Background: Safe Food Handling

Background: Safe Food Handling
Background:
Safe Food Handling
Hand Washing
Hand washing is the key to preventing
bacterial contamination of food. Washing with
soap, using a brisk rubbing motion for 20
seconds, effectively removes bacteria.
Bacteria can spread throughout the kitchen
and get onto cutting boards, utensils,
sponges, dishcloths and countertops.
To prevent the spread of bacteria, wash
hands, utensils and surfaces with soap and
hot water before and after food preparation,
especially after preparing raw meat, poultry,
eggs or seafood.
Washing Kitchen Surfaces
Use a bleach solution (5 mL household
bleach to 750 mL water) on utensils and
surfaces, rinse with hot water and dry with a
clean cloth. Change or resurface wooden
cutting boards if the surface is marred.
Plastic or other nonporous cutting boards are
easiest to clean.
Consider using paper towels to clean kitchen
surfaces. If you use cloth towels, wash them
often in the hot-water cycle of the washing
machine.
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 1/8
DRAFT 2006
Cross-contamination
Cross-contamination is the scientific term for how bacteria can spread from one food
product to another. This is a risk when handling raw meat, poultry and seafood. It is
important to keep these foods and their juices away from ready-to-eat foods.
Preventing Cross-contamination
Separate raw meat, poultry and seafood from other
foods in the shopping cart, grocery bag and
refrigerator.
If possible, use only one, easily identifiable cutting
board for raw meat products. Wash hands, utensils and
surfaces with soap and hot water before and after food
preparation, especially after preparing raw meat,
poultry or seafood. Use a bleach solution (5 mL
household bleach to 750 mL water) on surfaces, rinse
with hot water and dry with a clean cloth.
This is especially important when using the same
cutting board for raw meat, poultry or seafood and for fruits, vegetables or other
ready-to-eat foods.
Cook Food Well
Food safety experts agree that foods are properly cooked when they are heated for a
long enough time and at high enough temperatures to kill harmful bacteria that cause
food-borne illness.
Health Canada recommends a minimum internal cooking temperature of 71º C for
ground beef. The colour of the meat is not a reliable indicator that the meat has reached
a temperature high enough to destroy harmful bacteria; e.g., E. coli. Contact your local
health authority for further information.
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 2/8
DRAFT 2006
Freezing and Refrigerating
Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods and leftovers within
two hours.
Thaw food in the refrigerator, under cold running water or
in the microwave. Marinate foods in the refrigerator. Never
defrost food at room temperature.
Divide large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow
containers for quick cooling in the refrigerator.
Do not pack the refrigerator as cool air must circulate.
Bacteria Growth in Cool and Warm Environments
Yeast is a good, or helpful, micro-organism. It has growth properties similar to bacteria
and can be used to show how they multiply. A yeast solution, when placed in a cold
water bath, simulates what happens to bacteria when they are refrigerated. Bacteria
grow considerably slower in the refrigerator. Refrigerate foods quickly because cold
temperatures keep harmful bacteria from growing and multiplying. Refrigerators should
be set no higher than 4º C and freezers no higher than –18º C. Check temperatures
occasionally with an appliance thermometer.
When placed in a warm water bath, a yeast solution simulates what happens to bacteria
when they are left to grow in a warmer environment. Yeast will grow and thrive within
the danger zone—from 4º C to 60º C. As the yeast grows, it creates gas. The bubbles
will cause a balloon, held over the solution, to inflate.
Bacteria also thrive on a certain quantity of sugar; sugar added to the yeast solution will
increase the growth rate. Note that if too much sugar is added, it will decrease water
activity and inhibit the growth of the micro-organisms.
The term “perishable” is used to describe foods on which, if stored improperly, bacteria
could grow; e.g., dairy products, meat or vegetables.
The temperature of the water in a small or shallow container will cool faster than in a
large or deep container. It is important to store leftovers in shallow containers in the
refrigerator.
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 3/8
DRAFT 2006
Food-borne Illness—A Case Study
Bacterial Food-borne Illness in Canada: The Problem
Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada estimate that every year
between 11 and 13 million Canadians suffer from illnesses caused by food-borne
bacteria. Controlling this problem is difficult because bacteria may survive food
processing, or foods may become contaminated during preparation, cooking and
storage. Techniques which will minimize the number of bacteria on food are to be
employed at all levels of processing—from the farm to the grocery stores. Consumers
also have an important role to play in practicing safe food handling techniques in the
home.
Food-borne Illnesses and their Causes
The nature and extent of food-borne diseases are changing. With food being produced
and processed at ever-increasing volumes, there is a greater chance of food-borne
bacteria being spread to a large number of people. The food supply is now global, with
many different countries supplying foods to Canada. Many bacteria, including
Salmonella species, Campylobacter species and Yersinia enterocolitica, can reside in
healthy food animals, without them showing any signs of illness. These animals can
then spread the bacteria to other healthy animals at the farm level. During processing,
the bacteria may cross-contaminate other foods being processed at the same location.
Consumers should also be alert to the potential for cross-contamination in the home.
For example, people have become ill after handling pig's ear pet treats which were host
to several species of Salmonella. This problem could have been avoided if the pet
owners had washed their hands after handling the treats and after playing with their pet.
Food-borne Illness—A Case Study: Reproduced with permission (pending) from the Canadian Partnership for
Consumer Food Safety Education, “Food-borne Illness,” Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety
Education, n.d., http://www.canfightbac.org/cpcfse/en/safety/safety_factsheets/foodborne_illness/ (Accessed July 20,
2009).
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 4/8
DRAFT 2006
In addition to traditional food-borne diseases, newly-emerged food-borne bacteria, such
as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified
worldwide. These bacteria are also appearing on foods where they had not previously
caused problems. Some of the recent food-borne outbreaks have been traced to noncommercial custom-pressed un-pasteurized apple juice contaminated with E. coli
O157:H7 in 1996. The parasite Cyclospora was linked to imported berries during the
spring months of 1996 to 1999, in 1996, alfalfa sprouts and in 2005 Mung beans sprouts
were responsible for an outbreak of salmonellosis. In this last example, investigators
found that the seeds themselves, which were imported into Canada for
sprouting, were contaminated. Everyone in the food system can make a contribution to
controlling food-borne bacteria. For example, consumers can reduce the risk of bacterial
illness by always washing their hands thoroughly, using separate cutting boards and
utensils for meat, poultry, fish and produce, cooking foods to the appropriate
temperature and refrigerating foods promptly. The Canadian food industry is continually
committed to producing a safe food supply for consumers.
The Impact of Food-borne Illness
Although most individuals fully recover, food-borne illnesses can result in chronic health
problems in 2 to 3 per cent of cases. Illnesses, such as chronic arthritis, and hemolytic
uremic syndrome (HUS) leading to kidney failure, have long-term consequences for the
affected individual and for the economy and society as a whole. Health Canada also
estimates that the annual cost related to these illnesses, and related deaths, is between
12 and 14 billion dollars.
Information: Safe Food Handling
Selecting Food at the Store
If you have a number of errands to run in addition to shopping for food, be sure to make
the grocery store your last stop. If possible, keep a cooler in your car for transporting
refrigerated or frozen items. Take food items home immediately and put them in your
refrigerator or freezer. Never leave food in a hot vehicle!
Check use-by dates and make sure you can use the food by those dates. Make sure the
food items you buy are in good condition. Refrigerated food should be cold to the touch.
Frozen foods should be solid. Canned goods should not be dented, cracked or bulging.
Produce should appear fresh. Meat should have a good color and be firm to the touch.
Information: Safe Food Handling: Reproduced with permission (pending) from the Illinois Department of Public
Health, “Safe Food Handling,” HealthBeat, n.d., http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/hb/hbsafefood.htm (Accessed July
20, 2009).
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 5/8
DRAFT 2006
Storing Food at Home
To keep bacteria from rapidly reproducing, be sure your refrigerator is set at the proper
temperature. (If you think your refrigerator is not maintaining the correct temperature,
get an appliance thermometer from a hardware store and check the accuracy of the
temperature setting.) To keep bacteria in check, the refrigerator should run at
40 degrees F, the freezer unit at 0 degrees F. A good general rule to follow is to keep
the refrigerator as cold as possible without freezing milk or lettuce.
If you don’t plan to use it within a few days, freeze fresh meat, poultry or fish.
When refrigerating raw meat, poultry or fish, be sure to place the package on a plate so
that their juices do not drip on other food. Raw juices can contain bacteria.
Always keep eggs in the refrigerator.
Preparing Food
Be sure to wash your hands in warm soapy water before preparing food and after using
the bathroom, changing diapers and handling pets.
Kitchen towels, sponges and cloths can harbor bacteria. Wash them often and replace
sponges every few weeks.
Keep raw meat, poultry and fish and their juices away from other food. For example,
after cutting up meat or poultry, be sure to wash your hands, the knife and the cutting
board in hot soapy water before you start to dice salad ingredients.
Thaw food in the microwave or in the refrigerator. Do not thaw items on the kitchen
counter. This allows bacteria to grow in the outer layers of the food before the inside
thaws. If you plan to marinate food, do it in the refrigerator, too.
Cooking Food
Thorough cooking kills harmful bacteria. If you eat meat, poultry, fish, oysters or eggs
that are raw or only partially cooked, you may be exposing yourself to bacteria that can
make you ill. This is particularly important for children, pregnant women, the elderly, and
those whose immune systems are compromised by illness or by medical treatment (for
example, chemotherapy).
Use a meat thermometer to ensure that meat and poultry are cooked to the appropriate
temperature. Check the chart at the end of this fact sheet for the proper internal cooking
temperatures for various meats and poultry.
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 6/8
DRAFT 2006
Salmonella, a bacteria that causes food poisoning, can grow inside fresh, unbroken
eggs. Be sure to cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm, not runny. Scramble eggs
to a firm texture. Avoid recipes in which eggs remain raw or only partially cooked (for
example, mousse, egg drinks, Caesar salad, etc.). Pasteurized eggs or egg substitute
can be used instead.
If you prepare and cook food ahead of time, divide large portions into small, shallow
containers and refrigerate. This ensures rapid, safe cooling.
Safe Microwaving
While microwaves are great time savers, they can leave cold spots in food. Bacteria can
survive in these spots.
Be sure to cover food with a lid or plastic wrap so steam can help to promote thorough
cooking. Vent plastic wrap and make sure it doesn't touch the food.
Stir and rotate food for even cooking. If your microwave does not have a turntable,
rotate the dish by hand once or twice during the cooking time.
Observe the standing time called for in a recipe or on package directions. During the
standing time, the food finishes cooking.
Use an oven temperature probe or a meat thermometer to check that food is done. Be
sure to check several spots.
Serving Food
Never leave perishable food unrefrigerated for more than two hours. Bacteria that can
cause food poisoning grow quickly at warm temperatures.
Always use clean dishes and utensils to serve food, not those you used to prepare the
food. If you grill food, serve it on a clean plate, not on the one that held the raw meat,
poultry or fish.
Pack lunches in insulated carriers with a cold pack. Be sure your children know not to
leave lunches in direct sunlight or on warm radiators.
Carry picnic food in a cooler with a cold pack. Try to keep the cooler in the shade and
do not open the lid any more than is necessary.
If you have a party, keep cold food on ice or keep refrigerated until time to replenish
platters. If serving hot food, maintain it at 140 degrees F or divide into smaller serving
platters, which can be refrigerated until time to warm them up for serving.
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 7/8
DRAFT 2006
Handling Leftovers
Divide large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow containers for quick cooling in the
refrigerator. Don't pack the refrigerator; cool air must be able to circulate to keep food
safe.
With poultry or other stuffed meats, remove stuffing and refrigerate it in a separate
container.
Reheating Food
Bring sauces, soups and gravies to a boil. Heat other leftovers thoroughly to 165
degrees F.
Microwave leftovers using a lid or vented plastic wrap to ensure thorough heating.
Keeping Food
Never taste food that looks or smells strange. Just discard it. A good rule to follow is—
When in doubt, throw it out.
Feeling Ill?
If you or a family member develops nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever or abdominal
cramps, you could have food poisoning. Sometimes, though, it is not easy to tell.
Symptoms of food-borne illnesses can appear anywhere from 30 minutes to two weeks
after eating contaminated food. Most often, people get sick four to 48 hours after eating
bad food.
Some food-borne illnesses will resolve themselves without treatment. However, if the
symptoms are severe or if the victim is very young, old, pregnant or already ill, call a
doctor or go to a nearby hospital immediately.
For more information about safety in the commercial
kitchen, visit the following Web site.
Food Service Workers Safety Guide
http://www.ccohs.ca/products/publications/food.html
Knowledge and Employability Studio
Foods
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca)
Knowledge
Background: Safe Food Handling 8/8
DRAFT 2006
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising