurre manié, or other thickening agent.
• The addition of a prepared sauce, such as demi-glace or velouté.
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Basic Procedures for Braising Meats
Method 1: Braising in Unthickened Liquid
1. Collect all equipment and food supplies.
2. Cut or trim the meat as required. Dry it thoroughly. For stews, the meat may be
dredged with flour.
3. Brown the meat thoroughly on all sides in a heavy pan with a small amount of fat, or
in an oven.
4. Remove the meat from the pan and brown mirepoix in the fat left in the pan.
5. Return the meat to the pan and add the required amount of liquid.
6. Add a sachet or other seasonings and flavorings.
7. Bring the liquid to a simmer, cover the pot tightly, and simmer in the oven or on top
of the range until the meat is tender.
Oven braising provides more uniform heat. Temperatures of 250° to 300°F
(120° to 150°C) are sufficient to maintain a simmer. Do not let boil.
8. Remove the meat from the pan and keep it warm.
9. Prepare a sauce or gravy from the braising liquid. This usually includes the
following:
• Skim fat.
• Prepare a brown roux with this fat or with another fat if desired.
• Thicken the braising liquid with the roux. Simmer until the roux is cooked
thoroughly.
• Strain and adjust seasonings.
10. Combine the meat (sliced or whole) with the sauce.
Method 2: Braising in Thickened Liquid
1. Collect all equipment and food supplies.
2. Prepare the meat for cooking, as required.
3. Brown the meat thoroughly in a heavy pan with fat or in a hot oven.
4. Remove the meat from the pan (if required) and brown mirepoix in remaining fat.
5. Add flour to make a roux. Brown the roux.
6. Add stock to make a thickened sauce. Add seasonings and flavorings.
7. Return the meat to the pan. Cover and simmer in the oven or on the range until the
meat is tender.
8. Adjust the sauce as necessary (strain, season, reduce, dilute, etc.).
Figure 11.6 Preparing braised meats.
(a) Brown the meat well in a heavy pan.
(b) Remove the meat from the pan. Add the
mirepoix to the pan and brown well.
(c) Add flour to the mirepoix. Stir to combine the
flour with the fat and brown the roux.
Method 3: Classic Fricassées
1. Follow Method 2, except:
• Do not brown the meat. Cook it gently in the fat without browning.
• Add flour to the meat in the pan and make a blond roux.
2. Finish the sauce with a liaison of egg yolks and cream.
(d) Add stock to the pan and whip to combine with
the roux. Add seasonings and flavorings and
return the meat to the pan. For portion cuts, there
should be just enough liquid to cover the meat.
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355
KEY POINTS TO REVIEW
• What are the steps in the basic procedure for simmering meats?
• What are the three basic procedures for braising meats? How are they alike, and
how are they different?
Beef Pot Roast
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G) MEAT, 2 FL OZ (60 ML) SAUCE
U.S.
METRIC
10 lb
5 kg
4 fl oz
125 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Beef bottom round, well trimmed
(see Note)
Oil
1. Dry the meat so it will brown more easily. Heat the oil in a brazier over
high heat and brown the meat well on all sides. Remove from pan.
(Alternative method: Brown meat in a very hot oven.)
2. Add the mirepoix to the brazier and brown it.
3. Add the tomato product, the stock, and the sachet. Bring to a boil,
cover, and place in an oven preheated to 300°F (150°C), or just hot
enough to maintain a simmer.
4. Braise the meat until tender, 2–3 hours.
5. Remove meat from pan and keep warm for service in a covered pan.
Discard sachet. (See alternative method of service given below.)
8 oz
4 oz
4 oz
6 oz
250 g
125 g
125 g
175 g
12 oz
21⁄2 qt
375 g
2.5 L
1
pinch
6
1
1
pinch
6
1
Mirepoix:
Onion, medium dice
Celery, medium dice
Carrot, medium dice
Tomato purée
or
Tomatoes, canned
Brown stock
Sachet:
Bay leaf
Dried thyme
Peppercorns
Garlic clove
4 oz
125 g
Flour
Per serving: Calories, 320; Protein, 38 g; Fat, 15 g (45% cal.); Cholesterol, 90 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 70 mg.
Note: Other cuts of beef from the round, or from the chuck or brisket, may be used
instead of bottom round. Braised round makes the best slices, but it tends to be dry.
Chuck and brisket are moister when braised because they have a higher fat content.
For quicker, more uniform cooking and easier handling, cut meats for braising
into 5–7 lb (2–3 kg) pieces.
VARIATIONS
Alternative Method of Service: Cool beef as soon as it is cooked.
For service, slice cold meat on an electric slicer and arrange in
hotel pans. Add sauce, cover pans, and reheat in oven or steamer.
Individual portions may also be reheated to order in the sauce.
Braised Beef Jardinière
Garnish the finished product with 1 lb (500 g) each carrots,
celery, and turnips, all cut bâtonnet and boiled separately,
and 1 lb (500 g) pearl onions, boiled and sautéed until brown.
Braised Lamb Shoulder
Prepare boned, rolled shoulder of lamb according to the basic
recipe. Use either regular brown stock or brown lamb stock.
6. Skim the fat from the braising liquid and reserve 4 oz (125 g) of it.
7. Make a brown roux with the flour and the reserved fat. Cool the roux
slightly.
8. Bring the braising liquid to a simmer and beat in the roux. Simmer the
sauce at least 15–20 minutes, or until thickened and reduced slightly.
9. Strain the sauce and adjust the seasonings.
10. Slice the meat across the grain. The slices should not be too thick.
Serve each 4-oz (125-g) portion with 2 fl oz (60 mL) sauce.
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Braised Short Ribs
PORTIONS: 25
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 10 OZ (300 G) MEAT WITH BONE, 2 FL OZ (60 ML) SAUCE
METRIC
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
25
8 oz
25
250 mL
Short rib sections, 10 oz (300 g) each
Oil
1. Dry the meat so it will brown more easily.
2. Heat the oil in a heavy brazier until very hot. Brown the meat well on
both sides. Remove it and set aside.
10 oz
5 oz
5 oz
5 oz
21⁄2 qt
5 oz
2
to taste
to taste
300 g
150 g
150 g
150 g
2.5 L
150 mL
2
to taste
to taste
Onion, medium dice
Celery, medium dice
Carrot, medium dice
Bread flour
Brown stock
Tomato purée
Bay leaves
Salt
Pepper
3. Add the onion, celery, and carrot to the fat in the pan and sauté until
browned.
4. Stir in the bread flour to make a roux. Cook until the roux is browned.
5. Stir in the stock and tomato purée and simmer until the sauce thickens.
Add the bay leaves and season to taste with salt and pepper.
6. Return the short ribs to the pan. Cover and braise in the oven at 300°F
(150°C) until tender, about 2 hours.
7. Transfer the short ribs to a hotel pan for service.
8. Strain the sauce (optional). Degrease. Adjust the seasoning and
consistency and pour over the short ribs.
Per serving: Calories, 299; Protein, 29 g; Fat, 17 g (52% cal.); Cholesterol, 55 mg;
Carbohydrates, 6 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 70 mg.
VARIATIONS
Short ribs and the variations that follow may be braised in a prepared brown sauce or espagnole instead of a specially made sauce. Omit steps 4, 5, and 6.
If desired, use 1 lb (500 g) chopped canned tomatoes instead of the purée. Alternatively, use 2 oz (55 g) tomato paste; add the paste to the
browned mirepoix and continue to brown until the paste turns a rusty brown color.
Swiss Steak
Instead of the short ribs, use beef round steaks, about 5 oz (150 g) per portion. Omit celery and carrot if desired.
Swiss Steaks in Tomato Sauce
Reduce flour to 21⁄2 oz (75 g). For braising liquid, use 21⁄2 pt (1.25 L) brown stock, 21⁄2 lb (1.25 kg) chopped canned tomatoes with their juice, and
11⁄4 lb (625 g) tomato purée. Season with bay leaf, oregano, and basil. After removing cooked steaks, reduce sauce to desired consistency. Do not
strain. Garnish each portion with chopped parsley.
Swiss Steaks with Sour Cream
Prepare as in the basic Swiss Steak recipe, above. When steaks are cooked, finish the sauce with 1 pt (500 mL) sour cream, 21⁄2 fl oz (75 mL)
Worcestershire sauce, and 2 tbsp (30 g) prepared mustard.
Swiss Steaks in Red Wine Sauce
Prepare as in the basic Swiss Steak recipe, above, but add 1 pt (500 mL)
dry red wine to the braising liquid.
Braised Oxtails
Allow 1 lb (500 g) oxtails per portion. Cut into sections at joints.
Braised Lamb Shanks
Allow 1 lamb shank per portion. Add chopped garlic to mirepoix if desired.
Braised Short Ribs with Steamed Broccoli and Mashed Potatoes
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357
Beef Stew
PORTIONS: 25
U.S.
6 lb
4 fl oz
1 lb
2 tsp
4 oz
8 oz
2 qt
1
pinch
small sprig
1 lb
11⁄2 lb
1 lb
8 oz
8 oz
to taste
to taste
PORTION SIZE: 8 OZ (250 G)
METRIC
3 kg
125 mL
500 g
10 mL
125 g
250 g
2L
1
pinch
small sprig
500 g
750 g
500 g
250 g
250 g
to taste
to taste
INGREDIENTS
Beef chuck, boneless and well
trimmed of fat
Oil
Onion, fine dice
Chopped garlic
Flour
Tomato purée
Brown stock
Sachet:
Bay leaf
Thyme
Celery leaves
Celery, EP
Carrots, EP
Small pearl onions, EP
Tomatoes, canned, drained, and
coarsely chopped
Peas, frozen, thawed
Salt
Pepper
PROCEDURE
1. Cut the meat into 1-in. (2.5-cm) cubes.
2. Heat the oil in a brazier until very hot. Add the meat and brown well,
stirring occasionally to brown all sides. If necessary, brown the meat in
several small batches to avoid overcrowding the pan.
3. Add the onion and garlic to the pan and continue to cook until onion is
lightly browned.
4. Add the flour to the meat and stir to make a roux. Continue to cook over
high heat until the roux is slightly browned.
5. Stir in the tomato purée and stock and bring to a boil. Stir with a kitchen
spoon as the sauce thickens.
6. Add the sachet. Cover the pot and place in an oven at 325°F (165°C).
Braise until the meat is tender, 11⁄2–2 hours.
7. Cut the celery and carrots into large dice.
8. Cook the celery, carrots, and onions separately in boiling salted water
until just tender.
9. When meat is tender, remove the sachet and adjust seasoning.
Degrease the sauce.
10. Add celery, carrots, onions, and tomatoes to the stew.
11. Immediately before service, add the peas. Alternatively, garnish the top
of each portion with peas. Season with salt and pepper.
VARIATIONS
Per serving: Calories, 240; Protein, 27 g; Fat, 9 g (34% cal.); Cholesterol, 60 mg;
Carbohydrates, 13 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 150 mg.
Vegetables for garniture may be varied as desired.
Note: For more elegant service, remove the cooked meat from the sauce before adding
the vegetables. Strain the sauce and pour it back over the meat.
Beef Stew with Red Wine
Prepare as in basic recipe, but use 21⁄2 pt (1.25 L) dry red wine and
11⁄2 pt (750 mL) brown stock instead of 2 qt (2 L) brown stock.
Boeuf Bourguignon
Prepare Beef Stew with Red Wine, using rendered salt pork or bacon fat
instead of oil. (Cut the pork into bâtonnet shapes, sauté until crisp, and
save the cooked pork for garnish.) Increase garlic to 2 tbsp (30 mL). Omit
vegetable garnish (celery, carrots, pearl onions, tomatoes, and peas)
indicated in basic recipe, and substitute lardons (cooked salt pork or
bacon pieces), small mushroom caps browned in butter, and boiled pearl
onions browned in butter. Serve with egg noodles.
Navarin of Lamb (Brown Lamb Stew)
Prepare as in basic recipe, using lamb shoulder instead of beef chuck.
Increase garlic to 2 tbsp (30 mL).
