Emissions for Large Spark Ignition (LSI) Engines in Generator Sets

Emissions for Large Spark Ignition (LSI) Engines in Generator Sets
Information Sheet # 32
Your Reliable Guide for Power Solutions
To fulfill our commitment to be the leading supplier in the power generation industry, the Buckeye Power
Sales team ensures they are always up-to-date with the current power industry standards as well as
industry trends. As a service, our Information Sheets are circulated on a regular basis to existing and
potential power customers to maintain their awareness of changes and developments in standards, codes
and technology within the power industry.
EMISSIONS for LARGE SPARK IGNITION (LSI) ENGINES in GENERATOR SETS
1.0 Introduction
US manufacturers supply industrial and commercial standby generator sets powered by diesel engines or by
larger bore spark-ignition engines. Most gas engines are fueled by natural gas or propane. The Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Research Board (CARB) both have adopted similar exhaust emission
standards for off-road spark-ignition engines of more than 1.0-liter displacement and above 25hp (19kWm) up
to 500hp ( 373kWm).
This information sheet discusses the past, current and future regulations, as well as general information, on
natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the most common dry fuels used in this power range. Canada
currently has no regulations except at local level, but is expected to introduce them in the near future.
2.0 New EPA regulation terminology for spark ignition combustion engines 500 HP or less
A new document, referenced 40 CFR Parts 60, 63, 85 et al, to regulate emissions on stationary spark-ignition
engines, was introduced on Jan. 18, 2008. The standards in this document refer to introduction dates, not tier
levels, which apply to diesel. Also, this action formally declares the new source performance standards (NSPS)
that will apply to new, modified and reconstructed stationary spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines
(ICE). This action also declares emissions standards for new and reconstructed stationary, reciprocating internal
combustion engines (RICE) with a site rating of less than or equal to 500 HP.
3.0 EPA LSI regulations introduced 2004
The first emission regulations for large mobile spark-ignition engines were introduced in 2004. Certification
testing was for steady-state duty cycles with standards applicable over the full useful life of the engine. Emissions
were to be measured using variable speed or constant speed steady-state cycles.
The Manufacturer of Record (MOR), is responsible for emissions certification. MORs providing such units for the
US market had to provide an emission-related warranty for at least the first half of the engine’s useful life (in
operating hours) or for three years, whichever came first. Any adjustable components must be tamper-proof.
All MOR maintenance instructions must be adhered to by the owner/operator and any repair/rebuild must use
original OEM parts and components (no will-fits). The MOR must guarantee durability and emissions for 3,500
hours operation. Applicable emissions levels are:
Hydrocarbon (HC) + Nitrous Oxide (NOx) 4.0 g/kW-hr (3.0 g/hp-hr)
Carbon monoxide (CO) 49.6 g/kW-hr (37.0 g/hp-hr)
4.0 EPA LSI regulations introduced January 1, 2007
Regulations introduced on Jan 1, 2007 for mobile LSI covered implementation of more stringent standards
for CO and total HC plus NOx, and included transient-duty cycle testing (i.e. idle to full speed with load). This
standard also is to apply for field testing but without a defined duty cycle.
Unless a sealed fuel system is used, evaporative standards are applied that include low permeation fuel lines,
tank venting and fuel boiling. The engine must have the ability to diagnose malfunction of emission-related
components and also maintain stoichiometric control of the air-fuel ratio. The MOR needs to guarantee
durability and emissions for 5,000 hours operation. Applicable emissions levels are: (continued over)
The installation information provided in this information sheet is informational in nature only and should not be considered the advice of a properly licensed and qualified electrician or used in place of a detailed review of the
applicable National Electric Codes, NFPA 99/110 and local codes. Specific questions about how this information may affect any particular situation should be addressed to a licensed and qualified electrician.
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TYPICAL FUEL AND EMISSION CONTROLS ON A 4.4 L LSI ENGINE
Columbus, OH
6850 Commerce Court Drive
P.O. Box 489
Blacklick OH 43004-0489
(614) 861-6000
(800) 523-3587
(614) 861-2291 fax
Cincinnati, OH
7782 Service Center Drive
West Chester, OH 45069
(513) 755-2323
(800) 368-7422
(513) 755-4515 fax
BPS-INFO#32 ©2010PLC Enterprises, LLC
Cleveland, OH
8465 Tower Drive
P.O. Box 394
Twinsburg, OH 44087-0394
(330) 425-9165
(800) 966-2825
(330) 487-0229 fax
Indianapolis, IN
1229 Indy Place
Indianapolis, IN 46214
(317) 271-9661
(800) 632-0339
(317) 271-0242 fax
www.buckeyepowersales.com
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Hydrocarbon (HC) + Nitrous Oxide (NOx) 2.7 g/kW-hr (2.0 g/hp-hr)
Carbon monoxide (CO) 4.4 g/kW-hr (3.3 g/hp-hr)
5.0 Stationary SI engines greater than 25 HP and up to 500 HP
EPA 40CFR part 60, subpart JJJJ issued Jan. 18, 2008 details standards applicable July 1, 2008:
Hydrocarbon (HC) + Nitrous Oxide (NOx) 12.1 g/kW-hr (9.0 g/HP-hr)
or NMHC+NOx 11.3 g/kW-hr (8.4 g/hp-hr)
6.0 Emergency SI engines greater than 25 HP to 130 HP and above 130 HP
EPA 40CFR part 60, subpart JJJJ issued Jan. 18, 2008 details standards applicable January 1, 2009:
25 HP to 130 HP = Nitrous Oxide (NOx) 10.0 g/hp-hr; CO 387 g/HP-hr
130 HP and above =Nitrous Oxide (NOx) 2.0 g/hp-hr; CO 4.0 g/HP-hr; VOC* 1.0 g/HP-hr
* VOC = Volatile organic compounds
7.0 Spark Ignition Fuels
Natural Gas (NG) - NG is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane (CH4 - approx. 70%) but includes
quantities of ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10) and pentane. Organo-sulphur compounds
and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are removed prior to sale. NG is measured in standard cubic feet (at 60ºF and
14.73psia). One cubic foot of NG produces around 1,026 British Thermal Units (BTU) and can vary slightly.
Natural gas is sold and measured in therms (one therm = 100,000 BTU’s or just over 97 cubic feet)
Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) - LPG is a petroleum fuel derived from both NG and crude oil, and a colorless gas
typically composed mainly of propane and butane. One cubic foot of LPG produces around 1,450 BTU’s, i.e.
contains more energy than natural gas.
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