Cessna L19 Bird Dog Aircraft Operating Instructions

Cessna L19 Bird Dog Aircraft Operating Instructions
Cessna L19 Bird Dog
Aircraft Operating Instructions
OPI – RCA Ops (Pac)
Version 4.1
11 February 2011
RECORD OF REVISION
Version
Number
Revision
Date
Change
1.0
01 Jun 05
Revision - Full Issue
N/A
2.0
01 Jun 06
Limited Revision
N/A
3.0
01 Jun 08
Revision – Full Issue
N/A
4.0
26 Nov 10
Revision – Full Issue
N/A
4.1
11 Feb 11
Revision – Full Issue
N/A
1
Amendments Entered
Date
Entered By
NOTES TO USERS
AUTHORITY
1.
This document is an official Canadian Forces Publication.
2.
This Aircraft Operating Instruction (AOI) is issued in compliance with the
Canadian Forces Operational Airworthiness Manual, B-GA-104-000/FP-001. It is the
authoritative document for operation of the L19 Bird Dog within the Canadian Forces Air
Cadet Gliding Program (ACGP) in Pacific Region. It consolidates all relevant data and
information including the following:
a.
all relevant data from the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) for the model
years in use;
b.
all placard data from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM);
c.
relevant data associated with the various Supplemental Type Certificates
for modifications incorporated on the aircraft;
d.
relevant information from other OEM publications; and
e.
procedures and performance data unique to ACGP operations that have
been validated through Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E)
conducted by Regional Cadet Air Operations (Pacific).
APPLICABILITY
2.
These Aircraft Operating Instructions (AOI) and the associated Pilot’s Checklist
pertain exclusively to Cessna L19 Bird Dog aircraft as modified for operation in the Air
Cadet Gliding Program in Pacific Region.
Identification
Number
Tug 4
Tug 5
Tug 6
Tug 7
Aircraft
Registration
C-FTGA
C-GKNK
C-GRGS
C-FTAL
Model
A
A
A
C
Year of
Manufacture
1954
1953
1952
1956
3.
There are some configuration differences between the L19 “A” Model and L19”C”
Model. Unless otherwise indicated, information provided is applicable to both Models.
Any information unique to either Model is highlighted as such in this publication.
2
STRUCTURE
4.
This AOI is divided into four Parts and one Annex:
a.
PART I – GENERAL DESCRIPTION – describes and illustrates the
controls, systems and equipment with which the pilot should be familiar.
b.
PART II – NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURES – describes the normal
handling of the aircraft by the pilot.
c.
PART III – EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES – details the
emergency handling of the aircraft by the pilot.
d.
PART IV – OPERATING DATA AND LIMITATIONS – gives the flying and
engine limitations and includes information on fuel consumption, range,
and endurance under various conditions of flight.
f.
ANNEX A - PILOT’S GUIDE – GARMIN GNC-25-XL – OEM manual for
GPS/COM radio
5
As a general rule, words written in capital letters throughout the text indicate
actual markings on the controls concerned.
REVISION PROCESS
6.
This publication is subject to annual review and revision. Comments and
suggestions for changes to this publication should be forwarded in writing to the
Regional Cadet Air Operations Officer (Pacific).
3
CAUTIONARY INFORMATION
7.
Where appropriate, cautionary information is provided. Such information will be
preceded by a highlighted header of Danger, Warning, Caution, or Note. These
headers are defined as follows:
DANGER
To draw attention to a condition that poses an extreme,
violent and continuous hazard to human life.
WARNING
To emphasize operating procedures, practices, etc, which, if
not correctly followed, could result in personal injury or loss
of life.
CAUTION
To emphasize operating procedures, practices, etc, which, if
not correctly followed, could result in damage to or
destruction of equipment or legal claims or actions against
the crown.
NOTE
To point out a procedure, event or practice which it is
desirable or essential to highlight.
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I – GENERAL DESCRIPTION
GENERAL..................................................................................
Aircraft Dimensions and Weights..............................
Tank Capacities...........................................................
10
10
10
AIRFRAME................................................................................
General Layout ……………………………………………
Windows.......................................................................
Cabin Door...................................................................
Pilot Seat .....................................................................
Rear Seat......................................................................
Safety Belts and Harnesses.......................................
Baggage Compartment...............................................
11
11
15
15
16
16
16
16
FLIGHT CONTROLS.................................................................
General ……………………………………………………..
Control Columns ………………………………………….
Rudder Pedals …………………………………………….
Elevator Trim...............................................................
Control Lock / Parking Brake ………………………….
Wing Flaps...................................................................
Wing Flap Position Indicator ……………………………
17
17
17
17
18
18
19
19
LANDING GEAR.......................................................................
General …………………………………………………….
Tail Wheel Steering ………………………………………
Brakes .........................................................................
Parking Brake.............................................................
20
20
20
20
20
POWER UNIT............................................................................
Engine..........................................................................
Propeller......................................................................
Engine Controls ………………………………………….
Throttle Control …………………………………………..
Mixture Control …………………………………………..
Air Induction and Carburettor Heat …………………..
Engine Cooling …………………………………………….
Oil System....................................................................
Ignition System............................................................
Exhaust System...........................................................
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
23
23
24
24
5
FUEL SYSTEM ……………………………………………………....
General..........................................................................
Fuel Capacity ..............................................................
Fuel Specifications and Grade .................................
Fuel Quantity Indicators ............................................
Fuel Selector Valve ……............................................
Primer ……………………............................................
Fuel Boost Pump ……….............................................
Fuel Pressure Gauge .................................................
Fuel Drain Valves …….................................................
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
27
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM..............................................................
General ……..................................................................
External Power ............................................................
Battery Switch .............................................................
Alternator …..................................................................
Starter ………….............................................................
Circuit Breakers ...........................................................
Voltage Regulator ........................................................
Digital Voltmeter / Ammeter .......................................
Alternator Warning Light ...........................................
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
30
31
LIGHTING SYSTEMS..................................................................
Landing / Taxi Lights ...................................................
Pulse Lights ……..........................................................
Navigation Lights .......................................................
Strobe Lights ..............................................................
Instrument Lighting ...................................................
Map Light …………........................................................
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM................................... 33
General.......................................................................... 33
Cabin Heat..................................................................... 33
Defrost and Pilot Heat................................................... 33
Cabin Ventilation ............................................................ 33
INSTRUMENTS........................................................................... 34
Pitot Static System....................................................... 34
Vacuum System............................................................ 34
Flight Instruments ………………………………………… 35
Engine Instruments ……………………………………….. 36
Stall Warning System................................................... 37
Clock ………………........................................................ 37
AVIONICS....................................................................................
Mic Buttons ..................................................................
Intercom System …………………………………………..
GPS/COM........................................................................
Transponder...................................................................
ELT..................................................................................
6
37
37
37
38
39
40
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT................................................
Glider Tow Hook............................................................
Tow Mirrors....................................................................
Refuelling Steps ............................................................
Tie Down Rings .............................................................
Fuselage Lift Handles ...................................................
Map Case …...................................................................
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
SAFETY EQUIPMENT.................................................................
Door Release Handle ……………………………………
Fire Extinguisher...........................................................
Life Preservers...............................................................
First Aid Kit.....................................................................
Carbon Monoxide Detector...........................................
42
42
42
42
42
42
PART II – NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
GENERAL.................................................................................... 43
PRE-FLIGHT/DAILY INSPECTION............................................
Pre-External Inspection ……………………..……...…..
External Inspection ……………………..……...…….....
Before Flight Inspection …………………………….....
43
43
44
47
PRE-START CHECK................................................................... 48
STARTING...................................................................................
Start................................................................................
Pre-Taxi..........................................................................
Taxi.................................................................................
49
49
51
51
GROUND OPERATIONS............................................................ 52
RUN-UP....................................................................................... 54
PRE-TAKEOFF............................................................................ 55
TAKEOFF.....................................................................................
Normal Takeoff ……………...….……………..……...…..
Short Field Takeoff …………………….……..……...…..
Soft / Rough Field Takeoff ……………………..…...…..
Crosswind Takeoff ………………………..……..…...…..
Post Takeoff ……………………………..………..…...…..
56
56
57
58
58
59
CLIMB PROFILES........................................................................ 59
CRUISE ....................................................................................... 60
Cruise Profiles ……………...….……………..……...….. 60
Level Off / Cruise ………...…………….……..……...….. 60
7
FLIGHT MANOEUVRES / FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS .........
Turns ……………………..…...….……………..……...…..
Slow Flight ………...…………………….……..……...…..
Stalls ………...………..………………….……..……...…..
Stall Recoveries …………………………………………...
Spins …………….....…………………….……..……...…..
Spiral Dives ………...………………….……..……...…..
Side Slips ………...………….………….……..……...…..
61
61
61
61
62
62
63
64
PRE-STALL CHECK..................................................................
64
DESCENT……………………………………………...................... 64
TRAFFIC PATTERN …………………......................................... 65
FINAL APPROACH …………………........................................... 65
LANDING ....................................................................................
General ……………...….……………………………...…..
Normal Landing ………...…………….……..…..…...…..
Short Field Landing ………...………..……..…..…...…..
Soft / Rough Field Landing ………...………….…...…..
Crosswind Landing ………...…………….……..…...…..
Overshoot ………...…………….……..…..…………...…..
66
66
67
67
68
69
70
CONTINUOUS CIRCUIT OPERATIONS .................................... 71
Touch and Go Landings ……………………………...….. 71
Stop and Go Landings ..……………………………...….. 71
POST LANDING CHECK ........................................................... 72
SHUTDOWN CHECK ................................................................. 72
MANAGEMENT OF ANCILLARY CONTROLS ........................ 73
Mixture Control ………...…………….……..…..…...….. 73
Carburettor Heat ………...………..……..…………...….. 73
FUEL MANAGEMENT ……………………………........................ 74
GLIDER TOWING OPERATIONS................................................ 76
Aircraft Performance on Tow ………...…..………...….. 76
Prior to First Tow ………...…………….……..……...….. 76
Continuous Towing Operations …..…..…………...….. 76
Takeoff with Glider on Tow ………...….…………...….. 77
Glider Towing ……………………………………………… 77
Glider Release ………...…………….……..…..….,,...….. 78
Descent After Release ………...…………..…….…...….. 78
Approach and Landing ………...………,,..…….…...….. 78
Cross Country Towing Operations ……..…….…...….. 79
SEVERE WEATHER OPERATIONS ........................................
Rain ………...…..………………………………….…...…..
Icing Conditions ………...…………….……..……...…..
Turbulence and Thunderstorms ………...………...…..
80
80
80
80
COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS................................................ 81
8
PART III – EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES
GENERAL....................................................................................
Priorities.........................................................................
Non-Critical Emergencies ............................................
Critical Emergencies ....................................................
82
82
82
82
NON-CRITICAL EMERGENCIES................................................
Alternator Failure ……………………….........................
Low Oil Pressure...........................................................
Low Fuel Pressure ........................................................
Split Flap ……….............................................................
83
83
84
84
85
CRITICAL EMERGENCIES.........................................................
Engine Fire on Start / on Ground.................................
In-flight Fires.................................................................
Engine Failures.............................................................
Forced Landing/Ditching..............................................
86
86
87
89
91
PART IV – OPERATING DATA AND LIMITATIONS
GENERAL.................................................................................... 92
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS.....................................................
Weight Limitations........................................................
Engine Limitations........................................................
Airspeed Limitations.....................................................
Normal Operating Airspeeds.......................................
Stall Speeds………………….........................................
Airspeed Correction Chart...........................................
92
92
92
94
95
95
96
FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS............................................................. 97
General ......................................................................... 97
Flight Load Factors………............................................ 97
PERFORMANCE DATA.............................................................. 97
Takeoff Speeds …………………………………................ 97
Takeoff Distance ........................................................... 98
Climb Performance ……………………………………….. 99
Cruise Performance Data.............................................. 100
Landing Speeds ………………………………................. 104
Landing Distances ………............................................ 105
WEIGHT AND BALANCE............................................................ 106
ANNEX A – PILOT’S GUIDE – GARMIN GNC-250XL
9
PART I
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
GENERAL
1.
The L19 is an all-metal, tandem, two-place high-wing monoplane. It was
developed for the military as a multipurpose aircraft designed primarily for
reconnaissance / observation. Its common military designation was L-19 “Birddog”,
but it is also known by the military designator O-1 and by the civilian designator
Cessna 305. Several variants of the aircraft were produced, and RCA Ops (Pac)
operates the L19A and L19C model aircraft.
2.
This aircraft does not have a certified Pilot Operating Handbook (POH). This AOI
incorporates OEM placard data, supplemental POH data associated with the various
Supplemental Type Certificates incorporated and additional relevant information from
Cessna Company publications.
Aircraft Dimensions and Weights
Length
25 ft 9 ½ in
Wingspan
36 ft
Height
7 ft 6 in
Maximum All Up Weight – L19 ”A”
2300 lbs
Maximum All Up Weight – L19 “C”
2400 lbs
Basic Empty Weight
IAW Aircraft Weight and Balance Record
Table 1-1 Aircraft Dimensions and Weights
Fuel Tank Capacities
Main Tank
Auxiliary Tank
Total
Total Fuel
Useable Fuel
Litres
US Gal
Litres
US Gal
77.6
20.5
68.1
18.00
77.6
20.5
68.1
18.00
155.2
41.0
136.2
36.00
Table 1-2 Fuel Tank Capacities
Oil Capacities
Quarts / Litres
Max Oil Capacity
10 / 9.5
Normal Oil Level
8-9 / 7.6-8.5
Minimum Oil Level
8 / 8.5
Table 1-3 Oil Capacity
10
AIRFRAME
General Layout
3.
Exterior and interior layout is detailed in Figures 1-1 through 1-4.
Figure 1-1 General Arrangement
11
Figure 1-2 Cockpit Layout – Left Side
1. Fuel Selector Valve
2. Main Fuel Tank Gauge
3. Tow Release Handle
4. Map Light
5. Fresh Air Vent
6. Front Throttle Quadrant
7 . Front Shoulder Harness Lock
8. Elevator Trim Control Wheel
9. Circuit Breaker Panel
10. Rear Throttle Quadrant
11. Rear Shoulder Harness Lock
12. Rear Radio Transmit Switch
13. Rear Flap Switch
12
Figure 1-3 Cockpit Layout – Right Side
1. Fresh Air Vent
2. Deleted
3. Auxiliary Fuel Tank Gauge
4. Deleted
5. Rear Control Column Storage
6. Door/Window Handle
7. Map Case
8. Emergency Door Jettison Handle
13
4
2
3
5
6
22
27
14
7
1
26
8
25
11
24
23
21
20
19
18
17
9
10
15
12
16
13
28
28
29
30
Figure 1- 4 Cockpit Layout - Front
1. Clock
2. Air Speed Indicator
3. Attitude Indicator
4. Alternator Warning Light
5. Altimeter
6. Engine RPM
7. Oil Temperature Gauge
8. Oil Pressure Gauge
9. Volt/Ammeter
10. ELT Switch
11. Fuel Pressure Gauge
12. Suction Gauge
13. Transponder
14. Cylinder Head Temperature
15. Fuel Boost Pump
16. Battery Master Switch
17. Alternator Switch
18. Magneto Switch
19. Starter Button
20. Radio Master Switch
21. Intercom Panel
22. Directional Indicator
23. Landing/Taxi Light Switch
24. Engine Fuel Primer Switch
25. Nav/Com Panel
26. Turn and Slip Indicator
27. Vertical Speed Indicator
28. Rudder Pedals
29. Fuel Pump
30. Fire Extinguisher
14
Windows
4.
In addition to the cabin door, there are two moveable windows in the cabin area.
The window adjacent to the pilot on the left side of the aircraft is hinged at the top and
opens out and up. To open this window, turn the handle counter-clockwise until the
window swings free. A catch is mounted on the lower surface on the left wing for
securing the window in the open position.
5.
The rear right window opens in and up. To open, turn the DZUS fasteners on the
window frame a half-turn counter-clockwise. A canvas strap, which hangs from the
cabin ceiling, holds this window open. The strap is fitted with a snap fastener, which
engages a snap fastener on the window. The left hand rear window is prevented from
opening by the tow release cable and wire bundles.
WARNING
Maximum allowable airspeed with window(s) open is 120 MPH.
NOTE
Use only cleaner/polishing products certified for use on
acrylic plastic to clean the windscreen or windows. Apply
with micro fibre or flannel cloth
Cabin Door
6.
The cabin door is mounted on the right side of the aircraft for entrance and exit.
The door is composed of two sections. The upper section is a window, hinged on the
top edge that opens, up and out. The lower section is hinged along the forward edge.
Handles are provided on both the inside and outside of the lower door section. To open
the window section of the door the handle is rotated down approximately 60 degrees
until the window swings free. The window can be held open by engaging a catch
located on the under surface of the wing. Rotate the handle further until the door is
unlatched. The door will now swing forward until it contacts a stop located on the right
hand wing strut.
CAUTION
Do not slam the door to close it, as this can damage the
latching mechanism. The door is closed by smoothly and
firmly pulling it shut.
15
Pilots Seat
7.
The pilot’s seat is mounted on two rails in the forward section of the cabin. A
seat adjustment lever is provided below the right side of the pilot’s seat. The pilot’s seat
may be adjusted fore or aft by raising the lever up, sliding the seat to the desired
position, releasing the lever, and moving the seat fore and aft a short distance until the
seat locking pins engage in the holes in the seat rails. The seat position shall be
adjusted prior to engine start.
WARNING
If the seat retaining pins are not positively locked in position,
the seat may suddenly move aft when power is applied
resulting in possible loss of aircraft control.
Rear Seat
8.
The rear-seat backrest is removable and it can be installed in either the fore or
aft position moving the pilot approximately four inches further forward or aft. It is
normally installed in the aft position.
Safety Belts and Harnesses
9.
A safety belt and shoulder harness with associated locking mechanism mounted
under the floor aft of each seat is provided for both front and rear seats. A two-position
(LOCKED and UNLOCKED) shoulder harness lock lever is located on the left cabin wall
adjacent to each seat. A latch is provided for positively retaining the lever at either
position of the quadrant. By pressing down on the top of the lever, the latch is released
and the lever may be moved freely from one position to the other. The inertia reel will
automatically lock with the application of approximately 2-3g of forward acceleration.
Baggage Compartment
10.
A baggage compartment is located behind the rear seat. Maximum weight limit
for this area is 100 lbs. The baggage compartment is accessible over the rear seat
CAUTION
Ensure that any items stowed in the baggage compartment
are properly secured prior to flight.
16
FLIGHT CONTROLS
General
11.
The aircraft is equipped with conventional flight controls that can be operated
from both the front and rear cockpit.
Control Columns
12.
The elevator and aileron surfaces are operated by conventional movement of
either one of the two control columns. The rear control column is removable by pulling
out a control column release knob and lifting the control column from its socket. Two
clips for storage of the rear control column are mounted on the right rear window ledge.
WARNING
The rear control column must be removed for solo flight.
When installing the rear control column, the slot at the base
of the control column must face aft, and ensure that the
locking pin is engaged.
Rudder Pedals
13.
Two sets of rudder pedals are provided to mechanically operate the rudder and
the steerable tail wheel.
14.
The front pedals are located just aft of the firewall adjacent to the cabin floor and
are equipped with brake-system master cylinders.
15.
The rear pedals are located just aft of the front seat and can be folded flat on the
floor by pulling up on the locking pin of each pedal and pushing the pedals down and
aft. In this position, the pedals do not interfere with the normal operation of the front
rudder pedals. The pedals can be raised to the operating position by pulling them up
and forward. Toe pressure on these pedals is mechanically transmitted to the front
pedals, which will, in turn, hydraulically actuate the main wheel brakes.
WARNING
The rear rudder pedals must be stowed for solo flight.
WARNING
If not properly secured by the locking pins the rear rudder
pedals may fold when foot pressure is applied resulting in
loss of rudder control from the rear seat.
17
Elevator Trim
16.
An elevator trim-tab control wheel (Figure 1-2) is located on the left cabin wall.
The tab control wheel is mechanically connected to the elevator tab by chains, cables,
and a screw-jack actuator. A tab position indicator is incorporated to indicate the trim
tab position. The indicator is labelled NOSE UP, NOSE DN, and TAKE OFF.
Control Lock / Parking Brake
17.
A simple, positive control lock for rudder, elevators and ailerons is located on the
cabin floor in front of the forward control column. The lock is a welded U shaped tube
that pivots inside the front rudder pedal torque tubes. The controls are locked and
parking brakes are set simultaneously, by raising the U-tube and placing the locking pin,
fixed to the front of the control column, into the hole on the underside of the tube. To
unlock the controls and release the parking brake, lift the tube from the locking pin and
lower the tube to the cockpit floor.
Figure 1- 5 Control Lock / Parking Brake
CAUTION
When parking the aircraft with control locks engaged for an
extended period, ensure that the aircraft wheels are
chocked. Reliance on the parking brake when the aircraft is
unattended could result in aircraft movement in the unlikely
event that brake pressure is lost.
18
Wing Flaps
18.
Single-slotted, electrically actuated high-lift flaps extend from the fuselage to the
aileron on each wing. Two separate wing-flap switches located in the front and rear
cockpits control the flaps. The wing flaps can be moved electrically to any setting
between 0 and 60 degrees, and locked in that position by releasing the switch and
allowing it to return to OFF. When either the up or down flap limits are reached, the flap
actuator motor is automatically turned off by limit switches.
NOTE
In some circumstances where the flaps are selected DOWN
to 10 degrees or less, the up limit switch may prevent
activation of the flap motor when the flaps are subsequently
selected UP. Should this occur, simply lower the flaps an
additional 5-10 degrees, and then re-select the flaps UP.
19.
The front cockpit has a three-position, spring-loaded wing flap switch mounted on
the window ledge adjacent to the engine control quadrant (Figure 1-6). The switch
positions are labelled FLAPS UP (forward) and FLAPS DOWN (aft). The centre position
of the switch is the OFF position.
20.
The rear cockpit switch is a four-position spring-loaded and guarded switch
installed on the left hand side of the rear cockpit window ledge (Figure 1-2). When the
switch is moved from the NORMAL (down and guarded) position, to the OFF (unguarded
and up) position, power to the flap selector switch in the front cockpit is cut off. The rear
cockpit pilot is then able to adjust the flaps to the desired setting by moving the switch to
either the FLAPS UP or FLAPS DOWN position. The rear cockpit flap switch should
remain in the NORMAL position when not in use.
CAUTION
The rear cockpit flap switch must be in the NORMAL
position for solo flight.
Wing Flap Position Indicator
21.
The position of the flaps can be ascertained by looking at the markings on the
rear cockpit window frame. There are witness marks at 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees
and flaps can be selected at these settings or any setting in between.
19
LANDING GEAR
General
22.
The aircraft is equipped with a conventional landing gear system consisting of a
fixed main landing gear and a steerable tail wheel:
a. the main landing gear incorporates a single tapered spring-steel leaf
supporting each main wheel;
b. the tail wheel is supported by a multi-leaf spring. The tail wheel steering arms
are connected to the rudder by flexible cables and springs, and steering is
controlled through normal operation of the rudder pedals; and
c. tire inflation pressures are 21 psi (main wheels) and 35 psi (tail wheel).
Tail Wheel Steering
23.
The tail wheel is steerable through an arc of 16 degrees each side of neutral.
Beyond this travel the tail wheel becomes free swivelling.
CAUTION
If the tail wheel is allowed to turn through 16 degrees or more,
the tail wheel unlocks and the tail will swing rapidly as the
main wheels are ahead of the centre of gravity. Care should
be taken to avoid this condition developing into a ground loop.
Brakes
24.
Hydraulic brakes on the main wheels are conventionally operated by applying toe
pressure to the top of either front or rear rudder pedals. The rotation of the pedals
actuates the hydraulic brake cylinders, resulting in a braking action on the main wheels.
Parking Brake
25.
Engaging the control lock sets the parking brake (see Figure 1-5)
20
POWER UNIT
Engine
26.
The aircraft power plant is a Teledyne-Continental O-470-11, six-cylinder,
horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine with a pressure carburettor. At the maximum
allowable engine speed of 2600 RPM, the engine is capable of developing 213 HP for a
maximum of 5 minutes. Maximum continuous operation is limited to 2300 RPM where
the engine is capable of generating 190 HP.
Propeller
27.
The aircraft is normally equipped with a fixed-pitch McCauley two bladed, all
metal propeller 90 in. in diameter. A Hoffman four bladed, wooden propeller is also
certified as an alternate configuration.
CAUTION
When configured with the Hoffman propeller, Vne is reduced
to 150 MPH. Care must also be taken to ensure that propeller
speed does not exceed 2600 RPM.
NOTE
The Hoffman propeller does provide some reduction in noise
levels, but takeoff & climb performance are adversely affected.
Engine Controls
28.
The engine controls consist of a throttle, mixture lever, and carburettor heat
lever- mounted on each of two quadrants. The front quadrant is located on the left side
of the fuselage slightly forward of the front seat. The rear quadrant is located in a
similar position just forward of the rear seat. These quadrants are mechanically interconnected to provide simultaneous control of the engine from either cockpit.
Figure 1-6 Engine Control Quadrant
21
Throttle Control
29.
The throttle is the outboard lever on each quadrant and is mechanically
connected to the carburetor by a flexible push-pull type cable. The full forward position
of the throttle is OPEN and the full aft position is CLOSED.
Mixture Control
30.
The mixture lever is the centre lever on each quadrant. These levers enable the pilot
to regulate the fuel-air mixture to the engine to obtain efficient engine operation and
maximum fuel economy at cruise. The RICH position is full forward, full aft is IDLE CUTOFF (ICO). Manual leaning is accomplished by placing the lever between the RICH and
ICO positions. The mixture lever on the front quadrant is equipped with a spring-loaded
lock. When either mixture lever is moved forward, the lock is automatically released.
However, before either mixture lever can be moved aft, the lock on the front quadrant must
be released by pressing forward on the lock lever. When pulled full aft, to the ICO position,
the mixture lever shuts off all fuel flow at the carburettor to stop the engine.
Air Induction and Carburettor Heat
31.
The carburettor heat lever is the inboard lever on each quadrant. The carburettor
heat positions are labelled COLD (forward) and HOT (aft). When the lever is in the COLD
position, cold air is admitted to the carburettor through the air intake scoop and air filter on
the front lower side of the cowl. When the lever is moved to the HOT position, a gate valve
closes off the cold-air intake opening from the carburettor. With the gate valve closed, a
partial vacuum is created in the carburettor air box, causing a spring-loaded valve to
automatically open, thereby admitting unfiltered hot air from around the cylinders to the
carburettor. If the engine should backfire when the lever is in the HOT position, the springloaded valve in the carburettor air box will automatically close, causing the gate valve to be
forced slightly open, allowing the backfire gases to escape past the gate valve and through
the carburettor air filter. Figure 1-7 illustrates system operation.
CAUTION
The carburettor heat lever should be set only in the full
COLD or full HOT positions. DO NOT use any intermediate
positions. With the lever in an intermediate position, the gate
valve in the carburettor air box is partially closed, restricting
the entrance of cold filtered air into the carburetor. However,
unless the gate valve is completely closed, the partial
vacuum produced in the carburetor air box is not adequate to
open the spring-loaded valve, which permits the entrance of
heated air into the air induction system. This results in the
engine putting out less power because it is not getting its
normal air supply.
22
Figure 1-7 Air Induction System
Engine Cooling
32.
Engine cooling is primarily by means of ram air entering the front of the cowling
and is then directed through and around the cylinders and oil cooler by baffles and then
exhausted through the lower aft edge of the cowling.
Oil System
33.
The engine oil supply system consists of a cooler, pump, sump, air/oil separator
on the crankcase breather line and interconnecting hoses. The sump serves as an oil
tank at the bottom of the engine. The filler neck is located on the left rear side of the
engine. The filler cap is a twist-type, which is attached to the filler neck with a length of
chain and secured with a locking safety clip. Total system capacity is 10 quarts with a
normal maximum operating level of 9 quarts, as indicated on the dipstick. The oil
quantity in the sump is measured with a dipstick located at the left rear side of the
engine accessory case.
23
34.
The mil specification is MIL-L-2285-1D. The preferred grade of oil is 25W60 with
20W50 acceptable.
CAUTION
The oil filler cap is in a position where it is prone to not being
replaced. For this reason the filler cap chain is long enough to
permit the cap to hang outside the cowling when it is removed.
NOTE
Operating the engine with oil levels in excess of 9 quarts may
result in excessive venting of oil from the crankcase breather.
Do not overfill.
NOTE
Prior to adding oil, check the Journey Log to confirm the correct
type and grade of oil is being added.
Ignition System
35.
Engine ignition is provided by two engine driven magnetos which fire two spark
plugs per cylinder. The engine magneto switch is a rotary switch that controls the dual
magneto system. There are four switch positions, designated counter-clockwise as
follows; BOTH, L, R and OFF. The engine is started and operated with the switch in the
BOTH position.
Exhaust System
36.
Exhaust gases from the cylinders pass through riser assemblies to a muffler and
tailpipe. The muffler is contained within a shroud which forms a heating chamber for
cabin heat.
24
FUEL SYSTEM
General
37.
