HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers

HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
HC(S)08/RS08
Assembler Manual for
Microcontrollers
Revised: 4 September 2007
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Table of Contents
I Using the HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Structure of this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1
Working with the Assembler
17
Programming Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Project directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
External Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project . . . . . . . 19
Using the Wizard to create a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Additional project information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Analysis of groups and files in the project window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CodeWarrior groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Creating a Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Using the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Generating Listing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Renaming files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Creating a new group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Renaming groups in the project window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Writing your assembly source files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Analyzing the project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Assembling your source files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Assembling with the CodeWarrior IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Assembling with the Assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Linking the application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Linking with the CodeWarrior IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Linking with the Linker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Directly generating an ABS file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Using the CodeWarrior Wizard to generate an ABS file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
3
Table of Contents
2
Assembler Graphical User Interface
93
Starting the Assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Assembler Main Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Window Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Content area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Assembler menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
File menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Assembler menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
View menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Editor Setting dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Global Editor (shared by all tools and projects) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Local Editor (shared by all tools) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Editor started with the command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Editor started with DDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
CodeWarrior with COM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Save Configuration dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Environment Configuration dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Option Settings dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Message settings dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Changing the class associated with a message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
About dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Specifying the input file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Use the command line in the toolbar to assemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Assembling a new file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Assembling a file which has already been assembled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Use the File > Assemble entry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Use Drag and Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Message/Error feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Use information from the assembler window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Use a user-defined editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Line number can be specified on the command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Table of Contents
Line number cannot be specified on the command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3
Environment
121
Current directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Environment macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Global initialization file - mctools.ini (PC only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Local configuration file (usually project.ini) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Line continuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Environment variables details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
ABSPATH: Absolute file path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
ASMOPTIONS: Default assembler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
COPYRIGHT: Copyright entry in object file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
DEFAULTDIR: Default current directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
ENVIRONMENT: Environment file specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
GENPATH: Search path for input file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
INCLUDETIME: Creation time in the object file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
OBJPATH: Object file path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
SRECORD: S-Record type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
TEXTPATH: Text file path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
TMP: Temporary directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
USERNAME: User Name in object file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4
Files
141
Input files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Source files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Include files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Output files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Object files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Absolute files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
S-Record Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Listing files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Debug listing files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Error listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
File processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Table of Contents
5
Assembler Options
145
Types of assembler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Assembler Option details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Using special modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
List of every Assembler option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Detailed listing of all assembler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
-Ci: Switch case sensitivity on label names OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
-CMacAngBrack: Angle brackets for grouping Macro Arguments . . . . . .155
-CMacBrackets: Square brackets for macro arguments grouping . . . . . . . .156
-Compat: Compatibility modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
-CS08/-C08/-CRS08: Derivative family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
-Env: Set environment variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
-F (-Fh, -F2o, -FA2o, -F2, -FA2): Output file format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
-H: Short Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
-I: Include file path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
-L: Generate a listing file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
-Lasmc: Configure listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
-Lasms: Configure the address size in the listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
-Lc: No Macro call in listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
-Ld: No macro definition in listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
-Le: No Macro expansion in listing file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
-Li: No included file in listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
-Lic: License information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
-LicA: License information about every feature in directory . . . . . . . . . . .181
-LicBorrow: Borrow license feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
-LicWait: Wait until floating license is available from floating
License Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
-M (-Ms, -Mt): Memory model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
-MacroNest: Configure maximum macro nesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
-MCUasm: Switch compatibility with MCUasm ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
-N: Display notify box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
-NoBeep: No beep in case of an error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
-NoDebugInfo: No debug information for ELF/DWARF files . . . . . . . . . .189
-NoEnv: Do not use environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Table of Contents
-ObjN: Object filename specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
-Prod: Specify project file at startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
-Struct: Support for structured types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
-V: Prints the Assembler version. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
-View: Application standard occurrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
-W1: No information messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
-W2: No information and warning messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
-WErrFile: Create "err.log" error file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
-Wmsg8x3: Cut filenames in Microsoft format to 8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
-WmsgCE: RGB color for error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
-WmsgCF: RGB color for fatal messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
-WmsgCI: RGB color for information messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
-WmsgCU: RGB color for user messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
-WmsgCW: RGB color for warning messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
-WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
202
-WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive
mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
-WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
-WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
-WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
-WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information. . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
-WmsgNe: Number of error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
-WmsgNi: Number of Information messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
-WmsgNu: Disable user messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
-WmsgNw: Number of Warning messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
-WmsgSd: Setting a message to disable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
-WmsgSe: Setting a message to Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
-WmsgSi: Setting a message to Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
-WmsgSw: Setting a Message to Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
-WOutFile: Create error listing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
-WStdout: Write to standard output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
6
Sections
221
Section attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Table of Contents
Code sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Constant sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Data sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Section types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Absolute sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Relocatable sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Relocatable vs. absolute sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Modularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Multiple developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Early development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Enhanced portability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Tracking overlaps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Reusability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
7
Assembler Syntax
229
Comment line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Source line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Label field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Operation field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Operand field: Addressing modes (HC(S)08) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Operand Field: Addressing Modes (RS08) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Comment Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
User-defined symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
External symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Undefined symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Reserved symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Integer constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
String constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
Floating-Point constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
Addition and subtraction operators (binary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Multiplication, division and modulo operators (binary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Sign operators (unary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
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Shift operators (binary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Bitwise operators (binary). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Bitwise operators (unary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Logical operators (unary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Relational operators (binary). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
HIGH operator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
HIGH_6_13 Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
LOW operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
MAP_ADDR_6 Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
PAGE operator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Force operator (unary). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Operator precedence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Absolute expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Simple relocatable expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Unary operation result. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Binary operations result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Translation limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
8
Assembler Directives
279
Directive overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Section-Definition directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Constant-Definition directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Data-Allocation directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Symbol-Linkage directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Assembly-Control directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Listing-File Control directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Macro Control directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Conditional Assembly directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
ABSENTRY - Application entry point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
ALIGN - Align Location Counter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
BASE - Set number base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
CLIST - List conditional assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
DC - Define Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
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Table of Contents
DCB - Define Constant Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
DS - Define Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
ELSE - Conditional assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
END - End assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
ENDFOR - End of FOR block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
ENDIF - End conditional assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
ENDM - End macro definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
EQU - Equate symbol value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
EVEN - Force word alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
FAIL - Generate Error message. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
FOR - Repeat assembly block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
IF - Conditional assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
IFcc - Conditional assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
INCLUDE - Include text from another file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
LIST - Enable Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
LLEN - Set Line Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
LONGEVEN - Forcing Long-Word alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
MACRO - Begin macro definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
MEXIT - Terminate Macro Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
MLIST - List macro expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
NOLIST - Disable Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
NOPAGE - Disable Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
OFFSET - Create absolute symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
ORG - Set Location Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
PAGE - Insert Page break . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
PLEN - Set Page Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
RAD50 - RAD50-encoded string constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
SET - Set Symbol Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
SPC - Insert Blank Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
TABS - Set Tab Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
TITLE - Provide Listing Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
XDEF - External Symbol Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
XREF - External Symbol Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
XREFB - External Reference for Symbols located on the Direct Page . . .329
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9
Macros
331
Macro overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Defining a macro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Calling macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Macro parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Macro argument grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Labels inside macros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Macro expansion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Nested macros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
10 Assembler Listing File
337
Page header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Source listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Abs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Rel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Loc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Obj. code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Source line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
11 Mixed C and Assembler Applications
343
Memory models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Parameter passing scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Return Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Accessing assembly variables in an ANSI-C source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Accessing ANSI-C variables in an assembly source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Invoking an assembly function in an ANSI-C source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Example of a C file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Support for structured types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Structured type definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Types allowed for structured type fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Variable definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Variable declaration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Accessing a structured variable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Structured type: Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
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Table of Contents
12 Make Applications
355
Assembly applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Directly generating an absolute file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Mixed C and assembly applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Memory maps and segmentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356
13 How to...
357
Working with absolute sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
Defining absolute sections in an assembly source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
Linking an application containing absolute sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
Working with relocatable sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Defining relocatable sections in a source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Linking an application containing relocatable sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
Initializing the Vector table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363
Initializing the Vector table in the linker PRM file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363
Initializing the Vector Table in a source file using a relocatable section. . .365
Initializing the Vector Table in a source file using an absolute section. . . .368
Splitting an application into modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370
Example of an Assembly File (Test1.asm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370
Corresponding include file (Test1.inc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Example of an assembly File (Test2.asm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
Using the direct addressing mode to access external symbols . . . . . . . . . .373
Using the direct addressing mode to access exported symbols . . . . . . . . . .374
Defining symbols in the direct page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374
Using the force operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Using SHORT sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
II Appendices
A Global Configuration File Entries
379
[Installation] Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
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Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
[Options] Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
DefaultDir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
[XXX_Assembler] Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
SaveOnExit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
SaveAppearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
SaveEditor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
SaveOptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
RecentProject0, RecentProject1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
[Editor] Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Editor_Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Editor_Exe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Editor_Opts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
B Local Configuration File Entries
387
[Editor] Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Editor_Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Editor_Exe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Editor_Opts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
[XXX_Assembler] Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
RecentCommandLineX, X= integer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
CurrentCommandLine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
StatusbarEnabled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
ToolbarEnabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
WindowPos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
WindowFont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
TipFilePos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
ShowTipOfDay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
EditorType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
EditorCommandLine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
EditorDDEClientName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
EditorDDETopicName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
13
Table of Contents
EditorDDEServiceName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
C MASM Compatibility
397
Comment Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
Constants (Integers). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
D MCUasm Compatibility
401
Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
SET directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
Obsolete directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
Index
14
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
I
Using the HC(S)08/RS08
Assembler
This document explains how to effectively use the HC(S)08/RS08 Macro Assembler.
Highlights
The major features of the HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler are:
• Graphical User Interface
• On-line Help
• 32-bit Application
• Conformation to the Freescale Assembly Language Input Standard
Structure of this document
This section has the following chapters:
• Working with the Assembler: A tutorial using the CodeWarrior™ Development
Studio for Microcontrollers V6.1 to create and configure an assembly-code project.
In addition, there is a description of using the Assembler and the Linker as
standalone Build Tools.
• Assembler Graphical User Interface: A description of the Macro Assembler’s
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
• Environment: A detailed description of the Environment variables used by the Macro
Assembler
• Files: A description of the input and output file the Assembles uses or generates.
• Assembler Options: A detailed description of the full set of assembler options
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
15
Structure of this document
• Sections: A description of the attributes and types of sections
• Assembler Syntax: A detailed description of the input syntax used in assembly input
files.
• Assembler Directives: A list of every directive that the Assembler supports
• Macros: A description of how to use macros with the Assembler
• Assembler Listing File: A description of the assembler output files
• Mixed C and Assembler Applications: A description of the important issues to be
considered when mixing both assembly and C source files in the same project
• Make Applications: A description of special issues for the linker
• How to...: Examples of assembly source code, linker PRM, and assembler output
listings.
In addition to the chapters in this section, there are the following chapters of Appendices
• Global Configuration File Entries: Description of the sections and entries that can
appear in the global configuration file - mcutools.ini
• Local Configuration File Entries: Description of the sections and entries that can
appear in the local configuration file - project.ini
• MASM Compatibility: Description of extensions for compatibility with the MASM
Assembler
• MCUasm Compatibility: Description of extensions for compatibility with the
MCUasm Assembler
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
1
Working with the Assembler
This chapter is primarily a tutorial for creating and managing HC(S)08/RS08 assembly
projects with the CodeWarrior™ Development Studio for Microcontrollers V6.1. In
addition, there are directions to utilize the Assembler and Smart Linker Build Tools in the
CodeWarrior Development Studio for assembling and linking assembly projects.
Programming Overview
In general terms, an embedded systems developer programs small but powerful
microprocessors to perform specific tasks. These software programs for controlling the
hardware is often referred to as firmware. One such use for firmware might be controlling
small stepping motors in an automobile seat.
The developer instructs what the hardware should do with one or more programming
languages, which have evolved over time. The three principal languages in use to program
embedded microprocessors are C and its variants, various forms of C++, and assembly
languages which are specially tailored to families of microcontrollers. C and C++ have
been fairly standardized through years of use, whereas assembly languages vary widely
and are usually designed by semiconductor manufacturers for specific families or even
subfamilies of their embedded microprocessors.
Assembly language instructions are considered as being at a lower level (closer to the
hardware) than the essentially standardized C instructions. Programming in C may require
some additional assembly instructions to be generated over and beyond what an
experienced developer could do in straight assembly language to accomplish the same
result. As a result, assembly language programs are usually faster to execute than C
instructions, but require much more programming effort. In addition, each chip series
usually has its own specialized assembly language which is only applicable for that family
(or subfamily) of CPU derivatives.
Higher-level languages like C use compilers to translate the syntax used by the
programmer to the machine-language of the microprocessor, whereas assembly language
uses assemblers. It is also possible to mix assembly and C source code in a single project.
See the Mixed C and Assembler Applications chapter.
This manual covers the Assembler dedicated to the Freescale 8-bit HC(S)08/RS08 series
of microcontrollers. There is a companion manual for this series that covers the HC(S)08
Compiler.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
17
Working with the Assembler
Programming Overview
The HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler can be used as a transparent, integral part of the
CodeWarrior Development Studio for Microcontrollers V6.1. This is the recommended
way to get your project up and running in minimal time. Alternatively, the Assembler can
also be configured and used as a standalone macro assembler as a member of Build Tool
Utilities such as a (Smart) Linker, Compiler, ROM Burner, Simulator or Debugger, etc.
The typical configuration of an Assembler is its association with a Project directory and an
External Editor. The CodeWarrior software uses the project directory for storing the files
it creates and coordinates the various tools integrated into the CodeWarrior suite. The
Assembler is but one of these tools that the IDE coordinates for your projects. The tools
used most frequently within the CodeWarrior IDE are its Editor, Compiler, Assembler,
Linker, the Simulator/Debugger, and Processor Expert. Most of these “Build Tools” are
located in the prog subfolder of the CodeWarrior installation. The others are directly
integrated into the CodeWarrior Development Studio for Microcontrollers V6.1.
The textual statements and instructions of the assembly-language syntax are written by
editors. The CodeWarrior IDE has its own editor, although any external text editor can be
used for writing assembly code programs. If you have a favorite editor, chances are that it
can be configured so as to provide both error and positive feedback from either the
CodeWarrior IDE or the standalone Assembler.
Project directory
A project directory contains all of the environment files that you need to configure your
development environment.
In the process of designing a project, you can either start from scratch by making your
own Source code, configuration (*.ini), and various layout files for your project for use
with standalone project-building tools. This was how embedded microprocessor projects
were developed in the recent past. On the other hand, you can have the CodeWarrior IDE
coordinate and manage the entire project. This is recommended because it is easier and
faster than employing standalone tools. However, you can still utilize any of the Build
Tools in the CodeWarrior suite.
External Editor
The CodeWarrior IDE reduces programming effort because its internal editor is
configured with the Assembler to enable error feedback. You can use the Configuration
dialog box of the standalone Assembler or other standalone CodeWarrior Tools to
configure or to select your choice of editors. Refer to the Editor Setting dialog box section
of this manual.
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Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an
assembly language project
The CodeWarrior IDE has an integrated Wizard to easily configure and manage the
creation of your project. The Wizard will get your project up and running in short order by
following a short series of steps to create and coordinate the project and to generate the
basic files that are located in the project directory.
This section will create a basic CodeWarrior project that uses assembly source code. A
sample program is included for a project created using the Wizard. For example, the
program included for an assembly project calculates the next number in a Fibonacci series.
It is much easier to analyze any program if you already have some familiarity with solving
the result in advance.
A Fibonacci series is an easily visualized infinite mathematical series:
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, ... to infinity-->
It is simple to calculate the next number in this series. The first calculated result is actually
the third number in the series because the first two numbers make up the starting point: 0
and 1. The next term in a Fibonacci series is the sum of the preceding two terms. The first
sum is then: 0 + 1 = 1. The second sum is 1 + 1 = 2. The sixth sum is 5 + 8 = 13. And so on
to infinity.
Let’s now rapidly create a project with the CodeWarrior Wizard and analyze the assembly
source and the Linker’s parameter files to calculate a Fibonacci series for a particular 8-bit
microprocessor in the Freescale HC(S)08 family - the MC68HC908GP32. Along the way,
some tips demonstrate how the CodeWarrior IDE helps manage your projects.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
19
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Using the Wizard to create a project
This section demonstrates using the CodeWarrior IDE Wizard to create a new project.
1. Start the HC(S)08/RS08 CodeWarrior IDE application.
The path is:
<CodeWarrior installation folder>\bin\IDE.exe)
2. After the CodeWarrior application opens, press the Create New Project button. If the
software is already running, select File > New. See Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Startup dialog box
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Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
The Microcontroller New Project dialog box appears, showing the Device and
Connection panel of the Wizard Map (Figure 1.3).
Figure 1.2 Device and Connection dialog box
3. Select the desired CPU derivative for the project.
a. Expand HC08 and G Family.
In this case, the MC68HC908GP32 derivative is selected.
b. For Connections, select the default - Full Chip Simulation.
4. Press Next > to close the dialog box.
The Project Parameters dialog box of the Wizard Map appears (Figure 1.2).
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
21
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Figure 1.3 Project Parameters dialog box
5. Enter the Project Parameters of the Wizard Map for your project.
a. For the programming language, check Relocatable Assembly and uncheck both C
and C++.
b. Type the name for the project in the Project name text box.
In the event that you want another location for the project directory than the default
in the Location: text box, press Set and browse to the new location. There is no
need to first prepare an empty folder, as the CodeWarrior IDE automatically
creates its own folder, called the project directory.
NOTE
If you do not use the default Location for the project directory, you need not
enter a name in the Project name: text box. Whatever you enter in the File
name: text box will be entered into Location automatically.
The CodeWarrior IDE uses the default *.mcp extension, so you do not have to
explicitly append any extension to the filename.
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Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
6. Press Save and Next >.
The Add Additional Files dialog box appears (Figure 1.4).
Figure 1.4 Add Additional Files dialog box
NOTE
To add any existing files to your project, browse in the Add existing files to the
project panel for the files and press the Add button. The added files then appear
in the Project Files panel on the right. No user files are to be added for this
project, so you can either uncheck the Copy files to project check box or make
sure that no files are selected and leave this check box checked.
7. Check the Create main.c/main.asm file check box.
This enables template files including a main.asm file in the Sources subfolder to
be created in the project directory (Test, in this case) with some sample assemblysource code.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
23
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
8. Press Next >.
The Processor Expert panel appears (Figure 1.5).
Figure 1.5 Processor Expert dialog box
The default (None) is selected. For this simple demonstration project, you do not need
the Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool (Processor Expert) in the
CodeWarrior Development Studio for Microcontrollers V6.1. A basic demonstration
assembly language project is being created. In practice, you would probably routinely
use Processor Expert because of its many advantages.
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
9. Press Finish >. The Wizard now creates the project (Figure 1.6).
Figure 1.6 The CodeWarrior project is being created
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
25
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Additional project information
Using the Wizard, an HC(S)08 project is set up in a few minutes. You can add additional
components to your project afterwards. A number of files and folders are automatically
generated in the root folder that was used in the project-naming process. This folder is
referred to in this manual as the project directory. The major GUI component for your
project is the project window. When the project completes, the CodeWarrior project
window appears (Figure 1.7).
Figure 1.7 CodeWarrior project window
If you expand the three folder icons, actually groups of files, by clicking in the
CodeWarrior project window, you can view some of the files created by the CodeWarrior
IDE. In general, any files in the project window with red check marks will remain checked
until they are successfully assembled, compiled, or linked. At this final stage of the
Wizard, you could safely close the project and reopen it later. A CodeWarrior project
reopens in the same configuration it had when it was last saved (Figure 1.8).
26
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Figure 1.8 Project window showing some of the files that the Wizard created
Examine the types and location of folders and files that the CodeWarrior IDE created in
the actual project directory so that you know their location if you later configure the
Assembler. If you work with standalone tools such as a Compiler, Linker, or Simulator/
Debugger, you may need to specify the paths to these files. So it is helpful to know their
typical locations and functions.
Use the Windows Explorer (Figure 1.9) to examine the actual folders and files created for
your project and displayed in the project window above. The name and location for the
project directory are what you selected when creating the project using the Wizard.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
27
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Figure 1.9 Project directory in Windows Explorer
The project directory holds a total of six subfolders and 15 files at this point. The major
file for any CodeWarrior project is its <project_name>.mcp file. This is the file you
can use to reopen your project.
Return to the CodeWarrior project window. Double-click on the main.asm file in the
Sources group. The CodeWarrior editor opens the main.asm file (Figure 1.10).
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Figure 1.10 Sample main.asm file in the project
You can use this sample main.asm file as a base to rewrite your own assembly source
program. Otherwise, you can import other assembly-code files into the project and delete
the default main.asm file from the project. For this project, the main.asm file contains
the sample Fibonacci program.
As a precaution, you can see if the project is configured correctly and if the source code is
free of syntactical errors. It is not necessary that you do so, but it is recommended that you
make (build) the newly created default project. Either press the Make button from the
toolbar or select Project > Make from the Project menu. All of the red check marks will
disappear after a successful building of the project (Figure 1.11).
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
29
Working with the Assembler
Using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage an assembly language project
Figure 1.11 Project window after a successful build
Use Windows Explorer to look into the project directory after the first successful build
(make) of the project. Build creates another subfolder and four more files (Figure 1.12).
Figure 1.12 main.o file generated
The new ObjectCode subfolder holds an object file for every assembly source-code file
that is assembled. In this case, the main.asm.o object-code file was generated.
30
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Analysis of groups and files in the project
window
There are three default groups for holding this project’s files. It really does not matter in
which group a file resides as long as that file is somewhere in the project window. A file
does not even have to be in any group. The groups do not correspond to any physical
folders in the project directory. They are simply present in the project window for
conveniently grouping files anyway you choose. You can add, rename, or delete files or
groups, or you can move files or groups anywhere in the project window.
CodeWarrior groups
These groups and their usual functions are:
• Sources
This group contains the assembly source code files.
• Includes
This group holds include files. One include file is for the particular CPU derivative.
In this case, the MC68HC908GP32.inc file is for the MC68HC908GP32
derivative.
• Project Settings – Linker Files
This group holds the burner file, the Linker PRM file, and the Linker mapping file.
NOTE
TIP
The default configuration of the project by the Wizard does not generate an
assembler output listing file for every *.asm source file. However, you can
afterwards select the Generate a listing file in the assembler options for the
Assembler to generate a format-configurable listing file of the assembly source
code (with the inclusion of include files, if desired). Assembler listing files
(with the *.lst file extension) are located in the bin subfolder in the project
directory when *.asm files are assembled with this option set.
To set up your project for generating assembler output listing files, select:
Edit > <target_name> Settings > Target > Assembler for HC08 > Options >
Output. (The default <target_name> is Standard.) Check Generate a listing
file. If you want to format the listing files differently than the default, check
Configure listing file and make the desired options. You can also add these listing
files to the project window for easier viewing instead of having to continually hunt
for them. For example, you might add the listing files to the Sources group in order
to have them near the assembly source files in the project window.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
31
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
This initial building of your project shows whether it is created and configured correctly.
Now you can utilize some of the CodeWarrior IDE features for managing your project.
One useful feature is the creation of additional build targets for your projects. You can use
multiple targets to have additional subprojects, each with its own files and configuration.
However, it is not at all necessary to use multiple build targets or rename files and groups
in the CodeWarrior IDE, so you might skip the following sections and resume the
Assembler part of this tutorial at Writing your assembly source files.
Creating a Target
The Wizard created one target which is named Standard. You can check this out for
yourself by double-clicking on the Targets tab in the project window. The Targets panel
appears (Figure 1.13).
Figure 1.13 Targets panel
Creating another build target is easy.
1. Select Project > Create Target.
(If Create Target is grayed in the Project menu, click once on the project window and
try again.) The New Target dialog box appears (Figure 1.14).
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Figure 1.14 New Target dialog box
2. Enter the name for the new target and select either of the two options.
Use the Clone existing target: option if you plan on using any material from the
existing (Standard) build target. You can later delete whatever you do not want.
3. Press OK.
Now there is another build target for your project (Figure 1.15).
Figure 1.15 Two build targets are now available
You can use the new target by clicking its icon so that the black arrow is attached to it and
then select the Files tab. The project window now lists the files used for the new build
target. A number of these files will be the same cloned files used by the other targets, but
you can add or delete files as with any build target. You can also select which target is the
default upon opening the project by selecting Project > Set Default Target.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
33
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
This project just cloned the default Standard build target without changing the
configuration. That does not do much at this point but change the <target_name>. So
let’s create a subfolder in the Sources folder and include another main.asm file that
you can use for your new build target. If you do not create another main.asm file in a
separate folder, any changes to the original main.asm file affect all build targets.
NOTE
It is recommended that you rename the files that are not common with files in
other build targets to some unique filename for each build target. We will
rename them later after you see what might occur when common filenames are
used for files that differ among build targets.
One way to have a separate assembler-source file for each project is to remove the original
main.asm file from the project (both build targets simultaneously) and then add the
appropriate main.asm file back into each build target.
1. From the Files tab with either build target active, right-select the main.asm file and
select Remove from the right-context menu (Figure 1.16). In this case the Standard
build target was active when we removed the main.asm file.
Figure 1.16 Removing the original main.asm file simultaneously from all build targets
A Freescale CodeWarrior dialog box appears, asking if you want to remove this file
from the project.
2. Press OK.
The main.asm file is now removed from all build targets. However, main.asm still
exists in the Sources folder in the project directory.
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
3. From Windows Explorer, create new subfolders, one for each build target, in the
Sources folder. You may name them as you choose, but you should use a
meaningful name, such as the same name as the appropriate build target.
4. Cut the main.asm file from the Sources folder and paste it into each build target
folder (Figure 1.17).
Figure 1.17 Project directory with a separate main.asm source file for each build target
Now add the appropriate main.asm file to each build target:
5. In the Project menu, select the Sources group for any of the build targets and then
select Add Files.
The Select files to add dialog box appears (Figure 1.18).
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
35
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Figure 1.18 Select files to add dialog box
6. Select the appropriate folder for the build target.
7. Press Open
8. Select the main.asm file.
9. Press Open again.
The Add Files dialog box appears (Figure 1.19).
Figure 1.19 Add Files dialog box
The figure above is for the Alpha 0.1 build target.
10. Deselect the original build target (Standard) and keep the new build target (Alpha 0.1)
checked.
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
11. Press OK.
The main.asm file is now added to the Alpha 0.1 build target.
Repeat this procedure to add the main.asm to the remaining build target.
Now you can modify a main.asm file for one build target without its adversely affecting
the other build targets. Repeat this procedure for any other files in the project that are
different for other build targets. However, do not do this for those files that are common to
all build targets.
NOTE
The main.asm file was added to each build target, but only one of them is
active. The inactive main.asm file will have n/a entries for the Code and Data
columns in the project window (Figure 1.20).
Figure 1.20 Project window showing active and inactive main.asm files
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
37
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Using the Editor
So far you have not yet used the editor for this project.
1. For one of the build targets, say the Alpha 0.1, double click on the active main.asm
file in the project window.
This file opens.
2. Adjust the mode of the main.asm file’s window so as to have a comfortable view.
One way is to choose the Docked-window option.
a. Right-click on the title bar for the main.asm file
b. Select Docked in the right-context menu (Figure 1.21).
Figure 1.21 Docked-window option for the main.asm file
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Analysis of groups and files in the project window
3. Adjust the docked-window view so it appears as in Figure 1.22.
Figure 1.22 Docked-window view for the main.asm file and project window
Now you can modify the main.asm file in a minor manner. Let’s add a NOP instruction
after the CLI instruction.
1. Place the cursor at the end of the comment in the CLI instruction line
2. Press Enter on the keyboard.
3. Type NOP
4. Press Enter once more (Figure 1.23)
5. Save your changes.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
39
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Figure 1.23 Modified main.asm file
There are numerous ways to save any changes made by the editor to the main.asm file.
Some of these are:
• Pressing the Save icon on the Toolbar
• Selecting File > Save or entering Ctrl+S with the keyboard.
• Selecting Project > Check Syntax (Ctrl+;). This also checks the syntax for the
main.asm file, as the name for the command suggests.
• Selecting Project > Compile (Ctrl+F7) or pressing the Compile icon on the Toolbar.
This also checks the syntax, assembles the main.asm file, and produces a
main.asm.o object-code file in the bin folder in the project directory, if
successful.
• Selecting Project > Bring Up To Date (Ctrl+U). If successful, this does everything
that Compile does plus assembling multiple assembly-code files. In addition, each
file with a red check mark is processed. However, no executable output (*.abs) file
is generated.
• Selecting Project > Make (F7) or pressing Make on any of the two Toolbars. This
effects all the functions that Bring Up To Date does in addition to generating an
executable *.asm file in the bin folder, if successful
• Selecting Project > Debug (F5) or pressing the Debug icon on any of the two
Toolbars. This does everything that Make does in addition to starting the Simulator/
Debugger Build Tool (hiwave.exe in the prog folder in the CodeWarrior
installation folder), if successful.
40
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Generating Listing Files
It was mentioned previously that the assembler output listing files were not generated
without making configuration changes for the build target. Generating a listing file is easy
to set up using Assembler options.
1. Select Edit > <target_name> Settings > Target > Assembler for Microcontroller.
The Assembler for Microcontrollers preference panel opens (Figure 1.24).
Figure 1.24 Assembler for Microcontrollers preference panel
2. Press Options.
The Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box opens (Figure 1.25).
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
41
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Figure 1.25 Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box
3. Under the Options tab, check Generate a listing file and also Do not print included
files in listing file (unless you actually want to view the sometimes lengthy include
files).
4. Press OK twice to close the dialog box and the preference panel.
5. Repeat this procedure for the remaining build targets.
With these options set, the Assembler generates a listing file in the bin folder for all
*.asm files for each build target. The filename for this listing file is the same as the
*.asm file, but with the *.lst file extension.
Using the same filename for the main.asm file for all build targets causes a problem for
the assembler output listing file. To which main.asm file does the main.lst listing
file correspond? Eliminate this confusion by choosing a unique filename for the
main.asm file for each build target. In this example, the poor practice of using common
filenames for files in different build targets was done intentionally so that:
• You can see the confusion it causes with listing files.
• You can employ another CodeWarrior functionality: renaming files.
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Renaming files
It is possible to change the name of a file in the project window, add it to the project, and
remove the former file from the project window simultaneously.
1. Double-click on the active main.asm file’s icon in the project window.
The editor opens that file.
2. Select File > Save as.
The Save As dialog box appears (Figure 1.26).
Figure 1.26 Save As dialog box
3. Enter the new filename in the Object name: text box.
4. Press Save.
5. Close the open file by selecting File > Close or by pressing the Close button in the
Title bar of the open file. Now:
• The new filename (e.g., main_Standard.asm) replaces the former filename in
the project window for all build targets.
• A file with the new filename is created in the folder selected in the Save As dialog
box <project_name> \<all_source-files>\<build_target>, or in
this case: Test\Sources\Standard.
However, the original file still exists in its folder with its original filename.
Now you must remove the old main.asm files from the build targets.
1. Select the Targets tab in the project window.
2. Make one of the build targets active.
3. Select the Link Order tab
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
43
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
4. Right click on the main.asm file name to bring up the context menu
5. Select Remove (Figure 1.27).
The main.asm file is removed from the build target. Repeat the process for the other
build target.
Figure 1.27 Remove context menu
You can use this procedure for renaming other files in the project window:
1. Open the file in the project window that you want to rename.
2. Select File > Save As.
3. Browse for the folder in which to store the new file.
4. Enter a new filename.
5. Press Save.
Renaming a filename in this manner simultaneously removes the older file from and
imports the newer file into the project (window). Repeat this procedure for the other build
targets. You can delete the two unneeded main.asm files from the two subfolders in
Windows Explorer, if you choose, as they no longer are involved with the project. You
could also delete the main.lst listing file and the main.dbg file from the bin folder
if any of them is present.
If you build any of the two build projects from this point, a unique listing file is generated
for each build target in the bin folder.
44
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
Creating a new group
Use the CodeWarrior IDE to create a new group.
1. From the Project menu, select Create Group.
The Create Group dialog box appears (Figure 1.28).
Figure 1.28 Create Group dialog box
2. Enter a name for the new group in the Enter name for new group: text box.
3. Press OK.
The new group appears in the project window (Figure 1.29).
Figure 1.29 Project window now has another group
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
45
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
NOTE
There is only one reason for creating a group: to place one or more files in it. In
this case, the group name has an error. We will correct the name in the next
section.
Place the two listing files located in the bin folder into the new group. (If there are not
two listing files, one for each build target, build the build targets until there are two.)
1. Select the new group Bad Nam
2. Select Project > Add Files.
Figure 1.30 New group - Select files to add dialog box
3. Select the two listing files
4. Press Open.
The Add Files dialog box appears (Figure 1.31).
Figure 1.31 New group - Add Files dialog box
46
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analysis of groups and files in the project window
5. Select all of the build targets (the default).
6. Press OK.
Now the listing files are conveniently grouped into the new group in the project
window.
Renaming groups in the project window
In addition to the ease in changing your Target Name or renaming files in the project
window, you can also rename any of the groups in the project window.
1. Double-click on the misnamed group (Bad Nam).
The Rename Group dialog box appears (Figure 1.32).
Figure 1.32 Rename Group dialog box
2. Enter a new name for the group
3. Press OK.
The group name is now changed in the project window (Figure 1.33).
Figure 1.33 Project window with the renamed group
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
47
Working with the Assembler
Writing your assembly source files
Writing your assembly source files
Once your project is configured, you can start writing your application’s assembly source
code and the Linker’s PRM file.
NOTE
You can write an assembly application using one or several assembly units.
Each assembly unit performs one particular task. An assembly unit is
comprised of an assembly source file and, perhaps, some additional include
files. Variables are exported from or imported to the different assembly units
so that a variable defined in an assembly unit can be used in another assembly
unit. You create the application by linking all of the assembly units.
The usual procedure for writing an assembly source-code file is to use the editor that is
integrated into the CodeWarrior IDE. You can begin a new file by pressing the New Text
File icon on the Toolbar to open a new file, write your assembly source code, and later
save it with a *.asm file extension using the Save icon on the Toolbar to name and store
it wherever you want it placed - usually in the Sources folder.
After the assembly-code file is written, it is added to the project using the Project menu. If
the source file is still open in the project window, select the Sources group icon in the
project window, single click on the file that you are writing, and then select Project > Add
<filename> to Project. The newly created file is added to the Sources group in the project.
If you do not first select the destination group’s icon (for example, Sources) in the project
window, the file will probably be added to the bottom of the files and groups in the project
window, which is OK. You can drag and drop the icon for any file wherever you want in
the project window.
Analyzing the project files
We will analyze the default main.asm file that was generated when the project was
created with the Wizard. Listing 1.1 is the default but renamed main_Standard.asm
file that is located in the Sources folder created by the Wizard. This is the assembler
source code for the Fibonacci program.
Listing 1.1 main_Standard.asm file
;*********************************************************************
;* This stationery serves as the framework for a user application.
*
;* For a more comprehensive program that demonstrates the more
*
;* advanced functionality of this processor, please see the
*
;* demonstration applications, located in the examples
*
;* subdirectory of the "CodeWarrior for Microcontrollers V6.1"
*
;* program directory.
*
48
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Analyzing the project files
;*********************************************************************
; export symbols
XDEF _Startup, main
; we use export 'Entry' as symbol. This allows us to
; reference 'Entry' either in the linker .prm file
; or from C/C++ later on
XREF __SEG_END_SSTACK
; symbol defined by the linker
; for the end of the stack
Include derivative-specific definitions
INCLUDE 'derivative.inc'
; variable/data section
MY_ZEROPAGE: SECTION SHORT
Counter:
DS.B
1
FiboRes:
DS.B
1
; Insert here your data definition
; code section
MyCode:
SECTION
main:
_Startup:
LDHX #__SEG_END_SSTACK ; initialize the stack pointer
TXS
CLI
; enable interrupts
mainLoop:
CLRA
; A contains counter
cntLoop:
INCA
CBEQA #14,mainLoop
; larger values cause overflow.
feed_watchdog
STA
Counter
; update global.
BSR
CalcFibo
STA
FiboRes
; store result
LDA
Counter
BRA
cntLoop
; next round.
; Function to calculate fibonacci numbers. Argument is in A.
CalcFibo:
DBNZA fiboDo
; fiboDo
INCA
RTS
fiboDo:
PSHA
; the counter
CLRX
; second last = 0
LDA
#$01
; last = 1
FiboLoop:
PSHA
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
49
Working with the Assembler
Analyzing the project files
FiboDone:
ADD
PULX
DBNZ
PULH
RTS
1,SP
1,SP,FiboLoop
; release counter
; result in A
;**************************************************************
spurious - Spurious Interrupt Service Routine.
*
;*
(unwanted interrupt)
*
;**************************************************************
spurious:
; placed here so that security value
NOP
; does not change all the time.
RTI
;**************************************************************
;*
Interrupt Vectors
*
;**************************************************************
ORG
$FFFA
DC.W
DC.W
DC.W
spurious
spurious
_Startup
;
; SWI
; Reset
Since the RS08 memory map is different from the HC08 memory map (and so is the
instruction set), Listing 1.2 shows a similar example for RS08.
NOTE
In order to assemble files for the RS08 derivative pass the -Crs08 option to the
assembler. This can be done either directly (in the command line or in the
assembler command bar) or by choosing the “Code generation” tab from the
assembler options menu. Then select the “Derivative family” option and enable
the RS08 Derivative Family radio button.
Listing 1.2 Contents of Example File test_rs08.asm
XDEF Entry ; Make the symbol entry visible for external module
; This is necessary to allow the linker to find the
; symbol and use it as the entry point for the
; application.
cstSec: SECTION ; Define a constant relocatable section
var1: DC.B 5 ; Assign 5 to the symbol var1
dataSec: SECTION ; Define a data relocatable section
data: DS.B 1 ; Define one byte variable in RAM
codeSec: SECTION ; Define a code relocatable section
Entry:
50
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
LDA var1
main:
INCA
STA data
BRA main
When writing your assembly source code, pay special attention to the following:
• Make sure that symbols outside of the current source file (in another source file or in
the linker configuration file) that are referenced from the current source file are
externally visible. Notice that we have inserted the assembly directive XDEF
_Startup, main where appropriate in the example.
• In order to make debugging from the application easier, we strongly recommend that
you define separate sections for code, constant data (defined with DC) and variables
(defined with DS). This will mean that the symbols located in the variable or constant
data sections can be displayed in the data window component.
• Make sure to initialize the stack pointer when using BSR or JSR instructions in your
application. The stack can be initialized in the assembly source code and allocated to
RAM memory in the Linker parameter file, if a *.prm file is used.
NOTE
The default assembly project using the CodeWarrior Wizard initializes the
stack pointer automatically with a symbol defined by the Linker for the end of
the stack __SEG_END_SSTACK. For the RS08 derivative, initializing the
stack does not apply.
Assembling your source files
Once an assembly source file is available, you can assemble it. Either use the CodeWarrior
IDE to assemble the *.asm files or use the standalone assembler of the build tools in the
prog folder in the CodeWarrior installation.
Assembling with the CodeWarrior IDE
The CodeWarrior IDE simplifies the assembly of your assembly source code. You can
assemble the source code files into object (*.o) files without linking them by:
• selecting one or more *.asm files in the project window and then select Compile
from the Project menu (Project > Compile). Only *.asm files that were selected
will generate updated *.o object files.
• selecting Project > Bring Up To Date. It is not necessary to select any assembly
source files.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
51
Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
The object files are generated and placed into the ObjectCode subfolder in the project
directory. The object file (and its path) that results from assembling the main.asm file in
the default Code Warrior project is:
<project_name>\<project_name>_Data\<build-target_name>\
ObjectCode\main.asm.o.
NOTE
The build-target name can be changed to whatever you choose in the Target
Settings preference panel. Select Edit > <target> Settings > Target > Target
Settings and enter the revised target name into the Target Name: text box. The
default Target Name is Standard.
Or, you can assemble all the *.asm files and link the resulting object files to generate the
executable <target_name>.abs file by invoking either Make or Debug from the
Project menu (Project > Make or Project > Debug). This results in the generation of the
<target_name>.abs file in the bin subfolder of the project directory.
Two other files generated by the IDE after Linking (Make) or Debug are:
• <target_name>.map
This Linker map file lists the names, load addresses, and lengths of all segments in
your program. In addition, it lists the names and load addresses of any groups in the
program, the start address, and messages about any errors the Linker encounters.
• <target_name>.abs.s19
This is an S-Record File that can be used for programming a ROM memory.
52
TIP
The remaining file in the default bin subfolder is the <target_name>.dbg
file that was generated back when the *.asm file was successfully assembled.
This debugging file was generated because a bullet was present in the debugging
column in the project window.
You can enter (or deselect by toggling) a debugging bullet by clicking at the
intersection of the *.asm file (or whatever other source-code file selected for
debugging) and the debugging column in the project window. Whenever the
debugger or simulator does not show the file in its Source window, check first to
see if the debugging bullet is present or not in the project window. The bullet must
be present for debugging purposes.
TIP
The Wizard does not generate default assembler-output listing files. If you want
such listing files generated, you have to select this option: Edit > <target_name>
Settings > Target > Assembler for HC08 > Options. Select the Output tab in the
HC08 Assembler Option Settings dialog box. Check Generate a listing file and Do
not print included files in list file. (You can uncheck Do not print included files in
list file if you choose, but be advised that the include files are usually quite
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
lengthy.) Now a *.lst file will be generated in the bin subfolder of the project
directory whenever a *.asm file is assembled.
TIP
You can add the *.lst files to the project window for easier viewing. This way
you do not have to continually hunt for them with your editor.
Listing 1.3 shows the main.lst file for this project. The comments are truncated on the
far-right edge due to size constraints of the manual’s page.
Listing 1.3 main_Standard.lst assembler output listing file
Freescale HC08-Assembler
(c) Copyright Freescale 1987-2007
Abs. Rel.
Loc
Obj. code
Source line
---- --------- ------------------1
1
;*******************************************************************
2
2
;* This stationery serves as the fram
3
3
;* For a more comprehensive program t
4
4
;* advanced functionality of this pro
5
5
;* demonstration applications, locate
6
6
;* subdirectory of the "Freescale Cod
7
7
;* directory.
8
8
;************************************
9
9
10
10
; export symbols
11
11
XDEF _Startup, main
12
12
; we use export 'Entry' a
13
13
; reference 'Entry' eithe
14
14
; or from C/C++ later on
15
15
16
16
XREF __SEG_END_SSTACK
;
17
17
18
18
; Include derivative-specific d
19
19
INCLUDE 'derivative.inc'
1238
20
1239
21
; variable/data section
1240
22
MY_ZEROPAGE: SECTION SHORT
;
1241
23
000000
Counter:
DS.B
1
1242
24
000001
FiboRes:
DS.B
1
1243
25
1244
26
1245
27
; code section
1246
28
MyCode:
SECTION
1247
29
main:
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
13m
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
_Startup:
000000 45 xxxx
000003 94
000004 9A
LDHX
TXS
CLI
#__SEG_END_SSTACK
;
mainLoop:
000005 4F
000006 4C
000007 41 0E FB
00000A
00000D
00000F
000011
000013
000015
C7
B7
AD
B7
B6
20
FFFF
xx
06
xx
xx
EF
cntLoop:
+
CalcFibo:
000017 4B 02
000019 4C
00001A 81
CLRA
INCA
CBEQA #14,mainLoop
feed_watchdog
STA
COPCTL
STA
Counter
BSR
CalcFibo
STA
FiboRes
LDA
Counter
BRA
cntLoop
;
;
;
;
;
; Function to calculate f
DBNZA fiboDo
;
INCA
RTS
fiboDo:
00001B
00001C
00001D
00001F
000020
000021
000024
000025
000029
00002A
87
5F
A6 01
87
9F
9EEB 01
88
9E6B 01 F6
8A
81
FiboLoop:
FiboDone:
PSHA
CLRX
LDA
PSHA
TXA
ADD
PULX
DBNZ
PULH
RTS
#$01
;
;
;
;
1,SP
1,SP,FiboLoop
;
;
;*************************************
;* spurious - Spurious Interrupt Servi
;*
(unwanted interrupt)
Freescale HC08-Assembler
(c) Copyright Freescale 1987-2005
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1283
64
1284
65
1285
66
1286
67
1287
68
1288
69
1289
70
54
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
00002B 9D
00002C 80
Source line
----------;************************************
spurious:
;
NOP
;
RTI
;************************************
;*
Interrupt Vectors
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
71
72
73
74
75
76
;************************************
ORG
$FFFA
a00FFFA xxxx
a00FFFC xxxx
a00FFFE xxxx
DC.W
DC.W
DC.W
spurious
spurious
_Startup
;
;
Assembling with the Assembler
It is also possible to use the HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler as a standalone assembler. If you
prefer not to use the assembler but do want to use the Linker, you can skip this section and
proceed to Linking the application.
This tutorial does not create another project from scratch with the Build Tools, but instead
uses some files of a project already created by the CodeWarrior Wizard. The CodeWarrior
IDE can create, configure, and mange a project much easier and quicker than using the
Build Tools. However, the Build Tools could also create and configure another project
from scratch.
A Build Tool such as the Assembler makes use of a project directory file for configuring
and locating its input and generated files. The folder that is designated for this purpose is
referred to by a Build Tool as the “current directory.”
Start the Assembler. You can do this by opening the ahc08.exe file in the prog folder
in the CodeWarrior installation. The Assembler opens (Figure 1.34).
Figure 1.34 Microcontroller Assembler opens
Read any of the Tips if you choose and then press Close to close the Tip of the Day
window.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
Configuring the Assembler
A Build Tool, such as the Assembler, requires information from configuration files. There
are two types of configuration data:
• Global
This data is common to all Build Tools and projects. There may be common data for
each Build Tool, such as listing the most recent projects, etc. All tools may store
some global data into the mcutools.ini file. The tool first searches for this file in
the directory of the tool itself (path of the executable). If there is no
mcutools.ini file in this directory, the tool looks for an mcutools.ini file
located in the MS WINDOWS installation directory (e.g. C:\WINDOWS). See
Listing 1.4.
Listing 1.4 Typical locations for a global configuration file
\<CW installation directory>\prog\mcutools.ini - #1 priority
C:\WINDOWS\mcutools.ini - used if there is no mcutools.ini file above
If a tool is started in the default location C:\Program
Files\Freescale\CodeWarrior for Microcontrollers
V6.1\prog directory, the initialization file in the same directory as the tool is used:
C:\Program Files\Freescale\CodeWarrior for
Microcontrollers V6.1\prog\mcutools.ini.
But if the tool is started outside the CodeWarrior installation directory, the
initialization file in the Windows directory is used. For example,
C:\WINDOWS\mcutools.ini.
For information about entries for the global configuration file, see Global
Configuration File Entries in the Appendices.
• Local
This file could be used by any Build Tool for a particular project. For information
about entries for the local configuration file, see Local Configuration File Entries in
the Appendices.
After opening the Assembler, you would load the configuration file for your project if it
already had one. However, you will create a new configuration file for the project in this
tutorial and save it so that when the project is reopened, its previously saved configuration
state will be used. From the File menu, select New / Default Configuration. The
Microcontroller Assembler Default Configuration dialog box appears (Figure 1.35)
56
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
Figure 1.35 Microcontroller Assembler New / Default dialog box
Now let’s save this configuration in a newly created folder that will become the project
directory.
1. From the File menu, select Save Configuration As.
A Saving Configuration as dialog box appears.
2. Navigate to the folder of your choice and Click on the Create New Folder icon in the
Toolbar.
3. Enter a name for the project directory (Figure 1.36).
Figure 1.36 Loading configuration dialog box
4. Press Open.
In this case, Model T becomes the project directory in the Projects folder.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
57
Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
5. Press Save
The project.ini file is created in the Model T folder and becomes the local
configuration file for this project. The current directory for the Microcontroller
Assembler is changed to your project directory (Figure 1.37).
Figure 1.37 Assembler’s current directory switches to your project directory
If you were to examine the project directory with the Windows Explorer at this point, it
would only contain the project.ini configuration file that the Assembler just created
(Figure 1.38).
Figure 1.38 Project directory in Windows Explorer
If you further examined the contents of the project.ini configuration file, you would
see that it contains Assembler options in the [AHC08_Assembler] portion of the file. The
project.ini file for this project only has an [AHC08_Assembler] section (Listing
1.5).
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Assembling your source files
Listing 1.5 Contents of the project.ini file
[AHC08_Assembler]
StatusbarEnabled=1
ToolbarEnabled=1
WindowPos=0,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,371,209,798,496
EditorType=4
The AHC08_Assembler options are described in detail in [XXX_Assembler] Section in
the Appendices.
Next, you set the object-file format that you will use (HIWARE or ELF/DWARF).
1. Select Assembler > Options.
The Assembler displays the Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box
(Figure 1.39).
Figure 1.39 Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box
2. In the Output panel, select the check boxes labeled Generate a listing file and Object
File Format.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Working with the Assembler
Assembling your source files
3. For the Object File Format, select the ELF/DWARF 2.0 Object File Format in the
pull-down menu.
4. The listing file could be much shorter if the Do not print included files in list file check
box is checked, so you may want to select that option also.
5. Press OK to close the Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box.
NOTE
For the RS08 derivative the HIWARE Object File Format is not supported.
Save the changes to the configuration by:
• selecting File > Save Configuration (Ctrl + S) or
• pressing the Save button on the toolbar.
After the changes to the configuration are saved, the project.ini file’s contents are as
follows (Listing 1.6).
Listing 1.6 project.ini file after some assembly options were added
[AHC08_Assembler]
StatusbarEnabled=1
ToolbarEnabled=1
WindowPos=0,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,308,151,767,337
EditorType=4
Options=-F2 -L=%(TEXTPATH)\%n.lst -Li
Input Files
Now that the project’s configuration is set, you can assemble an assembly-code file.
However, the project does not contain any source-code files at this point. You could create
assembly *.asm and include *.inc files from scratch for this project. However, for
simplicity’s sake, you can copy-and-paste the main_Standard.asm and the
derivative.inc files from the previous CodeWarrior project. For this project you
should have a project directory named Model T. Within this folder, you should have
another folder named Sources, which contains the two files described above. Using a
text editor of your choice, modify the main_Standard.asm file so that it appears as
below (Listing 1.7):
Listing 1.7 main.asm_Standard file
;*********************************************************************
;* This stationery serves as the framework for a user application.
*
;* For a more comprehensive program that demonstrates the more
*
;* advanced functionality of this processor, please see the
*
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;* demonstration applications, located in the examples
*
;* subdirectory of the "CodeWarrior for Microcontrollers V6.1"
*
;* program directory.
*
;*********************************************************************
; export symbols
XDEF _Startup, main
; we use export '_Startup' as symbol. This allows us to
; reference '_Startup' either in the linker .prm file
; or from C/C++ later on
XREF __SEG_END_SSTACK
; symbol defined by the linker
; for the end of the stack
Include derivative-specific definitions
INCLUDE 'derivative.inc'
; variable/data section
MY_ZEROPAGE: SECTION SHORT
Counter:
DS.B
1
FiboRes:
DS.B
1
; code section
MyCode:
SECTION
main:
_Startup:
LDHX #__SEG_END_SSTACK
TXS
CLI
mainLoop:
CLRA
cntLoop:
INCA
CBEQA #14,mainLoop
; Insert here your data definition
; initialize the stack pointer
; enable interrupts
; A contains counter
; larger values cause overflow.
STA
Counter
; update global.
BSR
CalcFibo
STA
FiboRes
; store result
LDA
Counter
BRA
cntLoop
; next round.
; Function to calculate fibonacci numbers. Argument is in A.
CalcFibo:
DBNZA fiboDo
; fiboDo
INCA
RTS
fiboDo:
PSHA
; the counter
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Assembling your source files
FiboLoop:
FiboDone:
CLRX
LDA
PSHA
ADD
PULX
DBNZ
PULH
RTS
; second last = 0
; last = 1
#$01
1,SP
1,SP,FiboLoop
; release counter
; result in A
Now there are three files in the project (Figure 1.40):
• the project.ini configuration file and
• two files in the Sources folder:
– main_Standard.asm
– derivative.inc.
Figure 1.40 Project files
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Assembling your source files
Assembling the assembly source-code files
Let’s assemble the main_Standard.asm file.
1. From the File menu, select Assemble.
The Select File to Assemble dialog box appears (Figure 1.41).
Figure 1.41 Select File to Assemble dialog box
2. Browse to the Sources folder in the project directory and select the
main_Standard.asm file.
3. Press Open and the main.asm file should start assembling (Figure 1.42).
Figure 1.42 Results of assembling the main.asm file
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Assembling your source files
The project window provides information about the assembly process or generates error
messages if the assembly was unsuccessful. In this case the A2209 File not found error
message is generated. If you right-click on the text containing the error message, a context
menu appears (Figure 1.43).
NOTE
If you get any other types of errors, make sure the main_Standard.asm
file is modified as shown in Listing 1.7
Figure 1.43 Context menu
Select Help on “file not found” and help for the A2309 error message appears
(Figure 1.44).
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Assembling your source files
Figure 1.44 A2309: File not found
You know that the file exists because it is included in the Sources folder that you
imported into the project directory. The help message for the A2309 error states that the
Assembler looks for this “missing” include file first in the current directory and then in the
directory specified by the GENPATH environment variable. This suggests that the
GENPATH environment variable should specify the location of the derivative.inc
include file.
NOTE
If you read the main_Standard.asm file, you could have anticipated this
on account of this statement on line 20: INCLUDE 'derivative.inc'.
1. To fix this, select File > Configuration.
The Configuration dialog box appears (Figure 1.45).
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Assembling your source files
Figure 1.45 Browsing for the Sources folder
2. Select the Environment tab and then General Path.
3. Press the “...” button and navigate in the Browse for Folder dialog box for the folder
that contains the derivative.inc file - the Sources folder in the project
directory.
4. Press OK to close the Browse for Folder dialog box.
The Configuration dialog box is active again (Figure 1.46).
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Figure 1.46 Adding a GENPATH
5. Press the Add button
The path to the derivative.inc file “E:\Projects\Model T\Sources” appears in the
lower panel.
6. Press OK.
An asterisk appears in the Title bar, so save the change to the configuration
7. Press the Save button in the Toolbar or select File > Save Configuration.
The asterisk disappears.
TIP
You can clear the messages in the Assembler window at any time by selecting
View > Log > Clear Log.
Now that you have supplied the path to the derivative.inc file, let’s attempt again to
assemble the main_Standard.asm file.
Select File > Assemble and again navigate to the main_Standard.asm file and press
Open. However, the A2309 error message reappears but this time for a different include
file - MC68HC908GP32.inc. (Figure 1.47).
NOTE
In this case, the derivative.inc file has this statement:
INCLUDE 'MC68HC908GP32.inc'. Therefore, a prior reading of the
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Assembling your source files
assembly-code and include files suggests these include files might require
GENPATH configurations. If possible, set any needed GENPATH in advance
of assembling the source-code files.
Figure 1.47 Assemble attempt #2
Fix this by repeating the GENPATH routine for the other include file (Figure 1.48). The
MC68HC908GP32.inc file is located at this path:
C:\Program Files\Freescale\CodeWarrior for Microcontrollers
V6.1\lib\hc08c\include
The include folder is the typical place for missing include files.
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Figure 1.48 Adding another GENPATH
After the GENPATH is set up for the second include file and saved as before, you can try to
assemble the main_Standard.asm file for the third time (Figure 1.49).
Figure 1.49 Assemble attempt #3 - success!
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Assembling your source files
The Macro Assembler indicates successful assembling and indicated that the Code Size
was 40 bytes. The message *** 0 error(s), indicates that the
main_Standard.asm file assembled without errors. Do not forget to save the
configuration one additional time.
The Assembler also generated a main_Standard.dbg file (for use with the Simulator/
Debugger), a main_Standard.o object file (for further processing with the Linker),
and a main_Standard.lst output listing file in the project directory. The binary
object-code file has the same name as the input module, but with the *.o extension main_Standard.o. The debug file has the same name as the input module, but with
the *.dbg extension - main_Standard.dbg and the assembly output listing file has
the *.lst extension (Figure 1.50).
Figure 1.50 Project directory after a successful assembly
The ERR.TXT file is present in the project directory because of the earlier failed attempts
at assembling. The ERR.TXT file is empty after a successful assembly. You can delete
this file. Let’s take an additional look at the project.ini file (Listing 1.8).
Listing 1.8 project.ini file after GENPATH environment variable is created
[AHC08_Assembler]
StatusbarEnabled=1
ToolbarEnabled=1
WindowPos=0,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,141,92,901,452
EditorType=4
Options=-F2 -L=%(TEXTPATH)\%n.lst -Li
CurrentCommandLine=""D:\Data\Projects\Model
T\Sources\main_Standard.asm""
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Linking the application
RecentCommandLine0=""D:\Data\Projects\Model
T\Sources\main_Standard.asm""
[Environment Variables]
GENPATH=C:\Program Files\Freescale\CodeWarrior for Microcontrollers
V6.1\lib\hc08c\include;D:\Data\Projects\Model T\Sources
OBJPATH=
TEXTPATH=
ABSPATH=
LIBPATH=
The haphazard running of this project was intentionally designed to fail to illustrate what
occurs if the path of any include file is not properly configured. Be aware that
include files may be included by either *.asm or *.inc files. In addition, remember
that the lib folder in the CodeWarrior installation contains several derivative-specific
include and prm files available for inclusion into your projects.
Linking the application
Once the object files are available you can link your application. The linker organizes the
code and data sections into ROM and RAM memory areas according to the project’s linker
parameter (PRM) file.
Linking with the CodeWarrior IDE
The Linker’s input files are object-code files from assembler and compiler, library files,
and the Linker PRM file.
PRM file
If you are using the CodeWarrior IDE to manage your project, a pre-configured PRM file
for a particular derivative is already set up (Listing 1.9). Listing 1.9 is an example Linker
PRM file for the RS08 derivative.
Listing 1.9 Linker PRM file for the GP32 derivative - Project.prm
/* This is a linker parameter file for the GP32 */
NAMES END /* CodeWarrior software will pass all the needed files to the
linker by command line. But here you may add your own files too. */
SEGMENTS /* Here all RAM/ROM areas of the device are listed. Used in
PLACEMENT below. */
ROM
= READ_ONLY
0x8000 TO 0xFDFF;
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Z_RAM
RAM
=
=
READ_WRITE
READ_WRITE
0x0040 TO 0x00FF;
0x0100 TO 0x023F;
END
PLACEMENT /* Here all predefined and user segments are placed into the
SEGMENTS defined above. */
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO RAM;
_DATA_ZEROPAGE, MY_ZEROPAGE
INTO Z_RAM;
DEFAULT_ROM, ROM_VAR, STRINGS
INTO ROM;
END
STACKSIZE 0x50
//VECTOR 0 _Startup
/* Reset vector: This is the default entry
//
point for a C/C++ application. */
//VECTOR 0 Entry /* Reset vector: this is the default entry point
for an Assembly application. */
//INIT Entry
/* For assembly applications: that this is as
well the initialization entry point */
Listing 1.10 Linker PRM file for the RS08 derivative
LINK test_rs08.abs
NAMES test_rs08.o END
SEGMENTS
TINY_RAM
= READ_WRITE
DIRECT_RAM
= READ_WRITE
ROM
= READ_ONLY
RESET_JMP_AREA= READ_ONLY
END
0x0000
0x0020
0x3800
0x3FFD
PLACEMENT
DEFAULT_ROM
DEFAULT_RAM
TO
TO
TO
TO
0x000D;
0x004F;
0x3FFB;
0x3FFF;
INTO ROM;
INTO DIRECT_RAM;
TINY_RAM_VARS,
DIRECT_RAM_VARS
END
INTO TINY_RAM;
INTO DIRECT_RAM, TINY_RAM;
STACKSIZE 0x00 // no stack for RS08
VECTOR 0 Entry
INIT Entry
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Linking the application
The Linker PRM file allocates memory for the stack and the sections named in the
assembly source code files. If the sections in the source code are not specifically
referenced in the PLACEMENT section, then these sections are included in
DEFAULT_ROM or DEFAULT_RAM. You may use a different PRM file for each build
target instead of the default PRM file generated by the Wizard - Project.prm.
The Linker for Microcontrollers preference panel controls which PRM file is used for
your CodeWarrior project. The default PRM file for a CodeWarrior project is the PRM
file in the project window. Let’s see what other options exist for the PRM file. From the
Edit menu, select <target_name> Settings > Target > Linker for Microcontrollers. The
Linker for Microcontrollers preference panel appears (Figure 1.51).
Figure 1.51 Linker for Microcontrollers preference panel
There are three radio buttons for selecting the PRM file and another for selecting an
absolute, single-file assembly project:
• Use Custom PRM file
This option will browse for an existing PRM file for the build target.
• Use Template PRM file
This option uses a template PRM in the pull-down menu and copies it for use in your
build target.
• Use PRM file from project - the default
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Linking the application
• Absolute, Single-File Assembly project.
An absolute assembly project does not require a PRM file. Therefore, the
configuration information that is otherwise present in a PRM file must be included in
a single-file *.asm file. Only one *.asm file is allowed for absolute assembly.
In case you want to change the filename of the application, you can determine the
filename and its path with the Application Filename: text box.
The STACKSIZE entry is used to set the stack size. The size of the stack for this project is
80 bytes. Some entries in the Linker PRM file may be commented-out by the IDE, as are
the three last items in the Project.prm file in Listing 1.9.
Linking the object-code files
You can run this relocatable assembly project from the Project menu: Select Project >
Make or Project > Debug. The Linker generates a *.abs file and a *.abs.s19
standard S-Record File in the bin subfolder of the project directory. You can use an
S-Record File to program ROM memory (Figure 1.52).
Figure 1.52 bin folder in the project directory in Windows Explorer after linking
The Project.abs, Project.abs.s19, and Project.map files in the figure
above are the Linker output files resulting from the object-code and PRM files and
configuration in the build target that is selected in the Targets panel in the project window.
The Full Chip Simulation option was selected when the project was created, so if Project
> Debug is selected, the debugger opens and you can follow each assembly-code
instruction during the execution of the program with the Hiwave Simulator (Figure 1.53).
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Linking the application
Figure 1.53 hiwave.exe - Simulator/Debugger build tool
You can single-step the Simulator through the program from the Run menu in the
Simulator (Run > Assembly Step or Ctrl+F11). You can monitor the seven panels in the
Simulator while following the logic in the Fibonacci application.
Linking with the Linker
If you are using the Linker (SmartLinker) build tool utility for a relocatable assembly
project, you will use a PRM file for the Linker to allocate ROM and RAM memory areas.
1. Using a text editor, create the project’s linker parameter file. You can modify a *.prm
file from another project and rename it as <target_name>.prm.
2. Store the PRM file in a convenient location, such as the project directory.
3. In the <project_name>.prm file, change the name of the executable (*.abs)
file to whatever you choose, e.g., <project_name>.abs. In addition, you can also
modify the start and end addresses for the ROM and RAM memory areas. The
module’s Model T.prm file (a PRM file for an MC68HC908GP32 from another
CodeWarrior project was adapted) is shown in Listing 1.11.
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Linking the application
Listing 1.11 Layout of a PRM file for the Linker - Model T.prm
/* This is a linker parameter file for the GP32 */
LINK Model_T.abs /* Absolute executable file */
NAMES main_Standard.o /* Input object-code files are listed here. */
END
SEGMENTS /* Here all RAM/ROM
PLACEMENT below.
ROM
Z_RAM
RAM
END
areas of the device are listed. Used in
*/
= READ_ONLY
0x8000 TO 0xFDFF;
= READ_WRITE
0x0040 TO 0x00FF;
= READ_WRITE
0x0100 TO 0x023F;
PLACEMENT /* Here all predefined and user segments are placed into the
SEGMENTS defined above. */
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO RAM;
_DATA_ZEROPAGE, MY_ZEROPAGE
INTO Z_RAM;
DEFAULT_ROM, ROM_VAR, STRINGS
INTO ROM;
END
STACKSIZE 0x50
VECTOR 0 _Startup
INIT _Startup
76
/* Reset vector: this is the default entry point
for an Assembly application. */
/* For assembly applications: that this is as
well the initialization entry point */
NOTE
If you are adapting a PRM file from a CodeWarrior project, all you really need
to add is the LINK portion and the object-code filenames to be linked in the
NAMES portion.
NOTE
The default size for the stack using the CodeWarrior Wizard for the GP32 is 80
bytes - (STACKSIZE 0x50). This Linker statement and
__SEG_END_SSTACK in the assembly-code snippet below determine the
size and placement of the stack in RAM:
MyCode:
SECTION
; code section
main:
_Startup:
LDHX #__SEG_END_SSTACK ; initialize stack pointer
TXS
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Working with the Assembler
Linking the application
The statements in the linker parameter file are described in the Linker portion of the
Build Tool Utilities manual.
4. Start the Linker.
The SmartLinker tool is located in the prog folder in the CodeWarrior installation:
prog\linker.exe
5. Press Close to close the Tip of the Day dialog box.
6. Load the project’s configuration file.
Use the same <project.ini> file that the Assembler used for its configuration the project.ini file in the project directory.
Select File > Load Configuration and navigate to and select the project’s configuration
file (Figure 1.54).
Figure 1.54 Microcontroller Linker
7. Press Open to load the configuration file.
The project directory is now the current directory for the Linker.
8. Select Save Configuration to save the configuration.
9. From the File menu in the Smart Linker, select File > Link. The Select File to Link
dialog box appears (Figure 1.55).
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Linking the application
Figure 1.55 Select File to Link dialog box
10. Browse to locate and select the PRM file for your project.
11. Press Open.
The Smart Linker links the object-code files in the NAMES section to produce the
executable *.abs file, as specified in the LINK portion of the Linker PRM file
(Figure 1.56).
Figure 1.56 Linker main window after linking
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Linking the application
The messages in the linker’s project window indicate that:
• The current directory for the Linker is the project directory,
D:\Data\Projects\Model T.
• The Model T.prm file was used to name the executable file, which object files
were linked, and how the RAM and ROM memory areas were allocated for the
relocatable sections. The Reset and application entry points were also specified in
this file.
• There was one object file, main_Standard.o.
• The output format was DWARF 2.0.
• The Code Size was 42 bytes.
• A Linker Map file - Model_T.map was generated.
• No errors or warnings occurred and no information messages were issued.
The TEXTPATH environmental variable was not used for this project. Therefore, the
Linker generates its *.map Linker Map file in the same folder that contains the PRM file
for the project. Because the ABSPATH environment variable was not used, the *.abs
executable file is generated in the same folder as the Linker PRM file. Figure 1.57 shows
the contents of the project directory after the relocatable assembly project was linked.
Figure 1.57 Project directory after linking
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Linking the application
You can use the Simulator/Debugger Build Tool, hiwave.exe, located in the prog
folder in the CodeWarrior installation, to simulate the program that was assembled using
the main_Standard.asm source-code file and linked to generate the Model_T.abs
executable. To use the Simulator, follow these steps:
1. Start the Simulator.
The GUI for the Simulator appears (Figure 1.58).
Figure 1.58 True-Time Simulator & Real-Time Debugger
2. Select Set Connection from the Component menu.
The Set Connection dialog box appears (Figure 1.59).
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Linking the application
Figure 1.59 Set Connection dialog box
3. The CPU derivative for this project is in the HC08 subfamily, so select HC08 from the
Processor list box.
4. Select Full Chip Simulation in the Connection list box.
5. Press OK.
6. From the File menu, select Load Application.
The Load Executable File dialog box appears (Figure 1.60).
Figure 1.60 Load Executable File dialog box
7. Browse to and select the Model_T.abs file in the project directory.
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Linking the application
8. Press Open.
The Simulator is now ready to run (Figure 1.61).
Figure 1.61 Simulator is now ready
You can repeatedly press the Assembly Step (Ctrl+F11) icon to single-step the Simulator
through the assembly source-code and monitor the program’s logic of the Fibonacci
application in the eight panels within the Simulator’s GUI.
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Directly generating an ABS file
Directly generating an ABS file
You can also use the CodeWarrior IDE or the Assembler build tool to generate an ABS file
directly from your assembly-source file. The Assembler may also be configured to
generate an S-Record File at the same time.
When you use the CodeWarrior IDE or the Assembler to directly generate an ABS file,
there is no Linker involved. This means that the application must be implemented in a
single assembly unit and must contain only absolute sections.
Using the CodeWarrior Wizard to generate
an ABS file
You can use the Wizard to produce an absolute assembly project. To do so, you follow the
same steps in creating a relocatable-assembly project given earlier. There are some
exceptions, however:
• No PRM file is required.
• The memory area allocation is determined directly in a single *.asm file assembly
source file.
• The CodeWarrior IDE needs some configurations to be applied to the Linker and
Assembler preference panels.
Start the CodeWarrior Wizard and create an assembler project in the usual manner. See
Using the Wizard to create a project. Next, convert the main_Standard.asm
relocatable assembly file to the absolute assembly file below in Listing 1.12.
Adapting the main_Standard.asm file produced
by the Wizard
Changing the SECTION directives in a relocatable assembly file to ORG directives is
required. The ORG directives must specify the absolute memory areas for ROM and RAM.
Listing 1.12 is an adaptation of the main_Standard.asm file produced previously by
the Wizard. This file may be used by the IDE or the Assembler build tool.
Listing 1.12 Example source file — main_Standard.asm
;********************************************************************
;* This stationery serves as the framework for a user
*
;* application. For a more comprehensive program that
*
;* demonstrates the more advanced functionality of this
*
;* processor, please see the demonstration applications
*
;* located in the examples subdirectory of CodeWarrior for
*
;* Microcontrollers V6.1 program directory.
*
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Directly generating an ABS file
;********************************************************************
; application entry point
ABSENTRY _Startup
; export symbols
XDEF _Startup, main
; we use '_Startup' as an export symbol. This allows
; us to reference '_Startup' either in the linker
; *.prm file or from C/C++ later on.
; Include derivative-specific definitions
INCLUDE 'derivative.inc'
; variable/data section
ORG
$0040
Counter:
DS.B 1
FiboRes:
DS.B 1
; initial value for SP
initStack: EQU
$023E
; code section
ORG
main:
_Startup:
LDHX
TXS
CLI
mainLoop:
CLRA
cntLoop:
INCA
CBEQA
STA
STA
BSR
STA
LDA
BRA
$8000
#initStack
; initialize the stack pointer
; enable interrupts
; A contains a counter.
#14,mainLoop
COPCTL
Counter
CalcFibo
FiboRes
Counter
cntLoop
; Larger values cause overflow.
; Feed the watchdog.
; update global
; store result
; next round
CalcFibo: ; Function to compute Fibonacci numbers. Argument is in A.
DBNZA fiboDo
; fiboDo
INCA
RTS
fiboDo:
PSHA
; the counter
CLRX
; second last = 0
LDA
#$01
; last = 1
FiboLoop:
PSHA
; push last
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Directly generating an ABS file
FiboDone:
TXA
ADD
PULX
DBNZ
PULH
RTS
1,SP
1,SP,FiboLoop
; release counter
; Result in A
;**************************************************************
;* spurious - Spurious Interrupt Service Routine.
*
;*
(unwanted interrupt)
*
;**************************************************************
spurious:
; Put here so the security
NOP
; value does not change
RTI
; all the time.
;**************************************************************
;*
Interrupt Vectors
*
;**************************************************************
ORG
$FFFA
DC.W spurious
;
DC.W spurious
; SWI
DC.W _Startup
; Reset
Listing 1.13 is a similar example for RS08.
Listing 1.13 Example source file abstest_rs08.asm
ABSENTRY entry; Specifies the application Entry point
XDEF entry ; Make the symbol entry visible (needed for debugging)
ORG $40 ; Define an absolute constant section
var1: DC.B 5 ; Assign 5 to the symbol var1
ORG $80 ; Define an absolute data section
data: DS.B 1 ; Define one byte variable in RAM at $80
ORG $B00 ; Define an absolute code section
entry:
LDA var1
main:
INCA
STA data
BRA main
When writing your assembly source file for direct absolute file generation, pay special
attention to the following points:
• The Reset vector is usually initialized in the assembly source file with the application
entry point. An absolute section containing the application’s entry point address is
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Directly generating an ABS file
created at the reset vector address. To set the entry point of the application at address
$FFFA on the _Startup label the following code is needed (Listing 1.14).
Listing 1.14 Setting the Reset vector address
ORG
DC.W
DC.W
DC.W
$FFFA
spurious
spurious
_Startup
;
; SWI
; Reset
The ABSENTRY directive is used to write the address of the application entry point in the
generated absolute file. To set the entry point of the application on the _Startup label in
the absolute file, the following code is needed (Listing 1.15).
Listing 1.15 Using ABSENTRY to enter the entry-point address
ABSENTRY _Startup
CAUTION
86
We strongly recommend that you use separate sections for code,
(variable) data, and constants. All sections used in the assembler
application must be absolute and defined using the ORG directive. The
addresses for constant or code sections have to be located in the ROM
memory area, while the data sections have to be located in a RAM area
(according to the hardware that you intend to use). The programmer is
responsible for making sure that no section overlaps occur.
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Working with the Assembler
Directly generating an ABS file
Reconfiguring the CodeWarrior IDE
To reconfigure the CodeWarrior IDE, follow these steps:
1. From the Edit menu, open the Assembler for Microcontrollers preference panel.
2. Select Edit > <target_name> Settings > Target > Assembler for Microcontrollers.
The Assembler preference panel appears (Figure 1.62)
Figure 1.62 Assembler for Microcontrollers preference panel
3. Press the Options button.
The Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box appears (Figure 1.63).
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Figure 1.63 Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog box
4. In the Output panel, select Object File Format > ELF/DWARF 2.0 Absolute File.
5. Press OK to close the dialog box.
6. Now, select Linker for Microcontrollers.
The Linker for Microcontrollers preference panel opens (Figure 1.64).
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Directly generating an ABS file
Figure 1.64 Linker for Microcontrollers preference panel
7. Select the Absolute, Single-File Assembly project radio button and press OK.
The assembler is now configured to directly produce an absolute assembly *.abs
output file.
Assembling and generating the application
All that is needed to produce the executable *.abs file is to select Project > Make or
Project > Debug. The CodeWarrior IDE produces the same *.abs and *.abs.s19
output files that the Assembler and Linker generated for relocatable assembly.
The *.abs.s19 file generated in the bin subfolder of the project directory is a standard
S-Record File. You can burn this file directly into a ROM memory.
If you selected Project > Debug, the debugger opens and you can follow the execution of
the program while assemble-stepping the Simulator. You can single-step the simulator
through the program from the Run menu in the Simulator (Run > Assembly Step or Ctrl +
F11).
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Working with the Assembler
Directly generating an ABS file
Using the Assembler build tool for absolute
assembly
Use the same project that was used for the relocatable assembly project. Use an absolute
assembly source file of the type listed in Listing 1.12, name the file main.asm, and insert
this file into the Sources file in the project directory.
1. Start the Assembler by opening the ahc08.exe file in the prog folder in the
CodeWarrior Development Studio for Microcontrollers V6.1 installation.
The Assembler opens. Close the Tip of the Day dialog box.
2. Using File > Load Configuration, browse for project directory and set it as the current
directory for the Assembler.
3. Select Assembler > Options. The Option Settings dialog box appears.
4. In the Output dialog box, select the check box in front of the label Object File Format.
The Assembler displays more information at the bottom of the dialog box.
5. Select the ELF/DWARF 2.0 Absolute File menu item in the pull-down menu. Click
OK.
6. Select the assembly source-code file that will be assembled: Select File > Assemble.
The Select File to Assemble dialog box appears (Figure 1.65).
Figure 1.65 Select File to Assemble dialog box
7. Browse to the absolute-assembly source-code file main.asm.
8. Click Open.
The Assembler now assembles the source code. Make sure that the GENPATH
configurations are set for the two include files needed for the main.asm file in this
project in case they have not yet been previously set. Messages about the assembly
process are created in the assembler main window (Figure 1.66).
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Figure 1.66 Successful absolute assembly
The messages indicate that:
• An assembly source code (main.asm) file, plus derivative.inc and
MC68HC908GP32.inc files were read as input.
• A debugging (main.dbg) file was generated in the project directory.
• An S-Record File was created, main.sx. This file can be used to program ROM
memory.
• An absolute executable file was generated, main.abs.
• The Code Size is 51 bytes.
• An assembly outlet listing file (main.lst) was written to the project directory.
The main.abs file can be used as input to the Simulator, with which you can follow the
execution of your program.
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2
Assembler Graphical User
Interface
The Macro Assembler runs under Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and compatible operating
systems.
This chapter covers the following topics:
• Starting the Assembler
• Assembler Main Window
• Editor Setting dialog box
• Save Configuration dialog box
• Option Settings dialog box
• Message settings dialog box
• About dialog box
• Specifying the input file
• Message/Error feedback
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Assembler Graphical User Interface
Starting the Assembler
Starting the Assembler
When you start the Assembler, the Assembler displays a standard Tip of the Day window
containing news and tips about the Assembler (Figure 2.1).
Figure 2.1 Tip of the Day dialog box
1. Click Next Tip to see the next piece of information about the Assembler.
2. Click Close to close the Tip of the Day dialog box.
a. If you do not want the Assembler to automatically open the standard Tip of the Day
window when the Assembler is started, uncheck Show Tips on StartUp.
b. If you want the Assembler to automatically open the standard Tip of the Day
window at Assembler start up, choose Help > Tip of the Day. The Assembler
displays the Tip of the Day dialog box. Check the Show Tips on StartUp check box.
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Assembler Main Window
Assembler Main Window
This window is only visible on the screen when you do not specify any filename when you
start the Assembler.
The assembler window consists of a window title, a menu bar, a toolbar, a content area,
and a status bar (Figure 2.2).
Figure 2.2 Microcontroller Assembler main window
Window Title
The window title displays the Assembler name and the project name. If a project is not
loaded, the Assembler displays Default Configuration in the window title. An asterisk (*)
after the configuration name indicates that some settings have changed. The Assembler
adds an asterisk (*) whenever an option, the editor configuration, or the window
appearance changes.
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Assembler Main Window
Content area
The Assembler displays logging information about the assembly session in the content
area. This logging information consists of:
• the name of the file being assembled,
• the whole name (including full path specifications) of the files processed (main
assembly file and all included files),
• the list of any error, warning, and information messages generated, and
• the size of the code (in bytes) generated during the assembly session.
When a file is dropped into the assembly window content area, the Assembler either loads
the corresponding file as a configuration file or the Assembler assembles the file. The
Assembler loads the file as a configuration if the file has the *.ini extension. If the file
does not end with the *.ini extension, the Assembler assembles the file using the
current option settings.
All text in the assembler window content area can have context information consisting of
two items:
• a filename including a position inside of a file and
• a message number.
File context information is available for all output lines where a filename is displayed.
There are two ways to open the file specified in the file-context information in the editor
specified in the editor configuration:
• If a file context is available for a line, double-click on a line containing file-context
information.
• Click with the right mouse on the line and select “Open”. This entry is only available
if a file context is available.
If the Assembler cannot open a file even though a context menu entry is present, then the
editor configuration information is incorrect (see the Editor Setting dialog box section
below).
The message number is available for any message output. There are three ways to open the
corresponding entry in the help file:
• Select one line of the message and press the F1 key. If the selected line does not have
a message number, the main help is displayed.
• Press Shift-F1 and then click on the message text. If the point clicked does not
have a message number, the main help is displayed.
• Click the right mouse button on the message text and select Help on. This entry is
only available if a message number is available.
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Toolbar
The three buttons on the left hand side of the toolbar correspond to the menu items of the
File menu. You can use the New
, Load,
and Save
buttons to reset, load and
save configuration files for the Macro Assembler.
The Help button
the Context Help.
and the Context Help button
allow you to open the Help file or
When pressing
the buttons above, the mouse cursor changes to a question mark beside
an arrow. The Assembler opens Help for the next item on which you click. You can get
specific Help on menus, toolbar buttons, or on the window area by using this Context
Help.
The editable combo box contains a list of the last commands which were executed. After a
command line has been selected or entered in this combo box, click the Assemble button
to execute this command. The Stop button
becomes enabled whenever some file
is assembled. When the Stop button is pressed, the assembler stops the assembly process.
Pressing the Options Dialog Box button
opens the Option Settings dialog box.
Pressing the Message Dialog Box button
Pressing the Clear button
opens the Message Settings dialog box.
clears the assembler window’s content area.
Status bar
When pointing to a button in the tool bar or a menu entry, the message area displays the
function of the button or menu entry to which you are pointing.
Figure 2.3 Status bar
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Assembler Main Window
Assembler menu bar
The following menus are available in the menu bar (Table 2.1):
Table 2.1 Menu bar options
Menu
Description
File menu
Contains entries to manage Assembler configuration files
Assembler menu
Contains entries to set Assembler options
View menu
Contains entries to customize the Assembler window output
Help
A standard Windows Help menu
File menu
With the file menu, Assembler configuration files can be saved or loaded. An Assembler
configuration file contains the following information:
• the assembler option settings specified in the assembler dialog boxes,
• the list of the last command line which was executed and the current command line,
• the window position, size, and font,
• the editor currently associated with the Assembler. This editor may be specifically
associated with the Assembler or globally defined for all Tools (see the Editor
Setting dialog box),
• the Tips of the Day settings, including its startup configuration, and what is the
current entry, and
• Configuration files are text files which have the standard *.ini extension. You can
define as many configuration files as required for the project and can switch among
the different configuration files using the File > Load Configuration, File | Save
Configuration menu entries, or the corresponding toolbar buttons.
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Table 2.2 File menu options
Menu entry
Description
Assemble
A standard Open File dialog box is opened, displaying
the list of all the *.asm files in the project directory. The
input file can be selected using the features from the
standard Open File dialog box. The selected file is
assembled when the Open File dialog box is closed by
clicking OK.
New/Default
Configuration
Resets the Assembler option settings to their default
values. The default Assembler options which are
activated are specified in the Assembler Options
chapter.
Load Configuration
A standard Open File dialog box is opened, displaying
the list of all the *.ini files in the project directory. The
configuration file can be selected using the features
from the standard Open File dialog box. The
configuration data stored in the selected file is loaded
and used in further assembly sessions.
Save Configuration
Saves the current settings in the configuration file
specified on the title bar.
Save Configuration
As...
A standard Save As dialog box is opened, displaying
the list of all the *.ini files in the project directory. The
name or location of the configuration file can be
specified using the features from the standard Save As
dialog box. The current settings are saved in the
specified configuration file when the Save As dialog box
is closed by clicking OK.
Configuration...
Opens the Configuration dialog box to specify the editor
used for error feedback and which parts to save with a
configuration.
See Editor Setting dialog box and Save Configuration
dialog box.
1. .... project.ini
2. ....
Recent project list. This list can be used to reopen a
recently opened project.
Exit
Closes the Assembler.
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Assembler Main Window
Assembler menu
The Assembler menu (Table 2.3) allows you to customize the Assembler. You can
graphically set or reset the Assembler options or to stop the assembling process.
Table 2.3 Assembler menu options
Menu entry
Description
Options
Defines the options which must be activated when assembling
an input file (see Option Settings dialog box).
Messages
Maps messages to a different message class (see Message
settings dialog box).
Stop assembling
Stops the assembling of the current source file.
View menu
The View menu (Table 2.4) lets you customize the assembler window. You can specify if
the status bar or the toolbar must be displayed or be hidden. You can also define the font
used in the window or clear the window.
Table 2.4 View menu options
100
Menu entry
Description
Toolbar
Switches display from the toolbar in the assembler window.
Status Bar
Switches display from the status bar in the assembler window.
Log...
Customizes the output in the assembler window content area. The
following two entries in this table are available when you select
Log:
Change Font
Opens a standard font dialog box. The options selected in the font
dialog box are applied to the assembler window content area.
Clear Log
Clears the assembler window content area.
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Editor Setting dialog box
Editor Setting dialog box
The Editor Setting dialog box has a main selection entry. Depending on the main type of
editor selected, the content below changes.
These are the main entries for the Editor configuration:
• Global Editor (shared by all tools and projects)
• Local Editor (shared by all tools)
• Editor started with the command line
• Editor started with DDE
• CodeWarrior with COM
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Editor Setting dialog box
Global Editor (shared by all tools and
projects)
This entry (Figure 2.4) is shared by all tools for all projects. This setting is stored in the
[Editor] section of the mcutools.ini global initialization file. Some Modifiers can
be specified in the editor command line.
Figure 2.4 Global Editor Configuration dialog box
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Editor Setting dialog box
Local Editor (shared by all tools)
This entry is shared by all tools for the current project. This setting is stored in the
[Editor] section of the local initialization file, usually project.ini in the current
directory. Some Modifiers can be specified in the editor command line.
Figure 2.5 Local editor configuration dialog box
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Editor Setting dialog box
Editor started with the command line
When this editor type is selected, a separate editor is associated with the Assembler for
error feedback. The editor configured in the shell is not used for error feedback.
Enter the command which should be used to start the editor (Figure 2.6).
The format from the editor command depends on the syntax which should be used to start
the editor. Modifiers can be specified in the editor command line to refer to a filename and
line and column position numbers. (See the Modifiers section below.)
Figure 2.6 Command-Line Editor configuration
Example of configuring a command-line editor
The following case portrays the syntax used for configuring an external editors. Listing
2.1 can be used for the UltraEdit-32 editor.
Listing 2.1 UltraEdit-32 configuration
C:\UltraEdit32\uedit32.exe %f /#:%l
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Editor Setting dialog box
Editor started with DDE
Enter the service, topic and client name to be used for a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
connection to the editor (Figure 2.7). All entries can have modifiers for the filename and
line number, as explained in the Modifiers section.
Figure 2.7 DDE Editor configuration
For the Microsoft Developer Studio, use the settings in Listing 2.2:
Listing 2.2 Microsoft Developer Studio configuration settings
Service Name: msdev
Topic Name:
system
Client Command: [open(%f)]
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Editor Setting dialog box
CodeWarrior with COM
If CodeWarrior with COM is enabled, the CodeWarrior IDE (registered as a COM server
by the installation script) is used as the editor (Figure 2.8).
Figure 2.8 COM Editor Configuration
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Modifiers
The configurations may contain some modifiers to tell the editor which file to open and at
which line and column.
• The %f modifier refers to the name of the file (including path and extension) where
the error has been detected.
• The %l modifier refers to the line number where the message has been detected.
• The %c modifier refers to the column number where the message has been detected.
CAUTION
NOTE
The %l modifier can only be used with an editor which can be started with
a line number as a parameter. This is not the case for WinEdit version 3.1
or lower or for the Notepad. When you work with such an editor, you can
start it with the filename as a parameter and then select the menu entry Go
to to jump on the line where the message has been detected. In that case
the editor command looks like:
C:\WINAPPS\WINEDIT\Winedit.exe %f
Check your editor manual to define the command line which should be used to
start the editor.
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Save Configuration dialog box
Save Configuration dialog box
The second index of the configuration dialog box contains all options for the save
operation (Figure 2.9).
Figure 2.9 Save Configuration dialog box
In the Save Configuration index, there are four check boxes where you can choose which
items to save into a project file when the configuration is saved.
This dialog box has the following configurations:
• Options: This item is related to the option and message settings. If this check box is
set, the current option and message settings are stored in the project file when the
configuration is saved. By disabling this check box, changes done to the option and
message settings are not saved, and the previous settings remain valid.
• Editor Configuration: This item is related to the editor settings. If you set this check
box, the current editor settings are stored in the project file when the configuration is
saved. If you disable this check box, the previous settings remain valid.
• Appearance: This item is related to many parts like the window position (only loaded
at startup time) and the command-line content and history. If you set this check box,
these settings are stored in the project file when the current configuration is saved. If
you disable this check box, the previous settings remain valid.
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Save Configuration dialog box
• Environment Variables: With this set, the environment variable changes done in the
Environment property panel are also saved.
NOTE
By disabling selective options only some parts of a configuration file can be
written. For example, when the best Assembler options are found, the save
option mark can be removed. Then future save commands will not modify the
options any longer.
• Save on Exit: If this option is set, the Assembler writes the configuration on exit. The
Assembler does not prompt you to confirm this operation. If this option is not set, the
assembler does not write the configuration at exit, even if options or other parts of
the configuration have changed. No confirmation will appear in any case when
closing the assembler.
NOTE
Almost all settings are stored in the project configuration file. The only
exceptions are:
- The recently used configuration list.
- All settings in the Save Configuration dialog box.
NOTE
The configurations of the Assembler can, and in fact are intended to, coexist in
the same file as the project configuration of other tools and the IDF. When an
editor is configured by the shell, the assembler can read this content out of the
project file, if present. The default project configuration filename is
project.ini. The assembler automatically opens an existing
project.ini in the current directory at startup. Also when using the -Prod:
Specify project file at startup assembler option at startup or loading the
configuration manually, a different name other than project.ini can be
chosen.
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Save Configuration dialog box
Environment Configuration dialog box
The third page of the dialog box is used to configure the environment (Figure 2.10).
Figure 2.10 Environment Configuration dialog box
The content of the dialog box is read from the actual project file out of the
[Environment Variables] section.
The following variables are available (Table 2.5):
Table 2.5 Path environment variables
110
Path
Environment variable
General
GENPATH
Object
OBJPATH
Text
TEXTPATH
Absolute
ABSPATH
Header File
LIBPATH
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Option Settings dialog box
Various Environment Variables: other variables not covered in the above table.
The following buttons are available for the Configuration dialog box:
• Add: Adds a new line or entry
• Change: Changes a line or entry
• Delete: Deletes a line or entry
• Up: Moves a line or entry up
• Down: Moves a line or entry down
Note that the variables are written to the project file only if you press the Save button (or
using File -> Save Configuration or CTRL-S). In addition, it can be specified in the Save
Configuration dialog box if the environment is written to the project file or not.
Option Settings dialog box
Use this dialog box (Figure 2.11) to set or reset assembler options.
Figure 2.11 Option Settings dialog box
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Option Settings dialog box
The options available are arranged into different groups, and a sheet is available for each
of these groups. The content of the list box depends on the selected sheet (Table 2.6):
Table 2.6 Option Settings options
Group
Description
Output
Lists options related to the output files generation (which kind
of file should be generated).
Input
Lists options related to the input files.
Language
Lists options related to the programming language (ANSI-C,
C++, etc.)
Host
Lists options related to the host.
Code Generation
Lists options related to code generation (memory models, etc.)
Messages
Lists options controlling the generation of error messages.
Various
Lists various additional options, such as options used for
compatibility.
An assembler option is set when the check box in front of it is checked. To obtain more
detailed information about a specific option, select it and press the F1 key or the Help
button. To select an option, click once on the option text. The option text is then displayed
inverted.
When the dialog box is opened and no option is selected, pressing the F1 key or the Help
button shows the help about this dialog box.
The available options are listed in the Assembler Options chapter.
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Message settings dialog box
Message settings dialog box
You can use the Message Settings (Table 2.7) dialog box to map messages to a different
message class.
