Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation

Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation
MOJ Civil Engineering
Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation
Behavior of Railway Embankment Mixed With Tire
Derived Aggregates (TDA)
Research Article
Abstract
The available technical literature shows that the load-deformation behavior of
railway embankment mixed with tire derived aggregates (TDA) has not been well
investigated. For this reason, firstly the GW-GC soil was selected as base material
and tire derived aggregates (TDA) were utilized for laboratory tests. In the first
stage, the plate loading tests were performed on the mix of soil with 5, 10 and 15
percent of TDA and consequently Ev2 values were obtained. In the second stage,
three embankments with 7 m height with 1:15 scale were constructed in a loading
chamber. These embankments included embankment without TDA, embankment
with 10 percent TDA and embankment containing TDA core (with 3m height). The
test results indicated that the embankment soil failure load and crest settlement
were decreased 24.78 and 17.21 percent by adding 10 percent TDA in comparison
to embankment without TDA. On the other hand, this comparison showed 40.8
and 28 percent in case of using TDA as an embankment core.
Volume 2 Issue 1 - 2017
Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran
*Corresponding author: Morteza Esmaeili, Associate
Professor, Iran University of Science & Technology, School of
Railway Engineering, Iran, Email:
Received: September 06, 2016 | Published: January 06,
2017
Keywords: Railway embankment; Tire derived aggregates; Plate loading tests;
Load deformation behavior
Introduction
Recently, rail transportation system has significant
advantages respect to other transportation systems. One of the
essential parts in railway tracks is embankment that has high
executive operations and construction time. The embankment
should supply a stable support for moving different trains. In
embankments that are constructed using natural materials,
limitations arising from the weakness of the material used in
execution should be considered. The embankment failures are
classified as four groups that are failure caused by local and
general cracks or gaps in body of the embankment, failure caused
by local or general slide, failure caused by shear failure and failure
caused by deformation of soft sub grade [1]. In order to avoid
the mentioned failures forms of embankment, allowed values of
the density, bearing capacity of California (CBR) and elasticity
modulus of plate loading for embankment materials should be
considered based on regulations related to railway earthworks [25]. Soil materials utilized in the embankment should provide the
regulation requirements until the suitable bearing capacity and
allowed settlement supply. One of the important issues in recent
years in different countries is waste tires. Shred tires in different
sizes can be used in embankment construction, road substructure,
and bridges embankment. In this regard, various studies related
to the embankment behavior mixed with shred tires have been
done. For example, Humphrey & Holtz [6] studied conditions of
different embankments mixed with shred tires and they approved
their performance. Yoon et al. [7] studied mix of soil and shred
tires as filler material for embankments. Aderinlewo et al. [8]
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studied the response of embankment including waste shred tires
by using the analytical software. The previous studies show that
the soil mixed with shred tires as rail sub grade or embankment
has not been well investigated. So in this paper by focusing on
the modulus of elasticity and settlement of soil mixed with shred
tires, firstly a series of laboratory tests including bearing capacity
of California (CBR) and compaction were performed on GW-GC
soil with 5, 10 and 15 percent of shred tires. Then, the current soil
without and mixed with shred tires were compacted in chamber
box in school of railway engineering according to ASTM D698
standard [9] and cyclic plate loading tests by 30 tons loading
jack in three cycles were carried out. The results indicated that
the maximum acceptable shred tires mixed with embankment
materials should be 10percent. In continuation, the behavior
of the load-deformation of embankment containing shred tires
was studied. Three embankments were constructed in a loading
chamber. The first embankment was constructed without shred
tires, the second embankment was constructed with 10percent
shred tires and finally third embankment included shred tires
as core of embankment. All three embankments with a high of
7meters and scale of 1:15 were loaded in the loading chamber.
Characteristics of Materials
Soil materials utilized in this study were broken stones. They
were named GW-GC according to Unified Soil Classification. Also,
shred tires utilized in this study consist of old vehicle rubbers
tires that were shredded mechanically in various steps. They were
supplied by Company of Ghadir rubber [10-12].
MOJ Civil Eng 2017, 2(1): 00020
Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment
Mixed With Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA)
Plate loading tests (PLT) on the soil mixed with shred
tires
For plate loading tests (PLT), a loading chamber including
Figure 1: Chamber box for PLT
2/5
dimensions 1.2 × 1.2 ×1 m was used Figures 1-3. For loading
in chamber, a hydraulic jack 30 tons and square plate with
dimensions 30 × 2.5 cm were considered. A gauge was utilized for
measuring displacement.
Figure 2: Soil sample GW-GC
In order to determine the soil conditions without shred tires
and mixed with different percents of shred tires, a series of
plate loading tests were performed. Table 1 shows the elasticity
modulus in the first and second loading cycles for soil mixed
with various shred tires [11,12]. As can be seen from Table 1, the
elasticity modulus in the second loading cycle is greater than it
in the first loading cycle because of soil compaction in the first
cycle. Generally, the ratio of Ev2 to Ev1 approximately can be equal
to 1.05. On the other hand, both of elasticity modulus in first and
second cycles decreased by increasing the shred tires. So, UIC
R719 regulation has been determined the minimum elasticity
modulus values equal to 45 MPa in the second loading cycle for
grain materials. Therefore, the maximum shred tires mixed with
soil is equal to 10 percent.
Copyright:
©2017 Esmaeili et al.
Figure 3: In-situ density test
optimum humidity of 6.82 percent per thirty times rolling passes.
For experiments, firstly the degree of displacement gauge was
set to zero and the load was incrementally applied by using
the hydraulic cylinder. The loading processes continue until
the embankment failed completely. It should be noted that the
settlement of embankment crest and sub grade is recorded for
each 500 kg. Figure 4 shows the load-displacement diagram for
embankment without shred tires.
Table 1: Elasticity modulus for mix of soil-shred tires.
Elasticity
Modulus in the
First Cycle
Elasticity Modulus
in the Second
Cycle
Soil Mixed with
Various Shred Tires
(percent)
EV1 (MPa)
73.6
53.6
47.9
33.8
EV2 (MPa)
77.5
56.2
49.7
35.4
0
5
10
15
Embankments loading tests
As stated in the previous section, the percentage of shred tires
mixed with soil must be limited to 10 percent. In this regard,
firstly the load deformation behavior of soil mixed with 10
percent shred tires was investigated. In the next part, shred tires
were placed in core of embankment and were subjected to load.
The obtained results were compared with soil without shred tires.
In continuation, the results of loading tests are described.
Loading test on embankment without shred tires
After preparation of sample according to results of compaction
tests, the embankment was compacted in 5 layers of 10cm with
Figure 4: Load-displacement for soil without shred tires.
Based on Figure 4, the nonlinear parabolic equation can be
approximated by the following form:
2
p=
− 0.0018d + 0.39 d − 0.805
R² =
0.989 (1)
In this equation, p is load in terms of ton and d is vertical
displacement of embankment.
As can be observed, settlement in embankment increased by
increasing the load value until value of force and corresponding
settlement reached to 20.1 tons and 10.5cm respectively and then
embankment failed. Figure 5 shows the form of embankment
without shred tires before and after failure.
Loading test on embankment mixed with shred tires
According to the results of plate loading tests on embankment
with classified shred tires, 10 percent efficiency was obtained
Citation: Esmaeili M, Mosayebi SA, Nakhaei N (2017) Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment Mixed With
Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA). MOJ Civil Eng 2(1): 00020. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2017.02.00020
Copyright:
©2017 Esmaeili et al.
Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment
Mixed With Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA)
from initial laboratory experiments. In this regard, embankment
with 10 percent shred tires with maximum compaction and
optimum humidity of 8.95 percent with 30 times roller passes
was implemented on the sub grade. Figure 6 shows the diagram
of load-deformation in this case.
for determining the geometry of the shred tires as core of
embankment, many numerical analyses were performed by finite
element method with Plaxis 2D. Specifications of embankment
model are presented in Table 2. Because of shred tires presence
in core of embankment, a geotextiles layer was used for wrapping
the shred tires. Table 3 shows the characteristics of geotextiles
used in laboratory.
Table 2: Specifications of embankment model.
A. Before failure
B. After failure
Figure 5: Embankment without shred tires.
A. Before failure
B. After failure
Figure 7: Embankment mixed with 10 percent shred tires.
Loading test on embankment including shred tires as
core
In this test, the embankment including shred tires as core with
maximum compaction in 5 layers of 10 cm and optimum humidity
of 6.82 percent per 30 times pass a roller on the sub grade
was carried out. Because of the absence of a suitable standard
Type/Value
Model element
Plane strain
Model behavior
Mohr-Coulomb
Embankment width
2.5m
10 ton/m
Embankment height
2
p=
− 0.0009 d + 0.28d − 1.536
R² =
0.976 (2)
Figure 6: Load-displacement for soil with 10 percent shred tires.
Parameters
Load
The equation related to the load- displacement can be derived
as follows:
In this equation, p is value of load in terms of ton and d is
vertical displacement of embankment. Figure 7 shows the form of
embankment mixed with 10 percent shred tires before and after
failure.
3/5
1.2m
Embankment slope
1:2
Embankment crest
Table 3: Characteristics of geotextiles.
70cm
Properties
Strength of
Tensional
Length
Increasing
Thickness
Standard
Values
16.6 KN/m
50% >
3.5 mm
ASTM
D4595 [13]
According to time consuming of loading tests on the
embankment with different cores Figure 8, a series of numerical
analysis were performed by using Plaxis 2D software and failure
loads were calculated. After modelling in software and applying
boundary conditions, the load incrementally is applied on the crest
of the embankment until it failed. Figure 9 shows embankment
failure for case B. The failure load and embankment settlement for
four cores mentioned in Figure 8 are presented in Table 4.
Figure 8: Different geometries for shred tires as core of embankment.
Comparing the outputs of the case (A) with the obtained results
from three last conditions indicates an increase of shred tires with
respect to the first case, and so choosing a suitable geometry is
important. According to obtained results for four cores, load ratio
obtained for cases of (B), (C) and (D) ​​were 0.89, 0.91 and 0.92. It
was concluded that the case (B) has the most shred tires and it
bears a greater load, so it was chosen for test in the laboratory. In
Citation: Esmaeili M, Mosayebi SA, Nakhaei N (2017) Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment Mixed With
Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA). MOJ Civil Eng 2(1): 00020. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2017.02.00020
Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment
Mixed With Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA)
this test, the force was applied by jack to the beam and the crest
of the embankment. During the test, the applied force increased
with relatively constant speed. Steps of loading were 0.25 tons
and they increased until the embankment failed. Finally, the
embankment failed in load of 11.9 tons and settlement of 7.6 cm.
Figure 10 shows the load – deformation for embankment with
core of shred tires.
Copyright:
©2017 Esmaeili et al.
4/5
A. Before failure
B. After failure
Figure 11: Embankment mixed with core of shred tires.
Conclusion
Figure 9: Stress on embankment with core of shred tires (Case B).
In the current paper, a series of experiments such as
compaction, CBR and plate loading tests have been done on
GW-GC soil as materials of railways embankment with different
percents of shred tires. For plate loading test (PLT), mixture of soil
with shred tires were compacted in chamber box. In another part
of this study, three embankments without shred tires, mixed with
10 percent shred tires and shred tires as a core were constructed
in the chamber box by scale of 1:15 and then the behaviour of
their load - displacement were investigated. The main results of
the current study are summarized as follows.
I. Based on the achieved elasticity modulus in the second cycle
of loading in plate loading tests, value of shred tires for use
in sub grade should be 10 percent.
II. The mathematical equation between load and displacement
of embankment without shred tires is nonlinear as p =
-0.0018d2 + 0.39d - 0.805.
Figure 10: Load-displacement for embankment with core of shred
tires.
Table 4: Load-settlement for various cases.
Case
The volume of the shred
tires (m3)
Load
(ton)
settlement
(m)
A
-
17.84
0.059
B
0. 37
16. 01
0.0573
D
0. 072
16. 5
0.0509
C
0. 17
16. 2
0.0556
As can be observed, the graph is almost linear; therefore it can
be expressed by the following mathematical equation:
p=
0.1763d + 0.1623
R² =
0.99
(3)
So in above equation, p is value of load in terms of ton and d
is vertical displacement (settlement) in terms of mm. Figure 11
illustrates the form of embankment with core of shred tires before
and after failure. Figure 11 Embankment mixed with core of shred
tires
III. The mathematical equation between load and displacement
of embankment with 10 percent shred tires is nonlinear as p
= -0.0009d2 + 0.28d - 1.536.
IV. The mathematical equation between load and displacement
of embankment with core of shred tires is almost linear as p
= 0.1763d + 0.1623.
V. Adding 10 percent of shred tires to embankment cause
to decrease failure load and settlement 24.78 and 17.21
percent respectively. These values for the embankment
with shred tires as core were 40.8 and 28 percent respect to
embankment without shred tires respectively.
References
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Citation: Esmaeili M, Mosayebi SA, Nakhaei N (2017) Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment Mixed With
Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA). MOJ Civil Eng 2(1): 00020. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2017.02.00020
Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment
Mixed With Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA)
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Copyright:
©2017 Esmaeili et al.
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10. Esmaeili M, Mosayebi SA, Nakhaei N (2016) Laboratory
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the Wide-Width Strip Method.
Citation: Esmaeili M, Mosayebi SA, Nakhaei N (2017) Experimental Investigation of Load-Deformation Behavior of Railway Embankment Mixed With
Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA). MOJ Civil Eng 2(1): 00020. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2017.02.00020
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