Brown Veal Stew
Prepare as in basic recipe, using veal shoulder or shank.
Brown Veal with White Wine
Prepare Brown Veal Stew, replacing 1 pt (500 mL) stock with white wine.
Beef Pot Pie
Fill individual casserole dishes with stew and vegetable garnish. Top with
pie pastry (p. 1008). Bake in a hot oven (400°–450°F/200°–225°C) until
the crust is brown.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Boeuf à la Mode (Beef Braised in Red Wine)
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
8 oz
1 fl oz
to taste
to taste
4 lb
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 5 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 1 7 0 G ) M E A T , 2 F L O Z ( 6 0 M L ) S A U C E
METRIC
240 g
30 mL
to taste
to taste
2 kg
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Pork fatback
Brandy
Salt
Pepper
1. Cut the fat into strips 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) across and as long as the piece of
beef.
2. Sprinkle the fatback strips with brandy, salt, and pepper (omit the salt
if you are using salted fatback). Marinate 2 hours.
Beef rump or top round, trimmed
of excess fat
Salt
Pepper
Red wine
Brandy
Sachet:
Bay leaf
Parsley stems
Dried thyme
3. Lard the beef with the fatback strips (see Figure 10.18).
4. Rub the beef with salt and pepper.
5. Combine the red wine and brandy in a nonreactive container large
enough to hold the beef. Add the sachet.
6. Add the beef. Marinate, refrigerated, overnight.
to taste
to taste
24 fl oz
2 fl oz
to taste
to taste
750 mL
60 mL
1
10
1
⁄8 tsp
1
10
0.5 mL
2 oz
4 oz
4 oz
1
4
1 qt
60 g
120 g
120 g
1
4
1L
Butter or beef fat
Onion, chopped coarse
Carrot, chopped coarse
Calf’s foot (see Note)
Garlic
Brown stock
7. Remove the meat from the marinade and dry it. Remove the sachet and
set it aside.
8. Heat the butter or beef fat in a heavy braising pan. Brown the meat well
on all sides.
9. Remove the meat from the pan. Add the onion and carrot and brown.
10. Return the meat to the pan. Add the marinade.
11. Set the pan over moderate heat. Cook until the marinade is reduced by
one-half. Baste the meat with the marinade occasionally.
12. Add the calf’s foot, garlic, stock, and reserved sachet to the pan. Bring
to a simmer, cover, and place in an oven heated to 300°F (150°C). The
meat should cook slowly at a gentle simmer.
13. Braise the meat until there are no traces of red blood in the juices that
appear when the meat is pierced deeply with a skewer. Baste the meat
occasionally as it cooks.
14. Remove the meat and the calf ’s foot from the cooking liquid. Strain and
degrease the liquid.
15. Put the meat, calf ’s foot, and liquid in a clean braising pan. Cover the
pan and return it to the oven. Let it cook, basting frequently, until the
meat is tender. Total cooking time, starting with step 11, is 3–4 hours.
1 lb
24
480 g
24
Carrots
Pearl onions
16. While the meat is cooking, prepare the carrot and onion garnish. Cut
and trim the carrots into uniform pieces about 11⁄2 in. (4 cm) long.
Blanch them in boiling salted water 3–4 minutes. Peel the pearl onions
and brown slowly in butter in a sauté pan. About 45 minutes before the
meat is done, add them to the braising pan and let them finish cooking
with the meat.
17. Remove the foot from the pan. Bone it out, being careful to remove all
the tiny bones. Cut the meat and rind into 1⁄2-in. (1-cm) squares. (It is
traditional to serve the diced calf’s foot with the meat, but it may be
discarded if desired. It has already accomplished its main purpose of
enriching the sauce with its high gelatin content.)
18. Remove the meat and vegetable garnish from the cooking liquid. Strain
and degrease the liquid. There should be enough liquid for about 2 fl oz
(60 mL) per portion. If necessary, reduce the liquid over moderate heat
to reach the proper volume. If it is not rich enough, add additional stock
and reduce again. Adjust the seasoning with salt and pepper.
19. Slice the meat. Arrange it on a platter or on dinner plates with the
garnish of carrots, onions, and diced foot (if desired). Serve the sauce
on the side or ladled over the meat.
Per serving: Calories, 840; Protein, 64 g; Fat, 44 g (9% cal.); Cholesterol, 190 mg;
Carbohydrates, 8 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 290 mg.
Note: The calf’s foot, rich in gelatin, supplies body to the braising liquid. If a calf’s
foot is not available, substitute twice as many pig’s feet.
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BRAISING
359
Lombatine di Maiale alla Napoletana
(Braised Pork Chops Naples-Style)
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1 C H O P, 3 – 4 O Z ( 9 0 – 1 2 5 G ) V E G E T A B L E S
METRIC
6
1 lb 8 oz
3 lb
6
700 g
1.4 kg
6 fl oz
2
16
to taste
to taste
175 mL
2
16
to taste
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Italian peppers or bell peppers, red or green
Mushrooms
Tomatoes
1. Char the peppers over a gas flame until the skin is black. Peel off the
blackened skin (see Figure 16.14, p. 546). Remove and discard the
seeds and core and cut the peppers into bâtonnet (see Note).
2. Slice the mushrooms.
3. Peel, seed, and chop the tomatoes.
Olive oil
Garlic cloves, crushed
Pork loin chops
Salt
Pepper
4. Heat the olive oil in a large sauté pan or brazier. Add the garlic cloves.
Sauté them until they are light brown, then remove and discard them.
5. Season the chops with salt and pepper. Brown them in the olive oil.
When they are well browned, remove and set them aside.
6. Add the peppers and mushrooms to the pan. Sauté briefly, until wilted.
7. Add the tomatoes and return the chops to the pan. Cover and cook on
the range or in a low oven until the pork is done. The vegetables should
give off enough moisture to braise the chops, but check the pan from
time to time to make sure it is not dry.
8. When the chops are done, remove them from the pan and keep them
hot. If there is a lot of liquid in the pan, reduce it over high heat until
there is just enough to form a little sauce for the vegetables.