Fuel is supplied to the engine from two aluminium fuel tanks; the main fuel tank
located in the inboard end of the left wing and the auxiliary fuel tank similarly located in
the right wing. From these tanks, fuel flows through a fuel selector valve, a boost pump,
a fuel strainer, and an engine-driven fuel pump to the carburettor. A vapour return line
from the carburettor carries excess fuel and vapour back through the rear half of the fuel
selector valve to the tank being used.
Fuel Capacity
38.
The aircraft fuel capacity is provided at Table 1-2.
Fuel Specification and Grade
39.
The only acceptable fuel is 100 LL (CAN/CGSB-3.25)
Fuel Quantity Indicators
40.
A direct reading, mechanically actuated float-type fuel quantity indicator is
mounted in each fuel tank at the wing root. Each indicator shows, in relation to a full
tank, the amount of fuel remaining in its respective fuel tank. The indicators display
1/16 tank increments and have been calibrated so as to maximize their accuracy at
quantities below ½ tank. A red arc, extending from E to just below the 1/4-full on the
face of each indicator is labelled NO TAKE-OFF and indicates that fuel flow from the
tank may be disrupted when the aircraft is in a three-point attitude.
CAUTION
Fuel gauge indications are not to be considered reliable.
Engine failures due to fuel starvation can occur when the
selected tank indicates less that ¼ full and the aircraft is not
maintained in level, un-accelerated flight
25
Fuel Selector Valve
41.
A rotary type fuel-tank selector-valve handle is incorporated in the fuel system.
The fuel-tank selector-valve handle, which controls the fuel-selector valve through
mechanical linkage, has three positions: MAIN TANK, AUX TANK and FUEL OFF. The
MAIN TANK and AUX TANK positions allow fuel to flow from the port and starboard
tanks respectively, to the engine. The FUEL OFF position seals both tanks off from the
rest of the fuel system and allows no fuel to pass beyond the selector valve. The valve
is designed so that the fuel flowing through the vapour return line is routed back into the
fuel tank from which fuel is being used.
42.
The fuel selector valve is located on the left side of the fuselage at the wing root
and is readily accessible only from the front seat.
WARNING
Ensure that the fuel selector valve is properly seated in the
detent for the selected tank. Positioning the valve out of the
detent by as little as 1/8” can result in fuel starvation and engine
failure.
Primer
43.
The engine is primed by activating a primer switch located on the instrument
panel. The switch is spring-loaded to the OFF position. When the switch is moved up,
to the PRIME position, an electrically-activated primer solenoid allows fuel from the fuel
strainer to enter all six cylinders directly via six primer fuel lines, provided that the
electric fuel-boost pump has pressurized the fuel system.
Fuel Boost Pump
44.
The boost pump is controlled by an ON / OFF switch located on the right-hand
side of the instrument panel. It is used to pressurize the fuel system for priming and
starting and to provide a back up for the engine-driven fuel pump during take-off and
landing, and as an emergency fuel pressure source should the engine driven fuel pump
fail. The boost pump is provided with a drain, which opens to the outside surface of the
cabin skin on the port side, just forward of the boost pump. In the event of a pump seal
failure, any fuel escaping through the seal will flow overboard instead of entering the
pump motor where it would create a fire hazard in the cockpit.
Fuel Pressure Gauge
45.
A fuel pressure gauge indicates the fuel pressure at the carburettor. It is
pressure activated and is calibrated in 1-PSI increments from 0-30 PSI.
26
Fuel Drain Valves
46.
Three spring-loaded, self-sealing drain valves are provided in the fuel system
(Figure 1-4). A valve is located in the bottom of each wing tank and one is incorporated
in the fuel filter under the engine. These valves are used to drain fuel from the system
in order to check for the presence of water and sediment in the fuel.
Figure 1-8
Fuel System Schematic
27
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
General
47.
The aircraft has a 24-28 volt DC, electrical system:
a. power is generated by an engine-driven 24-volt, 70-ampere alternator;
b. a 24-volt storage battery provides reserve power for engine starting, and as a
standby source of power when the alternator is inoperative;
c. on most aircraft, the battery is mounted under the rear seat. On C-FTAL (“C”
Model aircraft), the battery is mounted at the aft side of the engine firewall
between the pilot’s feet.
Figure 1-9 Electrical System Schematic
28
External Power
48.
An external power receptacle with a spring-loaded access door is located on the
right side of the fuselage exterior immediately aft of the firewall. It is a 28-volt, AN
standard type receptacle, and is used to connect an external 28 volt, DC source for
starting the engine or for electrical ground checks. It is not normally utilized.
Battery Switch
49.
The battery switch located on the instrument panel energizes the DC battery bus.
Alternator
50.
The alternator-field switch, marked ALT, is located on the instrument panel.
When selected ON the alternator will come on the line at approximately 1100 RPM,
supplying approx 10 amps to the bus bar. As the engine RPM increases, the alternator
output will increase to maximum output at 1600 RPM and above.
CAUTION
Power is supplied to the alternator field circuit from the battery,
through the bus and alternator-field switch. The alternator
cannot produce any output power without battery power being
supplied first to the field circuit. Consequently if both the
alternator and the battery master switches are selected OFF,
and only the alternator is selected back ON, the alternator will
not produce any output power. However, once the alternator is
producing output power, the field circuit is self-exciting and the
battery switch may be turned OFF.
Starter
51.
A starter button operates the electric starter motor. The spring-loaded starter
button is housed within a circular recess to avoid inadvertent operation. When the
starter button is pushed in, a solenoid connects the starter to the bus bar. Power for
energizing the starter is derived from either the aircraft battery or an external power
source.
29
Circuit Breakers
52.
All electrical circuits are protected by circuit breakers. The starter and oil
temperature circuits are protected by automatic reset circuit breakers and the remainder
are protected by "push to reset" type circuit breakers located on the electrical panel.
CAUTION
To preclude the possibility of an electrical fire, circuit breakers
should not be reset more than once. Circuit breakers must
never be held in.
CAUTION
To preclude the possibility of a fuel fed fire, circuit breakers for
the electrically powered fuel primer and fuel boost pump should
never be reset.
Voltage Regulator
53.
A solid-state voltage regulator located on the engine firewall controls the
alternator output.
Digital Voltmeter / Ammeter
54.
When selected to VOLTS the voltmeter indicates battery voltage (24.2 – 25.0
volts, fully charged) before the engine is started. After start-up and with ALT switch is
turned on, it will indicate the alternator voltage (27.0 – 29.6 volts). If the voltage
regulator malfunctions and the voltage rises to 30.6 volts the bright red HIGH VOLTS
light will illuminate.
CAUTION
A high voltage condition could cause electronic equipment
failure and lead to electrical fire. The alternator should be
turned off as soon as the HIGH VOLTS light illuminates.
CAUTION
When the battery voltage drops below 22 volts the electronic
equipment will begin to malfunction. To prevent the battery from
being discharged prematurely and losing all electrical services
turn all unnecessary equipment off immediately.
30
55.
When AMPS is selected it will display the electrical system load on the aircraft
plus the battery charging current. Since the alternator is supplying all of the current, the
bright yellow DISCHARGE light will be off. Should the there be a malfunction in the
alternator and/or the voltage regulator precluding the battery from being charged, the
DISCHARGE will illuminate.
Alternator Warning Light
56.
The Alternator Warning Light, in addition to indicating an alternator failure, will
illuminates when engine is below 1100 RPM (off line), a tripped alternator circuit breaker
or the ALT switch selected OFF.
CAUTION
To prevent excessive drain on the battery, unnecessary
electrics should be selected OFF during extended ground
operations with RPM below 1100.
31
LIGHTING SYSTEMS
Landing / Taxi Lights
57.
The 3-position landing/taxi light switch is mounted on the lower left instrument
panel. Two landing lights are mounted in the leading edge of the left wing. Selecting
the switch to the TAXI position turns the inboard light ON; selecting the LANDING
position turns both lights ON. Selection of the TAXI or LANDING position over-rides
any selection of the pulse switch.
Pulse Lights
58.
Selecting the pulse switch ON when the landing light/taxi light switch is OFF will
cause both lights to pulse on and off simultaneously. If the taxi light or landing light is
ON the pulse option is deactivated.
Navigation Lights
59.
The aircraft are fitted with standard navigation lights controlled by a switch on the
electrical panel. These lights are always on steady when selected ON.
Strobe Lights
60.
A strobe light is fixed on each wing tip and a switch on the electrical panel
controls them. When turned ON they flash with an intense, white light.
Instrument Lights
61.
The aircraft have four white lights mounted underneath the instrument panel
combing, which floodlight the panel and its instruments. An ON/OFF switch on the
electrical panel, which also provides power to a compass light, controls them. The light
intensity is fixed.
Map Light
62.
A map light is located on the top of the left-hand windscreen post. It is controlled
by a rheostat on the back end of the light. This light is energized when the instrument
lights are selected ON. It can be swivelled around as required or removed from its
bracket for use.
32
HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM
General
63.
Ram air is picked up from the front of the engine cowling, is heated in shrouds
around the exhaust stacks, and is ducted into the front and rear cabin compartments.
Heated air enters the front cabin compartment through three outlets: two aluminium
elbows mounted just inboard and forward of the front rudder pedals, and a defroster
duct located at the base of the windscreen. The rear cabin compartment is heated
through a register mounted on the aft cabin floor. Two push-pull type controls are
provided to regulate the flow of heated air into the cabin. The heated air emanating
from the defroster is used to de-ice and de-fog the windscreen. No means are provided
for indicating the temperature of the heated air.
Cabin Heat
64.
The cabin heat is controlled by operating a flexible push-pull type cabin heat
knob (Figure 1-9) located on a bracket just beneath the instrument panel on the left side
of the cabin. The knob is labelled CABIN HEAT PULL. If the knob is pulled to its full aft
position, heat is emitted to both cabin compartments. Pushing the knob in all the way
stops the flow of heated air.
Defroster and Pilot Heat
65.
The windscreen defrosting and front compartment heat is controlled by operating
a flexible push-pull type control (Figure 1-9) located on a bracket just beneath the
instrument panel on the right side of the cabin. The knob is labelled DEFROSTER AND
PILOT HEAT PULL. When the knob is pulled out, heat is ducted to the defroster and
front compartment. Pushing the knob in all the way stops the flow of heated air.
Cabin Ventilation
66.
Ventilation is provided by ram air ducted from intakes in the leading edge of the
wings to two adjustable air vents. The vents are located on the upper corners of the
windscreen. These vents are manually operated by moving them in or out to control the
volume of airflow and can be rotated through 360 degrees to direct the flow of air in the
desired direction. Supplementary ventilation is supplied through two snap vents located
on each side window.
33
INSTRUMENTS
General
67.
All instruments are mounted on a shock-mounted instrument panel in the front
cockpit with the exception of the free-air temperature gauge and the magnetic compass,
which are mounted on the centre strip of the windscreen. All aircraft have a
tachometer, altimeter, airspeed indicator, and a turn-and-slip indicator mounted below
the roof on the windscreen pillars of the pilot’s cockpit for use by the rear seat pilot.
Pitot Static System
68.
A heated pitot tube on the left wing supplies pitot pressure to the airspeed
indicator. Two static pressure vents located on both sides of the aft fuselage supply
static pressure to the airspeed indictor, altimeter and VSI.
Vacuum System
69.
An engine driven vacuum pump provides the suction necessary to operate the
attitude indicator and directional indicator. A suction gauge located on the instrument
panel is calibrated in inches of mercury and indicates the suction currently available.
34
Flight Instruments
70.
A conventional cluster of flight instruments is installed in the instrument panel.
The suite of flight instruments includes the following:
a.
Airspeed Indicator (ASI) – calibrated in MPH
b.
Attitude Indicator (AI) – Vacuum operated with an adjustable split bar
(miniature airplane).
c.
Altimeter – a standard barometric type altimeter with encoding capability
and altimeter setting subscale.
d.
Turn and Slip Indicator – An electrically driven gyro, powered whenever
the BATTERY SWITCH is selected ON. This instrument provides rate of
turn indications, with the ball providing indication of slip or skid.
e.
Directional Indicator – Vacuum operated, with rotating compass rose.
f.
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) - Instrument is actuated by static
pressure changes and depicts rate of climb or descent in feet per min.
35
Engine Instruments
71.
The aircraft is equipped with the following engine instruments:
a.
Engine Tachometer – The engine tachometer is powered by a
tachometer-generator separate from the aircraft electrical system. It is
calibrated in 100-RPM increments from 0 to 4500 RPM;
b.
Cylinder Head Temperature – The cylinder-head temperature gauge is
calibrated in 25º increments from 0 to 350 degrees Celsius. It is an
electrical instrument, however, its sole source of power is generated by a
bayonet-type thermocouple installed in the number-four engine cylinder
therefore no power is required from the aircraft electrical system;
c.
Oil Temperature – The electrical, resistance type, oil temperature gauge
(Figure 1-9) is calibrated in 10-degree increments from -70 to +150
degrees Celsius. The gauge receives its power from the bus bar; and
d.
Oil Pressure – An oil pressure gauge (Figure 1-9) is pressure activated
and is calibrated in 10 PSI increments from 0 to 150 PSI.
36
Stall Warning System
72.
A vane type stall warning unit is located in the left wing which electrically
activates a stall warning horn located under the instrument panel. The horn is activated
at speeds 5-10 mph above the stall in all configurations. The warning horn is powered
through the 28V DC bus.
NOTE
The stall warning horn is not connected to the intercom.
Clock
73.
An eight-day, stem-wound, aircraft clock (Figure 1-9) is mounted on the
instrument panel.
AVIONICS
74.
Avionics consists of a Garmin GNC 250XL GPS / VHF transceiver, a Garmin
GTX 327 transponder, and an Intercom System. All avionics are controlled through the
RADIO MASTER switch on the instrument panel.
CAUTION
To prevent voltage spikes from damaging the avionics, the
RADIO MASTER switch must be selected OFF during
engine start or when ground power is supplied.
Microphone Buttons
75.
A microphone transmit button is mounted on the front control column grip. This
button is only effective when the pilot uses a boom-type microphone headset. There is
a transmit button on the left rear window ledge for use by the rear seat occupant.
Intercom System
76.
The radio system incorporates a voice-activated intercom system. The intercom
system can only be utilized when boom-type microphone headsets are used. The
intercom control panel is mounted on the instrument panel and consists of a pilot
isolate/intercom switch, a volume control knob, and a squelch knob. The PILOT
ISOLATE position cuts off intercom and eliminates all intercom side tone and the
INTERCOM position allows voice-activated conversation between aircraft occupants.
37
GPS / COM
77.
A Garmin GNC 250 XL is installed. Basic capabilities are summarized below.
Refer to Annex A for pilot operating instructions:
a.
