Benchmarking of Clothes Washers between the Chinese

Benchmarking of Clothes Washers between the Chinese
Benchmarking of Clothes Washers
between the Chinese and European
Markets
January 2014
Chris Evans
Consumer Research Associates
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... 3
Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 4
1. Background for the Program of Benchmarking Washers Between the Chinese and European
markets ................................................................................................................... 14
2. Rationale for Improving Washer Efficiency in China ........................................................ 15
3. Washer Standards Review ......................................................................................... 16
4. Comparison of Washer Test Methods Between China and the EU ........................................ 18
5. Previous comparisons of MEPS levels between China and the EU ....................................... 19
6. Testing and Training Program Undertaken with CNIS....................................................... 20
6.1 Outline Description of Activities _______________________________________________________ 20
6.2 Test facility requirement _____________________________________________________________ 20
6.3 Test material requirements ___________________________________________________________ 21
6.4 Test equipment _____________________________________________________________________ 21
7. Testing of performance ............................................................................................ 22
7.1 Preparation of the test washer and reference machine ____________________________________ 22
7.2 Preparation of test materials __________________________________________________________ 22
7.3 Testing performance _________________________________________________________________ 23
7.4 EN Test procedure ___________________________________________________________________ 24
7.5 Measurement and evaluation of test data ________________________________________________ 24
8. Testing and results ................................................................................................. 27
8.1 Test details _________________________________________________________________________ 27
8.2 Test results _________________________________________________________________________ 28
8.3 Analysis of test results________________________________________________________________ 29
Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 33
Recommendations ...................................................................................................... 34
Acknowledgements
The author wishes to acknowledge the contributions made by Jia Haonan at the China National
Institute of Standardization’s Energy Efficiency Laboratory and Jeremy Owens at Intertek’s UK
Research and Testing Centre.
Expert analysis was provided by Neal Humphrey (CLASP), David Wellington (IEA 4E Operating
Agency) and Simone Bernarde (Intertek).
The report, Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products jointly written by CLASP and
Top10 China has been used as a source of materials included in this report.
3|Page
Executive Summary
Since China’s first minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) for domestic clothes washers
was issued in 2004, the rapid development of technology and aid of government financial
incentives has significantly driven up the energy efficiency (EE) levels of products currently
available on the Chinese market. As a result, the 2004 standard is no longer keeping pace with
market shifts, and a more stringent standard is required to continue pushing the clothes washer
market towards higher energy efficiency.
In 2012, CLASP and Consumer Research Associates (CRA) partnered to conduct a benchmarking
comparison of clothes washer energy efficiency performance, policies, and test methods. The
main objective of this benchmarking analysis is to assist the China National Institute of
Standardization (CNIS) in revising efficiency requirements for future clothes washer energy
performance standards in a transparent and technically valid manner that is consistent with
international best practices. This study also provides CNIS with an opportunity to compare
Chinese test methodology, laboratory practices and EE policies with those in the EU. The results
of the comparison will assist CNIS in determining whether the adoption of an international
standard or test method could become appropriate for China in the future.
Many countries and regions, including the European Union (EU), use International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) test standards and methodology as the basis for measuring
the performance of clothes washers in developing MEPS and labeling requirements. Others,
including China, have adopted their own systems for testing methodology, rating and labeling
washers according to their energy consumption levels. Variability among products between the
Chinese and EU markets, as well as the differences in test methodology and performance
metrics, make the evaluation of washer energy efficiency and performance across markets a
very complex task.
Due to the absence of reliable data about the Chinese market, a benchmarking comparison of
clothes washers between China and other economies has not been undertaken previously. For
the purposes of this study, CLASP, CRA, and CNIS mapped the Chinese and EU clothes washer
markets, selected representative machines, and conducted cross-market testing for the first
time. CNIS also wished to compare China’s test methodology with the EU’s and wanted their
testing staff to be trained in the EU methodology so that it could be replicated in CNIS’ clothes
washer test laboratory. A training component was therefore included in the testing phase for
this study.
4|Page
Comparing clothes washer performance across the EU and Chinese economies requires that
tested models have comparable functionality, and that equivalent performance bases are used
– e.g. energy consumption, water consumption, and cleaning performance. Our study achieves
this equivalent basis by comparing test procedures and calculation methods for front-loading
washers only, using the Chinese test methodology (GB/T 4288-2008 - GB 12021.4-2004) and the
EU test method (EN60456:2011, which is based on IEC 60456:2010).
China’s Clothes Washer Market
Washing machines are an important product, as households in China increasingly consider them
a necessity. Consequently, as income levels rise, particularly in rural areas, the total stock of
installed washing machines continues to rise. Based on projections by CLASP and Top10 China,
approximately 367 million washing machines were installed across China by the end of 2012.
This stock is expected to rise to 474 million in 2030.1 Figure 1 below demonstrates the
increasing annual sales of clothes washers between 2005 and 2011.
Figure 1: Annual sales of washing machines in China (2005-2011)
Source: China Industry On-line (www.chinaiol.com)
1
Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products, CLASP and Top10 China, 2013.
5|Page
There is some variation between the EU and Chinese markets for domestic washing machines
(hereafter referred to as “clothes washers” or simply “washers”). The EU market has long been
dominated by front-loading, horizontal drum washers with integrated water heaters. Toploading (impeller) machines with no integrated water heaters are currently the most popular
washers in the Chinese market, accounting for 57% of sales reported in 2012. Like many
countries elsewhere, however, China’s clothes washer market is now seeing increasing sales of
front-loading washers – 32% of sales reported in 2012.2 These appliances are known to offer
improvements in energy efficiency when combined with high washing (cleaning) performance.
Sales of twin-tub washers, which used to be very popular in China, are falling, accounting for
only 11% of sales reported in 2011.3
Under the business-as-usual scenario, washing machines are projected to consume
approximately 15 TWh of energy per year in 2030. 4 Such projections demonstrate the need to
address the energy efficiency and overall consumption of washing machines.
Clothes Washer Test Standards
A number of specific components are required to measure and evaluate the energy
performance of a clothes washer. These are as follows:
•
A test procedure that dictates a specific set of conditions to measure energy
consumption, water consumption, and, according to the applicable regulations, possibly
other performance factors such noise, spinning efficiency, and so on. The various test
methods are important to ensure reliable, accurate, and repeatable test results for
specific washing cycles of the particular model being tested.
•
A calculation method – normally included energy efficiency regulations and currently
not included in the IEC standard – is required to verify that the product complies with
the applicable minimum energy efficiency performance requirement for that particular
washer. This second component, the standard consumption of the product, determines
if an appliance consumes less than a certain amount of electricity during a specified
wash cycle.
•
A third component, that of the washer meeting a minimum washing (i.e. textile
cleaning) standard under the same specified test conditions is present in both the
2
Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products, CLASP and Top10 China, 2013.
China National Institute of Standardization , 2011 White Paper.
4
Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products, CLASP and Top10 China, 2013.
3
6|Page
Chinese and IEC standards. This requirement exists to ensure that washing performance
is maintained at the same time as energy efficiency is improved.
The comparison between the actual measured daily consumption and the limit set by the
energy efficiency regulation establishes not only whether the product complies with the
minimum requirement, but also the appropriate class level for a product’s energy label.
The standards used for measuring the energy performance of domestic washers in each
economy are listed in Table 1, below.
Table 1: Test standards used in each economy
Economy
China
EU
Standard
GB/T 4288-2008 and GB
12021.4-2004
EN 60456:2011
Scope
Energy consumption, water
consumption, and wash quality
of clothes washers
Energy consumption, water
consumption, and wash quality of
clothes washers
The Chinese standards describe test conditions, procedures and calculations to determine
information for reporting requirements, including energy consumption under pre-specified
loading and operating conditions.
Comparison of Washer Test Methods Between China and the EU
The test method for both impeller and drum washing machines in China is GB/T 4288-2008. It
measures the same performance variables for both types of washer, including energy
consumption, water consumption, and wash quality. However, the testing conditions for the
two types of machine are very different:
•
Top loader (impeller) washer performance is tested using “cold” (or, more accurately,
warmed) water at 30±2°C. This water is heated from ambient to the test temperature
externally, and the energy to heat the water is not included in the declared unit energy
consumption. (Note that this method was not used during the testing for this study)
•
Front loader (drum) washer performance is tested using cold water at 15±2°C for units
with an integrated water heater and run at the default standard hot washing setting.
Clearly the difference in the Chinese test methods creates substantially differing results. The
tested energy consumption of the impeller units is purely the mechanical energy to agitate and
7|Page
spin the laundry, plus the energy used for water pumping. However, the overall energy
consumption of the drum machines not only includes the mechanical energy, but also includes
the energy required to heat the water, which can be a significant additional factor in energy
consumption relative to the mechanical energy element.
The test method in the EU is EN 60456:2011. It has some similarities to that used in China for
front loader (drum) washers. For example, performance is tested using cold water at 15±2°C for
units with an integrated water heater. But there are also substantial dissimilarities. In
particular, the Chinese standard requires just one load (full) size to be tested on one setting
(60°C cotton), whereas the EU standard requires a full load and a half load to be tested on the
same program (60°C cotton) and a half load to be tested on another program (40°C cotton). 5
Testing and Analysis
Two representatives from CNIS and Intertek tested six different washer samples in accordance
with the Chinese and EU standards at CNIS’ test laboratory in Beijing and Intertek’s laboratory
in Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. Simultaneously, a training process took place between
Intertek’s expert trainer and CNIS’ test engineer, including an exchange of documentation –
particularly result sheet formats.
Figures 8-10 show comparisons between the results obtained when testing the same samples in
accordance with both the Chinese and EU test methods.
5
Experts working on the IEA 4E Mapping & Benchmarking Annex have previously attempted to benchmark
washers in the Chinese markets with those in other major national markets. In their published report, the authors
explained that due to the level of qualities of comparative data they could access and the high level of
normalization that needed to take place, it was not possible to include China in its benchmarking outputs.
8|Page
Figure 8: Data from combined tests for energy consumption
UEC (kWh/cycle)
1.400
Unit Energy Consumption for the EU and Chinese Test
Methods
1.200
1.000
0.800
0.600
0.400
0.200
0.000
A
B
C
D
E
F
Washing Machine ID
Chinese
EU
Figure 9: Breakdown of energy consumption by test type
UEC (kWh/cycle)
1.40
GB Full
Load - 60
1.20
1.00
Unit Energy Consumption for the EU and Chinese Test
Methods
EU Partial
Load - 40
0.80
EU Partial
Load - 60
0.60
EU Full
Load - 60
0.40
0.20
0.00
A
B
Washing Machine
- individual
test results
C
D
E
F
9|Page
Figure 10: Data from combined tests for washing performance
Wash
Washing Performance for the EU and Chinese Test Methods
Performance (%)
140%
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
A
B
C
D
E
F
Washing Machine ID
Chinese
EU Method
Visually, these charts appear to show a fairly consistent relationship between the results
obtained from the two different test methods – implying that the methods are comparable. The
project team conducted a statistical analysis to determine the possibilities of calculating a
conversion factor to enable the results obtained from one test method to be “normalized” into
the results that would have been obtained if the other test method had been used.
Another useful indicative benchmark was established by applying the results to the levels
required for energy labeling in each of these markets. Table 2 provides the results of this direct
comparison.
10 | P a g e
Table 2: Labeling comparison between the Chinese and EU markets 6
Model
Haier HW70-1482-F
Haier HW80-BD1626
Haier XQG60-1079
Label – China
Tier 1
Tier 2 (Energy consumption
satisfies Tier 1 requirement,
but wash performance does
not)
Tier 3
Haier HW60-1275
Tier 3
Haier XG70-10266A
Haier XQG80-HBD1626
Tier 3
Tier 3
Label - EU
A+++
A+++ (but wash performance
non-compliant)
A+ (but wash performance
non-compliant)
A+ (but wash performance
non-compliant)
A
A (but wash performance
non-compliant)
The comparison of labeling standards provided in Table 2 demonstrates that there is a fairly
close correlation between the energy efficiency standards being applied in both the Chinese
and EU markets for front-loading washers. This is backed up by the consistency of the
calculated conversion factors.
Conclusions & Recommendations
This study is the first attempt to benchmark front-loading clothes washers using the test
methodologies and standards applicable in the Chinese and EU markets. Previous attempts to
benchmark these two markets had not been possible due to the paucity of available data. As
washing machines are projected to consume approximately 15 TWh of energy per year in 2030
based on the expected consumer demands and energy use trends, 7 there is a clear need to
address the energy efficiency and overall consumption of washing machines, and to rapidly
bring the market to the most stringent levels feasible.
The comparison of energy efficiency labeling specifications in both the Chinese and EU markets
for the same washer samples demonstrates two things. Firstly, it shows that there is a close
correlation between the test standards being applied in both markets for front-loading
washers. The current Chinese test standard employs fairly similar test conditions to those
required by the international (IEC) and EU test standards.
6
Note that this table is only indicative of the energy efficiency tiers, or performance thresholds, included in the
Chinese and EU energy labels. A more complete table that compares the actual minimum energy performance
values for each tier is provided in the main report and verifies that the tiers are comparable.
7
Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products, CLASP and Top10 China, 2013.
11 | P a g e
These results can give CNIS confidence that adopting test methods based on IEC 60456 and
performance standards similar to those used in the EU would be likely to be acceptable to
domestic stakeholders such as manufacturers and their associations, test laboratories, and
advocates. It should be a straightforward task for test laboratories in China to adapt to methods
based on the IEC standard if the authorities adopted a version of that standard in the future.
Secondly, the comparison demonstrates that China’s current EE labeling thresholds for frontloading washers are on par with those in the EU. It is important to note, however, that frontloading washers only account for about 32% of China’s clothes washer market. China’s test
procedure and energy efficiency performance standard differ for the more common impeller
(top-loading) machines, which are not covered in this study. Moreover, the alignment between
EU and Chinese standards for front-loading washers does not necessarily indicate that either
standard cannot be improved. 8
Based on the project team’s testing experience and subsequent analysis, CLASP and CRA
recommend the following actions for Chinese policymakers:
•
Results intended for use in establishing conversion and correction factors in test
programs such as this should be subjected to expert statistical analysis. This, and
any other expert analyses, should take place concurrently with testing to ensure
any additional checks can be made and/or tests repeated whilst the samples and
facilities are still available; and
•
Testing to establish correction factors should take place in a single expert
laboratory in order to minimize inconsistences in the application of testing
procedures.
In terms of the training program that took place between CNIS, Intertek, and the project team’s
testing experts, we learned the following:
•
If the recipient laboratory only requires familiarization training to enable it to
undertake testing to another method in its own, already well-equipped test
laboratory, then a suitable expert can provide all the essential training on a
single visit lasting 5-10 days; and
8
Other studies have examined this point. CLASP’s Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products (2013)
assesses the market distribution, energy efficiency requirements, and test procedures for both impeller and drum
type washing machines, and makes recommendations for their improvement.
12 | P a g e
•
Reinforcement training can be provided through a return visit by the trained
staff to the laboratory of the expert trainer and by re-testing the same samples
at that laboratory. This is desirable, though not essential, for familiarization
training. However, it is likely to more than double the cost of the training
program.
13 | P a g e
1. Background for the Program of Benchmarking Washers Between
the Chinese and European markets
The main objective of this program was to develop a cost effective mechanism for providing
technical support to the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) that would assist
them to develop future levels of energy performance standards in a transparent and technically
valid manner. The program described in this report used clothes washers (known as washing
machines in many economies) as its example product.
A secondary objective was to provide illustrative benchmarking data on the comparative
performance of clothes washers from the EU and Chinese markets.
There is some variation between the European (EU) and Chinese markets for domestic clothes
washers (“washers”). The EU market has been long dominated by front loading, horizontal
drum, washers with integrated water heaters. Top loading (impeller) machines with no
integrated water heaters are currently the most popular washers in the Chinese market (57% of
sales reported in 2012) but in common with many countries elsewhere, the Chinese washers
market is now exhibiting increasing sales of front loading washers resulting in a market share of
over 30% by July 2012. The sales of twin-tub washers, which used to be very popular in China,
are falling with 11% of sales being reported in 2011.
Although many countries and regions including the EU use international (IEC) standards as the
basis for measuring the energy performance and efficiency of washers, others including China
have adopted their own systems for rating and labeling washers according to their energy
consumptions. Variability among products between the Chinese and EU markets and the
differences in performance metrics make the evaluation of efficiency and performance of
washers a very complex task. A benchmarking comparison against each other has not
previously been possible due to the absence of reliable data about the Chinese market.