9. Adjust the seasoning. Serve the chops topped with the vegetables.
Per serving: Calories, 430; Protein, 45 g; Fat, 23 g (49% cal.); Cholesterol, 125 mg;
Carbohydrates, 9 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 100 mg.
Note: Charring and peeling the peppers is optional, but it improves the flavor and
removes the peel, which would otherwise come off during cooking and make the
vegetable mixture less attractive.
VARIATION
Pollo con Peperoni all’Abruzzese
Double the quantity of peppers. Increase the tomatoes to 41⁄2 lb
(2 kg). Omit the mushrooms and garlic. Add 1 lb (450 g) sliced
onions and sauté them with the peppers. Instead of pork, use
8–10 lb (3.6–4.5 kg) chicken parts. Season with a little basil.
If desired, reduce the quantity of chicken in the above recipe and
add some Italian pork sausages.
Lombatine di Maiale alla Napoletana
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Provençal Beef Stew
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
3 pt
4 fl oz
2 tsp
6 lb
8 oz
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 6 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 1 9 5 G )
METRIC
1.5 L
120 mL
10 mL
2.8 kg
240 g
4 fl oz
3 pt
1 lb
4 oz
120 mL
1.5 l
480 g
120 g
4
2
1 tsp
20
2
1 tsp
12 oz
to taste
4
2
5 mL
20
2
5 mL
360 g
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Marinade:
White wine
Olive oil
Salt
Beef chuck, boneless, well trimmed
1. Mix together the marinade ingredients in a nonreactive container large
enough to hold the meat.
2. Cut the meat into 2-in. (5-cm) dice.
3. Add the meat to the marinade. Mix slightly so all the meat is moistened,
then cover and refrigerate overnight.
Meaty slab bacon
4. Cut the bacon into 1⁄2-in. (1-cm) dice.
5. Blanch the bacon: Place it in a saucepan with enough cold water to cover.
Bring to a simmer; simmer 5 minutes, drain, and rinse under cold water.
Olive oil
Brown stock
Onions, sliced
Tomato paste
Sachet:
Whole cloves
Bay leaves
Thyme
Parsley stems
Orange zest, in wide strips
Peppercorns
Green olives, pitted
Salt
6.
7.
8.
9.
Per serving: Calories, 530; Protein, 37 g; Fat, 31 g (5% cal.); Cholesterol, 85 mg;
Carbohydrates, 7 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 1100 mg.
VARIATION
Provençal Lamb Stew
Substitute lamb shoulder for the beef.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Remove the meat from the marinade and pat it dry. Reserve the marinade.
Heat the oil in a heavy braising pan. Brown the meat well on all sides.
Remove the meat from the pan and drain off excess fat from the pan.
Add the marinade, stock, onions, tomato paste, sachet, and blanched
bacon to the pan. Put the meat back in the pan and bring to a boil. Cover
and braise in an oven at 325°F (160°C) for 1 hour.
Add the olives to the pan. Continue to braise until the meat is tender.
Degrease the sauce and reduce it slightly, if necessary, to thicken it.
Remove and discard the sachet.
Taste and adjust the seasoning with more salt if necessary.
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BRAISING
361
Chile con Carne
PORTIONS: 24
PORTION SIZE: 8 OZ (250 G)
U.S.
METRIC
2 ⁄2 lb
11⁄4 lb
1 oz
4 fl oz
5 lb
1 No. 10 can
10 oz
21⁄2 pt
3 oz
to taste
to taste
1
1.25 kg
625 g
30 g
125 g
2.5 kg
1 No. 10 can
300 g
1.25 L
90 g
to taste
to taste
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Onion, small dice
Green bell pepper, small dice
Garlic, chopped
Oil
Ground beef
Tomatoes
Tomato paste
Brown stock
Chili powder
Salt
Pepper
Per serving: Calories, 310; Protein, 20 g; Fat, 19 g (54% cal.); Cholesterol, 55 mg;
Carbohydrates, 16 g; Fiber, 4 g; Sodium, 380 mg.
1. Sauté the onion, pepper, and garlic in oil in a heavy saucepot until
tender but not browned. Remove from the pot.
2. Add the meat to the pot and brown over high heat, breaking it up with a
spoon as it browns. Drain off the fat.
3. Return the vegetables to the pot and add the remaining ingredients.
4. Simmer uncovered until the chili is reduced to the desired thickness,
45–60 minutes. Stir occasionally during the cooking period.
VARIATION
Chile with Beans
Add 4 lb (2 kg) (drained weight) cooked or canned and drained kidney
beans or pinto beans about 15 minutes before the end of cooking.
Game Chile
In place of the ground beef, use ground bison, venison, elk, caribou, or boar.
Texas Red
YIELD: 6 LB 12 OZ (3 KG)
PORTIONS: 12
U.S.
INGREDIENTS
6 lb
METRIC
2.75 kg
2 fl oz
1 oz
5 oz
11⁄2 tbsp
11⁄2 tbsp
1–2 tsp
2 qt
60 mL
30 g
140 g
22 mL
22 mL
5–10 mL
2L
2 oz
4 fl oz
to taste
60 g
120 mL
to taste
PORTION SIZE: 9 OZ (250 G)
PROCEDURE
Lean beef, preferably chuck or
shank, well trimmed
Vegetable oil
Garlic, chopped fine
Chili powder
Ground cumin
Dried oregano
Cayenne
Brown stock or beef broth
1. Cut the beef into 1-in. (2.5-cm) cubes.
2. In a brazier, brown the beef in the vegetable oil over high heat. Brown a
little at a time so as not to overcrowd the pan.
3. Add the garlic, chili powder, cumin, oregano, and cayenne to the beef
over moderate heat. Stir and cook a few minutes, until the spices are
aromatic.
4. Add the stock. Bring to a boil, cover, and place in an oven at 325°F
(165°C) for 11⁄2–2 hours, or until the beef is tender.
5. Degrease the cooking liquid carefully.
Cornmeal or masa harina
Cold water
Salt
6. Mix the cornmeal or masa harina with the cold water to make a smooth
paste.