Figure 2.12 Message Settings dialog box
Some buttons in the dialog box may be disabled. For example, if an option cannot be
moved to an information message, the Move to: Information button is disabled. The
buttons in Table 2.7 are available in the Message Settings dialog box:
Table 2.7 Message Settings options
Button
Description
Move to: Disabled
The selected messages are disabled; they will no longer be
displayed.
Move to: Information The selected messages are changed to information messages.
Move to: Warning
The selected messages are changed to warning messages.
Move to: Error
The selected messages are changed to error messages.
Move to: Default
The selected messages are changed to their default message
types.
Reset All
Resets all messages to their default message types.
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Message settings dialog box
Table 2.7 Message Settings options (continued)
Button
Description
OK
Exits this dialog box and saves any changes.
Cancel
Exits this dialog box without accepting any changes.
Help
Displays online help about this dialog box.
A panel is available for each error message class and the content of the list box depends on
the selected panel (Table 2.8):
Table 2.8 Message classes
Message group
Description
Disabled
Lists all disabled messages. That means that messages displayed
in the list box will not be displayed by the Assembler.
Information
Lists all information messages. Information messages informs
about action taken by the Assembler.
Warning
Lists all warning messages. When such a message is generated,
translation of the input file continues and an object file will be
generated.
Error
Lists all error messages. When such a message is generated,
translation of the input file continues, but no object file will be
generated.
Fatal
Lists all fatal error messages. When such a message is generated,
translation of the input file stops immediately. Fatal messages
cannot be changed. They are only listed to call context help.
Each message has its own character (‘A’ for Assembler message) followed by a 4- or
5-digit number. This number allows an easy search for the message on-line help.
Changing the class associated with a
message
You can configure your own mapping of messages to the different classes. To do this, use
one of the buttons located on the right hand of the dialog box. Each button refers to a
message class. To change the class associated with a message, you have to select the
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Message settings dialog box
message in the list box and then click the button associated with the class where you want
to move the message.
Example
To define the A2336: Value too big warning as an error message:
• Click the Warning sheet to display the list of all warning messages in the list box.
• Click on the A2336: Value too big string in the list box to select the message.
• Click Error to define this message as an error message. The Microcontroller dialog
box appears. Press Yes to close the dialog box (Figure 2.13).
Figure 2.13 Microcontroller Assembler Message Settings dialog box
NOTE
Messages cannot be moved from or to the fatal error class.
NOTE
The Move to buttons are enabled when all selected messages can be moved.
When one message is marked, which cannot be moved to a specific group, the
corresponding Move to button is disabled (grayed).
If you want to validate the modification you have performed in the error message
mapping, close the Microcontroller Assembler Message Settings dialog box with the OK
button. If you close it using the Cancel button, the previous message mapping remains
valid.
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About dialog box
About dialog box
The About dialog box can be opened with the menu Help > About. The About dialog box
contains much information including the current directory and the versions of subparts of
the Assembler. The main Assembler version is displayed separately on top of the dialog
box.
With the Extended Information button it is possible to get license information about all
software components in the same directory of the executable.
Press OK to close this dialog box.
NOTE
During assembling, the subversions of the subparts cannot be requested. They
are only displayed if the Assembler is not processing files.
Specifying the input file
There are different ways to specify the input file which must be assembled. During
assembling of a source file, the options are set according to the configuration performed
by the user in the different dialog boxes and according to the options specified on the
command line.
Before starting to assemble a file, make sure you have associated a working directory with
your assembler.
Use the command line in the toolbar to
assemble
You can use the command line to assemble a new file or to reassemble a previously
created file.
Assembling a new file
A new filename and additional assembler options can be entered in the command line. The
specified file is assembled when you press the Assemble button in the tool bar or when you
press the enter key.
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Specifying the input file
Assembling a file which has already been
assembled
The commands executed previously can be displayed using the arrow on the right side of
the command line. A command is selected by clicking on it. It appears in the command
line. The specified file will be processed when the button Assemble in the tool bar is
selected.
Use the File > Assemble entry
When the menu entry File > Assemble is selected a standard file Open File dialog box is
opened, displaying the list of all the *.asm files in the project directory. You can browse
to get the name of the file that you want to assemble. Select the desired file and click Open
in the Open File dialog box to assemble the selected file.
Use Drag and Drop
A filename can be dragged from an external software (for example the File Manager/
Explorer) and dropped into the assembler window. The dropped file will be assembled
when the mouse button is released in the assembler window. If a file being dragged has the
*.ini extension, it is considered to be a configuration and it is immediately loaded and
not assembled. To assemble a source file with the *.ini extension, use one of the other
methods.
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Assembler Graphical User Interface
Message/Error feedback
Message/Error feedback
After assembly, there are several ways to check where different errors or warnings have
been detected. The default format of the error message is as . A typical error message is
like the one in Listing 2.4.
Listing 2.3 Typical error feedback message
Default configuration of an error message
>> <FileName>, line <line number>, col <column number>,
pos <absolute position in file>
<Portion of code generating the problem>
<message class><message number>: <Message string>
Listing 2.4 Error message example
>> in "C:\Freescale\demo\fiboerr.asm", line 18, col 0, pos 722
DC
label
^
ERROR A1104: Undeclared user defined symbol: label
For different message formats, see the following Assembler options:
• -WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
• -WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
• -WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information.
Use information from the assembler
window
Once a file has been assembled, the assembler window content area displays the list of all
the errors or warnings detected.
The user can use his usual editor to open the source file and correct the errors.
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Message/Error feedback
Use a user-defined editor
The editor for Error Feedback can be configured using the Configuration dialog box.
Error feedback is performed differently, depending on whether or not the editor can be
started with a line number.
Line number can be specified on the
command line
Editors like UltraEdit-32 or WinEdit (v95 or higher) can be started with a line number in
the command line. When these editors have been correctly configured, they can be started
automatically by double clicking on an error message. The configured editor will be
started, the file where the error occurs is automatically opened and the cursor is placed on
the line where the error was detected.
Line number cannot be specified on the
command line
Editors like WinEdit v31 or lower, Notepad, or Wordpad cannot be started with a line
number in the command line. When these editors have been correctly configured, they can
be started automatically by double clicking on an error message. The configured editor
will be started, and the file is automatically opened where the error occurs. To scroll to the
position where the error was detected, you have to:
1. Activate the assembler again.
2. Click the line on which the message was generated. This line is highlighted on the
screen.
3. Copy the line in the clipboard by pressing CTRL + C.
4. Activate the editor again.
5. Select Search > Find; the standard Find dialog box is opened.
6. Paste the contents of the clipboard in the Edit box pressing CTRL + V.
7. Click Forward to jump to the position where the error was detected.
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Message/Error feedback
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3
Environment
This part describes the environment variables used by the Assembler. Some environment
variables are also used by other tools (e.g., Linker or Compiler), so consult also the
respective documentation.
There are three ways to specify an environment:
1. The current project file with the Environment Variables section. This file may be
specified on Tool startup using the -Prod: Specify project file at startup assembler
option. This is the recommended method and is also supported by the IDE.
2. An optional default.env file in the current directory. This file is supported for
compatibility reasons with earlier versions. The name of this file may be specified
using the ENVIRONMENT: Environment file specification environment variable.
Using the default.env file is not recommended.
3. Setting environment variables on system level (DOS level). This is also not
recommended.
Various parameters of the Assembler may be set in an environment using the environment
variables. The syntax is always the same (Listing 3.1).
Listing 3.1 Syntax for setting environment variables
Parameter: KeyName=ParamDef
Listing 3.2 is a typical example of setting an environment variable.
Listing 3.2 Setting the GENPATH environment variable
GENPATH=C:\INSTALL\LIB;D:\PROJECTS\TESTS;/usr/local/lib;
/home/me/my_project
These parameters may be defined in several ways:
• Using system environment variables supported by your operating system.
• Putting the definitions in a file called default.env (.hidefaults for UNIX)
in the default directory.
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Environment
Current directory
• Putting the definitions in a file given by the value of the ENVIRONMENT system
environment variable.
NOTE
The default directory mentioned above can be set via the DEFAULTDIR
system environment variable.
When looking for an environment variable, all programs first search the system
environment, then the default.env (.hidefaults for UNIX) file and finally the
global environment file given by ENVIRONMENT. If no definition can be found, a default
value is assumed.
NOTE
The environment may also be changed using the -Env: Set environment
variable assembler option.
Current directory
The most important environment for all tools is the current directory. The current
directory is the base search directory where the tool starts to search for files (e.g., for the
default.env or .hidefaults)
Normally, the current directory of a launched tool is determined by the operating system
or by the program that launches another one (e.g., IDE, Make Utility, etc.).
For the UNIX operating system, the current directory for an executable is also the current
directory from where the binary file has been started.
For MS Windows-based operating systems, the current directory definition is quite
complex:
• If the tool is launched using the File Manager/Explorer, the current directory is the
location of the launched executable tool.
• If the tool is launched using an Icon on the Desktop, the current directory is the one
specified and associated with the Icon in its properties.
• If the tool is launched by dragging a file on the icon of the executable tool on the
desktop, the directory on the desktop is the current directory.
• If the tool is launched by another launching tool with its own current directory
specification (e.g., an editor as IDE, a Make utility, etc.), the current directory is the
one specified by the launching tool.
• When a local project file is loaded, the current directory is set to the directory which
contains the local project file. Changing the current project file also changes the
current directory if the other project file is in a different directory. Note that
browsing for an assembly source file does not change the current directory.
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To overwrite this behavior, the DEFAULTDIR: Default current directory system
environment variable may be used.
The current directory is displayed among other information with the -V: Prints the
Assembler version assembler option and in the About box.
Environment macros
It is possible to use macros (Listing 3.3) in your environment settings.
Listing 3.3 Using a macro for setting environment variables
MyVAR=C:\test
TEXTPATH=$(MyVAR)\txt
OBJPATH=${MyVAR}\obj
In the example in Listing 3.3, TEXTPATH is expanded to ‘C:\test\txt’, and
OBJPATH is expanded to ‘C:\test\obj’.
From the example above, you can see that you either can use $() or ${}. However, the
variable referenced has to be defined somewhere.
In addition, the following special variables in Listing 3.4 are allowed. Note that they are
case-sensitive and always surrounded by {}. Also the variable content contains a
directory separator ‘\’ as well.
{Compiler}
This is the path of the directory one level higher than the directory for executable tool.
That is, if the executable is C:\Freescale\prog\linker.exe, then the variable is
C:\Freescale\. Note that {Compiler} is also used for the Assembler.
{Project}
Path of the directory containing the current project file. For example, if the current project
file is C:\demo\project.ini, the variable contains C:\demo\.
{System}
This is the path where Windows OS is installed, e.g., C:\WINNT\.
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Environment
Global initialization file - mctools.ini (PC only)
Global initialization file - mctools.ini (PC
only)
All tools may store some global data into the mcutools.ini file.The tool first searches
for this file in the directory of the tool itself (path of the executable tool). If there is no
mcutools.ini file in this directory, the tool looks for an mcutools.ini file located
in the MS Windows installation directory (e.g., C:\WINDOWS).
Listing 3.4 shows two typical locations used for the mcutools.ini files.
Listing 3.4 Usual locations for the mcutools.ini files
C:\WINDOWS\mcutools.ini
D:\INSTALL\prog\mcutools.ini
If a tool is started in the D:\INSTALL\prog\ directory, the initialization file located in
the same directory as the tool is used (D:\INSTALL\prog\mcutools.ini).
But if the tool is started outside of the D:\INSTALL\prog directory, the initialization
file in the Windows directory is used (C:\WINDOWS\mcutools.ini).
Local configuration file (usually project.ini)
The Assembler does not change the default.env file in any way. The Assembler only
reads the contents. All the configuration properties are stored in the configuration file. The
same configuration file can and is intended to be used by different applications.
The processor name is encoded into the section name, so that the Assembler for different
processors can use the same file without any overlapping. Different versions of the same
Assembler are using the same entries. This usually only leads to a potential problem when
options only available in one version are stored in the configuration file. In such situations,
two files must be maintained for the different Assembler versions. If no incompatible
options are enabled when the file is last saved, the same file can be used for both
Assembler versions.
The current directory is always the directory that holds the configuration file. If a
configuration file in a different directory is loaded, then the current directory also changes.
When the current directory changes, the whole default.env file is also reloaded.
When a configuration file is loaded or stored, the options located in the ASMOPTIONS:
Default assembler options environment variable are reloaded and added to the project’s
options.
This behavior has to be noticed when in different directories different default.env
files exist which contain incompatible options in their ASMOPTIONS environment
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Local configuration file (usually project.ini)
variables. When a project is loaded using the first default.env file, its ASMOPTIONS
options are added to the configuration file. If this configuration is then stored in a different
directory, where a default.env file exists with these incompatible options, the
Assembler adds the options and remarks the inconsistency. Then a message box appears to
inform the user that those options from the default.env file were not added. In such a
situation, the user can either remove the options from the configuration file with the
advanced option dialog box or he can remove the option from the default.env file
with the shell or a text editor depending upon which options should be used in the future.
At startup, the configuration stored in the project.ini file located in the current Paths
Local Configuration File Entries documents the sections and entries you can put in a
project.ini file.
Most environment variables contain path lists telling where to look for files. A path list is
a list of directory names separated by semicolons following the syntax in Listing 3.5.
Listing 3.5 Syntax used for setting path lists of environment variables
PathList=DirSpec{";"DirSpec}
DirSpec=["*"]DirectoryName
Listing 3.6 is a typical example of setting an environment variable.
Listing 3.6 Setting the paths for the GENPATH environment variable
GENPATH=C:\INSTALL\LIB;D:\PROJECTS\TESTS;/usr/local/Freescale/lib;/
home/me/my_project
If a directory name is preceded by an asterisk (*), the programs recursively search that
whole directory tree for a file, not just the given directory itself. The directories are
searched in the order they appear in the path list. Listing 3.7 shows the use of an asterisk
(*) for recursively searching the entire C drive for a configuration file with a
\INSTALL\LIB path.
Listing 3.7 Recursive search for a continuation line
LIBPATH=*C:\INSTALL\LIB
NOTE
Some DOS/UNIX environment variables (like GENPATH, LIBPATH, etc.) are
used. For further details refer to Environment variables details.
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Environment
Line continuation
We strongly recommend working with the Shell and setting the environment by means of
a default.env file in your project directory. (This project dir can be set in the
Shell's 'Configure' dialog box). Doing it this way, you can have different projects in
different directories, each with its own environment.
NOTE
When starting the Assembler from an external editor, do not set the
DEFAULTDIR system environment variable. If you do so and this variable
does not contain the project directory given in the editor’s project
configuration, files might not be put where you expect them to be put!
A synonym also exists for some environment variables. Those synonyms may be used for
older releases of the Assembler, but they are deprecated and thus they will be removed in
the future.
Line continuation
It is possible to specify an environment variable in an environment file (default.env
or .hidefaults) over multiple lines using the line continuation character ‘\’
(Listing 3.8):
Listing 3.8 Using multiple lines for an environment variable
ASMOPTIONS=\
-W2\
-WmsgNe=10
Listing 3.8 is the same as the alternate source code in Listing 3.9.
Listing 3.9 Alternate form of using multiple lines
ASMOPTIONS=-W2 -WmsgNe=10
But this feature may be dangerous when used together with paths (Listing 3.10).
Listing 3.10 A path is included by the line continuation character
GENPATH=.\
TEXTFILE=.\txt
will result in
GENPATH=.TEXTFILE=.\txt
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Environment variables details
To avoid such problems, we recommend that you use a semicolon (;) at the end of a path
if there is a backslash (\) at the end (Listing 3.11).
Listing 3.11 Recommended style whenever a backlash is present
GENPATH=.\;
TEXTFILE=.\txt
Environment variables details
The remainder of this section is devoted to describing each of the environment variables
available for the Assembler. The environment variables are listed in alphabetical order and
each is divided into several sections (Table 3.1).
.
Table 3.1 Topics used for describing environment variables
Topic
Description
Tools
Lists tools which are using this variable.
Synonym (where one
exists)
A synonym exists for some environment variables. These
synonyms may be used for older releases of the Assembler but
they are deprecated and they will be removed in the future. A
synonym has lower precedence than the environment variable.
Syntax
Specifies the syntax of the option in an EBNF format.
Arguments
Describes and lists optional and required arguments for the
variable.
Default (if one exists)
Shows the default setting for the variable if one exists.
Description
Provides a detailed description of the option and its usage.
Example
Gives an example of usage and effects of the variable where
possible. An example shows an entry in the default.env for
the PC or in the .hidefaults for UNIX.
See also (if needed)
Names related sections.
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Environment
Environment variables details
ABSPATH: Absolute file path
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, Decoder, or Debugger
Syntax
ABSPATH={<path>}
Arguments
<path>: Paths separated by semicolons, without spaces
Description
This environment variable is only relevant when absolute files are directly
generated by the Macro Assembler instead of relocatable object files. When this
environment variable is defined, the Assembler will store the absolute files it
produces in the first directory specified there. If ABSPATH is not set, the generated
absolute files will be stored in the directory where the source file was found.
Example
ABSPATH=\sources\bin;..\..\headers;\usr\local\bin
ASMOPTIONS: Default assembler options
Tools
Assembler
Syntax
ASMOPTIONS={<option>}
Arguments
<option>: Assembler command-line option
Description
If this environment variable is set, the Assembler appends its contents to its
command line each time a file is assembled. It can be used to globally specify
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certain options that should always be set, so you do not have to specify them each
time a file is assembled.
Options enumerated there must be valid assembler options and are separated by
space characters.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-W2 -L
See also
Assembler Options chapter
COPYRIGHT: Copyright entry in object file
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, or Librarian
Syntax
COPYRIGHT=<copyright>
Arguments
<copyright>: copyright entry
Description
Each object file contains an entry for a copyright string. This information may be
retrieved from the object files using the Decoder.
Example
COPYRIGHT=Copyright
See also
• USERNAME: User Name in object file
• INCLUDETIME: Creation time in the object file
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Environment
Environment variables details
DEFAULTDIR: Default current directory
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, Decoder, Debugger, Librarian, or Maker
Syntax
DEFAULTDIR=<directory>
Arguments
<directory>: Directory to be the default current directory
Description
The default directory for all tools may be specified with this environment variable.
Each of the tools indicated above will take the directory specified as its current
directory instead of the one defined by the operating system or launching tool (e.g.,
editor).
NOTE
This is an environment variable on the system level (global environment
variable). It cannot be specified in a default environment file (default.env
or .hidefaults).
Example
DEFAULTDIR=C:\INSTALL\PROJECT
See also
Current directory
“All tools may store some global data into the mcutools.ini file.The tool first
searches for this file in the directory of the tool itself (path of the executable tool).
If there is no mcutools.ini file in this directory, the tool looks for an
mcutools.ini file located in the MS Windows installation directory (e.g.,
C:\WINDOWS).”
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ENVIRONMENT: Environment file specification
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, Decoder, Debugger, Librarian, or Maker
Synonym
HIENVIRONMENT
Syntax
ENVIRONMENT=<file>
Arguments
<file>: filename with path specification, without spaces
Description
This variable has to be specified on the system level. Normally the Assembler
looks in the current directory for an environment file named default.env
(.hidefaults on UNIX). Using ENVIRONMENT (e.g., set in the
autoexec.bat (DOS) or .cshrc (UNIX)), a different filename may be
specified.
NOTE
This is an environment variable on the system level (global environment
variable). It cannot be specified in a default environment file (default.env
or .hidefaults).
Example
ENVIRONMENT=\Freescale\prog\global.env
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Environment
Environment variables details
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, or Linker
Syntax
ERRORFILE=<filename>
Arguments
<filename>: Filename with possible format specifiers
Default
EDOUT
Description
The ERRORFILE environment variable specifies the name for the error file (used
by the Compiler or Assembler).
Possible format specifiers are:
• '%n': Substitute with the filename, without the path.
• '%p': Substitute with the path of the source file.
• '%f': Substitute with the full filename, i.e., with the path and name (the same as
'%p%n').
In case of an improper error filename, a notification box is shown.
Examples
Listing 3.12 lists all errors into the MyErrors.err file in the current directory.
Listing 3.12 Naming an error file
ERRORFILE=MyErrors.err
Listing 3.13 lists all errors into the errors file in the \tmp directory.
Listing 3.13 Naming an error file in a specific directory
ERRORFILE=\tmp\errors
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Listing 3.14 lists all errors into a file with the same name as the source file, but
with extension *.err, into the same directory as the source file, e.g., if we
compile a file \sources\test.c, an error list file \sources\test.err
will be generated.
Listing 3.14 Naming an error file as source filename
ERRORFILE=%f.err
For a test.c source file, a \dir1\test.err error list file will be generated
(Listing 3.15).
Listing 3.15 Naming an error file as source filename in a specific directory
ERRORFILE=\dir1\%n.err
For a \dir1\dir2\test.c source file, a \dir1\dir2\errors.txt error
list file will be generated (Listing 3.16).
Listing 3.16 Naming an error file as a source filename with full path
ERRORFILE=%p\errors.txt
If the ERRORFILE environment variable is not set, errors are written to the default
error file. The default error filename depends on the way the Assembler is started.
If a filename is provided on the assembler command line, the errors are written to
the EDOUT file in the project directory.
If no filename is provided on the assembler command line, the errors are written to
the err.txt file in the project directory.
Another example (Listing 3.17) shows the usage of this variable to support correct
error feedback with the WinEdit Editor which looks for an error file called EDOUT:
Listing 3.17 Configuring error feedback with WinEdit
Installation directory: E:\INSTALL\prog
Project sources: D:\SRC
Common Sources for projects: E:\CLIB
Entry in default.env (D:\SRC\default.env):
ERRORFILE=E:\INSTALL\prog\EDOUT
Entry in WinEdit.ini (in Windows directory):
OUTPUT=E:\INSTALL\prog\EDOUT
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Environment
Environment variables details
NOTE
You must set this variable if the WinEdit Editor is used, otherwise the editor
cannot find the EDOUT file.
GENPATH: Search path for input file
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, Decoder, or Debugger
Synonym
HIPATH
Syntax
GENPATH={<path>}
Arguments
<path>: Paths separated by semicolons, without spaces.
Description
The Macro Assembler will look for the sources and included files first in the
project directory, then in the directories listed in the GENPATH environment
variable.
NOTE
If a directory specification in this environment variables starts with an asterisk
(*), the whole directory tree is searched recursive depth first, i.e., all
subdirectories and their subdirectories and so on are searched. Within one level
in the tree, the search order of the subdirectories is indeterminate.
Example
GENPATH=\sources\include;..\..\headers;\usr\local\lib
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INCLUDETIME: Creation time in the object file
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, or Librarian
Syntax
INCLUDETIME=(ON|OFF)
Arguments
ON: Include time information into the object file.
OFF: Do not include time information into the object file.
Default
ON
-
Description
Normally each object file created contains a time stamp indicating the creation
time and data as strings. So whenever a new file is created by one of the tools, the
new file gets a new time stamp entry.
This behavior may be undesired if for SQA reasons a binary file compare has to be
performed. Even if the information in two object files is the same, the files do not
match exactly because the time stamps are not the same. To avoid such problems
this variable may be set to OFF. In this case the time stamp strings in the object file
for date and time are “none” in the object file.
The time stamp may be retrieved from the object files using the Decoder.
Example
INCLUDETIME=OFF
See also
• COPYRIGHT: Copyright entry in object file
• USERNAME: User Name in object file
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Environment variables details
OBJPATH: Object file path
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, or Decoder
Syntax
OBJPATH={<path>}
Arguments
<path>: Paths separated by semicolons, without spaces
Description
This environment variable is only relevant when object files are generated by the
Macro Assembler. When this environment variable is defined, the Assembler will
store the object files it produces in the first directory specified in path. If
OBJPATH is not set, the generated object files will be stored in the directory the
source file was found.
Example
OBJPATH=\sources\bin;..\..\headers;\usr\local\bin
SRECORD: S-Record type
Tools
Assembler, Linker, or Burner
Syntax
SRECORD=<RecordType>
Arguments
<RecordType>: Forces the type for the S-Record File which must be generated.
This parameter may take the value ‘S1’, ‘S2’, or ‘S3’.
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Description
This environment variable is only relevant when absolute files are directly
generated by the Macro Assembler instead of object files. When this environment
variable is defined, the Assembler will generate an S-Record File containing
records from the specified type (S1 records when S1 is specified, S2 records when
S2 is specified, and S3 records when S3 is specified).
NOTE
If the SRECORD environment variable is set, it is the user’s responsibility to
specify the appropriate type of S-Record File. If you specify S1 while your
code is loaded above 0xFFFF, the S-Record File generated will not be correct
because the addresses will all be truncated to 2-byte values.
When this variable is not set, the type of S-Record File generated will depend on
the size of the address, which must be loaded there. If the address can be coded on
2 bytes, an S1 record is generated. If the address is coded on 3 bytes, an S2 record
is generated. Otherwise, an S3 record is generated.
Example
SRECORD=S2
TEXTPATH: Text file path
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, or Decoder
Syntax
TEXTPATH={<path>}
Arguments
<path>: Paths separated by semicolons, without spaces.
Description
When this environment variable is defined, the Assembler will store the listing
files it produces in the first directory specified in path. If TEXTPATH is not set,
the generated listing files will be stored in the directory the source file was found.
Example
TEXTPATH=\sources\txt;..\..\headers;\usr\local\txt
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Environment variables details
TMP: Temporary directory
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, Debugger, or Librarian
Syntax
TMP=<directory>
Arguments
<directory>: Directory to be used for temporary files
Description
If a temporary file has to be created, normally the ANSI function tmpnam() is
used. This library function stores the temporary files created in the directory
specified by this environment variable. If the variable is empty or does not exist,
the current directory is used. Check this variable if you get an error message
Cannot create temporary file.
NOTE
TMP is an environment variable on the system level (global environment
variable). It CANNOT be specified in a default environment file (default.env
or .hidefaults).
Example
TMP=C:\TEMP
See also
Current directory section
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USERNAME: User Name in object file
Tools
Compiler, Assembler, Linker, or Librarian
Syntax
USERNAME=<user>
Arguments
<user>: Name of user
Description
Each object file contains an entry identifying the user who created the object file.
This information may be retrieved from the object files using the decoder.
Example
USERNAME=PowerUser
See also
• COPYRIGHT: Copyright entry in object file
• INCLUDETIME: Creation time in the object file
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Environment variables details
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4
Files
This chapter covers these topics:
• Input files
• Output files
• File processing
Input files
Input files to the Assembler:
• Source files
• Include files
Source files
The Macro Assembler takes any file as input. It does not require the filename to have a
special extension. However, we suggest that all your source filenames have the *.asm
extension and all included files have the *.inc.extension. Source files will be searched
first in the project directory and then in the directories enumerated in GENPATH: Search
path for input file
Include files
The search for include files is governed by the GENPATH environment variable. Include
files are searched for first in the project directory, then in the directories given in the
GENPATH environment variable. The project directory is set via the Shell, the Program
Manager, or the DEFAULTDIR: Default current directory environment variable.
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Files
Output files
Output files
Output files from the Assembler:
• Object files
• Absolute files
• S-Record Files
• Listing files
• Debug listing files
• Error listing file
Object files
After a successful assembling session, the Macro Assembler generates an object file
containing the target code as well as some debugging information. This file is written to
the directory given in the OBJPATH: Object file path environment variable. If that
variable contains more than one path, the object file is written in the first directory given;
if this variable is not set at all, the object file is written in the directory the source file was
found. Object files always get the *.o extension.
Absolute files
When an application is encoded in a single module and all the sections are absolute
sections, the user can decide to generate directly an absolute file instead of an object file.
This file is written to the directory given in the ABSPATH: Absolute file path
environment variable. If that variable contains more than one path, the absolute file is
written in the first directory given; if this variable is not set at all, the absolute file is
written in the directory the source file was found. Absolute files always get the *.abs
extension.
S-Record Files
When an application is encoded in a single module and all the sections are absolute
sections, the user can decide to generate directly an ELF absolute file instead of an object
file. In that case an S-Record File is generated at the same time. This file can be burnt into
an EPROM. It contains information stored in all the READ_ONLY sections in the
application. The extension for the generated S-Record File depends on the setting from the
SRECORD: S-Record type environment variable.
• If SRECORD = S1, the S-Record File gets the *.s1 extension.
• If SRECORD = S2, the S-Record File gets the *.s2 extension.
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Files
Output files
• If SRECORD = S3, the S-Record File gets the *.s3 extension.
• If SRECORD is not set, the S-Record File gets the *.sx extension.
This file is written to the directory given in the ABSPATH environment variable. If that
variable contains more than one path, the S-Record File is written in the first directory
given; if this variable is not set at all, the S-Record File is written in the directory the
source file was found.
Listing files
After successful assembling session, the Macro Assembler generates a listing file
containing each assembly instruction with their associated hexadecimal code. This file is
always generated when the -L: Generate a listing file assembler option is activated (even
when the Macro Assembler generates directly an absolute file). This file is written to the
directory given in the TEXTPATH: Text file path.environment variable. If that variable
contains more than one path, the listing file is written in the first directory given; if this
variable is not set at all, the listing file is written in the directory the source file was found.
Listing files always get the *.lst extension. The format of the listing file is described in
the Assembler Listing File chapter.
Debug listing files
After successful assembling session, the Macro Assembler generates a debug listing file,
which will be used to debug the application. This file is always generated, even when the
Macro Assembler directly generates an absolute file. The debug listing file is a duplicate
from the source, where all the macros are expanded and the include files merged. This file
is written to the directory given in the OBJPATH: Object file path environment variable.
If that variable contains more than one path, the debug listing file is written in the first
directory given; if this variable is not set at all, the debug listing file is written in the
directory the source file was found. Debug listing files always get the *.dbg extension.
Error listing file
If the Macro Assembler detects any errors, it does not create an object file but does create
an error listing file. This file is generated in the directory the source file was found (see
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error.
If the Assembler’s window is open, it displays the full path of all include files read. After
successful assembling, the number of code bytes generated is displayed, too. In case of an
error, the position and filename where the error occurs is displayed in the assembler
window.
If the Assembler is started from the IDE (with '%f' given on the command line) or
CodeWright (with '%b%e' given on the command line), this error file is not produced.
Instead, it writes the error messages in a special Microsoft default format in a file called
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Files
File processing
EDOUT. Use WinEdit’s Next Error or CodeWright’s Find Next Error command to see
both error positions and the error messages.
Interactive mode (Assembler window open)
If ERRORFILE is set, the Assembler creates a message file named as specified in this
environment variable.
If ERRORFILE is not set, a default file named err.txt is generated in the current
directory.
Batch mode (Assembler window not open)
If ERRORFILE is set, the Assembler creates a message file named as specified in this
environment variable.
If ERRORFILE is not set, a default file named EDOUT is generated in the current
directory.
File processing
Figure 4.1 shows the priority levels for the various files used by the Assembler.
Figure 4.1 Files used with the Assembler
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5
Assembler Options
Types of assembler options
The Assembler offers a number of assembler options that you can use to control the
Assembler’s operation. Options are composed of a hyphen(-) followed by one or more
letters or digits. Anything not starting with a hyphen is supposed to be the name of a
source file to be assembled. Assembler options may be specified on the command line or
in the ASMOPTIONS: Default assembler options (Table 5.1) environment variable.
Typically, each Assembler option is specified only once per assembling session.
Command-line options are not case-sensitive. For example, -Li is the same as -li. It is
possible to combine options in the same group, i.e., one might write -Lci instead of -Lc
-Li. However such a usage is not recommended as it makes the command line less
readable and it does also create the danger of name conflicts. For example -Li -Lc is
not the same as -Lic because this is recognized as a separate, independent option on its
own.
NOTE
It is not possible to combine options in different groups, e.g., -Lc -W1 cannot
be abbreviated by the terms -LC1 or -LCW1.
Table 5.1 ASMOPTIONS environment variable
ASMOPTIONS
If this environment variable is set, the Assembler appends its contents
to its command line each time a file is assembled. It can be used to
globally specify certain options that should always be set, so you do
not have to specify them each time a file is assembled.
Assembler options (Table 5.2) are grouped by:
• Output,
• Input,
• Language,
• Host,
• Code Generation,
• Messages, and
• Various.
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Types of assembler options
Table 5.2 Assembler option categories
Group
Description
Output
Lists options related to the output files generation (which kind of
file should be generated).
Input
Lists options related to the input files.
Language
Lists options related to the programming language (ANSI-C,
C++, etc.)
Host
Lists options related to the host.
Code Generation
Lists options related to code generation (memory models, etc.).
Messages
Lists options controlling the generation of error messages.
Various
Lists various options.
The group corresponds to the property sheets of the graphical option settings.
Each option has also a scope (Table 5.3).
Table 5.3 Scopes for assembler options
Scope
Description
Application
This option has to be set for all files (assembly units) of an
application. A typical example is an option to set the memory model.
Mixing object files will have unpredictable results.
Assembly Unit
This option can be set for each assembling unit for an application
differently. Mixing objects in an application is possible.
None
The scope option is not related to a specific code part. A typical
example are options for the message management.
The options available are arranged into different groups, and a tab selection is available
for each of these groups. The content of the list box depends upon the tab that is selected.
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Assembler Options
Assembler Option details
Assembler Option details
The remainder of this section is devoted to describing each of the assembler options
available for the Assembler. The options are listed in alphabetical order and each is
divided into several sections (Table 5.4).
Table 5.4 Assembler option details
Topic
Description
Group
Output, Input, Language, Host, Code Generation, Messages, or Various.
Scope
Application, Assembly Unit, Function, or None.
Syntax
Specifies the syntax of the option in an EBNF format.
Arguments
Describes and lists optional and required arguments for the option.
Default
Shows the default setting for the option.
Description
Provides a detailed description of the option and how to use it.
Example
Gives an example of usage, and effects of the option where possible.
Assembler settings, source code and/or Linker PRM files are displayed
where applicable. The examples shows an entry in the default.env
for the PC or in the .hidefaults for UNIX.
See also
(if needed)
Names related options.
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Assembler Options
Assembler Option details
Using special modifiers
With some options it is possible to use special modifiers. However, some modifiers may
not make sense for all options. This section describes those modifiers.
The following modifiers are supported (Table 5.5)
Table 5.5 Special modifiers for assembler options
Modifier
Description
%p
Path including file separator
%N
Filename in strict 8.3 format
%n
Filename without its extension
%E
Extension in strict 8.3 format
%e
Extension
%f
Path + filename without its extension
%”
A double quote (“) if the filename, the path or the extension contains a
space
%’
A single quote (‘) if the filename, the path, or the extension contains a
space
%(ENV)
Replaces it with the contents of an environment variable
%%
Generates a single ‘%’
Examples using special modifiers
The assumed path and filename (filename base for the modifiers) used for the examples
Listing 5.2 through Listing 5.13 is displayed in Listing 5.1.
Listing 5.1 Example filename and path used for the following examples
C:\Freescale\my demo\TheWholeThing.myExt
Using the %p modifier as in Listing 5.2 displays the path with a file separator but without
the filename.
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Assembler Option details
Listing 5.2 %p gives the path only with the final file separator
C:\Freescale\my demo\
Using the %N modifier only displays the filename in 8.3 format but without the file
extension (Listing 5.3).
Listing 5.3 %N results in the filename in 8.3 format (only the first 8 characters)
TheWhole
The %n modifier returns the entire filename but with no file extension (Listing 5.4.
Listing 5.4 %n returns just the filename without the file extension
TheWholeThing
Using %E as a modifier returns the first three characters in the file extension (Listing 5.5).
Listing 5.5 %E gives the file extension in 8.3 format (only the first 3 characters)
myE
If you want the entire file extension, use the %e modifier (Listing 5.6).
Listing 5.6 %e is used for returning the whole extension
myExt
The %f modifier returns the path and the filename without the file extension (Listing 5.7).
Listing 5.7 %f gives the path plus the filename (no file extension)
C:\Freescale\my demo\TheWholeThing
The path in Listing 5.1 contains a space, therefore using %” or %’ is recommended
(Listing 5.8 or Listing 5.9).
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Assembler Options
Assembler Option details
Listing 5.8 Use %”%f%” in case there is a space in its path, filename, or extension
“C:\Freescale\my demo\TheWholeThing”
Listing 5.9 Use %’%f%’ where there is a space in its path, filename, or extension
‘C:\Freescale\my demo\TheWholeThing’
Using %(envVariable) an environment variable may be used. A file separator
following %(envVariable) is ignored if the environment variable is empty or does not
exist. If TEXTPATH is set as in Listing 5.10, then $(TEXTPATH)\myfile.txt is
expressed as in Listing 5.11.
Listing 5.10 Example for setting TEXTPATH
TEXTPATH=C:\Freescale\txt
Listing 5.11 $(TEXTPATH)\myfile.txt where TEXTPATH is defined
C:\Freescale\txt\myfile.txt
However, if TEXTPATH does not exist or is empty, then $(TEXTPATH)\myfile.txt
is expressed as in Listing 5.12).
Listing 5.12 $(TEXTPATH)\myfile.txt where TEXTPATH does not exist
myfile.txt
It is also possible to display the percent sign by using %%. %e%% allows the expression of a
percent sign after the extension as in Listing 5.13.
Listing 5.13 %% allows a percent sign to be expressed
myExt%
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Assembler Options
List of every Assembler option
List of every Assembler option
The Table 5.6 lists each command line option you can use with the Assembler.
Table 5.6 Assembler options
Assembler option
-Ci: Switch case sensitivity on label names OFF
-CMacAngBrack: Angle brackets for grouping Macro Arguments
-CMacBrackets: Square brackets for macro arguments grouping
-Compat: Compatibility modes
-CS08/-C08/-CRS08: Derivative family
-Env: Set environment variable
-F (-Fh, -F2o, -FA2o, -F2, -FA2): Output file format
-H: Short Help
-I: Include file path
-L: Generate a listing file
-Lasmc: Configure listing file
-Lasms: Configure the address size in the listing file
-Lc: No Macro call in listing file
-Ld: No macro definition in listing file
-Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
-Li: No included file in listing file
-Lic: License information
-LicA: License information about every feature in directory
-LicBorrow: Borrow license feature
-LicWait: Wait until floating license is available from floating License Server
-M (-Ms, -Mt): Memory model
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Assembler Options
List of every Assembler option
Table 5.6 Assembler options (continued)
Assembler option
-MacroNest: Configure maximum macro nesting
-MCUasm: Switch compatibility with MCUasm ON
-N: Display notify box
-NoBeep: No beep in case of an error
-NoDebugInfo: No debug information for ELF/DWARF files
-NoEnv: Do not use environment
-ObjN: Object filename specification
-Prod: Specify project file at startup
-Struct: Support for structured types
-V: Prints the Assembler version
-View: Application standard occurrence
-W1: No information messages
-W2: No information and warning messages
-WErrFile: Create "err.log" error file
-Wmsg8x3: Cut filenames in Microsoft format to 8.3
-WmsgCE: RGB color for error messages
-WmsgCF: RGB color for fatal messages
-WmsgCI: RGB color for information messages
-WmsgCU: RGB color for user messages
-WmsgCW: RGB color for warning messages
-WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
-WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive mode
-WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
-WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
-WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
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Assembler Options
List of every Assembler option
Table 5.6 Assembler options (continued)
Assembler option
-WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
-WmsgNe: Number of error messages
-WmsgNi: Number of Information messages
-WmsgNu: Disable user messages
-WmsgNw: Number of Warning messages
-WmsgSd: Setting a message to disable
-WmsgSe: Setting a message to Error
-WmsgSi: Setting a message to Information
-WmsgSw: Setting a Message to Warning
-WOutFile: Create error listing file
-WStdout: Write to standard output
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
The remainder of the chapter is a detailed listing of all assembler options arranged in
alphabetical order.
-Ci: Switch case sensitivity on label names OFF
Group
Input
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-Ci
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
This option turns off case sensitivity on label names. When this option is activated,
the Assembler ignores case sensitivity for label names. If the Assembler generates
object files but not absolute files directly (-FA2 assembler option), the case of
exported or imported labels must still match. Or, the -Ci assembler option should
be specified in the linker as well.
Example
When case sensitivity on label names is switched off, the Assembler will not
generate an error message for the assembly source code in Listing 5.14.
Listing 5.14 Example assembly source code
ORG $200
entry: NOP
BRA Entry
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
The instruction BRA Entry branches on the entry label. The default setting for
case sensitivity is ON, which means that the Assembler interprets the labels Entry
and entry as two distinct labels.
See also
-F (-Fh, -F2o, -FA2o, -F2, -FA2): Output file format assembler option
-CMacAngBrack: Angle brackets for grouping Macro Arguments
Group
Language
Scope
Application
Syntax
-CMacAngBrack(ON|OFF)
Arguments
ON or OFF
Default
None
Description
This option controls whether the < > syntax for macro invocation argument
grouping is available. When it is disabled, the Assembler does not recognize the
special meaning for < in the macro invocation context. There are cases where the
angle brackets are ambiguous. In new code, use the [? ?] syntax instead.
See also
Macro argument grouping
-CMacBrackets: Square brackets for macro arguments grouping option
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
-CMacBrackets: Square brackets for macro arguments grouping
Group
Language
Scope
Application
Syntax
-CMacBrackets(ON|OFF)
Arguments
ON or OFF
Default
ON
Description
This option controls the availability of the [? ?] syntax for macro invocation
argument grouping. When it is disabled, the Assembler does not recognize the
special meaning for [? in the macro invocation context.
See also
Macro argument grouping
-CMacAngBrack: Angle brackets for grouping Macro Arguments option
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
-Compat: Compatibility modes
Group
Language
Scope
Application
Syntax
-Compat[={!|=|c|s|f|$|a|b}
Arguments
See below.
Default
None
Description
This option controls some compatibility enhancements of the Assembler. The goal
is not to provide 100% compatibility with any other Assembler but to make it
possible to reuse as much as possible. The various suboptions control different
parts of the assembly:
• =: Operator != means equal
The Assembler takes the default value of the != operator as not equal, as it is in
the C language. For compatibility, this behavior can be changed to equal with
this option. Because the danger of this option for existing code, a message is
issued for every != which is treated as equal.
• !: Support additional ! operators
The following additional operators are defined when this option is used:
– !^: exponentiation
– !m: modulo
– !@: signed greater or equal
– !g: signed greater
– !%: signed less or equal
– !t: signed less than
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
– !$: unsigned greater or equal
– !S: unsigned greater
– !&: unsigned less or equal
– !l: unsigned less
– !n: one complement
– !w: low operator
– !h: high operator
NOTE
The default values for the following ! operators are defined:
!.: binary AND
!x: exclusive OR
!+: binary OR
• c: Alternate comment rules
With this suboption, comments implicitly start when a space is present after the
argument list. A special character is not necessary. Be careful with spaces when
this option is given because part of the intended arguments may be taken as a
comment. However, to avoid accidental comments, the Assembler does issue a
warning if such a comment does not start with a "*" or a ";".
Examples
Listing 5.15 demonstrates that when -Compat=c, comments can start with a *.
Listing 5.15 Comments starting with an asterisk (*)
NOP
* Anything following an asterisk is a comment.
When the -Compat=c assembler option is used, the first DC.B directive in
Listing 5.16 has "+ 1 , 1" as a comment. A warning is issued because the
comment does not start with a ";" or a "*". With -Compat=c, this code
generates a warning and three bytes with constant values 1, 2, and 1. Without it,
this code generates four 8-bit constants of 2, 1, 2, and 1.
Listing 5.16 Implicit comment start after a space
DC.B 1 + 1 , 1
DC.B 1+1,1
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
• s: Symbol prefixes
With this suboption, some compatibility prefixes for symbols are supported.
With this option, the Assembler accepts “pgz:” and “byte:” prefixed for
symbols in XDEFs and XREFs. They correspond to XREF.B or XDEF.B with
the same symbols without the prefix.
• f: Ignore FF character at line start
With this suboption, an otherwise improper character recognized from feed
character is ignored.
• $: Support the $ character in symbols
With this suboption, the Assembler supports to start identifiers with a $ sign.
• a: Add some additional directives
With this suboption, some additional directives are added for enhanced
compatibility.
The Assembler actually supports a SECT directive as an alias of the usual
SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section assembly directive. The SECT
directive takes the section name as its first argument.
• b: support the FOR directive
With this suboption, the Assembler supports a FOR - Repeat assembly block
assembly directive to generate repeated patterns more easily without having to
use recursive macros.
-CS08/-C08/-CRS08: Derivative family
Group
Code Generation
Scope
Application
Syntax
-C08|-CS08|-CRS08
Arguments
None
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
Default
-C08
Description
The Assembler supports three different HC08-derived cores. The HC08 itself
(-C08), the enhanced HCS08 (-CS08), and the RS08 (-CRS08).
The HCS08 family supports additional addressing modes for the CPHX, LDHX, and
STHX instructions and also a new BGND instruction. All these enhancements are
allowed when the -CS08 option is specified. All instructions and addressing
modes available for the HC08 are also available for the HCS08 so that this core
remains binary compatible with its predecessor.
The RS08 family does not support all instructions and addressing modes of the
HC08. Also, the encoding of the supported instructions is not binary compatible.
Table 5.7 Table of new instructions or addressing modes for the HCS08
Instruction
Addr. mode
Description
LDHX
EXT
load from a 16-bit absolute address
IX
load HX via 0,X
IX1
load HX via 1,X...255,X
IX2
load HX via old HX+ any offset
SP1
load HX from stack
EXT
store HX to a 16-bit absolute address
SP1
store HX to stack
EXT
compare HX with a 16-bit address
SP1
compare HX with the stack
STHX
CPHX
BGND
enter the Background Debug Mode
Group
Input
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-D<LabelName>[=<Value>]
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
Arguments
<LabelName>: Name of label.
<Value>: Value for label. 0 if not present.
Default
0 for Value.
Description
This option behaves as if a Label: EQU Value is at the start of the main source
file. When no explicit value is given, 0 is used as the default.
This option can be used to build different versions with one common source file.
Example
Conditional inclusion of a copyright notice. See Listing 5.17 and Listing 5.18.
Listing 5.17 Source code that conditionally includes a copyright notice
YearAsString: MACRO
DC.B $30+(\1 /1000)%10
DC.B $30+(\1 / 100)%10
DC.B $30+(\1 / 10)%10
DC.B $30+(\1 /
1)%10
ENDM
ifdef ADD_COPYRIGHT
ORG $1000
DC.B "Copyright by "
DC.B "John Doe"
ifdef YEAR
DC.B " 1999-"
YearAsString YEAR
endif
DC.B 0
endif
When assembled with the option -dADD_COPYRIGHT -dYEAR=2005, Listing
5.18 is generated:
Listing 5.18 Generated list file
1
2
1
2
YearAsString: MACRO
DC.B $30+(\1 /1000)%10
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
11
12
13
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
14
2m
3m
4m
5m
15
16
17
DC.B $30+(\1 / 100)%10
DC.B $30+(\1 / 10)%10
DC.B $30+(\1 /
1)%10
ENDM
0000 0001
a001000
001004
001008
00100C
a00100D
001011
436F
7269
7420
20
4A6F
2044
0000
a001015 2031
001019 392D
a00101B
a00101C
a00101D
a00101E
7079
6768
6279
686E
6F65
0001
3939
32
30
30
31
a00101F 00
ifdef ADD_COPYRIGHT
ORG $1000
DC.B "Copyright by "
DC.B "John Doe"
ifdef YEAR
DC.B " 1999-"
YearAsString YEAR
+
DC.B $30+(YEAR
+
DC.B $30+(YEAR
+
DC.B $30+(YEAR
+
DC.B $30+(YEAR
endif
DC.B 0
endif
/1000)%10
/ 100)%10
/ 10)%10
/
1)%10
-Env: Set environment variable
Group
Host
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-Env<EnvironmentVariable>=<VariableSetting>
Arguments
<EnvironmentVariable>: Environment variable to be set
<VariableSetting>: Setting of the environment variable
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Default
None
Description
This option sets an environment variable.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-EnvOBJPATH=\sources\obj
This is the same as:
OBJPATH=\sources\obj
in the default.env file.
See also
Environment variables details
-F (-Fh, -F2o, -FA2o, -F2, -FA2): Output file format
Group
Output
Scope
Application
Syntax
-F(h|2o|A2o|2|A2)
Arguments
h: HIWARE object-file format; this is the default
2o: Compatible ELF/DWARF 2.0 object-file format
A2o: Compatible ELF/DWARF 2.0 absolute-file format
2: ELF/DWARF 2.0 object-file format
A2: ELF/DWARF 2.0 absolute-file format
Default
-F2
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
Description
Defines the format for the output file generated by the Assembler:
• With the -Fh option set, the Assembler uses a proprietary (HIWARE) objectfile format.
• With the -F2 option set, the Assembler produces an ELF/DWARF object file.
This object-file format may also be supported by other Compiler or Assembler
vendors.
• With the -FA2 option set, the Assembler produces an ELF/DWARF absolute
file. This file format may also be supported by other Compiler or Assembler
vendors.
Note that the ELF/DWARF 2.0 file format has been updated in the current version
of the Assembler. If you are using HI-WAVE version 5.2 (or an earlier version),
-F2o or -FA2o must be used to generate the ELF/DWARF 2.0 object files which
can be loaded in the debugger.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-F2
NOTE
For the RS08 the HIWARE object file format is not available.
-H: Short Help
Group
Various
Scope
None
Syntax
-H
Arguments
None
Default
None
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Description
The -H option causes the Assembler to display a short list (i.e., help list) of
available options within the assembler window. Options are grouped into Output,
Input, Language, Host, Code Generation, Messages, and Various.
No other option or source files should be specified when the -H option is invoked.
Example
Listing 5.19 is a portion of the list produced by the -H option:
Listing 5.19 Example Help listing
...
MESSAGE:
-N
-NoBeep
-W1
-W2
-WErrFile
...
Show notification box in case of errors
No beep in case of an error
Do not print INFORMATION messages
Do not print INFORMATION or WARNING messages
Create "err.log" Error File
-I: Include file path
Group
Input
Scope
None
Syntax
-I<path>
Arguments
<path>: File path to be used for includes
Default
None
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Description
With the -I option it is possible to specify a file path used for include files.
Example
-Id:\mySources\include
-L: Generate a listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-L[=<dest>]
Arguments
<dest>: the name of the listing file to be generated.
It may contain special modifiers (see Using special modifiers).
Default
No generated listing file
Description
Switches on the generation of the listing file. If dest is not specified, the listing
file will have the same name as the source file, but with extension *.lst. The
listing file contains macro definition, invocation, and expansion lines as well as
expanded include files.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-L
In the following example of assembly code (Listing 5.20), the cpChar macro
accepts two parameters. The macro copies the value of the first parameter to the
second one.
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When the -L option is specified, the portion of assembly source code in Listing
5.20, together with the code from an include file (Listing 5.21) generates the output
listing in Listing 5.22.
Listing 5.20 Example assembly source code
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
NOP
MyData:
char1:
char2:
Listing 5.21 Example source code from an include file
cpChar: MACRO
LDA \1
STA \2
ENDM
Listing 5.22 Assembly output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
1i
7
2i
8
3i
9
4i
10
6
11
7
12
8
13
2m
14
3m
15
9
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
000000 C6 xxxx
000003 C7 xxxx
000006 9D
Source line
----------XDEF Start
MyData: SECTION
char1:
DS.B 1
char2:
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA
char1
+
STA
char2
NOP
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
The Assembler stores the content of included files in the listing file. The
Assembler also stores macro definitions, invocations, and expansions in the listing
file.
For a detailed description of the listing file, see the Assembler Listing File chapter.
See also
Assembler options:
• -Lasmc: Configure listing file
• -Lasms: Configure the address size in the listing file
• -Lc: No Macro call in listing file
• -Ld: No macro definition in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
• -Li: No included file in listing file
-Lasmc: Configure listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-Lasmc={s|r|m|l|k|i|c|a}
Arguments
s - Do not write the source column
r - Do not write the relative column (Rel.)
m - Do not write the macro mark
l - Do not write the address (Loc)
k - Do not write the location type
i - Do not write the include mark column
c - Do not write the object code
a - Do not write the absolute column (Abs.)
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Default
Write all columns.
Description
The default-configured listing file shows a lot of information. With this option, the
output can be reduced to columns which are of interest. This option configures
which columns are printed in a listing file. To configure which lines to print, see
the following assembler options: -Lc: No Macro call in listing file, -Ld: No macro
definition in listing file, -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file, and -Li: No
included file in listing file.
Example
For the following assembly source code, the Assembler generates the defaultconfigured output listing (Listing 5.23):
DC.B "Hello World"
DC.B 0
Listing 5.23 Example assembler output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 4865 6C6C
000004 6F20 576F
000008 726C 64
00000B 00
Source line
----------DC.B "Hello World"
DC.B 0
In order to get this output without the source file line numbers and other irrelevant
parts for this simple DC.B example, the following option is added:
-Lasmc=ramki. This generates the output listing in Listing 5.24:
Listing 5.24 Example output listing
Loc
-----000000
000004
000008
00000B
Obj. code Source line
--------- ----------4865 6C6C
DC.B "Hello World"
6F20 576F
726C 64
00
DC.B 0
For a detailed description of the listing file, see the Assembler Listing File chapter.
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
See also
Assembler options:
• -L: Generate a listing file
• -Lc: No Macro call in listing file
• -Ld: No macro definition in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
• -Li: No included file in listing file
• -Lasms: Configure the address size in the listing file
-Lasms: Configure the address size in the listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-Lasms{1|2|3|4}
Arguments
1 - The address size is xx
2 - The address size is xxxx
3 - The address size is xxxxxx
4 - The address size is xxxxxxxx
Default
-Lasms3
Description
The default-configured listing file shows a lot of information. With this option, the
size of the address column can be reduced to the size of interest. To configure
which columns are printed, see the -Lasmc: Configure listing file option. To
configure which lines to print, see the -Lc: No Macro call in listing file, -Ld: No
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macro definition in listing file, -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file, and -Li: No
included file in listing file assembler options.
Example
For the following instruction:
NOP
the Assembler generates this default-configured output listing (Listing 5.25):
Listing 5.25 Example assembler output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 XX
Source line
----------NOP
In order to change the size of the address column the following option is added:
-Lasms1. This changes the address size to two digits.
Listing 5.26 Example assembler output listing configured with -Lasms1
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------00
XX
Source line
----------NOP
See also
Assembler Listing File chapter
Assembler options:
• -Lasmc: Configure listing file
• -L: Generate a listing file
• -Lc: No Macro call in listing file
• -Ld: No macro definition in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
• -Li: No included file in listing file
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-Lc: No Macro call in listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-Lc
Arguments
none
Default
none
Description
Switches on the generation of the listing file, but macro invocations are not present
in the listing file. The listing file contains macro definition and expansion lines as
well as expanded include files.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Lc
In the following example of assembly code, the cpChar macro accept two
parameters. The macro copies the value of the first parameter to the second one.
When the -Lc option is specified, the following portion of assembly source code in
Listing 5.27, along with additional source code (Listing 5.28) from the
macro.inc include file generates the output in the assembly listing file (Listing
5.29).
Listing 5.27 Example assembly source code
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
MyData:
char1:
char2:
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Start:
cpChar char1, char2
NOP
Listing 5.28 Example source code from the macro.inc file
cpChar:
MACRO
LDA \1
STA \2
ENDM
Listing 5.29 Output assembly listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
1i
7
2i
8
3i
9
4i
10
6
11
7
13
2m
14
3m
15
9
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
000000 C6 xxxx
000003 C7 xxxx
000006 9D
Source line
----------XDEF Start
MyData: SECTION
char1:
DS.B 1
char2:
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA \1
STA \2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
The Assembler stores the content of included files in the listing file. The
Assembler also stores macro definitions, invocations, and expansions in the listing
file.
The listing file does not contain the line of source code that invoked the macro.
For a detailed description of the listing file, see the Assembler Listing File chapter.
See also
Assembler options:
• -L: Generate a listing file
• -Ld: No macro definition in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
• -Li: No included file in listing file
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-Ld: No macro definition in listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-Ld
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Instructs the Assembler to generate a listing file but not including any macro
definitions. The listing file contains macro invocation and expansion lines as well
as expanded include files.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Ld
In the following example of assembly code, the cpChar macro accepts two
parameters. The macro copies the value of the first parameter to the second one.
When the -Ld option is specified, the assembly source code in Listing 5.30 along
with additional source code (Listing 5.31) from the macro.inc file generates an
assembler output listing (Listing 5.32) file:
Listing 5.30 Example assembly source code
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
MyData:
char1:
char2:
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cpChar char1, char2
NOP
Listing 5.31 Example source code from an include file
cpChar:
MACRO
LDA
STA
ENDM
\1
\2
Listing 5.32 Example assembler output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
1i
10
6
11
7
12
8
13
2m
14
3m
15
9
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
000000 C6 xxxx
000003 C7 xxxx
000006 9D
Source line
----------XDEF Start
MyData: SECTION
char1:
DS.B 1
char2:
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
The Assembler stores that content of included files in the listing file. The
Assembler also stores macro invocation and expansion in the listing file.
The listing file does not contain the source code from the macro definition.
For a detailed description of the listing file, see the Assembler Listing File chapter.
See also
Assembler options:
• -L: Generate a listing file
• -Lc: No Macro call in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
• -Li: No included file in listing file
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-Le
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Switches on the generation of the listing file, but macro expansions are not present
in the listing file. The listing file contains macro definition and invocation lines as
well as expanded include files.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Le
In the following example of assembly code, the cpChar macro accepts two
parameters. The macro copies the value of the first parameter to the second one.
When the -Le option is specified, the assembly code in Listing 5.33 along with
additional source code (Listing 5.34) from the macro.inc file generates an
assembly output listing file (Listing 5.35):
Listing 5.33 Example assembly source code
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
MyData:
char1:
char2:
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cpChar char1, char2
NOP
Listing 5.34 Example source code from an included file
cpChar:
MACRO
LDA
STA
ENDM
\1
\2
Listing 5.35 Example assembler output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
1i
7
2i
8
3i
9
4i
10
6
11
7
12
8
15
9
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
000006 9D
Source line
----------XDEF Start
MyData: SECTION
char1:
DS.B 1
char2:
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA \1
STA \2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
NOP
The Assembler stores the content of included files in the listing file. The
Assembler also stores the macro definition and invocation in the listing file.
The Assembler does not store the macro expansion lines in the listing file.
For a detailed description of the listing file, see the Assembler Listing File chapter.
See also
-L: Generate a listing file
-Lc: No Macro call in listing file
-Ld: No macro definition in listing file-Li: No included file in listing file
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-Li: No included file in listing file
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly unit
Syntax
-Li
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Switches on the generation of the listing file, but include files are not expanded in
the listing file. The listing file contains macro definition, invocation, and expansion
lines.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Li
In the following example of assembly code, the cpChar macro accepts two
parameters. The macro copies the value of the first parameter to the second one.
When -Li option is specified, the assembly source code in Listing 5.36 along with
additional source code (Listing 5.37) from the macro.inc file generates the
following output in the assembly listing file:
Listing 5.36 Example assembly source code
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
MyData:
char1:
char2:
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cpChar char1, char2
NOP
Listing 5.37 Example source code in an include file
cpChar:
MACRO
LDA \1
STA \2
ENDM
Listing 5.38 Example assembler output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
10
6
11
7
12
8
13
2m
14
3m
15
9
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
000000 C6 xxxx
000003 C7 xxxx
000006 9D
Source line
----------XDEF Start
MyData: SECTION
char1:
DS.B 1
char2:
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
The Assembler stores the macro definition, invocation, and expansion in the listing
file.
The Assembler does not store the content of included files in the listing file.
For a detailed description of the listing file, see the Assembler Listing File chapter.
See also
Assembler options:
• -L: Generate a listing file
• -Lc: No Macro call in listing file
• -Ld: No macro definition in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
-Lic: License information
Group
Various
Scope
None
Syntax
-Lic
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
The -Lic option prints the current license information (e.g., if it is a demo
version or a full version). This information is also displayed in the About box.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Lic
See also
Assembler options:
• -LicA: License information about every feature in directory
• -LicBorrow: Borrow license feature
• -LicWait: Wait until floating license is available from floating License Server
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-LicA: License information about every feature in directory
Group
Various
Scope
None
Syntax
-LicA
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
The -LicA option prints the license information of every tool or DLL in the
directory where the executable is (e.g., if tool or feature is a demo version or a full
version). Because the option has to analyze every single file in the directory, this
may take a long time.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-LicA
See also
Assembler options:
• -Lic: License information
• -LicBorrow: Borrow license feature
• -LicWait: Wait until floating license is available from floating License Server
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Assembler Options
Detailed listing of all assembler options
-LicBorrow: Borrow license feature
Group
Host
Scope
None
Syntax
-LicBorrow<feature>[;<version>]:<Date>
Arguments
<feature>: the feature name to be borrowed (e.g., HI100100).
<version>: optional version of the feature to be borrowed (e.g., 3.000).
<date>: date with optional time until when the feature shall be borrowed (e.g.,
15-Mar-2005:18:35).
Default
None
Defines
None
Pragmas
None
Description
This option lets you borrow a license feature until a given date/time. Borrowing
allows you to use a floating license even if disconnected from the floating license
server.
You need to specify the feature name and the date until you want to borrow the
feature. If the feature you want to borrow is a feature belonging to the tool where
you use this option, then you do not need to specify the version of the feature
(because the tool is aware of the version). However, if you want to borrow any
feature, you need to specify the feature’s version number.
You can check the status of currently borrowed features in the tool’s About box.
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
NOTE
You only can borrow features if you have a floating license and if your floating
license is enabled for borrowing. See the provided FLEXlm documentation
about details on borrowing.
Example
-LicBorrowHI100100;3.000:12-Mar-2005:18:25
See also
Assembler options:
• -Lic: License information
• -LicA: License information about every feature in directory
• -LicWait: Wait until floating license is available from floating License Server
-LicWait: Wait until floating license is available from floating
License Server
Group
Host
Scope
None
Syntax
-LicWait
Arguments
None
Default
None
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Description
If a license is not available from the floating license server, then the default
condition is that the application will immediately return. With the -LicWait
assembler option set, the application will wait (blocking) until a license is available
from the floating license server.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-LicWait
See also
Assembler options:
• -Lic: License information
• -LicA: License information about every feature in directory
• -LicBorrow: Borrow license feature
-M (-Ms, -Mt): Memory model
Group
Code Generation
Scope
Application
Syntax
-M(s|b|t)
Arguments
s: small memory model
t: tiny memory model
Default
-Ms
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Description
The Assembler for the MC68HC(S)08 supports two different memory models. The
default is the small memory model, which corresponds to the normal setup, i.e., a
64kB code-address space. The tiny memory model corresponds to the situation
where the default RAM is in the zero page.
NOTE
For the Assembler, the memory model does not matter at all. The memory
model is used by the compiler to specify the default allocation of variable and
functions. The Assembler has this option only to generate “compatible” object
files for the memory model consistency check of the linker.
NOTE
In the tiny memory model, the default for the compiler is to use zero-page
addressing. The default for the Assembler is to still use extended-addressing
modes. See the Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols section to
see how to generate zero-page accesses.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Mt
-MacroNest: Configure maximum macro nesting
Group
Language
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-MacroNest<Value>
Arguments
<Value>: max. allowed nesting level
Default
3000
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Description
This option controls how deep macros calls can be nested. Its main purpose is to
avoid endless recursive macro invocations.
Example
See the description of message A1004 for an example.
See also
Message A1004 (available in the Online Help)
-MCUasm: Switch compatibility with MCUasm ON
Group
Various
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-MCUasm
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
This switches ON compatibility mode with the MCUasm Assembler. Additional
features supported, when this option is activated are enumerated in the MCUasm
Compatibility chapter in the Appendices.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-MCUasm
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-N: Display notify box
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-N
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Makes the Assembler display an alert box if there was an error during assembling.
This is useful when running a makefile (please see the manual about Build Tools)
because the Assembler waits for the user to acknowledge the message, thus
suspending makefile processing. (The 'N' stands for “Notify”.)
This feature is useful for halting and aborting a build using the Make Utility.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-N
If an error occurs during assembling, an alert dialog box will be opened.
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-NoBeep: No beep in case of an error
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-NoBeep
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Normally there is a ‘beep’ notification at the end of processing if there was an
error. To have a silent error behavior, this ‘beep’ may be switched off using this
option.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-NoBeep
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
-NoDebugInfo: No debug information for ELF/DWARF files
Group
Language
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-NoDebugInfo
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
By default, the Assembler produces debugging info for the produced ELF/
DWARF files. This can be switched off with this option.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-NoDebugInfo
-NoEnv: Do not use environment
Group
Startup (This option cannot be specified interactively.)
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-NoEnv
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
This option can only be specified at the command line while starting the
application. It cannot be specified in any other circumstances, including the
default.env file, the command line or whatever.
When this option is given, the application does not use any environment
(default.env, project.ini or tips file).
Example
xx.exe -NoEnv
(Use the actual executable name instead of “xx”)
See also
Environment chapter
-ObjN: Object filename specification
Group
Output
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-ObjN<FileName>
Arguments
<FileName>: Name of the binary output file generated.
Default
-ObjN%n.o
when generating a relocatable file or
-ObjN%n.abs when generating an absolute file.
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
Description
Normally, the object file has the same name than the processed source file, but with
the .o extension when relocatable code is generated or the .abs extension when
absolute code is generated. This option allows a flexible way to define the output
filename. The modifier %n can also be used. It is replaced with the source filename.
If <file> in this option contains a path (absolute or relative), the OBJPATH
environment variable is ignored.
Example
For ASMOPTIONS=-ObjNa.out, the resulting object file will be a.out. If the
OBJPATH environment variable is set to \src\obj, the object file will be
\src\obj\a.out.
For fibo.c -ObjN%n.obj, the resulting object file will be fibo.obj.
For myfile.c -ObjN..\objects\_%n.obj, the object file will be named
relative to the current directory to ...\objects\_myfile.obj. Note that the
environment variable OBJPATH is ignored, because <file> contains a path.
See also
OBJPATH: Object file path environment variable
-Prod: Specify project file at startup
Group
None (This option cannot be specified interactively.)
Scope
None
Syntax
-Prod=<file>
Arguments
<file>: name of a project or project directory
Default
None
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Description
This option can only be specified at the command line while starting the
application. It cannot be specified in any other circumstances, including the
default.env file, the command line or whatever.
When this option is given, the application opens the file as configuration file.
When the filename does only contain a directory, the default name
project.ini is appended. When the loading fails, a message box appears.
Example
assembler.exe -Prod=project.ini
(Use the Assembler’s executable name instead of assembler.)
See also
Environment chapter
-Struct: Support for structured types
Group
Input
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-Struct
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
When this option is activated, the Macro Assembler also support the definition and
usage of structured types. This is interesting for application containing both
ANSI-C and Assembly modules.
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Example
ASMOPTIONS=-Struct
See also
Mixed C and Assembler Applications chapter
-V: Prints the Assembler version
Group
Various
Scope
None
Syntax
-V
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Prints the Assembler version and the current directory.
NOTE
Use this option to determine the current directory of the Assembler.
Example
-V produces the following listing (Listing 5.39):
Listing 5.39 Example of a version listing
Command Line '-v'
Assembler V-5.0.8, Jul 7 2005
Directory: C:\Freescale\demo
Common Module V-5.0.7, Date Jul
7 2005
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User Interface Module, V-5.0.17, Date Jul 7 2005
Assembler Kernel, V-5.0.13, Date Jul 7 2005
Assembler Target, V-5.0.8, Date Jul 7 2005
-View: Application standard occurrence
Group
Host
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-View<kind>
Arguments
<kind> is one of the following:
• “Window”: Application window has the default window size.
• “Min”: Application window is minimized.
• “Max”: Application window is maximized.
• “Hidden”: Application window is not visible (only if there are arguments).
Default
Application is started with arguments: Minimized.
Application is started without arguments: Window.
Description
Normally, the application is started with a normal window if no arguments are
given. If the application is started with arguments (e.g., from the Maker to
assemble, compile, or link a file), then the application is running minimized to
allow for batch processing. However, the application’s window behavior may be
specified with the View option.
Using -ViewWindow, the application is visible with its normal window. Using
-ViewMin the application is visible iconified (in the task bar). Using -ViewMax,
the application is visible maximized (filling the whole screen). Using
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-ViewHidden, the application processes arguments (e.g., files to be compiled or
linked) completely invisible in the background (no window or icon visible in the
task bar). However, for example, if you are using the -N: Display notify box
assembler option, a dialog box is still possible.
Example
C:\Freescale\prog\linker.exe -ViewHidden fibo.prm
-W1: No information messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-W1
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Inhibits the Assembler’s printing INFORMATION messages. Only WARNING
and ERROR messages are written to the error listing file and to the assembler
window.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-W1
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-W2: No information and warning messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-W2
Arguments
None
Default
None
Description
Suppresses all messages of INFORMATION or WARNING types. Only ERROR
messages are written to the error listing file and to the assembler window.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-W2
-WErrFile: Create "err.log" error file
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WErrFile(On|Off)
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Arguments
None
Default
An err.log file is created or deleted.
Description
The error feedback from the Assembler to called tools is now done with a return
code. In 16-bit Windows environments this was not possible. So in case of an error,
an “err.log” file with the numbers of written errors was used to signal any errors.
To indicate no errors, the “err.log”file would be deleted. Using UNIX or WIN32, a
return code is now available. Therefore, this file is no longer needed when only
UNIX or WIN32 applications are involved. To use a 16-bit Maker with this tool, an
error file must be created in order to signal any error.
Example
• -WErrFileOn
err.log is created or deleted when the application is finished.
• -WErrFileOff
existing err.log is not modified.
See also
-WStdout: Write to standard output
-WOutFile: Create error listing file
-Wmsg8x3: Cut filenames in Microsoft format to 8.3
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-Wmsg8x3
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Default
None
Description
Some editors (e.g., early versions of WinEdit) are expecting the filename in the
Microsoft message format in a strict 8.3 format. That means the filename can have
at most 8 characters with not more than a 3-character extension. Using a newer
Windows OS, longer file names are possible. With this option the filename in the
Microsoft message is truncated to the 8.3 format.
Example
x:\mysourcefile.c(3): INFORMATION C2901: Unrolling loop
With the -Wmsg8x3 option set, the above message will be
x:\mysource.c(3): INFORMATION C2901: Unrolling loop
See also
• -WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
• -WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive
mode
• -WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode Option
• --WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
-WmsgCE: RGB color for error messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Compilation Unit
Syntax
-WmsgCE<RGB>
Arguments
<RGB>: 24-bit RGB (red green blue) value.
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Default
-WmsgCE16711680 (rFF g00 b00, red)
Description
It is possible to change the error message color with this option. The value to be
specified has to be an RGB (Red-Green-Blue) value and has to be specified in
decimal.
Example
-WmsgCE255 changes the error messages to blue.
-WmsgCF: RGB color for fatal messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Compilation Unit
Syntax
-WmsgCF<RGB>
Arguments
<RGB>: 24-bit RGB (red green blue) value.
Default
-WmsgCF8388608 (r80 g00 b00, dark red)
Description
It is possible to change the fatal message color with this option. The value to be
specified has to be an RGB (Red-Green-Blue) value and has to be specified in
decimal.
Example
-WmsgCF255 changes the fatal messages to blue.
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-WmsgCI: RGB color for information messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Compilation Unit
Syntax
-WmsgCI<RGB>
Arguments
<RGB>: 24-bit RGB (red green blue) value.
Default
-WmsgCI32768 (r00 g80 b00, green)
Description
It is possible to change the information message color with this option. The value
to be specified has to be an RGB (Red-Green-Blue) value and has to be specified in
decimal.
Example
-WmsgCI255 changes the information messages to blue.
-WmsgCU: RGB color for user messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Compilation Unit
Syntax
-WmsgCU<RGB>
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Arguments
<RGB>: 24-bit RGB (red green blue) value.
Default
-WmsgCU0 (r00 g00 b00, black)
Description
It is possible to change the user message color with this option. The value to be
specified has to be an RGB (Red-Green-Blue) value and has to be specified in
decimal.
Example
-WmsgCU255 changes the user messages to blue.
-WmsgCW: RGB color for warning messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Compilation Unit
Syntax
-WmsgCW<RGB>
Arguments
<RGB>: 24-bit RGB (red green blue) value.
Default
-WmsgCW255 (r00 g00 bFF, blue)
Description
It is possible to change the warning message color with this option. The value to be
specified has to be an RGB (Red-Green-Blue) value and has to be specified in
decimal.
Example
-WmsgCW0 changes the warning messages to black.
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-WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for
batch mode
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgFb[v|m]
Arguments
v: Verbose format.
m: Microsoft format.
Default
-WmsgFbm
Description
The Assembler can be started with additional arguments (e.g., files to be assembled
together with assembler options). If the Assembler has been started with arguments
(e.g., from the Make tool), the Assembler works in the batch mode. That is, no
assembler window is visible and the Assembler terminates after job completion.
If the Assembler is in batch mode, the Assembler messages are written to a file and
are not visible on the screen. This file only contains assembler messages (see
examples below).
The Assembler uses a Microsoft message format as the default to write the
assembler messages (errors, warnings, or information messages) if the Assembler
is in the batch mode.
With this option, the default format may be changed from the Microsoft format
(with only line information) to a more verbose error format with line, column, and
source information.
Example
Assume that the assembly source code in Listing 5.40 is to be assembled in the
batch mode.
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Listing 5.40 Example assembly source code
var1:
equ 5
var2:
equ 5
if (var1=var2)
NOP
endif
endif
The Assembler generates the error output (Listing 5.41) in the assembler window if
it is running in batch mode:
Listing 5.41 Example error listing in the Microsoft (default) format for batch mode
X:\TW2.ASM(12):ERROR: Conditional else not allowed here.
If the format is set to verbose, more information is stored in the file:
Listing 5.42 Example error listing in the verbose format for batch mode
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgFbv
>> in "C:\tw2.asm", line 6, col 0, pos 81
endif
^
ERROR A1001: Conditional else not allowed here
See also
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error
-WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive mode
-WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
-WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
-WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
-WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
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-WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive mode
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgFi[v|m]
Arguments
v: Verbose format.
m: Microsoft format.
Default
-WmsgFiv
Description
If the Assembler is started without additional arguments (e.g., files to be assembled
together with Assembler options), the Assembler is in the interactive mode (that is,
a window is visible).
While in interactive mode, the Assembler uses the default verbose error file format
to write the assembler messages (errors, warnings, information messages).
Using this option, the default format may be changed from verbose (with source,
line and column information) to the Microsoft format (which displays only line
information).
NOTE
Using the Microsoft format may speed up the assembly process because the
Assembler has to write less information to the screen.
Example
If the Assembler is running in interactive mode, the default error output is shown in
the assembler window as in Listing 5.44.
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Listing 5.43 Example error listing in the default mode for interactive mode
>> in "X:\TWE.ASM", line 12, col 0, pos 215
endif
endif
^
ERROR A1001: Conditional else not allowed here
Setting the format to Microsoft, less information is displayed:
Listing 5.44 Example error listing in MIcrosoft format for interactive mode
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgFim
X:\TWE.ASM(12): ERROR: conditional else not allowed here
See also
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error environment variable
Assembler options:
• -WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
• -WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
• -WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
• -WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
-WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgFob<string>
Arguments
<string>: format string (see below).
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Default
-WmsgFob"%f%e(%l): %K %d: %m\n”
Description
With this option it is possible to modify the default message format in the batch
mode. The formats in Listing 5.45 are supported (assumed that the source file is
x:\Freescale\sourcefile.asmx).
Listing 5.45 Supported formats for messages in the batch node
Format
Description
Example
---------------------------------------------------%s
Source Extract
%p
Path
x:\Freescale\
%f
Path and name
x:\Freescale\sourcefile
%n
Filename
sourcefile
%e
Extension
.asmx
%N
File (8 chars)
sourcefi
%E
Extension (3 chars) .asm
%l
Line
3
%c
Column
47
%o
Pos
1234
%K
Uppercase kind
ERROR
%k
Lowercase kind
error
%d
Number
A1051
%m
Message
text
%%
Percent
%
\n
New line
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgFob”%f%e(%l): %k %d: %m\n”
produces a message, displayed in Listing 5.46, using the format in Listing 5.45.
The options are set for producing the path of a file with its filename, extension, and
line.
Listing 5.46 Error message
x:\Freescale\sourcefile.asmx(3): error A1051: Right parenthesis
expected
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See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
• -WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive
mode
• -WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
• -WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
-WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgFoi<string>
Arguments
<string>: format string (see below)
Default
-WmsgFoi"\n>> in \"%f%e\", line %l, col %c, pos
%o\n%s\n%K %d: %m\n"
Description
With this option it is possible modify the default message format in interactive
mode. The following formats are supported (supposed that the source file is
x:\Freescale\sourcefile.asmx):
Listing 5.47 Supported message formats - interactive mode
Format Description
Example
---------------------------------------------------%s
Source Extract
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%p
%f
%n
%e
%N
%E
%l
%c
%o
%K
%k
%d
%m
%%
\n
Path
Path and name
Filename
Extension
File (8 chars)
Extension (3 chars)
Line
Column
Pos
Uppercase kind
Lowercase kind
Number
Message
Percent
New line
x:\Freescale\
x:\Freescale\sourcefile
sourcefile
.asmx
sourcefi
.asm
3
47
1234
ERROR
error
A1051
text
%
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgFoi”%f%e(%l): %k %d: %m\n”
produces a message in following format (Listing 5.48):
Listing 5.48 Error message resulting from the statement above
x:\Freescale\sourcefile.asmx(3): error A1051: Right parenthesis
expected
See also
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error environment variable
Assembler options:
• -WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
• -WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive
mode
• -WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
• -WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
• -WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
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-WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgFonf<string>
Arguments
<string>: format string (see below)
Default
-WmsgFonf"%K %d: %m\n"
Description
Sometimes there is no file information available for a message (e.g., if a message
not related to a specific file). Then this message format string is used. The
following formats are supported:
Format Description
Example
---------------------------------%K
Uppercase kind
ERROR
%k
Lowercase kind
error
%d
Number
L10324
%m
Message
text
%%
Percent
%
\n
New line
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgFonf”%k %d: %m\n”
produces a message in following format:
information L10324: Linking successful
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Detailed listing of all assembler options
See also
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error environment variable
Assembler options:
• -WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
• -WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive
mode
• -WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
• -WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
-WmsgFonp: Message format for no position information
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgFonp<string>
Arguments
<string>: format string (see below)
Default
-WmsgFonp"%f%e: %K %d: %m\n"
Description
Sometimes there is no position information available for a message (e.g., if a
message not related to a certain position). Then this message format string is used.
The following formats are supported (supposed that the source file is
x:\Freescale\sourcefile.asmx)
Listing 5.49 Supported message formats for when there is no position information
Format Description
Example
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%p
%f
%n
%e
%N
%E
%K
%k
%d
%m
%%
\n
Path
Path and name
Filename
Extension
File (8 chars)
Extension (3 chars)
Uppercase kind
Lowercase kind
Number
Message
Percent
New line
x:\Freescale\
x:\Freescale\sourcefile
sourcefile
.asmx
sourcefi
.asm
ERROR
error
L10324
text
%
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgFonf”%k %d: %m\n”
produces a message in following format:
information L10324: Linking successful
See also
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error environment variable
Assembler options:
• -WmsgFb (-WmsgFbv, -WmsgFbm): Set message file format for batch mode
• -WmsgFi (-WmsgFiv, -WmsgFim): Set message file format for interactive
mode
• -WmsgFob: Message format for batch mode
• -WmsgFoi: Message format for interactive mode
• -WmsgFonf: Message format for no file information
-WmsgNe: Number of error messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
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Syntax
-WmsgNe<number>
Arguments
<number>: Maximum number of error messages.
Default
50
Description
With this option the amount of error messages can be reported until the Assembler
stops assembling. Note that subsequent error messages which depends on a
previous one may be confusing.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgNe2
The Assembler stops assembling after two error messages.
See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgNi: Number of Information messages
• -WmsgNw: Number of Warning messages
-WmsgNi: Number of Information messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgNi<number>
Arguments
<number>: Maximum number of information messages.
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Default
50
Description
With this option the maximum number of information messages can be set.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgNi10
Only ten information messages are logged.
See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgNe: Number of error messages
• -WmsgNw: Number of Warning messages
-WmsgNu: Disable user messages
Group
Messages
Scope
None
Syntax
-WmsgNu[={a|b|c|d}]
Arguments
a: Disable messages about include files
b: Disable messages about reading files
c: Disable messages about generated files
d: Disable messages about processing statistics
e: Disable informal messages
Default
None
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Description
The application produces some messages which are not in the normal message
categories (WARNING, INFORMATION, ERROR, or FATAL). With this option
such messages can be disabled. The purpose for this option is to reduce the amount
of messages and to simplify the error parsing of other tools:
• a: The application provides information about all included files. With this
suboption this option can be disabled.
• b: With this suboption messages about reading files e.g., the files used as input
can be disabled.
• c: Disables messages informing about generated files.
• d: At the end of the assembly, the application may provide information about
statistics, e.g., code size, RAM/ROM usage, and so on. With this suboption this
option can be disabled.
• e: With this option, informal messages (e.g., memory model, floating point
format, etc.) can be disabled.
NOTE
Depending on the application, not all suboptions may make sense. In this case
they are just ignored for compatibility.
Example
-WmsgNu=c
-WmsgNw: Number of Warning messages
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgNw<number>
Arguments
<number>: Maximum number of warning messages.
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Default
50
Description
With this option the maximum number of warning messages can be set.
Example
ASMOPTIONS=-WmsgNw15
Only 15 warning messages are logged.
See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgNe: Number of error messages
• -WmsgNi: Number of Information messages
-WmsgSd: Setting a message to disable
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgSd<number>
Arguments
<number>: Message number to be disabled, e.g., 1801
Default
None
Description
With this option a message can be disabled so it does not appear in the error output.
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Example
-WmsgSd1801
See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgSe: Setting a message to Error
• -WmsgSi: Setting a message to Information
• -WmsgSw: Setting a Message to Warning
-WmsgSe: Setting a message to Error
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgSe<number>
Arguments
<number>: Message number to be an error, e.g., 1853
Default
None
Description
Allows changing a message to an error message.
Example
-WmsgSe1853
See also
• -WmsgSd: Setting a message to disable
• -WmsgSi: Setting a message to Information
• -WmsgSw: Setting a Message to Warning
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-WmsgSi: Setting a message to Information
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgSi<number>
Arguments
<number>: Message number to be an information, e.g., 1853
Default
None
Description
With this option a message can be set to an information message.
Example
-WmsgSi1853
See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgSd: Setting a message to disable
• -WmsgSe: Setting a message to Error
• -WmsgSw: Setting a Message to Warning
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-WmsgSw: Setting a Message to Warning
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WmsgSw<number>
Arguments
<number>: Error number to be a warning, e.g., 2901
Default
None
Description
With this option a message can be set to a warning message.
Example
-WmsgSw2901
See also
Assembler options:
• -WmsgSd: Setting a message to disable
• -WmsgSe: Setting a message to Error
• -WmsgSi: Setting a message to Information
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-WOutFile: Create error listing file
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WOutFile(On|Off)
Arguments
None
Default
Error listing file is created.
Description
This option controls if a error listing file should be created at all. The error listing
file contains a list of all messages and errors which are created during a assembly
process. Since the text error feedback can now also be handled with pipes to the
calling application, it is possible to obtain this feedback without an explicit file.
The name of the listing file is controlled by the environment variable
ERRORFILE: Filename specification error.
Example
-WOutFileOn
The error file is created as specified with ERRORFILE.
-WErrFileOff
No error file is created.
See also
Assembler options:
• -WErrFile: Create "err.log" error file
• -WStdout: Write to standard output
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-WStdout: Write to standard output
Group
Messages
Scope
Assembly Unit
Syntax
-WStdout(On|Off)
Arguments
None
Default
output is written to stdout
Description
With Windows applications, the usual standard streams are available. But text
written into them does not appear anywhere unless explicitly requested by the
calling application. With this option is can be controlled if the text to error file
should also be written into stdout.
Example
-WStdoutOn
All messages are written to stdout.
-WErrFileOff
Nothing is written to stdout.
See also
Assembler options:
• -WErrFile: Create "err.log" error file
• -WOutFile: Create error listing file
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6
Sections
Sections are portions of code or data that cannot be split into smaller elements. Each
section has a name, a type, and some attributes.
Each assembly source file contains at least one section. The number of sections in an
assembly source file is only limited by the amount of memory available on the system at
assembly time. If several sections with the same name are detected inside of a single
source file, the code is concatenated into one large section.
Sections from different modules, but with the same name, will be combined into a single
section at linking time.
Sections are defined through Section attributes and Section types. The last part of the
chapter deals with the merits of using relocatable sections. (See Relocatable vs. absolute
sections.)
Section attributes
An attribute is associated with each section according to its content. A section may be:
• a data section,
• a constant data section, or
• a code section.
Code sections
A section containing at least one instruction is considered to be a code section. Code
sections are always allocated in the target processor’s ROM area.
Code sections should not contain any variable definitions (variables defined using the DS
directive). You do not have any write access on variables defined in a code section. In
addition, variables in code sections cannot be displayed in the debugger as data.
Constant sections
A section containing only constant data definition (variables defined using the DC or DCB
directives) is considered to be a constant section. Constant sections should be allocated in
the target processor’s ROM area, otherwise they cannot be initialized at application loading
time.
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Sections
Section types
Data sections
A section containing only variables (variables defined using the DS directive) is
considered to be a data section. Data sections are always allocated in the target processor’s
RAM area.
NOTE
A section containing variables (DS) and constants (DC) or code is not a data
section. The default for such a section with mixed DC and code content is to
put that content into ROM.
We strongly recommend that you use separate sections for the definition of variables and
constant variables. This will prevent problems in the initialization of constant variables.
Section types
First of all, you should decide whether to use relocatable or absolute code in your
application. The Assembler allows the mixing of absolute and relocatable sections in a
single application and also in a single source file. The main difference between absolute
and relocatable sections is the way symbol addresses are determined.
This section covers these two types of sections:
• Absolute sections
• Relocatable sections
Absolute sections
The starting address of an absolute section is known at assembly time. An absolute section
is defined through the ORG - Set Location Counter assembler directive. The operand
specified in the ORG directive determines the start address of the absolute section. See
Listing 6.1 for an example of constructing absolute sections using the ORG assembler
directive.
Listing 6.1 Example source code using ORG for absolute sections
XDEF
ORG
cst1: DC.B
cst2: DC.B
...
ORG
var: DS.B
ORG
entry:
222
entry
$8000 ; Absolute constant data section.
$26
$BC
$080 ; Absolute data section.
1
$8010 ; Absolute code section.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Sections
Section types
LDA
ADD
STA
BRA
cst1 ; Loads value in cst1
cst2 ; Adds value in cst2
var
; Stores result into var
entry
In the previous example, two bytes of storage are allocated starting at address $A00. The
constant variable - cst1 - will be allocated one byte at address $8000 and another
constant - cst2 - will be allocated one byte at address $8001. All subsequent
instructions or data allocation directives will be located in this absolute section until
another section is specified using the ORG or SECTION directives.
When using absolute sections, it is the user’s responsibility to ensure that there is no
overlap between the different absolute sections defined in the application. In the previous
example, the programmer should ensure that the size of the section starting at address
$8000 is not bigger than $10 bytes, otherwise the section starting at $8000 and the
section starting at $8010 will overlap.
Even applications containing only absolute sections must be linked. In that case, there
should not be any overlap between the address ranges from the absolute sections defined
in the assembly file and the address ranges defined in the linker parameter (PRM) file.
The PRM file used to link the example above, can be defined as in Listing 6.2.
Listing 6.2 Example PRM file for Listing 6.1
LINK test.abs /* Name of the executable file generated.
*/
NAMES test.o
/* Name of the object file in the application */
END
SECTIONS
/* READ_ONLY memory area. There should be no overlap between this
memory area and the absolute sections defined in the assembly
source file. */
MY_ROM = READ_ONLY 0x8000 TO 0xFDFF;
/* READ_WRITE memory area. There should be no overlap between this
memory area and the absolute sections defined in the assembly
source file. */
MY_RAM = READ_WRITE 0x0100 TO 0x023F;
END
PLACEMENT
/* Relocatable variable sections are allocated in MY_RAM.
*/
DEFAULT_RAM, SSTACK INTO MY_RAM;
/* Relocatable code and constant sections are allocated in MY_ROM. */
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO MY_ROM;
END
STACKSTOP $014F /* Initializes the stack pointer */
INIT
entry /* entry is the entry point to the application.
*/
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFFE entry /* Initialization for Reset vector.*/
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Sections
Section types
The linker PRM file contains at least:
• The name of the absolute file (LINK command).
• The name of the object file which should be linked (NAMES command).
• The specification of a memory area where the sections containing variables must be
allocated. At least the predefined DEFAULT_RAM (or its ELF alias ‘.data’)
section must be placed there. For applications containing only absolute sections,
nothing will be allocated (SECTIONS and PLACEMENT commands).
• The specification of a memory area where the sections containing code or constants
must be allocated. At least the predefined section DEFAULT_ROM (or its ELF alias
‘.data’) must be placed there. For applications containing only absolute sections,
nothing will be allocated (SECTIONS and PLACEMENT commands).
• The specification of the application entry point (INIT command)
• The definition of the reset vector (VECTOR ADDRESS command)
Relocatable sections
The starting address of a relocatable section is evaluated at linking time according to the
information stored in the linker parameter file. A relocatable section is defined through the
SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section assembler directive. See Listing 6.3 for an
example using the SECTION directive.
Listing 6.3 Example source code using SECTION for relocatable sections
XDEF entry
constSec: SECTION
; Relocatable constant data section.
cst1:
DC.B $A6
cst2:
DC.B $BC
dataSec:
var:
SECTION
DS.B 1
; Relocatable data section.
codeSec:
entry:
SECTION
; Relocatable code section.
LDA
ADD
STA
BRA
cst1 ; Load value into cst1
cst2 ; Add value in cst2
var
; Store into var
entry
In the previous example, two bytes of storage are allocated in the constSec section. The
constant cst1 is allocated at the start of the section at address $A00 and another constant
cst2 is allocated at an offset of 1 byte from the beginning of the section. All subsequent
instructions or data allocation directives will be located in the relocatable constSec
section until another section is specified using the ORG or SECTION directives.
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Sections
Section types
When using relocatable sections, the user does not need to care about overlapping
sections. The linker will assign a start address to each section according to the input from
the linker parameter file.
The user can decide to define only one memory area for the code and constant sections and
another one for the variable sections or to split the sections over several memory areas.
Example: Defining one RAM and one ROM area.
When all constant and code sections as well as data sections can be allocated
consecutively, the PRM file used to assemble the example above can be defined as in
Listing 6.4.
Listing 6.4 PRM file for Listing 6.3 defining one RAM area and one ROM area
LINK test.abs/* Name of the executable file generated.
*/
NAMES test.o /* Name of the object file in the application */
END
SECTIONS
/* READ_ONLY memory area.
*/
MY_ROM = READ_ONLY 0x8000 TO 0xFDFF;
/* READ_WRITE memory area. */
MY_RAM = READ_WRITE 0x0100 TO 0x023F;
END
PLACEMENT
/* Relocatable
DEFAULT_RAM,
/* Relocatable
DEFAULT_ROM,
END
INIT
entry
VECTOR ADDRESS
variable sections are allocated in MY_RAM.
*/
dataSec , SSTACK INTO MY_RAM;
code and constant sections are allocated in MY_ROM. */
constSec
INTO MY_ROM;
/* entry is the entry point to the application. */
0xFFFE entry /* Initialization for Reset vector.*/
The linker PRM file contains at least:
• The name of the absolute file (LINK command).
• The name of the object files which should be linked (NAMES command).
• The specification of a memory area where the sections containing variables must be
allocated. At least the predefined DEFAULT_RAM section (or its ELF alias .data)
must be placed there (SECTIONS and PLACEMENT commands).
• The specification of a memory area where the sections containing code or constants
must be allocated. At least, the predefined DEFAULT_ROM section (or its ELF alias
.text) must be placed there (SECTIONS and PLACEMENT commands).
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225
Sections
Section types
• Constants sections should be defined in the ROM memory area in the PLACEMENT
section (otherwise, they are allocated in RAM).
• The specification of the application entry point (INIT command).
• The definition of the reset vector (VECTOR ADDRESS command).
According to the PRM file above:
• the dataSec section will be allocated starting at 0x0080.
• the codeSec section will be allocated starting at 0x0B00.
• the constSec section will be allocated next to the codeSec section.
Example: Defining multiple RAM and ROM areas
When all constant and code sections as well as data sections cannot be allocated
consecutively, the PRM file used to link the example above can be defined as in Listing
6.5:
Listing 6.5 PRM file for Listing 6.3 defining multiple RAM and ROM areas
LINK test.abs /* Name of the executable file generated.
*/
NAMES
test.o
/* Name of the object file in the application. */
END
SECTIONS
/* Two READ_ONLY memory areas */
ROM_AREA_1= READ_ONLY 0x8000 TO 0x800F;
ROM_AREA_2= READ_ONLY 0x8010 TO 0xFDFF;
/* Three READ_WRITE memory areas */
RAM_AREA_1= READ_WRITE 0x0040 TO 0x00FF; /* zero-page memory area */
RAM_AREA_2= READ_WRITE 0x0100 TO 0x01FF;
MY_STK
= READ_WRITE 0x0200 TO 0x023F; /* Stack memory area
*/
END
PLACEMENT
/* Relocatable variable sections are allocated in MY_RAM. */
dataSec
INTO RAM_AREA_2;
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO RAM_AREA_1;
SSTACK
INTO MY_STK; /* Stack allocated in MY_STK
*/
/* Relocatable code and constant sections are allocated in MY_ROM. */
constSec
INTO ROM_AREA_2;
codeSec, DEFAULT_ROM INTO ROM_AREA_1;
END
INIT
entry
/* Application’s entry point.
*/
VECTOR 0 entry /* Initialization of the reset vector. */
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Sections
Relocatable vs. absolute sections
The linker PRM file contains at least:
• The name of the absolute file (LINK command).
• The name of the object files which should be linked (NAMES command).
• The specification of memory areas where the sections containing variables must be
allocated. At least, the predefined DEFAULT_RAM section (or its ELF alias
‘.data’) must be placed there (SECTIONS and PLACEMENT commands).
• The specification of memory areas where the sections containing code or constants
must be allocated. At least the predefined DEFAULT_ROM section (or its ELF alias
‘.text’) must be placed there (SECTIONS and PLACEMENT commands).
• Constants sections should be defined in the ROM memory area in the PLACEMENT
section (otherwise, they are allocated in RAM).
• The specification of the application entry point (INIT command)
• The definition of the reset vector (VECTOR command)
According to the PRM file in Listing 6.5,
• the dataSec section is allocated starting at 0x0100.
• the constSec section is allocated starting at 0x8000.
• the codeSec section is allocated starting at 0x8010.
• 64 bytes of RAM are allocated in the stack starting at 0x0200.
Relocatable vs. absolute sections
Generally, we recommend developing applications using relocatable sections. Relocatable
sections offer several advantages.
Modularity
An application is more modular when programming can be divided into smaller units
called sections. The sections themselves can be distributed among different source files.
Multiple developers
When an application is split over different files, multiple developers can be involved in the
development of the application. To avoid major problems when merging the different
files, attention must be paid to the following items:
• An include file must be available for each assembly source file, containing XREF
directives for each exported variable, constant and function. In addition, the interface
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
227
Sections
Relocatable vs. absolute sections
to the function should be described there (parameter passing rules as well as the
function return value).
• When accessing variables, constants, or functions from another module, the
corresponding include file must be included.
• Variables or constants defined by another developer must always be referenced by
their names.
• Before invoking a function implemented in another file, the developer should respect
the function interface, i.e., the parameters are passed as expected and the return value
is retrieved correctly.
Early development
The application can be developed before the application memory map is known. Often the
application’s definitive memory map can only be determined once the size required for
code and data can be evaluated. The size required for code or data can only be quantified
once the major part of the application is implemented. When absolute sections are used,
defining the definitive memory map is an iterative process of mapping and remapping the
code. The assembly files must be edited, assembled, and linked several times. When
relocatable sections are used, this can be achieved by editing the PRM file and linking the
application.
Enhanced portability
As the memory map is not the same for each derivative (MCU), using relocatable sections
allow easy porting of the code for another MCU. When porting relocatable code to another
target you only need to link the application again with the appropriate memory map.
Tracking overlaps
When using absolute sections, the programmer must ensure that there is no overlap
between the sections. When using relocatable sections, the programmer does not need to
be concerned about any section overlapping another. The labels’ offsets are all evaluated
relatively to the beginning of the section. Absolute addresses are determined and assigned
by the linker.
Reusability
When using relocatable sections, code implemented to handle a specific I/O device (serial
communication device), can be reused in another application without any modification.
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7
Assembler Syntax
An assembler source program is a sequence of source statements. Each source statement is
coded on one line of text and can be either a:
• Comment line or a
• Source line.
Comment line
A comment can occupy an entire line to explain the purpose and usage of a block of
statements or to describe an algorithm. A comment line contains a semicolon followed by
a text (Listing 7.1). Comments are included in the assembly listing, but are not significant
to the Assembler.
An empty line is also considered to be a comment line.
Listing 7.1 Examples of comments
; This is a comment line followed by an empty line and non comments
... (non comments)
Source line
Each source statement includes one or more of the following four fields:
• a Label field,
• an Operation field,
• one or several operands, or
• a comment.
Characters on the source line may be either upper or lower case. Directives and
instructions are case-insensitive, whereas symbols are case-sensitive unless the assembler
option for case insensitivity on label names (-Ci: Switch case sensitivity on label names
OFF) is activated.
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229
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Label field
The label field is the first field in a source line. A label is a symbol followed by a colon.
Labels can include letters (A–Z or a–z), underscores, periods and numbers. The first
character must not be a number.
NOTE
For compatibility with other Assembler vendors, an identifier starting on
column 1 is considered to be a label, even when it is not terminated by a colon.
When the -MCUasm: Switch compatibility with MCUasm ON assembler
option is activated, you MUST terminate labels with a colon. The Assembler
produces an error message when a label is not followed by a colon.
Labels are required on assembler directives that define the value of a symbol (SET or
EQU). For these directives, labels are assigned the value corresponding to the expression
in the operand field.
Labels specified in front of another directive, instruction or comment are assigned the
value of the location counter in the current section.
NOTE
When the Macro Assembler expands a macro it generates internal symbols
starting with an underscore ‘_’. Therefore, to avoid potential conflicts, user
defined symbols should not begin with an underscore
NOTE
For the Macro Assembler, a .B or .W at the end of a label has a specific
meaning. Therefore, to avoid potential conflicts, user- defined symbols should
not end with .B or .W.
Operation field
The operation field follows the label field and is separated from it by a white space. The
operation field must not begin in the first column. An entry in the operation field is one of
the following:
• an instruction’s mnemonic - an abbreviated, case-insensitive name for a member in
the Instruction set
• a Directive name, or
• a Macro name.
Instruction set
Executable instructions for the M68HC08 processor are defined in the CPU08 Reference
Manual.
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Assembler Syntax
Source line
HC08 instruction set
Table 7.1 presents an overview of the instructions available for the HC08:
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
ADC
#<expression>
Add with Carry
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
ADD
#<expression>
Add without carry
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
AIS
#<expression>
Add Immediate value (signed) to Stack
Pointer
AIX
#<expression>
Add Immediate value (signed) to Index
register H:X
AND
#<expression>
Logical AND
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
ASL
<expression>
Arithmetic Shift Left
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
ASLA
Arithmetic Shift Left Accumulator
ASLX
Arithmetic Shift Left register X
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Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
ASR
<expression>
Arithmetic Shift Right
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
ASRA
Arithmetic Shift Right Accumulator
ASRX
Arithmetic Shift Right register X
BCC
<label>
Branch if Carry bit Clear
BCLR
BitNumber, <expression>
Clear one Bit in memory
BCS
<label>
Branch if Carry bit Set
BEQ
<label>
Branch if Equal
BGE
<label>
Branch if Greater Than or Equal to
BGND
Enter Background Debug Mode. Only
available for HCS08 (-CS08 option)
BGT
<label>
Branch if Greater Than
BHCC
<label>
Branch if Half Carry bit Clear
BHCS
<label>
Branch if Half Carry bit Set
BHI
<label>
Branch if Higher
BHS
<label>
Branch if Higher or Same
BIH
<label>
Branch if /IRQ Pin High
BIL
<label>
Branch if /IRQ Pin Low
BIT
#<expression>
Bit Test
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
BLE
232
<label>
Branch if Less Than or Equal To
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
BLO
<label>
Branch if Lower (same as BCS)
BLS
<label>
Branch if Lower or Same
BLT
<label>
Branch if Less Than
BMC
<label>
Branch if interrupt Mask Clear
BMI
<label>
Branch if Minus
BMS
<label>
Branch If interrupt Mask Set
BNE
<label>
Branch if Not Equal
BPL
<label>
Branch if Plus
BRA
<label>
Branch Always
BRCLR
BitNumber, <expression>,
<label>
Branch if Bit is Clear
BRN
<label>
Branch Never
BRSET
BitNumber, <expression>,
<label>
Branch if Bit Set
BSET
BitNumber,<expression>
Set Bit in memory
BSR
<label>
Branch to Subroutine
CBEQ
<expression>,<label>
Compare and Branch if Equal
<expression>,X+,<label>
X+,<label>
<expression>,SP,<label>
CBEQA
#<expression>,<label>
CBEQX
#<expression>,<label>
CLC
Clear Carry bit
CLI
Clear Interrupt mask bit
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233
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
CLR
<expression>
Clear memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
CLRA
Clear Accumulator A
CLRH
Clear index Register H
CLRX
Clear index Register X
CMP
#<expression>
Compare accumulator with memory
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
COM
<expression>
One’s complement on memory location
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
COMA
One’s complement on accumulator A
COMX
One’s complement on register X
CPHX
#<expression>
<expression>
<expression>,SP
CPX
#<expression>
Compare index register H:X with
memory
Stack pointer and Extended addressing
modes only available for HCS08 (CS08 option)
Compare index register X with memory
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
DAA
234
Decimal Adjust Accumulator
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
DBNZ
<expression>,<label>
Decrement counter and Branch if Not
Zero
<expression>,X,<label>
X,<label>
<expression>,SP,<label>
DBNZA
<label>
DBNZX
<label>
DEC
<expression>
Decrement memory location
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
DECA
Decrement Accumulator
DECX
Decrement Index register
DIV
Divide
EOR
#<expression>
<expression>
Exclusive OR Memory with
accumulator
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
INC
<expression>
Increment memory location
,X
<expression>,X
<expression>,SP
INCA
Increment Accumulator
INCX
Increment register X
JMP
<expression>
Jump to label
<expression>,X
,X
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Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
JSR
<expression>
Jump to Subroutine
<expression>,X
,X
LDA
#<expression>
Load Accumulator
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
LDHX
#<expression>
Load Index register H:X from memory
<expression>
Indexed, Stack pointer and extended
addressing modes are only available
for HCS08 (-CS08 option).
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
LDX
#<expression>
Load index Register X from memory
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
LSL
<expression>
Logical Shift Left in memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
236
LSLA
Logical Shift Left Accumulator
LSLX
Logical Shift Left register X
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
LSR
<expression>
Logical Shift Right in memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
LSRA
Logical Shift Right Accumulator
LSRX
Logical Shift Right register X
MOV
<expression>,<expression>
Memory-to-memory byte Move
<expression>,X+
#<expression>,<expression>
X+,<expression>
MUL
NEG
Unsigned multiply
<expression>
Two’s complement in memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
NEGA
Two’s complement on Accumulator
NEGX
Two’s complement on register X
NOP
No operation
NSA
Nibble Swap Accumulator
ORA
#<expression>
<expression>
Inclusive OR between Accumulator and
memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
PSHA
Push Accumulator onto stack
PSHH
Push index register H onto stack
PSHX
Push index register X onto stack
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237
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
PULA
Pull Accumulator from stack
PULH
Pull index register H from stack
PULX
Pull index register X from stack
ROL
<expression>
Rotate memory Left
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
ROLA
Rotate Accumulator Left
ROLX
Rotate register X Left
ROR
<expression>
Rotate memory Right
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
RORA
Rotate Accumulator Right
RORX
Rotate register X Right
RSP
Reset Stack Pointer
RTI
Return from Interrupt
RTS
Return from Subroutine
SBC
#<expression>
Subtract with Carry
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
238
SEC
Set Carry bit
SEI
Set Interrupt mask bit
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
STA
<expression>
Store Accumulator in Memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
STHX
<expression>
Store Index register H:X
<expression>,SP
Stack pointer and extended addressing
modes are only available for HCS08 (CS08 option)
STOP
STX
Enable IRQ pin and Stop oscillator
<expression>
Store index register X in memory
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
SUB
#<expression>
Subtract
<expression>
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
SWI
Software Interrupt
TAP
Transfer Accumulator to CCR
TAX
Transfer Accumulator to index Register
X
TPA
Transfer CCR to Accumulator
TST
<expression>
Test memory for negative or zero
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
TSTA
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Test Accumulator for negative or zero
239
Assembler Syntax
Source line
Table 7.1 HC08 instruction set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing modes
Descriptions
TSTX
Test register X for negative or zero
TSX
Transfer SP to index register H:X
TXA
Transfer index register X to
Accumulator
TXS
Transfer index register X to SP
WAIT
Enable interrupts; stop processor
Special HCS08 instructions
The HCS08 core provides the following instructions in addition to the HC08 core
instructions (Table 7.2):
Table 7.2 Special HC(S)08 instructions
Instruction
Addressing modes
BGND
CPHX
Enter Background Debug Mode. Only
available with the -CS08/-C08/-CRS08:
Derivative family assembler options.
#<expression>
<expression>
<expression>,SP
LDHX
Descriptions
Compare index register H:X with
memory
Stack pointer and extended addressing
modes are only available with the CS08, -C08, or -CRS08 assembler
options.
#<expression>
Load index register H:X from memory
<expression>
Indexed, stack pointer, and extended
addressing modes are only available
with the -CS08 option
<expression>,X
,X
<expression>,SP
STHX
240
<expression>
Store index register H:X
<expression>,SP
Stack pointer and extended addressing
modes are only available with the CS08 option.
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RS08 instruction set
Table 7.3 presents an overview of the instructions available for the RS08.
Table 7.3 RS08 instructions set
Instruction
Addressing Modes
Description
ADC
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Add with Carry
ADCX
ADD
Alias for ADC X
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
ADDX
AND
Add without Carry
Alias for ADD X
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Logical AND
ANDX
Alias for AND X
ASLA
Arithmetic Shift Left Accumulator (alias
for LSLA)
BCC
<label>
Branch if Carry Bit Clear
BCLR
BitNumber, <expression>
BitNumber,D[X]
BitNumber,X
Clear one Bit in Memory
BCS
<label>
Branch if Carry Bit Set
BEQ
<label>
Branch if Equal
BGND
Background
BHS
<label>
Branch if Higher or Same
BLO
<label>
Branch if Lower
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Table 7.3 RS08 instructions set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing Modes
Description
BNE
<label>
Branch if Not Equal
BRN
<label>
Branch Never (Alias for BRA *+$2)
BRCLR
BitNumber, <expression>,
<label>
BitNumber,D[X],<label>
BitNumber,X,<label>
Branch if Bit is Clear
BRSET
BitNumber, <expression>,
<label>
BitNumber,D[X],<label>
BitNumber,X,<label>
Branch if Bit Set
BSET
BitNumber,<expression>
BitNumber,D[X]
BitNumber,X
Set Bit in Memory
BSR
<label>
Branch to Subroutine
CBEQ
<expression>,<label>
#<expression>,<label>
,X,<label>
D[X],<label>
X,<label>
Compare and Branch if Equal
CBEQA
<label>
CBEQX
<label>
CLC
CLR
Clear Carry Bit
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
CLRX
CMP
COMA
242
Clear Memory
Clear Index Register X
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Compare Accumulator with Memory
Complement (One’s Complement)
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Table 7.3 RS08 instructions set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing Modes
Description
DBNZ
<expression>,<label>
,X,<label>
D[X],<label>
X,<label>
Decrement Counter and Branch if Not
Zero
DBNZA
<label>
DBNZX
<label>
DEC
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Decrement Memory Location
DEC
<$13
Force tiny addressing (will use $03)
DECA
Decrement Accumulator
DECX
Decrement Index Register
EOR
#<expression>
<expression>
D[X]
,X
X
EORX
Exclusive OR Memory with Accumulator
Exclusive OR (index register and
accumulator)
INC
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Increment Memory Location
INC
>$01
Force direct addressing
INCA
Increment Accumulator
INCX
Increment Register X
JMP
<label>
Jump to Label
JSR
<label>
Jump to Subroutine
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Table 7.3 RS08 instructions set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing Modes
Description
LDA
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Load Accumulator indexed
LDA
<$0FF
Force short addressing (will use $1F)
LDX
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Load Index Register X from Memory
LDX
$OFF
Load Direct
LSLA
Logical Shift Left Accumulator
LSRA
Logical Shift Right Accumulator
MOV
<expression>,<expression>
#<expression>,<expression>
D[X],<expression>
<expression>,D[X]
#<expression>,D[X]
NOP
ORA
244
Memory to Memory Byte Move
No Operation
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Inclusive OR between Accumulator and
Memory
ORAX
Inclusive OR between Accumulator and
Index Register
ROLA
Rotate Accumulator Left
RORA
Rotate Accumulator Right
RTS
Return from Subroutine
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Table 7.3 RS08 instructions set (continued)
Instruction
Addressing Modes
Description
SBC
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
Subtract with Carry
SBCX
Subtract with Carry (Index Register
content from Accumulator)
SEC
Set Carry Bit
SHA
Swap Shadow PC High with A
SLA
Swap Shadow PC Low with A
STA
<expression>
,X
D[X]
X
STOP
Store Accumulator in Memory
Stop Processing
STX
<expression>
Store Index Register X in Memory
SUB
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
Subtract
SUBX
TAX
TST
Transfer Accumulator to Index Register X
#<expression>
<expression>
,X
D[X]
Test for zero (alias for MOV
<expression>,<expression>)
TSTA
Test Accumulator (alias for ORA #0)
TSTX
Test Index Register X (alias for MOV X,X)
TXA
Transfer Index Register X to Accumulator
WAIT
Enable Interrupts; Stop Processor
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NOTE
For RS08 both D[X] and ,X notations refer to the memory location $000E. The
,X notation is supported for compatibility reasons with HC(S)08. Wherever ,X
is supported, D[X] is also supported. In situations where the use of ,X would
lead to double commas (e.g. BCLR 0,,X) the use of ,X is not allowed.
Directive
Assembler directives are described in the Assembler Directives chapter of this manual.
Macro
A user-defined macro can be invoked in the assembler source program. This results in the
expansion of the code defined in the macro. Defining and using macros are described in
the Macros chapter in this manual.
Operand field: Addressing modes
(HC(S)08)
The operand fields, when present, follow the operation field and are separated from it by a
white space. When two or more operand subfields appear within a statement, a comma
must separate them.
The following addressing mode notations are allowed in the operand field (Table 7.4):
Table 7.4 HC(S)08 addressing mode notation
246
Addressing Mode
Notation
Example
Inherent
No operands
RSP
Immediate
#<expression>
ADC #$01
Direct
<expression>
ADC byte
Extended
<expression>
ADC word
Indexed, no offset
,X
ADC ,X
Indexed, 8-bit offset
<expression>,X
ADC Offset,X
Indexed, 16-bit offset
<expression>,X
ADC Offset,X
Relative
<label>
BRA Label
Stack Pointer, 8-bit offset
<expression>,SP
ADC Offset,SP
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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Table 7.4 HC(S)08 addressing mode notation (continued)
Addressing Mode
Notation
Example
Stack Pointer, 16-bit offset
<expression>,SP
ADC Offset,SP
Memory-to-memory
immediate-to-direct
#<expression>,<expression>
MOV #$05,MyDataByte
Memory-to-memory directto-direct
<expression>,<expression>
MOV DatLoc1,DatLoc2
Memory-to-memory
indexed-to-direct with postincrement
X+,<expression>
MOV X+,<expression>
Memory-to-memory directto-indexed with postincrement
<expression>,X+
MOV <expression>,X+
Indexed with post-increment
X+
CBEQ X+, Data
Indexed, 8-bit offset, with
post-increment
#<expression>,X+
CBEQ #offset,X+,Data
Inherent
Instructions using this addressing mode do not have any associated instruction fetch
(Listing 7.2). Some of them are acting on data in the CPU registers.
Listing 7.2 Inherent addressing-mode instructions
CLRA
DAA
Immediate
The opcode contains the value to use with the instruction rather than the address of this
value.
The effective address of the instruction is specified using the # character as in Listing 7.3.
Listing 7.3 Immediate addressing mode
XDEF
initStack: EQU
Entry
$0400
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MyData:
data:
SECTION
DS.B 1
MyCode:
Entry:
SECTION
main:
LDHX
TXS
#initStack ; init Stack Pointer
; with value $400-1 = $03FF
LDA
BRA
#100
main
; load register A with (decimal) 100
In this example, the hexadecimal value $0400 is loaded in value in the register HX and
the decimal value 100 is loaded into register A.
Direct
The direct addressing mode is used to address operands in the direct page of the memory
(location $0000 to $00FF).
For most of the direct instructions, only two bytes are required: the first byte is the opcode
and the second byte is the operand address located in page zero. See Listing 7.4 for an
example of the direct addressing mode.
Listing 7.4 Direct addressing mode
initStack:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
main:
XDEF Entry
EQU
$0400
SECTION SHORT
DS.B 1
SECTION
LDHX
TXS
LDA
STA
BRA
#initStack ; init Stack Pointer
; with value $400 - 1 = $03FF
#$55
data
main
In this example, the value $55 is stored in the variable data, which is located on the direct
page. The MyData section must be defined in the direct page in the linker parameter file.
The opcode generated for the STA data instruction is two bytes long.
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Extended
The extended addressing mode is used to access memory location located above the direct
page in a 64-kilobyte memory map.
For the extended instructions, three bytes are required: the first byte is the opcode and the
second and the third bytes are the most and least significant bytes of the operand address.
See Listing 7.5 for an example of the extended addressing mode.
Listing 7.5 Extended addressing mode
XDEF Entry
initStack: EQU
$0400
ORG
$B00
data:
DS.B 1
MyCode:
SECTION
Entry:
LDHX #initStack ; init Stack Pointer
TXS
; with value $400-1 = $03FF
main:
LDA
#$55
STA
data
BRA
main
In this example, the value $55 is stored in the variable data. This variable is located at
address $0B00 in the memory map. The opcode of the STA data instruction is then three
bytes long.
Indexed, no offset
This addressing mode is used to access data with variable addresses through the HX index
register of the HC08 controller. The X index register contains the least significant byte of
the operand while the H index register contains the most significant byte.
Indexed, no offset instructions are one byte long. See Listing 7.6 for an example of using
the indexed (no offset) addressing mode.
Listing 7.6 Indexed (no offset) addressing mode
...
Entry:
...
LDHX
LDA
...
JMP
...
#$0FFE
,X
,X
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The value stored in memory location $0FFE is loaded into accumulator A. The JMP
instruction causes the program to jump to the address pointed to by the HX register.
Indexed, 8-bit offset
This addressing mode is useful when selecting the k-th element in an n-element table. The
size of the table is limited to 256 bytes.
Indexed, 8-bit offset instructions are two byte long. The first byte is the opcode and the
second byte contains the index register offset byte. See Listing 7.7 for an example of using
the indexed (8-bit offset) addressing mode.
Listing 7.7 Index (8-bit offset) addressing mode
initStack:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
XDEF Entry
EQU
$0400
SECTION SHORT
DS.B 8
SECTION
LDHX
TXS
#initStack ; init Stack Pointer
; with value $400-1 = $03FF
LDHX
LDA
...
JMP
#data
5 ,X
main:
$FF,X
...
The value contained in the memory at the location calculated using the address of data
(pointed to by the HX register) + 5 is loaded in accumulator A. The JMP instruction causes
the program to jump to the address pointed to by the HX register + $FF.
Indexed, 16-bit offset
This addressing mode is useful when selecting the k-th element in an n-element table. The
size of the table is limited to $FFFF bytes.
Indexed,16-bit offset instructions are three byte long. The first byte contains the opcode
and the second and the third the high and low index register offset bytes. See Listing 7.8
for an example of using the indexed (16-bit offset) addressing mode.
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Listing 7.8 Indexed (16-bit offset) addressing mode
XDEF Entry
EQU
$0400
SECTION
DS.B 8
SECTION
initStack:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
LDHX
TXS
#initStack ; init Stack Pointer
; with value $400-1 = $03FF
LDHX
STA
...
JMP
#table
$500 ,X
main:
$1000,X
...
The value contained in the memory at the location calculated using the address of data
(pointed to by register HX) + $500 is loaded in accumulator A. The JMP instruction causes
the program to jump to the address pointed to by the HX register + $1000.
Relative
This addressing mode is used by all branch instructions to determine the destination
address. The signed byte following the opcode is added to the contents of the program
counter.
As the offset is coded on a signed byte, the branching range is -127 to +128. The
destination address of the branch instruction must be in this range. See Listing 7.9 for an
example of using the relative addressing mode.
Listing 7.9 Relative addressing mode
main:
NOP
NOP
BRA
main
Stack Pointer, 8-bit offset
Stack Pointer, 8-bit offset instructions behave the same way than Indexed 8-bit offset
instructions, except that the offset is added to the Stack Pointer SP in place of the HX
Index register.
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This addressing mode allow easy access of the data on the stack. If the interrupts are
disabled, the Stack pointer can also be used as a second Index register. See Listing 7.10 for
an example of using the Stack Pointer *8-bit offset) addressing mode.
Listing 7.10 Stack Pointer (8-bit offset) addressing mode
entry:
LDHX
TXS
#$0500
LDA
STA
#$40
$50, SP
; init Stack Pointer to 04FF
; Location $54F = $40
In this example, stack pointer, 8-bit offset mode is used to store the value $40 in memory
location $54F.
Stack Pointer, 16-bit offset
Stack Pointer, 16-bit offset instructions behave the same way than Indexed, 16-bit offset
instructions, except that the offset is added to the Stack Pointer (SP) in place of the HX
Index register.
This addressing mode allow easy access of the data on the stack. If the interrupts are
disabled, the Stack pointer can also be used as a second Index register. See Listing 7.11 for
an example of using the Stack Pointer (16-bit offset) addressing mode.
Listing 7.11 Stack Pointer (16-bit offset) addressing mode
entry:
LDHX
TXS
#$0100
; init Stack Pointer to 00FF
LDA
$0500, SP ; Content of memory location $5FF is loaded in A
In this example, stack pointer, 16-bit offset mode is used to store the value in memory
location $5FF in accumulator A.
Memory-to-memory immediate-to-direct
This addressing mode is generally used to initialize variables and registers in page zero.
The register A is not affected. See Listing 7.12 for an example for using the memory-tomemory immediate-to-direct addressing mode.
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Listing 7.12 Memory-to-memory immediate-to-direct addressing mode
MyData:
entry:
EQU
$50
MOV
#$20, MyData
The MOV #$20,MyData instruction stores the value $20 in memory location $50
‘MyData’.
Memory-to-memory direct-to-direct
This addressing mode is generally used to transfer variables and registers in page zero.
The A register is not affected. See Listing 7.13 for an example of using the memory-tomemory direct-to-direct addressing mode.
Listing 7.13 Memory-to-memory direct-to-direct addressing mode
MyData1:
MyData2:
entry:
EQU
EQU
$50
$51
MOV
MOV
#$10, MyData1
MyData1, MyData2
The MOV #$10,MyData1 instruction stores the value $10 in memory location $50
‘MyData1’ using the memory-to-memory Immediate-to-Direct addressing mode. The
MOV MyData1,MyData2 instruction moves the content of MyData1 into MyData2
using memory to memory Direct-to-Direct addressing mode. The content of MyData2
(memory location $51) is then $10.
Memory-to-memory indexed-to-direct with postincrement
This addressing mode is generally used to transfer tables addressed by the index register to
a register in page zero.
The operand addressed by the HX index register is stored in the direct page location
addressed by the byte following the opcode. The HX index register is automatically
incremented. The A register is not affected. See Listing 7.14 for an example of using the
memory-to-memory indexed to direct with post-increment addressing mode.
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Listing 7.14 Memory-to-memory indexed-to-direct with post increment addressing
mode.
XDEF
Entry
ConstSCT: SECTION
Const:
DC.B 1,11,21,31,192,12,0
DataSCT:
MyReg:
SECTION SHORT
DS.B 1
CodeSCT:
Entry:
SECTION
LDHX #$00FF
TXS
main:
LOOP:
LDHX
MOV
BEQ
BRA
#Const
X+, MyReg
main
LOOP
In this example, the table Const contains seven bytes defined in a constant section in
ROM. The last value of this table is zero.
The HX register is initialized with the address of Const. All the values of this table are
stored one after another in page-zero memory location MyReg using the MOV X+,
MyReg instruction. When the value 0 is encountered, the HX register is reset with the
address of the first element of the #Const table.
Memory-to-memory direct-to-indexed with postincrement
This addressing mode is generally used to fill tables addressed by the index register from
registers in page zero.
The operand in the direct page location addressed by the byte following the opcode is
stored in the memory location pointed to by the HX index register. The HX index register
is automatically incremented. The A register is not affected. See Listing 7.15 for an
example of using the memory-to-memory direct-to-indexed with post-increment
addressing mode.
Listing 7.15 Memory-to-memory direct-to-indirect with post-increment addressing mode
MyData:
MyReg1:
254
XDEF entry
SECTION SHORT
DS.B 1
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MyReg2:
MyCode:
entry:
main:
DS.B 1
SECTION
LDA
STA
INCA
STA
#$02
MyReg1
LDHX
MOV
MOV
BRA
#$1000
MyReg1,X+
MyReg2,X+
main
MyReg2
The page-zero memory locations MyReg1 and MyReg2 are first respectively initialized
with $02 and $03. The contents of those data are then written in memory location
$1000 and $1001. The HX register points to memory location $1002.
Indexed with post-increment
The operand is addressed then the HX register is incremented.
This addressing mode is useful for searches in tables. It is only used with the CBEQ
instruction. See Listing 7.16 for an example of an example of using the indexed with postincrement addressing mode.
Listing 7.16 Example of the indexed with post-increment addressing mode
data:
CodeSCT:
Entry:
XDEF Entry
ORG
$F000
DC.B 1,11,21,31,$C0,12
SECTION
LDHX #$00FF
TXS
main:
LOOP:
LDA
LDHX
CBEQ
BRA
IS_EQUAL: ...
#$C0
#data
X+,IS_EQUAL
LOOP
Using this addressing mode, it is possible to scan the memory to find a location containing
a specific value.
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The value located at the memory location pointed to by HX is compared to the value in the
A register. If the two values match, the program branches to IS_EQUAL. HX points to the
memory location next to the one containing the searched value.
In this example, the value $C0 is searched starting at memory location $F000. This value
is found at the memory location $F004, the program branches to IS_EQUAL, and the HX
register contains $F005.
Indexed, 8-bit offset, with post-increment
The address of the operand is the sum of the 8-bit offset added to the value in register HX.
The operand is addressed, then the HX register is incremented.
This addressing mode is useful for searches in tables. It is only used with the CBEQ
instruction. See Listing 7.17 for an example of the indexed (8-bit offset) with postincrement addressing mode.
Listing 7.17 Indexed (8-bit offset) with post-increment addressing mode
data:
CodeSCT:
Entry:
XDEF Entry
ORG
$F000
DCB.B $40,$00
DC.B 1,11,21,31,$C0,12 ; $C0 is located at $F000+$40+4
SECTION
LDHX #$00FF
TXS
main:
LDA
LDHX
LOOP:
CBEQ
BRA
IS_EQUAL: ...
#$C0
#data
$30,X+,IS_EQUAL
LOOP
Using this addressing mode, it is possible to scan the memory to find a location containing
a specific value starting at a specified location to which is added an offset.
The value located at memory location pointed to by HX + $30 is compared to the value
in the A register. If the two values match, program branch to IS_EQUAL. HX points to
memory location next to the one containing the searched value.
In this example, the value $C0 is searched starting at memory location
$F000+$30=$F030. This value is found at memory location $F044, the program
branches to IS_EQUAL. The HX register contains the memory location of the searched
value minus the offset, incremented by one: $F044-$30+1=$F015.
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Operand Field: Addressing Modes (RS08)
The following addressing mode notations are allowed in the operand field for the RS08:
Table 7.5 Operand Field RS08 Addressing Modes
Inherent
No operands
RTS
Tiny
<expression>
ADD fourbits
Short
<expression>
CLR fivebits
Direct
<expression>
ADC byte
Extended
<expression>
JSR word
Relative
<label>
BRA Label
Immediate
#<expression>
ADC #$01
Indexed
D[X] or ,X
ADC D[X] or ADC ,X
Inherent (RS08)
Instructions using this addressing mode have no associated instruction fetch. Some of
them are acting on data in the CPU registers.
Example:
CLRA
INCA
NOP
Tiny
The tiny addressing mode is used to access only the first 16 bytes of the memory map
(addresses from $0000 to $000F). The instructions using this addressing mode are
encoded using one byte only. This addressing mode is available for INC, DEC, ADD and
SUB instructions.
Example:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
XDEF Entry
SECTION RS08_TINY
DS.B 1
SECTION
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main:
ADD data
BRA main
In this example, the value of the variable data is added to the accumulator. The data is
located in the tiny memory area, so the encoding of the ADD instruction will be one byte
long. Note that the tiny section has to be placed into the tiny memory area at link time.
Short
The RS08 short addressing mode is used to access only the first 32 bytes of the memory
map (addresses from $0000 to $001F). The instructions using this addressing mode are
encoded using one byte only. This addressing mode is available for CLR, LDA and STA
instructions.
Example:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
main:
XDEF Entry
SECTION RS08_SHORT
DS.B 1
SECTION
LDA data
BRA main
In this example, the value of the variable data is loaded into the accumulator. The data is
located in the short memory area, so the encoding of the LDA instruction will be one byte
long. Note that the short section has to be placed into the tiny memory area at linktime.
Direct
The direct addressing mode is used to address operands in the direct page of the memory
(location $0000 to $00FF).
Example:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
main:
258
XDEF Entry
SECTION
DS.B 1
SECTION
LDA #$55
STA data
BRA main
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In this example, the value $55 is stored in the variable data. The opcode generated for the
instruction STA data is two bytes long.
Extended
The extended addressing mode is used only for JSR and JMP instructions. The 14-bit
address is located in the lowest 14 bits of the encoding after the two-bit opcode.
Example:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
main:
XDEF Entry
XREF target
DS.B 1
SECTION
LDA #$55
JMP target
In this example a jump is executed at an address defined by the external symbol target.
Relative
This addressing mode is used by all branch instructions to determine the destination
address. The signed byte following the opcode is added to the contents of the program
counter.
As the offset is coded on a signed byte, the branching range is -127 to +128. The
destination address of the branch instruction must be in this range.
Example:
main:
NOP
NOP
BRA main
Immediate
The opcode contains the value to use with the instruction rather than the address of this
value. The effective address of the instruction is specified using the # character as in the
example below.
Example:
MyData:
XDEF Entry
SECTION
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Assembler Syntax
Source line
data:
DS.B 1
MyCode:
Entry:
main:
SECTION
LDA #100
BRA main
In this example, the decimal value 100 is loaded in register A.
Indexed
When using the indexed addressing mode, an index register is used as reference to access
the instruction’s operand. For the RS08, the index registers are located at $000F (register
X) and $000E (register D[X]). The D[X] register is called the index data register, and can
be designated by either one of the D[X] or ,X notations. As a restriction, when the use of
,X would lead to double commas in the assembly source, the use of ,X is not allowed.
Example:
MyData:
data:
MyCode:
Entry:
main:
XDEF Entry
SECTION
DS.B 1
SECTION
CLR D[X] ; equivalent to CLR ,X
CLR X
In this example the contents of both X and D[X] registers are replaced by zeros.
Comment Field
The last field in a source statement is an optional comment field. A semicolon (;) is the
first character in the comment field.
Example:
NOP ; Comment following an instruction
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Assembler Syntax
Symbols
Symbols
The following types of symbols are the topics of this section:
• User-defined symbols
• External symbols
• Undefined symbols
• Reserved symbols
User-defined symbols
Symbols identify memory locations in program or data sections in an assembly module. A
symbol has two attributes:
• The section, in which the memory location is defined
• The offset from the beginning of that section.
Symbols can be defined with an absolute or relocatable value, depending on the section in
which the labeled memory location is found. If the memory location is located within a
relocatable section (defined with the SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section assembler
directive), the label has a relocatable value relative to the section start address.
Symbols can be defined relocatable in the label field of an instruction or data definition
source line (Listing 7.18).
Listing 7.18 Example of a user-defined relocatable SECTION
Sec: SECTION
label1: DC.B 2 ; label1 is assigned offset 0 within Sec.
label2: DC.B 5 ; label2 is assigned offset 2 within Sec.
label3: DC.B 1 ; label3 is assigned offset 7 within Sec.
It is also possible to define a label with either an absolute or a previously defined
relocatable value, using the SET - Set Symbol Value or EQU - Equate symbol value
assembler directives.
Symbols with absolute values must be defined with constant expressions.
Listing 7.19 Example of a user-defined absolute and relocatable SECTION
Sec: SECTION
label1: DC.B 2
; label1 is assigned offset 0 within Sec.
label2: EQU 5
; label2 is assigned value 5.
label3: EQU label1 ; label3 is assigned the address of label1.
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Symbols
External symbols
A symbol may be made external using the XDEF - External Symbol Definition assembler
directive. In another source file, an XREF - External Symbol Reference assembler
directive must reference it. Since its address is unknown in the referencing file, it is
considered to be relocatable. See Listing 7.20 for an example of using XDEF and XREF.
Listing 7.20 Examples of external symbols
XREF extLabel
XDEF label
;
;
;
;
symbol defined in an other module.
extLabel is imported in the current module
symbol is made external for other modules
label is exported from the current module
constSec: SECTION
label:
DC.W 1, extLabel
Undefined symbols
If a label is neither defined in the source file nor declared external using XREF, the
Assembler considers it to be undefined and generates an error message. Listing 7.21
shows an example of an undeclared label.
Listing 7.21 Example of an undeclared label
codeSec:
entry:
NOP
BNE
NOP
JMP
JMP
end:RTS
END
262
SECTION
entry
end
label
; <- Undeclared user-defined symbol: label
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Assembler Syntax
Constants
Reserved symbols
Reserved symbols cannot be used for user-defined symbols.
Register names are reserved identifiers.
For the HC08 processor the reserved identifiers are listed in Listing 7.22.
Listing 7.22 Reserved identifiers for an HC(S)08 derivative
A, CCR, H, X, SP
The keywords LOW and HIGH are also reserved identifiers. They are used to refer to the
low byte and the high byte of a memory location.
Constants
The Assembler supports integer and ASCII string constants:
Integer constants
The Assembler supports four representations of integer constants:
• A decimal constant is defined by a sequence of decimal digits (0-9).
Example: 5, 512, 1024
• A hexadecimal constant is defined by a dollar character ($) followed by a sequence
of hexadecimal digits (0-9, a-f, A-F).
Example: $5, $200, $400
• An octal constant is defined by the commercial at character (@) followed by a
sequence of octal digits (0-7).
Example: @5, @1000, @2000
• A binary constant is defined by a percent character followed by a sequence of binary
digits (0-1)
Example:
%101, %1000000000, %10000000000
The default base for integer constant is initially decimal, but it can be changed using the
BASE - Set number base assembler directive. When the default base is not decimal,
decimal values cannot be represented, because they do not have a prefix character.
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Operators
String constants
A string constant is a series of printable characters enclosed in single (‘) or double quote
("). Double quotes are only allowed within strings delimited by single quotes. Single
quotes are only allowed within strings delimited by double quotes. See Listing 7.23 for a
variety of string constants.
Listing 7.23 String constants
'ABCD', "ABCD", 'A', "'B", "A'B", 'A"B'
Floating-Point constants
The Macro Assembler does not support floating-point constants.
Operators
Operators recognized by the Assembler in expressions are:
• Addition and subtraction operators (binary)
• Multiplication, division and modulo operators (binary)
• Sign operators (unary)
• Shift operators (binary)
• Bitwise operators (binary)
• Logical operators (unary)
• Relational operators (binary)
• HIGH operator
• PAGE operator
• Force operator (unary)
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Operators
Addition and subtraction operators (binary)
The addition and subtraction operators are + and -, respectively.
Syntax
Addition:
<operand> + <operand>
Subtraction: <operand> – <operand>
Description
The + operator adds two operands, whereas the – operator subtracts them. The
operands can be any expression evaluating to an absolute or relocatable expression.
Addition between two relocatable operands is not allowed.
Example
See Listing 7.24 for an example of addition and subtraction operators.
Listing 7.24 Addition and subtraction operators
$A3216 + $42 ; Addition of two absolute operands (= $A3258)
labelB - $10 ; Subtraction with value of ‘labelB’
Multiplication, division and modulo operators (binary)
The multiplication, division, and modulo operators are *, /, and %, respectively.
Syntax
Multiplication: <operand> * <operand>
Division:
<operand> / <operand>
Modulo:
<operand> % <operand>
Description
The * operator multiplies two operands, the / operator performs an integer
division of the two operands and returns the quotient of the operation. The %
operator performs an integer division of the two operands and returns the
remainder of the operation
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Operators
The operands can be any expression evaluating to an absolute expression. The
second operand in a division or modulo operation cannot be zero.
Example
See Listing 7.25 for an example of the multiplication, division, and modulo
operators.
Listing 7.25 Multiplication, division, and modulo operators
23 * 4
23 / 4
23 % 4
; multiplication (= 92)
; division (= 5)
; remainder(= 3)
Sign operators (unary)
The (unary) sign operators are + and -.
Syntax
Plus:
+<operand>
Minus: -<operand>
Description
The + operator does not change the operand, whereas the – operator changes the
operand to its two’s complement. These operators are valid for absolute expression
operands.
Example
See Listing 7.26 for an example of the unary sign operators.
Listing 7.26 Unary sign operators
+$32
-$32
266
; ( = $32)
; ( = $CE = -$32)
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Assembler Syntax
Operators
Shift operators (binary)
The binary shift operators are << and >>.
Syntax
Shift left:
<operand> << <count>
Shift right: <operand> >> <count>
Description
The << operator shifts its left operand left by the number of bits specified in the
right operand.
The >> operator shifts its left operand right by the number of bits specified in the
right operand.
The operands can be any expression evaluating to an absolute expression.
Example
See Listing 7.27 for an example of the binary shift operators.
Listing 7.27 Binary shift operators
$25 << 2
$A5 >> 3
; shift left (= $94)
; shift right(= $14)
Bitwise operators (binary)
The binary bitwise operators are &, |, and ^.
Syntax
Bitwise AND:
<operand> & <operand>
Bitwise OR:
<operand> | <operand>
Bitwise XOR:
<operand> ^ <operand>
Description
The & operator performs an AND between the two operands on the bit level.
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Operators
The | operator performs an OR between the two operands on the bit level.
The ^ operator performs an XOR between the two operands on the bit level.
The operands can be any expression evaluating to an absolute expression.
Example
See Listing 7.28 for an example of the binary bitwise operators
Listing 7.28 Binary bitwise operators
$E & 3
$E | 3
$E ^ 3
; = $2 (%1110 & %0011 = %0010)
; = $F (%1110 | %0011 = %1111)
; = $D (%1110 ^ %0011 = %1101)
Bitwise operators (unary)
The unary bitwise operator is ~.
Syntax
One’s complement: ~<operand>
Description
The ~ operator evaluates the one’s complement of the operand.
The operand can be any expression evaluating to an absolute expression.
Example
See Listing 7.29 for an example of the unary bitwise operator.
Listing 7.29 Unary bitwise operator
~$C ; = $FFFFFFF3 (~%00000000 00000000 00000000 00001100
=%11111111 11111111 11111111 11110011)
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Operators
Logical operators (unary)
The unary logical operator is !.
Syntax
Logical NOT: !<operand>
Description
The ! operator returns 1 (true) if the operand is 0, otherwise it returns 0 (false).
The operand can be any expression evaluating to an absolute expression.
Example
See Listing 7.30 for an example of the unary logical operator.
Listing 7.30 Unary logical operator
!(8<5)
; = $1 (TRUE)
Relational operators (binary)
The binary relational operators are =, ==, !=, <>, <, <=, >, and >=.
Syntax
Equal:
<operand> =
<operand>
<operand> == <operand>
Not equal:
<operand> != <operand>
<operand> <> <operand>
Less than:
<operand> <
<operand>
Less than or equal:
<operand> <= <operand>
Greater than:
<operand> >
<operand>
Greater than or equal: <operand> >= <operand>
Description
These operators compare two operands and return 1 if the condition is true or 0 if
the condition is false.
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Operators
The operands can be any expression evaluating to an absolute expression.
Example
See Listing 7.31 for an example of the binary relational operators
Listing 7.31 Binary relational operators
3 >= 4
label = 4
9 < $B
; = 0
; = 1
; = 1
(FALSE)
(TRUE) if label is 4, 0 or (FALSE) otherwise.
(TRUE)
HIGH operator
The HIGH operator is HIGH.
Syntax
High Byte: HIGH(<operand>)
Description
This operator returns the high byte of the address of a memory location.
Example
Assume data1 is a word located at address $1050 in the memory.
LDA #HIGH(data1)
This instruction will load the immediate value of the high byte of the address of
data1 ($10) in register A.
LDA HIGH(data1)
This instruction will load the direct value at memory location of the higher byte of
the address of data1 (i.e., the value in memory location $10) in register A.
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Operators
HIGH_6_13 Operator
Syntax
High Byte:
HIGH_6_13(<operand>)
Description
This operator returns the high byte of a 14-bit address of a memory location.
Example
Assume data1 is a word located at address $1010 in the memory.
LDA
#HIGH_6_13(data1)
This instruction will load the value $40 in the accumulator.
LOW operator
The LOW operator is LOW.
Syntax
LOW Byte: LOW(<operand>)
Description
This operator returns the low byte of the address of a memory location.
Example
Assume data1 is a word located at address $1050 in the memory.
LDA #LOW(data1)
This instruction will load the immediate value of the lower byte of the address of
data1 ($50) in register A.
LDA LOW(data1)
This instruction will load the direct value at memory location of the lower byte of
the address of data1 (i.e., the value in memory location $50) in register A.
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Operators
MAP_ADDR_6 Operator
Syntax
MAP_ADDR_6(<operand>)
Description
This operator returns the lower 6 bits for a memory location. It should be used to
determine the offset in the paging window for a certain memory address.Note that
the operator automatically adds the offset of the base of the paging window ($C0).
Example
MOV
#HIGH_6_13(data), $001F
STA
MAP_ADDR_6(data)
In this example, the RS08 PAGE register (mapped at $001F) is loaded with the
memory page corresponding to data and then the value contained in the
accumulator is stored at the address pointed by data.
PAGE operator
The PAGE operator is PAGE.
Syntax
PAGE Byte: PAGE(<operand>)
Description
This operator returns the page byte of the address of a memory location.
Example
Assume data1 is a word located at address $28050 in the memory.
LDA #PAGE(data1)
This instruction will load the immediate value of the page byte of the address of
data1 ($2).
LDA PAGE(data1)
This instruction will load the direct value at memory location of the page byte of
the address of data1 (i.e., the value in memory location $2).
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Operators
NOTE
The PAGE keyword does not refer to the RS08 PAGE register but to the PAGE
operator described above.
Force operator (unary)
Syntax
8-bit address: <<operand> or <operand>.B
16-bit address: ><operand> or <operand>.W
Description
The < or .B operators force direct addressing mode, whereas the > or .W operators
force extended addressing mode.
Use the < operator to force 8-bit indexed or 8-bit direct addressing mode for an
instruction.
Use the > operator to force 16-bit indexed or 16-bit extended addressing mode for
an instruction.
The operand can be any expression evaluating to an absolute or relocatable
expression.
Example
<label
; label is an 8-bit address.
label.B
; label is an 8-bit address.
>label
; label is an 16-bit address.
label.W
; label is an 16-bit address.
For the RS08 the < operand forces the operand to short or tiny addressing mode
(depending on the instruction in which it is used). The same result can be obtained
by adding .S or .T to the referred symbol. The > operator forces an address to 8
bits, even if it fits in 4 or 5 bits (so short or tiny addressing modes can be used).
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Operators
Operator precedence
Operator precedence follows the rules for ANSI - C operators (Table 7.6)
.
Table 7.6 Operator precedence priorities
274
Operator
Description
Associativity
()
Parenthesis
Right to Left
~
+
-
One’s complement
Unary Plus
Unary minus
Left to Right
*
/
%
Integer multiplication
Integer division
Integer modulo
Left to Right
+
-
Integer addition
Integer subtraction
Left to Right
<<
>>
Shift Left
Shift Right
Left to Right
<
<=
>
>=
Less than
Less or equal to
Greater than
Greater or equal to
Left to Right
=, ==
!=, <>
Equal to
Not Equal to
Left to Right
&
Bitwise AND
Left to Right
^
Bitwise Exclusive OR
Left to Right
|
Bitwise OR
Left to Right
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Assembler Syntax
Expression
Expression
An expression is composed of one or more symbols or constants, which are combined
with unary or binary operators. Valid symbols in expressions are:
• User defined symbols
• External symbols
• The special symbol ‘*’ represents the value of the location counter at the beginning
of the instruction or directive, even when several arguments are specified. In the
following example, the asterisk represents the location counter at the beginning of
the DC directive:
DC.W
1, 2, *-2
Once a valid expression has been fully evaluated by the Assembler, it is reduced as one of
the following type of expressions:
• Absolute expression: The expression has been reduced to an absolute value, which is
independent of the start address of any relocatable section. Thus it is a constant.
Simple relocatable expression: The expression evaluates to an absolute offset from
the start of a single relocatable section.
• Complex relocatable expression: The expression neither evaluates to an absolute
expression nor to a simple relocatable expression. The Assembler does not support
such expressions.
All valid user defined symbols representing memory locations are simple relocatable
expressions. This includes labels specified in XREF directives, which are assumed to be
relocatable symbols.
Absolute expression
An absolute expression is an expression involving constants or known absolute labels or
expressions. An expression containing an operation between an absolute expression and a
constant value is also an absolute expression.
See Listing 7.32 for an example of an absolute expression.
Listing 7.32 Absolute expression
Base: SET $100
Label: EQU Base * $5 + 3
Expressions involving the difference between two relocatable symbols defined in the same
file and in the same section evaluate to an absolute expression. An expression as
label2-label1 can be translated as:
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Assembler Syntax
Expression
Listing 7.33 Interpretation of label2-label1: difference between two relocatable symbols
(<offset label2> + <start section address >) –
(<offset label1> + <start section address >)
This can be simplified to (Listing 7.34):
Listing 7.34 Simplified result for the difference between two relocatable symbols
<offset label2> + <start section address > –
<offset label1> - <start section address>
= <offset label2> - <offset label1>
Example
In the example in Listing 7.35, the expression tabEnd-tabBegin evaluates to an
absolute expression and is assigned the value of the difference between the offset of
tabEnd and tabBegin in the section DataSec.
Listing 7.35 Absolute expression relating the difference between two relocatable
symbols
DataSec: SECTION
tabBegin: DS.B 5
tabEnd:
DS.B 1
ConstSec: SECTION
label:
EQU tabEnd-tabBegin
CodeSec:
entry:
; Absolute expression
SECTION
NOP
Simple relocatable expression
A simple relocatable expression results from an operation such as one of the following:
• <relocatable expression> + <absolute expression>
• <relocatable expression> - <absolute expression>
• < absolute expression> + < relocatable expression>
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Expression
Listing 7.36 Example of relocatable expression
XREF XtrnLabel
DataSec: SECTION
tabBegin: DS.B 5
tabEnd:
DS.B 1
CodeSec: SECTION
entry:
LDA tabBegin+2
BRA *-3
LDA XtrnLabel+6
; Simple relocatable expression
; Simple relocatable expression
; Simple relocatable expression
Unary operation result
Table 7.7 describes the type of an expression according to the operator in an unary
operation:
Table 7.7 Expression type resulting from operator and operand type
Operator
Operand
Expression
-, !, ~
absolute
absolute
-, !, ~
relocatable
complex
+
absolute
absolute
+
relocatable
relocatable
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Translation limits
Binary operations result
Table 7.8 describes the type of an expression according to the left and right operators in a
binary operation:
Table 7.8 Expression type resulting from operator and their operands
Operator
Left Operand
Right Operand
Expression
-
absolute
absolute
absolute
-
relocatable
absolute
relocatable
-
absolute
relocatable
complex
-
relocatable
relocatable
absolute
+
absolute
absolute
absolute
+
relocatable
absolute
relocatable
+
absolute
relocatable
relocatable
+
relocatable
relocatable
complex
*, /, %, <<, >>, |, &, ^
absolute
absolute
absolute
*, /, %, <<, >>, |, &, ^
relocatable
absolute
complex
*, /, %, <<, >>, |, &, ^
absolute
relocatable
complex
*, /, %, <<, >>, |, &, ^
relocatable
relocatable
complex
Translation limits
The following limitations apply to the Macro Assembler:
• Floating-point constants are not supported.
• Complex relocatable expressions are not supported.
• Lists of operands or symbols must be separated with a comma.
• Include may be nested up to 50.
• The maximum line length is 1023.
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8
Assembler Directives
There are different classes of assembler directives. The following tables give you an
overview over the different directives and their classes:
Directive overview
Section-Definition directives
Use the directives in Table 8.1 to define new sections.
Table 8.1 Directives for defining sections
Directive
Description
ORG - Set Location Counter
Define an absolute section
SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section
Define a relocatable section
OFFSET - Create absolute symbols
Define an offset section
Constant-Definition directives
Use the directives in Table 8.2 to define assembly constants.
Table 8.2 Directives for defining constants
Directive
Description
EQU - Equate symbol value
Assign a name to an expression (cannot
be redefined)
SET - Set Symbol Value
Assign a name to an expression (can be
redefined)
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Directive overview
Data-Allocation directives
Use the directives in Table 8.3 to allocate variables.
Table 8.3 Directives for allocating variables
Directive
Description
DC - Define Constant
Define a constant variable
DCB - Define Constant Block
Define a constant block
DS - Define Space
Define storage for a variable
RAD50 - RAD50-encoded string
constants
RAD50 encoded string constants
Symbol-Linkage directives
Symbol-linkage directives (Table 8.4) are used to export or import global symbols.
Table 8.4 Symbol linkage directives
280
Directive
Description
ABSENTRY - Application entry point
Specify the application entry point when an
absolute file is generated
XDEF - External Symbol Definition
Make a symbol public (visible from outside)
XREF - External Symbol Reference
Import reference to an external symbol.
XREFB - External Reference for
Symbols located on the Direct Page
Import reference to an external symbol
located on the direct page.
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Assembler Directives
Directive overview
Assembly-Control directives
Assembly-control directives (Table 8.5) are general purpose directives used to control the
assembly process.
Table 8.5 Assembly control directives
Directive
Description
ALIGN - Align Location Counter
Define Alignment Constraint
BASE - Set number base
Specify default base for constant definition
END - End assembly
End of assembly unit
ENDFOR - End of FOR block
End of FOR block
EVEN - Force word alignment
Define 2-byte alignment constraint
FAIL - Generate Error message
Generate user defined error or warning
messages
FOR - Repeat assembly block
Repeat assembly blocks
INCLUDE - Include text from another
file
Include text from another file.
LONGEVEN - Forcing Long-Word
alignment
Define 4 Byte alignment constraint
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Directive overview
Listing-File Control directives
Listing-file control directives (Table 8.6) control the generation of the assembler listing
file.
Table 8.6 Listing-file control directives
282
Directive
Description
CLIST - List conditional assembly
Specify if all instructions in a conditional
assembly block must be inserted in the
listing file or not.
LIST - Enable Listing
Specify that all subsequent instructions
must be inserted in the listing file.
LLEN - Set Line Length
Define line length in assembly listing file.
MLIST - List macro expansions
Specify if the macro expansions must be
inserted in the listing file.
NOLIST - Disable Listing
Specify that all subsequent instruction
must not be inserted in the listing file.
NOPAGE - Disable Paging
Disable paging in the assembly listing file.
PAGE - Insert Page break
Insert page break.
PLEN - Set Page Length
Define page length in the assembler listing
file.
SPC - Insert Blank Lines
Insert an empty line in the assembly listing
file.
TABS - Set Tab Length
Define number of character to insert in the
assembler listing file for a TAB character.
TITLE - Provide Listing Title
Define the user defined title for the
assembler listing file.
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Assembler Directives
Directive overview
Macro Control directives
Macro control directives (Table 8.7) are used for the definition and expansion of macros.
Table 8.7 Macro control directives
Directive
Description
ENDM - End macro definition
End of user defined macro.
MACRO - Begin macro definition
Start of user defined macro.
MEXIT - Terminate Macro Expansion
Exit from macro expansion.
Conditional Assembly directives
Conditional assembly directives (Table 8.8) are used for conditional assembling.
Table 8.8 Conditional assembly directives
Directive
Description
ELSE - Conditional assembly
alternate block
ENDIF - End conditional assembly
End of conditional block
IF - Conditional assembly
Start of conditional block. A boolean expression
follows this directive.
IFcc - Conditional assembly
Test if two string expressions are equal.
IFDEF
Test if a symbol is defined.
IFEQ
Test if an expression is null.
IFGE
Test if an expression is greater than or equal to
0.
IFGT
Test if an expression is greater than 0.
IFLE
Test if an expression is less than or equal to 0.
IFLT
Test if an expression is less than 0.
IFNC
Test if two string expressions are different.
IFNDEF
Test if a symbol is undefined
IFNE
Test if an expression is not null.
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler
directives
The remainder of the chapter covers the detailed description of all available
assembler directives.
ABSENTRY - Application entry point
Syntax
ABSENTRY <label>
Synonym
None
Description
This directive is used to specify the application Entry Point when the Assembler
directly generates an absolute file. The -FA2 assembly option - ELF/DWARF 2.0
Absolute File - must be enabled.
Using this directive, the entry point of the assembly application is written in the
header of the generated absolute file. When this file is loaded in the debugger, the
line where the entry point label is defined is highlighted in the source window.
This directive is ignored when the Assembler generates an object file.
NOTE
This instruction only affects the loading on an application by a debugger. It
tells the debugger which initial PC should be used. In order to start the
application on a target, initialize the Reset vector.
If the example in Listing 8.1 is assembled using the -FA2 assembler option, an
ELF/DWARF 2.0 Absolute file is generated.
Listing 8.1 Using ABSENTRY to specify an application entry point
ABSENTRY entry
ORG
Reset: DC.W
ORG
entry: NOP
NOP
284
$fffe
entry
$70
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
main:
RSP
NOP
BRA
main
According to the ABSENTRY directive, the entry point will be set to the address of
entry in the header of the absolute file.
ALIGN - Align Location Counter
Syntax
ALIGN <n>
Synonym
None
Description
This directive forces the next instruction to a boundary that is a multiple of <n>,
relative to the start of the section. The value of <n> must be a positive number
between 1 and 32767. The ALIGN directive can force alignment to any size. The
filling bytes inserted for alignment purpose are initialized with ‘\0’.
ALIGN can be used in code or data sections.
Example
The example shown in Listing 8.2 aligns the HEX label to a location, which is a
multiple of 16 (in this case, location 00010 (Hex))
Listing 8.2 Aligning the HEX Label to a Location
Assembler
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
6
4
5
6
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000
000004
000008
00000C
6869
0000
0000
0000
000010 7F
Source line
-----------
6768
0000
0000
0000
DC.B "high"
ALIGN 16
HEX:
DC.B 127 ; HEX is allocated
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
7
8
9
7
8
9
; on an address,
; which is a
; multiple of 16.
BASE - Set number base
Syntax
BASE <n>
Synonym
None
Description
The directive sets the default number base for constants to <n>. The operand <n>
may be prefixed to indicate its number base; otherwise, the operand is considered
to be in the current default base. Valid values of <n> are 2, 8, 10, 16. Unless a
default base is specified using the BASE directive, the default number base is
decimal.
Example
See Listing 8.3 for examples of setting the number base.
Listing 8.3 Setting the number base
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
286
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
10
100
16
0a
2
100
%100
@12
100
$a
100
; default base: decimal
000005 64
base
dc.b
base
dc.b
base
dc.b
dc.b
base
dc.b
base
dc.b
base
dc.b
8
100
; default base: octal
000006 40
000000 64
000001 0A
000002 04
000003 04
000004 64
; default base: hex
; default base: binary
; default base: decimal
; default base: decimal
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Be careful. Even if the base value is set to 16, hexadecimal constants terminated by
a D must be prefixed by the $ character, otherwise they are supposed to be decimal
constants in old style format. For example, constant 45D is interpreted as decimal
constant 45, not as hexadecimal constant 45D.
CLIST - List conditional assembly
Syntax
CLIST [ON|OFF]
Synonym
None
Description
The CLIST directive controls the listing of subsequent conditional assembly
blocks. It precedes the first directive of the conditional assembly block to which it
applies, and remains effective until the next CLIST directive is read.
When the ON keyword is specified in a CLIST directive, the listing file includes all
directives and instructions in the conditional assembly block, even those which do
not generate code (which are skipped).
When the OFF keyword is entered, only the directives and instructions that
generate code are listed.
A soon as the -L: Generate a listing file assembler option is activated, the
Assembler defaults to CLIST ON.
Example
Listing 8.4 is an example where the CLIST OFF option is used.
Listing 8.4 Listing file with CLIST OFF
CLIST OFF
Try: EQU
0
IFEQ Try
LDA
#103
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Listing 8.5 is the corresponding listing file.
Listing 8.5 Example assembler listing where CLIST ON is used
Abs. Rel.
---- ----2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
7
7
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------0000 0000
0000 0000
000000 A667
Source line
----------Try: EQU
0
IFEQ Try
LDA
#103
ELSE
ENDIF
Listing 8.6 is a listing file using CLIST ON.
Listing 8.6 CLIST ON is selected
CLIST ON
Try: EQU
0
IFEQ
Try
LDA
#103
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
Listing 8.7 is the corresponding listing file.
Listing 8.7 Example assembler listing where CLIST ON is used
Abs. Rel.
---- ----2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
288
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------0000 0000
0000 0000
000000 A667
Source line
----------Try: EQU
0
IFEQ Try
LDA
#103
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
DC - Define Constant
Syntax
[<label>:] DC [.<size>] <expression> [,
<expression>]...
where <size> = B (default), W, or L.
Synonym
DCW (= 2 byte DCs),
DCL (= 4 byte DCs),
FCB (= DC.B), FDB
(= 2 byte DCs),
FQB (= 4 byte DCs)
Description
The DC directive defines constants in memory. It can have one or more
<expression> operands, which are separated by commas. The
<expression> can contain an actual value (binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal,
or ASCII). Alternatively, the <expression> can be a symbol or expression that
can be evaluated by the Assembler as an absolute or simple relocatable expression.
One memory block is allocated and initialized for each expression.
The following rules apply to size specifications for DC directives:
• DC.B: One byte is allocated for numeric expressions. One byte is allocated per
ASCII character for strings (Listing 8.8).
• DC.W: Two bytes are allocated for numeric expressions. ASCII strings are right
aligned on a two-byte boundary (Listing 8.9).
• DC.L: Four bytes are allocated for numeric expressions. ASCII strings are right
aligned on a four byte boundary (Listing 8.10).
Listing 8.8 Example for DC.B
000000 4142 4344
000004 45
000005 0A0A 010A
Label: DC.B "ABCDE"
DC.B %1010, @12, 1,$A
Listing 8.9 Example for DC.W
000000 0041 4243
000004 4445
Label: DC.W "ABCDE"
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
000006 000A 000A
00000A 0001 000A
00000E xxxx
DC.W %1010, @12, 1, $A
DC.W Label
Listing 8.10 Example for DC.L
000000
000004
000008
00000C
000010
000014
000018
0000
4243
0000
0000
0000
0000
xxxx
0041
4445
000A
000A
0001
000A
xxxx
Label: DC.L "ABCDE"
DC.L %1010, @12, 1, $A
DC.L Label
If the value in an operand expression exceeds the size of the operand, the assembler
truncates the value and generates a warning message.
See also
Assembler directives:
• DCB - Define Constant Block
• DS - Define Space
• ORG - Set Location Counter
• SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section
DCB - Define Constant Block
Syntax
[<label>:]
DCB [.<size>] <count>, <value>
where <size> = B (default), W, or L.
Description
The DCB directive causes the Assembler to allocate a memory block initialized
with the specified <value>. The length of the block is <size> * <count>.
<count> may not contain undefined, forward, or external references. It may
range from 1 to 4096.
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
The value of each storage unit allocated is the sign-extended expression <value>,
which may contain forward references. The <count> cannot be relocatable. This
directive does not perform any alignment.
The following rules apply to size specifications for DCB directives:
• DCB.B: One byte is allocated for numeric expressions.
• DCB.W: Two bytes are allocated for numeric expressions.
• DCB.L: Four bytes are allocated for numeric expressions.
Listing 8.11 Examples of DCB directives
000000
000003
000007
000009
00000D
000011
FFFF
FFFE
FFFE
0000
0000
0000
FF
FFFE
Label: DCB.B 3, $FF
DCB.W 3, $FFFE
FFFE
FFFE
FFFE
DCB.L 3, $FFFE
See also
Assembler directives:
• DC - Define Constant
• DS - Define Space
• ORG - Set Location Counter
• SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section
DS - Define Space
Syntax
[<label>:]
DS[.<size>] <count>
where <size> = B (default), W, or L.
Synonym
RMB (= DS.B)
RMD (2 bytes)
RMQ (4 bytes)
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Description
The DS directive is used to reserve memory for variables (Listing 8.12). The
content of the memory reserved is not initialized. The length of the block is
<size> * <count>.
<count> may not contain undefined, forward, or external references. It may
range from 1 to 4096.
Listing 8.12 Examples of DS directives
Counter:
DS.B
DS.B
2 ; 2 continuous bytes in memory
2 ; 2 continuous bytes in memory
; can only be accessed through the label Counter
5 ; 5 continuous words in memory
DS.W
The label Counter references the lowest address of the defined storage area.
NOTE
Storage allocated with a DS directive may end up in constant data section or
even in a code section, if the same section contains constants or code as well.
The Assembler allocates only a complete section at once.
Example
In Listing 8.13, a variable, a constant, and code were put in the same section.
Because code has to be in ROM, then all three elements must be put into ROM. In
order to allocate them separately, put them in different sections (Listing 8.14).
Listing 8.13 Poor memory allocation
; How it should
Counter:
InitialCounter:
main:
NOT be done ...
DS 1
; 1-byte used
DC.B $f5 ; constant $f5
NOP
; NOP instruction
Listing 8.14 Proper memory allocation
DataSect:
Counter:
SECTION
DS 1
; separate section for variables
; 1-byte used
ConstSect:
SECTION ; separate section for constants
InitialCounter: DC.B $f5 ; constant $f5
CodeSect:
main:
292
SECTION
NOP
; section for code
; NOP instruction
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
An ORG directive also starts a new section.
See also
• DC - Define Constant
• ORG - Set Location Counter
• SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section
ELSE - Conditional assembly
Syntax
IF <condition>
[<assembly language statements>]
[ELSE]
[<assembly language statements>]
ENDIF
Synonym
ELSEC
Description
If <condition> is true, the statements between IF and the corresponding ELSE
directive are assembled (generate code).
If <condition> is false, the statements between ELSE and the corresponding
ENDIF directive are assembled. Nesting of conditional blocks is allowed. The
maximum level of nesting is limited by the available memory at assembly time.
Example
Listing 8.15 is an example of the use of conditional assembly directives:
Listing 8.15 Various conditional assembly directives
Try: EQU
IF Try
LDA
ELSE
LDA
ENDIF
1
!= 0
#103
#0
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
The value of Try determines the instruction to be assembled in the program. As
shown, the lda #103 instruction is assembled. Changing the operand of the EQU
directive to 0 causes the lda #0 instruction to be assembled instead.
Listing 8.16 Output listing of Listing 8.15
Abs. Rel.
Loc
Obj. code
Source line
---- --------- -------------------------1
1
0000 0001
Try: EQU
1
2
2
0000 0001
IF Try != 0
3
3
000000 A667
LDA
#103
4
4
ELSE
6
6
ENDIF
END - End assembly
Syntax
END
Synonym
None
Description
The END directive indicates the end of the source code. Subsequent source
statements in this file are ignored. The END directive in included files skips only
subsequent source statements in this include file. The assembly continues in the
including file in a regular way.
Example
The END statement in Listing 8.17 causes any source code after the END statement
to be ignored, as in Listing 8.18.
Listing 8.17 Source File
Label:
294
DC.W
DC.W
END
DC.W
DC.W
$1234
$5678
$90AB ; no code generated
$CDEF ; no code generated
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Listing 8.18 Generated listing file
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
Loc
-----000000
000002
Obj. code
--------1234
5678
Source line
----------Label: DC.W
DC.W
$1234
$5678
ENDFOR - End of FOR block
Syntax
ENDFOR
Synonym
None
Description
The ENDFOR directive indicates the end of a FOR block.
NOTE
The FOR directive is only available when the -Compat=b assembler option is
used. Otherwise, the FOR directive is not supported.
Example
See Listing 8.28 in the FOR section.
See also
Assembler directives:
• FOR - Repeat assembly block
• -Compat: Compatibility modes
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
ENDIF - End conditional assembly
Syntax
ENDIF
Synonym
ENDC
Description
The ENDIF directive indicates the end of a conditional block. Nesting of
conditional blocks is allowed. The maximum level of nesting is limited by the
available memory at assembly time.
Example
See Listing 8.30 in the IF section.
See also
IF - Conditional assembly assembler directive
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
ENDM - End macro definition
Syntax
ENDM
Synonym
None
Description
The ENDM directive terminates the macro definition (Listing 8.19).
Example
The ENDM statement in Listing 8.19 terminates the cpChar macro.
Listing 8.19 Using ENDM to terminate a macro definition
cpChar:
MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
LDA
char1
STA
char2
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
EQU - Equate symbol value
Syntax
<label>: EQU <expression>
Synonym
None
Description
The EQU directive assigns the value of the <expression> in the operand field to
<label>. The <label> and <expression> fields are both required, and the
<label> cannot be defined anywhere else in the program. The <expression>
cannot include a symbol that is undefined or not yet defined.
The EQU directive does not allow forward references.
Example
See Listing 8.20 for examples of using the EQU directive.
Listing 8.20 Using EQU to set variables
298
0000 0014
0000 0050
MaxElement: EQU
MaxSize:
EQU
0000 0000
0000 0002
0000 0004
Time:
Hour:
Minute:
Second:
DS.B
EQU
EQU
EQU
20
MaxElement * 4
3
Time
; first byte addr.
Time+1 ; second byte addr
Time+2 ; third byte addr
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
EVEN - Force word alignment
Syntax
EVEN
Synonym
None
Description
This directive forces the next instruction to the next even address relative to the
start of the section. EVEN is an abbreviation for ALIGN 2. Some processors require
word and long word operations to begin at even address boundaries. In such cases,
the use of the EVEN directive ensures correct alignment. Omission of this directive
can result in an error message.
Example
See Listing 8.21 for instances where the EVEN directive causes padding bytes to
be inserted.
Listing 8.21 Using the Force Word Alignment Directive
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000
000004
000005
000006
000009
0000 000A
Source line
----------ds.b 4
; location count has an even value
; no padding byte inserted.
even
ds.b 1
; location count has an odd value
; one padding byte inserted.
even
ds.b 3
; location count has an odd value
; one padding byte inserted.
even
aaa: equ
10
See also
ALIGN - Align Location Counter assembly directive
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
FAIL - Generate Error message
Syntax
FAIL
<arg>|<string>
Synonym
None
Description
There are three modes of the FAIL directive, depending upon the operand that is
specified:
• If <arg> is a number in the range [0–499], the Assembler generates an error
message, including the line number and argument of the directive. The
Assembler does not generate an object file.
• If <arg> is a number in the range [500–$FFFFFFFF], the Assembler
generates a warning message, including the line number and argument of the
directive.
• If a string is supplied as an operand, the Assembler generates an error message,
including the line number and the <string>. The Assembler does not
generate an object file.
• The FAIL directive is primarily intended for use with conditional assembly to
detect user-defined errors or warning conditions.
Examples
The assembly code in Listing 8.22 generates the error messages in Listing 8.23.
The value of the operand associated with the ‘FAIL 200’ or
‘FAIL 600’directives determines (1) the format of any warning or error
message and (2) whether the source code segment will be assembled.
Listing 8.22 Example source code
cpChar: MACRO
IFC "\1", ""
FAIL 200
MEXIT
ELSE
LDA
\1
ENDIF
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
IFC "\2", ""
FAIL 600
ELSE
STA
\2
ENDIF
ENDM
codSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1
Listing 8.23 Error messages resulting from assembling the source code in Listing 8.22
>> in "C:\Freescale\demo\warnfail.asm", line 13, col 19, pos 226
IFC "\2", ""
FAIL 600
^
WARNING A2332: FAIL found
Macro Call :
FAIL 600
Listing 8.24 is another assembly code example which again incorporates the FAIL 200
and the FAIL 600 directives. Listing 8.25 is the error message that was generated as a
result of assembling the source code in Listing 8.24.
Listing 8.24 Example source code
cpChar: MACRO
IFC "\1", ""
FAIL 200
MEXIT
ELSE
LDA \1
ENDIF
IFC "\2", ""
FAIL 600
ELSE
STA \2
ENDIF
ENDM
codeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar, char2
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Listing 8.25 Error messages resulting from assembling the source code in Listing 8.24
>> in "C:\Freescale\demo\errfail.asm", line 6, col 19, pos 96
IFC "\1", ""
FAIL 200
^
ERROR A2329: FAIL found
Macro Call :
FAIL 200
Listing 8.26 has additional uses of the FAIL directive. In this example, the
FAIL string and FAIL 600 directives are used. Any error messages
generated from the assembly code as a result of the FAIL directive are listed in
Listing 8.27.
Listing 8.26 Example source code
cpChar: MACRO
IFC "\1", ""
FAIL "A character must be specified as first parameter"
MEXIT
ELSE
LDA \1
ENDIF
IFC "\2", ""
FAIL 600
ELSE
STA \2
ENDIF
ENDM
codeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar, char2
Listing 8.27 Error messages resulting from assembling the source code in Listing 8.26
>> in "C:\Freescale\demo\failmes.asm", line 7, col 17, pos 110
IFC "\1", ""
FAIL "A character must be specified as first parameter"
^
ERROR A2338: A character must be specified as first parameter
Macro Call :
FAIL "A character must be specified as first parameter"
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
FOR - Repeat assembly block
Syntax
FOR <label>=<num> TO <num>
ENDFOR
Synonym
None
Description
The FOR directive is an inline macro because it can generate multiple lines of
assembly code from only one line of input code.
FOR takes an absolute expression and assembles the portion of code following it,
the number of times represented by the expression. The FOR expression may be
either a constant or a label previously defined using EQU or SET.
NOTE
The FOR directive is only available when the -Compat=b assembly option is
used. Otherwise, the FOR directive is not supported.
Example
Listing 8.28 is an example of using FOR to create a 5-repetition loop.
Listing 8.28 Using the FOR directive in a loop
FOR label=2 TO 6
DC.B label*7
ENDFOR
Listing 8.29 Resulting output listing
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
2
5
3
6
2
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000 0E
000001 15
Source line
----------FOR label=2 TO 6
DC.B label*7
ENDFOR
DC.B label*7
ENDFOR
DC.B label*7
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
ENDFOR
DC.B
ENDFOR
DC.B
ENDFOR
DC.B
ENDFOR
000002 1C
000003 23
000004 2A
label*7
label*7
label*7
See also
ENDFOR - End of FOR block
-Compat: Compatibility modes assembler option
IF - Conditional assembly
Syntax
IF <condition>
[<assembly language statements>]
[ELSE]
[<assembly language statements>]
ENDIF
Synonym
None
Description
If <condition> is true, the statements immediately following the IF directive
are assembled. Assembly continues until the corresponding ELSE or ENDIF
directive is reached. Then all the statements until the corresponding ENDIF
directive are ignored. Nesting of conditional blocks is allowed. The maximum
level of nesting is limited by the available memory at assembly time.
The expected syntax for <condition> is:
<condition> := <expression> <relation> <expression>
<relation>
:= =|!=|>=|>|<=|<|<>
The <expression> must be absolute (It must be known at assembly time).
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Example
Listing 8.30 is an example of the use of conditional assembly directives
Listing 8.30 IF and ENDIF
Try: EQU
0
IF Try != 0
LDA
#103
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
The value of Try determines the instruction to be assembled in the program. As
shown, the lda
#0 instruction is assembled. Changing the operand of the EQU
directive to one causes the lda
#103 instruction to be assembled instead. The
following shows the listing provided by the Assembler for these lines of code:
Listing 8.31 Output listing after conditional assembly
1
2
4
5
6
1
2
4
5
6
0000 0000
0000 0000
000000 A600
Try: EQU
0
IF Try != 0
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
IFcc - Conditional assembly
Syntax
IFcc <condition>
[<assembly language statements>]
[ELSE]
[<assembly language statements>]
ENDIF
Synonym
None
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Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Description
These directives can be replaced by the IF directive Ifcc <condition> is
true, the statements immediately following the Ifcc directive are assembled.
Assembly continues until the corresponding ELSE or ENDIF directive is reached,
after which assembly moves to the statements following the ENDIF directive.
Nesting of conditional blocks is allowed. The maximum level of nesting is limited
by the available memory at assembly time.
Table 8.9 lists the available conditional types:
Table 8.9 Conditional assembly types
Ifcc
Condition
Meaning
ifeq
<expression>
if <expression> == 0
ifne
<expression>
if <expression> != 0
iflt
<expression>
if <expression> < 0
ifle
<expression>
if <expression> <= 0
ifgt
<expression>
if <expression> > 0
ifge
<expression>
if <expression> >= 0
ifc
<string1>, <string2>
if <string1> == <string2>
ifnc
<string1>, <string2>
if <string1> != <string2>
ifdef
<label>
if <label> was defined
ifndef
<label>
if <label> was not defined
Example
Listing 8.32 is an example of the use of conditional assembler directives:
Listing 8.32 Using the IFNE conditional assembler directive
Try: EQU
0
IFNE Try
LDA
#103
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
The value of Try determines the instruction to be assembled in the program. As
shown, the lda
#0 instruction is assembled. Changing the directive to IFEQ
causes the lda
#103 instruction to be assembled instead.
Listing 8.33 shows the listing provided by the Assembler for these lines of code
Listing 8.33 output listing for Listing 8.32
1
2
4
5
6
1
2
4
5
6
0000 0000
0000 0000
000000 A600
Try: EQU
0
IFNE Try
ELSE
LDA
#0
ENDIF
INCLUDE - Include text from another file
Syntax
INCLUDE <file specification>
Synonym
None
Description
This directive causes the included file to be inserted in the source input stream. The
<file specification> is not case-sensitive and must be enclosed in
quotation marks.
The Assembler attempts to open <file specification> relative to the
current working directory. If the file is not found there, then it is searched for
relative to each path specified in the GENPATH: Search path for input file
environment variable.
Example
INCLUDE "..\LIBRARY\macros.inc"
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
LIST - Enable Listing
Syntax
LIST
Synonym
None
Description
Specifies that instructions following this directive must be inserted into the listing
and into the debug file. This is a default option. The listing file is only generated if
the -L: Generate a listing file assembler option is specified on the command line.
The source text following the LIST directive is listed until a NOLIST - Disable
Listing or an END - End assembly assembler directive is reached
This directive is not written to the listing and debug files.
Example
The assembly source code using the LIST and NOLIST directives in Listing 8.34
generates the output listing in Listing 8.35.
Listing 8.34 Using the LIST and NOLIST assembler directives
aaa:
NOP
bbb:
LIST
NOP
NOP
ccc:
NOLIST
NOP
NOP
ddd:
308
LIST
NOP
NOP
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Listing 8.35 Output listing generated from running Listing 8.34
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
4
4
5
5
6
6
12
12
13
13
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 9D
Source line
----------aaa:
NOP
000001 9D
000002 9D
bbb:
NOP
NOP
000005 9D
000006 9D
ddd:
NOP
NOP
LLEN - Set Line Length
Syntax
LLEN<n>
Synonym
None
Description
Sets the number of characters from the source line that are included on the listing
line to <n>. The values allowed for <n> are in the range [0 - 132]. If a value
smaller than 0 is specified, the line length is set to 0. If a value bigger than 132 is
specified, the line length is set to 132.
Lines of the source file that exceed the specified number of characters are truncated
in the listing file.
Example
The following portion of code in Listing 8.37 generates the listing file in Listing 8.37.
Notice that the LLEN 24 directive causes the output at the location-counter line 7 to be
truncated.
Listing 8.36 Example assembly source code using LLEN
DC.B
LLEN
DC.W
$55
32
$1234, $4567
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
LLEN
DC.W
EVEN
24
$1234, $4567
Listing 8.37 Formatted assembly output listing as a result of using LLEN
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
4
4
5
5
7
7
8
8
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 55
Source line
----------DC.B
000001 1234 4567
DC.W
$1234, $4567
000005 1234 4567
000009 00
DC.W
EVEN
$1234, $
$55
LONGEVEN - Forcing Long-Word alignment
Syntax
LONGEVEN
Synonym
None
Description
This directive forces the next instruction to the next long-word address relative to
the start of the section. LONGEVEN is an abbreviation for ALIGN 4.
Example
See Listing 8.38 for an example where LONGEVEN aligns the next instruction to
have its location counter to be a multiple of four (bytes).
Listing 8.38 Forcing Long Word Alignment
310
2
2
3
4
3
4
000000 01
dcb.b 1,1
; location counter is not a multiple of 4; three filling
; bytes are required.
000001 0000 00
longeven
000004 0002 0002
dcb.w 2,2
; location counter is already a multiple of 4; no filling
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
; bytes are required.
5
6
7
8
9
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
10
11
longeven
000008 0202
dcb.b 2,2
; following is for text section
s27
SECTION 27
000000 9D
nop
; location counter is not a multiple of 4; three filling
; bytes are required.
000001 0000 00
longeven
000004 9D
nop
MACRO - Begin macro definition
Syntax
<label>: MACRO
Synonym
None
Description
The <label> of the MACRO directive is the name by which the macro is called.
This name must not be a processor machine instruction or assembler directive
name. For more information on macros, see the Macros chapter.
Example
See Listing 8.39 for a macro definition.
Listing 8.39 Example macro definition
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
MyData:
char1:
char2:
cpChar:
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
LDA
STA
char1
char2
MEXIT - Terminate Macro Expansion
Syntax
MEXIT
Synonym
None
Description
MEXIT is usually used together with conditional assembly within a macro. In that
case it may happen that the macro expansion should terminate prior to termination
of the macro definition. The MEXIT directive causes macro expansion to skip any
remaining source lines ahead of the ENDM - End macro definition directive.
Example
See Listing 8.40 allows the replication of simple instructions or directives using
MACRO with MEXIT.
Listing 8.40 Example assembly code using MEXIT
XDEF
entry
storage: EQU
$00FF
save:
MACRO
LDX
#storage
LDA
\1
STA
0,x
LDA
\2
STA
2,x
IFC
'\3', ''
MEXIT
ENDC
LDA
\3
STA
4,X
ENDM
datSec: SECTION
char1: ds.b 1
312
; Start macro definition
; Save first argument
; Save second argument
; Is there a third argument?
; No, exit from macro
; Save third argument
; End of macro definition
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
char2: ds.b 1
codSec: SECTION
entry:
save char1, char2
Listing 8.41 shows the macro expansion of the previous macro.
Listing 8.41 Macro expansion of Listing 8.40
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
5m
27
6m
28
7m
29
8m
30
9m
31
10m
33
11m
34
12m
35
13m
36
14m
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------0000 00FF
Source line
----------XDEF
storage: EQU
save:
MACRO
LDX
LDA
STA
LDA
STA
IFC
MEXIT
ENDC
LDA
STA
ENDM
codSec:
entry:
AEFF
C6 xxxx
E700
C6 xxxx
E702
0000 0001
; Start macro definition
#storage
\1
0,x ; Save first arg
\2
2,x ; Save second arg
'\3', ''; is there a
; No, exit from macro.
\3 ; Save third argument
4,X
; End of macro defin
datSec: SECTION
char1: ds.b 1
char2: ds.b 1
000000
000001
000000
000002
000005
000007
00000A
entry
$00FF
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
SECTION
save
LDX
LDA
STA
LDA
STA
IFC
MEXIT
ENDC
LDA
STA
char1, char2
#storage
char1
0,x ; Save first arg
char2
2,x ; Save second
'', '' ; Is there a
; no, exit macro.
; Save third argu
4,X
313
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
MLIST - List macro expansions
Syntax
MLIST [ON|OFF]
Description
When the ON keyword is entered with an MLIST directive, the Assembler includes
the macro expansions in the listing and in the debug file.
When the OFF keyword is entered, the macro expansions are omitted from the
listing and from the debug file.
This directive is not written to the listing and debug file, and the default value is
ON.
Synonym
None
Example
The assembly code in Listing 8.42, with MLIST ON, generates the assembler
output listing in Listing 8.43
Listing 8.42 Example assembly source code using MLIST
XDEF
entry
MLIST ON
swap:
MACRO
LDA
\1
LDX
\2
STA
\2
STX
\1
ENDM
codSec: SECTION
entry:
LDA
#$F0
LDX
#$0F
main:
STA
first
STX
second
swap first, second
NOP
BRA
main
datSec: SECTION
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
first: DS.B
second: DS.B
1
1
Listing 8.43 Assembler output listing of the example in Listing 8.42 with MLIST ON
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
4m
5m
6m
7m
18
19
20
21
22
23
swap:
000000 A6F0
000002 AE0F
000004 C7 xxxx
000007 CF xxxx
00000A
00000D
000010
000013
000016
000017
000000
000001
C6 xxxx
CE xxxx
C7 xxxx
CF xxxx
9D
20EB
XDEF entry
MACRO
LDA
\1
LDX
\2
STA
\2
STX
\1
ENDM
codSec: SECTION
entry:
LDA
#$F0
LDX
#$0F
main:
STA
first
STX
second
swap first, second
+
LDA
first
+
LDX
second
+
STA
second
+
STX
first
NOP
BRA
main
datSec: SECTION
first: DS.B 1
second: DS.B 1
For the same code, with MLIST OFF, the listing file is as shown in Listing 8.44.
Listing 8.44 Assembler output listing of the example in Listing 8.42 with MLIST OFF
Abs. Rel. Loc
Obj. code Source line
---- ---- ------ --------- ----------1
1
XDEF
3
3
swap:
MACRO
4
4
LDA
5
5
LDX
6
6
STA
7
7
STX
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
entry
\1
\2
\2
\1
315
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
21
22
23
24
25
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
000000 A6F0
000002 AE0F
000004 C7 xxxx
000007 CF xxxx
000016 9D
000017 20EB
000000
000001
ENDM
codSec: SECTION
entry:
LDA #$F0
LDX #$0F
main:
STA first
STX second
swap first, second
NOP
BRA main
datSec: SECTION
first: DS.B 1
second: DS.B 1
The MLIST directive does not appear in the listing file. When a macro is called
after a MLIST ON, it is expanded in the listing file. If the MLIST OFF is
encountered before the macro call, the macro is not expanded in the listing file.
NOLIST - Disable Listing
Syntax
NOLIST
Synonym
NOL
Description
Suppresses the printing of the following instructions in the assembly listing and
debug file until a LIST - Enable Listing assembler directive is reached.
Example
See Listing 8.45 for an example of using LIST and NOLIST.
Listing 8.45 Examples of LIST and NOLIST
aaa:
NOP
bbb:
LIST
NOP
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
NOP
ccc:
NOLIST
NOP
NOP
ddd:
LIST
NOP
NOP
The listing above generates the listing file in Listing 8.46.
Listing 8.46 Assembler output listing from the assembler source code in Listing 8.45
Assembler
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
4
4
5
5
6
6
12
12
13
13
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 9D
Source line
----------aaa:
NOP
000001 9D
000002 9D
bbb:
NOP
NOP
000005 9D
000006 9D
ddd:
NOP
NOP
See Also
LIST - Enable Listing assembler directive
NOPAGE - Disable Paging
Syntax
NOPAGE
Synonym
None
Description
Disables pagination in the listing file. Program lines are listed continuously,
without headings or top or bottom margins.
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
OFFSET - Create absolute symbols
Syntax
OFFSET <expression>
Synonym
None
Description
The OFFSET directive declares an offset section and initializes the location
counter to the value specified in <expression>. The <expression> must be
absolute and may not contain references to external, undefined or forward defined
labels.
Example
Listing 8.47 shows how the OFFSET directive can be used to access an element of
a structure.
Listing 8.47 Example assembly source code
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
000000
000001
000003
0000 0007
ID:
COUNT:
VALUE:
SIZE:
OFFSET 0
DS.B
1
DS.W
1
DS.L
1
EQU
*
000000
DataSec: SECTION
Struct: DS.B SIZE
000003
000006
000008
00000A
00000C
00000D
CodeSec: SECTION
entry:
LDX
#Struct
LDA
#0
STA
ID, X
INC
COUNT, X
INCA
STA
VALUE, X
CE xxxx
8600
6A00
6201
42
6A03
When a statement affecting the location counter other than EVEN, LONGEVEN,
ALIGN, or DS is encountered after the OFFSET directive, the offset section is
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
ended. The preceding section is activated again, and the location counter is restored
to the next available location in this section (Listing 8.48).
Listing 8.48 Example where the location counter is changed
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
000000 11
000001 13
000000
000001
000003
0000 0007
000002 22
ConstSec: SECTION
cst1:
DC.B $11
cst2:
DC.B $13
ID:
COUNT:
VALUE:
SIZE:
OFFSET 0
DS.B
1
DS.W
1
DS.L
1
EQU
*
cst3:
DC.B
$22
In the example above, the cst3 symbol, defined after the OFFSET directive,
defines a constant byte value. This symbol is appended to the section ConstSec,
which precedes the OFFSET directive.
ORG - Set Location Counter
Syntax
ORG <expression>
Synonym
None
Description
The ORG directive sets the location counter to the value specified by
<expression>. Subsequent statements are assigned memory locations starting
with the new location counter value. The <expression> must be absolute and
may not contain any forward, undefined, or external references. The ORG directive
generates an internal section, which is absolute (see the Sections chapter).
Example
See Listing 8.49 for an example where ORG sets the location counter.
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Listing 8.49 Using ORG to set the location counter
b1:
b2:
org
nop
rts
$2000
Viewing Listing 8.50, you can see that the b1 label is located at address $2000 and label
b2 is at address $2001.
Listing 8.50 Assembler output listing from the source code in Listing 8.49
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
Source line
----------org
$2000
b1:
nop
b2:
rts
a002000 9D
a002001 81
See also
Assembler directives:
• DC - Define Constant
• DCB - Define Constant Block
• DS - Define Space
• SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section
PAGE - Insert Page break
Syntax
PAGE
Synonym
None
Description
Insert a page break in the assembly listing.
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Example
The portion of code in Listing 8.51 demonstrates the use of a page break in the
assembler output listing.
Listing 8.51 Example assembly source code
code:
SECTION
DC.B $00,$12
DC.B $00,$34
PAGE
DC.B $00,$56
DC.B $00,$78
The effect of the PAGE directive can be seen in Listing 8.52.
Listing 8.52 Assembler output listing from the source code in Listing 8.51
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 0012
000002 0034
Source line
----------code:
SECTION
DC.B $00,$12
DC.B $00,$34
Abs. Rel.
---- ---5
5
6
6
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000004 0056
000006 0078
Source line
----------DC.B
DC.B
$00,$56
$00,$78
PLEN - Set Page Length
Syntax
PLEN<n>
Synonym
None
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Description
Sets the listings page length to <n> lines. <n> may range from 10 to 10000. If
the number of lines already listed on the current page is greater than or equal to
<n>, listing will continue on the next page with the new page length setting.
The default page length is 65 lines.
RAD50 - RAD50-encoded string constants
Syntax
RAD50 <str>[, cnt]
Synonym
None
Description
This directive places strings encoded with the RAD50 encoding into constants. The
RAD50 encoding places 3 string characters out of a reduced character set into 2
bytes. It therefore saves memory when comparing it with a plain ASCII
representation. It also has some drawbacks, however. Only 40 different character
values are supported, and the strings have to be decoded before they can be used.
This decoding does include some computations including divisions (not just shifts)
and is therefore rather expensive.
The encoding takes three bytes and looks them up in a string table (Listing 8.53).
Listing 8.53 RAD50 encoding
unsigned short LookUpPos(char x) {
static const char translate[]=
" ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ$.?0123456789";
const char* pos= strchr(translate, x);
if (pos == NULL) { EncodingError(); return 0; }
return pos-translate;
}
unsigned short Encode(char a, char b, char c) {
return LookUpPos(a)*40*40 + LookUpPos(b)*40
+ LookUpPos(c);
}
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
If the remaining string is shorter than 3 bytes, it is filled with spaces (which
correspond to the RAD50 character 0).
The optional argument cnt can be used to explicitly state how many 16-bit values
should be written. If the string is shorter than 3*cnt, then it is filled with spaces.
See the example C code below (Listing 8.56) about how to decode it.
Example
The string data in Listing 8.54 assembles to the following data (Listing 8.55). The
11 characters in the string are represented by 8 bytes.
Listing 8.54 RAD50 Example
XDEF rad50,
DataSection
rad50:
rad50Len:
rad50Len
SECTION
RAD50 "Hello World"
EQU (*-rad50)/2
Listing 8.55 Assembler output where 11 characters are contained in eight bytes
$32D4 $4D58 $922A $4BA0
This C code shown in Listing 8.56 takes the data and prints “Hello World”.
Listing 8.56 Example—Program that Prints Hello World
#include "stdio.h"
extern unsigned short rad50[];
extern int rad50Len; /* address is value. Exported asm label */
#define rad50len ((int) &rad50Len)
void printRadChar(char ch) {
static const char translate[]=
" ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ$.?0123456789";
char asciiChar= translate[ch];
(void)putchar(asciiChar);
}
void PrintHallo(void) {
unsigned char values= rad50len;
unsigned char i;
for (i=0; i < values; i++) {
unsigned short val= rad50[i];
printRadChar(val / (40 * 40));
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
printRadChar((val / 40) % 40);
printRadChar(val % 40);
}
}
SECTION - Declare Relocatable Section
Syntax
<name>:
SECTION [SHORT][<number>]
Synonym
None
Description
This directive declares a relocatable section and initializes the location counter for
the following code. The first SECTION directive for a section sets the location
counter to zero. Subsequent SECTION directives for that section restore the
location counter to the value that follows the address of the last code in the section.
<name> is the name assigned to the section. Two SECTION directives with the
same name specified refer to the same section.
<number> is optional and is only specified for compatibility with the MASM
Assembler.
A section is a code section when it contains at least one assembly instruction. It is
considered to be a constant section if it contains only DC or DCB directives. A
section is considered to be a data section when it contains at least a DS directive or
if it is empty.
Example
The example in Listing 8.57 demonstrates the definition of a section aaa, which is
split into two blocks, with section bbb in between them.
The location counter associated with the label zz is 1, because a NOP instruction
was already defined in this section at label xx.
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Listing 8.57 Example of the SECTION assembler directive
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------000000 9D
000000 9D
000001 9D
000002 9D
000001 9D
Source line
----------aaa:
SECTION 4
xx:
NOP
bbb:
SECTION 5
yy:
NOP
NOP
NOP
aaa:
SECTION 4
zz:
NOP
The optional qualifier SHORT specifies that the section is a short section, That
means than the objects defined there can be accessed using the direct addressing
mode.
For RS08, there are two additional section qualifiers: RS08_SHORT and
RS08_TINY. When a section is declared as RS08_SHORT (or RS08_TINY) all
the objects defined there can be accessed using the short (and respectively tiny)
addressing modes.
The example in Listing 8.58 demonstrates the definition and usage of a SHORT
section, and uses the direct addressing mode to access the symbol data.
Listing 8.58 Using the direct addressing mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
000000
dataSec: SECTION SHORT
data:
DS.B 1
codeSec: SECTION
entry:
000000 9C
000001 A600
000003 B7xx
RSP
LDA
STA
#0
data
See also
Assembler directives:
• ORG - Set Location Counter
• DC - Define Constant
• DCB - Define Constant Block
• DS - Define Space
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
SET - Set Symbol Value
Syntax
<label>: SET <expression>
Synonym
None
Description
Similar to the EQU - Equate symbol value directive, the SET directive assigns the
value of the <expression> in the operand field to the symbol in the <label>
field. The <expression> must resolve as an absolute expression and cannot
include a symbol that is undefined or not yet defined. The <label> is an
assembly time constant. SET does not generate any machine code.
The value is temporary; a subsequent SET directive can redefine it.
Example
See Listing 8.59 for examples of the SET directive.
Listing 8.59 Using the SET assembler directive
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
Loc
Obj. code
------ --------0000 0002
000000 02
Source line
----------count: SET
one:
DC.B
0000 0001
000001 01
count:
0000 0001
0000 0000
000002 00
count:
SET
DC.B
2
count
count-1
count
IFNE count
SET
count-1
ENDIF
DC.B count
The value associated with the label count is decremented after each DC.B
instruction.
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
SPC - Insert Blank Lines
Syntax
SPC<count>
Synonym
None
Description
Inserts <count> blank lines in the assembly listing. <count> may range from 0
to 65. This has the same effect as writing that number of blank lines in the
assembly source. A blank line is a line containing only a carriage return.
TABS - Set Tab Length
Syntax
TABS <n>
Synonym
None
Description
Sets the tab length to <n> spaces. The default tab length is eight. <n> may range
from 0 to 128.
TITLE - Provide Listing Title
Syntax
TITLE "title"
Synonym
TTL
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Description
Print the <title> on the head of every page of the listing file. This directive must
be the first source code line. A title consists of a string of characters enclosed in
quotes (").
The title specified will be written on the top of each page in the assembly listing
file.
XDEF - External Symbol Definition
Syntax
XDEF [.<size>] <label>[,<label>]...
where <size> = B(direct), W (default), L or S or T
Synonym
GLOBAL, PUBLIC
Description
This directive specifies labels defined in the current module that are to be passed to
the linker as labels that can be referenced by other modules linked to the current
module.
The number of symbols enumerated in an XDEF directive is only limited by the
memory available at assembly time.
The S and T size designators are only available for RS08, and result in marking the
symbol as short or tiny.
Example
See Listing 8.60 for the case where the XDEF assembler directive can specify
symbols that can be used by other modules.
Listing 8.60 Using XDEF to create a variable to be used in another file
Count:
code:
main:
328
XDEF Count, main
;; variable Count can be referenced in other modules,
;; same for label main. Note that Linker & Assembler
;; are case-sensitive, i.e., Count != count.
DS.W 2
SECTION
DC.B 1
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
XREF - External Symbol Reference
Syntax
XREF [.<size>] <symbol>[,<symbol>]...
where <size> = B(direct), W (default), or L or S or T.
Synonym
EXTERNAL
Description
This directive specifies symbols referenced in the current module but defined in
another module. The list of symbols and corresponding 32-bit values is passed to
the linker.
The number of symbols enumerated in an XREF directive is only limited by the
memory available at assembly time.
The S and T size designators are only available for RS08, and result in marking the
symbol as short or tiny.
Example
XREF OtherGlobal ; Reference "OtherGlobal" defined in
; another module. (See the XDEF
; directive example.)
XREFB - External Reference for Symbols located on the Direct
Page
Syntax
XREFB <symbol>[,<symbol>]...
Synonym
None
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Assembler Directives
Detailed descriptions of all assembler directives
Description
This directive specifies symbols referenced in the current module but defined in
another module. Symbols enumerated in a XREFB directive, can be accessed using
the direct address mode. The list of symbols and corresponding 8-bit values is
passed to the linker.
The number of symbols enumerated in a XREFB directive is only limited by the
memory available at assembly time.
Example
XREFB OtherDirect ; Reference "OtherDirect" def in another
; module (See XDEF directive example.)
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9
Macros
A macro is a template for a code sequence. Once a macro is defined, subsequent reference
to the macro name are replaced by its code sequence.
Macro overview
A macro must be defined before it is called. When a macro is defined, it is given a name.
This name becomes the mnemonic by which the macro is subsequently called.
The Assembler expands the macro definition each time the macro is called. The macro call
causes source statements to be generated, which may include macro arguments. A macro
definition may contain any code or directive except nested macro definitions. Calling
previously defined macros is also allowed. Source statements generated by a macro call
are inserted in the source file at the position where the macro is invoked.
To call a macro, write the macro name in the operation field of a source statement. Place
the arguments in the operand field. The macro may contain conditional assembly
directives that cause the Assembler to produce in-line-coding variations of the macro
definition.
Macros call produces in-line code to perform a predefined function. Each time the macro
is called, code is inserted in the normal flow of the program so that the generated
instructions are executed in line with the rest of the program.
Defining a macro
The definition of a macro consists of four parts:
• The header statement, a MACRO directive with a label that names the macro.
• The body of the macro, a sequential list of assembler statements, some possibly
including argument placeholders.
• The ENDM directive, terminating the macro definition.
• eventually an instruction MEXIT, which stops macro expansion.
See the Assembler Directives chapter for information about the MACRO, ENDM, MEXIT,
and MLIST directives.
The body of a macro is a sequence of assembler source statements. Macro parameters are
defined by the appearance of parameter designators within these source statements. Valid
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Macros
Calling macros
macro definition statements includes the set of processor assembly language instructions,
assembler directives, and calls to previously defined macros. However, macro definitions
may not be nested.
Calling macros
The form of a macro call is:
[<label>:] <name>[.<sizearg>] [<argument> [,<argument>]...]
Although a macro may be referenced by another macro prior to its definition in the source
module, a macro must be defined before its first call. The name of the called macro must
appear in the operation field of the source statement. Arguments are supplied in the
operand field of the source statement, separated by commas.
The macro call produces in-line code at the location of the call, according to the macro
definition and the arguments specified in the macro call. The source statements of the
expanded macro are then assembled subject to the same conditions and restrictions
affecting any source statement. Nested macros calls are also expanded at this time.
Macro parameters
As many as 36 different substitutable parameters can be used in the source statements that
constitute the body of a macro. These parameters are replaced by the corresponding
arguments in a subsequent call to that macro.
A parameter designator consists of a backslash character (\), followed by a digit (0 - 9) or
an uppercase letter (A - Z). Parameter designator \0 corresponds to a size argument that
follows the macro name, separated by a period (.).
Consider the following macro definition:
MyMacro: MACRO
DC.\0
\1, \2
ENDM
When this macro is used in a program, e.g.:
MyMacro.B $10, $56
the Assembler expands it to:
DC.B $10, $56
Arguments in the operand field of the macro call refer to parameter designator \1 through
\9 and \A through \Z, in that order. The argument list (operand field) of a macro call
cannot be extended onto additional lines.
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Macros
Macro parameters
At the time of a macro call, arguments from the macro call are substituted for parameter
designators in the body of the macro as literal (string) substitutions. The string
corresponding to a given argument is substituted literally wherever that parameter
designator occurs in a source statement as the macro is expanded. Each statement
generated in the execution is assembled in line.
It is possible to specify a null argument in a macro call by a comma with no character (not
even a space) between the comma and the preceding macro name or comma that follows
an argument. When a null argument itself is passed as an argument in a nested macro call,
a null value is passed. All arguments have a default value of null at the time of a macro
call.
Macro argument grouping
To pass text including commas as a single macro argument, the Assembler supports a
special syntax. This grouping starts with the [? prefix and ends with the ?] suffix. If the
[? or ?] patterns occur inside of the argument text, they have to be in pairs. Alternatively,
escape brackets, question marks and backward slashes with a backward slash as prefix.
NOTE
This escaping only takes place inside of [? ?] arguments. A backslash is only
removed in this process if it is just before a bracket ([]), a question mark
(?), or a second backslash (\).
Listing 9.1 Example macro definition
MyMacro:
MACRO
DC
ENDM
MyMacro1: MACRO
\1
ENDM
\1
Listing 9.2 has some macro calls with rather complicated arguments:
Listing 9.2 Macro calls for Listing 9.1
MyMacro [?$10, $56?]
MyMacro [?"\[?"?]
MyMacro1 [?MyMacro [?$10, $56?]?]
MyMacro1 [?MyMacro \[?$10, $56\?]?]
These macro calls expand to the following lines (Listing 9.3):
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333
Macros
Labels inside macros
Listing 9.3 Macro expansion of Listing 9.2
DC
DC
DC
DC
$10, $56
"[?"
$10, $56
$10, $56
The Macro Assembler does also supports for compatibility with previous version’s macro
grouping with an angle bracket syntax (Listing 9.4):
Listing 9.4 Angle bracket syntax
MyMacro <$10, $56>
However, this old syntax is ambiguous as < and > are also used as compare operators. For
example, the following code (Listing 9.5) does not produce the expected result:
Listing 9.5 Potential problem using the angle-bracket syntax
MyMacro <1 > 2, 2 > 3> ; Wrong!
Because of this the old angle brace syntax should be avoided in new code. There is also
and option to disable it explicitly.
See also the -CMacBrackets: Square brackets for macro arguments grouping and the
-CMacAngBrack: Angle brackets for grouping Macro Arguments assembler options.
Labels inside macros
To avoid the problem of multiple-defined labels resulting from multiple calls to a macro
that has labels in its source statements, the programmer can direct the Assembler to
generate unique labels on each call to a macro.
Assembler-generated labels include a string of the form _nnnnn where nnnnn is a 5digit value. The programmer requests an assembler-generated label by specifying \@ in a
label field within a macro body. Each successive label definition that specifies a \@
directive generates a successive value of _nnnnn, thereby creating a unique label on each
macro call. Note that \@ may be preceded or followed by additional characters for clarity
and to prevent ambiguity.
This is the definition of the clear macro (Listing 9.6):
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Macros
Labels inside macros
Listing 9.6 Clear macro definition
clear:
MACRO
LDX
LDA
\@LOOP:
CLR
INCX
DECA
BNE
ENDM
#\1
#16
0,X
\@LOOP
This macro is called in the application (Listing 9.7):
Listing 9.7 Calling the clear macro
clear
clear
temporary
data
The two macro calls of clear are expanded in the following manner (Listing 9.8):
Listing 9.8 Macro call expansion
_00001LOOP:
_00002LOOP:
clear temporary
LDX
#temporary
LDA
#16
CLR
0,X
INCX
DECA
BNE
_00001LOOP
clear data
LDX
#data
LDA
#16
CLR
0,X
INCX
DECA
BNE
_00002LOOP
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Macros
Macro expansion
Macro expansion
When the Assembler reads a statement in a source program calling a previously defined
macro, it processes the call as described in the following paragraphs.
The symbol table is searched for the macro name. If it is not in the symbol table, an
undefined symbol error message is issued.
The rest of the line is scanned for arguments. Any argument in the macro call is saved as a
literal or null value in one of the 35 possible parameter fields. When the number of
arguments in the call is less than the number of parameters used in the macro the
argument, which have not been defined at invocation time are initialize with ““ (empty
string).
Starting with the line following the MACRO directive, each line of the macro body is saved
and is associated with the named macro. Each line is retrieved in turn, with parameter
designators replaced by argument strings or assembler-generated label strings.
Once the macro is expanded, the source lines are evaluated and object code is produced.
Nested macros
Macro expansion is performed at invocation time, which is also the case for nested
macros. If the macro definition contains nested macro call, the nested macro expansion
takes place in line. Recursive macro calls are also supported.
A macro call is limited to the length of one line, i.e., 1024 characters.
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10
Assembler Listing File
The assembly listing file is the output file of the Assembler that contains information
about the generated code. The listing file is generated when the –L assembler option is
activated. When an error is detected during assembling from the file, no listing file is
generated.
The amount of information available depends upon the following assembler options:
• -L: Generate a listing file
• -Lc: No Macro call in listing file
• -Ld: No macro definition in listing file
• -Le: No Macro expansion in listing file
• -Li: No included file in listing file
The information in the listing file also depends on following assembler directives:
• LIST - Enable Listing
• NOLIST - Disable Listing
• CLIST - List conditional assembly
• MLIST - List macro expansions
The format from the listing file is influenced by the following assembler directives:
• PLEN - Set Page Length
• LLEN - Set Line Length
• TABS - Set Tab Length
• SPC - Insert Blank Lines
• PAGE - Insert Page break
• NOPAGE - Disable Paging
• TITLE - Provide Listing Title.
The name of the generated listing file is <base name>.lst.
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Assembler Listing File
Page header
Page header
The page header consists of three lines:
• The first line contains an optional user string defined in the TITLE directive.
The second line contains the name of the Assembler vendor (Freescale) as well
as the target processor name - HC(S)08.
• The third line contains a copyright notice.
Listing 10.1 Example page header output
Demo Application
Freescale HC08-Assembler
(c) COPYRIGHT Freescale 1991-2005
Source listing
The printed columns can be configured in various formats with the -Lasmc: Configure
listing file assembler option. The default format of the source listing has the five columns
as in :
Abs.
This column contains the absolute line number for each instruction. The absolute line
number is the line number in the debug listing file, which contains all included files and
where any macro calls have been expanded.
Listing 10.2 Example output listing - Abs. column
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
1i
11
2i
338
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
Source line
----------;------------------------------; File: test.o
;-------------------------------
MyData:
char1:
char2:
cpChar:
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
MACRO
LDA \1
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Assembler Listing File
Source listing
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
3i
4i
10
11
12
2m
3m
13
14
000000
000003
000006
000007
C6 xxxx
C7 xxxx
9D
9D
STA \2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
NOP
Rel.
This column contains the relative line number for each instruction. The relative line
number is the line number in the source file. For included files, the relative line number is
the line number in the included file. For macro call expansion, the relative line number is
the line number of the instruction in the macro definition. See Listing 10.3.
An i suffix is appended to the relative line number when the line comes from an included
file. An m suffix is appended to the relative line number when the line is generated by a
macro call.
Listing 10.3 Example listing file - Rel. column
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
1i
11
2i
12
3i
13
4i
14
10
15
11
16
12
17
2m
18
3m
19
13
20
14
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
NOP
MyData:
char1:
char2:
000000
000001
000000
000003
000006
000007
Source line
----------;------------------------------; File: test.o
;-------------------------------
C6 xxxx
C7 xxxx
9D
9D
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Assembler Listing File
Source listing
In the previous example, the line number displayed in the Rel. column. represent the line
number of the corresponding instruction in the source file.
1i on absolute line number 10 denotes that the instruction cpChar: MACRO is located
in an included file.
2m on absolute line number 17 denotes that the instruction LDA
by a macro expansion.
char1 is generated
Loc
This column contains the address of the instruction. For absolute sections, the address is
preceded by an a and contains the absolute address of the instruction. For relocatable
sections, this address is the offset of the instruction from the beginning of the relocatable
section. This offset is a hexadecimal number coded on 6 digits.
A value is written in this column in front of each instruction generating code or allocating
storage. This column is empty in front of each instruction that does not generate code (for
example SECTION, XDEF). See Listing 10.4.
Listing 10.4 Example Listing File - Loc column
Abs. Rel. Loc
---- ---- ------1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
000000
8
8
000001
9
9
10
1i
11
2i
12
3i
13
4i
14
10
15
11
16
12
17
2m 000000
18
3m 000003
19
13
000006
20
14
000007
340
Obj. code
---------
Source line
----------;------------------------------; File: test.o
;------------------------------XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA
char1
+
STA
char2
NOP
NOP
MyData:
char1:
char2:
C6 xxxx
C7 xxxx
9D
9D
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Assembler Listing File
Source listing
In the previous example, the hexadecimal number displayed in the column Loc. is the
offset of each instruction in the section codeSec.
There is no location counter specified in front of the instruction INCLUDE
"macro.inc" because this instruction does not generate code.
The instruction LDA
address.
char1 is located at offset 0 from the section codeSec start
The instruction STA
address.
char2 is located at offset 3 from the section codeSec start
Obj. code
This column contains the hexadecimal code of each instruction in hexadecimal format.
This code is not identical to the code stored in the object file. The letter ‘x’ is displayed at
the position where the address of an external or relocatable label is expected. Code at any
position when ‘x’ is written will be determined at link time. See Listing 10.5.
Listing 10.5 Example listing file - Obj. code column
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
1i
11
2i
12
3i
13
4i
14
10
15
11
16
12
17
2m
18
3m
19
13
20
14
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
XDEF Start
SECTION
DS.B 1
DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
NOP
MyData:
char1:
char2:
000000
000001
000000
000003
000006
000007
Source line
----------;------------------------------; File: test.o
;-------------------------------
C6 xxxx
C7 xxxx
9D
9D
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341
Assembler Listing File
Source listing
Source line
This column contains the source statement. This is a copy of the source line from the
source module. For lines resulting from a macro expansion, the source line is the expanded
line, where parameter substitution has been done. See Listing 10.6.
Listing 10.6 Example listing file - Source line column
Abs. Rel.
---- ---1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
1i
11
2i
12
3i
13
4i
14
10
15
11
16
12
17
2m
18
3m
19
13
20
14
342
Loc
Obj. code
------ ---------
000000
000001
000000
000003
000006
000007
C6 xxxx
C7 xxxx
9D
9D
Source line
----------;------------------------------; File: test.o
;------------------------------XDEF Start
MyData: SECTION
char1: DS.B 1
char2: DS.B 1
INCLUDE "macro.inc"
cpChar: MACRO
LDA
\1
STA
\2
ENDM
CodeSec: SECTION
Start:
cpChar char1, char2
+
LDA char1
+
STA char2
NOP
NOP
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11
Mixed C and Assembler
Applications
When you intend to mix Assembly source file and ANSI-C source files in a single
application, the following issues are important:
• Memory models
• Parameter passing scheme
• Return Value
• Accessing assembly variables in an ANSI-C source file
• Accessing ANSI-C variables in an assembly source file
• Invoking an assembly function in an ANSI-C source file
• Support for structured types
To build mixed C and Assembler applications, you have to know how the C Compiler uses
registers and calls procedures. The following sections will describe this for compatibility
with the compiler. If you are working with another vendor’s ANSI-C compiler, refer to
your Compiler Manual to get the information about parameter passing rules.
Memory models
The memory models are only important if you mix C and assembly code. In this case all
sources must be compiled or assembled with the same memory model.
The Assembler supports all memory models of the compiler. Depending on your
hardware, use the smallest memory model suitable for your programming needs.
Table 11.1 summarizes the different memory models. It shows when to use a particular
memory model and which assembler switch to use.
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Mixed C and Assembler Applications
Parameter passing scheme
Table 11.1 HC08 memory models
Option
Memory
Model
Local
Data
Global
Data
Suggested Use
–Ms
SMALL
SP rel
extended
The SMALL memory model is the
default. All pointers and functions are
assumed to have 16-bit addresses if
not explicitly specified. In the SMALL
memory model, code and data must be
in the 64k address space.
–Mt
TINY
SP rel
direct
In the TINY memory model, all data
including stack must fit into the zero
page. Data pointers are assumed to
have 8-bit addresses if not explicitly
specified with the keyword __far. The
code address space is still 64k and
function pointers are still 16 bits in
length.
NOTE
The default pointer size for the compiler is also affected by the memory model
chosen.
Parameter passing scheme
Check the backend chapter in the compiler manual for the details of parameter passing.
Return Value
Check the backend chapter in the compiler manual for the details of parameter passing.
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Mixed C and Assembler Applications
Accessing assembly variables in an ANSI-C source file
Accessing assembly variables in an ANSI-C
source file
A variable or constant defined in an assembly source file is accessible in an ANSI-C
source file.
The variable or constant is defined in the assembly source file using the standard assembly
syntax.
Variables and constants must be exported using the XDEF directive to make them visible
from other modules (Listing 11.1).
Listing 11.1 Example of data and constant definition
DataSec:
ASMData:
ConstSec:
ASMConst:
XDEF ASMData, ASMConst
SECTION
DS.W 1
; Definition of a variable
SECTION
DC.W $44A6 ; Definition of a constant
We recommend that you generate a header file for each assembler source file. This header
file should contain the interface to the assembly module.
An external declaration for the variable or constant must be inserted in the header file
(Listing 11.2).
Listing 11.2 Example of data and constant declarations
/* External declaration of a variable */
extern int
ASMData;
/* External declaration of a constant */
extern const int ASMConst;
The variables or constants can then be accessed in the usual way, using their names
(Listing 11.3).
Listing 11.3 Example of data and constant reference
ASMData = ASMConst + 3;
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Mixed C and Assembler Applications
Accessing ANSI-C variables in an assembly source file
Accessing ANSI-C variables in an assembly
source file
A variable or constant defined in an ANSI-C source file is accessible in an assembly
source file.
The variable or constant is defined in the ANSI-C source file using the standard ANSI-C
syntax (Listing 11.4).
Listing 11.4 Example definition of data and constants
unsigned int CData;
/* Definition of a variable */
unsigned const int CConst; /* Definition of a constant */
An external declaration for the variable or constant must be inserted into the assembly
source file (Listing 11.5).
This can also be done in a separate file, included in the assembly source file.
Listing 11.5 Example declaration of data and constants
XREF CData; External declaration of a variable
XREF CConst; External declaration of a constant
The variables or constants can then be accessed in the usual way, using their names
(Listing 11.6).
NOTE
The compiler supports also the automatic generation of assembler include files.
See the description of the -La compiler option in the compiler manual.
Listing 11.6 Example of data and constant reference
LDA CConst
....
LDA CData
....
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Mixed C and Assembler Applications
Invoking an assembly function in an ANSI-C source file
Invoking an assembly function in an ANSI-C
source file
An function implemented in an assembly source file (mixasm.asm in Listing 11.7) can
be invoked in a C source file (Listing 11.9). During the implementation of the function in
the assembly source file, you should pay attention to the parameter passing scheme of the
ANSI-C compiler you are using in order to retrieve the parameter from the right place.
Listing 11.7 Example of an assembly file: mixasm.asm
XREF CData
XDEF AddVar
XDEF ASMData
DataSec: SECTION
ASMData: DS.B 1
CodeSec: SECTION
AddVar:
ADD CData
; add CData to the parameter in register A
STA ASMData ; result of the addition in ASMData
RTS
We recommend that you generate a header file for each assembly source file (Listing
11.7). This header file (mixasm.h in Listing 11.8) should contain the interface to the
assembly module.
Listing 11.8 Header file for the assembly mixasm.asm file: mixasm.h
/* mixasm.h */
#ifndef _MIXASM_H_
#define _MIXASM_H_
void AddVar(unsigned char value);
/* function that adds the parameter value to global CData */
/* and then stores the result in ASMData */
/* variable which receives the result of AddVar */
extern char ASMData;
#endif /* _MIXASM_H_ */
The function can then be invoked in the usual way, using its name.
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Invoking an assembly function in an ANSI-C source file
Example of a C file
A C source code file (mixc.c) has the main() function which calls the AddVar()
function. See Listing 11.9. (Compile it with the -Cc compiler option when using the
HIWARE Object File Format.)
Listing 11.9 Example C source code file: mixc.c
static int Error
= 0;
const unsigned char CData = 12;
#include "mixasm.h"
void main(void) {
AddVar(10);
if (ASMData != CData + 10){
Error = 1;
} else {
Error = 0;
}
for(;;); // wait forever
}
CAUTION
Be careful, as the Assembler will not make any checks on the number and
type of the function parameters.
The application must be correctly linked.
For these C and *.asm files, a possible linker parameter file is shown in Listing 11.10.
Listing 11.10 Example of linker parameter file: mixasm.prm
LINK mixasm.abs
NAMES
mixc.o mixasm.o
END
SECTIONS
MY_ROM
= READ_ONLY 0x4000 TO 0x4FFF;
MY_RAM
= READ_WRITE 0x2400 TO 0x2FFF;
MY_STACK = READ_WRITE 0x2000 TO 0x23FF;
END
PLACEMENT
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO MY_ROM;
SSTACK
INTO MY_STACK;
END
INIT main
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Mixed C and Assembler Applications
Support for structured types
NOTE
We recommend that you use the same memory model and object file format for
all the generated object files.
Support for structured types
When the -Struct: Support for structured types assembler option is activated, the Macro
Assembler also supports the definition and usage of structured types. This allows an easier
way to access ANSI-C structured variable in the Macro Assembler.
In order to provide an efficient support for structured type the macro assembler should
provide notation to:
• Define a structured type. See Structured type definition.
• Define a structured variable. See Variable definition.
• Declare a structured variable. See Variable declaration.
• Access the address of a field inside of a structured variable. See Accessing a field
address
• Access the offset of a field inside of a structured variable. See Accessing a field
offset.
NOTE
Some limitations apply in the usage of the structured types in the Macro
Assembler. See Structured type: Limitations.
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Support for structured types
Structured type definition
The Macro Assembler is extended with the following new keywords in order to support
ANSI-C type definitions.
• STRUCT
• UNION
The structured type definition for STRUCT can be encoded as in Listing 11.11:
Listing 11.11 Definition for STRUCT
typeName: STRUCT
lab1: DS.W 1
ENDSTRUCT
lab2: DS.W
1
...
where:
• typeName is the name associated with the defined type. The type name is
considered to be a user-defined keyword. The Macro Assembler will be caseinsensitive on typeName.
• STRUCT specifies that the type is a structured type.
• lab1 and lab2 are the fields defined inside of the typeName type. The fields
will be considered as user-defined labels, and the Macro Assembler will be casesensitive on label names.
• As with all other directives in the Assembler, the STRUCT and UNION directives are
case-insensitive.
• The STRUCT and UNION directives cannot start on column 1 and must be preceded
by a label.
Types allowed for structured type fields
The field inside of a structured type may be:
• another structured type or
• a base type, which can be mapped on 1, 2, or 4 bytes.
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Support for structured types
Table 11.2 shows how the ANSI-C standard types are converted in the assembler notation:
Table 11.2 Converting ANSI-C standard types to assembler notation
ANSI-C type
Assembler Notation
char
DS - Define Space
short
DS.W
int
DS.W
long
DS.L
enum
DS.W
bitfield
-- not supported --
float
-- not supported --
double
-- not supported --
data pointer
DS.W
function pointer
-- not supported --
Variable definition
The Macro Assembler can provide a way to define a variable with a specific type. This is
done using the following syntax (Listing 11.12):
var: typeName
where:
• var is the name of the variable.
• typeName is the type associated with the variable.
Listing 11.12 Assembly code analog of a C struct of type: myType
myType:
field1:
field2:
field3:
field4:
field5:
STRUCT
DS.W 1
DS.W 1
DS.B 1
DS.B 3
DS.W 1
ENDSTRUCT
DataSection: SECTION
structVar:
TYPE myType ; var ‘structVar’ is of type ‘myType’
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Support for structured types
Variable declaration
The Macro Assembler can provide a way to associated a type with a symbol which is
defined externally. This is done by extending the XREF syntax:
XREF var: typeName, var2
where:
• var is the name of an externally defined symbol.
• typeName is the type associated with the variable var.
var2 is the name of another externally defined symbol. This symbol is not associated
with any type. See Listing 11.13 for an example.
Listing 11.13 Example of extending XREF
myType: STRUCT
field1:
DS.W 1
field2:
DS.W 1
field3:
DS.B 1
field4:
DS.B 3
field5:
DS.W 1
ENDSTRUCT
XREF extData: myType ; var ‘extData’ is type ‘myType’
Accessing a structured variable
The Macro Assembler can provide a means to access each structured type field absolute
address and offset.
Accessing a field address
To access a structured-type field address (Listing 11.14), the Assembler uses the colon
character ':'.
var:field
where
• var is the name of a variable, which was associated with a structured type.
• field is the name of a field in the structured type associated with the variable.
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Support for structured types
Listing 11.14 Example of accessing a field address
myType:
field1:
field2:
field3:
field4:
field5:
STRUCT
DS.W 1
DS.W 1
DS.B 1
DS.B 3
DS.W 1
ENDSTRUCT
XREF
XDEF
myData:myType
entry
CodeSec: SECTION
entry:
LDA
myData:field3
NOTE
; Loads register A with the content of
; field field3 from variable myData.
The period cannot be used as separator because in assembly language it is a
valid character inside of a symbol name.
Accessing a field offset
To access a structured type field offset, the Assembler will use following notation:
<typeName>-><field>
where:
• typeName is the name of a structured type.
• field is the name of a field in the structured type associated with the variable. See
Listing 11.15 for an example of using this notation for accessing an offset.
Listing 11.15 Accessing a field offset with the -><field> notation
myType:
field1:
field2:
field3:
field4:
field5:
STRUCT
DS.W 1
DS.W 1
DS.B 1
DS.B 3
DS.W 1
ENDSTRUCT
XREF.B myData
XDEF
entry
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Structured type: Limitations
CodeSec: SECTION
entry:
LDX #myData
LDA myType->field3,X ; Adds the offset of field 'field3'
; (4) to X and loads A with the
; content of the pointed address
Structured type: Limitations
A field inside of a structured type may be:
• another structured type
• a base type, which can be mapped on 1, 2, or 4 bytes.
The Macro Assembler is not able to process bitfields or pointer types.
The type referenced in a variable definition or declaration must be defined previously. A
variable cannot be associated with a type defined afterwards.
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12
Make Applications
This chapters has the following sections:
• Assembly applications
• Memory maps and segmentation
Assembly applications
This section covers:
• Directly generating an absolute file
• Mixed C and assembly applications
Directly generating an absolute file
When an absolute file is directly generated by the Assembler:
• the application entry point must be specified in the assembly source file using the
directive ABSENTRY.
• The whole application must be encoded in a single assembly unit.
• The application should only contain absolute sections.
Generating object files
The entry point of the application must be mentioned in the Linker parameter file using the
INIT funcname command. The application is build of the different object files with the
Linker. The Linker is document in a separate document.
Your assembly source files must be separately assembled. Then the list of all the object
files building the application must be enumerated in the application PRM file.
Mixed C and assembly applications
Normally the application starts with the main procedure of a C file. All necessary object
files - assembly or C - are linked with the Linker in the same fashion like pure C
applications. The Linker is documented in a separate document.
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Make Applications
Memory maps and segmentation
Memory maps and segmentation
Relocatable Code Sections are placed in the DEFAULT_ROM or .text Segment.
Relocatable Data Sections are placed in the DEFAULT_RAM or .data Segment.
NOTE
The .text and .data names are only supported when the ELF object file
format is used.
There are no checks at all that variables are in RAM. If you mix code and data in a section
you cannot place the section into ROM. That is why we suggest that you separate code and
data into different sections.
If you want to place a section in a specific address range, you have to put the section name
in the placement portion of the linker parameter file (Listing 12.1).
Listing 12.1 Example assembly source code
SECTIONS
ROM1
= READ_ONLY 0x0200 TO 0x0FFF;
SpecialROM = READ_ONLY 0x8000 TO 0x8FFF;
RAM
= READ_WRITE 0x4000 TO 0x4FFF;
PLACEMENT
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO ROM1;
mySection
INTO SpecialROM;
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO RAM;
END
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13
How to...
This chapter covers the following topics:
• Working with absolute sections
• Working with relocatable sections
• Initializing the Vector table
• Splitting an application into modules
• Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols
Working with absolute sections
An absolute section is a section whose start address is known at assembly time.
(See modules fiboorg.asm and fiboorg.prm in the demo directory.)
Defining absolute sections in an assembly
source file
An absolute section is defined using the ORG directive. In that case, the Macro Assembler
generates a pseudo section, whose name is “ORG_<index>”, where index is an integer
which is incremented each time an absolute section is encountered (Listing 13.1).
Listing 13.1 Defining an absolute section containing data
var:
cst1:
cst2:
ORG
DS.
ORG
DC.B
DC.B
$800
1
$A00
$A6
$BC
; Absolute data section.
; Absolute constant data section.
In the previous portion of code, the label cst1 is located at address $A00, and label
cst2 is located at address $A01.
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How to...
Working with absolute sections
Listing 13.2 Assembler output listing for Listing 13.1
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
a000800
var:
a000A00 A6
a000A01 BC
cst1:
cst2:
ORG
DS.B
ORG
DC.B
DC.B
$800
1
$A00
$A6
$BC
Locate program assembly source code in a separate absolute section (Listing 13.3).
Listing 13.3 Defining an absolute section containing code
XDEF
ORG
entry
$C00 ; Absolute code section.
LDA
ADD
STA
BRA
cst1 ; Load value in cst1
cst2 ; Add value in cst2
var ; Store in var
entry
entry:
In the portion of assembly code above, the LDA instruction is located at address $C00,
and the ADD instruction is at address $C03. See Listing 13.4.
Listing 13.4 Assembler output listing for Listing 13.3
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
ORG
$C00 ; Absolute code
LDA
ADD
STA
BRA
cst1 ; Load value
cst2 ; Add value
var ; Store in var
entry
entry:
a000C00
a000C03
a000C06
a000C09
C6 0A00
CB 0A01
C7 0800
20F5
In order to avoid problems during linking or execution from an application, an assembly
file should at least:
• Initialize the stack pointer if the stack is used.
• The RSP instruction can be used to initialize the stack pointer to $FF.
• Publish the application’s entry point using XDEF.
• The programmer should ensure that the addresses specified in the source files are
valid addresses for the MCU being used.
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How to...
Working with absolute sections
Linking an application containing absolute
sections
When the Assembler is generating an object file, applications containing only absolute
sections must be linked. The linker parameter file must contain at least:
• the name of the absolute file
• the name of the object file which should be linked
• the specification of a memory area where the sections containing variables must be
allocated. For applications containing only absolute sections, nothing will be
allocated there.
• the specification of a memory area where the sections containing code or constants
must be allocated. For applications containing only absolute sections, nothing will be
allocated there.
• the specification of the application entry point, and
• the definition of the reset vector.
The minimal linker parameter file will look as shown in Listing 13.5.
Listing 13.5 Minimal linker parameter file
LINK test.abs /* Name of the executable file generated.
*/
NAMES
test.o
/* Name of the object file in the application. */
END
SECTIONS
/* READ_ONLY memory area. There should be no overlap between this
memory area and the absolute sections defined in the assembly
source file.
*/
MY_ROM = READ_ONLY 0x4000 TO 0x4FFF;
/* READ_WRITE memory area. There should be no overlap between this
memory area and the absolute sections defined in the assembly
source file.
*/
MY_RAM = READ_WRITE 0x2000 TO 0x2FFF;
END
PLACEMENT
/* Relocatable variable sections are allocated in MY_RAM.
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
/* Relocatable code and constant sections are allocated in MY_ROM.
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO MY_ROM;
END
INIT entry
/* Application entry point.
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFFE entry /* Initialization of the reset vector.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
*/
*/
*/
*/
359
How to...
Working with relocatable sections
NOTE
There should be no overlap between the absolute sections defined in the
assembly source file and the memory areas defined in the PRM file.
NOTE
As the memory areas (segments) specified in the PRM file are only used to
allocate relocatable sections, nothing will be allocated there when the
application contains only absolute sections. In that case you can even specify
invalid address ranges in the PRM file.
Working with relocatable sections
A relocatable section is a section which start address is determined at linking time.
Defining relocatable sections in a source
file
Define a relocatable section using the SECTION directive. See Listing 13.6 for an
example of defining relocatable sections.
Listing 13.6 Defining relocatable sections containing data
constSec: SECTION
; Relocatable constant data section.
cst1:
DC.B $A6
cst2:
DC.B $BC
dataSec:
var:
SECTION
DS.B 1
; Relocatable data section.
In the previous portion of code, the label cst1 will be located at an offset 0 from the
section constSec start address, and label cst2 will be located at an offset 1 from the
section constSec start address. See Listing 13.7.
Listing 13.7 Assembler output listing for Listing 13.6
2
3
4
5
6
7
360
2
3
4
5
6
7
000000 A6
000001 BC
constSec: SECTION ; Relocatable
cst1:
DC.B
$A6
cst2:
DC.B
$BC
000000
dataSec:
var:
SECTION ; Relocatable
DS.B
1
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
How to...
Working with relocatable sections
Locate program assembly source code in a separate relocatable section (Listing 13.8).
Listing 13.8 Defining a relocatable section for code
XDEF entry
codeSec: SECTION
entry:
LDA
cst1
ADD
cst2
STA
var
BRA
entry
; Relocatable code section.
; Load value in cst1
; Add value in cst2
; Store in var
In the previous portion of code, the LDA instruction is located at an offset 0 from the
codeSec section start address, and ADD instruction at an offset 3 from the codeSec
section start address.
In order to avoid problems during linking or execution from an application, an assembly
file should at least:
• Initialize the stack pointer if the stack is used
• The RSP instruction can be used to initialize the stack pointer to $FF.
• Publish the application’s entry point using the XDEF directive.
Linking an application containing
relocatable sections
Applications containing relocatable sections must be linked. The linker parameter file
must contain at least:
• the name of the absolute file,
• the name of the object file which should be linked,
• the specification of a memory area where the sections containing variables must be
allocated,
• the specification of a memory area where the sections containing code or constants
must be allocated,
• the specification of the application’s entry point, and
• the definition of the reset vector.
A minimal linker parameter file will look as shown in Listing 13.9.
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How to...
Working with relocatable sections
Listing 13.9 Minimal linker parameter file
/* Name of the executable file generated.
*/
LINK test.abs
/* Name of the object file in the application. */
NAMES
test.o
END
SECTIONS
/* READ_ONLY memory area. */
MY_ROM = READ_ONLY 0x2B00 TO 0x2BFF;
/* READ_WRITE memory area. */
MY_RAM = READ_WRITE 0x2800 TO 0x28FF;
END
PLACEMENT
/* Relocatable variable sections are allocated in MY_RAM.
*/
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
/* Relocatable code and constant sections are allocated in MY_ROM. */
DEFAULT_ROM, constSec
INTO MY_ROM;
END
INIT entry
/* Application entry point.
*/
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFFE entry /* Initialization of the reset vector. */
NOTE
362
The programmer should ensure that the memory ranges he specifies in the
SECTIONS block are valid addresses for the controller he is using. In addition,
when using the SDI debugger the addresses specified for code or constant
sections must be located in the target board ROM area. Otherwise, the
debugger will not be able to load the application
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
How to...
Initializing the Vector table
Initializing the Vector table
The vector table can be initialized in the assembly source file or in the linker parameter
file. We recommend that you initialize it in the linker parameter file.
• Initializing the Vector table in the linker PRM file (recommended),
• Initializing the Vector Table in a source file using a relocatable section, or
• Initializing the Vector Table in a source file using an absolute section.
The HC(S)08 allows 128 entries in the vector table starting at memory location $FF00
extending to memory location $FFFF.
The Reset vector is located in $FFFE, and the SWI interrupt vector is located in $FFFC.
From $FFFA down to $FF00 are located the IRQ[0] interrupt ($FFFA), IRQ[1]
($FFFA),..., IRQ[125] ($FF00).
In the following examples, the Reset vector, the SWI interrupt and the IRQ[1]
interrupt are initialized. The IRQ[0] interrupt is not used.
Initializing the Vector table in the linker
PRM file
Initializing the vector table from the PRM file allows you to initialize single entries in the
table. The user can decide to initialize all the entries in the vector table or not.
The labels or functions, which should be inserted in the vector table, must be implemented
in the assembly source file (Listing 13.10). All these labels must be published, otherwise
they cannot be addressed in the linker PRM file.
Listing 13.10 Initializing the Vector table from a PRM File
DataSec:
Data:
CodeSec:
XDEF IRQ1Func, SWIFunc, ResetFunc
SECTION
DS.W 5
; Each interrupt increments an element
; of the table.
SECTION
; Implementation of the interrupt functions.
IRQ1Func:
LDA
#0
BRA
int
SWIFunc:
LDA
#4
BRA
int
ResetFunc:
LDA
#8
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How to...
Initializing the Vector table
BRA
entry
int:
PSHH
LDHX #Data ; Load address of symbol Data in X
; X <- address of the appropriate element in the tab
Ofset:
TSTA
BEQ
Ofset3
Ofset2:
AIX
#$1
DECA
BNE
Ofset2
Ofset3:
INC
0, X
; The table element is incremented
PULH
RTI
entry:
LDHX #$0E00 ; Init Stack Pointer to $E00-$1=$DFF
TXS
CLRX
CLRH
CLI
loop:
BRA
; Enables interrupts
loop
NOTE
The IRQ1Func, SWIFunc, and ResetFunc functions are published. This is
required, because they are referenced in the linker PRM file.
NOTE
The HC08 processor automatically pushes the PC, X, A, and CCR registers on
the stack when an interrupt occurs. The interrupt functions do not need to save
and restore those registers. To maintain compatibility with the M6805 Family,
the H register is not stacked. It is the user’s responsibility to save and restore it
prior to returning.
NOTE
All Interrupt functions must be terminated with an RTI instruction
The vector table is initialized using the linker VECTOR ADDRESS command (Listing
13.11).
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How to...
Initializing the Vector table
Listing 13.11 Using the VECTOR ADDRESS Linker Command
LINK test.abs
NAMES
test.o
END
SECTIONS
MY_ROM
= READ_ONLY 0x0800 TO 0x08FF;
MY_RAM
= READ_WRITE 0x0B00 TO 0x0CFF;
MY_STACK = READ_WRITE 0x0D00 TO 0x0DFF;
END
PLACEMENT
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO MY_ROM;
SSTACK
INTO MY_STACK;
END
INIT ResetFunc
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFF8 IRQ1Func
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFFC SWIFunc
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFFE ResetFunc
NOTE
The statement INIT ResetFunc defines the application entry point.
Usually, this entry point is initialized with the same address as the reset vector.
NOTE
The statement VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFF8 IRQ1Func specifies that the
address of the IRQ1Func function should be written at address 0xFFF8.
Initializing the Vector Table in a source file
using a relocatable section
Initializing the vector table in the assembly source file requires that all the entries in the
table are initialized. Interrupts, which are not used, must be associated with a standard
handler.
The labels or functions that should be inserted in the vector table must be implemented in
the assembly source file or an external reference must be available for them. The vector
table can be defined in an assembly source file in an additional section containing constant
variables. See Listing 13.12.
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How to...
Initializing the Vector table
Listing 13.12 Initializing the Vector Table in source code with a relocatable section
XDEF ResetFunc
XDEF IRQ0Int
DataSec: SECTION
Data:
DS.W 5 ; Each interrupt increments an element of the table.
CodeSec: SECTION
; Implementation of the interrupt functions.
IRQ1Func:
LDA
#0
BRA
int
SWIFunc:
LDA
#4
BRA
int
ResetFunc:
LDA
#8
BRA
entry
DummyFunc:
RTI
int:
PSHH
LDHX #Data ; Load address of symbol Data in X
; X <- address of the appropriate element in the tab
Ofset:
TSTA
BEQ
Ofset3
Ofset2:
AIX
#$1
DECA
BNE
Ofset2
Ofset3:
INC
0, X
; The table element is incremented
PULH
RTI
entry:
LDHX #$0E00 ; Init Stack Pointer to $E00-$1=$DFF
TXS
CLRX
CLRH
CLI
; Enables interrupts
loop:
BRA
loop
VectorTable: SECTION
; Definition of the vector table.
IRQ1Int: DC.W IRQ1Func
IRQ0Int: DC.W DummyFunc
SWIInt:
DC.W SWIFunc
ResetInt: DC.W ResetFunc
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How to...
Initializing the Vector table
NOTE
Each constant in the VectorTable section is defined as a word (a 2-byte
constant), because the entries in the vector table are 16 bits wide.
NOTE
In the previous example, the constant IRQ1Int is initialized with the address
of the label IRQ1Func. The constant IRQ0Int is initialized with the address
of the label Dummy Func because this interrupt is not in use.
NOTE
All the labels specified as initialization value must be defined, published (using
XDEF) or imported (using XREF) before the vector table section. No forward
reference is allowed in the DC directive.
NOTE
The constant IRQ0Int is exported so that the section containing the vector
table is linked with the application.
The section should now be placed at the expected address. This is performed in the linker
parameter file (Listing 13.13).
Listing 13.13 Example linker parameter file
LINK test.abs
NAMES
test.o+
END
ENTRIES
IRQ0Int
END
SECTIONS
MY_ROM
= READ_ONLY 0x0800 TO 0x08FF;
MY_RAM
= READ_WRITE 0x0B00 TO 0x0CFF;
MY_STACK = READ_WRITE 0x0D00 TO 0x0DFF;
/* Define the memory range for the vector table */
Vector
= READ_ONLY 0xFFF8 TO 0xFFFF;
END
PLACEMENT
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO MY_ROM;
SSTACK
INTO MY_STACK;
/* Place the section 'VectorTable' at the appropriated address. */
VectorTable
INTO Vector;
END
INIT ResetFunc
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How to...
Initializing the Vector table
NOTE
The statement Vector = READ_ONLY 0xFFF8 TO 0xFFFF defines the
memory range for the vector table.
NOTE
The statement VectorTable INTO Vector specifies that the vector table
should be loaded in the read only memory area Vector. This means, the
constant IRQ1Int will be allocated at address 0xFFF8, the constant
IRQ0Int will be allocated at address 0xFFFA, the constant SWIInt will be
allocated at address 0xFFFC, and the constant ResetInt will be allocated at
address 0xFFFE.
NOTE
The ‘+’ after the object file name switches smart linking off. If this statement is
missing in the PRM file, the vector table will not be linked with the application,
because it is never referenced. The smart linker only links the referenced
objects in the absolute file.
Initializing the Vector Table in a source file
using an absolute section
Initializing the vector table in the assembly source file requires that all the entries in the
table are initialized. Interrupts, which are not used, must be associated with a standard
handler.
The labels or functions, which should be inserted in the vector table must be implemented
in the assembly source file or an external reference must be available for them. The vector
table can be defined in an assembly source file in an additional section containing constant
variables. See Listing 13.14 for an example.
Listing 13.14 Initializing the Vector Table using an absolute section
XDEF ResetFunc
DataSec: SECTION
Data:
DS.W 5 ; Each interrupt increments an element of the table.
CodeSec: SECTION
; Implementation of the interrupt functions.
IRQ1Func:
LDA
#0
BRA
int
SWIFunc:
LDA
#4
BRA
int
ResetFunc:
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How to...
Initializing the Vector table
LDA
#8
BRA
entry
DummyFunc:
RTI
int:
PSHH
LDHX #Data
; Load address of symbol Data in X
; X <- address of the appropriate element in the tab
Ofset:
TSTA
BEQ
Ofset3
Ofset2:
AIX
#$1
DECA
BNE
Ofset2
Ofset3:
INC
0, X
; The table element is incremented
PULH
RTI
entry:
LDHX #$0E00 ; Init Stack Pointer to $E00-$1=$DFF
TXS
CLRX
CLRH
CLI
; Enables interrupts
loop:
BRA
loop
ORG
$FFF8
; Definition of the vector table in an absolute section
; starting at address $FFF8.
IRQ1Int: DC.W IRQ1Func
IRQ0Int: DC.W DummyFunc
SWIInt:
DC.W SWIFunc
ResetInt: DC.W ResetFunc
The section should now be placed at the expected address. This is performed in the linker
parameter file (Listing 13.15).
Listing 13.15 Example linker parameter file for Listing 13.14:
LINK test.abs
NAMES
test.o+
END
SECTIONS
MY_ROM
= READ_ONLY
0x0800 TO 0x08FF;
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How to...
Splitting an application into modules
MY_RAM
= READ_WRITE 0x0B00 TO 0x0CFF;
MY_STACK = READ_WRITE 0x0D00 TO 0x0DFF;
END
PLACEMENT
DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
DEFAULT_ROM
INTO MY_ROM;
SSTACK
INTO MY_STACK;
END
INIT ResetFunc
NOTE
The ‘+’ after the object file name switches smart linking off. If this statement
is missing in the PRM file, the vector table will not be linked with the
application, because it is never referenced. The smart linker only links the
referenced objects in the absolute file.
Splitting an application into modules
Complex application or application involving several programmers can be split into
several simple modules. In order to avoid any problem when merging the different
modules, the following rules must be followed.
For each assembly source file, one include file must be created containing the definition of
the symbols exported from this module. For the symbols referring to code label, a small
description of the interface is required.
Example of an Assembly File (Test1.asm)
See Listing 13.16 for an example Test1.asm include file.
Listing 13.16 Separating Code into Modules — Test1.asm
XDEF AddSource
XDEF Source
DataSec: SECTION
Source: DS.W 1
CodeSec: SECTION
AddSource:
RSP
ADD Source
STA Source
RTS
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How to...
Splitting an application into modules
Corresponding include file (Test1.inc)
See Listing 13.17 for an example Test1.inc include file.
Listing 13.17 Separating Code into Modules — Test1.inc
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
XREF AddSource
The AddSource function adds the value stored in the variable
Source to the contents of the A register. The result of the
computation is stored in the Source variable.
Input Parameter:
The A register contains the value that should be
added to the Source variable.
Output Parameter: Source contains the result of the addition.
XREF Source
; The Source variable is a 1-byte variable.
Example of an assembly File (Test2.asm)
Listing 13.18 is another assembly code file module for this project.
Listing 13.18 Separating Code into Modules—Test2.asm
XDEF entry
INCLUDE "Test1.inc"
CodeSec: SECTION
entry:
RSP
LDA
#$7
JSR
AddSource
BRA
entry
The application’s *.prm file should list both object files building the application. When a
section is present in the different object files, the object file sections are concatenated into
a single absolute file section. The different object file sections are concatenated in the
order the object files are specified in the *.prm file.
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How to...
Splitting an application into modules
Example of a PRM file (Test2.prm)
Listing 13.19 Separating assembly code into modules—Test2.prm
LINK test2.abs /* Name of the executable file generated. */
NAMES
test1.o
test2.o / *Name of the object files building the application. */
END
SECTIONS
MY_ROM
MY_RAM
END
= READ_ONLY 0x2B00 TO 0x2BFF; /* READ_ONLY mem. */
= READ_WRITE 0x2800 TO 0x28FF; /* READ_WRITE mem. */
PLACEMENT
/* variables are allocated in MY_RAM
DataSec, DEFAULT_RAM
INTO MY_RAM;
*/
/* code and constants are allocated in MY_ROM */
CodeSec, ConstSec, DEFAULT_ROM INTO MY_ROM;
END
INIT entry
/* Definition of the application entry point. */
VECTOR ADDRESS 0xFFFE entry /* Definition of the reset vector. */
NOTE
372
The CodeSec section is defined in both object files. In test1.o, the
CodeSec section contains the symbol AddSource. In test2.o, the
CodeSec section contains the entry symbol. According to the order in
which the object files are listed in the NAMES block, the function AddSource
is allocated first and the entry symbol is allocated next to it.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
How to...
Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols
Using the direct addressing mode to access
symbols
There are different ways for the Assembler to use the direct addressing mode on a symbol:
• Using the direct addressing mode to access external symbols,
• Using the direct addressing mode to access exported symbols,
• Defining symbols in the direct page,
• Using the force operator, or
• Using SHORT sections.
Using the direct addressing mode to
access external symbols
External symbols, which should be accessed using the direct addressing mode, must be
declared using the XREF.B directive. Symbols which are imported using XREF are
accessed using the extended addressing mode.
Listing 13.20 Using direct addressing to access external symbols
XREF.B ExternalDirLabel
XREF
ExternalExtLabel
…
LDA
ExternalDirLabel ; Direct addressing mode is used.
LDA
ExternalExtLabel ; Extended addressing mode is used.
…
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How to...
Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols
Using the direct addressing mode to
access exported symbols
Symbols, which are exported using the XDEF.B directive, will be accessed using the
direct addressing mode. Symbols which are exported using XDEF are accessed using the
extended addressing mode.
Listing 13.21 Using direct addressing to access exported symbols
XDEF.B DirLabel
XDEF
ExtLabel
…
LDA
DirLabel ; Direct addressing mode is used.
LDA
ExtLabel ; Extended addressing mode is used.
…
Defining symbols in the direct page
Symbols that are defined in the predefined BSCT section are always accessed using the
direct-addressing mode (Listing 13.22).
Listing 13.22 Defining symbols in the direct page
…
DirLabel:
dataSec:
ExtLabel:
…
codeSec:
…
BSCT
DS.B 3
SECTION
DS.B 5
SECTION
LDA
DirLabel ; Direct addressing mode is used.
LDA
ExtLabel ; Extended addressing mode is used.
…
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How to...
Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols
Using the force operator
A force operator can be specified in an assembly instruction to force direct or extended
addressing mode (Listing 13.23).
The supported force operators are:
• < or .B to force direct addressing mode
• > or .W to force extended addressing mode.
Listing 13.23 Using a force operator
…
dataSec: SECTION
label:
DS.B 5
…
codeSec: SECTION
…
LDA
<label
LDA
label.B
…
LDA
>label
LDA
label.W
; Direct addressing mode is used.
; Direct addressing mode is used.
; Extended addressing mode is used.
; Extended addressing mode is used.
Using SHORT sections
Symbols that are defined in a section defined with the SHORT qualifier are always
accessed using the direct addressing mode (Listing 13.24).
Listing 13.24 Using SHORT sections
…
shortSec:
DirLabel:
dataSec:
ExtLabel:
…
codeSec:
…
SECTION SHORT
DS.B 3
SECTION
DS.B 5
SECTION
LDA
DirLabel ; Direct addressing mode is used.
LDA
ExtLabel ; Extended addressing mode is used.
…
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How to...
Using the direct addressing mode to access symbols
376
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
II
Appendices
This document has the following appendices:
• Global Configuration File Entries
• Local Configuration File Entries
• MASM Compatibility
• MCUasm Compatibility
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A
Global Configuration File
Entries
This appendix documents the sections and entries that can appear in the global
configuration file. This file is named mcutools.ini.
mcutools.ini can contain these sections:
• [Installation] Section
• [Options] Section
• [XXX_Assembler] Section
• [Editor] Section
[Installation] Section
Path
Arguments
Last installation path.
Description
Whenever a tool is installed, the installation script stores the installation
destination directory into this variable.
Example
Path=C:\install
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Global Configuration File Entries
[Options] Section
Group
Arguments
Last installation program group.
Description
Whenever a tool is installed, the installation script stores the installation program
group created into this variable.
Example
Group=Assembler
[Options] Section
DefaultDir
Arguments
Default directory to be used.
Description
Specifies the current directory for all tools on a global level. See also
DEFAULTDIR: Default current directory environment variable.
Example
DefaultDir=C:\install\project
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Global Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
[XXX_Assembler] Section
This section documents the entries that can appear in an [XXX_Assembler] section of
the mcutools.ini file.
NOTE
XXX is a placeholder for the name of the name of the particular Assembler you
are using. For example, if you are using the HC08 Assembler, the name of this
section would be [HC08_Assembler].
SaveOnExit
Arguments
1/0
Description
1 if the configuration should be stored when the Assembler is closed, 0 if it should
not be stored. The Assembler does not ask to store a configuration in either cases.
SaveAppearance
Arguments
1/0
Description
1 if the visible topics should be stored when writing a project file, 0 if not. The
command line, its history, the windows position and other topics belong to this
entry.
This entry corresponds to the state of the Appearance check box in the Save
Configuration dialog box.
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Global Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
SaveEditor
Arguments
1/0
Description
If the editor settings should be stored when writing a project file, 0 if not. The
editor setting contain all information of the Editor Configuration dialog box. This
entry corresponds to the state of the check box Editor Configuration in the Save
Configuration dialog box.
SaveOptions
Arguments
1/0
Description
1 if the options should be contained when writing a project file, 0 if not.
This entry corresponds to the state of the Options check box in the Save
Configuration dialog box.
RecentProject0, RecentProject1
Arguments
Names of the last and prior project files
Description
This list is updated when a project is loaded or saved. Its current content is shown
in the file menu.
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Global Configuration File Entries
[Editor] Section
Example
SaveOnExit=1
SaveAppearance=1
SaveEditor=1
SaveOptions=1
RecentProject0=C:\myprj\project.ini
RecentProject1=C:\otherprj\project.ini
[Editor] Section
Editor_Name
Arguments
The name of the global editor
Description
Specifies the name of the editor used as global editor. This entry has only a
descriptive effect. Its content is not used to start the editor.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration Save Configuration
dialog box.
Editor_Exe
Arguments
The name of the executable file of the global editor (including path).
Description
Specifies the filename which is started to edit a text file, when the global editor
setting is active.
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Global Configuration File Entries
[Editor] Section
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration Save Configuration
dialog box.
Editor_Opts
Arguments
The options to use with the global editor
Description
Specifies options (arguments), which should be used when starting the global
editor. If this entry is not present or empty, %f is used. The command line to
launch the editor is built by taking the Editor_Exe content, then appending a
space followed by the content of this entry.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration Save Configuration
dialog box.
Example
[Editor]
editor_name=IDF
editor_exe=C:\Freescale\prog\idf.exe
editor_opts=%f -g%l,%c
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Global Configuration File Entries
Example
Example
Listing A.1 shows a typical mcutools.ini file.
Listing A.1 Typical mcutools.ini file layout
[Installation]
Path=c:\Freescale
Group=Assembler
[Editor]
editor_name=IDF
editor_exe=C:\Freescale\prog\idf.exe
editor_opts=%f -g%l,%c
[Options]
DefaultDir=c:\myprj
[HC08_Assembler]
SaveOnExit=1
SaveAppearance=1
SaveEditor=1
SaveOptions=1
RecentProject0=c:\myprj\project.ini
RecentProject1=c:\otherprj\project.ini
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Global Configuration File Entries
Example
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B
Local Configuration File
Entries
This appendix documents the sections and entries that can appear in the local
configuration file. Usually, you name this file project.ini, where project is a
placeholder for the name of your project.
A project.ini file can contains these sections:
• [Editor] Section
• [XXX_Assembler] Section
• Example
[Editor] Section
Editor_Name
Arguments
The name of the local editor
Description
Specifies the name of the editor used as local editor. This entry has only a
description effect. Its content is not used to start the editor.
This entry has the same format as for the global editor configuration in the
mcutools.ini file.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
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Local Configuration File Entries
[Editor] Section
Editor_Exe
Arguments
The name of the executable file of the local editor (including path).
Description
Specifies the filename with is started to edit a text file, when the local editor setting
is active. In the editor configuration dialog box, the local editor selection is only
active when this entry is present and not empty.
This entry has the same format as for the global editor configuration in the
mcutools.ini file.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
Editor_Opts
Arguments
The options to use with the local editor
Description
Specifies options (arguments), which should be used when starting the local editor.
If this entry is not present or empty, %f is used. The command line to launch the
editor is build by taking the Editor_Exe content, then appending a space followed
by the content of this entry.
This entry has the same format as for the global editor configuration in the
mcutools.ini file.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
Example
[Editor]
editor_name=IDF
editor_exe=C:\Freescale\prog\idf.exe
editor_opts=%f -g%l,%c
[XXX_Assembler] Section
This section documents the entries that can appear in an [XXX_Assembler] section of
a project.ini file.
NOTE
XXX is a placeholder for the name of the name of the particular Assembler you
are using. For example, if you are using the HC08 Assembler, the name of this
section would be [HC08_Assembler].
RecentCommandLineX, X= integer
Arguments
String with a command line history entry, e.g., fibo.asm
Description
This list of entries contains the content of the command line history.
Saved
Only with Appearance set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
CurrentCommandLine
Arguments
String with the command line, e.g., fibo.asm -w1
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
Description
The currently visible command line content.
Saved
Only with Appearance set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
StatusbarEnabled
Arguments
1/0
Special
This entry is only considered at startup. Later load operations do not use it any
more.
Description
Current status bar state.
• 1: Status bar is visible
• 0: Status bar is hidden
Saved
Only with Appearance set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
ToolbarEnabled
Arguments
1/0
Special
This entry is only considered at startup. Afterwards, any load operations do not use
it any longer.
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
Description
Current toolbar state:
• 1: Toolbar is visible
• 0: Toolbar is hidden
Saved
Only with Appearance set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
WindowPos
Arguments
10 integers, e.g., 0,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,390,107,1103,643
Special
This entry is only considered at startup. Afterwards, any load operations do not use
it any longer.
Changes of this entry do not show the “*” in the title.
Description
This numbers contain the position and the state of the window (maximized, etc.)
and other flags.
Saved
Only with Appearance set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
WindowFont
Arguments
size: = 0 -> generic size, < 0 -> font character height, > 0 -> font cell height
weight: 400 = normal, 700 = bold (valid values are 0–1000)
italic: 0 = no, 1 = yes
font name: max. 32 characters.
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
Description
Font attributes.
Saved
Only with Appearance set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
Example
WindowFont=-16,500,0,Courier
TipFilePos
Arguments
any integer, e.g., 236
Description
Actual position in tip of the day file. Used that different tips are shown at different
calls.
Saved
Always when saving a configuration file.
ShowTipOfDay
Arguments
0/1
Description
Should the Tip of the Day dialog box be shown at startup?
• 1: It should be shown
• 0: No, only when opened in the help menu
Saved
Always when saving a configuration file.
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
Options
Arguments
current option string, e.g.: -W2
Description
The currently active option string. This entry can be very long.
Saved
Only with Options set in the File > Configuration > Save Configuration dialog
box.
EditorType
Arguments
0/1/2/3/4
Description
This entry specifies which editor configuration is active:
• 0: global editor configuration (in the file mcutools.ini)
• 1: local editor configuration (the one in this file)
• 2: command line editor configuration, entry EditorCommandLine
• 3: DDE editor configuration, entries beginning with EditorDDE
• 4: CodeWarrior with COM. There are no additional entries.
For details, see also Editor Setting dialog box.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
EditorCommandLine
Arguments
Command line, for UltraEdit-32: “c:\Programs Files\IDM
Software Solutions\UltraEdit-32\uedit32.exe %f -g%l,%c”
Description
Command line content to open a file. For details, see also Editor Setting dialog
box.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
EditorDDEClientName
Arguments
client command, e.g., “[open(%f)]”
Description
Name of the client for DDE editor configuration. For details, see also Editor
Setting dialog box.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
EditorDDETopicName
Arguments
Topic name, e.g., system
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Local Configuration File Entries
[XXX_Assembler] Section
Description
Name of the topic for DDE editor configuration. For details, see also Editor Setting
dialog box.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
EditorDDEServiceName
Arguments
service name, e.g., system
Description
Name of the service for DDE editor configuration. For details, see also Editor
Setting dialog box.
Saved
Only with Editor Configuration set in the File > Configuration > Save
Configuration dialog box.
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Local Configuration File Entries
Example
Example
The example in Listing B.1 shows a typical layout of the configuration file (usually
project.ini).
Listing B.1 Example of a project.ini file
[Editor]
Editor_Name=IDF
Editor_Exe=c:\Freescale\prog\idf.exe
Editor_Opts=%f -g%l,%c
[HC08_Assembler]
StatusbarEnabled=1
ToolbarEnabled=1
WindowPos=0,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,390,107,1103,643
WindowFont=-16,500,0,Courier
TipFilePos=0
ShowTipOfDay=1
Options=-w1
EditorType=3
RecentCommandLine0=fibo.asm -w2
RecentCommandLine1=fibo.asm
CurrentCommandLine=fibo.asm -w2
EditorDDEClientName=[open(%f)]
EditorDDETopicName=system
EditorDDEServiceName=msdev
EditorCommandLine=c:\Freescale\prog\idf.exe %f -g%l,%c
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C
MASM Compatibility
The Macro Assembler has been extended to ensure compatibility with the MASM
Assembler.
Comment Line
A line starting with a (*) character is considered to be a comment line by the Assembler.
Constants (Integers)
For compatibility with the MASM Assembler, the following notations are also supported
for integer constants:
• A decimal constant is defined by a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) followed by a d
or D character.
• A hexadecimal constant is defined by a sequence of hexadecimal digits (0-9, a-f,
A-F) followed by a h or H character.
• An octal constant is defined by a sequence of octal digits (0-7) followed by an o, O,
q, or Q character.
• A binary constant is defined by a sequence of binary digits (0-1) followed by a b or
B character.
Listing C.1 Example
512d
512D
200h
200H
1000o
1000O
1000q
1000Q
1000000000b
1000000000B
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
decimal representation
decimal representation
hexadecimal representation
hexadecimal representation
octal representation
octal representation
octal representation
octal representation
binary representation
binary representation
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MASM Compatibility
Operators
Operators
For compatibility with the MASM Assembler, the following notations in Table C.1 are
also supported for operators:
Table C.1 Operator notation for MASM compatibility
Operator
Notation
Shift left
!<
Shift right
!>
Arithmetic AND
!.
Arithmetic OR
!+
Arithmetic XOR
!x, !X
Directives
Table C.2 enumerates the directives that are supported by the Macro Assembler for
compatibility with MASM:
Table C.2 Supported MASM directives
398
Operator
Notation
Description
RMB
DS
Defines storage for a variable. Argument
specifies the byte size.
RMD
DS 2*
Defines storage for a variable. Argument
specifies the number of 2-byte blocks.
RMQ
DS 4*
Defines storage for a variable. Argument
specifies the number of 4-byte blocks.
ELSEC
ELSE
Alternate of conditional block.
ENDC
ENDIF
End of conditional block.
NOL
NOLIST
Specify that no subsequent instructions must
be inserted in the listing file.
TTL
TITLE
Define the user-defined title for the assembler
listing file.
GLOBAL
XDEF
Make a symbol public (visible from outside)
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
MASM Compatibility
Operators
Table C.2 Supported MASM directives
Operator
Notation
Description
PUBLIC
XDEF
Make a symbol public (visible from outside)
EXTERNAL
XREF
Import reference to an external symbol.
XREFB
XREF.B
Import reference to an external symbol located
on the direct page.
SWITCH
Allows switching to a previously defined
section.
ASCT
Creates a predefined section named id ASCT.
BSCT
Creates a predefined section named id BSCT.
Variables defined in this section are accessed
using the direct addressing mode.
CSCT
Creates a predefined section named id CSCT.
DSCT
Creates a predefined section named id DSCT.
IDSCT
Creates a predefined section named id IDSCT.
IPSCT
Creates a predefined section named id IPSCT.
PSCT
Creates a predefined section named id PSCT.
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MASM Compatibility
Operators
400
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
D
MCUasm Compatibility
The Macro Assembler has been extended to ensure compatibility with the MCUasm
Assembler.
MCUasm compatibility mode can be activated, specifying the -MCUasm option.
This chapter covers the following topics:
• Labels
• SET directive
• Obsolete directives
Labels
When MCUasm compatibility mode is activated, labels must be followed by a colon, even
when they start on column 1.
When MCUasm compatibility mode is activated, following portion of code generate an
error message, because the label label is not followed by a colon.
Listing D.1 Example
label
DC.B
1
When MCUasm compatibility mode is not activated, the previous portion of code does not
generate any error message.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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MCUasm Compatibility
SET directive
SET directive
When MCUasm compatibility mode is activated, relocatable expressions are also allowed
in a SET directive.
When MCUasm compatibility mode is activated, the following portion of code does not
generate any error messages:
Listing D.2 Example
label: SET *
When MCUasm compatibility mode is not activated, the previous portion of code
generates an error message because the SET label can only refer to absolute expressions.
Obsolete directives
Table D.1 enumerates the directives, which are not recognized any longer when the
MCUasm compatibility mode is switched ON.
Table D.1 Obsolete directives
402
Operator
Notation
Description
RMB
DS
Define storage for a variable
NOL
NOLIST
Specify that all subsequent instructions must not
be inserted in the listing file.
TTL
TITLE
Define the user-defined title for the assembler
listing file.
GLOBAL
XDEF
Make a symbol public (visible from the outside)
PUBLIC
XDEF
Make a symbol public (visible from the outside)
EXTERNAL
XREF
Import reference to an external symbol.
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Index
Symbols
$() 123
${} 123
%(ENV) Modifier 148
%” Modifier 148
%’ Modifier 148
%E Modifier 148
%e Modifier 148
%f Modifier 148
%N Modifier 148
%n Modifier 148
%p Modifier 148
* 275
A
A2309 - File not found 65
About dialog box 116
.abs 142
ABSENTRY Directive 280
ABSENTRY, using 86
Absolute assembly 90
Successful 91
Absolute Expression 275
Absolute file 142
Absolute Section 222, 227
ABSPATH 110, 128, 142, 143
Add Additional Files dialog box 23
Add Files dialog box 36, 46
Adding a GENPATH 69
Addressing Mode 246, 257
Direct 246, 257
Extended 246, 257
Immediate 246, 257
Indexed with post-increment 247
Indexed, 16-bit offset 246
Indexed, 8-bit offset 246
Indexed, 8-bit offset with postincrement 247
Indexed, no offset 246, 257
Inherent 246, 257
Memory to memory direct to direct 247
Memory to memory indexed to direct with
post-increment 247
Memory-to-memory direct-to-indexed with
post- increment 247
Memory-to-memory immediate-todirect 247
Relative 246, 257
Short 257
Stack pointer, 16-bit offset 247
Stack pointer, 8-bit offset 246
Tiny 257
ALIGN Directive 281, 285, 299, 310
Align location counter (ALIGN) 281, 285
Angle brackets for grouping macro arguments (CMacAngBrack) 155
Application entry point directive
(ABSENTRY) 280
Application standard occurrence (-View) 194
ASCT Directive 399
.asm 141
ASMOPTIONS 128
Assembler
Configuration 98
File menu 98
Input File 116, 141
Menu 100
Menu bar 98
Messages 113
Option 111
Options Setting Dialog 111
Output Files 142
Status Bar 97
Toolbar 97
Assembler Directives 246
Assembler for Microcontrollers preference
panel 41, 87
Assembler Main Window 95
Assembler menu 100
B
BASE Directive 281, 286
Begin macro definition (MACRO) 283, 311
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Binary Constant 263
Borrow license feature (-LicBorrow) 182
BSCT Directive 399
C
-C08 159
-Ci 154
CLIST Directive 282, 287
-CMacAngBrack 155
-CMacBrackets 156
Code generation 147
Code Section 221
CodeWarrior Editor Configuration 106
CodeWarrior groups 31
CodeWarrior project window 26
CodeWarrior with COM 106
Color
for error messages 198
for fatal messages 199
for information messages 200
for user messages 200
for warning messages 201
COM 106
COM Editor Configuration 106
Command-Line Editor configuration 104
-Compat 157
-Compat Directive 295, 304
Compatibility modes (-Compat) 157
{Compiler} 123
Complex Relocatable Expression 275
Conditional assembly (ELSE) 283, 293
Conditional assembly (IF) 283, 304
Conditional assembly (IFcc) 283, 305
Configure address size in listing file (Lasms) 170
Configure listing file (-Lasmc) 168
Configure maximum macro nesting (MacroNest) 185
Constant
Binary 263, 397
Decimal 263, 397
Floating point 264
Hexadecimal 263, 397
Integer 263
404
Octal 263, 397
String 264
Constant Section 221
COPYRIGHT 129
Create absolute symbols (OFFSET) 318
Create err.log error file (-WErrFile) 196
Create error listing file (-WOutFile) 219
Create Group dialog box 45
-CRS08 159
-CS08 159
CSCT Directive 399
CTRL-S to save 111
Current Directory 122, 130
CurrentCommandLine 389
Cut filenames in Microsoft format to 8.3 (Wmsg8x3) 197
D
-D 160
Data Section 222
.dbg 143
DC Directive 280, 289
DCB Directive 280, 290
DDE Editor configuration 105
Debug File 143, 308
Decimal Constant 263
Declare relocatable section (SECTION) 324
Default Directory 130, 380
DEFAULTDIR 130, 141
DefaultDir 380
Define constant (DC) 289
Define constant block (DCB) 290
Define constant block directive (DCB) 280
Define constant directive (DC) 280
Define label (-D) 160
Define space (DS) 291
Define space directive (DS) 280
Derivative family (-C08, -CS08, -CRS08) 159
Device and Connection dialog box 21
Directive
ABSENTRY 280
ALIGN 281, 285, 299, 310
ASCT 399
BASE 281, 286
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
BSCT 399
CLIST 282, 287
-Compat 295, 304
CSCT 399
DC 280, 289
DCB 280, 290
DS 280, 291
DSCT 399
ELSE 283, 293
ELSEC 398
END 281, 294
ENDC 398
ENDFOR 281, 295
ENDIF 283, 296
ENDM 283, 312
EQU 279, 298
EVEN 281, 299
EXTERNAL 399, 402
FAIL 281, 300
FOR 281, 303
GLOBAL 398, 402
IDSCT 399
IF 283, 304
IFC 306
IFcc 283, 305
IFDEF 283, 306
IFEQ 283, 306
IFGE 283, 306
IFGT 283, 306
IFLE 283, 306
IFLT 283, 306
IFNC 283, 306
IFNDEF 283, 306
IFNE 283, 306
INCLUDE 281, 307
IPSCT 399
LIST 282, 308
LLEN 282, 309
LONGEVEN 281, 310
MACRO 283, 311
MEXIT 283, 312
MLIST 282, 314
NOL 398, 402
NOLIST 282, 316
NOPAGE 282, 317
OFFSET 279, 318
ORG 279, 319
PAGE 282, 320
PLEN 282, 321
PSCT 399
PUBLIC 399, 402
RAD50 280, 322
RMB 398, 402
RMD 398
RMQ 398
SECTION 279, 324
SET 326
SPC 282, 327
SWITCH 399
TABS 282, 327
TITLE 282, 327
TTL 398, 402
XDEF 280, 328
XREF 262, 280, 329
XREFB 280, 329, 399
Directives 246
Disable listing (NOLIST) 282, 316
Disable paging (NOPAGE) 282, 317
Disable user messages (-WmsgNu) 213
Display notify box (-N) 187
Do not use environment (-NoEnv) 189
Drag and Drop 117
DS Directive 280, 291
DSCT Directive 399
E
Editor 387
Editor Setting dialog box 101
Editor_Exe 383, 388
Editor_Name 383, 387
Editor_Opts 384, 388
EditorCommandLine 394
EditorDDEClientName 394
EditorDDEServiceName 395
EditorDDETopicName 394
EditorType 393
EDOUT file 144
EDOUT file generation 144
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405
ELSE Directive 283, 293
ELSEC Directive 398
Enable listing (LIST) 282, 308
End assembly (END) 281, 294
End conditional assembly (ENDIF) 283, 296
END Directive 281, 294
End macro definition (ENDM) 283, 312
End of FOR block (ENDFOR) 281, 295
ENDC Directive 398
ENDFOR Directive 281, 295
ENDIF Directive 283, 296
ENDM Directive 283, 312
-ENV 162
ENVIRONMENT 131
Environment
File 121
Environment Configuration dialog box 110
Environment variables 110, 121, 127
ABSPATH 110, 128, 142, 143
ASMOPTIONS 128
COPYRIGHT 129
DEFAULTDIR 130, 141
ENVIRONMENT 122, 131
ERRORFILE 132
GENPATH 70, 110, 134, 141, 307
HIENVIRONMENT 131
INCLUDETIME 135
LIBPATH 110
OBJPATH 110, 136, 142
SRECORD 142
TEXTPATH 110, 137
TMP 138
EQU Directive 279, 298
Equate symbol value (EQU) 298
Error File 143
Error Listing 143
ERRORFILE 132
EVEN Directive 281, 299
Explorer 122
Expression 275
Absolute 275
Complex Relocatable 275
Simple Relocatable 275, 276
EXTERNAL Directive 399, 402
406
External reference for symbols on direct page
(XREFB) 280, 329
External Symbol 262
External symbol definition (XDEF) 280, 328
External symbol reference (XREF) 280, 329
F
-F2 163
-F2o 163
-FA2 163
-FA2o 163
FAIL Directive 281, 300
-Fh 163
Fields
Label 230
File
Absolute 142
Debug 143, 308
EDOUT 144
Environment 121
Error 143
Include 141
Input 141
Listing 143, 282, 308
Object 142
PRM 76, 223, 225, 226
Source 141
File Manager 122
File menu 98
File menu options 99
Floating-Point Constant 264
FOR Directive 281, 303
Force long-word alignment (LONGEVEN) 281,
310
Force word alignment (EVEN) 281, 299
G
Generate error message (FAIL) 281, 300
Generate listing file (-L) 166
GENPATH 67, 69, 70, 110, 134, 141, 307
Adding 69
GENPATH environment variable 70
GLOBAL Directive 398, 402
Global Editor 102
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Global Editor Configuration dialog box 102
Graphic User Interface (GUI) 93
Group 380
Groups, CodeWarrior 31
H
-H 164
Hexadecimal Constant 263
.hidefaults 121, 122
HIENVIRONMENT 131
HIGH 263
hiwave.ex 75
Host 147
I
-I 165
IDE 122
IDSCT Directive 399
IF Directive 283, 304
IFC Directive 306
IFcc Directive 283, 305
IFDEF Directive 283, 306
IFEQ Directive 283, 306
IFGE Directive 283, 306
IFGT Directive 283, 306
IFLE Directive 283, 306
IFLT Directive 283, 306
IFNC Directive 283, 306
IFNDEF Directive 283, 306
IFNE Directive 283, 306
.inc 141
INCLUDE Directive 281, 307
Include file path (-I) 165
Include Files 141
Include text from another file (INCLUDE) 281,
307
INCLUDETIME 135
.ini 98
Input file 141
Insert blank lines (SPC) 282, 327
Insert page break (PAGE) 282, 320
Instruction set 230
Integer Constant 263
IPSCT Directive 399
L
-L 166
Label field 230
Language 147
-Lasmc 168
-Lasms 170
-Lc 172
-Ld 174
-Le 176
-Li 178
LIBPATH 110
-Lic 180
-LicA 181
-LicBorrow 182
License information (-Lic) 180
License information about all features (LicA) 181
-LicWait 183
Line continuation 126
Linker for Microcontrollers preference panel 73,
89
Linker main window 78
List conditional assembly (CLIST) 282, 287
LIST Directive 282, 308
List macro expansions (MLIST) 282, 314
Listing File 143, 282, 308
LLEN Directive 282, 309
Load Executable File dialog box 81
Local Editor 103
Local editor configuration dialog box 103
LONGEVEN Directive 281, 310
LOW 263
.lst 143
M
MACRO Directive 283, 311
-MacroNest 185
Macros, user defined 246
-MCUasm 186
mcutools.ini 130
Memory model (-M) 184
Menu bar options 98
Message classes 114
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
407
Message format
for batch mode (-WmsgFob) 205
for interactive mode (-WmsgFoi) 207
for no file information (-WmsgFonf) 211
for no position information (WmsgFonp) 203, 205, 207, 208, 210
Message Settings 113
Message Settings dialog box 113
Message Settings options 113
Messages 147
MEXIT Directive 283, 312
Microcontroller Assembler main window 95
Microcontroller Assembler Message Settings
dialog box 115
Microcontroller Assembler Option Settings dialog
box 42, 59, 88
Microcontroller New Project dialog box 22
Microsoft Developer Studio configuration
settings 105
MLIST Directive 282, 314
Modifiers 107
-Ms 184, 344
-Mt 184, 344
N
-N 187
New Target dialog box 33
No beep in case of error (-NoBeep) 188
No debug information for ELF/DWARF files (NoDebugInfo) 189
No included file in listing file (-Li) 178
No information and warning messages (-W2) 196
No information messages (-W1) 195
No Macro call in listing file (-Lc) 172
No macro definition in listing file (-Ld) 174
No macro expansion in listing file (-Le) 176
-NoBeep 188
-NoDebugInfo 189
-NoEnv 189
NOL Directive 398, 402
NOLIST Directive 282, 316
NOPAGE Directive 282, 317
Number of error messages (-WmsgNe) 211, 215
408
Number of information messages (WmsgNi) 212
Number of warning messages (-WmsgNw) 212,
213, 214
O
.o 142
Object File 142
Object filename specification (-ObjN) 190
-ObjN 190
OBJPATH 110, 136, 142
Octal Constant 263
OFFSET Directive 279, 318
Operand 246, 257
Operator 264, 398
Addition 265, 274, 278
Arithmetic AND 398
Arithmetic Bit 278
Arithmetic OR 398
Arithmetic XOR 398
Bitwise 267
Bitwise (unary) 268
Bitwise AND 274
Bitwise Exclusive OR 274
Bitwise OR 274
Division 265, 274, 278
Force 273
HIGH 263, 270
HIGH_6_13 271
Logical 269
LOW 263
MAP_ADDR_6 272
Modulo 265, 274, 278
Multiplication 265, 274, 278
Precedence 274
Relational 269, 274
Shift 267, 274, 278
Shift left 398
Shift right 398
Sign 266, 274, 277
Subtraction 265, 274, 278
Option
Code generation 147
Host 147
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
Language 147
Messages 147
Output 147
Various 147
Option Settings dialog box 111
Option Settings options 112
Options 380, 393
ORG Directive 279, 319
Output 147
Output file format (-F) 163
Reserved Symbol 263
Reset vector 86
RGB color
for error messages (-WmsgCE) 198
for fatal messages (-WmsgCF) 199
for information messages (-WmsgCI) 200
for user messages (-WmsgCU) 200
for warning messages (-WmsgCW) 201
RMB Directive 398, 402
RMD Directive 398
RMQ Directive 398
P
PAGE Directive 282, 320
PATH 136
Path 379
Path environment variables 110
Path list 125
PLEN Directive 282, 321
Print the assembler version (-V) 193
PRM File 223, 225, 226
PRM file 76
Layout 76
Processor Expert dialog box 24
-Prod 191
{Project} 123
project.ini 125
Provide listing title (TITLE) 282, 327
PSCT Directive 399
PUBLIC Directive 399, 402
Q
Qualifiers
SHORT 325
R
RAD50 Directive 280, 322
RAD50-encode string constant directive
(RAD50) 280
RAD50-encoded string constants (RAD50) 322
RecentCommandLine 389
Relocatable Section 224
Rename Group dialog box 47
Repeat assembly block (FOR) 281, 303
S
.s1 142
.s2 142
.s3 143
Save As dialog box 43
Save Configuration dialog box 108
SaveAppearance 381
SaveEditor 382
SaveOnExit 381
SaveOptions 382
Section
Absolute 222, 227
Code 221
Constant 221
Data 222
Relocatable 224
SECTION Directive 279, 324
Sections 221
Select File to Assemble dialog box 63, 90
Select File to Link dialog box 78
Select files to add dialog box 36, 46
Set a message
to disable (-WmsgSd) 215
to error (-WmsgSe) 216
to information (-WmsgSi) 217
to warning (-WmsgSw) 218
Set Connection dialog box 80, 81
SET Directive 326
Set environment variable (-ENV) 162
Set line length (LLEN) 282, 309
Set location counter (ORG) 319
Set message file format
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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for batch mode (-WmsgFb) 198, 202
for interactive mode (-WmsgFi) 198, 204
Set number base (BASE) 281, 286
Set page length (PLEN) 282, 321
Set symbol value (SET) 326
Set tab length (TABS) 282, 327
Short help (-H) 164
SHORT qualifier 325
ShowTipOfDay 392
Simple Relocatable Expression 275, 276
Simulator 82
Simulator/Debugger 75
Source File 141
SPC Directive 282, 327
Special Modifiers 148
Specify project file at startup (-Prod) 191
Square brackets for macro arguments grouping (CMacBrackets) 156
SRECORD 142
Starting assembler 94
Startup
Configuration 125
Startup dialog box 20
Status Bar 97
StatusbarEnabled 390
String Constant 264
-Struct 192
Support for structured types (-Struct) 192
Switch case sensitivity on label names off (Ci) 154
SWITCH Directive 399
Switch MCUasm compatibility ON (MCUasm) 186
.sx 143
Symbols 261
External 262
Reserved 263
Undefined 262
User Defined 261
{System} 123
T
TABS Directive 282, 327
Terminate macro expansion (MEXIT) 283, 312
410
TEXTPATH 110, 137
Tip of the Day 55, 94
Tip of the Day dialog box 94
TipFilePos 392
TITLE Directive 282, 327
TMP 138
Toolbar 97
ToolbarEnabled 390
True-Time Simulator & Real-Time Debugger 80
TTL Directive 398, 402
U
Undefined Symbol 262
UNIX 122
User Defined Symbol 261
V
-V 193
Variables
ABSPATH 110
ENVIRONMENT 122
Environment 110, 121
GENPATH 70, 110
LIBPATH 110
OBJPATH 110
TEXTPATH 110
Various 147
-View 194
View menu 100
View menu options 100
W
-W1 195
-W2 196
Wait for floating license availability (LicWait) 183
-WErrFile 196
WindowFont 391
WindowPos 391
Windows 122
WinEdit 122, 133
-Wmsg8x3 197
-WmsgCE 198
HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
-WmsgCF 199
-WmsgCI 200
-WmsgCU 200
-WmsgCW 201
-WmsgFb 118, 198
-WmsgFbm 202
-WmsgFbv 202
-WmsgFi 118, 198
-WmsgFim 204
-WmsgFiv 204
-WmsgFob 205
-WmsgFoi 207
-WmsgFonf 211
-WmsgFonp 203, 205, 207, 208, 210
-WmsgNe 211, 215
-WmsgNi 212
-WmsgNu 213
-WmsgNw 212, 213, 214
-WmsgSd 215
-WmsgSe 216
-WmsgSi 217
-WmsgSw 218
-WOutFile 219
Write to standard output (-WStdout) 220
-WStdout 220
X
XDEF Directive 280, 328
XREF Directive 262, 280, 329
XREFB Directive 280, 329, 399
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HC(S)08/RS08 Assembler Manual for Microcontrollers
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