GOM Manual - Materials Science Group University of Groningen

GOM Manual - Materials Science Group University of Groningen
ARAMIS v 5.3.0
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
User Manual
GOM mbH
Mittelweg 7-8
D-38106 Braunschweig
Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 531 390 29 0
E-Mail: info@gom.com
Fax: +49 (0) 531 390 29 15
http://www.gom.com
Page 1 (97)
Legal and Safety Notes
Legal and Safety Notes
Safety Notes - General
Legal Notes
ƒ Make sure you comply with the respective valid accident prevention regulations.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in
any form or by any means or used to make any derivative work (such as translation, transformation or
adaptation) without the prior written permission of
GOM.
GOM reserves the right to revise this publication
and to make changes in content from time to time
without obligation on the part of GOM to provide notification of such revision or change.
GOM provides this manual without warranty of any
kind, either implied or expressed, including, but not
limited, to the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose.
GOM may improve or change the manual and/or
the product(s) described herein at any time.
ƒ Use the product only on a safe and steady
ground.
ƒ Protect large stands with horizontal extension
arms from falling over.
ƒ AC power connection of the unit must comply
with the valid regulations of the respective countries.
ƒ Operate the equipment only with the operating
voltages printed on the housing. Using an incorrect operating voltage may cause malfunctions
or the risk of fire.
ƒ Protect the cables from mechanical load
(squeezing, tension, etc.). Damaged cables may
cause short-circuits and the risk of fire.
ƒ Do not use equipment connected to AC power
during heavy thunderstorms. Due to voltage
variations and transient voltages in the lowvoltage network, malfunctions and dangerous
voltages between housing and other components may occur.
Copyright © 2004
GOM mbH
All rights reserved!
ƒ The ambient temperature must be between +5
and +40 °C. Make sure no rapid temperature
variations occur that might cause condensation.
ƒ Disconnect the power plug before opening the
housing.
ƒ The devices must not come into contact with water. For cleaning, use a moist cloth but first disconnect the power plug.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
ƒ Replace bulbs and fuses only with components
having the same specifications.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Legal and Safety Notes .................................................................................2
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Table of Contents...........................................................................................3
1.
Introduction......................................................................................6
2.
Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System .....................................7
2.1
Fields of Application...................................................................................7
2.2
Typical Measuring Procedure ....................................................................8
2.3
Features of the ARAMIS System .............................................................10
2.4
Main Hardware and Software Components ............................................10
2.5
The ARAMIS System Variants..................................................................11
3.
Sensor Types .................................................................................12
3.1
General Information ..................................................................................12
3.1.1
Sensor Configuration ARAMIS 1.3 M...............................................12
3.2
Definition of Terms Referring to the ARAMIS 3D Sensor Unit and
Measuring Volume ....................................................................................14
3.3
How to Handle Lenses..............................................................................15
3.4
Sensor Setup .............................................................................................15
4.
The Trigger Box .............................................................................18
4.1
Commissioning .........................................................................................18
4.2
Brief Description .......................................................................................18
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
Trigger Box Front Panel ...................................................................18
Further Information About the Front Panel Control Elements ..........19
Trigger Box Rear Panel ...................................................................20
Further Information About the Rear Panel Connectors ....................20
5.
Measurement Preparation.............................................................21
5.1
Preparing a Specimen ..............................................................................21
6.
ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration..........23
6.1
Starting the PC with the GOM LINUX Operating System.......................23
6.2
Starting the ARAMIS Software.................................................................23
6.3
General ARAMIS Operation......................................................................23
6.3.1
6.3.2
General Steps to Carry Out a Standard Measuring Project .............24
The Operating Modes ......................................................................24
6.4
Structure of the ARAMIS Menu Window .................................................25
6.4.1
6.4.2
Structure of the ARAMIS Menu Window in Project Mode ................25
Structure of the ARAMIS Menu Window in Evaluation Mode...........26
6.5
The ARAMIS Toolbar ................................................................................26
6.5.1
6.5.2
The ARAMIS Toolbar in Project Mode .............................................26
The ARAMIS Toolbar in Evaluation Mode .......................................27
6.6
Save Data ...................................................................................................27
6.7
Restoring the Factory-Preadjusted Settings ..........................................28
6.8
Overview of the Most Important Mouse Functions................................28
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.3
6.8.4
Move the 3D Object in the 3D Object Window .................................28
Right Mouse Button Menus in Project Mode & Start Measurement .29
Right Mouse Button Menus in Project Mode & Stop Measurement .29
Right Mouse Button Menus in Evaluation Mode ..............................30
6.9
Calibration .................................................................................................31
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7.
Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report
Generation ..................................................................................... 35
7.1
Determination of Measuring Volume and
Preparation of the Specimen................................................................... 35
7.2
Calibration (Project Mode)....................................................................... 35
7.3
Creating a New Project (Project Mode)................................................... 35
7.4
Activate Recording Mode (Project Mode)............................................... 36
7.5
Computation Mask of Measuring Images (Project Mode)..................... 37
7.6
Define Start Point (Project Mode)............................................................ 38
7.6.1
7.6.2
Manual Start Point Definition........................................................... 38
Semi-Automatic Start Point Definition ............................................. 39
7.7
Compute Project....................................................................................... 40
7.8
Results (Evaluation Mode)....................................................................... 40
7.9
Transform Project (Evaluation Mode)..................................................... 41
7.10
Data Post Processing (Evaluation Mode)............................................... 41
7.11
Report Generation .................................................................................... 42
8.
Useful Information for Working With the ARAMIS Software
and Measuring Projects................................................................ 44
8.1
2D Images and 3D Representations........................................................ 44
8.2
Status Indicator Line ................................................................................ 44
8.3
Notes Regarding the Explorer Information in the Project Mode .......... 44
8.4
Cancel an Operating Step........................................................................ 44
9.
Further Operating Functions In the Project Mode...................... 45
9.1
Project Parameters................................................................................... 45
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
Facet ............................................................................................... 45
Strain............................................................................................... 45
Scaling ............................................................................................ 46
Stages ............................................................................................. 46
9.2
Stage Parameters ..................................................................................... 46
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
Accuracy ......................................................................................... 46
Residual .......................................................................................... 46
Check Intersection Deviation........................................................... 46
9.3
Recording Image Sequences................................................................... 47
9.3.1
Measuring Modes............................................................................ 47
9.4
Mask Definition ......................................................................................... 47
9.5
Start Point Definition................................................................................ 48
9.6
Compute Project....................................................................................... 48
9.7
Export ........................................................................................................ 48
10.
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode................ 49
10.1
Data Post Processing............................................................................... 49
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
Filter ................................................................................................ 49
Interpolation .................................................................................... 49
Delete Points................................................................................... 50
10.2
Primitives................................................................................................... 50
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
General Information......................................................................... 50
Selection Methods........................................................................... 51
Menu Item Invert Direction .............................................................. 51
Overview and Brief Descriptions of all Primitives ............................ 51
10.3
Transform Measuring Results................................................................. 57
10.3.1
3-2-1 Transformation....................................................................... 58
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
10.4
3-2-1 Transformation Using Primitives ...................................................60
10.4.1
10.4.2
Transformation Using the Edge of the Specimen.............................60
Transformation Using the Edge of the Specimen and
Circular Hole ....................................................................................61
10.5
Eliminate Rigid Body Movement..............................................................62
10.6
Result Representations ............................................................................63
10.6.1
Statistical Data .................................................................................63
10.7
Stage Point, Info Point..............................................................................64
10.8
Sections .....................................................................................................65
10.9
Reports.......................................................................................................66
10.9.1
10.9.2
10.9.3
10.9.4
10.9.5
10.9.6
Right Mouse Button Click:n.............................................................67
Right Mouse Button Click:o.............................................................67
Right Mouse Button Click p and Edit Element (Labeling) ...............68
Right Mouse Button Click q and Edit Element (Diagram) ...............69
Right Mouse Button Click Somewhere on the Report ......................69
Right Mouse Button Click Somewhere on the Report and
Create Element ................................................................................70
10.10
Export.........................................................................................................71
10.10.1
10.10.2
10.10.3
10.10.4
Data Export of Points .......................................................................71
Export of Diagram Data ...................................................................72
Export Statistics ...............................................................................72
Export Configuration Files................................................................72
11.
Other Operating Functions ...........................................................77
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
Overview on the General Functions of the Macro Recorder ............77
Record New Macro ..........................................................................77
Useful Notes Regarding the Macro Recorder ..................................77
11.2
CD/DVD Recorder......................................................................................78
11.3
Preferences................................................................................................79
11.3.1
11.3.2
Save User-Defined Preference Configurations ................................80
Load User-Defined Preference Configurations ................................80
12.
Troubleshooting.............................................................................81
13.
The Basics of Strain ......................................................................82
13.1
The Term "Strain" .....................................................................................82
13.2
The Deformation Gradient Tensor...........................................................82
13.2.1
13.2.2
Deformation Gradient Tensor Definition...........................................82
Decomposing the Deformation Gradient Tensor into
Polar Coordinates ............................................................................83
Major and Minor Strain Derived from the
Deformation Gradient Tensor...........................................................83
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
13.2.3
13.3
Calculation of the Deformation Gradient Tensor from a
2D Displacement Field..............................................................................84
13.4
Calculation of the Deformation Gradient Tensor from a
3D Displacement Field..............................................................................86
13.4.1
13.4.2
The Tangential Model ......................................................................86
The Spline Model .............................................................................87
13.5
Bibliography for Strain Theory ................................................................88
14.
ARAMIS Menu Structure ...............................................................89
14.1
Structure in Evaluation Mode ..................................................................89
14.2
Structure in Project Mode ........................................................................94
15.
Index ...............................................................................................96
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Introduction
1. Introduction
IMPORTANT !
IMPORTANT !
This user manual is intended for qualified personnel who has basic
knowledge of deformation analysis and basic PC knowledge (windows-based programs and operating systems). This user manual is
configured to the transfer of knowledge of sensor settings, standard
measuring procedures and the documentation of the measuring results.
The ARAMIS system is a measuring system that also addresses experts of digital optical deformation analysis. Therefore, it is unavoidable that the ARAMIS software contains menu items not intended for
the standard user. Improper use of these menu items (expert parameters) may cause incorrect measurements.
This User Manual does not deal with the system installation and special user information of the trigger box. If necessary, this information is
compiled in a separate user information.
For being able to make optimum use of the system, we assume the
ability to visualize in 3D and a color vision ability.
This user manual is divided into the following sections:
• The first page informs about important safety aspects.
• Sections 1 and 2 give basic information about the ARAMIS system
and the system variants.
• Section 3 informs about the sensor types of the ARAMIS system
and how to adjust the sensor.
• Section 4 informs about the control elements of the trigger box and
its interfaces. How to create trigger lists is not part of this user manual.
• Section 5 provides information about preparing the objects to be
measured.
• Section 6 contains general information about the ARAMIS software
and informs about the system calibration.
• Section 7 describes how to carry out a standard measuring project
using the standard functions of the ARAMIS system.
• Section 8 gives hints and notes for the ARAMIS system.
• Section 9 informs about operating functions in the project mode of
the ARAMIS application software.
• Section 10 informs about further operating functions in the evaluation mode of the ARAMIS application software.
• Section 12 informs about troubleshooting.
• Section 13 informs about the mathematical basics of the ARAMIS
strain calculations.
• Section 14 shows the ARAMIS menu structure in order to find the
way even to "hidden" menu functions.
• Section 15 contains a search index to provide quick access to the
most important ARAMIS information.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
• Section 11 informs about other operating functions like import, export, macros, preferences and CD recording.
Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System
In this user manual the following standard signal words are used:
CAUTION ! NOTICE ! -
points to a situation that might be dangerous.
points to a situation in which the product or an
object in the vicinity of the product might be damaged.
IMPORTANT ! - indicates important application notes and other
useful information.
2. Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System
ARAMIS is a non-contact optical 3D deformation measuring system.
ARAMIS analyzes, calculates and documents material deformations.
The graphical representation of the measuring results provides an optimum understanding of the behavior of the object to be measured.
ARAMIS recognizes the surface structure of the object to be measured in digital camera images and allocates coordinates to the image
pixels. The first coordinates are gathered already when recording the
reference condition. In the measuring project, this image represents
the undeformed state of the object. After or during the deformation of
the object to be measured, further images are recorded. Then,
ARAMIS compares the digital images and calculates the displacement
and the deformation of the object characteristics.
If the object to be measured has only a few object characteristics, like
it is the case with homogeneous surfaces, you need to prepare such
surfaces by means of suitable methods, for example apply a stochastic color spray pattern that follows the deformation.
ARAMIS is particularly suitable for three-dimensional deformation
measurements under static and dynamic load in order to analyze deformations and strain of real components.
Most of the system functions are controlled by the software. Measuring, evaluation, display and print functions are available. All functions
can be accessed via pull-down menus, hotkeys and dialog windows.
2.1
Fields of Application
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
• Material testing
• Strength assessment
• Component dimensioning
• Examination of non-linear behavior
• Characterization of creep and aging processes
• Determination of Forming Limit Curves (FLC)
• Verification of FE models
• Determination of material characteristics
• Analysis of the behavior of homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials during deformation
• Strain calculations
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Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System
2.2
Typical Measuring Procedure
You can position the ARAMIS camera freely on a stand. For a 3D
measurement setup, two cameras are used that are calibrated prior to
measuring. After creating the measuring project in the software, images are recorded in various load stages of the specimen. The area to
be evaluated (computation mask) and the start point are defined directly in the camera images. When calculating the measuring project,
ARAMIS observes the deformation of the specimen through the images by means of various square image details (facets). The following
figure shows 15 x 15 pixel facets with a 2 pixel overlapping area.
15x15 facets with a 2 pixel overlapping area, made visible by means of the right mouse button
menu in the camera image (Visualization X Facet filed) and Preferences X Aramis X Visualization X Displayed facets set to 1.
In the following, we show a pair of facets (15 x 15 pixels) of the right
and left camera, the gray values of which were observed through six
deformation stages (Stage 0 to Stage 5). Stage 0 is the undeformed
reference state and Stage 5 is the final deformation state. The white
dashed line visualizes the undeformed state in the images.
The system determines the 2D coordinates of the facets from the corner points of the green facets and the resulting centers. Using photogrammetric methods, the 2D coordinates of a facet, observed from the
left camera and the 2D coordinates of the same facet, observed from
the right camera, lead to a common 3D coordinate.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
You can adjust the pixel size of the facets in the software. The facets
are identified by the individual gray level structures of the individual
pixels within the facet.
Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
......... ...... ................
Stage 2-4, Left Image
......... ...... ................
......... ...... ................
Stage 2-4, Right Image
......... ...... ................
After successful processing, you may perform a post-processing procedure in order to reduce e.g. measuring noise or to suppress local
disturbing effects.
The measuring result is now available as 3D view. All further result
representations like statistical data, sections, reports, etc. are derived
thereof.
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Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System
2.3
Features of the ARAMIS System
• Used as 2D or 3D measuring system
• ARAMIS assigns square image details, so-called facets (e.g. 15 x
15 pixels), in different images to each other.
• Varying lighting conditions of different images are automatically
compensated.
• Simple preparation of the specimen as the raster method used only
requires the application of a stochastic or regular pattern in case
the surface of the specimen is not structured sufficiently.
• Large measuring area: Both, small and large objects (from 1 mm to
2000 mm) can be measured with the same sensor. Deformations
can be measured in a range of 0.05% up to several 100%.
• Full-field and graphical 3D representation of the measuring results
with high data point density.
• The graphical representation of the measuring results provides an
optimum understanding of the component behavior.
• High mobility as the system can easily be accommodated in the
flight-case included in the delivery. Thus, it can be transported by
car or plane without any problems.
For more mobility, the ARAMIS FireWire system is available with a
powerful notebook PC.
• Transformations according to the 3-2-1 or best-fit method.
• Quality control: Calculation and display of the measuring results
with a predefined or customer-specific color representation.
• Report generation and export functions for measuring and result
data.
• Automation due to macro functions. Recurring command sequences can easily be automated.
2.4
Main Hardware and Software Components
• Sensor with two cameras (only for 3D setup)
• Trigger box for power supply of the cameras and to control image
recording
• High-performance PC system
• ARAMIS application software and Linux system software
You may also operate the ARAMIS system without the trigger box.
However, the maximum frame rate then is limited to one image per
second, and the cameras are supplied with power via a separate
power supply unit.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
• Stand for secure and steady hold of the sensor
Brief Introduction to the ARAMIS System
2.5
The ARAMIS System Variants
The main difference between the ARAMIS system variants is the
camera type used. The following table shows an overview of the main
system families. The system families listed here refer to the operation
with a trigger box.
System types
ARAMIS 1.3 M
ARAMIS 4 M
ARAMIS HS
Standard measuring
volume in mm3
10x8x8
(with 50 mm lens + distance ring)
up to
1700x1360x1360
(with 12 mm or 8 mm lens)
20x20x10
25x20x15
to
to
2000x2000x2000
1700x1360x1360
Camera resolution
1280x1024 pixels
2048x2048 pixels
1280x1024 pixels
Camera chip
2/3 inch, CCD
1 inch, CCD
1 inch, CMOS
Max. frame rate
12 Hz, optional 24 Hz
7 Hz
485 Hz at 1280x1024 pixels
970 Hz at 1280x512 pixels
Intermediate image
storage
In the main memory (RAM) of the
evaluating computer
In the main memory (RAM) of the evalu- On the frame grabber boards of the
ating computer
evaluating computer
Shutter time
0.1 ms up to 2 s,
computer-controlled,
asynchronously triggerable
0.1 ms up to 2 s,
computer-controlled,
asynchronously triggerable
0.010 ms up to 1 s,
computer-controlled,
asynchronously triggerable
Strain measuring range 0.1 % up to >100 %
0.05 % up to >100 %
0.1 % up to >100 %
Strain accuracy
up to 0.02 %
up to 0.01 %
up to 0.02 %
Measuring results
2D or 3D displacements, strain and component contour
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
For further information see http://www.gom.com
Page 11 (97)
Sensor Types
3. Sensor Types
3.1
IMPORTANT !
IMPORTANT !
General Information
Prior to start measuring, the respective measuring volume has to be
selected depending on the object size, see table 3.1.1 Sensor Configuration.
The measuring volume determines the distance between sensor and
specimen and the set of lenses.
Prior to initial commissioning of the ARAMIS system, the sensor must
be adjusted. The angle relations of the lenses (only for 3D setup with
2 cameras), the focus and the aperture need to be set. Then, the
complete system (only for 3D setup) is calibrated by means of calibration panels or calibration crosses. If the measuring volume is adjusted
successfully by calibration, you can start a measuring project.
In practice, depending on the measuring task, different measuring volumes might be required.
You only need to adjust the sensor again if the measuring distance or
the angle relations of the cameras or the adjustments of the camera
lenses have to be changed because of a different measuring volume.
The following table shows some typical combinations of measuring
volumes, distances and set of lenses.
3.1.1
Sensor Configuration ARAMIS 1.3 M
The 50 mm and the 17 mm lenses belong to the most common sensor
configurations.
Distance ring Measuring volume
(L x W x H)
Calibration Base
object
Min. length of
Measuring
camera support distance
50 mm
no
200 x 160 x 160 mm³
Plane
560 mm
800 mm
1300 mm
175 x 140 x 140 mm³
Plane
530 mm
800 mm
1210 mm
135 x 108 x 108 mm³
Plane
400 mm
600 mm
960 mm
100 x 80 x 80 mm³
Plane
300 mm
500 mm
700 mm
65 x 52 x 52 mm³
Plane
240 mm
500 mm
510 mm
50 x 40 x 40 mm³
Plane
180 mm
500 mm
430 mm
35 x 28 x 28 mm³
Plane
130 mm
500 mm
300 mm
1 x 25 mm
17 mm
no
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Camera Ellipse qualangle α ity for calibration
25°
0.4
25°
0.6
25 x 20 x 14 mm³
Plane
110 mm
500 mm
240 mm
15 x 12 x 8 mm³
Plane
110 mm
500 mm
200 mm
30°
10 x 8 x 4 mm³
Plane
110 mm
500 mm
180 mm
35°
800 x 640 x 640 mm³
Cross
750 mm
1000 mm
1560 mm
550 x 440 x 400 mm³
Cross
560 mm
800 mm
1100 mm
350 x 280 x 280 mm³
Plane
340 mm
500 mm
750 mm
250 x 200 x 200 mm³
Plane
260 mm
500 mm
590 mm
200 x 160 x 160 mm³
Plane
210 mm
500 mm
460 mm
175 x 140 x 140 mm³
Plane
190 mm
500 mm
410 mm
135 x 108 x 108 mm³
Plane
100 mm
500 mm
320 mm
100 x 80 x 80 mm³
Plane
110 mm
500 mm
240 mm
25°
0.8
0.4
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Focal
length of
lens
Sensor Types
The following list shows other possible combinations:
Focal
length of
lens
75 mm
35 mm
23 mm
12 mm
Calibration Base
object
Min. length of
Measuring
camera support distance
100 x 80 x 80 mm³
Panel
800 mm
1000 mm
960 mm
65 x 52 x 52 mm³
Panel
300 mm
500 mm
740 mm
1 x 10 mm
50 x 40 x 40 mm³
Panel
260 mm
500 mm
530 mm
no
350 x 280 x 280 mm³
Panel
540 mm
800 mm
1430 mm
250 x 200 x 200 mm³
Panel
530 mm
800 mm
1140 mm
200 x 160 x 160 mm³
Panel
370 mm
500 mm
850 mm
175 x 140 x 140 mm³
Panel
380 mm
500 mm
810 mm
135 x 108 x 108 mm³
Panel
300 mm
500 mm
640 mm
100 x 80 x 80 mm³
Panel
200 mm
500 mm
450 mm
65 x 52 x 52 mm³
Panel
160 mm
500 mm
330 mm
50 x 40 x 40 mm³
Panel
110 mm
500 mm
260 mm
550 x 440 x 440 mm³
Cross
720 mm
1000 mm
1580 mm
350 x 280 x 280 mm³
Panel
420 mm
600 mm
950 mm
250 x 200 x 200 mm³
Panel
340 mm
500 mm
760 mm
200 x 160 x 160 mm³
Panel
270 mm
500 mm
590 mm
175 x 140 x 140 mm³
Panel
245 mm
500 mm
530 mm
135 x 140 x 140 mm³
Panel
200 mm
500 mm
400 mm
100 x 80 x 80 mm³
Panel
120 mm
500 mm
350 mm
1700 x 1360 x 1360 mm³
Cross
1200 mm
1200 mm
2500 mm
1 x 5 mm
no
no
no
1200 x 960 x 960 mm³
Cross
800 mm
1000 mm
1800 mm
800 x 640 x 640 mm³
Cross
560 mm
800 mm
1200 mm
550 x 440 x 440 mm³
Cross
400 mm
600 mm
800 mm
350 x 280 x 280 mm³
Panel
280 mm
500 mm
570 mm
250 x 200 x 200 mm³
Panel
200 mm
500 mm
425 mm
200 x 160 x 160 mm³
Panel
160 mm
500 mm
340 mm
1700 x 1360 x 1360 mm³
Cross
800 mm
1000 mm
1700 mm
1200 x 960 x 960 mm³
Cross
600 mm
800 mm
1200 mm
800 x 640 x 640 mm³
Cross
400 mm
600 mm
800 mm
550 x 440 x 440 mm³
Cross
280 mm
500 mm
570 mm
350 x 280 x 280 mm³
Panel
190 mm
500 mm
400 mm
250 x 200 x 200 mm³
Panel
140 mm
500 mm
290 mm
200 x 160 x 160 mm³
Panel
110 mm
500 mm
235 mm
Camera Ellipse qualangle α ity for calibration
25°
25°
25°
0.4
25°
25°
28°
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
8 mm
Distance ring Measuring volume
(L x W x H)
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Sensor Types
3.2
Definition of Terms Referring to the ARAMIS 3D Sensor Unit
and Measuring Volume
The figure shows a 3D sensor unit in top view.
Length L (measuring volume)
Height H (measuring volume)
Specimen to be measured
Center of the measuring volume
Width W (measuring volume)
Measuring distance
Angle bisector by laser pointer
Camera angle
Base distance
Camera lens left L
Camera rotation axis
Camera support
Camera adapter plate
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Camera lens right R
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Sensor Types
3.3
How to Handle Lenses
The lenses shown in these examples may differ from those delivered
in practice. Therefore, the statements made here have to be used correspondingly.
Aperture setting ring with manual locking
screw. Note: In the example shown, aperture
value 11 means aperture closed and aperture
value 1.4 means aperture open.
Screw thread; tighten carefully by hand in the
housing!
While doing so, lock focus locking ring!
Focus locking ring with hex socket head locking screw
Focal length.
In this example 17 mm.
Aperture setting ring. Note: The lowest possible aperture value (e.g. 2.8) means the aperture is max. opened and the highest value indicates that the aperture is max. closed.
Focus setting ring with locking screw
Screw thread; tighten carefully by hand in the
housing!
While doing so, lock focus locking ring!
NOTICE !
Select a set of lenses matching the required measuring volume and
screw it into the cameras.
To avoid getting dirt into the cameras, always equip the devices with
lenses or with a protective cap, even when switched off.
Screw in the lenses carefully by hand.
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3.4
Sensor Setup
In order to achieve the measuring volumes shown in table 3.1.1, the
ARAMIS sensor needs to be set up accordingly.
To adjust the sensor, the complete system including the ARAMIS application software must be installed. How to use the software is described in sections 6 to 11.
General steps to adjust the sensor:
• Equip the cameras with the corresponding lenses appropriate for
the measuring volume.
• If available, attach the laser pointer in the center of the camera
support.
• Adjust the base distance between the cameras on the camera support symmetrically to the laser pointer (if available).
• Adjust the measuring distance between object and sensor.
• Adjust the cameras by means of the live images.
• Adjust the focus of the camera lenses.
• Adjust the aperture of the camera lenses.
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Sensor Types
Adjust the software:
After starting the ARAMIS software, select the camera icon Start/Stop
Measurement in the project mode (View X Project Mode) to get a live
video of both cameras.
Attach the laser pointer (if available):
Attach the laser pointer in the center of the camera support.
Adjust the base distance:
Adjust the base distance by moving the camera adapter plates on the
camera support accordingly. The base distance is the distance between the camera rotation axes, see 3.2. Set up the cameras symmetrically on the camera support or symmetrically to the laser pointer.
Adjust the measuring distance:
The measuring distance is determined by using a tape measure and
results between the front edge of the camera support and the center
of the object to be measured, see 3.2.
Adjust cameras:
The camera angle α results when you point the cameras to the same
spot in the live images of the object to be measured. Ignore any deviations from the horizontal line in the live images.
Fix the cameras:
If you can just no longer turn the cameras on the adapter plate, tighten
the clamping fixture max. ¼ to ⅓ turns further.
Never turn as tight as it will go!
Adjust the focus:
If possible, always adjust the focus with the aperture maximally
opened. Place a text or a business card in the center and adjust the
optimum focus.
You can also adjust the focus with the help of the calibration panel.
This method provides a clear focus adjustment. In the overexposed
mode (in the live image, click the right mouse button and select Overexposed), adjust the shutter time such that the white points appear
overexposed (red). Now, adjust the focus to minimum red point size.
Then, lock the focus setting!
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NOTICE !
Sensor Types
Adjust the aperture:
If you want to use the specimen lighting, switch it on now. Choose the
shutter time according to the expected recording rate, the setting
should be clearly below the recording rate. Settings below 100 ms at a
frame rate of 4 images per second are usual. Now close the aperture
until the video images are free of overexposure. Red areas in the
video image indicate overexposure and therefore should not occur.
Make sure, the aperture is closed as far possible (high aperture values) in order to achieve a best possible depth of field. The aperture of
both cameras should be closed to approximately the same extent. You
can check this by means of the false-color mode of the video image.
You enable the false-color mode by clicking with the right mouse button onto the video image and selecting False Color. The video images
should show approximately the same color distribution.
Left camera
Right camera
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
After you finished the sensor setup, select in the project mode View X
Start/Stop Measurement.
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The Trigger Box
4. The Trigger Box
The trigger box for the ARAMIS measuring system serves to flexibly
record images just-in-time and with analog value control for highspeed through low-speed applications. In addition to the power supply
unit for max. 4 cameras, the 19" trigger box includes a Linux computer
which, in connection with the different input interfaces and individual
trigger lists, provides trigger signals for the frame grabber boards of
the PC. The camera images are stored in the evaluating computer.
The trigger box has an own IP address.
NOTICE !
In case the ARAMIS system shall be operated without a trigger box,
the system will be delivered with additional power supply units for the
cameras.
Only apply a voltage in the range between -0.5 V to +7 V to the trigger
input of the PC (frame grabber boards). If this voltage range is exceeded or if the value falls below it, the installed frame grabber boards
may be damaged.
4.1
Commissioning
After switching on the trigger box (Power on/off), the status LED is
lights up in orange for about 40 seconds. The trigger box is ready for
use if the LED changes to green. You may switch on and off the trigger box in all operating states.
If the status LED is red, a hardware error occurred.
4.2
4.2.1
F3 LED Illuminates in case of inverted
trigger output signal
F1 Selection of trigger input signal
Brief Description
Trigger Box Front Panel
F4 LED Illuminates in case of manual
trigger signal release via trigger box software
F5 LED Illuminates in case of manual
F2 Adjustment of trigger input level
F3 Inversion of trigger output signal
F4 Manual trigger signal release via
trigger box software
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F6 Power on/off
F5 Manual trigger signal release without
trigger box software
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
trigger signal release without
trigger box software
The Trigger Box
4.2.2
Further Information About the Front Panel Control Elements
Selection switch Function F1 is used to select the type of signal available at the trigger input R1.
IMPORTANT !
Level:
In position Level, the trigger box responds to DC signals at
input R1. As soon as the voltage adjusted with potentiometer Trigger
Level F2 is exceeded, a switching action is activated. Use F2 to vary
the switching voltage in the range of -10 V to +10 V. In this operating
mode, input R1 has a switching hysteresis of approx. 400 mV, and
only a voltage between
-10 V to +10V may be applied.
Please note that the switching speed is some microseconds.
TTL:
In position TTL, the trigger box responds to TTL signals at
input R1. In order to activate a switching action, the available signal
must be set from low (0V) to high (+5V).
In this mode, only a voltage between 0 V to +5 V may be applied to
the trigger input.
IMPORTANT !
Opto:
In position Opto, input R1 is galvanically isolated by an optical coupler and may directly receive DC voltages up to 20 V. A switching action is activated as of a voltage of 3 V.
In this mode, only a voltage between -20 V to +20 V may be applied to
the trigger input.
Please note that the switching speed is some microseconds.
IMPORTANT !
Diff:
In position Diff, the trigger box responds to LVDS signals at
input R1. In this case, input R1 has an internal resistance of approx.
100 Ohm.
In this mode, only a voltage between 0 V to +5 V may be applied to
the trigger input.
Please note that the switching speed is some microseconds.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Depending on the operating mode, the following typical delay times
occur at input Trigger in R1:
Oper. mode:
Delay time
Level
20 µs up to 22 µs
TTL
approx. 340 ns
Opt
approx. 4.5 µs
Diff
1µs up to 10 µs
By pushing button Invert F3, the signal at the trigger output is inverted
and the status LES F3 LED illuminates.
Pushbutton Manual F4 is used to generate a trigger signal that is converted by the trigger box software and routed to the trigger output R2.
When pushing the button, the LED above it (F4 LED) illuminates.
Pushbutton Manual F5 in control panel Trigger out is used to generate
a trigger signal that is not converted by the trigger box software. It is
directly routed to the trigger output R2. When pushing the button, the
LED above it (F5 LED) illuminates.
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The Trigger Box
4.2.3
Analog outputs A out 0 and A out 1, presently without function
Trigger output for special applications
Trigger Box Rear Panel
D in 1: Digital input 1, D in 2: Digital input 2
The digital inputs are used to cancel individual elements in a trigger list. Only apply a voltage between
0 V and +5 V to both inputs.
Power supply for max. 4 cameras
R1 Input for trigger voltages be-
Laser pointer connection for indicating the center of the measuring volume
tween -10 V and +10 V
Wide range power supply input, 115 /230 V, 50 to 60 Hz
R2 Standard trigger output for ARAMIS PC
A in 1: Analog input 1
Connection for the photoelectric sensor belonging to
the trigger box
4.2.4
Ethernet interface for the connection with
the PC. The serial interface is only required for older ARAMIS systems.
Further Information About the Rear Panel Connectors
A in 0: Analog input 0, A in 1: Analog input 1
The analog inputs are rated for recording analog signals during image
recording between -10 V and +10 V, e.g. for force and distance.
These inputs can also be used to generate a trigger signal at a certain
voltage value or at a gradient.
Only apply a voltage between -10 V and +10 V to both inputs.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
A in 0: Analog input 0,
Measurement Preparation
5. Measurement Preparation
5.1
Preparing a Specimen
The surface structure is important for measuring an object. The optimum specimen surface is smooth. Highly structured surfaces may
cause problems in facet and 3D identification.
The surface of the object to be measured must have a pattern in order
to clearly allocate the pixels in the camera images (facets). Thus, a
pixel in the reference image can be allocated to the corresponding image in the target image. The pattern on the object should show a high
contrast because otherwise such an allocation (matching) does not
work.
On one hand, the size of the surface characteristics should be small
enough to allow a fine raster of calculation facets during evaluation.
On the other hand, the pattern should be large enough to be completely resolved by the camera.
Random pattern:
Best suitable are stochastic patterns which are adapted to the measuring volume, camera resolution and facet size.
In addition, for calculation, it is advantageous if the patterns do not
have larger areas of constant brightness, e.g. wide lines. Structures
with changing gray values as they occur with random patterns are
more appropriate. The left figure shows a pattern that is not really
suitable. The right figure shows a good and clearly better pattern.
Low contrast stochastic pattern
High contrast stochastic pattern
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Always treat shiny surfaces e.g. with developer spray or suitable matt
white paint in order to achieve a dull surface.
CAUTION !
NOTICE !
The spray may contain solvents! Please observe the warnings printed
on the spray can. Do not inhale the fumes, only use the spray with the
sufficient ventilation. Avoid contact with your skin and your eyes.
Spray fumes may be highly inflammable - do not smoke! Keep away
from ignition source.
Check the suitability of plastics and other non-metallic surfaces before
you spray them.
A random pattern is best for allocating facets. You may create such a
pattern after spraying the specimen with developer spray (white), by
additionally applying e.g. a matt black spray or graphite spray with
softly pressing the spray button (spray can "spits") such that a high
contrast stochastic pattern results.
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Measurement Preparation
The following figure shows some 15 pixel facets with a 2 pixel overlapping area. This allows for an unproblematic gray level calculation
and a precise strain measurement.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Logic pattern:
ARAMIS also works with regular structures that were applied to the
surface of the specimen either with a pen or by means of stencil/spray
technique. When applying these patterns, make sure the pattern is
smaller than the selected facet size.
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6. ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.1
Starting the PC with the GOM LINUX Operating System
When pressing the power switch, the LINUX operating system starts
automatically. If a second system like Windows is installed on the PC,
first a menu appears to select the desired operating system.
A standard user called demo is factory-adjusted for the Linux operating system. The respective password is demo as well.
The demo user has the rights for writing, reading and deleting data
and directories he created.
This user manual does not deal with the Linux operating system in
more detail. You only need superficial Linux knowledge to be able to
work with the ARAMIS software.
6.2
Starting the ARAMIS Software
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Start option B
Start option A
6.3
General ARAMIS Operation
The ARAMIS software is mainly operated by using the mouse. The
right, middle and left mouse button and the mouse wheel have functions assigned and are window-dependent. The middle mouse button
and the mouse wheel are one common control element. The most important functions of the right and middle mouse button / mouse wheel
are listed under 6.8.
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.3.1
General Steps to Carry Out a Standard Measuring Project
For carrying out a standard measuring project using a calibrated
ARAMIS system, the following steps are required:
Step 1:
Start the PC and the ARAMIS software.
Step 2:
Switch on the trigger box or establish the camera power
supply.
Step 3:
Create a project in the ARAMIS software.
Step 4:
In the project mode use Start/Stop Measurement to record images of the required deformation stages.
Step 5:
Define the computation mask for the areas in which the
deformation analysis is performed.
Step 6:
Define the start point for calculation.
Step 7:
Compute the project.
Step 8:
Transform the measuring project into a defined coordinate system.
Step 9:
Evaluation of the results.
Step 10:
Report generation.
6.3.2
The Operating Modes
ARAMIS generally works in two operating modes, the Project Mode
and the Evaluation Mode.
Start/Stop Measurement
in the Project Mode
Calculation of
deformation
Project Mode
The Project Mode of the ARAMIS software allows for creating measuring projects, adjusting and calibrating the sensor and recording the
camera images. The deformation process generally is recorded by
means of several camera images.
If all relevant camera images are recorded, the area to be calculated
and the start point for deformation calculation needs to be defined.
Now start computation with Compute Project.
Change to the Evaluation Mode by selecting the respective icon.
The Evaluation Mode of the ARAMIS software is used to edit the color
result representations. Functions are available for data post processing, transformation, section generation, deformation visualization and
report generation.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Evaluation Mode
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.4
Structure of the ARAMIS Menu Window
6.4.1
Structure of the ARAMIS Menu Window in Project Mode
The figure shows the ARAMIS project mode with Start Measurement
active.
Pull-down menus
Toolbar
Explorer
Display of the 2D camera
images of the stage selected in the explorer.
2D live image of the left
camera
2D live image of the right
camera
Parameter setting in measuring mode
Status indicator line
The figure shows the ARAMIS project mode with Start Measurement
disabled and the video player activated via View X Video Player.
Display of the reference images Stage 0
Because of the facet generation, the left image appears
greenish.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Video player to play the
created image sequences.
Display of the 2D camera
images of the stage selected in the explorer.
Info window
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.4.2
Structure of the ARAMIS Menu Window in Evaluation Mode
The figure shows the ARAMIS evaluation mode and report generation.
3D result window
You can move the 3D result
in the 3D space
Display of the 2D camera
images of the stage selected in the explorer.
Display of the 2D camera
images or of the report of
the stage selected in the
explorer.
Info and overview window
for:
- Project info
- Stage data
- Sections
- Stage points
- Reports
6.5
The ARAMIS Toolbar
With Edit X Edit Toolbar you can configure the toolbar userspecifically.
Evaluation mode
Start/stop measurement
Create start point
automatically
Project mode
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Calibration
The ARAMIS Toolbar in Project Mode
Computation mask
Reset stages
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
6.5.1
manually
Compute project
Open online help
ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.5.2
Evaluation mode
Project Mode
The ARAMIS Toolbar in Evaluation Mode
Standard views in the 3D object window
Print 3D result window or save it as
file
6.6
3D display of
sections
Appearance of the 3D view
Open online help
Visualization of the result in the 3D
view or in 2D camera images
Save Data
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
The data of the measuring projects are automatically stored in a directory which is created with File XNew Project. The measuring project
data consist of the files and directories shown below.
The .dap-file is the measuring project file. Using this file, ARAMIS can
start the measuring project again.
In directory stages all data are stored that were created in the Project
Mode.
In directory strain all data of the Evaluation Mode are stored.
Directory results contains all result data.
If you create primitives in the measuring project, you need to save
them separately with File X Save as or Save.
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.7
Restoring the Factory-Preadjusted Settings
You can restore the factory-adjusted preferences at any time using
menu item Edit X Preferences X Reset all Preferences.
Most of the changes only take effect on new measuring projects!
With Default, you can reset single
selected preferences (highlighted
in blue) to the factory-adjusted settings.
6.8
Expert parameter !
With an increasing editing level,
the number of the displayed preference parameters increases.
Overview of the Most Important Mouse Functions
6.8.1
Move the 3D Object in the 3D Object Window
The mouse pointer must be in the 3D object window.
Move 3D object:
Press mouse wheel and move mouse.
Rotate 3D object:
Press left mouse button and move mouse.
Rotate 3D object around its axis:
Press left mouse button and Shift key and move the mouse.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Zoom 3D object in and out:
Turn mouse wheel.
ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
Right Mouse Button Menus in Project Mode & Start Measurement
6.8.3
Right Mouse Button Menus in Project Mode & Stop Measurement
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6.8.2
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Right Mouse Button Menus in Evaluation Mode
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6.8.4
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
6.9
Calibration
Before starting measurements for the first time, the ARAMIS 3D system (setup with 2 cameras) needs to be calibrated.
Also, if the adjustment of the camera lenses or the position of the
cameras with respect to each other is changed, the system requires
calibration.
A prerequisite for successful calibration is the correct setup of the
sensor, see 3.4. The object to be measured defines the measuring
volume and thus the set of lenses to be used. The measuring distance
to the calibration object has to be adjusted according to the camera
lenses used and according to the available camera support, see Sensor Configuration 3.1.1.
Step A:
To start the calibration process, first select View X Project Mode and
then Sensor X Calibration X Calibration.
As calibration mode choose Instructions.
The calibration object is determined by the measuring volume. Select
the appropriate calibration object, Panel or Cross (white). For a measuring volume of 350x280x280mm3, for example, select calibration
panel 350x280. Large measuring volumes are calibrated using a calibration cross.
Only click on Edit advanced parameter if you need to influence the ellipse quality of the calibration objects.
Step B:
Select the correct calibration object from the list.
The respective information is written on the calibration object.
If the calibration object is not included in the list, open the configuration menu by clicking the right mouse button in the Calibration window
and enter the calibration object. The required information is written on
the calibration object.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Step C:
You need to enter the Focal length of the camera lenses. The focal
length is written on the camera lenses, see also 3.3.
IMPORTANT !
Further steps depend on the calibration object used. Steps D1 to G1
describe the application with the calibration panel,
steps D2 to G2 describe the application with the calibration cross.
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
Step D1 (with calibration panel):
Check the calibration settings.
You start the calibration process by clicking on button Finish.
Step E1 (with calibration panel):
In connection with a calibration panel, the screen looks as follows.
Place the calibration object in the center of the sensor so that the
video image records the entire calibration object. The vertical line of
the projected target and that of the red cross hairs must coincide in
the video image. Set Shutter such that the points are not overexposed. Set the 2D view to Overexposed by clicking with the right
mouse button into the view. Red indicates overexposure!
Quit calibration
Instruction window for calibration steps
Set the shutter value of the circular markers.
Click and use the mouse wheel.
As soon as the calibration object is aligned
according to the instructions, click on the button Snap.
Step F1 (with calibration panel):
Record further calibration images according to the instructions in the
respective window.
Step H1 (with calibration panel):
After successful computation, the calibration result is displayed.
The calibration deviation should be less than 0.04. It is not required to
have this value as small as possible.
The camera angle results from the selected sensor setup.
The angle variance (the tilted position of the calibration panel during
the calibration process) should be larger than 20° (e.g. -32.1°/35.3°).
The height variance (adjustment closer to / further away from the calibration panel during the calibration process) should be within the
measuring volume. The possible height variance depends on the
camera aperture setting (depth of field).
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Step G1 (with calibration panel):
After you recorded the last image, click on button Compute.
ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
Step D2 (with calibration cross):
Check the calibration settings.
You start the calibration process by clicking on button Finish.
Step E2 (with calibration cross):
In connection with a calibration cross, the screen looks as follows.
Place the calibration object in the center of the sensor.
The vertical line of the projected cross and the red cross hairs in the
video image should coincide on the level where the calibration bars
cross each other and not on the raised single point.
Set Shutter such that the calibration markers are not overexposed.
Set the 2D view to Overexposed by clicking with the right mouse button into the view. Red indicates overexposure!
Quit calibration
Instruction window for calibration steps
Here, you may choose the unit for the shutter time: s, ms, µs.
Set the shutter value of the circular markers.
Anklicken und Mausrad benutzen.
As soon as the calibration object is aligned
according to the instructions, click on the
button Snap.
Step F2 (with calibration cross):
Record further calibration images according to the instructions in the
respective window.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Step G2 (with calibration cross):
After you recorded the last image, click on button Compute.
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ARAMIS Software – General Information and Calibration
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Step H2 (with calibration cross):
After successful computation, the calibration result is displayed.
The calibration deviation should be less than 0.04. It is not required to
have this value as small as possible.
The camera angle results from the selected sensor setup.
The angle variance should be larger than 20° (e.g. -22.1°/23.3°).
The plus/minus deviation of the set calibration scale is displayed. A
high deviation indicates an incorrect calibration object or incorrect
scale parameters.
The height variance (adjustment closer to / further away from the calibration panel during the calibration process) should be within the
measuring volume. The possible height variance depends on the
camera aperture setting (depth of field).
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Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
7. Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
7.1
Determination of Measuring Volume and Preparation of the
Specimen
Prior to start measuring, make sure the measuring object fits into the
selected measuring volume in all its deformation stages. Prepare the
specimen according to 5.1.
7.2
Calibration (Project Mode)
If the measuring volume is not yet calibrated, carry out a calibration
procedure according to 6.9. Make sure that you selected a calibration
object (panel or cross) suitable for the measuring volume, i.e. the calibration object should cover the entire measuring volume during the
calibration steps.
7.3
Creating a New Project (Project Mode)
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An ARAMIS project contains all data belonging to a measurement. If
you open the project file (with the extension .dap), all images and results belonging to the project are loaded as well.
Create a new project with File X New Project.
On the first page of the New Project wizard, you need to define the
base directory (e.g. /home/demo) and the project name. In addition,
you can define whether the project is a 2D measurement (only one
camera is used for measuring plane deformations) or a 3D measurement (two camera setup with the object moving out of the viewing
plane).
The second step allows for defining the project parameters. Normally,
the default settings are sufficient but may be changed depending on
the task. See chapter 9.1 Project Parameters.
After you created the project, the project name appears in the explorer
and the ARAMIS software is in the Project Mode.
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Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
7.4
Activate Recording Mode (Project Mode)
In order to activate the recording mode, click on Start/Stop Measurement.
