Voice Operated Outdoor Navigation System For Visually

Voice Operated Outdoor Navigation System For Visually
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume3Issue2- 2012
VOICE OPERATED OUTDOOR NAVIGATION
SYSTEM FOR
VISUALLY IMPAIRED PERSONS
Somnath koley#1, Ravi Mishra#2
1#
M.E (Student), Electronics & telecommunication, CSVTU
SSCET, Bhilai, India
*2
Professor
Electrical & Electronics Engg, CSVTU
SSCET, Bhilai, India
Abstract—Blind People uses white canes to aid in obstacle
detection & avoidance. Guide dogs can also be of limited
aid for finding the way to a remote location. So our goal is
to create a portable, simple less costly system that will
allow Blind peoples to travel through familiar and
unfamiliar environments without the aid of guides.
Several guidance system has been developed for vision
impaired people, but these systems tends to be expensive,
also make use of a client server approach. This Navigation
system consists of two distinct components: sensing of the
immediate environment for blind people to travel (e.g.,
obstacles and hazards) and navigating to remote
destinations beyond the immediately perceptible
environment. The paper described here focused on the
development and evaluation of a Navigation system that
makes use of GPS (the Global Positioning System), voice
and ultrasonic sensor for obstacle detection.
Keywords- GPS, Blind, Navigation,
ARM Processor, Impaired Vision, NMEA Protocol.
I. INTRODUCTION
According to survey done India is now home to the world's
largest number of blind people. Of the 37 million people
across the globe who are blind, over 15 million are from
India.[5] So in India blindness is the biggest problem. The
leading causes of blindness are cataract, uncorrected refractive
errors, glaucoma, and macular degeneration.
India’s current population is 1.22 billion. Due to
this huge population there is a lot of traffic in the road and in
today’s world no one has time even to talk with each other
especially in metro cities. So the blind people or vision
impaired person feels alone in this environment. People who
have impaired vision regularly use white canes and/or guide
dogs to assist in obstacle avoidance. Guide dogs can also be of
limited assistance for finding the way to a remote location,
known as “way finding” So our goal is to create a portable,
self-contained system that will allow visually impaired
ISSN: 2231-5381
individuals to travel through familiar and unfamiliar
environments without the assistance of guides. Several
electronic devices are currently available for providing
guidance to a remote location, but these tend to be expensive,
or make use of a Braille interface. [1]
The paper described here develops a way Navigation
system that makes use of GPS (the Global Positioning
System), voice and ultrasonic sensor for obstacle detection.
The decreasing cost of GPS units, coupled with the recent
growth in the availability of voice recognition services,
presents an opportunity to create a low cost solution. A key
priority of this system is to meet the users navigational needs
while ensuring low cost and portability. [2]
The system can advise the user where he/she is
currently located, and provide spoken directions to travel to a
remote destination. The visually impaired are at a
considerable disadvantage, for they often lack the needed
information for bypassing obstacles and hazards and have
relatively little information about landmarks, heading, and self
velocity— information that is essential to sighted individuals
navigating through familiar environments who have
knowledge of these environments or who are navigating
through unfamiliar environments on the basis of external maps
and verbal directions. GPS way finding systems are primarily
suitable for outdoor environments because the receivers are
commonly unable to perform well in an indoor environment.
Methods for relative positioning indoors include sensors using
sonar, digital tags and accelerometers. Some of the current
GPS systems make use of Braille keyboards for user input
and/or system output. However, not all vision impaired people
can read Braille.
To ensure that a navigation system will be
accessible to the greatest proportion of vision impaired
people, usability is a key focus of the project, and speech
technology was identified as a priority feature of the system.