GPS. The GPS is certified for VFR navigation only. The navigational
database includes data for airports, aerodromes and navigation aids. The
unit is capable of point-to-point navigation and route navigation;
CAUTION
Do not enter navigational data during critical phases of flight
where the risk of a loss of situational awareness is high, in
particular take-off, final approach, and landing.
b.
COM. The VHF transceiver is available for normal radio communications;
38
Transponder
78.
A Garmin GTX 327 solid state mode C digital transponder is installed. Pressing
the STBY, ALT or ON keys turns the unit on, after which it performs an internal self-test.
If an internal failure is detected, the screen will display SELF TEST FAILED and the unit
must be removed for repair. No warm-up period is required.
a.
OFF – powers off the unit. Must be held for three seconds.
b.
STBY – selects standby mode
c.
ON – selects Mode A only (no altitude information). Replies to
interrogations are indicated by a flashing ® in the display.
d.
ALT – selects Mode A and C (interrogation replies include altitude output
from encoding altimeter). ALT appears in the display.
e.
Code Selection Keys 0-7 – provide 4096 identification codes. Pressing
any one begins the code selection process and the new code is active as
soon as the fourth digit is entered. The 8 and 9 keys are not used for
code entry.
f.
IDENT – activates special position identifier (SPI) pulse for 18 sec. IDENT
appears in the display.
g.
VFR – selects pre-programmed code (set to 1200). Pressing key again
restores previous code.
h.
FUNC – Cycles between Pressure Altitude, Flight Time, Count Up and
Count Down Timers.
j.
START/STOP – Starts and stops the timers.
k.
CRSR - Initiates time entry for count down timer and cancels transponder
code entry.
l.
CLR – Resets timers, or cancels previous key selection
39
ELT
79.
An Artex ME406 ELT is installed in the aft section of the fuselage.
80
Powered through the aircraft 28V system or two D-sized lithium batteries, this
beacon when activated transmits a swept tone on 121.5 MHz until battery exhaustion
and 440 msec data bursts at 50 second intervals for the first 24 hrs. Received by the
COSPAS-SARSAT satellite system, the data burst contains aircraft identification data
programmed into the beacon and provides location accuracy of approximately 3 km.
81.
The ELT is activated either automatically during a crash (a change in velocity or
deceleration >4.5 fps ±0.5) or manually by selecting the instrument panel remote switch
to ON. Once activated, the ELT may be switched off by selecting either the remote
switch or the switch on the ELT case to the ON position and then back to ARM.
NOTE
406 ELTs are individually registered to specific aircraft and
are not interchangeable.
40
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
Glider Tow Hook
82.
A Schweizer-type tow hook mounted on the tail wheel strut. The tow hook is
connected by cable to a release handle in the pilot’s cockpit above the left window. To
release the tow hook, the release handle is pulled to the rear.
Tow Mirrors
83.
Two ground-adjustable mirrors are mounted at the mid-point of each strut.
Refuelling Steps
84.
To facilitate fuelling, steps are provided on each wing strut and on each side of
the fuselage front section. An assist handle is mounted at the lower juncture of the
windscreen centre strip and the fuselage. A refuelling hose grounding point is located
adjacent to the fuel tank cap on each wing.
Tie-Down Rings
85.
Tie-down rings are provided, on each wing strut; the tow hook may be used to tie
down the tail.
Fuselage Lift Handles
86.
Two retractable lift handles are incorporated in the fuselage, one on each side
just forward of the stabilizer. They are very useful for pushing the aircraft around on the
ground. Each handle can be extended by inserting a finger into the handle and pulling it
out as far as it will go. When not in use, the handles should be retracted flush with the
fuselage by pushing them in.
Map Case
87.
A map case is located on the cabin door adjacent to the pilot’s seat. This case
contains all aircraft documents as well as navigational materials.
41
SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Door Emergency Release Handle
88.
A door emergency-release handle is located just forward of the door on the right
side of the cabin. The cabin door can be jettisoned by disengaging the bottom end of
the door emergency release handle and turning it counter-clockwise.
Fire Extinguisher
89.
A five-pound dry chemical fire extinguisher is mounted on the right cabin wall just
ahead of the front seat. To release the extinguisher, rotate the over-centre latch on the
retaining band forward/down then pivot the bottle forward to disengage it from the
mounting lug on the nozzle assembly. Remove safety pin prior to use.
Life Preservers
90.
Two life preservers are Velcro-mounted under both seats. Life preservers are
for emergency use only. Mustang constant-wear PFDs are utilized for normal
operations.
First Aid Kit
91.
A first aid kit is carried on board.
Carbon Monoxide Detector
92.
An adhesive card type CO detector is mounted on the instrument panel. The
spot turns gray/black in the presence of CO.
42
PART II
NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
GENERAL
1.
The following procedures and checks are an expansion of the Pilot’s Checklist.
While the checklist is the in-flight reference document, a complete understanding of this
manual is critical for the safe operation of the aircraft.
PRE-FLIGHT / DAILY INSPECTION
Pre-External Inspection
2.
Perform the Pre-External portion of the pre-flight inspection follows:
Table 2-1
ACTION
1. Journey Log
PRE-EXTERNAL INSPECTION
CHECK
2. Chocks
Check maintenance status,
snags, deferred defects, and
hours to next inspection
In place
3. Covers, Plugs, Tiedowns
Remove and stow
4. First Aid Kit
Confirm in place and secure
5. Survival Kit
Carry if required. Ensure
secure
6. Mags / Switches
All Off
7. Control Lock
Remove and Secure
8. Controls
Confirm free and correct
9. Trim
Check function and set to
Takeoff position
10. Fire Extinguisher
12. Fuel Gauges
Check fully charged and
confirm secure
Confirm all required documents
and navigational materials are
present and current
Check Quantity
13. Battery Switch
Select ON
14. Flaps
Set to Full Down
15. Interior / Exterior Lights
Check Function
11. Pubs / Docs / Maps
43
NOTES
Table 2-1
ACTION
PRE-EXTERNAL INSPECTION
CHECK
16. Stall Vane
Check Function
17. Pitot Heat
Check Function
18. Battery Switch
Select OFF
19. Fuel Status
Check fuel Quantity. Dip tanks
to confirm fuel state if required
NOTES
Confirm fuel caps secure
Check fuel samples from both
fuel tanks and strainer for water
or sediment
For Solo Flight
1. Rear Rudder Pedals
Stowed
2. Rear Stick
Removed and Stowed
3. Rear Harness
Secured
WARNING
Rear rudder pedals must be
stowed, rear stick removed, and
rear harness secured prior to
solo flight. Failure to do so may
cause restricted flight control
movements and loss of control
External Inspection
3.
Perform the external pre-flight inspection by starting at the left main landing gear
and proceeding clockwise around the aircraft as follows:
EXTERNAL INSPECTION
Table 2-2
ACTION
CHECK
NOTES
LEFT MAIN GEAR
1. Brake line
Condition
2. Brake rotor and pads
Condition and wear
Refer to min pad thickness notch
3. Tire
Inflation and wear
Tires may be worn to base of any
groove. Check for exposed cord,
cracks, cuts or bulges.
FUSELAGE - FRONT
4. Fuel Pump Vent
Clear, no leaks, no fuel stains
5. Cowl – Left Side
Open
6. Oil Level
Check, Top Up as required
7. Oil Cap
Secure, Safety Pin in place
44
Oil Qty (Quarts)
Max Capacity
10
Norm Oil Level
8-9
Min Oil Level
8
EXTERNAL INSPECTION
Table 2-2
ACTION
8. Engine
CHECK
9. Muffler
Check general condition, leaks,
etc
Check for play
10. Cowl – Left Side
Close, Latch, Install Safety Pins
11. Propeller
Check condition
12. Air Intakes
Confirm open and clear
13. Air Filter
Check condition
14. Cowl – Right Side
Open
15. Engine
16. Muffler
Check general condition, leaks,
etc
Check for free play
17. Cowl – Right Side
Close, Latch, Install Safety Pins
RIGHT MAIN GEAR
18. Brake line
Condition
19. Brake rotor and pads
Condition and wear
20. Tire
Inflation and wear
RIGHT WING
21. Strut and tow mirror
Condition and security
22. Leading edge
Condition
23. Fuel Tank Vent
Clear
24. Wing surfaces – upper and
lower
25. Wing tip
Condition
26. Aileron and flap
27. Fuel filler cap
Movement, condition, hinge
points, actuators, static wicks
Secure and in-line
FUSELAGE – RIGHT REAR
28. Fuselage skin
Condition
29. Antennae
Condition and security
30. Battery vent and drain
Clear
NOTES
CAUTION
During nesting season, use a
flashlight & carry out a thorough
visual check inside the cowl flaps
Check for security, wear, chafing
or leaking
Condition
NOTE
On A model aircraft the battery
vent/drains are located on the
lower fuselage under the rear
seat. On C model aircraft they
are located on the lower fuselage
behind the engine firewall.
45
EXTERNAL INSPECTION
Table 2-2
ACTION
CHECK
31. Static Port
Clear
32. Lift Handle
Retracted
TAIL SECTION
33. Vertical and horizontal
stabilizers
34. Elevators and rudder
35. Trim tab
36. Tow hook
37. Tail Wheel
Condition and security
Condition, movement, hinge
points and actuators, static wicks
Condition and security, set in
takeoff position.
Condition and security, release
mechanism for function
Check tire condition, inflation,
wear, steering chains, & security
FUSELAGE – LEFT REAR
38. Fuselage skin
Condition
39. Belly
Check for oil
40. Static Port
Clear
41. Lift Handle
Retracted
LEFT WING
42. Fuel filler cap
Secure and in-line
43. Aileron and flap
44. Wing tip
NOTES
Movement, condition, hinge
points, actuators
Condition
45. Wing surfaces – upper and
lower
46. Fuel Tank Vent
Condition
47. Pitot Tube
Clear
48. Leading edge
Condition
49. Strut and mirror
Condition and security
CHOCKS
50. Left and Right
Remove and Stow
Clear
WEIGHT AND BALANCE VERIFICATION
51. Weight and Balance
Check
Confirm that the loaded aircraft is
within weight and balance limits
WARNING
Pilots shall verify that the loaded aircraft is within weight and
balance limits prior to flight. Operation of the aircraft outside
of published weight and balance limits will adversely affect
the stability and control characteristics of the aircraft, and will
invalidate the Certificate of Airworthiness.
46
Between Flight Inspection (BFI)
4.
When conducting multiple flights, or when conducting a pilot change during flight
operations, the pilot shall conduct a Between Flight Inspection as follows:
Table 2-3
ACTION
BETWEEN FLIGHT INSPECTION (BFI)
CHECK
1. Engine
Fuel and Oil Leaks
2. Oil
4. Main Wheels
Check Qty, Cap Secure,
Cowlings Secure, Pins
Installed
Check Qty, Caps Secure and
In-Line
Check Condition
5. Tail Wheel
Check Condition
6. If Night Flying
Check all lights
3. Fuel
47
NOTES
If checking engine oil shortly after
shutdown, oil may appear to be 12 quarts low as oil has not yet
drained into the sump
PRE-START CHECK
5.
After entering the cockpit, proceed as follows:
Table 2-4
ACTION
PRE-START
CHECK
1. Doors
Close and lock
2. Control Lock
Off and Stowed
3. Seat
Adjusted and locked.
4. Seat harnesses
Adjust and secure
5. Trim
Elevator trim set for takeoff
6. Fuel selector
Lowest Tank
7. Carb heat
Select COLD
8. Throttle
Closed
9. Mixture
ICO
10. Circuit breakers
All in
11. Lights
All off
12. Pitot Heat
OFF
13. Radio Master
OFF
14. Alternator Switch
OFF
15. Battery Switch
OFF
16. Boost Pump
OFF
17. Clock
Wind / Set
18. Altimeter
Set
NOTES
Hold door closed – do not slam.
Ensure handle rotates 90º
Ensure seat rail locking pins
engaged.
Reference t/o trim index mark
Set to field elevation
48
STARTING ENGINE
Start
6.
For a normal engine start, proceed as follows:
Table 2-5
START CLEARANCE (If Required)
For engine start at military aerodromes, first obtain engine start clearance from ATC
1. Battery Switch
On
2. Radio Master Switch
On
3. Radio
On and Set to Ground Freq
4. Start Clearance
Obtain
5. Radio Master Switch
Off
Table 2-6
ACTION
START
CHECK
NOTES
CAUTION - If external power is used for starting, the battery and alternator must be left off until the
engine is running. If the switch is left on, a weak battery will draw power from the external source,
resulting reduced energy to the starter motor.
1. Battery Switch
Select ON
2. Strobe lights
On
3. Boost Pump
ON
4. Primer
Actuate as required
OAT below 0°C – 3 se cs
OAT 0-10° - 2 sec
OAT 10-20° - 1-2 sec
OAT above 20° – 1 sec
Warm Engine – no prime
5. Boost Pump
OFF
CAUTION
If the boost pump is left on with
the mixture not in ICO position
(engine not running), carburettor
and inlet duct flooding will occur,
creating a fire hazard
6. Throttle
Open ¼ inch
7. Mixture
RICH
8. Magnetos
BOTH
Strobe lights to remain on
whenever engine is running
Check pressure normal
49
Table 2-6
ACTION
START
CHECK
9. Brakes
Apply
10. Prop area
All clear
11. Starter
Engage
12. Throttle
Set to 1000 rpm
13. Oil pressure
Normal Indication
14. External Power
Remove if used
15. Alternator Switch
On
16. Radio Master
On
17. Radio
On
18. Intercom
On
NOTES
CAUTION
Continuous cranking shall not
exceed 30 seconds. Allow
starter to cool for at least 30
seconds before re-attempting
start
CAUTION
If there is no indication of oil
pressure within 30 seconds of
start, shut the engine down and
have the cause investigated
Needed to activate intercom
If Engine Flooded on Start:
CAUTION
Visually confirm that fuel is not pooling below aircraft or in engine cowling
prior to attempting start. Failure to do so may result in an engine fire.
ICO
1. Mixture
2. Mags
OFF
3. Throttle
Full Open
4. Starter
Engage for 30 seconds
5. Normal Start
Reattempt
Attempt to clear fuel from
carburettor
NOTE
If the engine is running roughly, rapidly move the mixture lever
through its full range of travel several times. Occasionally dirt
becomes lodged under the mixture poppet valve.
50
Pre-Taxi
7.
After engine is running smoothly and prior to taxiing, perform the pre-taxi check
as follows:
Table 2-7
ACTION
PRE-TAXI
CHECK
NOTES
1. Throttle
700 RPM
2. Mags
Live Mag Check
Switch momentarily to OFF then
back to BOTH
3. Flap
Retract
Select UP or as required for
takeoff.
4. Radios
On and Set
5. GPS
Initializing
6. Transponder
ON / Standby
7. Taxi Lights
Turn ON for Night Ops only
8. Nav Lights
Turn ON for Night Ops only
Taxi
8.
While taxiing, perform the following actions:
Table 2-8
ACTION
TAXI
CHECK
1. Brakes
Ensure functional
2. Tail wheel steering
Ensure functional
3. Flight instruments
Ensure functional
51
NOTES
In turns, ensure that turn
coordinator, ball, directional gyro
function correctly, compass
moves freely and artificial horizon
remains steady.
GROUND OPERATIONS
9.
Like most tail wheel equipped aircraft, the L19 exhibits reduced directional
stability on the ground. Directional control on the ground is achieved through
appropriate use of tail wheel steering and differential brake. Under normal
circumstances, directional control can be maintained almost entirely without the use of
brakes. It is good airmanship to taxi with heels on the floor to avoid “dragging” brakes,
which can cause unnecessary brake wear and damage, as well as possible engine
overheating. Care must be taken during ground handling, takeoff, and landing to avoid
directional control problems. Specific precautions include the following:
a.
taxi at minimum safe speeds, especially when taxiing with a crosswind or
tailwind condition;
b.
avoid continuous use of brake during taxiing. Use power settings that do
not require continuous use of brake to control speed;
NOTE
When taxiing in very strong crosswinds, some brake may be
required to maintain directional control.
c.
avoid abrupt changes in direction;
CAUTION
Abrupt changes in direction during ground manoeuvring
may result in loss of directional control and a low speed
ground loop.
d.
avoid abrupt application of brakes. Brake application should be smooth
and progressive;
CAUTION
Abrupt application of excessive brake may cause the tail
to come off the ground, and if not properly controlled can
result in the propeller striking the ground or a nose-over.
e.
Avoid taxiing with flaps down, especially in strong wind conditions;
CAUTION
Flaps exposed to strong crosswinds during taxi introduce
a yawing moment that can contribute to a loss of
directional control and can lead to a ground loop.
52
f.
position flight controls appropriate to the wind direction;
CAUTION
Failure to properly position flight controls for wind
direction, particularly in strong winds, can contribute to a
loss of directional control or a nose-over.
53
RUN-UP
10.
Position the aircraft so that the prop wash will not create a hazard, ensure the tail
wheel is straight, apply and hold the brakes firmly and perform the run-up check as
follows:
Table 2-9
ACTION
RUN-UP
CHECK
NOTES
1. Area
All Clear
Ensure area behind aircraft is
clear
2. Brakes
Apply
3. Fuel Selector
Switch tanks
4. Mixture
FULL RICH
5. Temperatures and pressures
As required for run-up
6. Control Column
Full Aft
7. Throttle
Set 1700 rpm
8. Magnetos
Select LEFT – BOTH – RIGHT BOTH
Check normal rpm drop 100
RPM, max differential of 50 RPM
9. Carb heat
Confirm RPM drop and recovery
10. Suction
Select full HOT, then back to
COLD
Confirm 4.5– 5.5 in HG
11. Voltmeter
26-29 Volts
12. Ammeter
Confirm Charging
13. Throttle
Full
26-29 Volts are normal to confirm
proper operation of alternator
Switch Voltmeter/Ammeter to
Amps and confirm charging
Full power check, min RPM 2200
14. Idle Check
Confirm correct idle RPM and
smooth running
Summer 600 – 700 RPM
Winter 700 – 800 RPM
15. Mixture
Function
Lean until engine falters, then
select full rich
16. Throttle
Set 1000 RPM
To ensure fuel feeds
independently from each tank
prior to takeoff.
54
Min Oil Temp ------- 15° C
Min Oil Press ------- 30 PSI
Min CHT -------------- 80° C
Ensure stick remains full aft
when power is applied
PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK
11.
Perform pre-takeoff check as follows:
Table 2-10
ACTION
PRE-TAKE OFF
CHECK
1. Doors and windows
Secure
2. Harnesses
Secure and adjusted
3. Trim
Set for takeoff
4. Fuel Selector
Fullest Tank
5. Circuit breakers
All IN
6. Pulse Light
Turn ON for Daytime ops only
7. Landing Light
Turn ON For Night Ops Only
8. Pitot heat
OFF
9. Carb heat
COLD
10. Mixture
FULL RICH
11. Flaps
As required
12. Gyro instruments
Set
13. Altimeter
Set
14. Magnetos
BOTH
15. Alternator Switch
ON
16. Battery Switch
ON
17. Boost Pump
ON
18. ELT Switch
Set to ARM
19. Temps and pressures
NORMAL
20. Radio
Set as required
21. GPS
Set as required
22. Transponder
Code Set / Alt
23. Controls
Free
24. Pre Take-Off Brief
Carry Out / Complete
NOTES
a. door handles fully forward
b. latches on window secure
Takeoff shall not be attempted in
conditions that require pitot heat
In the green
55
TAKEOFF
Normal Takeoff
12.
A normal takeoff is used when no special considerations exist. A normal takeoff
is accomplished as follows:
a.
set trim for takeoff and set flaps as required between 0º to 10º;
b.
line up on the centre of the runway or takeoff path;
c.
holding the stick fully aft, smoothly apply full throttle to commence the
takeoff roll, releasing the brakes as throttle is advanced. Avoid dragging
brakes by ensuring heels are on the floor;
d.
the aircraft will tend to swing left on the initial takeoff roll due to
asymmetric thrust effect. Maintain directional control with tail wheel
steering and rudder. Counter any swings that develop using immediate
positive control inputs of rudder, and then differential brake if required;
e.
after achieving sufficient forward speed to ensure that the rudder and
elevator are effective, gently relax aft pressure on the control column to
allow the tail to lift slightly off the ground. As tail comes up, nose will
swing left due to gyroscopic effect. Counter with rudder as required;
WARNING
Do no use excessive or aggressive control inputs to lift the
tail off the ground prematurely. Such actions combined with
a premature release or rope brake during glider towing could
result in a nose-over.
CAUTION
Abort the takeoff if directional control is difficult to maintain.
f.
establish a slightly tail low attitude. Keep sufficient weight on main wheels
to prevent skipping. The aircraft should lift off between 50-60 MPH;
g.
adjust control column position to set required climb attitude; and
WARNING
h.
Do not allow the aircraft to climb out of ground effect until
safe flying speed of 60 MPH is achieved. Premature climb
could result in a stall.
i.
complete the post-takeoff check.
56
Short Field and Obstacle Clearance Takeoff
13.
The short field takeoff technique is used when the available takeoff surface is
limited in length, or when a departure end obstacle is present. The determination of
whether the available field length is “short” must be based on calculated takeoff
performance, with due consideration for aircraft weight, winds, and density altitude. As
a general guideline, takeoff surfaces less than 1,800 ft long should be carefully
assessed. A short field takeoff is accomplished as follows:
a.
set trim for takeoff and set flaps to 30º;
b.
line up on the centre of the runway or takeoff path, positioning the aircraft
to provide maximum takeoff surface;
c.
holding the stick fully aft, apply brakes and smoothly apply full throttle
against braking. Once full throttle is applied, release brakes to commence
the takeoff roll. Avoid dragging brakes by ensuring heels are on the floor;
d.
the aircraft will tend to swing left on the initial takeoff roll due to
asymmetric thrust effect . Maintain directional control with tail wheel
steering and rudder. Counter any swings that develop using immediate
positive control inputs of rudder, and then differential brake if required;
e.
after achieving sufficient forward speed to ensure that the rudder and
elevator are effective, gently relax aft pressure on the control column to
allow the tail to lift slightly off the ground. As tail comes up, nose will
swing left due to gyroscopic effect. Counter with rudder as required;
WARNING
Do not use excessive control inputs to lift the tail off the
ground prematurely. A premature release or rope brake
during glider towing could result in a nose-over.
CAUTION
Abort the takeoff if directional control is difficult to maintain.
f.
establish a slightly tail low attitude and maintain sufficient weight on main
wheels to prevent skipping. Lift-off should occur between 50-60 MPH, and
climb at 60 MPH until clear of all obstacles; and
WARNING
g.
Do not allow the aircraft to climb out of ground effect until
safe flying speed of 60 MPH is achieved. Premature climb
could result in a stall.
h.
complete the post-takeoff check.
57
Soft / Rough Field Takeoff
14.
A soft / rough field takeoff is used when operating from grass, dirt, or gravel
strips. The objective is to get the aircraft off the ground as quickly as possible, and
accelerating to safe climb speed in ground effect. A soft / rough field takeoff is
essentially identical to a normal takeoff, with a slightly lower tail attitude to achieve an
earlier lift off, with sufficient weight on the main wheels to prevent skipping or bouncing.
WARNING
Do no use excessive or aggressive control inputs to lift the
tail off the ground prematurely. Such actions combined with
a premature release or rope brake during glider towing could
result in a nose-over.
WARNING
Do not allow the aircraft to climb out of ground effect until
safe flying speed of 60 MPH is achieved. Premature climb
could result in a stall.
Crosswind Takeoff
15.
Takeoffs in moderate to strong crosswinds will require appropriate modifications
to the selected takeoff technique:
a.
crosswind takeoffs are performed with minimum flaps necessary, with due
consideration for field type, field length, and departure end obstacles;
b.
maintain into-wind aileron during the takeoff roll;
c.
slightly delay action to lift the tail off the ground to ensure sufficient rudder
authority is present for the crosswind conditions;
d.
bring the tail to a slightly higher position and accelerate to a slightly higher
speed before rotating to ensure a positive lift-off; and
e.
once airborne, make a coordinated turn into wind to correct for drift.
WARNING
Crosswind takeoffs in the L19 are much easier to accomplish
than crosswind landings. Prior to commencing a cross wind
takeoff, ensure that the subsequent crosswind landing will be
within both aircraft limits as well as your personal limits.
58
Post- Takeoff
16.
The Post-Takeoff Check is completed once a safe altitude (minimum 100 ft) and
safe airspeed (60 MPH) have been achieved and a positive rate of climb has been
confirmed.
Table 2-11
ACTION
POST- TAKE OFF
CHECK
1. Flaps
UP
2. Climb Power
Set
3. Climb Airspeed
Set
4. Trim
Set
5. Boost Pump
Off
6. Landing Light
Off during night time ops
NOTES
Raise flaps in stages / steps to
prevent settling or loss of altitude
If towing, maintain flaps
Use desired climb profile settings
Applicable to night operations
NOTE
The post-takeoff check shall be committed to memory
CLIMB PROFILES
17.
Several climb profile options exist, depending on the operational
requirement. With the exception of maximum performance climbs, these profiles
are recommended to provide an optimum combination of performance, visibility,
engine cooling, economy and passenger comfort. When climbing to altitudes
above 2000’ AGL, lean the engine in accordance with the Leaning Procedures
Climb Profiles
Type
RPM
2300
MPH
80
Best Rate of Climb
FT
65
Best Angle of Climb
FT
60
Towing
FT
65-70
Normal
Table 2-12
Notes
The normal climb allows for the optimum
combination of rate of climb, ground speed,
forward visibility and engine cooling
Flaps must be set 30 degrees for Best Angle
Climbs
Climb Profiles
59
CRUISE
Cruise Profiles
18.
Select a cruising speed appropriate to the in-flight conditions (i.e. turbulence) and
desired range and economy. Refer to the performance charts in Part 4 for detailed
cruise settings or use one of the following generic settings (5,000 MSL):
Cruise Performance (5,000 ft MSL)
Cruise
RPM
TAS
(KTS)
Litres/hr
GPH
Endur
Range
(NM)
Fast Cruise
Normal Cruise
Endurance
X/C Towing
X/C Towing
2300
2100
1800
2300
2200
93
87
70
85
80
33.3
26.5
21.2
33.3
29.1
8.8
7.0
5.6
8.8
7.7
3:35
4:35
5:55
3:35
4:05
335
400
410
305
325
2:45
n/a
Towing Ops
A/R
A/R
40.0
10.5
Notes: 1. Endurance to 30 minute fuel reserve
2. Range based on still air with 30 min reserve
Table 2-13 Cruise Profiles
Level-Off / Cruise
19.
After stabilizing in cruise, perform level-off check as follows:
Table 2-14
ACTION
LEVEL-OFF / CRUISE CHECK
CHECK
1. Power
SET
2. Flaps
UP for cross country towing
3. Trim
As required
4. Mixture
Lean
5. Carb Heat
As required
NOTES
a. Refer to performance data
chart for normal and fast cruise
and maximum endurance
settings.
Lean mixture as required for
smooth, efficient engine
operation. Refer to Part 2
“Management of Ancillary
Controls” for details
Use carb heat if indications of
carb ice are present
60
FLIGHT MANOEUVRES / FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
Turns
20.
It is almost impossible to make a co-ordinated turn in the L19 by use of ailerons
alone; aileron drag creates an adverse yaw situation whereby the nose tends to yaw
away from the turn in a slipping motion. To counter this, all turns should be initiated
with rudder pressure in the direction of intended turn prior to, or together with the
application of aileron. Steep turns will require the addition of power and aft control
column pressure plus a slightly raised nose attitude to maintain level flight.
Slow Flight
21.
Slow flight is a proficiency manoeuvre, which can be practised flaps up or with
any reasonable amount of flap. Establish a trimmed, level-flight attitude and reduce
power. Adjust attitude to maintain altitude as the airspeed falls and when the stall
warning horn blows, note the horn speed and maintain that speed. Maintain that speed
using power as necessary. Fine trim adjustments are required to produce the accuracy
desired. Slow flight is flown with emphasis on attitude flying-particularly during turns.
Stalls
22.
The power off stall characteristics of the L19 are conventional and mild. As the
aircraft approaches stall conditions there is an increasing loss of control effectiveness.
As the aircraft stalls the nose will drop and there may be a slight wing drop or wallowing.
If the flaps are down there may be minor elevator buffet otherwise flaps do not alter the
stall characteristics.
23.
The power on stall characteristics of the L19 exhibits a tendency to immediately
transition into an incipient spin if yaw is not carefully controlled during the stall.
24.
The Stall Speed Chart below provides the stall speeds at various gross weights,
bank angles and configurations.
Stall Speeds - M.P.H. (I.A.S.) – Power Off
Degree of Flap
Gross Weight (Lbs)
Level Flight
30 Degrees of Bank
60 Degrees of Bank
1800
47
54
74
0
2100
54
60
81
2400
59
65
87
1800
44
51
70
30
2100
51
58
76
Table 2-16 Stall Speeds
61
2400
56
62
81
1800
41
49
69
60
2100
48
55
74
2400
54
60
80
Stall Recovery
25.
Stall recoveries are emergencies demanding prompt action and a minimum loss
of altitude. While just lowering the nose will recover the aircraft from a stall, the loss of
altitude will usually be unacceptable. The application of power will reduce the altitude
loss to almost zero with very little attitude change. The stall recovery procedure for this
aircraft is consistent with most general aviation aircraft and follows the acronym PP
(Push – Power) is as follows:
a.
P - Push - Lower the nose when the stall is detected. If the wing drops
during the stall, correct with opposite rudder;
b.
P - Power – Apply full power simultaneously with lowering the nose;
c.
after recovering from the stall, raise any flaps in steps and establish a
climb to a safe altitude; and
NOTE
If more than 30 degrees of flap are down at the time of
the stall, raise the flap to 30 degrees in small increments
during the recovery to improve acceleration.
NOTE
While they are not an aircraft specific emergency checklist,
stall recovery is a critical emergency procedure and shall be
committed to memory.
Spins
26.
In a clean, power-off configuration the L19 does not exhibit any dangerous spin
characteristics. The spin is relatively mild except for a rapid rate of rotation. Altitude
lost per turn is 200-250 feet
.
CAUTION
Spins are not approved in the L19. The following
information is provided for use in the event an
unintentional spin is encountered.
62
27.
Spin recovery procedure is consistent with most general aviation aircraft and
follows the acronym PARE (Power – Aileron – Rudder – Elevator). Spin recovery is
accomplished as follows:
a.
P – Power – bring throttle to idle.
b.
A – Ailerons – centralize the control column. Raise flaps if req’d
c.
R – Rudder – apply full rudder opposite to the direction of rotation;
d.
E – Elevator – ease control column forward to break the stall; and
e.
once rotation stops, centralize the rudders, level the wings, ease
out of the ensuing dive, and establish a climb to a safe altitude.
NOTE
While it is not an aircraft specific emergency checklist, spin
recovery is a critical emergency procedure and shall be
committed to memory.
Spiral Dives
28.
Spiral dives are steep descending turns characterized by rapidly increasing
airspeed and rate of descent (in a spin, the airspeed and rate of descent remain
relatively low and constant). Left uncorrected, a spiral dive usually leads to structural
failure. Attempts to recover using aft control column will only tighten the spiral.
29.
The spiral dive recovery procedure for this aircraft is consistent with most general
aviation aircraft and is as follows the acronym PRP (Power – Roll – Pull):
a.
P – Power – reduce power to idle;
b.
R – Roll – roll to a wings level attitude with full aileron deflection;
c.
P – Pull – pull the nose up to ease out of the ensuing dive; and
d.
after recovery from the spiral dive, apply power as required to
establish a climb to a safe altitude.
NOTE
While it is not an aircraft specific emergency checklist, spiral
dive recovery is a critical emergency procedure and shall be
committed to memory.
63
Forward Slips
30.
Forward slips may be used to increase aircraft rate of descent. The L19 may
be forward slipped at any airspeed and flap setting.
PRE-STALL CHECK
31.
Prior to practising stalls, spiral dives, or unusual attitude recoveries, perform the
following (ASCOT) check:
Table 2-15
ACTION
PRE-STALL (ASCOT)
CHECK
1. Altitude
As required
2. Straps
tight
3. Cockpit/configuration
4. Objects
• Fuel ---- FULLEST TANK
• Carb Heat --- ICE CHECK
• Mixture ---------------- RICH
• Flaps ----------- AS REQD
• Temp/Press ------ GREEN
• Door/Windows - SECURE
Secure loose objects
5. Traffic/Terrain
Clear
NOTES
Ensure recovery can be c/o
above min designated altitudes
Ensure unused straps secure
Check for conflicting traffic and
ensure clear of built-up areas
DESCENT
32.
Prior to commencing descent, perform descent check as follows:
Table 2-17
ACTION
PRE-DESCENT
CHECK
1. Mixture
FULL RICH
2. Carb heat
As required
3. Power
Reduce As required
NOTES
May be done progressively in
“cruise” descents
Descent After Tow – To avoid shock cooling of cylinders, use the following procedures
1. Slowly reduce power to 1800 RPM
2. Do not exceed 80 MPH in descent
3. Do not further reduce power for 2 minutes, or until CHT is below 160° C
64
TRAFFIC PATTERN
33.
Normal traffic pattern entry procedures apply.
34.
For easy transition to final approach speeds, it is recommended that pilots slow
to 80 mph upon entering traffic pattern. This can be accomplished with power settings
of approximately 1900 RPM. Higher throttle settings may be used, but will require
careful circuit planning to permit deceleration to Vfe (maximum flap speed) without
resulting in a higher than normal approach.
35.
Prior to turning base, perform the pre-landing check as follows:
Table 2-18
ACTION
PRE-LANDING
CHECK
1. Fuel selector
On fullest tank
2. Harnesses
Secure and locked
3. Carb heat
As required
4. Mixture
Full RICH
5. Temperatures and pressures
Normal
6. Boost Pump
ON
7. Brakes
Check pressure
8. Landing Light
ON for night ops only
NOTES
“in the green”
NOTE
The pre-landing check shall be committed to memory
FINAL APPROACH
36.
The final approach path flown will depend on the type of landing to be carried
and the presence of any approach end obstacles. Establish and maintain the correct
glide path with throttle changes while maintaining airspeed with pitch angle. Drift may be
eliminated using either the crab or wing down/top rudder techniques. Always use the
wing down/top rudder technique during the final approach, flare and landing
a.
Normal Approach. Normal approaches are flown with 0-40 degrees of
flaps, an approach speed of 70 MPH ISA, with some engine power to
provide a margin for glide path control;
b.
Obstacle Clearance Approach. When approach end obstacles exist, the
final approach will be executed with with 40 – 60 degrees of flap, an
approach speed of 70 MPH IAS, and power at idle to ensure the steepest
possible approach.
65
LANDING
General
37.
Landings may be accomplished using a three point landing or a wheel landing.
These techniques are discussed in detail in C-CR-CCP-244/PT-005:
a.
a three point landing involves landing the aircraft in such a manner that the
main wheels and tail wheel touchdown simultaneously. This is the standard
landing attitude for ACGP operations, and shall be used except when
circumstances dictate the use of a wheel landing; and
b.
a “wheel landing”, which involves landing the aircraft in such a manner that
initial contact is on the main wheels only. This technique may be
appropriate when strong or gusty crosswind conditions exist.
WARNING
Wheel landings should not be attempted by pilots who
are not proficient with the technique. Hard landings,
bounces, and porpoising can occur when wheel landings
are executed without adequate precision, and may result
in landing gear damage or a propeller strike.
38.
As with all a tail wheel equipped aircraft, the L19 is directionally unstable on the
ground. It is critical that all landings be accomplished with the aircraft longitudinal axis
properly aligned with the landing surface and with no lateral drift.
WARNING
Failure to ensure proper alignment and drift elimination
on landing can result in an uncontrolled ground loop.
39.
Care must be taken when applying brakes during the landing roll. Brake
application must be smooth and progressive, and any tendency for the tail to lift must
immediately be countered with full aft stick and the release of brake pressure.
WARNING
Abrupt / excessive application brake and / or failure to
maintain full aft stick after touchdown may result in a
nose-over.
66
Normal Landing
40.
Normal landings are accomplished in the three point landing attitude, using
moderate flap settings (0-40 degrees, with 30 degrees of flap being typical):
a.
establish a final approach with 0-40º flaps (30º flaps typical) and a speed
of 70 MPH IAS;
b.
as the aircraft is flared for landing, smoothly reduce power to idle and pitch
the nose up gently to achieve level flight just above the runway;
c.
smoothly increase backpressure on the stick to bring the aircraft to a
normal three point attitude as airspeed decreases;
d.
touchdown should occur in the three point attitude just as the stalling
speed is reached;
e.
if the flare height has been badly misjudged and major corrections will be
necessary in order to salvage the landing, consider aborting the landing,
as large corrections at this point will almost invariably result in a bad
landing and subsequent directional control problems on the ground; and
f.
once the aircraft is on the ground, ease the control column full aft and use
rudder/tail wheel steering, brake, aileron, and power as necessary to
maintain a straight rollout down the middle of the landing surface.
Short Field Landing
41.
A short field landing is used when the available landing surface is of limited
length. The determination of whether the available field length is “short” must be based
on calculated landing performance, with due consideration for aircraft weight, winds,
and density altitude. As a general guideline, takeoff surfaces less than 1,500 ft long
should be carefully assessed. Short field landings are accomplished with flaps set from
40 to 60 degree, with maximum performance achieved at 60 degrees of flaps:
a.
establish a final approach with 40 - 60º flaps and an approach speed of
70 MPH IAS;
b.
conduct the final approach with an aim point just prior to the threshold, so
as to touch down close to the threshold of the usable landing surface;
c.
as the aircraft is flared for landing, smoothly reduce power to idle;
67
d.
smoothly increase backpressure on the stick to bring the aircraft to a
normal three point attitude as airspeed decreases;
WARNING
Due to the high drag associate with the flap setting,
airspeed will decrease rapidly in the flare. Be prepared
to cushion the landing with power if required.
e.
touchdown should occur in the three point attitude just as the stalling
speed is reached;
f.
if the flare height has been badly misjudged and major corrections will be
necessary in order to salvage the landing, consider aborting the landing,
as large corrections at this point will almost invariably result in a bad
landing and subsequent directional control problems on the ground;
g.
once the aircraft is on the ground, ease the control column full aft and use
rudder/tail wheel steering, brake, aileron, and power as necessary to
maintain a straight rollout down the middle of the landing surface;
h.
once directional control is confirmed, hold the stick aft, raise the flaps, and
smoothly apply brakes as required.
WARNING
Abrupt or excessive application of brake and / or failure
to maintain full aft stick after touchdown may result in a
nose-over.
Soft / Rough Field Landing
42.
Landings on Soft / Rough surfaces such as grass are accomplished using the
Normal Landing technique.
43.
A suitably sized, well-maintained grass landing surface, free of soft spots, rocks
or depressions offers one of the best landing surfaces for the L19. A grass surface
helps absorb the shock of landing and is more tolerant of landings made without
sufficient compensation for drift or imprudent application of brake. Also even short
clipped grass will offer significant resistance to the roll potential of the wheels, this
resistance becomes greater as the aircraft decelerates. The end result is that a grassy
surface, which is suitable in other respects, will afford a much shorter landing roll than
on a paved runway surface.
68
44.
When making a landing onto a shorter grassy surface that will require the use of
brakes, it is important to know if the grass is wet from rain or even dew. The wheels
could skid very easily and provide up to 30 % less braking capability than a wet paved
surface.
WARNING
The condition of the grass surface must be cautiously
monitored when it begins to dry out, as the braking action
could become sporadic. Judicious use of brakes is required
to ensure that the brakes do not lock up on wet patches and
then suddenly increase the braking effect when a dry patch is
encountered. The sudden deceleration can cause the aircraft
to tip over onto the nose before the pilot is able to take
corrective action.
Crosswind Landing
45.
When landing in a strong crosswind, use the minimum flap setting required for
the field type / length. The wing-low method of crosswind compensation gives the best
aircraft control.
WARNING
Flaps exposed to strong crosswinds during landing introduce
a yawing moment that can contribute to a loss of directional
control and can lead to a ground loop.
46.
Crosswind landings may be accomplished using the 3 point landing or wheel
landing technique, depending on the conditions encountered.
WARNING
Wheel landings under challenging crosswind conditions
require precise control. Pilots who are not proficient in wheel
landings are strongly discouraged from using this technique
in strong or gusty crosswinds.
69
Overshoot
47.
If necessary to abort a landing, execute an overshoot as follows:
a.
smoothly apply full power, close carb heat, and establish a climb attitude;
b.
immediately raise flaps to 30º to reduce drag; and
c.
after safely clearing any obstacles and a positive rate of climb has been
established, raise any remaining flaps in stages and trim for the climb.
WARNING
Premature retraction of the last 30º of flaps can result in
the aircraft “settling” and a loss of altitude.
70
CONTINUOUS CIRCUIT OPERATIONS
Touch and Go Landings
48.
When the landing roll is fully controlled, smoothly advance the throttle to FULL
power. Bring the tail up promptly to normal take-off attitude. The more flap selected the
more forward control pressure will be required to achieve this attitude. Trimming
forward will ease the amount of pressure required. Use normal take-off techniques and
once airborne perform the Post Take-Off Check.
CAUTION
If the landing was made with more than 30 degrees of flap
selected, perform a stop and go reselecting a maximum of
30 degrees of flap before continuing with the go.
Stop and Go Landings
49.
When conducting multiple circuits, use the Stop and Go check as follows:
Table 2-19
ACTION
STOP AND GO
CHECK
1. Trim
Set for Takeoff
2. Fuel Selector
Set on Fullest Tank
3. Flaps
Set as required
4. Carb Heat
Cold
5. Mixture
Rich
7. Temperatures and pressures
Normal
8. Boost Pump
On
71
NOTES
POST LANDING CHECK
50.
Upon termination of a flight and when clear of the active runway, complete the
post-landing check as follows:
Table 2-20
ACTION
POST - LANDING
CHECK
1. Flaps
Select UP
2. Boost Pump
OFF
3. Carb Heat
COLD
4. Pulse Light
OFF (Daytime Ops)
5. Taxi Light
ON (Night Ops Only)
6. Pitot Heat
OFF
7. Transponder
OFF
NOTES
SHUT-DOWN CHECK
51.
Shut-down the aircraft as follows:
Table 2-21
ACTION
SHUT-DOWN
CHECK
1. Ground idle
1 min @ 1000 RPM
2. Radio master
OFF
3. Throttle
700 RPM
4. Magnetos
Live mag check
5. Mixture
ICO
6. Magnetos
OFF
7. All switches
OFF
8. Battery switch
OFF
9. Alternator Switch
OFF
9. Control lock
install
10. Secure Aircraft
•
•
•
•
NOTES
To stabilize engine temps prior to
shutdown (taxi time may be used).
Select both Mags OFF
momentarily
Chocks - In
Tie downs - Secure
Plugs - Install
Covers – Install as req’d
72
CAUTION
During bird nesting season, install
engine plugs during any shutdown
of significant duration
MANAGEMENT OF ANCILLARY CONTROLS
Mixture Control
52.
To prevent fouled plugs, rough running and/or engine damage, correct leaning
procedures must be followed during all phases of flight. Proceed as follows:
a.
Ground Handling – mixture full rich. If extended ground idling is
anticipated, the mixture should be aggressively leaned. Return to full rich
prior to run-up or takeoff.
b.
Takeoff – mixture full rich unless taking off at high altitude (> 3000’ MSL).
For high altitude takeoffs, hold brakes, apply full power then lean mixture
as necessary for smooth running and maximum power.
c.
Climb – full rich
d.
Cruise – after altitude, airspeed and power settings have stabilized, lean
the mixture to slightly Rich of Peak (RoP) using the Peak RPM Method;
e.
Descent, Circuit – mixture full rich.
Carburetor Heat
53.
Carburettor heat should be applied when carb ice is suspected, or when
operating in conditions where the risk of carb ice is high.
CAUTION
Apply FULL carb heat whenever icing is suspected and
leave it in this position long enough to take effect. Anticipate
that engine performance may further degrade (loss of power,
roughness) as the ice melts and water is ingested.
CAUTION
The carburettor heat lever should be set only in the full
COLD or full HOT positions. DO NOT use any intermediate
positions.
73
FUEL MANAGEMENT
Pre-Flight Fuel Planning
54.
Pre-flight fuel planning for cross country operations is essential. Pre-flight
planning shall incorporate the following:
a.
allow for fuel consumed during start, run-up, taxi, and takeoff. A typical
planning figure is 1.0 USG;
b.
allow for fuel consumed during the climb to cruising altitude. The fuel
consumption rate during a full power climb will be 13.0 GPH or 50 litres/hr;
c.
allow for winds aloft and the effect on ground speed;
d.
allow for fuel that may be consumed by reasonably foreseeable
contingencies such as en-route altitude changes, en-route course
variations, routing changes directed by ATC, etc;
e.
incorporate an appropriate VFR fuel reserve. Regulations require that
pre-flight planning allows for a minimum fuel reserve of:
(1)
(2)
30 minutes for daytime operations, and
45 minutes for night operations.
f.
identify en-route locations for possible fuel stops; and
g.
when operating in areas with long distances between aerodromes with
fuel services, determine a “point-of-no-return” (PNR) beyond which you
are committed to continuing to your destination. PNR represents a critical
decision gate for en-route fuel management.
74
En-Route Fuel Management
55.
This aircraft is equipped with several tools to assist the pilot with the task of fuel
management. Of particular significance / use are the following:
a.
Fuel Quantity Gauges. Fuel quantity gauges show the useable fuel in
each tank:
i)
the fuel gauges are considered reliable only when the tanks are
completely full, or when fuel levels are below 1/4.
CAUTION
Fuel gauge indications are not to be considered reliable.
Engine failures due to fuel starvation can occur when
the selected tank indicates less that ¼ full and the
aircraft is not maintained in level, un-accelerated flight
ii)
A red arc, extending from E to just below the 1/4-full on the face of
each indicator is labelled NO TAKE-OFF and indicates that fuel
flow from the tank may be disrupted when the aircraft is in a threepoint attitude.
WARNING
Takeoff shall not be commenced when either fuel tank is
indicating in the NO TAKEOFF range
b.
Garmin GPS. When conducting cross country operations, the GPS will
provide Estimated Time Enroute (ETE) to the final destination. Using this
feature, the pilot can compare planned versus actual ETE and monitor the
adequacy of planned fuel reserves throughout the flight.
75
GLIDER TOWING OPERATIONS
Aircraft Performance on Tow
56.
Aircraft performance is significantly different when conducting glider towing
operations. Actual performance will depend on variables such as tow aircraft weight,
glider weight, winds, runway surface type and density altitude. In general terms, pilots
can expect the following:
a.
slower acceleration;
b.
longer takeoff roll; and
c.
lower rate of climb.
Prior to First Tow
57.
During the pre-flight inspection, inspect the condition and operation of the tow
release mechanism and ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted. Perform a tow
rope release check prior to the first tow. Normal pre-takeoff checks are performed prior
to the first tow
Continuous Towing Operations
58.
During continuous towing operations, the following Stop and Go Check is
performed prior to each subsequent tow:
Table 2-19
ACTION
STOP AND GO
CHECK
1. Trim
Set for Takeoff
2. Fuel Selector
Set on Fullest Tank
3. Flaps
Set as required
4. Carb Heat
Cold
5. Mixture
Rich
7. Temperatures and pressures
Normal
8. Boost Pump
On
76
NOTES
Takeoffs with Glider on Tow
59.
Take-off with glider in tow is accomplished as follows:
a.
complete pre-takeoff or stop & go check, set flaps between 10 º to 15 º;
b.
at the TAKE UP SLACK signal, ensure the control column is fully aft, relax
pressure on the brakes and advance power slightly to achieve a slow
forward crawl. Control speed with brakes until ALL OUT signal;
c.
at the ALL OUT signal, release the brakes and smoothly apply full throttle,
maintaining directional control with tail wheel steering and rudder;
d.
as the aircraft accelerates under good directional control, move the control
stick gently forward to lift the tail to a slightly tail-low attitude;
WARNING
Do no use excessive or aggressive control inputs to lift the
tail off the ground prematurely. Such action combined with a
premature release or rope brake could result in a nose-over.
e.
accelerate until the aircraft lifts off at between 50 and 60 MPH;
f.
smoothly adjust pitch attitude to establish a climb at 65-70 MPH; and
g.
at a safe altitude, perform the Post Takeoff Check.
Glider Tow
60.
Complete the tow to altitude as follows:
a.
maintain a climb speed of 65 - 70 MPH;
b.
expect rudder and elevator trim changes during the tow as the glider
moves around. Counter these changes by manually maintaining coordinated flight and trimming off elevator pressure;
WARNING
Rapid movement of the glider to an extreme tow position may
result in tow ship upset. When a glider on tow rapidly diverges to
an extreme tow position sufficient to produce forces on the tail that
cannot be countered with elevator or rudder, release the glider.
c.
use a maximum of 15-20 degrees of bank in the turns Enter and exit each
turn smoothly and positively maintaining rudder co-ordination; and
d.
plan your pattern to arrive at the designated release point at the same
time you reach release altitude without having to orbit if possible.
77
Glider Release
61.
Approaching the planned release altitude, gradually reduce power to 2000 RPM
while maintaining 70 MPH. This will result in the tow aircraft levelling off or maintaining
a gentle climb. Await glider release.
62.
As the glider prepares to release it will climb slightly then dive slightly to ease the
tension on the tow rope. This will be felt in the tow aircraft through pitch changes counter the changes manually;
63.
Visual confirmation of glider release is essential. Positive procedural separation
from the glider (tow plane down and left, glider up and right) is essential.
Descent after Release
64.
Descent / recovery profiles are designed to minimize the effects of shock cooling
on the engine.
65.
Slowly throttle back to 1800 RPM, begin a descending left turn, adjust flap as
necessary for the pattern to be flown (up to 60 degrees of flap may be used if
necessary). Note the time of release and establish a descent at 80 MPH until 2 minutes
after release or CHT drops below 160 degrees C.
NOTE
The preferred technique to minimize thermal shock is to
gradually reduce the throttle to 1800 RPM (i.e. 2300 – 1800
in approx 15 sec) while maintaining airspeed below 80 mph.
Normal engine handling can be resumed when CHT drops
below 160ºC.
Approach and Landing
66.
Conduct the approach and landing using techniques appropriate to the landing
surface. Pilots must adjust the approach to ensure that the trailing tow rope remains
clear of all obstacles.
WARNING
The tow rope will trail behind and below the aircraft, and will
“flail” both vertically and laterally. Impact by the glider tow
ring can cause serious damage to materiel and serious injury
to personnel. Ensure that the rope will be clear of any
approach obstacles, equipment, or personnel.
78
Cross Country Towing Operations
67.
To optimize aircraft performance and control during the cruise phase of the cross
country tow, the aircraft should be configured as follows:
a.
When towing in smooth atmospheric conditions, the aircraft should normally
be configured as follows:
(1)
(2)
b.
flaps up
throttle set for IAS between 85 – 90 MPH
When towing in rough atmospheric conditions, the aircraft should normally
be configured as follows:
(1)
(2)
flaps up
throttle set for IAS between 80– 85 MPH
68.
When conducting cross country towing in areas of significant lift or convective
activity, do not attempt to maintain a constant altitude. This will make it extremely
difficult for the glider pilot to avoid slack-rope situations. If traffic, terrain, and airspace
considerations allow, it is generally best to maintain a constant airspeed and “ride out”
the convective activity, accepting moderate variations in altitude.
79
SEVERE WEATHER OPERATIONS
Rain
69.
No special precautions need to be taken during flight in rain other than remaining
vigilant for icing conditions and unexpected reductions to visibility. During take-off and
landing, directional control may be more difficult as a result of reduced friction both on
paved and grass surfaces. Both take-off and landing should be flown tail low on grass
surfaces as unseen heavy wet grass or deep puddles could cause nosing over.
Icing Conditions
70.
Flights into conditions where icing should reasonably be expected are
prohibited. This includes flight in freezing rain or freezing drizzle, flight in wet snow, or
flight in cloud. Should icing conditions be inadvertently encountered, consider the
following:
a.
the aircraft has no anti-icing or de-icing equipment at all for the airframes,
propeller, or air induction ducts. Limited icing protection is offered by pitot
heat for the pilot/static system, a defroster for the windshield, and
carburettor heat for the engine;
b.
be aware that any snow, frost or ice build-up on the aircraft can increase
the stalling speed by 20-30 %. In flight the aircraft will become heavy and
sluggish as ice is accumulated;
c.
cycling the engine through the RPM range may shed the propeller of some
ice, but also could put the propeller into dangerous imbalance;
d.
ice may impede control movement so frequent control movements should
be made to keep the controls free; and
e.
when landing, plan on an approach speed up to 30% above normal.
Turbulence and Thunderstorms
71.
Flights into strong turbulence are discouraged. If strong turbulence is
accidentally encountered, set airspeed as close to manoeuvring speed as practical and
fly a constant pitch attitude. This technique combats the tendency to chase wildly
fluctuating airspeeds and altitudes caused by differential barometric pressures in the
storm.
72.
Flights into thunderstorms are prohibited.
80
COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS
73.
Operating the L19 in cold weather involves greater than normal care of the
airframe if it is stored outside, and more concern with the strains put on the engine:
a.
the external check must ensure all ice, snow and frost is carefully removed
from the airframe. The preferred method is by de-ice fluid but careful
sweeping is acceptable. Do not attempt to remove surface contamination
by scraping or chipping;
b.
in extremely cold temperatures, it may be necessary to pre-heat the
engine using an approved ground heater;
c.
with the Magneto switch OFF, pull the propeller through for a seven blade
count. This will help lubricate each cylinder prior to start;
d.
when priming the engine prior to start, use about 1 second at – 20
degrees C to 4 seconds at –40 degrees C. If the engine will not continue
running, continue to prime intermittently after start until the engine runs
smoothly;
e.
monitor oil pressure / temperature and cylinder heat temperatures closely
to ensure operating minimum’s and maximums are maintained. Warm the
engine slowly at 1000 - 1200 RPM. In extreme cold temperatures, apply
carb heat to help warm up the air induction system;
f.
when taxiing, be alert for slippery conditions and check that all instruments
are operating properly;
g.
prior to take-off ensure no snow / frost has accumulated on wings and tail;
h.
carburettor heat may be used during take-off and at any time during flight.
It is wise to use it early to prevent carburettor ice rather than try to melt it
after it has formed;
i.
avoid power-off descents, but if they are used, clear the engine by
applying moderate power settings every 30 seconds;
j.
use carburettor heat on approach and land normally with due concern for
the surface conditions;
k.
during landings, make allowances for reduced braking effectiveness on
snow or ice covered runways; and
l.
put the aircraft away making sure snow and ice will be prevented from
entering critical areas.
81
PART III
EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES
GENERAL
Priorities
1.
In any emergency, the first priority is to maintain aircraft control, and then take
the necessary actions to eliminate or mitigate the problem.
2.
The ability of a pilot to react quickly and correctly in a stressful emergency
situation will depend in large measure by how well these emergency procedures have
been reviewed, practiced, and committed to memory.
3.
It should also be noted that in these emergency procedures “as soon as
possible” means immediately, i.e., land in the nearest field, while “as soon as
practicable” means at the nearest suitable aerodrome.
Non-Critical Emergencies
4.
Non-critical emergencies are those that do not pose an immediate threat to the
safety of the aircraft or the personnel on board. These are circumstances where there
is sufficient time available to assess the situation, consider available options, and
determine a suitable course of action. Non-critical emergencies are also referred to as
“Yellow Page Emergencies” as they are printed on yellow paper in the aircraft checklist.
5.
Pilots are expected to refer to written checklists in responding to a non-critical
emergency.
Critical Emergencies
6.
Critical emergencies are those that pose an immediate threat to the safety of the
aircraft or the personnel on board and require immediate and correct response by the
pilot. Critical emergencies are also referred to as “Red Page Emergencies” as they are
printed on red paper in the aircraft checklist.
7.
Pilots are expected to commit critical emergency checklists to memory.
82
NON-CRITICAL EMERGENCIES
Alternator Failure
8.
Since alternator failure may lead to a complete electrical failure, the checklist
deals with both problems. By virtue of the fact that the operation is virtually a day, VFR
operation, the L19 is quite easily recovered without electrics. The services lost, which
may affect the landing are: flaps, radio/nav equipment, boost pump and oil temperature
gauge
9.
Malfunctions in the electrical system can usually be detected by monitoring the
voltage and ampere displays.
10.
For an alternator failure, proceed as follows:
Table 3-1
ACTION
1.
Battery Switch
ALTERNATOR FAILURE
CHECK
2. Alternator Circuit Breakers
IN
3. Alternator
ON
If Alternator Does Not Reset:
4. All Electrics
NOTES
ON
OFF
If Electrical Services Needed for Safe Recovery:
5. Battery Switch
ON
6. Essential Services
ON
7. Battery Voltage
MONITOR
8. Land
As Soon As Practicable
NOTE
Consider turning off battery to conserve electrical power for
landing.
NOTE
Battery power is sufficient for normal (VFR) operations for
approximately 30 minutes.
83
Low Oil Pressure
11.
A low oil level due to normal engine usage, leaks, or an oil pump failure, may
cause low oil pressure. It may be difficult to discern which of these is the problem, so
the prudent approach is to reduce the strain on the engine and land promptly. Low
pressure and high or rising oil temperatures however is indicative of oil starvation and
imminent engine failure. Fluctuating pressure is indicative of oil pump cavitation and
imminent oil exhaustion.
Table 3-2
ACTION
LOW / FLUCTUATING OIL PRESSURE
CHECK
1. Power
reduce
2. Land
As soon as practicable
NOTES
Continue flight at lowest feasible
power setting.
CAUTION
If oil temperature is high or rising rapidly, engine failure may be
imminent. Such circumstances will increase the urgency and may
require landing as soon as possible.
Low Fuel Pressure
12.
The most likely cause is failure of the engine driven fuel pump. While gravity
may feed sufficient fuel to maintain engine operations when throttle settings are low, the
boost pump should be used to restore normal fuel pressure.
Table 3-3
ACTION
LOW FUEL PRESSURE
CHECK
1. Boost Pump
ON
2. Land
As soon as practicable
84
NOTES
Split Flap
14.
The most likely cause is failure of one of the flex drive cables to the flaps. If this
is the problem there should be little difficulty in matching the setting by moving the other
flap. If the setting cannot be matched, the problem becomes one of control due to the
unequal lift/drag between wings. Since the problem becomes more acute as speed is
reduced, some testing must be carried out at an altitude where loss of control can be
safely regained. The minimum safe speed determined during this testing must be
maintained or exceeded for the rest of the flight.
Table 3-4
ACTION
SPLIT FLAP
CHECK
NOTES
1. Reverse cycle to attempt to
equalize flaps
If Unable to Equalize Flaps:
2. Carry out a controllability
check at a safe altitude and
determine minimum safe airspeed
3. Fly the approach and landing
at airspeed 5 MPH above
The minimum safe airspeed
CAUTION
Do not allow IAS to fall below calculated minimum safe airspeed prior to
touchdown.
85
CRITICAL EMERGENCIES
Engine Fire on Start / on Ground
15.
The most likely cause of a fire on start is over-priming with subsequent backfiring
igniting the excess fuel in the air induction system. The best way of containing such a
fire is to continue cranking the engine so as to suck the flames and accumulated fuel
into the engine. In this circumstance, evidence of fire will likely only be apparent upon
shutdown and investigation. If at any time (on the ground) that an engine fire is evident
from the cockpit, the aircraft should be abandoned as soon as possible.
Table 3-5
ACTION
ENGINE FIRE ON START
CHECK
1. Starter
Continue cranking
2. Throttle
OPEN - full
3. Mixture
ICO
NOTES
Sucks flames and accumulated
fuel into carburettor and engine
If no further evidence of fire:
Complete normal shutdown and investigate
If fire continues:
Perform engine fire on ground check
Table 3-6
ACTION
ENGINE FIRE ON GROUND
CHECK
1. Throttle
Closed
2. Mixture
ICO
3. Fuel Selector
OFF
4. Boost Pump
OFF
5. Magnetos
OFF
6. Alt / Batt Switches
OFF
7. Abandon aircraft
ASAP
8. Use fire extinguisher
Discharge extinguisher into carb
air intake and cowl flaps
86
NOTES
Exercise caution
In Flight Fires
16.
In flight fires may be engine fires, cabin fires, electrical fires, or wing fires. Fires
can result from a variety of causes. An appropriate emergency response must therefore
address all potential causes.
Table 3-7
ACTION
ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT
CHECK
NOTES
1. Mixture
ICO
Shuts off fuel at carb
2. Fuel selector
OFF
Shuts off fuel to engine
compartment
3. Boost Pump
OFF
3. Cabin heat controls
CLOSE (Fully in to close)
4. Magnetos
OFF
5. Batt / Alt Switches
OFF (after flap selection)
6. Airspeed
100 mph
7. Carry out a forced landing
Table 3-8
ACTION
Minimizes ingestion of
smoke/fumes into cockpit
Eliminates source of ignition
Eliminates source of electrical
fire
Adjust speed as required to find
a speed which will ensure an
incombustible fuel/air mixture
Do not attempt to restart engine.
CABIN FIRE
CHECK
1. Alt / Batt Switches
OFF
2. Cabin Heat/Air, all vents
CLOSE
3. Fire extinguisher
Activate, as required
4. Ventilate Cabin
As required
5. Land
ASAP
NOTES
As soon as practicable or
possible, depending on
circumstances.
87
Table 3-9
ACTION
ELECTRICAL FIRE
CHECK
1. Batt / Alt Switches
OFF
2. All electrics
OFF
3. If Cabin Fire Evident
C/O Cabin Fire Checklist
NOTES
If flight cannot be safely completed without electrics:
4. Battery switch
ON
5. Essential Systems
ON, as required
6. Land
As soon as practicable
Table 3-10
ACTION
Select systems sequentially,
allowing a short pause to confirm
that each system is functioning
normally. Monitor ammeter
WING FIRE
CHECK
1. Slip away from burning wing
2. All lights
OFF
3. Pitot heat
OFF
4. Land
As soon as possible
88
NOTES
Engine Failures
17.
Engine failures may occur at any point during the flight and with little or no
warning. An appropriate emergency response must consider the altitude, airspeed, and
location where the engine failure occurs. Prior to initiating take-off, pilots should have
established a course of action to deal with time-critical engine failures.
Table 3-11
ACTION
ENGINE FAILURE ON TAKEOFF
CHECK
1. Throttle
CLOSE
2. Brakes
APPLY, as required
3. If towing
Release glider, move left
Table 3-12
ACTION
NOTES
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER TAKEOFF
CHECK
1. Establish Glide
72 MPH
2. If towing
Release glider
3. Throttle
CLOSE
4. Select landing area
Fly to it
5. Shutdown FMS
Complete the Engine Shutdown
FMS Check IF TIME PERMITS
89
NOTES
Table 3-13
ACTION
ENGINE FAILURE IN FLIGHT
CHECK
1. Establish Glide
72 MPH
2. If towing
Release glider
3. Throttle
CLOSE
4. Select landing area
Fly to it
5. If Time Permits, attempt engine restart as follows using FMS Check
F - Fuel
Fuel selector
Boost Pump
M - Mixture
S - Switches
Fullest Tank
ON
Throttle
Open ½”
Mixture
RICH
Carb Heat
HOT
Magnetos
On BOTH
6. If propeller has stopped – engage starter
7. If unable to restart engine – carry out Forced Landing Check
90
NOTES
Forced Landing
18.
Critical emergencies that result in a total loss of engine power will necessitate a
Forced Landing, which shall be accomplished as follows:
Table 3-14
ACTION
FORCED LANDING
CHECK
1. Glide
72 mph
2. ELT
ON
3. MAYDAY
Transmit
4. Transponder
Set 7700
5. Landing area
Recheck
NOTES
Re-assess for suitability and
approach obstacles, estimate
MSL altitude and wind direction
and speed
6. Perform Engine Shutdown FMS Check if time permits
F - Fuel
Fuel Selector OFF
M - Mixture
S - Switches
Boost Pump
OFF
Mixture
ICO
Magnetos
OFF
Alternator Switch
OFF
7. Harness
Ensure tight
8. Brakes
Check
9. Cabin doors and windows
Unlatch
10. Flaps
Select the maximum flaps
practical for the situation
OFF
If landing on unprepared surface
11. Battery switch
After last flap selection
For Ditching
In light winds, land parallel to swells.
In strong winds, land into wind, tail low on or past crest of wave.
WARNING
Following a water landing, do not inflate life vest until clear of
the aircraft
91
PART IV
OPERATING DATA AND LIMITATIONS
GENERAL
1.
The operating parameters detailed in this part provide for the safe and optimum
operation of the aircraft. Except in an emergency, these limitations shall be observed.
2.
Conventional instrument markings are utilized: white and red marks indicating
minimum and maximum limits, green arcs indicating normal operating ranges, and
yellow indicating cautionary ranges. These markings are for quick reference only; the
precise limitations can be found on the type certificate data sheet, the Supplemental
Type Certificates (STCs) which apply and the various placards mounted in the cockpit.
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Weight Limitations
3.
The following weight limitations are applicable:
Maximum All Up Weight – “A” Model
2300 lbs
Maximum All Up Weight – “C” Model
2400 lbs
Full fuel (41 US Gal @ 15º C)
246 lbs
Max baggage compartment weight
100 lbs
Table 4-1 Weight Limitations
92
Engine Limitations
4.
The following engine limitations are applicable:
RPM
Maximum (5 minutes)
2600
Maximum (continuous)
2300
Normal Operating Range
Minimum (at idle)
Oil Pressure
Oil Temperature
Cylinder Head Temp
(CHT)
Fuel Pressure
Suction
Normal operating range
1800 - 2300
30 psi
40 – 60 psi
Maximum (cold oil)
95 psi
Minimum for run-up
15 º C
Minimum for takeoff
24 º C
38 º C – 108 º C
Normal Range
Maximum
108 C
Minimum for run-up
80 º C
Minimum for take-off
110 º C
Minimum for Glide
70 º C
Normal Range
110 - 200 º C
Cautionary Range
200 - 230 º C
Maximum
230 º C
Minimum
11 psi
11 – 13 psi
Normal Range
Maximum
15 psi
Minimum
4.5 in Hg
Maximum
5.5 in Hg
Table 4-2
Engine Limitations
93
Airspeed Limitations
5.
The following airspeed limitations are applicable:
IAS
(MPH)
Speed
Never Exceed Epeed
158
Remarks
Do not exceed this speed in any
operation.
With Gomolzig Muffler
VNE
150
With Hoffman Prop
150
Manoeuvring Speed
VA
VFE
113
Maximum Speed with
Flaps Extended
100
Maximum Speed with
Flaps in Transit
80
Maximum Speed with
Window(s) Open
120
Do not make full or abrupt control
movements above this speed
Max Crosswind
Landing
10 knots
Max Crosswind
Landing (Stds Pilot)
15 knots
Table 4-3
Airspeed Limitations
94
Normal Operating Speeds
6.
The following are the normal operating airspeeds:
IAS (MPH)
Normal takeoff
All weights, 0-30º flap
Max performance
All weights, 30º flap
Normal climb
VY - Best rate
VX - Best angle - 30º flap
Glider tow
Normal downwind speed
Final approach - 0º flap
- 30º flap
- 60º flap
Optimum glide – zero wind,
prop windmilling, flaps up
Takeoff
Climb
Traffic Pattern
Gliding
Remarks
50-60
50-60
80
65
60
65-70
80
70
70
70
72
Table 4-4 Normal Operating Speeds
Stalling Speeds
7.
The following stalling speeds are applicable:
Stall Speeds - M.P.H. (I.A.S.) – Power Off
Degree of Flap
Gross Weight (Lbs)
Level Flight
30 Degrees of Bank
60 Degrees of Bank
1800
47
54
74
0
2100
54
60
81
2400
59
65
87
1800
44
51
70
30
2100
51
58
76
Table 4-5 Stall Speeds
95
2400
56
62
81
1800
41
49
69
60
2100
48
55
74
2400
54
60
80
Airspeed Correction Chart
8.
The following is the airspeed correction chart. All speeds are in MPH:
Figure 4-1 Airspeed Correction Chart
96
FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS
General
9.
The following basic operating limits apply:
a.
the aircraft is certified for operation in the NORMAL category;
b.
the aircraft is certified for a maximum of two occupants;
c.
aerobatic manoeuvres, including deliberate spins, are prohibited.
Flight Load Factors
10.
The following are the load factor limits:
Flaps Up
+3.8g
Flaps Extended
+2.0g
Table 4-6 Load Factor Limits
PERFORMANCE DATA
Takeoff Speeds
11.
The standard configurations and liftoff speeds for specific takeoff techniques are
as follows:
Takeoff
Flaps
Normal
Towing
Short Field
Soft Field
0-30°
15°
30°
30°
Liftoff Speed
(MPH IAS)
50-60
50-60
50-60
50-60
Table 4-7 Takeoff Configurations
97
Takeoff Distance
12.
The following chart details Minimum Takeoff Distances:
.
Figure 4-2 Takeoff Distance Data
98
Climb Performance Data
13.
The following chart details Rate of Climb Performance:
Figure 4-3 Rate of Climb Data
99
Cruise Performance Data
14.
The following four charts provide cruise performance and specific fuel
consumption data for the L19 at Sea Level, 5,000 ft ASL, and 10,000 ft ASL:
Figure 4-4 Fuel Flow Rates
100
Figure 4-5
Specific Fuel Consumption / Cruise Data (Sea Level)
101
Figure 4-6
Specific Fuel Consumption / Cruise Data (5,000 ft ASL)
102
Figure 4-7
Specific Fuel Consumption / Cruise Data (10,000 ft ASL)
103
Landing Approach Speeds
15.
Normal circuit, approach and landing speeds are based on the selected flap
setting, and are detailed below:
Condition
IAS (MPH)
Downwind - Approx 1900 RPM
o
Approach - 0 Flap
80
70
o
Approach - 30 Flap
70
o
Approach - 60 Flap
70
Best Glide - 0 o Flap
72
Table 4-8 Landing Approach Speeds
104
Landing Distances
16.
Landing distances are provided in the table below.
Figure 4-8
Landing Distances
105
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
Model Variations
17.
The Maximum All Up Weight (MAUW) limits are:
a.
MAUW – L19”A” – 2300 lbs
b.
MAUW – L19”C” – 2400 lbs
18.
The centre of gravity limits are different for the L19 “A” Model and the L19 “C”
Model, which are depicted graphically on at Figures 4-9 and 4-10 respectively.
General
19.
The weight and balance calculation for any particular load is computed as
follows, utilizing the Worksheet at Table 4-9 and Centre of Gravity Charts at Figures 4-9
and 4-10:
a.
In the worksheet, enter the current empty weight and moment as recorded
in the Aircraft Weight and Balance Certificate or the Aircraft Journey Log,
b.
Calculate total fuel in US gallons, calculate the fuel weight, and then
calculate the fuel moment on worksheet,
c.
Enter weights for front and rear seat occupants and cargo in the baggage
compartment. Calculate the moment for each on the worksheet, then
c.
Calculate total weight and moment for the loaded aircraft, enter on
worksheet, calculate the CG position (loaded moment divided by loaded
weight) and plot centre of gravity position on Centre of Gravity Limit Chart.
d.
Pilots shall check loaded weight and balance for both the takeoff weight as
well as the anticipated landing weight to ensure that CG shift associated
with fuel burn will not put the aircraft out of limits.
WARNING
Operation of the aircraft outside of published weight and
balance limits will adversely affect the stability and control
characteristics of the aircraft.
NOTE
Aircraft Empty Weight, as shown on the Aircraft Weight &
Balance report, includes the following: 9qts Oil, 5 USG
Unusable Fuel, Life Jackets, Charts, and First Aid Kit.
106
Weight and Balance Worksheet
Takeoff Condition
Weight
(lbs)
Empty Weight and Moment
Arm
(in)
Moment
(in-lb)
Landing Condition
Weight
(lbs)
Arm
(in)
----
----
Useable Fuel @ 6.0 lb / USG
44.0
44.0
Front Seat Occupant
36.0
36.0
Rear Seat Occupant
76.0
76.0
Baggage Area
100.0
100.0
Total Weight and Moment
Table 4-9
Weight and Balance Worksheet
107
Moment
(in-lb)
Centre of Gravity Limits – “A” Model
Figure 4-9
Centre of Gravity Limit Chart – L19 “A”
108
Centre of Gravity Limits – “C” Model
Figure 4-10
Centre of Gravity Limit Chart – L19 “C”
109
ANNEX A
PILOT’S GUIDE
GARMIN GNC-250XL GPS / COM
A
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