All recording modes require that the area in the images to be evaluated is not overexposed. Prior to each image recording, check that the
live image shows a brightness distribution suitable for measuring. This
is done by means of the false-color mode (click with the right mouse
button on the live image and select False Color). In the false-color
mode, no white and blue-black areas must be visible. The false-color
scale is defined from light (white) to dark (blue-black).
Quit the recording mode with Start/Stop Measurement.
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Select the mode for image recording. Available modes are marked
with a green check mark.
Most applications are covered by the modes Simple with Triggerbox
and Fast Measurement.
In the mode Simple with Triggerbox the images are released by clicking on the camera icon. This mode allows an image sequence of 1
image/s. The timer provides for recording an image sequence automatically.
In the mode Fast Measurement, the images are released after clicking
on the camera icon and after an external start signal occurred. The
ARAMIS software waits until such a start signal is available. In this
mode, you can only adjust the Shutter time and the number of Images
in the software. The frame rate/s depends on the shutter time.
For further measuring modes, please refer to 9.3.1.
Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
7.5
Computation Mask of Measuring Images (Project Mode)
Only areas on a specimen that are relevant for deformation shall be
calculated. Thus, for example, fixtures or backgrounds shall not be included in the computation of the 3D coordinates. Edges of the specimen and contour jumps shall be excluded from the computation as
well.
Define such masking using Project X Mask. Masked areas are displayed in blue in the camera images. No computation is carried out for
these areas.
In the following, the masking steps are described for a tensile test
specimen.
Fig. A shows the state after Stop Measurement. Stage 0 in the left image is greenish, i.e. unmasked.
Fig. B: Selection tool Mask Area
Fig. C: Result after Mask Area
Fig. D: Result after Invert Mask
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Fig. A: State after Stop Measurement
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Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
IMPORTANT !
In figure B, the relevant area was selected point by point with the left
mouse button using masking tool Mask Area. You quit the function by
means of the right mouse button. Fig. C shows the result of the selection which is inverted with Invert Mask (fig. D) in order to compute the
desired area.
You can only mask an area in the left image of the reference stage
(stage 0).
7.6
IMPORTANT !
Define Start Point (Project Mode)
For facet computation, all stages require the definition of a start point.
Generally, the start point refers to the same facet in all stages. However, it is possible to work with different start points in one measuring
project, for example, if after computation it turns our that for some
stages the ARAMIS system could not calculate any facets.
Auto Start Point is a fully automatic start point definition process which
searches for a start point in the middle of the area to be calculated.
Auto Start Point only works correctly if the pattern of the specimen is
good and if the stages were recorded without too large deformation
steps.
With Add Start Point, you define the start point semi-automatically or
manually. You may only activate Add Start Point if stage 0 is selected
in the explorer or in a stage for which facets were already calculated.
Independent of the definition method you choose, you should check
the start points in the images.
The figure shows valid and invalid start points of a project.
Valid start points during definition phase
Invalid start points during
definition phase
Invalid start points after definition phase
7.6.1
Manual Start Point Definition
Select a distinctive point in the left camera image with Ctrl + left
mouse button. The ARAMIS software automatically tries to find the
corresponding point in the right camera image. In both camera images, these points are marked.
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Valid start points after definition phase
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
In addition, the Add Start Point dialog displays the facet parameters
(Accuracy, Residual, Intersection deviations, see 9.2).
For the calculation from the left to the right camera image, the epipolar
line, on which the point must be located, is used as help.
If the start point is not automatically found in the right or left camera
image, select it manually in the images with Ctrl and left mouse button. That is why we recommend to select a distinctive point.
If the selected start point exceeds one of the parameters, the facet is
displayed in red and the respective parameter is marked in red.
However, you may accept this facet nevertheless by clicking on Override. The parameters of this one stage are overwritten. However, you
should avoid this procedure.
Use Next to open the next stage; the software automatically tries to
find the start point there as well. If, however, the deformation with respect to the previous stage is too large, you have to select the start
point manually. For this purpose, click with Ctrl and left mouse button
on the same point as in the previous stage.
As guidance, the two upper camera images show the reference stage
(Stage 0).
7.6.2
Semi-Automatic Start Point Definition
You carry out the semi-automatic start point definition with the Add
Start Point dialog as well, see 7.6.1. Only click on Automatic in the dialog window. After you manually defined the start point in stage 0 and
clicked on Next, the process automatically runs through all stages.
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Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
7.7
Compute Project
Start the computation of all facets through all stages with Project
XCompute Project. Both upper camera images display the stages that
have just been calculated. The status indicator line on the bottom left
and the window Progress show the current state of the computation
process.
If the results are not satisfying, you may change the parameters with
Project XStage Defaults or Project Parameter and start computation
again. However, individual missing facets should not be regarded as
critical.
After computation, switch to the Evaluation Mode.
7.8
Results (Evaluation Mode)
The results are generally displayed in the 3D view. Here, the 3D coordinates of the specimen and the results derived from it are displayed.
The deformation result is displayed in the 3D object window according
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The log window displays all computable facets and the number of the
actually computed facets.
Now, the calculated results are shown in the images of each stage.
Calculated facets are displayed in green. Reddish facets show that the
matching parameters (Accuracy and Residual) are exceeded. In case
of yellow facets, the intersection deviation is too high. The following
figure shows such facets (15x15 pixels, 2 pixels overlapping), zoomed
with visible facet confinements (right mouse button in the window X
Visualization X Facet Fields).
Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
to the selected visualization method and the desired load stage.
You may select the most common visualization methods in the toolbar.
If the selection list does not include the desired method, click with the
right mouse button on the 3D view and adapt the list with View Results
XResult Selection.
7.9
Transform Project (Evaluation Mode)
When selecting the evaluation methods, see 7.8, please bear in mind
that some methods require a defined alignment of the coordinate system. Major, Minor, Mises and Tresca Strain as well as Yield Stress, ...
do not require alignment. For more information about coordinate system definitions, see 10.3.
7.10 Data Post Processing (Evaluation Mode)
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Menu Results provides several post processing functions to optimize
the result representations.
For example:
- Filters may suppress undesired noise or emphasize local effects,
- Interpolations can calculate missing 3D points,
- 3D points which negatively affect the measurement, e.g. in the
marginal areas of the specimen, can be deleted later,
- Sections and stage points may be created for the reports,
- etc.
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Carrying Out a Standard Measuring Project with Report Generation
7.11 Report Generation
The report generation described here is just one of various possibilities to create a report. ARAMIS provides for documenting 3D deformation processes, sections and points in the different load stages and
through those stages.
The following report generation was created using template reportexample and allows a color representation of 3D deformations in the
individual load stages, the display of deformations along sections in
the individual load stages as a diagram and the presentation of point
movements through all load stages as a diagram. Please note that
you need to define sections and points in advance, see 10.7 and 10.8.
In the info window, click on the report icon and on report-example.
After you did so, tab report-example appears in the 2D window next to
Right Image.
A name is suggested for the 3D image sequence.
Use the selection tool to select the relevant area in the 3D result window.
Grab all displays the entire result window in the report.
Click on Create to display the color 3D image in the report.
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First, the report is shown without color 3D representation. You need to
create the image sequence.
The function uses the selected representation in the 3D object window. You may create several image sequences. Select the image sequence you would like to create the report of in a dialog window.
Call up Results X Edit Result Images Xand click with the right mouse
button into the empty field to open menu Grab from 3D.
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IMPORTANT !
If you want to display images from a different image sequence in the
report, click with the right mouse button on the 3D image and select
the desired image sequence with Edit Element XImage XSource.
All report elements can be edited by clicking with the right mouse button on the respective element. You may also change the elements'
appearance, dimensions and positions, etc.
For example, you may select the stage points that are displayed in the
Strain Stage diagram.
Print the result with Report X Report X Print.
You may save the report as image by using File X Export X Reports
X Snapshot.
Image format allows to save the report in the pixel formats TIFF, JPEG
and PNG.
More possibilities to create and export reports are described in section
10.6.
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Useful Information for Working With the ARAMIS Software and Measuring Projects
8. Useful Information for Working With the ARAMIS
Software and Measuring Projects
8.1
2D Images and 3D Representations
• You can use the mouse wheel to zoom the 2D camera images and
the 3D view. This allows to quickly check if, for example, details are
correctly recorded by both cameras.
Press the mouse wheel to move the images.
• You can conveniently rotate 3D views in the screen view by holding
the shift key pressed and clicking the left mouse button in the image
and then move the mouse. The rotation center clicked on defines
the axis of rotation.
• When you click with the right mouse button on the 2D camera image, you may change the display mode with Image Display.
Overexposed displays areas that are too bright in red.
False Color displays the brightness distribution in color with yellow
and green indicating optimum brightness distribution. White indicates overexposure and blue that the brightness distribution is too
low.
• When you click with the right mouse button on the 2D camera image, you may change the display mode with Visualization. Start
points, facet fields, masks, strain and selections can be made visible that way. Strain and Selection can only be selected in the evaluation mode .
• Sometimes it might be helpful to maximize the 2D camera images.
Click with the right mouse button on the corresponding 2D camera
image and maximize it with Image View X Maximize Window. The
image is now displayed on the entire screen. To get both camera
images again, select the right mouse function Image View X Arrange Windows.
8.2
Status Indicator Line
The status indicator line at the bottom left on the screen gives interesting and helpful information regarding the current ARAMIS functions.
Notes Regarding the Explorer Information in the Project
Mode
The green check mark indicates that all facets of the stage were calculated.
The question mark indicates that the stage does not have a start point.
The yellow check mark indicates that the facets in the stage were not
yet calculated or that the Stage Parameter was changed after computation.
8.4
Cancel icon
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Cancel an Operating Step
You can cancel some computation-intensive operating steps like image recording by pressing the escape key.
The same is achieved by clicking on the cancel icon in the footer of
the ARAMIS window, which turns red only during a process runs that
can be cancelled.
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8.3
Further Operating Functions In the Project Mode
Project Parameters
9. Further Operating Functions In the Project Mode
The standard operating functions of the project mode were described
in sections 7.3 through 7.7. This section explains special operating
functions or gives further information about the standard functions.
9.1
Project Parameters
The project parameters define important parameters of a project.
Normally, the default settings are sufficient but may be changed depending on the task. Parameters that are changed via Project X Project Parameter only take effect on the current project or on the new
project to be created. The default settings of the project parameters
can only be changed in menu item Edit XPreferences XPreferences
XAramis XProject Defaults.
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9.1.1
Facet
Size:
Size is the size of the facet to be calculated in pixels. The selection of
the facet size depends on the pattern on the specimen's surface.
Within a facet, a clearly recognizable gray level distribution shall be
present, see 5.1. As default value we suggest 15 pixels. You can only
adjust odd values.
Step:
Step is the distance between two facets in pixels. The preview window
shows the overlapping of two facets which, for the default settings
(Facet Size = 15 and Facet Step = 13) is 2 pixels. The larger the overlapping area, the closer the 3D coordinates calculated from the facet
centers.
9.1.2
Strain
Computation size:
Computation size includes the adjacent points around a point in the
strain calculation. The default setting is the lowest possible value 3.
This means that a 3x3 field of 3D points is used to calculate the strain
value of the center point. This setting is particularly suitable for the assessment of local strain. If you increase this value, the noise decreases and in the marginal area less strain can be calculated.
Validity quote:
If not all adjacent points exist for this calculation, the strain for the center point can be calculated nevertheless. The validity quote determines how many points have to exist for calculation. A quote of 100%
means that all 9 points (for a field of 3x3) must exist. A validity quote of
55% is suggested.
Strain method:
Strain is always calculated as the difference between two stages.
With Total you select the first stage as reference stage.
With Step by Step calculation is performed stagewise. Strain is calculated as follows: 0 ¼ 1, 1 ¼ 2, 2 ¼ 3, 3 ¼ 4, etc.
By Reference refers data to reference stages previously defined in the
project mode. Strain is then calculated based on the reference stage.
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Further Operating Functions In the Project Mode
Stage Parameters
A stage is set as reference if, in the project mode, you click with the
right mouse button on a stage and select Set as Reference. This resets the facets of following stages that were already calculated.
9.1.3
Scaling
This parameter is only active in connection with 2D measuring projects. Here, you define the scaling of an image pixel.
9.1.4
Stages
Reference time:
In the tab Stages, the reference time of a stage can be set to zero,
e.g. when displaying diagrams with a time axis (report generation).
Thus, it is possible to assign the project time zero to a stage. Preceding stages are no longer shown in the diagram.
9.2
IMPORTANT !
Stage Parameters
The stage parameters define important parameters of one or all
stages. Normally, the default settings are sufficient but may be
changed depending on the task.
Parameters changed via Stage XStage Parameter immediately take
effect on the stage selected in the explorer or, if the option is activated, on all stages.
The standard settings of the stage parameters can only be changed in
menu item Edit XPreferences XPreferences XAramis XStage Defaults.
For future stages which will be loaded into the project later, you may
set the Stage Parameter also using Project X Stage Defaults.
Please note that these settings only take effect on new stages!
9.2.2
Residual
Max. Residual is the admissible deviation of brightness within the facets given in gray values. Here, 20 gray levels should be adjusted as
default value.
In case of poor surfaces or if reflections occur, this value may be increased.
9.2.3
Check Intersection Deviation
Intersection Deviation is the intersection deviation that occurs if the left
and the right camera measure a point. The higher this value, the more
probable is the decalibration of the system. The default value for
Check intersection deviation is 0.3 pixel. When exceeding the Check
intersection deviation value, the value is displayed in red during start
point definition and the respective facets are shown in yellow in the 2D
images.
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9.2.1
Accuracy
Max. Accuracy is the matching accuracy with which a facet can be
found again. Based on the gray levels of the pixels, the facet is fit into
the pixel field and the Max. Accuracy defines the maximum admissible
displacement of the facet corner points. The default value is 0.04
pixel.
Further Operating Functions In the Project Mode
Recording Image Sequences
9.3
Recording Image Sequences
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9.3.1
Measuring Modes
Overview of the different measuring modes:
Trigger Mode
Max. Recording Speed Explanation
Simple
approx. 1 image/s
Simple with
triggerbox
approx. 1 image/s
Ext. trigger
approx. 1 image/s
Image recording is released via the trigger signal input of the frame grabber boards, i.e. one trigger
pulse releases the recording of one image (right and left image for 3D setup). Please absolutely
observe the notes of section 4! For this function, the trigger box is not needed at all or just for the
camera power supply.
The images are saved directly in the project directory on the hard disk.
Extern trigger
with triggerbox
approx. 1 image/s
Image recording is released via the trigger box, i.e. a DC trigger pulse, a TTL pulse or a photoelectric
sensor pulse connected to the trigger box release the recording of one image (right and left image for
3D setup). Please observe the notes of section 4. Via the trigger box, the ARAMIS system can process additional analog voltage values which describe the load states in the individual deformation
stages.
The images are saved directly in the project directory on the hard disk.
Images are recorded manually via the ARAMIS software using
.
For this function, the trigger box is not needed at all or just for the camera power supply.
The images are saved directly in the project directory on the hard disk.
Images are recorded manually via the ARAMIS software using
.
Via the trigger box, the ARAMIS system processes additional analog voltage values which describe
the load states in the individual deformation stages.
The images are saved directly in the project directory on the hard disk.
Fast measurement >1 image/s,
The maximum is limited
by the max. frame rate
of the cameras!
Image recording is released via the trigger box, i.e. a start pulse (DC trigger pulse, a TTL pulse or a
photoelectric sensor pulse) connected to the trigger box releases the recording of one image sequence. First, the images are saved in the main memory (RAM) of the computer or, in case of highspeed ARAMIS, in the frame grabber boards, in order to achieve a max. image transfer rate. Corresponding analog voltage values are saved in the trigger box.
Triggerlist
>1 image/s,
The maximum is limited
by the max. frame rate
of the cameras!
In this operating mode, the trigger lists determine the behavior of the trigger box. Trigger lists can be
adapted to the individual measuring task and allow to control the trigger box via analog voltage values which describe the load states in the individual deformation stages. However, first, the images
are saved in the main memory (RAM) of the computer or, in case of high-speed ARAMIS, in the
frame grabber boards, in order to achieve a max. image transfer rate. Corresponding analog voltage
values are saved in the trigger box.
Slave Mode
>1 image/s,
The maximum is limited
by the max. frame rate
of the cameras!
Image recording is released via the trigger signal input of the frame grabber boards by means of a
TTL signal.
Each negative TTL signal edge releases the recording of one image.
Please absolutely observe the notes of section 4!
For this function, the trigger box is not needed at all or just for the camera power supply.
However, first, the images are saved in the main memory (RAM) of the computer or, in case of highspeed ARAMIS, in the frame grabber boards, in order to achieve a max. image transfer rate.
9.4
Mask Definition
How to create masks is described in section 7.5.
Selection menu Project X Mask provides extensive selection tools.
It is also possible to save a defined mask with Save Mask and to load
it again in the same or in another measuring project with Load Mask.
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Further Operating Functions In the Project Mode
9.5
Start Point Definition
Start Point Definition
General information about the start point definition is already given in
section 7.6. Window Matching results displays the achieved quality
parameters of the start point facets defined.
The number of decimals describes whether it is the right or left image
(0 = left image, 1 = right image).
In this example, this part of the window shows the deviation of stage 0
to stage 9.
This part of the window shows the parameters of one stage, calculated from the right and left 2D image, here stage 9.
If a parameter exceeds the value defined in the Stage Parameter, it is
displayed in red.
You can see the facet parameters of the previous stage by using the
scroll bar.
9.6
Compute Project
Use Project X Compute Project to calculate the project.
The calculation progress of the current stage is displayed in window
Progress. The percentage refers to all possible facets that theoretically result after masking.
The computation process of all stages is displayed on the bottom
right.
With Abort or Esc you can stop computation at any time.
Export
You may export the camera images of all or of selected stages in TIFF
format. Open the function with File XExport XExport Stage Images.
The name is assigned semi-automatically. The file name entered always gets a 1 or a 0 (0 = left image, 1 = right image), followed by a
stage index, e.g. Piccam-1-0013.tif .
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9.7
Data Post Processing
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10. Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.1 Data Post Processing
10.1.1 Filter
Results X Filter allows filtering of the results in order to reduce possible noise or emphasize local effects.
The filter function can be used for selected stages or for all stages and
additionally for selected areas or for not selected areas. Filtering only
influences the results displayed in the 3D window.
3D view prior to filtering
3D view after filtering
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10.1.2 Interpolation
Results X Interpolate 3D Points allows to create individual 3D points
based on interpolation.
The parameter "Max. Size" defines the size of the hole to be closed.
For example, Max. Size 1 will close holes with exactly one missing 3D
point. Consider if you want to interpolate all stages or just the stages
selected in the explorer.
It is mandatory to select the areas (Edit X Select in 3D View X .... or
click with the right mouse button in the 3D object) in which interpolation shall be carried out. Only then a preview can be calculated when
pressing Compute.
3D view prior to interpolation
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Primitives
3D view after interpolation
10.1.3 Delete Points
With Results XDelete 3D Points you may delete data from the 3D
data. It is mandatory to select the areas (Edit X Select in 3D View)
that are to be deleted. Only then a preview can be calculated when
pressing Compute.
10.2.1 General Information
Primitives are user-defined objects in the 3D view. Possible primitives
are:
Points, lines, circles, planes, spheres, cylinders, cones, paraboloids
and NURBS surfaces.
You need primitives, for example, for transformation or inspection
(documentation of measuring results) of a specimen. Primitives are
saved as separate files in c3d format.
To save the primitives, you need to select them in the explorer. Now,
you can save the primitives with File X Save as.
Primitives having an asterisk (*) at the end of their name (only displayed in the title bar), have not yet been saved!
The functions are called up with Primitives.
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10.2 Primitives
Primitives
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
The table below shows various possibilities to create primitives. The
corresponding submenus allow with Create to define primitives and
with Definition or Visualization to adapt the appearance of labels. For
some primitives, distances and deviations are displayed.
During the definition phase of primitives, the normal vector of lines,
circles, planes, cylinders and cones can be determined with Visualization in the field Primitive parameter. For most primitives, the normal
vector is shown.
In addition, you can adjust the length or size of the primitives here in
most cases.
With Visualization and Label Parameter, the content and the appearance of the corresponding label can be changed. Normally, the name
is assigned automatically, however, a manual definition is also possible.
If you want to change a label later, select the respective object in the
explorer using the right mouse button and select Edit Properties.
10.2.2 Selection Methods
Use Ctrl and left mouse button in the 3D window or in the 2D camera
images to select points, planes, lines, etc. to create primitives.
For selection, you may also click directly onto the labels with Ctrl and
left mouse button or choose the respective items from the list.
Points, which you select in the ARAMIS 3D data or in the ARAMIS 2D
camera images always refer to the facet centers.
Sometimes it is necessary to position points between the facet centers
in the 3D window. This can be done with Ctrl, Shift and left mouse button.
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10.2.3 Menu Item Invert Direction
This menu item provides for inverting the normal direction of all primitives that have a direction. This includes planes, lines, circles, rectangular holes and slotted holes.
10.2.4 Overview and Brief Descriptions of all Primitives
The table informs about possible primitives and lists the basic elements that can be used to create primitives. The figures just show one
application example of various possibilities during the creation of
primitives.
Definition of terms:
3D object section – Section through 3D data made with the pull-down
menu Sections in the evaluation mode.
Intersection points, intersection lines – Primitives intersect primitives.
Individual points – All possible individual points like intersection points,
projected points, etc.
Lines – All primitive lines and intersection lines.
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Primitives
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Primitives
Brief Description
Typical Example
Point
Creates an individual 3D point.
Division Point
Point on 3D object.
Creates an individual 3D point between 2 points.
The position between the points can be defined in 100 steps using Division ratio.
Intersection Point
Points between two points on 3D object with center value
50%.
Creates an intersection point between primitives.
As intersection point between two lines, the center point of the shortest
orthogonal distance between these lines is given because the lines
practically never intersect each other.
Points
Intersection point of 2 lines.
Projection Point
Projects a point of 3D views and primitives to other 3D views and primitives on the shortest possible way.
You can adjust the projection type with Project onto and Project Mode.
Projection of point 5 (on the rotation axis of a cone) to
plane 2.
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Extraction of start and end points of a cylinder rotation
axis.
This function is used for the generation of transformation points.
For more information see 10.4 and 10.4.1.
no figure
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Pixel-Plane
Intersection
Points from Line
Extracts the start and end points of lines, intersection lines and rotation
axes of cylinders and cones.
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Primitives
Primitives
Brief Description
Typical Example
Point-Point Line
Creates a line between two points.
Line between the center of a best-fit sphere and a 3D
surface.
Point-Direction Line
Creates a line from the start point in a direction to be defined.
The length of the line in arrow direction can be defined with Size.
Line on the cylinder surface from the start point on the
right parallel to the rotation axis of the cylinder.
Perpendicular Line
Lines
Creates a line from the start point orthogonal to another line.
The center of the sphere was selected as start point for
the perpendicular line which runs vertical to the rotation
axis of the cylinder.
Intersection Line
Creates intersection lines between surfaces of primitives.
Best-Fit Line
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Intersection line between two planes.
Creates a line according to the best-fit principle based on selected 3D
surfaces.
Based on the selected points, the line can be calculated for All points or
with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
Selected 3D surface.
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points. Using the statistical methods, measuring
point outliers can be eliminated during the best-fit process.
Best-fit line, created on a previously selected 3D surface.
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Primitives
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Primitives
Brief Description
Typical Example
Point-Point-Point Plane
Creating a plane through 3 points.
Plane 1 was created by selecting three points on a 3D
surface.
Point-Normal Plane
Creates a plane through one point in the direction of other objects like
lines, cylinders, etc.
Axis Parallel Plane
Parallel Plane
Planes
On a cylinder-shaped 3D surface, a cylinder was created
using the best-fit method.
Creates a plane through a point and perpendicular to the axis of the
current coordinate system.
A point on the rotation axis of cylinder 1 was selected,
and the Z axis was selected as axially parallel.
Creates a plane parallel to a circle or another plane.
Use "Offset" to adjust the distance to the element you created the
plane from.
Creates a plane through two points or a temporary defined line (using
the selection tool of the menu) in the current viewing direction.
Plane through two points on a sphere-shaped 3D surface
in viewing direction of the screen.
Creates a plane according to the best-fit principle based on selected
3D surfaces or sections.
Based on the selected points, the plane can be calculated for All points
or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points. Using the statistical methods, measuring
point outliers can be eliminated during the best-fit process.
Best-fit plane, created on a previously selected 3D surface.
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Best-Fit Plane
Plane in Viewing
Direction
Plane 1 was created in parallel to circle 1, stating an offset value.
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Primitives
Primitives
Brief Description
Typical Example
Point-Point-Point Circle
Creates a circle through three points.
Point-Normal-Radius Circle
Best-Fit Sphere
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Spheres
Point-Radius Sphere
Best-Fit Circle
Circles
By selecting three points on the 3D surface, circle 1 was
created.
Creates a circle by defining the circle center and stating the rotation
axis.
The radius can be defined by selecting the points or by entering the radius value directly.
On a cylinder-shaped 3D surface, a cylinder was created
using the best-fit method. The circle center is on the rotation axis of the cylinder. The direction of the circle was
created by means of the rotation axis of the cylinder. The
radius was directly entered as value.
Creates a circle according to the best-fit principle based on selected 3D
surfaces.
Based on the selected points, the circle can be calculated for All points
or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points. Using the statistical methods, measuring
point outliers can be eliminated during the best-fit process.
Creates a sphere by means of stating the center of the sphere and the
radius.
The radius can be defined by selecting the points or by entering the radius value directly.
Freely defined sphere with the center on the 3D surface
by means of point selection.
The radius of the sphere was created by selecting a point
(white arrow) on the 3D surface.
Creates a sphere according to the best-fit principle based on selected
spherical 3D surfaces.
If the radius of the sphere is known, you may enter it to support the
best-fit function by means of Restriction Radius.
Based on the selected points, the sphere can be calculated for All
points or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points. Using the statistical methods, measuring
point outliers can be eliminated during the best-fit process.
Best-fit sphere, created on a selected spherical 3D surface.
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Primitives
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Typical Example
The cylinder was created based on line 1. For this purpose, the end points of the line were created with Points
X Extract points from line.
The cylinder rotation axis was defined using the extracted
points first point 3 and second point 3. The radius was
determined by entering its value.
Creates an aligned cylinder by means of a point and a direction.
Point determines the center of the cylinder.
Direction determines the direction of the rotation axis.
You can adjust the cylinder by means of Radius and Length.
Creates a cone according to the best-fit principle based on selected
cone-shaped 3D surfaces.
Based on the selected points, the cone can be calculated for All points
or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points. Using the statistical methods, measuring
point outliers can be eliminated during the best-fit process.
If the direction of the cone is known, you may enter it to support the
Best-fit cone, created on a selected cone-shaped 3D surbest-fit function by means of Restriction Direction.
face.
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Creates a NURBS surface.
Based on the selected points, the surface can be calculated for All
points or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points.
NURBS surface created on a selected area of the 3D
Use Degree to set the NURBS degree. The more complex a surface is, surface.
the higher the NURBS degree needs to be.
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Best-Fit Cylinder
Cylinder perpendicular to a 3D surface.
The center of the cylinder is the center of the circle that
was previously created on the 3D surface by means of
Best-Fit Circle. This circle is also used to determine the
direction.
Best-Fit Cone
Point-Direction-Radius Cylinder
Brief Description
Creates a cylinder through two points.
Point 1 determines the beginning of the cylinder's rotation axis.
Point 2 determines the end point of the rotation axis. Use Radius to adjust the circumference of the cylinder.
Creates a cylinder according to the best-fit principle based on selected
cylinder-shaped 3D surfaces.
Based on the selected points, the cylinder can be calculated for All
points or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points. Using the statistical methods, measuring
point outliers can be eliminated during the best-fit process.
If the radius of the cylinder or/and the direction of the cylinder is known,
Best-fit cylinder, created on a selected cylindrical 3D suryou may enter these values to support the best-fit function by means of
face.
Restriction Radius or Restriction Direction.
Best-Fit NURBS Surface
More
Cones
Cylinders
Point-Point-Radius Cylinder
Primitives
Transform Measuring Results
Best-Fit Paraboloid
Primitives
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Brief Description
Typical Example
Creates a paraboloid.
Based on the selected points, the paraboloid can be calculated for All
points or with the help of statistical methods with 1 Sigma to 5 Sigma.
In case of a large amount of points,
1 Sigma is approx. 68.3%, 2 Sigma approx. 95.4% and 3 Sigma
approx. 99.7% of all points.
Paraboloid created on a selected area of the 3D view.
10.3 Transform Measuring Results
You may display the position of the coordinate system with respect to
the specimen using View X 3D View XCoordinate System in Origin.
The position of the coordinate system depends on the calibration of
the cameras and usually has no logical relation to the specimen.
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Specimen in stage 0 with undefined coordinate system
ARAMIS provides the transformation methods 3-2-1 Transformation
and Best-Fit by Ref. Points. Open these functions with Project X
Transform Project.
The most common method is 3-2-1 transformation.
Best-Fit by Ref. Points is only used for projects which observe a 3D
deformation simultaneously by several ARAMIS sensor units. For this
method it is mandatory to apply reference points (circular markers) to
the specimen which have been recorded in the undeformed state using the photogrammetric system TRITOP. With the help of these TRITOP reference point data, the different measuring data can now be
transferred into a common 3D view using the best-fit method.
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Transform Measuring Results
10.3.1 3-2-1 Transformation
3-2-1 means that three 3D points (Z1, Z2, Z3, located as far as possible from each other and not in a line) describe a plane, two additional
3D points describe a line (Y1, Y2, located as far as possible from each
other in the X-axis) and one 3D point describes a point (X). For the
transformation method ZZZ-YY-X means the following:
Three Z points (Z1, Z2, Z3, red plane) define the Z plane. The additional two Y points (Y1, Y2, blue plane) define the Y plane. The X point
(X, green plane) now defines the X plane. At the intersection of the
planes is the zero point of the coordinate system. The following figure
illustrates the connections. Of course, other transformations like XXXYY-Z are possible as well.
To increase the reliability of the transformation, you may use additional coordinates and thus determine e.g. the plane by four coordinates. In this case, the four points are averaged.
Z 3D point (Z1, plane)
Z plane
Y plane
Y 3D point (Y1, line)
Z 3D point (Z2, plane)
X 3D point (X, point)
Y 3D point (Y2, line)
Z 3D point (Z3, plane)
Zero point
X plane
Coordinate Definition with 3-2-1 and ZZZ-YY-X
Start transformations with Project X Transform Project X 3-2-1 Transformation and set value to ZZZ-YY-X.
Select 3-2-1 mode in this field:
XXX-YY-Z; XXX-ZZ-Y; YYY-XX-Z;
YYY-ZZ-X; ZZZ-XX-Y; ZZZ-YY-X
The easiest way to define the coordinate system is by means of the
3D points in the 3D view or the 2D points in the 2D camera image. Select the respective points with Ctrl and left mouse button.
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Select the respective points in the 3D view or in the camera images
with Ctrl and left mouse button. After each selection, the blue bar
jumps to the next line.
Transform Measuring Results
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Menu to define additional
points
Here, you enter specific
Z1, Z2, Z3, Y1, Y2 and X
coordinates.
Select 3D points with
Ctrl and left mouse button in the 2D or 3D view!
Switch direction of plane
reference points. (Z1, Z2,
Z3)
Switch direction of line 1
and line 2 reference points
(Y1, Y2)
Set unit of measure for
the XYZ parameters
Shows the transformation deviation.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
IMPORTANT !
The 3D points are automatically taken over until the last point defined
the X origin. The Z, Y, X planes defined by the points are displayed
around these points.
You can now see the result in the 3D window.
For this purpose it is useful to display the real position of the coordinate system in the 3D object, View X 3D View XCoordinate System
in Origin.
If the direction of the coordinate system is not yet correct, you can adjust the correct direction by means of Plane positive or Line positive.
Define Additional 3D Points for the Coordinate System:
You can define additional 3D points for determining the coordinates.
The additional points increase the accuracy of the coordinate system,
for example, if you use four instead of three 3D points to define a
plane. However, as four or more 3D points in practice never lie on one
ideal plane, ARAMIS determines the average value of the resulting
tolerances which lead to a higher reliability of the results.
Select Project X Transform Project X 3-2-1 Transformation X Additional points. Select the respective points in the views with Ctrl and
left mouse button. You still need to assign the point to the respective
coordinate area and probably its coordinate needs to be entered.
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
3-2-1 Transformation Using Primitives
Select Z coordinate area.
Add additional Z coordinate to the list.
If necessary, enter respective coordinate
Display transformation deviation (average value of tolerances).
Press Ok to accept the transformation.
Pressing Add adds the point to the list and pressing Ok accepts the
transformation.
10.4 3-2-1 Transformation Using Primitives
Often it is necessary to define the coordinate system based on the
geometry of the specimen. So, for example, edges of the specimen or
drilled holes are important to define axes or the origin.
Primitives are available as auxiliary tools for these transformations.
The following two examples explain how to use primitives for the definition of coordinate systems.
2D camera image
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3D view
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10.4.1 Transformation Using the Edge of the Specimen
For this specimen, the Y axis shall follow the edge of the specimen.
3-2-1 Transformation Using Primitives
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Prior to the actual 3-2-1 transformation you need to derive primitives
from the edge of the specimen.
For this purpose, start Primitives X Plane X Best-Fit Plane. Select a
plane specimen area in the camera image or in the 3D window. In the
Best-Fit Plane dialog window, press Preview. Based on the selected
3D points, a plane is calculated and displayed. Press Create to create
this plane.
Plane selection in the 2D camera image
Specimen (blue) with best-fit plane (green)
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Then, start Primitives X Point X Pixel-Plane Intersection. Either select the plane from the list or with Ctrl and left mouse button in the 3D
window. Now, in the 2D camera image, click on a pixel on the edge of
the specimen with Ctrl and left mouse button.
The point to be clicked on may also lie outside the mask.
When pressing Create, the pixel is projected onto the plane and a
point primitive is created. Carry out the same procedure for the second pixel on the edge of the specimen.
Now start Project X Transformation Project X 3-2-1 Transformation.
As the Y axis shall run along the edge of the specimen, select transformation type ZZZ-XX-Y.
This means, you need to select 3 points on the specimen's surface for
the Z plane, the two points of the edge of the specimen for the X line
and any point for Y. At the end, the coordinate system is positioned
along the edge of the specimen.
Y coordinate on the edge of the specimen
10.4.2 Transformation Using the Edge of the Specimen and Circular Hole
If, in addition to the edge of the specimen, a circular hole is available,
the coordinate system may be aligned along the edge and at the
same time with respect to the hole. This example shows how you can
create other elements based on primitives.
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Eliminate Rigid Body Movement
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
As shown in 10.4.1, define a plane and two points of the specimen's
edge and project them onto this plane using Pixel-Plane Intersection.
Now, use the same procedure to project more points lying on the border line of the hole.
You can select the points of the circular hole in the 3D window with
Edit X Select in 3D View X Select Single Point. Quit the selection
mode with the right mouse button or with the escape key.
Now, you can create a circle through these points using Primitives X
Circle X Best-Fit Circle.
You may use this circle for 3-2-1- transformation.
10.5 Eliminate Rigid Body Movement
For evaluating displacements it can be useful to eliminate rigid body
movements. For this purpose start Stage X Transform Stage X
Movement Correction. In the following example, you can see on the
legend that the specimen, in addition to the actual deformation, moved
in Y direction.
Specimen in 3D object window with rigid body movement eliminated
In the 2D camera image use Ctrl and left mouse button to select at
least 3 points or facets that did not or just slightly moved with respect
to each other. These are assumed to have not changed with respect
to each other throughout all stages.
The average deviation for the individual stages of this transformation
is displayed here. This is the value (in pixels) by which the points
moved with respect to each other on average.
After eliminating the rigid body movement, only the actual displacements of the specimen's surface are visible (relative displacement).
You may reset the rigid body movement with Stage X Transform
Stage X Reset Movement Correction.
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Specimen in 3D object window with rigid body movement in Y direction
Result Representations
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.6 Result Representations
10.6.1 Statistical Data
You can evaluate results statistically with Results X Statistics. Maximum, Minimum, Average and Sigma (standard deviation)are available.
Selected areas in the 3D view are shown in the result window and are
automatically updated if changes are made in the 3D view.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
For comparative evaluations, it is suitable to define a data set. For this
purpose, click with the right mouse button on Data Sets and assign a
name for this data set. For this data set, the data type is not changed,
i.e. any changes made in display and selection of the 3D view have no
effect on these results.
Thus, the statistical information of e.g. main and secondary changes
in the shape of selected areas can be looked at simultaneously.
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Stage Point, Info Point
10.7 Stage Point, Info Point
Stage points and info points are individually definable points in the 3D
view. Stage points are points for which the coordinates are saved.
Create the points by clicking with Ctrl and left mouse button in the 2D
camera image or in the 3D view. A point thus created is only saved
permanently if it is accepted with Results X Stage Points X Set as
Stage Point.
The overview window for Stage Points lists the saved points. By clicking in the boxes in column "3D" you can set these points visible or invisible for the 3D window.
Stage point, saved with Set as Stage Point
Info point
Stage point overview
Set stage point visible or invisible
Overview window for stage points
When clicking with the right mouse button on the stage points in the
overview window, additional submenus appear which can be used to
define stage points with text labels, the color of stage points, the point
symbols for the diagrams, etc.
Stage points or info points which were selected in the overview (highlighted in blue) may also be visualized as list using Results X Stage
Points X Show Point Data.
Stage points can also be represented as a multistage point diagram.
For this purpose, there are example reports in the info window. For
more information see 10.9.
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IMPORTANT !
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Sections
10.8 Sections
NOTICE !
Direct view of a specimen's section
ARAMIS provides for cutting 3D objects.
You can create several parallel sections in one process.
Open the function with Results XSections XCreate Section.
Enter the number of sections in Sections. Distance determines the distance of the sections from each other.
Create the section on the 3D object using the cutting tool.
The section planes and the distance always result perpendicular to the
screen view.
Click on Create to create the sections.
Perspective view of a section
Below the explorer, the sections are displayed in the overview window
under Sections.
Set stage section visible or invisible
Section overview
When clicking with the right mouse button on the sections in the overview window, additional submenus appear which can be used to delete and edit sections, e.g. changing the color, displaying text labels,
etc.
The section results can be represented in a report. For this purpose,
there are example reports in the info window. For more information
see 10.9.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
NOTICE !
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Reports
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.9 Reports
ARAMIS provides various possibilities to create reports (result diagrams).
This user manual describes reports that were created using the standard templates. In addition, we explain, how to modify standard reports individually.
The report overview provides the following templates:
• FLD: Forming Limit Diagram
• Multi Section: One or several sections displayed in the current load
stage.
• Multistage Point: One or several stage points displayed through all
load stages.
• Mutistage Section: For one or several sections through all load
stages.
• Report Example: Report example as described in 7.11.
• Statistics: Representation of statistical data through all load stages
or time.
Display report selection in the
right camera window
Activate report overview
Report selection
Right mouse button click
Right mouse button click
Right mouse button click
Right mouse button click
n
o
p
q
When clicking with the right mouse button on the elements of the diagram or on the report overview, submenus appear that allow for defining the diagram reference data, editing texts, creating new text labels,
changing the color, etc.
With respect to the example given above, the following menus result:
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ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Report visible
Reports
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.9.1 Right Mouse Button Click:n
Menu item Export Diagram Data is described in section 10.10.2.
Use Edit Diagramm and Visualization to edit the representation of the
diagram and the axis labeling.
Use Sections to refer the diagram to the sections.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
10.9.2 Right Mouse Button Click:o
Here, you may create totally new reports, copy them, delete them, etc.
Use Reset Reports to reset the diagrams to the shipping configuration.
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Reports
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.9.3 Right Mouse Button Click p and Edit Element (Labeling)
You may change the position, size and the layout of text labels. You
may change the text reference as well.
Right mouse button click
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Right mouse button click
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Reports
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.9.4 Right Mouse Button Click q and Edit Element (Diagram)
You may change the position, size, layout and the labeling of diagrams. You may change the diagram reference as well.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
10.9.5 Right Mouse Button Click Somewhere on the Report
You may define new elements, delete them or group them.
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Reports
10.9.6
Right Mouse Button Click Somewhere on the Report and Create
Element
This menu item is only used to create new elements like lines, circles,
rectangles, polygons, label, images, diagrams and legends.
Images:
Diagrams:
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Legends:
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Export
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
10.10 Export
We distinguish between two export types:
• Data export of points from the 3D representation and
• export of diagrams and statistical data.
Select the export functions in menu File X Export.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
10.10.1 Data Export of Points
The 3D point data exports comprise Export All Points, Export Single
Point and Export Section 3D. These exports require a configuration
file for the data selection.
Export All Points: All points visible in the 3D window will be exported.
Export Single Point: The data of an individual point that needs to be
selected will be exported.
Export Section 3D: The data of one or several sections that need to be
selected will be exported.
Generally, it is distinguished whether the data export shall be based
on the selected stages or on all stages. In order to export data of the
selected stages only, you need to disable the option Use all stages.
After entering a name for the export file (in case of exporting several
stages, this name is used as file basis), you need to select an export
configuration file from the list.
The editor shows a preview of the export configuration file. Details
about the file format are described in section 10.10.4 "Export Configuration Files".
Pressing OK carries out the desired operation and saves the result
files.
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Export
The functions Export All Points and Export Section 3D use identical
configuration files.
In addition, for Export Section 3D a section needs to be defined and
selected in the section overview (tab).
Single Point 3D requires a selected 3D point for the data export which
needs to be selected with Ctrl and left mouse button in the 3D view.
10.10.2 Export of Diagram Data
Open the export function with File XExport X Export Diagram Data.
Select the desired diagram with the left mouse button.
Diagram exports only export the data displayed in the diagram, i.e. the
data of the X and Y axes.
Generally, it is distinguished whether the data export shall be based
on the selected stages or on all stages.
In order to export data of the selected stages only, you need to disable
the option Use all stages.
Enter the name of the export file and optionally define delimiters ("Delimiter" = separation of columns, "Float delimiter" = decimal point).
Pressing OK carries out the desired operation and saves the result
files.
10.10.4 Export Configuration Files
The available export configuration files are saved in directory
/home/demo/.gom/v5.3.x/strain-export.
We use the following example to describe the file structure and the different possibilities. In this example, the numbers in front of each line
are not part of the file but have been inserted to be able to address the
lines when explaining the file:
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10.10.3 Export Statistics
Open the export function with File XExport X Export Statistics.
Enter the name of the export file and optionally define delimiters ("Delimiter" = separation of columns, "Float delimiter" = decimal point).
After selecting the data to be exported (here "ad channel 1" and
"time"), you start the export procedure with OK.
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Export
EXPORT_CONFIG_FILE
Version: 0.1
Name: Export Testfirma
Extension: .asc
Point mode: Node
Point invalid mode: Invisible
Point limiter: "\n"
Line limiter: "\n"
Floatpoint limiter: "."
HEADER_START
# This is a test export
# this is how it may look like for a company
HEADER_END
POINT_START
$(coord_x-deformed-mm) $(coord_y-deformed-mm) $(coord_zdeformed-mm)
16 $(strain_p1-technical-%) $(strain_p2-technical-%) $(strain_p3technical-%)
17 $(strain_p1-logarithm) $(strain_p2-logarithm) $(strain_p3logarithm)
18 POINT_END
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
The individual lines of the configuration file differ as follows:
Lines consisting of words in capital letters only:
These words must be taken over exactly as given in the example.
They tag the beginning or the end of a section. No other characters
are allowed in the same line.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Lines containing words followed by a colon:
These lines contain a characteristic word followed by a colon. You
must take over these characteristic words for your own configuration
file exactly as given in the example. After the colon, enter exactly one
blank and your selection. Partly, the selection is given by clear designators, partly you are free to enter something. The designators are
explained later.
Lines containing user definitions:
In our example, lines 11 and 12 and 15, 16 and 17 are special user
definitions defining how the export file is supposed to look like. The
user needs to define them according to his needs.
1,2: Each new configuration file you create must contain the first two
lines of the example so that the software is able to identify it as an export configuration file. Set the version for Export All Points 3D and Export Section 3D to 0.1 and for Export Single Point 3D to 0.2.
3: The third line always contains the name of the export configuration
following the designator. This name is available in the list of the export
configurations.
4: The designator in the fourth line is followed by the file extension
which is automatically added to the chosen name of the export file if
the user does not use the same extension.
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Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Export
5: The fifth line defines which points will be exported. Three types are
available to follow the designator:
• All: All points you can click on in the 3D window will be exported.
• Square: Only the facet centers will be exported.
• Node: Only the nodes in the grid will be exported.
6: The sixth line states how to handle not existing points and the point
and line limiters related to them. Please note: The points of a measurement are saved in a matrix comparable to the existing grid consisting of lines and columns. You may define a point limiter between each
point of a line. After the last point of a line, no point limiter is used but
the defined line limiter. In case a point is missing, this parameter determines whether the point or line limiters are written nevertheless.
Three types are available to follow the designator:
• Invisible: In this mode, no point or line limiter will be placed after a
missing point. Exception: In case the last point of a line is missing
but the line contains at least one point, the line limiter is written into
the file.
• Visible: In this mode, an invalid point is substituted by a corresponding number of blanks. Point and line limiters are written in any
case.
• Separator: In this mode, a point or line limiter is also written after an
invalid point.
7: The seventh line defines the point limiter. The point limiter needs to
be written in quotation marks using the C notation. Normal characters
can be used directly. Important formatting aids in C notation are the
following:
• \n: Line feed
• \t: Tabulator
• \f: Form feed
9: The ninth line defines the floating point limiter for a real number.
The limiter can be set in accordance with the requirements of the
software used to process the exported data. The floating point limiter
needs to be written in quotation marks using the C notation. Normal
characters can be used directly.
11,12: After these general definitions you may now define any text
which is written into the output file. This text is also called the header.
In our example, lines 11 and 12 will be included into each exported
file.
After the header definition follows the definition of a point. This definition may be divided into several lines for reasons of clarity but is
treated as one line. You need to define each value that can be output
for a point in parenthesis, starting with a dollar sign. The content of
these parenthesis normally consists of three parts which are separated from each other by a minus sign. The first part defines, which inPage 74 (97)
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8: The eighth line defines the line limiter. The line limiter needs to be
written in quotation marks using the C notation. Normal characters can
be used directly.
Export
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
formation shall be output for a point. The second part supplies additional information to part one and is also called "type" while part three
specifies the unit of the output value. As a rule, you should always
specify all three parts. In case part three is dropped, you do not need
to insert a minus sign after part two. However, if part two is missing,
you need to enter two consecutive minus signs after part one.
The following list explains the designators for part one and their meaning:
1. strain_p1: Major strain
2. strain_p2: Minor strain
3. strain_p3: Thickness reduction
4. strain_x: Strain value epsilon_x
5. strain_y: Strain value epsilon_y
6. strain_mies: Strain value according to von Mises
7. strain_tresca: Strain value according to von Tresca
8. strain_flc: Distance to the forming limit diagram
9. disp_x: Displacement in x direction
10. disp_y: Displacement in y direction
11. disp_z: Displacement in z direction
12. disp_e: Displacement as Euclidean distance
13. disp_z_xyz: z coordinate of the point
14. radial: Coordinate in radial direction referred to the Z axis
15. disp_radial: Radial displacement
16. diff_radial_angle: Rotation around Z axis
17. ang_shear: 1/2 shear angle (gamma/2 = epsilon_xy)
18. ang_rot: Rotational angle
19. ang_dir: Major direction angle
20. coord_x: x coordinate of the point
21. coord_y: y coordinate of the point
22. coord_z: z coordinate of the point
23. major_dir_x: x coordinate of the first point of major strain
24. major_dir_y: y coordinate of the first point of major strain
25. major_dir_z: z coordinate of the first point of major strain
29. minor_dir_x: x coordinate of the first point of minor strain
30. minor_dir_y: y coordinate of the first point of minor strain
31. minor_dir_z: z coordinate of the first point of minor strain
35. tensor_0_0: Element (0/0) of deformation gradient tensor
36. tensor_0_1: Element (0/1) of deformation gradient tensor
37. tensor_1_0: Element (1/0) of deformation gradient tensor
38. tensor_1_1: Element (1/1) of deformation gradient tensor
39. analog_in_0: First analog value of a deformation state
40. analog_in_1: Second analog value of a deformation state
41. analog_unit_0: Unit of first analog value
42. analog_unit_1: Unit of second analog value
43. time_in: Moment of snapping the image in seconds since Jan. 1, 1970
44. point_stage: Number of the deformation state
45. index_x: Logical index of the point in x direction
46. index_y: Logical index of the point in y direction
47. yield_stress: Yield stress
The second part, specifying a type, can only be defined for a certain
set of the designators of part one.
For the designators of part one numbered 1 to 8, the following types
may be determined:
• technical: Technical strain
• logarithm: Logarithmic strain
• green: Green's strain
Page 75 (97)
Further Operating Functions in the Evaluation Mode
Export
For the designators of part one numbered 20 to 34 and 39 to 44, the
following types may be determined:
• undeformed: Undeformed measurement
• deformed: Deformed measurement
The third part, specifying the unit, can only be defined for a certain set
of the designators of part one.
For the designators of part one numbered 1 to 8, the following units
may be determined:
• less%: The strain is displayed without unit. This option is required
for logarithmic strain. For technical or Green's strain the percentage
of strain is converted into values between 0 and 1.
• %: The strain is given in percent. In case of logarithmic strain, this
selection results in an error.
• %%: The strain is given in parts per thousand. In case of logarithmic strain, this selection results in an error.
• %%%: The strain is given in parts per ten thousand. In case of logarithmic strain, this selection results in an error.
For the designators of part one numbered 16 to 19, the following units
may be determined:
• deg: Degree
• rad: Radian measure
For the designators of part one numbered 9 to 15 and 20 to 34, the
following units may be determined:
• m: Meters
• cm: Centimeters
• mm: Millimeters
• um: Micrometers
• nm: Nanometers
Inch
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
• in:
Page 76 (97)
Other Operating Functions
Export
11. Other Operating Functions
11.1.1
C. Save macro.
A. Creates a new macro without content.
Deletes a macro shown above.
Overview on the General Functions of the Macro Recorder
List of all available macros.
Export macros.
Import macros.
Rename macro.
If this function is active, the macro falls back
on the element names in the explorer when
recording something. If this function is disabled, the macro falls back on the element
positions in the explorer when recording
something.
Moves selected commands (highlighted in
blue) in the list up or down.
Instruction how recorded macros are played.
Copies a macro shown above. Es wird in
der Liste mit „copy of“ angezeigt.
B. Starts and stops macro recording.
Starts a recorded macro.
D. Closes the macro dialog.
11.1.2 Record New Macro
In the first step, create a new macro without content. A name is suggested or enter a new macro name.
Then, start recording the macro and carry out the operating steps that
are to be recorded. Finally, stop the macro recording.
Now, save the macro.
Use Close to close the dialog window.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
11.1.3 Useful Notes Regarding the Macro Recorder
Commands, containing more information, are identified with a plus in
front of their name. Click on the plus sign to get additional information.
By clicking with the right mouse button on a command and selecting
Edit Command, you open the Edit command dialog.
Some functions return a result value. This result value may get a
name. This allows for using this result value as a variable for other
functions.
Page 77 (97)
CD/DVD Recorder
Other Operating Functions
If you click with the right mouse button on a recorded action, you can
edit this action.
With Insert you may insert individual commands like Break, Delay,
Shell Command, etc. before the selected action.
Some functions require a user entry during macro editing. With the
right mouse button function Insert X Break, you can stop the execution of the macro and define a dialog with instructions for the user.
If an action is set interactive (only if interactions are possible!), the
macro does not use the recorded parameters but the corresponding
action waits for a data entry during the macro execution.
You can test the macro step by step in order to verify the desired function.
For this purpose, you may choose either a slowed version with a
break of e.g. 5 seconds between the individual steps
or the interactive version in which each step is carried out with the
start button.
The CD/DVD drive allows for reading and recording CDs or DVDs.
The system also supports re-writable CDs or DVDs. The ARAMIS internal recording program automatically finalizes all CDs and DVDs, i.e.
additional recording of data at a later time is not possible.
DVDs are recorded according to the DVD-R(W) standard. Each recording process generates at least a data block of approx. 1 GB on
the DVD.
The ARAMIS menu items only speak of CDs. However, the menu
items are valid for both media, DVDs and CDs.
With Record CD you can record any directories and files.
The CD/DVD recorder allows to record data on CD/DVD even if the
data volume is larger than the CD/DVD volume. In this case, all data
are automatically divided to several CDs and with Restore Data from
CD combined again to a measuring project.
Start the function with File X CD Backup.
Page 78 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
11.2 CD/DVD Recorder
Other Operating Functions
Preferences
If the data amount to be recorded is larger than on CD/DVD, it will be
displayed how many CDs/DVDs are needed. For calculation, first determine the CD/DVD size using Check Size.
Opening and closing the CD drive
Hardware settings CD drive.
Do not change the factory settings.
Check size of the inserted CD.
The above parameters and file options show the default settings when
recording.
If Format Data CD is not enabled, it may happen that the CD/DVD
cannot be read by other LINUX or UNIX users because of missing
rights!
With Record CD you can record any directories.
Specify the directory and the data amount is displayed.
If the directory specified under "Source" contains subdirectories or
files that should not be recorded, they need to be specified here.
The data amount to be recorded and the amount of the CDs/DVDs required are displayed.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
NOTICE !
In case of 19" computers, make sure the door of the CD/DVD recorder
is always open when recording data because the CD/DVD slide
comes out for a short moment when checking the CD/DVD.
If the CD/DVD slide is hindered when coming out this might probably
cause a system crash!
11.3 Preferences
IMPORTANT !
Preferences are called up with Edit X Preferences.
Depending on the changed parameters, these changes may affect the
current measuring project, in any case they will take effect on all new
measuring projects! Only experienced ARAMIS users may perform
changes as they contain many expert parameters!
Also parameter changes made during normal ARAMIS operation may
cause changed preferences.
The preferences contain extensive parameter settings which will not
be all explained here.
Page 79 (97)
Preferences
Other Operating Functions
We will just deal with the most important preferences in order to enable the experienced ARAMIS user to adjust new measuring projects.
The Editing level provides for hiding complex and less used preferences. 0 is the factory-preadjusted setting and 10 is the highest complexity.
To restore the factory-preadjusted setting, see section 6.7.
IMPORTANT !
11.3.1 Save User-Defined Preference Configurations
ARAMIS offers the possibility to save user-defined preference configurations in a file.
We recommend to save the default configuration of the preferences
prior to change any parameters, so that you can load it easily and do
not need to restore the individual changes made.
Now you may change the preferences as you like and save them with
Edit X Preferences X Save Configuration.
Current preferences take effect on the current and on new projects.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
11.3.2 Load User-Defined Preference Configurations
Use Edit X Preferences X Load Configuration to load the saved preferences.
Page 80 (97)
Troubleshooting
12. Troubleshooting
Problem:
Remedy:
The Linux PC is "frozen" but the mouse pointer can still be Press Ctrl and Alt and Backspace s and log in again.
moved.
The Linux PC is "frozen" and the mouse pointer cannot be Switch the PC off and on again.
moved, or the mouse pointer can be moved but the keyboard does not respond.
The ARAMIS software is "frozen" and other applications
work.
Click with the mouse pointer on the open windows and press
Escape. If necessary, repeat several times.
If you do not succeed, press Ctrl and Alt and s and log in
again or use Ctrl, Alt, Esc and left mouse button to quit the
application.
How can I change the language of the ARAMIS application software?
As of version 5.1.1, the language is selected according to the
Linux language setting.
Presently, the ARAMIS application software is available in
English only.
In case of the Linux-KDE version 2.1.1 select the Linux
menu item with Preferences X Personalization X Country &
Language.
In case of the Linux-KDE version 3.1.1 select the Linux
menu item with Control Center X Regional & Accessibility X
Country/Region & Language.
I cannot work with the ARAMIS project. The stages in the This effect may occur after the computer crashed and thus,
explorer are highlighted in gray.
temporary lock files were not correctly deleted.
Remedy: Just delete the two lock files from the project folder
and from the strain directory.
The best-fit function does not work correctly in connection The reason could be a wrong selection in the 3D window.
with primitives.
Deselect all, then select again and repeat the best-fit function.
Probably the specimen is shown from the rear side.
Remedy: In the toolbar, click on "view front".
How can I cancel the "Auto Start Point" process?
Press Escape.
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
The color 3D representation is poor or not visible in the
window.
Page 81 (97)
The Basics of Strain
13. The Basics of Strain
In this section, we explain the basics of strain and strain calculation.
This description follows closely the following books: [Hib], [BB75],
[Mal69] and [Hah84].
13.1 The Term "Strain"
Strain is the measure for the deformation of a line element and can be
defined as follows:
The stretch ratio λ is the relative elongation of an infinitesimal line element. A strain value ε can be defined as the function of the stretch ratio λ:
The following known functions are frequently used strain measures:
• Technical strain:
• Logarithmic or natural strain:
• Green's strain:
13.2 The Deformation Gradient Tensor
The previous section defined the stretch ratio in the one-dimensional
case and the general description of a strain measure. This will now be
extended to the two-dimensional case.
Figure a: Translation and strain of a line element
Thus, the deformation gradient tensor is defined as:
Page 82 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
13.2.1 Deformation Gradient Tensor Definition
In order to quantitatively display the deformation of a surface element,
we introduce the deformation gradient tensor F. The deformation gradient tensor transforms a line element dX into the line element dx. In
both cases, the line element connects the same material coordinates.
Theoretically, it must be an infinitesimal line element. The following
figure illustrates this case.
The Basics of Strain
13.2.2
Decomposing the Deformation Gradient Tensor into Polar Coordinates
A disadvantage of the deformation gradient tensor is that rotation and
stretch are modeled using only one matrix. This can be compensated
by splitting the deformation gradient into two tensors: a purely rotational matrix and a pure stretch tensor. The matrix can be decomposed in two different ways:
• Decomposition into rotation and right stretch tensor
Mathematically, the deformation gradient tensor is decomposed
as follows:
Figure b illustrates this modeling.
Image level
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Figure b: Geometrical model of central projection
• Decomposition into left stretch tensor and rotation. Mathematically, the deformation gradient tensor is decomposed as follows:
13.2.3
Major and Minor Strain Derived from the Deformation Gradient
Tensor
and
can directly be read from the stretch tenValues
sor U. It has the following form:
Page 83 (97)
The Basics of Strain
The strain measures εx and εy have the disadvantage of being defined
as dependent on the coordinate system. This disadvantage can be
eliminated by calculating major and minor strain. The symmetrical matrix U can be transformed to the main diagonal form. The two eigenvalues λ1 and λ2 can be calculated as follows:
Depending on the choice of the strain measure, the stretch ratios λ1
and λ2 can be transformed into corresponding strain values. The larger eigenvalue is called major strain 1 ε1 and the smaller eigenvalue
is the minor strain 2 ε2 . The corresponding eigenvectors determine
the two directions of major and minor strain. The strain values thus determined are independent of the coordinate system and are universally applicable.
If the material thickness with respect to the entire surface is small, it is
frequently necessary to deduce the remaining material thickness from
the deformation of the surface. As the optical measuring techniques
used cannot obtain any data in this dimension, the third principle strain
ε3 can be calculated from major and minor strain ε1 and ε2 , assuming a constant volume. Without determining a strain value, the relationship between the stretch ratios can be expressed more generally.
The volume constancy can be defined as follows:
Frequently, the effective strains are needed. The effective strains according to von Mises and von Tresca are available. The effective
strain according to von Mises results from the following formula:
13.3 Calculation of the Deformation Gradient Tensor from a 2D
Displacement Field
This section deals with the calculation of the deformation gradient tensor F from a given 2D displacement field of points. For this purpose,
the 2D coordinates of each point must be known both, in its undeformed and in its deformed state. The definition of the deformation
gradient tensor F explains how an undeformed line element is transformed into a deformed line element. In order to calculate the deformation gradient tensor for a point, a number of points in the neighborhood of the observed point is needed. For this model of calculation, a
homogeneous state of strain has to be assumed for this set of adjacent points.
The deformation gradient tensor creates a functional connection of the
coordinates of the deformed points Pv,i with the coordinates of the
undeformed points Pu,i ( i being the index for the different points). The
functional connection is as follows:
Page 84 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
The effective strain according to von Tresca results from the following
formula:
The Basics of Strain
With:
Coordinates of the undeformed point
Coordinates of the deformed point
Rigid body translation
This formula describes a linear system of equations whose unknowns
are the four parameters of the deformation gradient tensor F. The deformation gradient tensor F can be interpreted as an affine transformation which transforms a unit square into a parallelogram. This system
of equations can be analytically calculated for three points. If more
than three points are chosen, the result is an overdetermined system
of equations which generally is contradictory. In this case, methods
must be used which permit a calculation with more than three points.
Here, the Gaussian least squares adjustment is used.
The user can adjust the number of neighboring points to calculate the
deformation gradient tensor for one point. He can thus set the length
over which the differentiation is made. The neighborhood for a point is
arranged quadratically. The smallest neighborhood is a 3 x 3 environment which can be increased by an increment of two. Figure d shows
a 3 x 3 neighborhood.
Undeformed state
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Deformed state
Figure c: Analytical calculation of the deformation gradient tensor
For an even higher resolution, the deformation gradient tensor can be
calculated for a four-sided facet. A facet consists of four points. The
calculated deformation gradient tensor is calculated for the virtual center of gravity S. Figure e schematically illustrates a four-sided facet.
This model of calculation assumes that the pure rigid body displacement which the individual line elements received in addition to their
deformation, cannot be modeled by the deformation gradient tensor F
as well. This means that for the calculation of the deformation gradient
tensor F all points of a neighborhood may undergo a translation. This
translation may be different for the undeformed and the deformed
state. The translation is chosen such that the point for which the deformation gradient tensor is being calculated, is shifted into the origin.
Page 85 (97)
The Basics of Strain
13.4 Calculation of the Deformation Gradient Tensor from a 3D
Displacement Field
The description so far dealt in detail with the calculation of strain in
2D. However, the measuring data consist of three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates of the specimen's surface. In order to be able to use
the above models of calculation, the 3D data has to be transformed
into the 2D space.
Undeformed state
Deformed state
Figure d: 3 x 3 neighborhood for strain calculation
13.4.1 The Tangential Model
The first model assumes that the local neighborhood of a point can be
well approximated by a tangential plane. Due to the arbitrary deformation of the surface, the tangential plane needs to be calculated separately for the deformed and undeformed state. The points in the local
neighborhood are then projected perpendicularly onto the tangential
plane. The result is two sets of points, for the deformed and undeformed state, in the two-dimensional space in which the strain now
can be calculated. Summarized, this process consists of the following
tasks:
• Transformation of the 3D neighborhoods into the tangential
planes
• Coordinate transformation of the tangential plane into the 2D
space
• Calculation of the deformation gradient tensor from the 2D sets
of points
Page 86 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
• Calculation of the tangential plane
The Basics of Strain
13.4.2 The Spline Model
The tangential model described above provides good results as long
as the assumption of the linearization of a local neighborhood of
points is valid. In deep drawing, the deformed materials are mostly
continuously curved planes. The problem now is to apply the characteristics to be measured to the respective object in such a frequency
that the assumption of local linearity is still given. However, this characteristic can hardly be provided in reality. Therefore, it is better to use
other models which are more accurate in modelling the true shape of
the surface. Splines are a good model for continuously curved lines.
Undeformed state
Deformed state
Figure e: Neighborhood for a four-sided facet
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
In order to calculate the side length not only according to a linear
model, it is necessary to have more information than two points on a
side. This means that the adjacent points of a four-sided facet have to
be included in the calculations. Figure f shows the adjacent points of
the hatched four-sided facet.
In the facet, the side lengths are calculated using the formed splines.
The resulting lengths can be used to construct a quadrangle in the
two-dimensional space. Now, the strain calculations described above
can be used.
Page 87 (97)
The Basics of Strain
Figure f: Four-sided facet with adjacent points
13.5 Bibliography for Strain Theory
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
[Hib] Hibbitt, Karlsson and Lorensen, Inc. ABAQUS -Theory Manual, 5.7
edition.
[BB75] Becker und Bürger. Kontinuumsmechanik. Teubner-Verlag, 1975
[Mal69] Malvern. Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium.
Prentice-Hall, 1969
[Hah84] Hahn. Elastizitätstheorie. Teubner-Verlag, 1984
[Kop98] Kopp und Wiegels. Einführung in die Umformtechnik. Verlag der
Augustinus Buchhandlung, 1998
Page 88 (97)
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Structure in Evaluation Mode
14. ARAMIS Menu Structure
14.1 Structure in Evaluation Mode
File -------------------------------------- New Project
Open
Close
Close All
Save
Save As
Import-------------------------------------- Recover Project
Import ARAMIS 4.7 Project
Export ------------------------------------- Export 3D Data
Export All Points
Export Single Point
Export Section 3D
Export Diagram Data
Export Statistics
Reports ------------------------------------ Snapshot
Export Report Images
Export Strain
Export Stage Images
CD Backup------------------------------- Record CD
Restore Data from CD
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Recent Files ----------------------------- (List of files)
Exit
Edit-------------------------------------- Clipboard --------------------------------- Cut to Clipboard
Copy to Clipboard
Paste from Clipboard
Set as Reference
Unset Reference
Select in 3D View----------------------- Select Area
Select All
Select Single Point
Select by Value
Select inside Sphere
Select inside Cube
Deselect Area
Deselect All
Deselect Single Point
Deselect by Value
Deselect inside Sphere
Deselect inside Cube
Invert Selection
Selection Mode ------------------------- Select on Surface
Select through Object
Legend ------------------------------------ Color Map--------------------------------- Color (full)
Color (5 steps)
FEM (full)
FEM (8 steps)
FEM Gray (full)
FEM Gray (8 steps)
Full Range
Fixed Center
Page 89 (97)
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Structure in Evaluation Mode
Symmetric
Inverse
Automatic Scaling
Preferences
Snapshot
Edit Toolbar
Edit Shortkeys
Preferences ------------------------------ Preferences
Load Configuration
Save Configuration
Reset all Preferences
View ------------------------------------- Project Mode
Evaluation Mode
Viewing Direction ----------------------- Front
Back
Left
Right
Top
Bottom
User-Defined Views -------------------- View 0
View 1
.
.
.
View 11
Set View
Save Views
Load Views
3D View ----------------------------------- Show Heading
Edit Heading
Do Not Show Coordinate System
Coordinate System in Left Corner
Coordinate System in Origin
Show Grid
Show Viewing Direction
Show Legend
Automatic Label Positioning
Scale Axis
Results------------------------------------- Result Selection
Set Line for Radial
Show z = f(x, y)
Semantic ---------------------------------- Technical
Logarithm
Green
Reports ------------------------------------ Horizontal Ruler
Vertical Ruler
Arrange Windows
Page 90 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Display------------------------------------- Two-Sided
Mesh
Shaded
Points
Sections as Points
Sections as Balls
Major Strain Direction
Minor Strain Direction
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Structure in Evaluation Mode
Video Player
Project --------------------------------- Transform Project ---------------------- 3-2-1 Transformation
Best-Fit by Ref. Points
Rotate
Translate
Translate along Line
Scale
Set Transformation Matrix
Save Transformation
Transform from File
Transform to Element
Transform from Clipboard
2D Scaling
Reset Global Transformation
Select Reference Points
Select Material
Project Parameter
Stage Defaults
Reset to Defaults
Store as Defaults
Stage ----------------------------------- Transform Stage------------------------ Movement Correction
Reset Movement Correction
Save Stage Transformation
Load Stage Transformation
Define Strain Mask
Reset Stage
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Results--------------------------------- Filter
Delete 3D Points
Interpolate 3D Points
Delete Interpolated 3D Points
Sections----------------------------------- Create Section
Edit Section
Delete Section
Stage Points ----------------------------- Edit Stage Point
Set as Stage Point
Set as Info Point
Show Point Data
Delete Stage Point
Statistics
Edit Result Images
Report---------------------------------- Report ------------------------------------- Create Report
Copy Report
Rename Report
Save as Template
Delete Report
Reset Reports
Edit ----------------------------------------- Resize
Background Color
Print
Diagram
Create Diagram
Page 91 (97)
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Structure in Evaluation Mode
Edit Diagram
Delete Diagram
Clean Diagram
Create Element
Edit Element
Clone Element
Delete Element
Group
Line
Circle
Rectangle
Polygon
Label
Image
Create Diagram
Legend
Select
Deselect
Create Group
Split Group
Primitives------------------------------ Point---------------------------------------- Point
Division Point
Intersection Point
Projection Point
Points from Line
Pixel-Plane Intersection
Line ----------------------------------------- Point-Point Line
Point-Direction Line
Perpendicular Line
Intersection Line
Best-Fit Line
Circle --------------------------------------- Point-Point-Point Circle
Point-Normal-Radius Circle
Best-Fit Circle
Sphere ------------------------------------- Point-Radius Sphere
Best-Fit Sphere
Cylinder------------------------------------ Point-Point-Radius Cylinder
Point-Direction-Radius Cylinder
Best-Fit Cylinder
Cone --------------------------------------- Best-Fit Cone
More---------------------------------------- Best-Fit NURBS Surface
Best-Fit Paraboloid
Distances --------------------------------- Projected Point Distance
Point-Point Distance
Invert Direction
Page 92 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Plane --------------------------------------- Point-Point-Point Plane
Point-Normal Plane
Axis Parallel Plane
Parallel Plane
Plane in Viewing Direction
Best-Fit Plane
Structure in Evaluation Mode
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Macro----------------------------------- Edit Macro
Execute Macro
My Macros ------------------------------- (List of created macros)
Remote Control
Start Remote Control
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Help ------------------------------------- About
Graphic Board
Manual
Show Info
Generate Points
Generate Calibration Panel
Page 93 (97)
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Structure in Project Mode
14.2 Structure in Project Mode
File --------------------------------- New Project
Open
Close
Close All
Save
Save As
Import -------------------------------------------- Recover Project
Import ARAMIS 4.7 Project
Export-------------------------------------------- Export 3D Data
Export All Points
Export Single Point
Export Section 3D
Export Diagram Data
Export Statistics
Reports -----------------------------------
Snapshot
Export Report Images
Export Strain
Export Stage Images
CD Backup ------------------------------------- Record CD
Restore Data from CD
Recent Files------------------------------------ (List of files)
Exit
View ------------------------------- Project Mode
Evaluation Mode
Arrange Windows
Video Player
Project ---------------------------- Mask --------------------------------------------- Mask Area
Mask Circle
Mask Rectangle
Mask All
Unmask Area
Unmask Circle
Unmask Rectangle
Unmask All
Invert Mask
Load Mask
Save Mask
Auto Start Point
Add Start Point
Compute Project
Page 94 (97)
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Edit -------------------------------- Edit Toolbar
Edit Shortkeys
Preferences ------------------------------------ Preferences
Load Configuration
Save Configuration
Reset all Preferences
ARAMIS Menu Structure
Structure in Project Mode
Delete Start Point
Reverse Stage Order
2D Scaling
Reset Global Transformation
Select Reference Points
Project Parameter
Stage Defaults
Stage ------------------------------ Start/Stop Measurement
Add Stage -------------------------------------- Add from Image Series
Add Stage Files
Delete Stage
Set Active
Set as Reference
Reset Stage
Stage Parameter
Sensor ---------------------------- Calibration-------------------------------------- Calibration
Quick Calibration
Exit Calibration
Calibration Info
Export
Slave Mode
Configure Hardware ------------------------- Configure Hardware
Update Frame Grabber Driver
Update Trigger Box
Initialize Sensor
Change Image Size
Close Sensor
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Macro------------------------------ Edit Macro
Execute Macro
My Macros ------------------------------------- (List of created macros)
Remote Control
Start Remote Control
Help -------------------------------- About
Graphic Board
Manual
Show Info
Generate Points
Generate Calibration Panel
Page 95 (97)
Index
15. Index
Expert parameters · 6, 79
Explorer information · 44
2
2D measurement · 35
3
3-2-1 · 10, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 91
3D measurement · 8, 35
3D setup · 10, 12, 47
A
Accuracy · 39, 40, 46
Ambient temperature · 2
Aperture · 12, 15, 16, 17, 32, 34
F
Facet · 8, 10, 21, 22, 38, 40, 44, 45, 46, 48, 62
Filter · 49
Focal length · 12, 13, 31
Focus · 12, 15, 16
Function · 19
G
Gray values · 8, 21, 46
H
Height variance · 32, 34
B
C
Calibration · 6, 12, 13, 16, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 57
Calibration object · 12, 13
Camera angle · 12, 13, 16, 32, 34
Camera resolution · 11
CAUTION · 7, 21
CCD · 11
CD · 6, 78, 79, 89, 93
Circles · 55
CMOS · 11
Computation mask · 8, 24
Cones · 56
Coordinate system · 24, 41, 54, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 84
Cylinders · 56
D
Deformation of the object · 7
Demo user · 23
Diff · 19
Distance ring · 12, 13
DVD · 78, 79
E
Editing level · 80
Ellipse quality · 12, 13
Escape key · 44, 62
Evaluation mode · 6, 24, 26, 44, 51
Page 96 (97)
I
IMPORTANT · 6, 7, 12, 19, 31, 38, 43, 46, 59, 64, 79, 80
Info points · 64
Interpolation · 49, 50
Intersection · 39, 46, 51, 52, 53, 61, 62, 92
Invert · 19, 37, 38, 51, 89, 92, 94
IP address · 18
L
Language · 81
Lenses · 12, 15, 31
Level · 19
Lines · 51, 53, 73
Linux · 10, 18, 23, 81
Lock files · 81
Logic pattern · 22
M
Macro · 10, 77, 78
Manual · 1, 6, 19, 38, 88, 93, 95
Manual structure · 6
Max. frame rate · 11
Measuring distance · 12, 13
Measuring modes · 36, 47
Measuring project · 6, 7, 8, 12, 24, 27, 38, 47, 78, 79
Measuring results · 11
Measuring volume · 12, 13, 15, 21, 31, 32, 34, 35
Mouse function · 28
Mouse wheel · 23, 28, 44
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Base · 12, 13
Index
N
S
NOTICE · 7, 15, 16, 18, 21, 65, 79
NURBS Surface · 56, 92
Sections · 6, 9, 15, 42, 45, 54, 65, 66, 67, 71
Sensor · 6, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 24, 31, 32, 33, 34, 47
Shutter · 32, 33
Shutter time · 11, 16, 17, 36
Specimen lighting · 17
Spheres · 55
Stage points · 64
Start point · 8, 24, 38, 39, 44, 46, 48, 53
Status indicator · 40, 44
Stochastic patterns · 21
Strain accuracy · 11
Strain measuring range · 11
Surface · 7, 21, 46, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56
O
Opto · 19
P
Paraboloid · 57, 92
Password · 23
Planes · 54
Points · 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 57, 59, 64, 71, 72, 73, 89, 90, 91,
92, 93, 94, 95
Preferences · 8, 28, 45, 46, 79, 80, 81, 89, 90, 93
Preparation of specimen · 8, 10, 12, 17, 21, 22, 35, 37, 38,
40, 41, 45, 50, 57, 60, 61, 62, 65, 81, 86
Primitives · 27, 50, 51, 52, 53, 60, 61, 81
Project mode · 6, 17, 24, 25, 45, 46
R
TIFF · 43, 48
Trigger box · 10
Trigger in · 19
Trigger input · 18, 19
Trigger mode · 47
Trigger out · 19
TRITOP · 57
TTL · 19, 47
V
Video player · 25
Visualization methods · 41
W
Windows · 23, 44, 90, 94
ARAMIS • v5.3.0 • en • Rev A • 2004-08-20
Reference points · 57
Regular structures · 22
Report generation · 10, 24
Reports · 9, 41, 43, 64, 65, 66, 67
Residual · 39, 40, 46
Result · 6, 7, 10, 16, 24, 27, 32, 34, 35, 40, 48, 49, 50, 59,
63, 65, 76, 84, 87
Result window · 42, 63
Rights · 2, 23, 79
Rigid body movements · 62
T
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