CNIS is the agency in China that is responsible for developing test methodologies and metrics
for energy standards. Washers are included in their current review program. Results of the
performance comparisons that are one of the outputs of this program could provide insights
into their energy efficiency policies and requirements as well as the efficiencies of products
available in these markets. This program provides an excellent opportunity for comparing
Chinese test methodology with those used in the EU and the results of the comparisons would
assist CNIS to judge whether adoption of the international standard could become appropriate
for China at some future time.
14 | P a g e
The comparison of the performance of washers across the EU and Chinese economies required
that benchmarked models had comparable functionality, and that an equivalent performance
basis could be used – energy and water consumption and cleaning performance. This was
achieved - this benchmarking study comparing test procedures and calculation methods for
front-loading washers only using the incoming Chinese test methodology GB 12021.4-20xx and
the EU method EN60456:2011.9
2. Rationale for Improving Washer Efficiency in China
Clothes washers are an important product as households in China increasingly consider them a
necessity. Consequently, as income levels rise, particularly in rural areas, the total stock of
installed washers continues to rise. Based on projections 10, approximately 366 million washing
machines had been installed across China by the end of 2012. This stock is projected to rise to
484 million by 2030.
Figure 1: Annual sales of washing machines in China (2005-2011)
Source: China Industry On-line (www.chinaiol.com)
9
EN60456:2011 is based on IEC60456:2010, but includes extra requirements including a partial load test.
Market Analysis of China Energy Efficient Products, CLASP and Top10 China
10
15 | P a g e
Under the business as usual scenario, washers are projected to consume approximately 17
TWh/yr of energy in 2030 11. Such projections demonstrate the need to address the energy
efficiency and overall consumption of washing machines.
3. Washer Standards Review
There are a number of specific components related to measuring and evaluating the energy
performance of a washer:
i)
ii)
iii)
A test procedure providing a specific set of conditions to measure energy
consumption, water consumption and, according to the applicable regulations,
possibly other performance factors too e.g. noise, spinning efficiency etc. The
various test methods are important to ensure reliable, accurate, repeatable test
results for specific washing cycles of the particular model under test;
A calculation method, normally enshrined in regulations, is required to enable
verification of compliance with the applicable minimum energy efficiency
performance requirement for that particular washer. This second component, the
standard consumption of the product, determines if an appliance consumes less
than a certain amount of electricity during a specified wash cycle.
A third component, that of the washer meeting a minimum washing (textile
cleaning) standard under the same specified test conditions is present in both the
Chinese (GB) and EN standards. This requirement is there to ensure that washing
performance is maintained at the same time as energy efficiency is improved.
The comparison between the actual measured daily consumption and the limit set by the
regulation establishes not only whether the product complies with the minimum requirement,
but also the appropriate class level for a product’s energy label.
The standards used for measuring the energy performance of domestic washers in each
economy are listed in Figure 2, below.
11
It should be noted these projections are based on energy consumption for washing machines under test
conditions. There is some doubt over how representative the test method is of actual consumer use. This coupled
with a poor understanding of how consumers actually use their washing machines, means there is a potentially
large differential between estimated energy consumption, and what is consumed in reality.
16 | P a g e
Figure 2: Test standards used in each economy
Economy
China
EU
Standard
GB 12021.4-20xx
EN 60456:2011
Scope
Energy consumption, water Energy
consumption,
water
consumption and wash quality consumption and wash quality of
of clothes washers
clothes washers
The Chinese standard describes test conditions, procedures and calculations to determine
information for reporting requirements, including energy consumption under pre-specified
loading and operating conditions. The energy standards for washers currently applicable in
China are listed in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Chinese washer energy performance standards
Top-load (impeller) type*
Energy
Efficiency
Class
Electricity
Use
Water
Use
kWh/cycle
/kg
L/cycle
/kg
1
≤0.012
≤20
2(EE level)
≤0.017
≤24
Front-load (drum) type
Cleaning
kWh/cycle L/cycle
rate
/ kg
/kg
Cleaning
rate
≥0.90
≤0.19
≤12
≥1.03
≤0.23
≤14
≥0.94
≥0.80
3
≤0.022
≤28
≤0.27
≤16
4
≤0.027
≤32
≤0.31
≤18
≤0.35
≤20
≥0.70
≥0.70
5(MEPS level) ≤0.032
≤36
*These figures are supplied for information purposes only. Top loader washers and their
applicable standards were not used in this program
17 | P a g e
The EU standard, EN60456:2011, specifies test methods. The EN has an additional Annex (ZA),
which is not present in the similar international standard (IEC 60456:2010). This Annex specifies
additional test parameters and calculations necessary when establishing the energy
performance declarations required under EU regulations. The EU regulations that set out the
performance levels for energy labeling and MEPS are given in:
- COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) No 1061/2010 implementing Directive
2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to energy labelling of
household washing machines
- COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1015/2010 implementing Directive 2009/125/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council with regard to ecodesign requirements for household
washing machines.
The energy standards for washers currently applicable in the EU are listed in Figure 4.
Figure 4: EU washer energy performance standards
Energy Efficiency Class
A+++ (most efficient)
A++
A+
A (MEPS level)*
Energy Efficiency Index
EEI ≤ 46
46 ≤ EEI < 52
52 ≤ EEI < 59
59 ≤ EEI < 68
* MEPS level changes to EEI < 59 from 01/12/2013 for machines with capacities >4kg
Because of differences in test conditions, controlled temperature settings and calculations in
some of the standards, some differences in the results of the various test procedures can be
expected when the same appliance is tested to the different standards.
4. Comparison of Washer Test Methods Between China and the EU
The test methods for impeller and drum washing machines in China are based on GB 12021.
The test method measures the same performance variables for both types of machine including
energy consumption, water consumption and wash quality. However, the testing conditions for
the two types of machine are very different:
•
Top loader (impeller) washer performance is tested using “cold” (or, more
accurately, warmed) water at 30±2°C. This water is heated from ambient to the test
18 | P a g e
temperature externally and this energy to heat the water is not included in the
declared unit energy consumption.
Note: this method was not used during this program
•
Front loader (drum) washer performance is tested using cold water at 15±2°C for
units with an integral water heater and run at the default standard hot washing
setting.
Clearly the difference in the Chinese test methods creates substantially differing results. The
tested energy consumption of the impeller units is purely the mechanical energy to agitate and
spin the laundry, plus the energy used for water pumping. However, the energy consumption of
the drum machines not only includes the mechanical energy, but also includes the energy to
heat the water – the energy to heat the water being high relative to the mechanical energy
element.
The test method in the EU is EN 60456:2011. It has some similarities (and some differences) to
that currently being adopted in China for front loader (drum) washers. For example,
performance is tested using cold water at 15±2°C for units with an integral water heater and
tests are conducted both at full load and partial loads.
The GB standard requires tests to be undertaken at 220V, the test voltage required by the EN is
230V.
5. Previous comparisons of MEPS levels between China and the EU
Experts working on the IEA 4E Mapping & Benchmarking Annex have previously attempted to
benchmark washers in the Chinese markets with those in other major national markets. In their
published report 12, the authors explained that due to the level of qualities of comparative data
they could access and the high level of normalization that needed to take place, it was not
possible to include China in its benchmarking outputs.
12
http://mappingandbenchmarking.iea-4e.org/matrix
19 | P a g e
6. Testing and Training Program Undertaken with CNIS
6.1 Outline Description of Activities
Discussions were held between CNIS and CLASP China to determine the program of activities to
be undertaken. CNIS were keen to obtain information comparing their current Chinese test
methodology with that used in the EU and they wanted their testing staff to be trained in the
EU methodology so that it could be replicated in the CNIS washer test laboratory. UK based
Intertek Research & Testing Certification, which had substantial expertise in testing washers to
the EU test standard, was commissioned to provide the required training support to CNIS.
Six different washer samples were tested. The supply of these from the manufacturer, Haier,
was organized by CNIS. Testing was first conducted by CNIS and part-repeated on the same
samples after they had been shipped to the Intertek UK washer test laboratory. It is understood
that three of these machines were typical of front loader models available in the Chinese
market and the other three were typical of those available in the EU market.
The training process began with an exchange of documentation, particularly result sheet
formats, between Intertek’s expert trainer and the test engineer appointed by CNIS who was to
receive the bulk of the training. These early exchanges were valuable as they established a
common ground between the trainer and trainee prior to them commencing the laboratory
based training. This ensured that familiarization time on the ground could be minimized prior to
commencing the intensive training program.
Formal training began with the trainer attending the CNIS washer test laboratory in Beijing for a
period of seven working days. Training needed to cover a wide range of topics in some detail.
Close attention to the detailed requirements of the test procedures is important because these
can have a significant effect on the results obtained.
The program of training began by the trainer undertaking a review of the testing facilities
available at the CNIS test laboratory.
6.2 Test facility requirement
The CNIS facilities were inspected to check whether they met the requirements specified by the
EN standard. These included:
•
Voltage supply; 230V required by the EN, but 220V available and used for some of
the tests conducted at CNIS;
20 | P a g e
•
Hard water, 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l;
•
Water supply temperature to be 15 ± 2°C for all reference programmes;
•
Water supply pressure to be maintained at 240 ± 50 kPa throughout each test;
•
Ambient temperature of the test room to be maintained at 23 ± 2°C.
6.3 Test material requirements
Test materials are required in order to establish the quality of the wash performance such as
stain removal from textiles and water removal through the spinning process. The requirements
specified by the EN were reviewed. These, in outline, are:
•
Base loads; cotton bed sheets, pillowcases and towels
•
Stain test strips which are attached to the base load. Different soil types are used in
order to assess the washing characteristics of scouring (using sebum and a mixture
of carbon black and mineral oil), removal of protein (using blood), organic material
(using cocoa) and any bleaching effect (using red wine);
•
Detergent; the 3 separately stored components of base powder (with enzyme and
foam inhibitor), sodium perborate tetrahydrate and bleach activator (TAED) – all
aged less than one year from the date of manufacture.
6.4 Test equipment
A variety of test equipment was required to be available so that the testing procedures could
be performed in accordance with the EN requirements:
•
Reference washer; this needs to be run in parallel with the test washing machine as
applying the same procedure to both washers provides a measure of relative
performance and reproducible results;
•
A spectrophotometer to be used to take optical measurements of each of the
different stain test strip pieces at the completion of each washing performance test;
•
Equipment for conditioning the base load, either a controlled ambient temperature
and humidity room or a tumble dryer capable of drying the load to a “bone dry”
state;
21 | P a g e
•
An iron or ironing appliance for preparing the stain test strips after washing and
prior to the optical (reflectance) measurements being made;
•
Various instruments to measure and, where necessary, record volumes, pressures,
energy consumption, temperatures, mass etc.
7. Testing of performance
7.1 Preparation of the test washer and reference machine
Normal practice is to test a new sample of washer that has been installed in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions. Once installed, the washer is run for two complete cleaning
runs on a cotton programme with the maximum wash temperature and water levels set. The
first wash is done with 50 g of the reference detergent but with no wash load of textiles. The
second wash is done with without detergent or wash load.
Thereafter, the washer is only used for the specified test runs and the washing machine kept in
the laboratory controlled ambient temperature until the test series is completed.
The reference machine has to be prepared too. This machine, which has to meet a special
specification given in the EN standard, is run on its startup program prior to the
commencement of any test run.
The correct dose of detergent to be added to the test and reference machines is determined
from a formula given in the EN, the size of dose varying according to the mass of the wash load.
The three components that together make up the detergent need to be mixed prior to being
placed in the respective detergent dispenser on the washers.
7.2 Preparation of test materials
The requirements set out in the EN standard are complex:
•
New base load items have to be treated before their first use by undergoing a
special “normalization” comprising of 5 washes in hard water. This is followed by
regular normalization that comprises a 60⁰C wash without detergent followed by
drying to 0% moisture content. Thereafter, the textiles are stretched or flattened by
hand before being placed to hang freely in a conditioning room at a specified
ambient temperature and humidity.
22 | P a g e
•
•
•
Age requirements for base load items have to be met. This is necessary to minimize
the influence of changes in the characteristics of the base load items that occurs
with increasing age. The cotton base load for each test run needs to be of items
distributed in age for each different item type to give a weighted average age of the
base load between 30 and 50 test runs.
Determination of test load mass; the EN standard provides a Table (Clause 6.4.6 and
Annex ZA.4) enabling the tester to identify how many stain test strips, sheets,
pillowcases and towels are required to make up the full cotton base load, which is
determined by the manufacturer’s claimed capacity of the washer.
Fixing stain test strips to the base load to make up the appropriate test load prior to
each test run. They are attached to towels where the base load is cotton, which is
the case for energy labelling. The positioning of attachment is precisely specified by
the standard and they are either fastened by secure non-metallic fasteners or by
being sewn into position.
Figure 5: Positioning of stain test strips
Source: IEC
7.3 Testing performance
The EN standard provides methods for measuring the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
Washing performance;
Water extraction performance;
Rinsing performance (soluble components);
Energy consumption;
23 | P a g e
•
•
Water consumption;
Program time.
7.4 EN Test procedure
The procedure applies to the test washer and the reference machine which are run in parallel.
It follows a specific sequence of full and partial load tests. The tests are set up in accordance
with the detailed requirements set out in the standards. The required measurements are made
or set in place and the machines are operated in accordance with their manufacturer’s
instructions. Instruments continue to measure water volume, water temperature and electrical
energy using a data logger or computer to record data from before the programme is initiated
until after it finishes.
The test load needs to be removed within 10 minutes of completion of the wash program and
the soiled (test) strips detached for measurement. The base load is weighed and then dried in a
tumble dryer. The test strips are separately dried and flattened and stored in a dark place until
reflectance measurements can be taken.
7.5 Measurement and evaluation of test data
In order to assess washing performance, tristimulus Y reflectance measurements are taken with
the spectrophotometer on each of the individual soil types and the unsoiled test piece which
make up the stain test strip - the number and positioning of these measurements being as
directed by the EN document.
The water extraction performance is taken as a function of the amount of remaining moisture
in the base load after the final spinning operation at the end of the program relative to its
conditioned mass prior to commencing the wash program.
Note: rinsing performance is not currently required for the EU energy label and did not form
part of the training provided.
The results typically recorded when using the EN standard for use in calculating the values
required for display on the EU Energy Label can be seen in Figure 6.
24 | P a g e
Figure 6: Typical EU (EN) results table
Sample details
Project Number
Laboratory sample code
Manufacturer / supplier
Model number
Serial number
Rated capacity for 60°C cotton programme
Rated capacity for 40°C cotton programme
Measured parameter
Relevant
Symbol
Units
Measured
value
Rated
value
Difference
between
rated and
measured
values
AE C
kWh/annum
EN 60456: 2011
Energy consumption
Et
kWh
EN 60456: 2011
Program time
Tt
mi
EN 60456: 2011
Water consumption
Wt
l
EN 60456: 2011
%
EN 60456: 2011
Annual energy consumption
Remaining moisture content
D
Spin speed
rpm
Power consumption in off-mode
PO
Power consumption in left-on mode
Duration of the left-on mode
Airborne
Airborne
acoustical
acoustical
noise
noise
emissions
emissions
EN 60456: 2011
PL
W
EN 60456: 2011
TL
mi
EN 60456: 2011
-
d
d
Other energy label parameters
Energy class
Annual water consumption
Spin drying efficiency class
Washing efficiency index (minimum)
EN 60704
EN 60704
Units
Units
EEI
IW
%
-
Rated
value
Difference
between
rated and
measured
values
EN 60456: 2011
EN 60456: 2011
EN 60456: 2011
Measured
value
Limit
value
Difference
between
limit and
measured
values
EN 60456: 2011
EN 60456: 2011
Water consumption (maximum)
Wt
l
Off-mode power
PO
W
Standby power
Standby condition
Assessed features
Standard cycles identified on the control panel?
Standard cycles identified in the instruction book?
Measured
value
Letter
l/annum
Letter
Awc
-
Other Eco-design regulation parameters
Energy efficiency index (maximum)
EN 60456: 2011
W
W
EN 60456: 2011
BSEN
BSEN
25 | P a g e
Explanation that actual wash temperatures may differ from stated values?
Left on mode power consumption declared in the instruction book?
Off mode power consumption declared in the instruction book?
Programme time, remaining moisture content, energy consumption and water consumption
declared for all main programmes in the instruction book?
Suitable detergents identified in the instruction book?
20°C wash programme option available?
NOTE: NAPD means not applicable at the date when the test sample was purchased
Source:
Intertek
26 | P a g e
8. Testing and results
Testing to the GB and EN standards was performed at the CNIS test laboratory in Beijing and to
the EN standard at Intertek Testing & Certification Milton Keynes, UK. The same samples, listed
in Figure 7, were used for all tests.
Figure 7: Samples used for testing
Code used
sheets
A
in
result Brand
Model
Haier
HW80-BD1626
B
Haier
HW70 – 1482-F
C
Haier
HW60-1275
D
Haier
XQG80-HBD1626
E
Haier
XG70-10266A
F
Haier
XQG60-1079
8.1 Test details
The three washers labeled A, B, & C, which were of designs intended for the EU market, were
tested as follows:
1. According to the GB method but at 230 volts by CNIS
2. According to the EN method at 230 volts by CNIS
3. According to the EN method at 230 volts by Intertek
The three washers labeled D, E & F, which were of designs intended for the Chinese market,
were tested as follows:
1.
2.
3.
According to the GB method at 220 volts by CNIS
According to the EN method but at 220 volts by CNIS
According to the EN method at 230 volts by Intertek
27 | P a g e
8.2 Test results
As testing an individual sample to these test standards can yield some 360 individual data
points, only the analyzed results are reported here. The results in Figures 8-10 show
comparisons between the results obtained when testing the same samples to the GB and EN
test methods.
Figure 8: Data from combined tests for energy consumption
Unit Energy Consumption for the EU and Chinese Test Methods
UEC (kWh/cycle)
1.400
1.200
1.000
0.800
0.600
0.400
0.200
0.000
A
B
C
D
E
F
Washing Machine ID
Chinese
EU
Figure 9: Breakdown of energy consumption by test type
SEC (kWh/c/kg)
Specific Energy Consumption for the EU and Chinese Test
Methods
0.45 GB Partial
0.40 Load - 60
0.35 GB Full Load 60
0.30
EU Partial
0.25 Load - 40
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
A
B
C
D
E
Washing Machine - individual test results
F
28 | P a g e
Figure 10: Data from combined tests for washing performance
Wash
Washing Performance for the EU and Chinese Test Methods
Performance (%)
140%
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
A
B
C
D
E
F
Washing Machine ID
Chinese
EU Method
8.3 Analysis of test results
Visually, the charts shown in the previous section appear to show a fairly consistent
relationship between the results obtained from the two different test methods. However, due
to the limited number of samples tested and the variation in test voltages used, only very
limited statistical analysis could be undertaken to demonstrate the possibilities of calculating a
conversion factor to enable the results obtained from one test method to be “normalized” into
the results that would have been obtained if the other test method had been used.
Although there are many similarities between the test methods described in EN 60456: 2011
and GB-12021.4-20xx, there are some substantial differences too. In particular, the GB standard
involves testing at full load and half load using the 60 Cotton programme, whereas the EN
standard involves testing at full load with the 60 cotton programme and at half load with both
the 60 cotton programme and the 40 cotton programme. The GB standard allows the
manufacturer to specify different programmes for the half load test and the full load test
whereas the EN standard specifies that the same programme setting is used for both full load
and half load. Testing to the GB standard is done at 220 volts whereas the EN standard requires
testing to be done at 230 volts.
The test results were analyzed to try to answer two questions:
29 | P a g e
A.
B.
If China were to substitute the EN method in place of the GB method would
the results obtained for energy and water consumption be comparable?
Could the data from these tests be used to provide factors to convert energy
and water consumption data measured by the GB method to the equivalent
of what would have been obtained using the EN method?
As previously stated, the analysis was severely hampered by the small number of washing
machines tested and the use of different test voltages in different labs. The conclusions cannot
be applied widely with any certainty because of the small number of samples and because all
samples were provided by just one manufacturer and so would not be representative of the
variety of designs in the markets.
The approach taken was
1.
2.
3.
Compare CNIS results with Intertek results for the washing machines tested to
the EN method at 230 volts (washers A, B & C).
Compare the CNIS results for the GB method with the CNIS results for the EN
method using 220 volts (washers D, E & F).
The assumption was then made that if close agreement was found in Step 1 and
in Step 2, then Intertek EN results at 230 volts could be compared to CNIS GB
results at 220 volts.
The analysis of Step 1 above is shown in Figure 11 below.
Figure 11: Analysis of CNIS EN 230v and Intertek EN 230v (Codes A, B and C)
The results show that the calculated unit energy consumptions in the two labs were very similar
with an average percentage difference of 0.4%. The difference in the calculated specific energy
consumption between the two labs was slightly larger with an average percentage difference of
1.6% but this was considered to be acceptable.
30 | P a g e
The differences in both unit water consumption and specific water consumption were
considered to be unacceptably high and variable with average percentage differences of 6.6%
and 6.7% respectively. The water consumption results for Code A in particular had very large
percentage differences of 12.2% for unit water consumption and 11.3% in specific water
consumption.
Possible explanations for the large differences in measured water consumption between the
two labs are as follows:
•
•
At CNIS, the base loads were prepared in soft water and rinsed between test
runs, so may have different water up-take characteristics compared to Intertek
base loads which are always washed in hard water and only rinsed at the end
of a test series.
The CNIS water meter was brand new. It was supplied with a factory
calibration which had not been checked. The calibration was for a higher flow
range than that which is applicable for most washing machines. Intertek water
meters are all calibrated in situ at typical washing machine fill rates.
From the results of Step 1 it can be concluded that if CNIS had tested washing machines D, E
and F at 230 volts and not 220 volts they would have obtained similar results to Intertek for
energy consumption. However, no prediction can be made about the result that would have
been obtained for water consumption.
The analysis of Step 2 is shown in Figure 12 below.
Figure 12: Analysis of CNIS GB 220v and CNIS EN 220v (Codes D, E and F)
The results of Step 2, displayed in the chart above i.e. comparing the CNIS results for the GB
method with the CNIS results for the EN method using 220 volts (washing machines D, E & F),
show that even when testing is carried out at the same voltage and in the same lab, the
differences between the two standards result in large and variable differences in water
consumption and energy consumption.
31 | P a g e
Step 3 of the approach described above was to calculate a set of factors to convert energy and
water consumption data measured by the GB method at 220 volts to the equivalent of what
CNIS would have been obtained using the EN method had they tested at 230 volts. However, as
there was no close agreement between the water consumption results in Step 1, only energy
consumption was considered at this stage. Figure 13 provides an illustrative set of conversion
factors based on this dataset.
Figure 13: Conversion factors for energy consumption based on this dataset
Code
D
E
F
To convert Chinese to EU,
Estimated EN results
Percent Error in Conversion
multiply by
(converted from CNIS GB)
Specific
Specific
Unit Energy
Unit Energy
energy
energy
Specific
washing
Consumption
Consumption
Unit Energy
consumption
consumption
energy
machine
conversion
(UEC):
Consumption
conversion
(SEC):
consumption
factor
kWh/cycle
factor
kWh/cycle/kg
XQG80-HBD1626
0.88
0.89
1.08
0.211
-3.1%
-0.8%
XG70-10266A
0.83
0.92
0.99
0.220
2.4%
-4.5%
XQG60-1079
0.84
0.83
0.79
0.213
0.9%
5.8%
Average
0.85
0.88
0.95
0.214
0.1%
0.2%
One further analysis was undertaken to provide another indicative benchmark. This was
established by applying the results to the levels required for energy labeling in each of these
markets. Figure 14 provides the results of this direct comparison.
Figure 14: Labeling comparison between the Chinese and EU markets
Model
Haier HW70-1482-F
Haier HW80-BD1626
Haier XQG60-1079
Label - China
Tier 1
Tier 2 (Energy consumption
satisfies Tier 1 requirement,
but wash performance does
not)
Tier 3
Haier HW60-1275
Tier 3
Haier XG70-10266A
Haier XQG80-HBD1626
Tier 3
Tier 3
Label - EU
A+++
A+++ (but wash performance
non-compliant)
A+ (but wash performance
non-compliant)
A+ (but wash performance
non-compliant)
A
A (but wash performance
non-compliant)
32 | P a g e
These appear to show, and this is supported up by the calculated conversion factors given in
Figure 13, that there is a fairly close correlation between the standards being applied in both
the Chinese and EU markets for the energy efficiency of front-loading washers.
Conclusions
For the very first time, front-loading washers were benchmarked using the test methodologies
and standards applicable in the Chinese and EU markets. Previous attempts to benchmark
these two markets had not been possible due to the paucity of available data.
The comparison of labelling levels in both the Chinese and EU markets for the same samples
tested shows that there are notable correlations between the standards being applied in both
markets for front-loading washers. The differences in energy consumption values generated by
the two test methods seems to be fairly consistent and a conversion factor could be potentially
be used to convert data generated by one method for comparison with data generated by the
other.
The differences in water consumption values generated by the two test methods did not
appear to be consistent. Until the reliability of the water measurements undertaken at CNIS can
be checked further, it is necessary to conclude that there is currently no evidence from the test
data that a conversion factor could be reliably used to convert water consumption
measurements from one method to the other.
This was a useful exercise to indicate the potential to calculate robust conversion factors.
However, the small number of samples tested and the fact that they were all produced by the
same manufacturer means that further testing with washing machines produced by other
manufacturers would be needed to prove a reliable conversion factor. If testing was extended
to a larger and more representative sample then it is expected that the results of further testing
would be regarded as robust. Serious consideration could then be given to using conversion
factors for aligning data from GB 12021.4-20xx with that of EN 60456: 2011
Further results could be expected give CNIS confidence that adoption of test methods based on
EN 60456 and performance standards similar to those used in the EU, would be likely to be
acceptable to most stakeholders.
The Chinese standard currently being used for measuring the energy consumption of frontloader washers has fairly similar test conditions to those required by the international (IEC) and
EU (EN) test standards. It would be a straight forward task for test laboratories in China to work
33 | P a g e
to methods based on the IEC standard if the authorities adopted a version of that standard in
the future.
For the purpose of providing technical training in testing techniques to CNIS laboratory staff,
this program achieved all its objectives since CNIS test laboratory is now able to fully test
washers to EN 60456:2011.
Recommendations
The recommendations given below vary according to the intent of any future program.
1.
If a robust mathematical correction factor is required to be established that
would enable energy consumption determined under the conditions of one test
standard to be converted into those that would have been determined under a
different test standard then 15 different models would need to be tested to both
test standards. These models would need to be from brands that represent at
least 50% of the market share to ensure all design variations had been factored
into the results.
2.
Results intended for use in establishing correction factors should be subjected to
expert statistical analysis. This, and any other expert analysis, should take place
concurrently with testing to ensure any additional checks can be made and/or
tests repeated whilst the samples and facilities were still available.
3.
Testing to establish correction factors should take place in a single expert
laboratory in order to minimize inconsistences in the application of testing
procedures. Minor deviations result in increasing the uncertainty of
measurement and so contribute to increasing the size of statistically calculated
confidence intervals.
4.
If the recipient body only requires familiarization training to enable it to
undertake testing to another method in its own, already well equipped test
laboratory, then a suitable expert can provide all the essential training on a
single visit lasting 5-10 days.
5.
Reinforcement training can be provided through a return visit by the trained
staff to the laboratory of the expert trainer and by re-testing the same samples
34 | P a g e
at that laboratory. This is desirable, but not essential, for familiarization training
and is likely to more than double the cost of the training program.
35 | P a g e
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising