The Folding Machine

The Folding Machine
FIELD FOLDER TRAINING SEMINAR
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Copyright © 2007 Double Equipment
Notice: Information contained here is for educational proposes only and is not to
intended replace the original equipment manufactures’ instructions. For the safe
operation of your equipment, ALWAYS refer to the original owner’s manual that came
with your equipment.
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The Folding Machine
Today’s commercial folding machines are available in a variety of configurations. The most
popular folders found in the USA are “Buckle Folders”. When discussing your equipment with
others you need to know the proper description of your equipment. It is best to have the following
when calling for service or parts:
Make:_____________ Model:_______________ Serial No.:____________
For example: Make: Stahl, Model: B26 444 Cont, Serial No.: 12345-6789
Generally speaking, when describing the model it will tell some important information:
“B26 444 Cont” is a:
“B” series “26 x40 inch” “4 plate Parallel” “4 plate 8pg” “4 plate 16pg” with “Continuous Feeder”
The size of your folder will be described as the WIDTH of the folder rollers or the WIDTH of the
sheet size that can be fed though the machine. The size can be standard inches or metric
centimeters. B26 (26”) is equal in size to a T66 (66 cm).
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Common folder sizes found in the US are:
INCH
14 x 20
18 x 23
20 x 26
23 x 36
26 x 40
METRIC
T36
T47 & T49
T50 & T52
T60
T66
The primary parts of the folding machine are:
FEEDER
 Friction Feed
 Air Pile Feed
 Continuous Feed
 In-Line Roller or Burster
 Pallet Feed
REGISTER TABLE
 Marble Side-guide
 Air Side-guide
FOLDING UNIT
 Standard Fold Plates and Stationary Deflectors
 Standard Fold Plates with Hinged Deflectors
 Automatic Fold Plates w/ Manual or Servo controls
SLITTER SHAFTS
 Adjustable
 Fixed
RIGHT ANGLE UNITS
 Cross Carrier
 Side Guide
 Folding Unit
 Slitter Shafts
STACKER/DELIVERY UNITS
 With or without Pressure (Presser) rollers
 Standard Stacker
 Vertical Stacker
 Horizontal Stacker
 Shingle Stacker
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OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT:
Batch Counters
Gluing Units
Gatefold Attachment
Specialized conveyors
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THEORY OF OPERATION
There are 3 common types of folders in use today. The most popular is the “Buckle Folder”.
Buckle Folder
 Versatile, can accommodate many different layouts
 High Speeds
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Knife Folder
 Limited to one or two folds
 Better on thicker materials
 Slow Speed (7,500 per hour)
Plow Folder
 Found on Pocket Folder Gluers and Web presses
 Can fold a continuous and thicker SCORED covers.
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Roller Layout
Deflecting “NO FOLD”
MBO Shown
Swap Main Drive with #1 for Baumfolder & Stahl
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As the sheet of stock leaves the register section, it is picked up by the #1 idler roll and main drive
roll and is driven toward the paper stop in the fold plate. When the sheet of stock advances to the
point where it strikes the fold plate paper stop. The leading edge stops but the remainder of the
sheet is still gripped and being driven by the rollers. Since the sheet of stock is confined in the
fold plates, it buckles in the space between the main drive roll and the #2 idler roll. As the sheet
continues to advance, the buckle gets longer and is finally picked up between the main drive roll
and the #2 idler roll and is pulled down between them, forming the fold.
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When first learning how to setup a paper folding machine, it can be difficult to understand how the
machine works and knowing all the correct steps needed to setup and run the folder. The
following information is a “technique” you might use to figure out the correct information needed
to complete a quick and thorough setup. Remember the key word here is “TECHNIQUE” and this
is not intended to teach the theory or mechanics of an actual paper folding machine. The intention
here is to teach someone how to easily decide on a proper setup. Remember, paper folders are
very versatile and there will often be more then one way to setup and run a folding job.
The goal here is to answer the following questions when setting up a folding machine:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
How is the job folded?
How many times do you fold the piece?
How many fold plates do I need to fold the job?
How will I load the feeder?
Which fold plates should I use?
In the fold plates used, where should I set the fold stop at?
How should I set each roller?
When you can continuously answer these questions correctly, you have mastered the most
difficult part of setting up a paper folding machine.
THE FOLDING MACHINE
Before we dive into answering all the questions, we need to know a little bit about the folding
machine. It would be hard to answer some of our questions without first knowing something about
the equipment. You must know the sheet size you can run and how many fold plates are
available. For this training, it is assumed we are working with a common 26” wide folder with 4
fold plates.
The standard four (4) plate folder will have two (2) UP plates and two (2) DOWN plates. Each
plate is number, 1, 2, 3, & 4, the ODD plates are UP and the EVEN plates are DOWN.
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The folder will send the paper to each plate in order starting with the #1 plate and ending with the
# 4 plate. A good way to visualize the folding process is by observing the following diagram:
Notice the direction of the arrows, the sheet
travels through the folder in the direction the
big arrow is pointing, to the left. As the paper
passes through the folder it will come to each
fold plate in order. First it comes to the #1
plate and it will fold or deflect, then the #2
plate, then #3 and last #4. Also notice we
have two UP folds and two DOWN folds. Look
at the previous folder diagram and this
diagram. Can you see the similarities?
To “deflect” is when you close a plate and do
not fold in it; you open the deflector to use a
fold plate to make a fold. The paper will “fold or deflect” in each plate, try to remember that even
when you close the deflector and you are not using the plate for a fold, the paper will continue to
be driven past it. Which brings us to the rollers, this standard folder with four (4) fold plates has
six (6) fold rollers and two (2) slitter shafts “M” and these will be set accordingly to the job. The
rollers and slitter shafts adjustments are numbered or marked; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and “M”. The
adjustment on the Stahl folder marked with the “M” is to set the slitter shaft tension. This should
not be confused with the “main” fold roller, that you will see references to elsewhere. The “main”
roller is also referred to as the “stationary” roller and this roller is NOT adjustable and doesn’t
need to be set, thus leaving five (5) adjustable fold rollers out of the six (6). Each roller is
numbered for the corresponding plate that the roller drives into, for instance: the #1 roller drives
the sheet into (or past when deflecting) the #1 plate, the # 2 roller drives the sheet into or past the
#2 plate, and so on…
#1 roller drives to the #1 plate
#2 roller drives to the #2 plate
#3 roller drives to the #3 plate
#4 roller drives to the #4 plate
#5 roller drives out to slitter shafts “M”
“M” slitter shafts drives out onto the delivery.
When setting these rollers and shafts you will adjust or set for the MINIMUM thickness that will be
driven through. YOU MUST ALWAYS SET ALL THE ROLLERS. It’s a common misconception
that there is no need to set all the rollers if you are not using all the plates and this is WRONG!
The paper travels through every roller no matter how many plates you are folding in, so
remember to set ALL the rollers every time.
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3rd fold
UP in #3 Plate
#4 Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
3rd fold
UP in #3 Plate
1st fold
UP in #1 Plate
2nd fold DOWN
in #2 Plate
2nd fold DOWN
in #2 Plate
1st fold
UP in #1 Plate
You see in this example we only need three (3) fold plates to fold this piece, by going UP in the
#1 plate, DOWN in the #2 plate and UP in the #3 plate, the #4 is closed because we don’t need it.
You might hear a person say “That’s folding UP-DOWN-UP & OUT” when referring to the setup
for this job.
Notice: we are working from right to left as paper would travel through the folder being viewed
from the operator side of the machine. After each fold is made, that new fold becomes the
LEADING edge. The paper continues to travel in the same right to left direction. As you read on,
you will notice that the folds are shown in this format, starting on right side. Study the above
diagram until you understand this. Having a good understanding of this concept will make the rest
of this training that much easier.
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THE SETUP
Now let’s get into answering these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
How is the job folded?
How many times do you fold the piece?
How many fold plates do I need to fold the job?
How will I load the feeder?
Which fold plates should I use?
In the fold plates used, where should I set the fold stop at?
How should I set each roller?
1. HOW IS THE JOB FOLDED?
Here we need the SAMPLE or DUMMY. If one is not available then its time to make one. Fold the
piece like it should be done when finished. Mark or write on this sample with some indication of
how it folds so it can’t be confused if it was handled and then accidentally fold incorrectly.
2
1
1
SA X
M
PL
E
2
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2. HOW MANY TIMES DO YOU FOLD THE PIECE?
This can be a tricky question. The correct answer to this question will lead to the answer for our
next question about how many fold plates needed. Think of this…if you fold it by hand, how many
times did you fold the sheet, not how many folds are in the sheet. I’ll try to explain with the
following example. If you fold a sheet in ½, then in ½ again, you only had to fold it two (2) times.
But you’ll also observe it has four (4) panels and three (3) folds. The answer we’re looking for
here; is you can fold this job by making two (2) folds.
2nd fold in 1/2 again
1st Fold in 1/2
ONLY "2" Folds to fold 4 panels in this example
SA X
M
PL
E
We’ll use the following example for the rest of this explanation and questions:
2
2
1
1
In this example we fold our sheet TWO (2) times.
Making a 3 panel fold
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3. HOW MANY FOLD PLATES DO I NEED TO FOLD THE JOB?
This answer is easy, if you answer the previous question correctly. In this case the answer to the
previous question is two (2). Therefore, the answer to this question is 2.
Now that you know how many fold plates are needed, you can proceed to work out the answers
for the next questions.
NOTE: Be patient; carefully consider all the options when looking for the following answers.
Remember there may be more then one correct answer. With practice and experience, the
answers will become easier. For now, take the time to work through all your choices.
4. HOW WILL I LOAD THE FEEDER?
There are four (4) choices here. You can load the feeder four different ways and the choice made
will influence the fold plates you will be using. Each choice may have advantages or
disadvantages. Some choices just will not work, so you can eliminate those choices right away.
To start, make a choice, at this point it really doesn’t matter which one, just remember how you
started so you don’t repeat it when making the next choice. I usually mark the paper with an
ARROW to remind me how I started. After you choose work through the next question, then
return to this question and make your next choice. Please try all 4 choices.
Brochure
1
1
1
1
Brochure
Mark sheet with a arrow as reminder
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5. WHICH FOLD PLATES SHOULD I USE?
This really depends on how you loaded the feeder. In our example, we already know we only
need two (2) fold plates. So let’s start by looking at how the FIRST fold is going into the machine
using the first choice shown in the previous question.
Does the FIRST fold go UP or DOWN when it enters the machine? It goes UP.
Brochure
1
1
Mark sheet with a arrow as reminder
UP
From this illustration, we can see that the FIRST fold made in the sheet will go UP and we can do
that in an UP fold plate. Since the first plate the sheet could enter is the #1 UP plate, we can use
this plate to make the first fold in our sheet. Now let’s figure out the next fold plate needed.
Again, ask yourself, does the next fold go UP or DOWN? It goes UP.
2
2
UP
So, we need another UP plate. The next plate the sheet hits is the #2 plate which is a DOWN
plate. (Remember the paper will go to every plate in order) We don’t need this DOWN plate so we
would close it and continue on to the next fold plate, #3 which is an UP plate. The #3 plate will
make our 2nd fold and that would complete the job. Therefore, by loading the feeder this
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way, we determine that we can use the #1 and #3 fold plates. We would close the #2 and #4
plates. You might hear this setup referred to as “UP & UP & OUT”.
2nd fold
#3 UP Plate
#4 DOWN Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
1st fold
#1 UP Plate
#2 DOWN Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
Brochure
1
1
Mark sheet with a arrow as reminder
Here we load another way (our 2nd choice) and find we can run “UP & DOWN & OUT” using the
#1 and #2 fold plates, and closing the #3 and #4 Defectors.
#4 DOWN Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
1st fold
#1 UP Plate
2nd fold
#2 DOWN Plate
1
#3 UP Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
1
Brochure
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The advantage of the 1st choice when compared to our 2nd choice is we could run the sheets
closer. When ever the first fold is longer then ½ the sheet size we must provide more space
between the sheets, thus slowing down machine and losing some production speed.
Brochure
1
1
1
Brochure
First Fold
1
Mark sheet with a arrow as reminder
First Fold
LESS THEN 1/2 THE SHEET
FASTER
MORE THEN 1/2 THE SHEET
SLOWER
Now you have the answers for two of the four choices when loading the feeder. Practice figuring
this out and see if you can determine the last two choices.
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6. IN THE FOLD PLATES USED, WHERE SHOULD I SET THE FOLD STOP AT?
In this example we are going to use the 1st choice “UP & UP & OUT”. So we measure from the
leading edge of the piece back to the fold for each fold and set the fold plate stops to this
measurement. In our example we are letter folding an 8-1/2” x 11” sheet of paper. Our first fold
measures about 3-11/16” so we would set the #1 plate for 3-11/16” and our second fold also
measures 3-11/16” so we set the #3 plate for this measurement.
11"
Brochure
1
1
8 - 1/2"
3 - 11/16"
2
2
3 - 11/16"
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7. HOW SHOULD I SET EACH ROLLER?
Using the information from our previous steps we can now determine how to properly set each
fold roller. You must set all the rollers even if you don’t fold in all the plates. The paper passes
through every roller. Set the roller to the MINIMUM thickness.
2nd fold
#3 UP Plate
1st fold
#1 UP Plate
#4 DOWN Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
#2 DOWN Plate
Deflector
CLOSED
Brochure
1
1
Mark sheet with a arrow as reminder
IN THIS EXAMPLE:
#1 roller drives a minimum one (1) sheet thickness to #1 plate = set #1 roller for 1 sheet
#2 roller drives a minimum one (1) sheet thickness to #2 plate = set #2 roller for 1 sheet
#3 roller drives a minimum one (1) sheet thickness to #3 plate = set #3 roller for 1 sheet
#4 roller drives a minimum three (3) sheet thickness to #4 plate = set #4 roller for 3 sheets
#5 roller drives a minimum three (3) sheet thickness to slitter shafts = set #5 for 3 sheets
TWO (2) Sheets Thick
One (1) Sheet Thick
Set roller for MINIMUM Thickness
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Our example job notes:
X PLE
M
A
S
Job Name: SAMPLE
Flat Size: 8-1/2” x 11” one up
Folded Size: 3-11/16” x 8-1/2” letter fold (or 6 page fold)
Number
1
2
3
4
5
M
Fold Plate Setting
3 – 11/16”
Closed (Deflect)
3 – 11/16”
Closed (Deflect)
n/a
n/a
Roller Setting
1 sheet
1 sheet
1 sheet
3 sheets
3 sheets
3 sheets
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Basic Paper Folder Set-up & Adjustments

WARNING: ALWAYS DISCONNECT POWER BEFORE WORKING ON
EQUIPMENT For the safe operation of your equipment, ALWAYS refer to the
original owner’s manual that came with your equipment.
 Rollers (set rollers for the job you’re running)
 Slitter Shafts (before you roll right angles up to machine) (Put perf/score or slitting attachments on as
required by job)
 Fold Plates and Defectors (square & set-up plates for the job, open or closed the plates as
required for job)
 Side Guide and Hold Downs (square and adjust side guide for job)
 Right Angle Unit (repeat above for each RA unit)
o Rollers
o Slitter Shafts
o Fold Plates & Deflectors
o Cross Carrier/Side Guide
 Stacker/Delivery (adjust stacker wheels to catch/deliver job)
 Feeder (some operators do this step first, set up feeder for size job your running)
Learning to set-up and run a folder can’t be taught in one or two days. It takes practice and
experience to become good folder operator. Some operators run only a few simple jobs for years
and don’t have the same skills as an operator who runs complicated jobs. Most of your
knowledge is going to come from first hand experience setting up your jobs.
One of the common mistakes for new operators is adjusting the wrong adjustment or just turning
all the knobs with out really understanding the adjustment. Normally they just make things worst
and get the whole machine out of adjustment.
An operator should carefully make ONE small adjustment and check his results. If the results are
getting better then you’re making the right adjustment. If the result is worse then you’re going the
wrong way, but probably on the correct adjustment. If there is no change in your results after
making an adjustment then you’re probably adjusting the wrong thing, put this adjustment back
were you found it and try something else.
With experience you’ll learn just how all your adjustments work. Here some general rules.
 Rollers must be set correctly, pay special attention to the first roller it has a big
influence on how square the first fold will be.
 Check all alignment settings before setting up the job, “zero” the plates and side guide.
 Check things in ORDER, if the first fold is not correct it makes no sense to adjust the
second or third fold, until the first fold is correct. This is especially true when setting up
right angle jobs.
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 Do a complete set-up, short cuts like not setting your score for right angle job may save
“set-up” time, but if job doesn’t run you waste far more time then if you would have just
set it up correctly to begin with. Not to mention the frustration factor.
CHECKING YOUR PAPER FOLDER ROLLERS FOR WEAR.
WARNING: ALWAYS DISCONNECT POWER BEFORE WORKING ON EQUIPMENT
For the safe operation of your equipment; ALWAYS refer to the original owner’s
manual that came with your equipment.
Using 3" wide strips of text weight paper carefully set each fold roller for a light
pull/drag.
Place one strip at each end of the roller and one strip in the middle. Set roller for
even light pull or drag on each end, if the middle strip has no grip or then rollers
need replaced.
Also check each roller for play, if the roller has excessive play you may need
bearings and/or parts that hold the rollers in the machine.
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CALIBRATING and SETTING FOLD ROLLERS
“The most common mistake is operators setting the roller TOO TIGHT!”
1. NEVER CLEAN ROLLERS or SET ROLLERS with power to machine.
Be sure to disconnect the power
before going any further.
2. Make sure the rollers are in good condition; give them a good cleaning with some roller wash. Follow
manufacture’s instructions.
3. Place one strip of paper under the pressure settings (calipers)
4. Take two strips of paper and place one strip at each end of the rollers then wind them in.
5. Start pulling them out very slowly and adjust the pressures as needed.
6. On "MBO* & STAHL*": To increase pressure, turn the knob counter-clockwise. To decrease pressure, turn it
clockwise. (Just the opposite for BAUM*)
7. Every operator sets the roller pressures differently but it is suggested that rollers are set to LIGHTLY grip the
paper. Do not forget the rollers are pushing the work through, not pulling it through. It is important to
remember that your settings should be as even as possible on each end.
8. Test the whole set of rollers, start with #1 and go in order.
9. If the rollers grip at the ends and not in the middle, it is time for a new set of rollers.
10. Now you can place the appropriate number of strips of paper under each roller setting according to the job
you are setting up.
DO NOT FORGET WHEN YOU TEST THE ROLLERS NEVER USE THE SPINE OF A FOLDED PIECE TO SET
THEM. IF YOU DO, THIS WILL SET THE ROLLERS TO LOSE
After you calibrate the rollers, adjust reference ring to the Zero point.
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REPLACEMENT PAPER FOLD ROLLERS
All the major paper folder manufactures offer different types of fold rollers to meet specific needs.
These are the most common rollers:
Type roller
Paper
Pros
Cons
Longest lasting more durable,
Tends to slip on coated stocks, roller
Solid Steel
Uncoated good on UNCOATED papers,
marks on thicker material.
resist marking from wet inks,
Wears out quickly, will mark wet jobs,
Solid
Coated or
Good gripping characteristics ink build up is a problem rollers need
Urethane
thick material
cleaned more often.
Wears out quicker then urethane, will
Coated or
Solid Rubber
Good gripping characteristics mark wet jobs, ink build up is problem
thick material
rollers need cleaned more often.
Coated and
Will mark wet jobs, ink build up is
Segmented
Good all-around long lasting
uncoated
problem, rollers need cleaned more
Rollers
roller,
paper
often.
SOFT
Wears out faster then standard
Urethane
Aqueous
Excellent roller for coated
urethane roller, touchier to set-up,
Segmented Coated paper
materials
marking is also problem on wet stocks.
Rollers
Segmented Glue Roller
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SETTING THE FOLD
1. Reset (Zero-Out)
a. Plate Skew
b. Side Guide Skew
c. Rollers
2. Open and or closed Fold Plates as needed.
3. Adjust fold stops to proper dimension for piece to be folded.
4. Test Run
5. Make fine adjustments in ORDER:
a. Check/Adjust SIDE GUIDE
b. Check/Adjust #1 Roller (watch how it’s holding on side guide)
c. Check/Adjust Plate Skew and Length
Remember to make adjustments in order. If you make an adjustment and see NO results then put
it back ware it was and try the next adjustment. Usually if the adjustment is not working
something else is wrong (paper, or other adjustment is out). When you think it is ready, test run
20 or so sheets to be sure it is holding.
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Double Sheet Detector
1. Place single sheet under adjustment screw
2. Unlock lock nut and adjust screw so one sheet will pass and two sheets will trip detector.
3. Lock the lock nut.
When a double sheet (2 pieces of paper) tries to enter folder detector will trip the micro switch
which will stop the feeder.
To clear the double press the detector lever to release the double and pull it out of the machine.
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SIDE GUIDE
This adjustment is use to square or skew side
guide.
The first five marbles should normally be steel,
this helps pull the sheets out of the feeder.
Then depending on the sheet you are running
you may add or remove marbles as needed to
get the sheet to hold firmly against the guide.
You may choose plastic or steel marbles.
Generally the more steel you use, the more
the sheet is driven against the guide. It is ok to
completely remove the marbles in some holes
to lessen the drive if you are running light
stock.
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These are some basic drawings of common slitter shaft set-ups. Special attention should be
placed on how the collars are installed. If you install collars incorrectly they will loosen up when
you run machine. If you install collars correctly you should only have to HAND tighten the ring and
it will stay tight if rotating the proper way.
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35 MM
Shaft Size
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Direction of sheet travel.
When properly installed perf blade easily strips out of sheet. If above blade was reversed perf
blade would catch and tear as sheet was stripped off.
35mm Shaft Blades
STAHL* BAUM*
200-747-03-00
226-341-03-00
200-756-08-00
200-749-01-00
200-749-02-00
200-756-12-00
200-754-04-00
200-742-09-00
General Use
Split Standard Slitter (0.5mm thick)
Solid HSS Slitter for cleaner edges (1.0mm thick)
8 tooth spine perf 32pg perfect bind
12 tooth medium stock 16pg head perf
18 tooth light stock 16pg head perf
36 tooth high strength tear out perf
80 tooth light strength tear out perf
Split Standard Score (0.8mm thick)
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