Further, by replacing the Braille keyboard with a speech
technology, the device will be more portable and less
cumbersome to use while walking. Speech technology has
been under development for more than three decades, and
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume3Issue2- 2012
demand for this technology is expected to rise dramatically in
the near future as people access the internet using mobile
phones. Recent advances in speech recognition technology,
coupled with the advent of modern operating systems and
high powered affordable personal computers, have culminated
in the first speech recognition systems that can be deployed on
portable devices.[3],[4]
NMEA0183 Protocol. The output of GPS receiver is given to
the processor using serial communication.
In this system memory card is used to use to store the
location information and voice data. The other two important
part of the system are joystick and ultrasonic sensor. Joystick
is used for direction selection (i.e. north, south, east &
west).ultrasonic sensor is used for obstacle detection. In this
system output is in the form of voice so we are using audio
amplifier & speaker/headphone. Audio amplifier is used to
amplify the voice signal stored in the memory card so that it is
properly hearable. This amplified voice is then heard by using
speaker or headphone.
III.FLOW CHART
Flow diagram of the whole system is shown in the
figure -3.
START
Figure-1 Blind People
II. METHODOLOGY
The block diagram of main board is shown in fig.2. In this
diagram using the 32-bit ARM processor (LPC2148), this is
the heart of this project. The LPC2148 microcontrollers are
based on a 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S CPU with real-time
emulation and embedded trace support, that combine
microcontroller with embedded high speed flash memory
ranging from 32 kB to 512 kB. A 128-bit wide memory
interface and unique accelerator architecture enable 32-bit
code execution at the maximum clock rate. For critical code
size applications, the alternative 16-bit Thumb mode reduces
code by more than 30 % with minimal performance penalty.
DB-9
CONNECTOR
ARM
(LPC2148)
G
P
S
Initializing PLL, ADC,
UART, SD card and D/A
converter
Check if GPS is
connected and a data is
received
AUDIO
AMPLIFIER
(LM – 386)
AUDIO JACK
A Data
receive
d or not
SPEAKER/
HEADPHONE
MEMORY
CARD
ULTRASONIC
SENSOR
JOYSTICK
NO
Audio O/P
“connection
error”
YES
Figure -2 Block Diagram
GPS receiver is used to get the current location in the form of
longitude and latitude. Here we are using SiRFstarIII GR-301
GPS Receiver which is a low-power, ultra-high performance,
easy to use GPS receiver based on SiRF’s latest third
generation single chip. Its low power consumption and high
performance enables the adoption of AVL and other location
based applications. It supports different electrical interfaces
such as USB, RS232, TTL etc. GPS receiver supports
ISSN: 2231-5381
STOP
YES
Power
Supply
MAX 3232
NO
POWER
ON
Wait for Joy Stick press
Play
East.mp
3
EAST
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WEST
WEST
Check
Joystic
k
A
Play
West.m
p3
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume3Issue2- 2012
IV. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
B
B
NORTH
Play
North.
mp3
SOUTH
Check
Joystick
Status
Play
South.
mp3
B
B
B
1.MICROCONTROLLER
Controller used will be ARM LPC2148 which is
based on 32/16 bitARM7TDMI-S CPU with real-time
emulation and embedded trace support that combines the
microcontroller with embedded high speed flash memory
ranging from 32 kB to 512 kB. It has many important features
like. 16/32-bit ARM7 microcontroller in a tiny package. It has
on-chip static RAM and on-chip flash program memory. It
offers real-time debugging and high speed tracing of
instruction execution. USB 2.0 Full Speed compliant Device
Controller.10 bit A/D converters. Multiple serial interfaces
including two UARTs. Low cost, low consumption, easy
handling and flexibility. These features make controller
reliable for the project.[7]
2. AUDIO AMPLIFIER (LM -386)
Get Latitude &
Longitude from GPS
The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low
voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20
to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external
resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the
gain to any value from 20 to 200. The inputs are ground
referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half
the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24
milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the
LM386 ideal for battery operation.[8]
Compare Latitude & Longitude w.r.t
direction from CSV file on the SD card
and find Location
3. GPS Receiver (SiRFstarIII GR-301)
Playback Location.mp3
YES
If U.S =1
Obstacle
detected Play
warning mp3
NO
A
Figure -3 Flow Chart
NaviSys GR-301 is a low-power, ultra-high performance, easy
to use GPS receiver based on SiRF’s latest third generation
single chip. Its low power consumption and high performance
enables the adoption of AVL and other location based
applications. It supports different electrical interfaces such as
USB, RS232, TTL etc. The connector interface and cable
length could also be customized based on MOQ. The standard
NMEA0183 outputs data using datum of WGS-84.[10]
The GPS units are designed to meet NMEA
requirements. The GPS receiver provides data in NMEA 0183
format with a 1Hz update rate. Data formatted according to
this protocol consist of a sequence of ASCII characters,
subdivided in different sentences Identified by their first six
characters: the '$' symbol; followed by the talker ID, which is
always GP for GPS receivers; and the sentence ID. NMEA
0183 devices are designated as either talkers or listeners (with
some devices being both), employing an asynchronous serial
interface with the following parameters:[6]
Baud rate: 4800
Number of data bits: 8 (bit 7 is 0)
Stop bits: 1 (or more)
Parity: none
Handshake: none
The various formats of NMEA messages are:
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume3Issue2- 2012
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
GGA which indicates Time, position and fix type
data.
GLL which indicates Latitude, longitude, UTC time
of position fix and status.
GSA which indicates GPS receiver operating mode,
satellites used in the position solution and DOP
values.
GSV which indicates the number of GPS satellites in
view satellite ID numbers, elevation, azimuth, and
SNR values.
MSS which indicates Signal-to-noise ratio, signal
strength, frequency, and bit rate from a radio-beacon
receiver.
RMC which indicates Time, date, position, course
and speed data.
VTG which indicates Course and speed information
relative to the ground.
ZDA which indicates PPS timing message
(synchronized to PPS)
The identifier is followed by the sequence of the actual data
fields delimited by a comma. The terminal character an
asterisk is followed by a checksum value. GPS sentences
beginning with the following specifications: $GPGGA,
$GPGSA, $GPGSV, $GPRMC, and $GPVTG. And sentences
also begins with $GPMSS, $GPZDA as shown in [table 1].
A common NMEA Sentence used for location is:
$GPRMC,161229.487,A,3723.2475,N,12158.3416,W,0.13,30
9.62,120598, ,*10
GPRMC,021709.000,A,3717.6077,N,12658.6237,E,2.14,17.0
3,280907,,,A
$GPGGA,002153.000,3342.6618,N,11751.3858,W,1,10,1.2,2
7.0,M,-34.2,M,,0000*5E
$GPGLL, 3723.2475, N,12158.3416,W,161229.487,A,A*41
Name
Example
Unit
Description
Message
ID
$GPGGA
GGA protocol
header
UTC
Time
Latitude
002153.000
hhmmss.sss
3342.6618
ddmm.mmmm
N/S
Indicator
N
N=north or
S=south
Longitude
11751.3858
dddmm.mmmm
E/W
Indicator
W
E=east or
W=west
Position
Fix
Indicator
Satellites
Used
HDOP
1
MSL
Altitude
Units
27.0
meters
M
meters
Geoid
Separation
-34.2
meters
Units
M
meters
10
Range 0 to 12
1.2
Horizontal
Dilution of
Precision
Age of
Diff. Corr.
Diff. Ref.
Station ID
Checksum
sec
Geoid-toellipsoid
separation.
Ellipsoid
altitude = MSL
Altitude +
Geoid
Separation.
Null fields when
DGPS is not
used
0000
*5E
End of message
termination
<CR>
<LF>
TABLE- 1 field description
The $GPGGA sentence has other information Including
Latitude, Longitude and Altitude. Another $GPRMC sentence
has information that includes Speed.
4. GH-311Ultrasound Motion Sensor
The GH-311 ultrasonic Motion sensor provides precise, noncontact distance measurements from about 2 cm (0.8 inches)
to 3 meters (3.3 yards). It is very easy to connect to
microcontrollers such as the BASIC Stamp®, SX or Propeller
chip, requiring only one I/O pin. The GH-311 sensor works
by transmitting an ultrasonic (well above human hearing
range) burst and providing an output pulse that corresponds to
the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By
measuring the echo pulse width, the distance to target can
easily be calculated.[9]
V.RESULT & DISCUSSION
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume3Issue2- 2012
Complete system as shown in fig.4 contains complete
connection of 32-bit ARM processor along with GPS system,
ultrasonic sensor & joystick.
Figure.4 complete system
The voice data & GSV file stored in the memory card is
shown in the fig below.
Figure.5 Data inside memory card.
Fig shows that GSV file contains the latitude & longitude and
the place related to it
through hyper terminal. The GPS receiver in this project
supports NMEA protocol and out of the different NMEA
messages we are using GPRMC string in our project .Joystick
is used for direction selection. The voice output and the GSV
file are stored in memory card.
VI.CONCLUSION
As we have discussed that India is now home to the world's
largest number of blind people and India’s current population
is over 1.22 billion. Earlier majority of visually impaired
people prefer to not use electronic aids, and use only canes or
guide dogs. The underlying reasons for this include the
relatively high costs and relatively poor levels of user
satisfaction associated with existing electronic systems. So we
tried to develop a low cost and user friendly system for blind
people with greatest possible accuracy. In this project we have
used ARM processor which contains more memory and its
operating speed is high. We have use ultrasonic sensor for
obstacle detection instead of white cane. We guide or navigate
the blind people using voice. However, there are still
limitations of our system. Our system cannot work indoors
because no signals can be received from the GPS navigation
system. On the other hand, the accuracy of the signals from
the GPS navigation system still needs to improve although we
can control it within 5 meters. Further, the users often need to
learn for a period of time to trust the system and more
evaluation of the system in the real situation is required.
Therefore, future work lies in how to improve user trust in
terms of its accuracy of perceiving environmental information
as well as the user interface. For example, how to improve its
accuracy of the GPS signals and provide explanation to the
user rather than descriptive information on how to navigate in
real situations.
REFRENCES
[1] 2009, Bruce Moulton, Gauri Pradhan, Zenon Chaczko,” Voice Operated
Guidance Systems for Vision Impaired People: Investigating a User-Centered
Open Source Model”, International Journal of Digital Content Technology
and its Applications, Volume 3 Number 4, December :pp 60-68.
[2] 1999, K.Magatani, K.Yanashima et al. "The Navigation System for the
Visually Impaired",Proceedings of the First Joint BMES/EMBS Conference,
652 .
[3] 2000,H.Yamasaki, K.Magatani et al. "Development of the Navigation
System for the Visually Impaired", Proc. Of the World Congress on Medical
Physics and Biomedical Engineering, WE-A305-01 .
[4] 2008, Sakmongkon Chumkamon, Peranitti Tuvaphanthaphiphat, Phongsak
Keeratiwintakorn, A Blind Navigation System Using RFID for Indoor
Environments, Proceedings of ECTI-CON:765-768.
[5]http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2007-1011/india/27977420_1_avoidable-blindness ophthalmologists-eye-diseases.
[6] http://www.nmea.org/0183.
[7]http://www.keil.com/dd/docs/datashts/philips/lpc2141_42_44_46_48.pdf.
[8] http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm386.pdf.
Fig 6 GSV file.
A voice operated GPS based navigation system has been
developed in this thesis. The ultrasonic sensor is used for
obstacle detection. In comparison with the existing systems,
this system has a high speed processor LPC2148. We have
tested GPS by checking the output message stream in pc
ISSN: 2231-5381
[9] http://www.united77.com/Ultrasonic.pdf.
[10]http://sup.xenya.si/sup/info/navisys/Navisys_GR-301_DS-06192008.pdf.
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