7. Stir the cornmeal mixture into the beef mixture.
8. Simmer 30 minutes to thicken the cooking liquid.
9. Season to taste with salt.
Per serving: Calories, 380; Protein, 46 g; Fat, 16 g (38% cal.); Cholesterol, 90 mg;
Carbohydrates, 12 g; Fiber, 5 g; Sodium, 200 mg.
VARIATION
Texas Short Ribs
In place of the lean beef, use 7 lb 8 oz (3.4 kg) beef short ribs. After
the ribs are tender, remove them from the braising liquid and
carefully degrease the liquid. Add just enough cornmeal or masa
harina to lightly thicken the liquid, about half the amount in the
basic recipe.
Texas Red
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Braised Beef with Ancho Chiles
YIELD: 3 LB 12 OZ (1.7 KG)
U.S.
6 lb
METRIC
2.75 kg
as needed as needed
1 lb
900 g
4 oz
4
120 g
4
1 oz
1
⁄4 tsp
1
⁄4 tsp
3
⁄4 tsp
2 oz
3 pt
1 tbsp
1 tsp
30 g
1 mL
1 mL
3 mL
60 g
1.5 L
15 mL
5 mL
PORTIONS: 10
PORTION SIZE: 6 OZ (170 G) MEAT, 2 FL OZ (60 ML) JUS
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Beef chuck, well trimmed,
in large pieces
Vegetable oil
Onions, sliced
1. In a braising pan, brown the beef well in vegetable oil. Brown just a
little of the meat at a time if necessary to prevent overcrowding the pan.
Remove the meat from the pan.
2. Using additional oil as needed, brown the onions over moderate heat
until they are well browned but not scorched.
Slab bacon, in 1 piece
Whole dried ancho chiles, stems
and seeds removed (see Note)
Garlic, coarsely chopped
Ground cumin
Dried thyme
Dried oregano
Tomato paste
White stock
Salt
Pepper
3. Return the beef to the pot and add the remaining ingredients.
4. Bring to a boil, cover, and place in an oven at 325°F (165°C). Braise
about 2 hours, or until the meat is very tender.
5. Remove the meat from the braising liquid and keep warm. Discard the
bacon.
6. Degrease the cooking liquid.
7. Remove the chiles from the liquid. Place the chiles, skin side down, on
a cutting board, and carefully scrape the soft pulp from the inside
surface. Discard the thin, transparent skins. Stir the pulp back into the
cooking liquid.
8. Reduce the liquid over moderate heat to about 11⁄2 pt (700 mL).
9. Taste and add salt and pepper if needed.
Per serving: Calories, 410; Protein, 56 g; Fat, 16 g (36% cal.); Cholesterol, 110 mg;
Carbohydrates, 9 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 920 mg.
Note: If whole chiles are not available, or if it is necessary to save the labor of
scraping the pulp of the chiles after cooking (step 7), substitute 21⁄2 tbsp (40 mL)
ground ancho chiles for the whole chiles.
Duet of Beef and Corn: Braised Beef with Ancho Chiles on Grits with
Cheddar paired with sliced grilled steak on Corn with Poblanos,
garnished with roasted diced squash
Veal Fricassée
Pork Fricassée
See Chicken Fricassée variations, page 428.
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BRAISING
363
Osso Buco
PORTIONS: 12
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 1 P I E C E , A P P R O X I M A T E LY 8 O Z ( 2 4 0 G ) C O O K E D W E I G H T , P L U S 1 1⁄ 2 F L O Z ( 4 5 M L ) S A U C E
U.S.
METRIC
INGREDIENTS
12 pieces
12 pieces
Veal shank, cut crosswise into
thick slices, about 11 oz
(320–350 g) each
Salt
Pepper
Vegetable oil
Flour
1. Tie each piece of veal shank tightly around the circumference to hold
the meat to the bone.
2. Lightly season the meat with salt and pepper.
3. Heat the oil in a brazier just large enough to hold the pieces of veal
shank in a single layer.
4. Dredge each piece of meat in flour to coat completely, then shake off
the excess.
5. Brown the meat on all sides in the oil.
Clarified butter
Mirepoix:
Onion, small dice
Carrot, small dice
Celery, small dice
Garlic, chopped
6. Remove the meat from the pan and set it aside.
7. Drain off excess oil from the pan, then add the clarified butter.
8. Add the mirepoix and garlic. Brown lightly.
to taste
to taste
to taste
to taste
2 fl oz
60 mL
as needed as needed
11⁄2 oz
45 g
8 oz
4 oz
4 oz
1
⁄4 oz
250 g
125 g
125 g
7g
8 fl oz
1 lb
250 ml
500 g
2–3 strips 2–3 strips
1 pt
500 mL
8
1
⁄4 tsp
1
11⁄2 tsp
11⁄2 tbsp
1
⁄2 tsp
2
8
1 mL
1
7 mL
22 mL
2 ml
2
PROCEDURE
Dry white wine
Canned plum tomatoes, coarsely
chopped, with their juice
Lemon zest, in wide strips
Brown stock
Sachet:
Parsley stems
Dried thyme
Bay leaf
9. Return the meat to the pan and add the white wine. Simmer about
10 minutes.
10. Add the tomatoes, lemon zest, stock, and sachet. Bring to a simmer,
cover, and place in an oven at 325°F (160°C). Braise until the meat is
very tender, 11⁄2–2 hours.
11. Remove the meat from the pan with a slotted spoon and set aside in a
warm place.
12. Strain and degrease the sauce. Reduce the sauce, if necessary, to about
11⁄2 fl oz (45 mL) per portion. The flour on the meat should have been
enough to thicken the sauce to a very light consistency.
Gremolada (optional):
Grated lemon zest
Chopped parsley
Garlic, chopped fine
Anchovy filets, chopped
fine (optional)
13. The traditional but optional seasoning finish for osso buco is called
gremolada. Mix together the lemon zest, parsley, garlic, and anchovy.
Just before serving, sprinkle the gremolada over the osso buco and turn
the meat so it gets an even coating of the mixture.
14. Serve 1 piece of veal shank per portion, along with 11⁄2 fl oz (45 mL)
sauce. Osso buco is traditionally served with Risotto Milanese (p. 648)
as well.
Per serving: Calories, 360; Protein, 42 g; Fat, 14 g (11% cal.); Cholesterol, 170 mg;
Carbohydrates, 10 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 260 mg.
Osso Buco
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Hungarian Goulash (Veal, Beef, or Pork)
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 8 OZ (250 G)
U.S.
METRIC
7 ⁄2 lb
3.75 kg
5 fl oz
21⁄2 lb
5 tbsp
2 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
150 mL
1.25 kg
75 mL
10 mL
2 mL
1
10 oz
300 g
21⁄2 qt
2.5 L
2 ⁄2 lb
to taste
1.25 kg
to taste
1
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Boneless, lean meat: Veal (shoulder,
shank, or breast), beef (chuck),
or pork (shoulder or butt)
Oil, lard, or rendered beef suet
Onions, fine dice
Hungarian paprika
Garlic, crushed
Caraway seeds
1. Cut the meat into 1-in. (2.5-cm) cubes.
2. Heat the fat in a brazier and sauté the meat until lightly seared on all
sides.
3. Add the onions and sweat over moderate heat. Continue to cook until
most of the liquid that forms is reduced.
4. Add the paprika, garlic, and caraway seeds and stir.
Chopped, drained canned
tomatoes or tomato purée
White stock
5. Add the tomatoes and stock, cover, and simmer until the meat is almost
tender, about 1 hour in the oven (325°F/165°C) or on the range.
Potatoes, medium dice
Salt
6. Add the potatoes and continue to cook until the meat and potatoes are
tender.
7. The potatoes will thicken the sauce slightly but, if necessary, reduce the
sauce a little. Degrease and season to taste.
8. Serve with spaetzle or noodles.
Per serving: Calories, 250; Protein, 27 g; Fat, 10 g (35% cal.); Cholesterol, 35 mg;
Carbohydrates, 14 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 120 mg.
Rabbit with Mustard
PORTIONS: 8
U.S.
P O R T I O N S I Z E : A P P R O X I M A T E LY 8 O Z ( 2 5 0 G ) , I N C L U D I N G S A U C E
METRIC
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
4–5 lb
2 kg
as needed as needed
Rabbit
Oil
1. Clean and cut up the rabbit for stewing.
2. Brown the rabbit in oil in a heavy pan.
3. Remove the rabbit pieces from the pan and keep them warm.
Degrease the pan.
1
⁄2 oz
1 oz
2 oz
to taste
to taste
1
⁄4 tsp
8 fl oz
8 fl oz
15 g
30 g
60 g
to taste
to taste
1 mL
250 mL
250 mL
Butter
Shallot, chopped
Prepared mustard, Dijon-style or grainy
Salt
Pepper
Dried thyme
White wine
Chicken stock
4. Add the butter to the pan. Sweat the shallot in the butter, but do not
brown.
5. Add the mustard, salt, pepper, thyme, wine, and stock to the pan
and return the browned rabbit to the pan. Cover and braise slowly
over low heat or in a low oven until the meat is cooked.
6. Remove the rabbit from the liquid and set aside.
8 fl oz
250 mL
Heavy cream
7. Reduce the cooking liquid by about one-third. Skim any excess fat
from the top.
8. Temper the heavy cream and add it to the reduced liquid. Simmer
and reduce until the sauce is lightly thickened. Adjust the
seasonings. Return the rabbit pieces to the sauce.
Per serving: Calories, 450; Protein, 30 g; Fat, 28 g (58% cal.); Cholesterol, 150 mg;
Carbohydrates, 2 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 260 mg.
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BRAISING
365
Lamb Vindaloo
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
4 oz
2 oz
1
⁄2 oz
as needed
4 tsp
2 tsp
1 tbsp
1
⁄2 tsp,
or more to taste
2 tsp
2 tbsp
1 tsp
1 tbsp
4 fl oz
4 lb
as needed
1 pt
PORTION SIZE: 5 OZ
METRIC
120 g
60 g
15 g
as needed
20 mL
10 mL
15 mL
2 mL,
or more to taste
10 mL
30 mL
5 mL
15 mL
140 mL
2 kg
as needed
500 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Onion, chopped
Garlic, chopped
Fresh ginger root, peeled
and chopped
Water
1. Combine the onion, garlic, and ginger in a blender. Blend to a smooth
paste, adding just enough water to make this possible.
Ground cumin
Ground cardamom
Cinnamon
Cayenne or red
pepper flakes
Black pepper
Ground coriander
Turmeric
Salt
Vinegar
2. Mix together the spices and salt in a bowl. Add the vinegar and mix
to a thin paste.
Lamb shoulder, boneless
and well trimmed
Oil
Water
Per serving: Calories, 310; Protein, 32 g; Fat, 17 g (7% cal.); Cholesterol, 105 mg;
Carbohydrates, 5 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 790 mg.
3. Cut the lamb into 1-in. (2.5-cm) dice.
4. Heat a thin film of oil in a heavy braising pan. Brown the lamb
well on all sides, adding it in batches if necessary to avoid
overcrowding the pan. Remove the browned lamb with a slotted
spoon and set aside in a bowl.
5. Put the onion paste in the braising pan and fry about 30 seconds,
adding additional oil if necessary.
6. Add the spice mixture from step 2. Continue to cook, stirring, another
minute.
7. Return the lamb and any accumulated juices to the pan. Add the
water and stir.
8. Cover and braise on the stovetop or in a 325°F (160°C) oven until the
meat is tender. The stew should be fairly dry (that is, not too saucy),
but check from time to time to make sure it isn’t too dry and likely to
burn. Add water if necessary. When finished, the liquid should be
reduced to a lightly thickened sauce. If necessary, remove the meat
with a slotted spoon and reduce the braising liquid to thicken it.
9. Taste and add salt if necessary.
10. Serve with rice.
VARIATION
Beef Vindaloo
Substitute beef chuck for the lamb.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Sauerbraten
PORTIONS: 25
PORTION SIZE: 4 OZ (125 G), 2 FL OZ (60 ML) SAUCE
U.S.
METRIC
10 lb
5 kg
1 qt
1 qt
1 lb
8 oz
2
2 oz
2
3
1 tsp
2 tsp
1L
1L
500 g
250 g
2
60 g
2
3
5 mL
10 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Beef bottom round, trimmed
(see Note)
Marinade:
Red wine vinegar
Water
Onion, sliced
Carrot, sliced
Garlic cloves, chopped
Brown sugar
Bay leaves
Whole cloves
Peppercorns, crushed
Salt
1. Place the trimmed beef in a nonmetallic crock or barrel.
2. Add all the marinade ingredients to the crock. If the meat is not
completely covered by the liquid, add equal parts vinegar and water
until it is. Cover.
3. Refrigerate 3–4 days. Turn the meat in the marinade every day.
as needed as needed
Vegetable oil, if needed for
browning meat
4. Remove the meat from the marinade. Dry it thoroughly with paper
towels.
5. Brown the meat on all sides. This may be done on the range in an iron
skillet, on a very hot griddle, under the broiler, or in a brazier in a hot
oven.
6. Place the meat in a braising pan. Strain the marinade. Add the
vegetables to the meat and enough of the liquid to cover the meat by
half. Cover and braise in a 300°F (150°C) oven until the meat is tender,
2–3 hours.
7. Remove the meat from the braising liquid and transfer to a hotel pan.
Set aside.
8 fl oz
4 oz
Red wine
Gingersnap crumbs
250 mL
125 g
Per serving: Calories, 260; Protein, 37 g; Fat, 8 g (32% cal.); Cholesterol, 80 mg;
Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 110 mg.
Note: If you are preparing this item in large quantities and are using whole bottom
round (called gooseneck), separate the eye of round from the bottom round and
cut the bottom round in half lengthwise, so two pieces are about the size of
the eye of round.
Brisket or chuck may also be used for sauerbraten. They do not make attractive
slices, but the eating quality is very good.
VARIATION
Sauerbraten with Sour Cream Gravy
Marinate and braise meat as in basic recipe. Prepare gravy through
step 8. Thicken the sauce with a roux made of 4 oz (125 g) butter or
beef fat, 4 oz (125 g) flour, and 2 oz (60 g) sugar. Cook the roux until
well browned and use it to thicken the sauce. Omit wine and add
8 oz (250 mL) sour cream.
8. Strain 2 qt (2 L) of the braising liquid into a saucepan and skim off fat.
Bring to a boil. Reduce to about 11⁄2 qt (1.5 L).
9. Add wine and boil another 2–3 minutes.
10. Reduce heat to a simmer and stir in the gingersnap crumbs. Simmer
another 3–4 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand 5 minutes to
allow the crumbs to be completely absorbed.
11. Slice the meat across the grain. Serve 4 oz (125 g) meat per portion,
overlapping the slices on the plate. Ladle 2 oz (60 mL) sauce over
the meat.
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BRAISING
367
Braised Sweetbreads
PORTIONS: 10
U.S.
P O R T I O N S I Z E : 3 1⁄ 2 O Z ( 1 0 0 G ) S W E E T B R E A D S ( C O O K E D W E I G H T ) , 2 F L O Z ( 6 0 M L ) S A U C E
METRIC
3 lb
2 oz
1.5 kg
60 g
6 oz
3 oz
3 oz
31⁄2 pt
175 g
90 g
90 g
750 mL
INGREDIENTS
Sweetbreads
Butter
Mirepoix:
Onion, medium dice
Carrot, medium dice
Celery, medium dice
Demi-glace, hot
Per serving: Calories, 500; Protein, 21 g; Fat, 42 g (75% cal.); Cholesterol, 350 mg;
Carbohydrates, 10 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 340 mg.
PROCEDURE
1. Prepare (blanch and trim) sweetbreads according to the procedure on
page 301. Leave them whole or cut into uniform serving pieces.
2. Heat the butter in a large sauté pan. Add the mirepoix and cook over
medium heat until lightly browned.
3. Place the sweetbreads on top of the mirepoix and pour in the
demi-glace.
4. Cover tightly and place in oven at 325°F (165°C), until the sweetbreads
are very tender and well flavored with the sauce, 45–60 minutes.
5. Remove the sweetbreads from the sauce and place in a hotel pan.
6. Bring the sauce to a rapid boil and reduce slightly. Strain and adjust
seasoning. Pour over sweetbreads.
Swedish Meatballs
PORTIONS: 25
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 3 MEATBALLS, 5 OZ (150 G) COOKED W EIGHT, 2 FL OZ SAUCE (60 ML)
METRIC
10 oz
2 fl oz
300 g
60 mL
10 oz
2 cups
10
300 g
500 mL
10
5 lb
11⁄4 lb
21⁄2 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
2 tbsp
2.5 kg
625 g
12 mL
2 mL
2 mL
30 g
2 qt
21⁄2 cups
1 tsp
2L
625 mL
5 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Onion, chopped fine
Oil
1. Sauté the onions in oil until tender but not brown. Cool thoroughly.
Dry bread crumbs
Milk
Eggs, beaten
2. Combine the bread crumbs with the milk and egg and let soak 15 minutes.
Ground beef
Ground pork
Dried dill weed
Nutmeg
Allspice
Salt
3. Add the cooked onion and the crumb mixture to the meat in a mixing
bowl. Add the spices and salt and mix gently until well combined.
4. Portion the meat with a No. 20 scoop into 2-oz (60-g) portions. Roll into
balls and place on a sheet pan.
5. Brown in a 400°F (200°C) oven.
Brown sauce, hot
Light cream, hot
Dried dill weed
Per serving: Calories, 440; Protein, 27 g; Fat, 29 g (61% cal.); Cholesterol, 180 mg;
Carbohydrates, 15 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 810 mg.
6. Remove meatballs from sheet pan and place in baking pans in a
single layer.
7. Add the hot cream and dill to the hot brown sauce and pour over
the meatballs.
8. Cover the pans and bake at 325°F (165°C) for 30 minutes, or until the
meatballs are cooked.
9. Skim fat from sauce.
10. Serve 3 meatballs and 2 fl oz (60 mL) sauce per portion.
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COOKING MEATS AND GAME
Veal Curry with Mangos and Cashews
PORTIONS: 25
U.S.
9 lb
PORTION SIZE: 8 OZ (250 G)
METRIC
4.5 kg
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
8 fl oz
250 mL
Boneless, lean veal (shoulder,
shank, or breast)
Oil
1. Cut the veal into 1-in. (2.5-cm) cubes.
2. Heat the oil in a brazier over medium heat. Add the meat and cook it in
the fat, stirring occasionally, until seared on all sides but only lightly
browned.
21⁄2 lb
2 tbsp
5 tbsp
1 tbsp
21⁄2 tsp
1 tsp
1 tsp
1
⁄2 tsp
2
2 tsp
1.25 kg
30 mL
75 mL
15 mL
12 mL
5 mL
5 mL
2 mL
2
10 mL
Onions, medium dice
Garlic, chopped
Curry powder (see Note)
Ground coriander
Paprika
Ground cumin
Pepper
Cinnamon
Bay leaves
Salt
3. Add the onions and garlic to the pan. Sauté until softened, but do not
brown.
4. Add the spices and salt and stir. Cook 1 minute.
4 oz
2 qt
10 oz
125 g
2L
300 g
Flour
White stock
Tomato concassé
5. Stir in the flour to make a roux and cook another 2 minutes.
6. Add the stock and tomatoes. Bring to a boil while stirring.
7. Cover and simmer slowly in the oven (300°F/150°C) or on top of the
range until the meat is tender, 1–11⁄2 hours.
8 fl oz
250 mL
Heavy cream, hot
8. Degrease, discard the bay leaf, and add the cream. Adjust the
seasonings.
4–5
as needed
4 oz
2 tbsp
4–5
as needed
120 g
30 mL
Mangos
Boiled or steamed rice
Cashews, coarsely chopped
Chopped parsley
Per serving: Calories, 430; Protein, 31 g; Fat, 26 g (64% cal.); Cholesterol, 95 mg;
Carbohydrates, 18 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 330 mg.
Note: If desired, increase curry powder to taste and omit other spice (except bay leaf).
9. Peel the mangos with a paring knife or vegetable peeler. Cut the mango
flesh from the stone in thick slices. Cut into medium dice.
10. To serve, place a bed of rice on a plate. Spoon the curry onto the center
of the rice. Top with diced mango. Sprinkle with chopped cashews and
chopped parsley.
VARIATIONS
In place of the mango and cashews, serve meat curries with an
assortment of other condiments, such as raisins, chutney, peanuts,
chopped scallions or onions, diced pineapple, diced banana, diced
apple, shredded coconut, and poppadums.
Lamb Curry
Substitute lean boneless lamb shoulder, breast, or leg for the veal.
Veal Curry with Mangos and Cashews
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Page 369
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
369
Saltimbocca alla Romana
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
PORTION SIZE: 2 PIECES
METRIC
32
32
to taste
to taste
32
to taste
to taste
32
32
4 oz
12 fl oz
32
125 g
350 mL
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Veal scaloppine, 1 ⁄2–2 oz
(45–60 g) each
Salt
White pepper
Thin slices of prosciutto, about the
same diameter as the scaloppine
Fresh sage leaves
Butter
White wine
1
1. Pound the scaloppine with a cutlet pounder. Season with salt and white
pepper. Put 1 slice of prosciutto and 1 sage leaf on top of each and
fasten with a toothpick.
2. Sauté briefly in butter on both sides.
3. Add the wine and continue to cook until the meat is done and the wine
is partly reduced, no more than 5 minutes.
4. Remove the meat from the pan and serve, ham side up, with a spoonful
of the pan juices over each.
Per serving: Calories, 320; Protein, 28 g; Fat, 21 g (60% cal.); Cholesterol, 115 mg;
Carbohydrates, 0 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 800 mg.
Carbonnade à la Flammande
PORTIONS: 16
U.S.
3 lb
as needed
PORTION SIZE: 6–7 OZ (175–200 G)
METRIC
1.4 kg
as needed
INGREDIENTS
PROCEDURE
Onions
Beef fat or vegetable oil
1. Peel the onions. Cut them into small dice.
2. Cook the onions in a little fat over moderate heat until golden. Remove
from the heat and set aside.
6 oz
2 tsp
1 tsp
5 lb
175 g
10 mL
5 mL
2.3 kg
Flour
Salt
Pepper
Beef chuck, 1-in. (2.5-cm) dice
3. Season the flour with salt and pepper. Dredge the meat in the flour.
Shake off the excess flour.
4. Brown the meat well in a sauté pan. Do a little at a time to avoid
overcrowding the pan. As each batch is browned, add it to the pot with
the onions.
21⁄2 pt
21⁄2 pt
1.25 L
1.25 L
2
1 tsp
8
8
1 tbsp
2
5 mL
8
8
15 mL
Dark beer
Brown stock
Sachet:
Bay leaves
Dried thyme
Parsley stems
Peppercorns
Sugar
5. Deglaze the sauté pan with the beer and add it to the pot. Add the
stock, sachet, and sugar.
6. Bring to a boil, cover, and transfer to the oven. Cook at 325°F (160°C)
until very tender, 2–3 hours.
7. Degrease. Adjust the consistency of the sauce. If it is too thin, reduce
over moderately high heat. If it is too thick, dilute with brown stock.
8. Taste and adjust the seasonings. Serve with plain boiled potatoes.
Per serving: Calories, 450; Protein, 30 g; Fat, 29 g (52% cal.); Cholesterol, 100 mg;
Carbohydrates, 19 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 290 mg.
TE RMS
deglaze
stewing
pot roast
Swiss steak
Q U E ST I O N S
1.
2.
3.
4.
FO R
R EVI EW
fricassée
F O R
List four advantages of roasting at a low temperature.
When might you use high temperatures for roasting?
What is the purpose of basting?
In the recipe for Home-Style Meatloaf (p. 323), why are the
sautéed vegetables cooled after cooking in step 1?
blanquette
D I S C U S S I O N
5. Which steaks require the highest broiler heat, thick ones or
thin ones? steaks to be cooked rare or steaks to be cooked
well done?
6. Why is it important not to overload the pan when sautéing
meats?
7. Why is the menu term boiled beef inaccurate?
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