AB51 Active Filters Low Pass and High Pass Operating Manual Ver

AB51 Active Filters Low Pass and High Pass Operating Manual Ver
AB51
Active Filters
Low Pass and High Pass
Operating Manual
Ver.1.1
An ISO 9001 : 2000 company
94-101, Electronic Complex Pardesipura,
Indore- 452010, India
Tel : 91-731- 2570301/02, 4211100
Fax: 91- 731- 2555643
e mail : info@scientech.bz
Website : www.scientech.bz
Toll free : 1800-103-5050
AB51
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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AB51
Low Pass and High Pass Active Filters
AB51
Table of Contents
1.
Introduction
4
2.
Theory
6
3.
Experiments
•
Experiment 1
Study of the Active Low Pass Filter
9
•
Experiment 2
Study of the Active High Pass Filter
12
4.
Data Sheet
15
5.
Warranty
16
6.
List of Accessories
16
RoHS Compliance
Scientech Products are RoHS Complied.
RoHS Directive concerns with the restrictive use of Hazardous substances (Pb,
Cd, Cr, Hg, Br compounds) in electric and electronic equipments.
Scientech products are “Lead Free” and “Environment Friendly”.
It is mandatory that service engineers use lead free solder wire and use the
soldering irons upto (25 W) that reach a temperature of 450°C at the tip as the
melting temperature of the unleaded solder is higher than the leaded solder.
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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AB51
Introduction
AB51 is a compact, ready to use Active Filters experiment board. It incorporates
Low pass filter and High pass filter on a single board and illustrates the functionality
of Active filters at adjustable cutoff frequency. It can be used as stand alone unit with
external power supply or can be used with Scientech Analog lab ST2612 which has
built in DC power supply, AC power supply, function generator, modulation
generator, continuity tester, toggle switches and potentiometers.
List of Boards :
Model
Name
AB01
AB02
AB03
AB04
AB05
AB06
AB07
AB08
AB09
AB10
AB11
AB12
AB13
AB15
AB14
AB16
AB17
AB18
AB19
AB20
AB21
AB22
AB23
AB25
Diode characteristics (Si, Zener, LED)
Transistor characteristics (CB NPN)
Transistor characteristics (CB PNP)
Transistor characteristics (CE NPN)
Transistor characteristics (CE PNP)
Transistor characteristics (CC NPN)
Transistor characteristics (CC PNP)
FET characteristics
Rectifier Circuits
Wheatstone Bridge
Maxwell’s Bridge
De Sauty’s Bridge
Schering Bridge
Common Emitter Amplifier
Darlington Pair
Common Collector Amplifier
Common Base Amplifier
Cascode Amplifier
RC-Coupled Amplifier
Direct Coupled Amplifier
Class A Amplifier
Class B Amplifier (push pull emitter follower)
Class C Tuned Amplifier
Phase Locked Loop (FM Demodulator & Frequency Divider /
Multiplier)
Multivibrator ( Mono stable / Astable)
F-V and V-F Converter
V-I and I-V Converter
Zener Voltage Regulator
Transistor Series Voltage Regulator
Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator
DC Ammeter
Instrumentation Amplifier
Differential Amplifier (Transistorized)
Operational Amplifier (Inverting / Non-inverting / Differentiator)
AB28
AB29
AB30
AB31
AB32
AB33
AB35
AB39
AB41
AB42
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AB51
AB43
AB44
AB45
AB49
AB52
AB54
AB56
AB57
AB58
AB59
AB64
AB65
AB66
AB67
AB68
AB80
AB82
AB83
AB84
AB85
AB88
AB89
AB90
AB91
AB92
AB93
AB96
AB97
AB101
AB102
AB106
Operational Amplifier (Adder/Scalar)
Operational Amplifier (Integrator/ Differentiator)
Schmitt Trigger and Comparator
K Derived Filter
Active Band Pass Filter
Tschebyscheff Filter
Fiber Optic Analog Link
Owen’s Bridge
Anderson’s Bridge
Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge
RC – Coupled Amplifier with Feedback
Phase Shift Oscillator
Wien Bridge Oscillators
Colpitt Oscillator
Hartley Oscillator
RLC Series and RLC Parallel Resonance
Thevenin’s and Maximum power Transfer Theorem
Reciprocity and Superposition Theorem
Tellegen’s Theorem
Norton’s theorem
Diode Clipper
Diode Clampers
Two port network parameter
Optical Transducer (Photovoltaic cell)
Optical Transducer (Photoconductive cell/LDR)
Optical Transducer (Phototransistor)
Temperature Transducer (RTD & IC335)
Temperature Transducer (Thermocouple)
DSB Modulator and Demodulator
SSB Modulator and Demodulator
FM Modulator and Demodulator
………… and many more
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AB51
Theory
An electric filter is a frequency selective circuit that passes electric signals of specific
band of frequencies and attenuates signal of frequencies outside this band. Depending
on the type of elements used in their construction filters may be classified as passive
or active filters. Elements used in passive filters are resistors, capacitors and
inductors. Active filter consists of active components such as Op-amp, transistors
with passive elements.
Most commonly used filters are:
1.
Low Pass Filter
2.
High Pass Filter
3.
Band Pass Filter
Low Pass Filter :
It is a frequency selective circuit, which passes signals of frequency below it’s high
cut off frequency (fh) and attenuates signals of frequency above fh.
Figure 1
Equation of low pass filter is
Vin = Input signal Voltage
Vout =Output signal Voltage
AF = 1 + RF / R1 = pass band gain of filter
f = frequency of input signal
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AB51
fH = 1/2πRC = high cut off frequency, 3-db frequency, corner frequency Operation of
low pass filter using equation 2
The ideal low pass filter has a constant gain AF from 0 to high cut off frequency (fH)
at fH the gain is 0.707 * Af. And after fH it decreases at a constant rate with an increase
in frequency i.e. when input frequency is increased tenfold (one decade), the voltage
gain is divided by 10.
Gain (db) = 20 log |Vout / Vin|
i.e. Gain Roll off rate is −20db / decade.
High Pass Filter :
It is a frequency selective circuit, which passes signals of frequencies above it's low
cut off frequency (fL) and attenuates signals of frequencies below fL.
Figure 2
Equation of High pass filter is
Vin = Input signal Voltage
Vout = Output signal Voltage
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AB51
AF = 1 + RF / R1 = pass band gain of filter
f = frequency of input signal
fL = 1/2 π RC = Low cut off frequency, 3-db frequency, corner frequency Operation
of high pass filter using equation.
In ideal high pass filter, when f < fL gain is increased at a constant rate has a constant
rate with an increase in frequency. At fL the gain is 0.707*AF. And above fL it has
constant gain of AF. Below fL when input frequency is increased tenfold (one decade),
the voltage gain is multiplied by 10.
Gain (db) = 20 log | Vout / Vin |
i.e. Gain Roll off rate is −20db / decade.
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AB51
Experiment 1
Objective :
Study of the Active Low Pass Filter and to Evaluate :
•
High cutoff frequency of Low pass filter.
•
Pass band gain of Low Pass Filter.
•
Plot the frequency response of Low Pass Filter.
Equipments Needed :
1.
Analog board of AB51.
2.
DC power supplies +12V, −12V from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab.
3.
Function generator or ST2612 Analog Lab.
4.
Oscilloscope
5.
Digital Multimeter
6.
2 mm patch cords.
Circuit diagram :
Circuit used to study Active Low pass filter shown in figure 3.
Figure 3
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AB51
Procedure :
1.
Connect Ohmmeter between Test point Vin and Test point 1. Adjust resistance
value to 1.59K by varying the potentiometer 22K of Low pass filter to set the
high cutoff frequency (fH) at 10K.
2.
Connect +12V and −12V DC power supplies at their indicated position from
external source or ST2612 Analog Lab.
3.
Switch ‘On’ the power supply.
4.
Connect a sinusoidal signal of amplitude 1V (p-p) of frequency 1KHz to Vin of
Low Pass Filter from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab.
5.
Observe output on oscilloscope by connecting Test point Vout to oscilloscope.
6.
Increase the frequency of input signal step by step and observe the effect on
output Vout on oscilloscope.
7.
Tabulate values of Vout, gain, gain (db) at different values of input frequency
shown in observation Table.
Observation Table :
8.
Sr.
No.
Input
frequency
(Hz)
1
500
2
1K
3
5K
4
10 K (fH)
5
15 K
6
20 K
7
30 K
Vout
|Vout / Vin| = gain
Gain(db) = 20
Log |Vout / Vin|
Plot the frequency response of low pass filter using the data obtained at different
input frequencies.
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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AB51
9.
Perform the same procedure at different Cutoff frequencies as shown below:
Resistance (Ω)
Capacitance (uF)
fH high cutoff
frequency (Hz)
800
0.01
20K
1.59 K
0.01
10K
15.9 K
0.01
1K
Theoretical Calculations :
Calculate all the following values
1.
Pass band gain of Low pass filter AF = 1 + RF / R1
2.
Pass band gain (db) = 20 log |Vout / Vin|
3.
3 db frequency fH = 1/2πRC
4.
Gain at 3 db frequency fH = 0.707 * AF
5.
Gain (db) at 3 db frequency fH = 20 log |Vout / Vin| where
Vout = (2)1/2 * Vin
6.
Roll off rate = −20db/decade
Results :
Theoretical
Practical
Pass band gain(Af)
Pass band gain(Af) in db
3db frequency fH
Gain at 3db frequency (fH ) in db
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AB51
Experiment 2
Objective :
Study of the Active High Pass Filter and to Evaluate :
1.
Low cutoff frequency of Low pass filter.
2.
Pass band gain of High pass filter.
3.
Plot the frequency response of High pass filter.
Equipments Needed :
1.
Analog board of AB51.
2.
DC power supplies +12V, −12V from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab.
3.
Function generator or ST2612 Analog Lab.
4.
Oscilloscope
5.
Digital Multimeter
6.
2 mm patch cords.
Circuit Diagram :
Circuit used to study Active High pass filter shown in figure 4.
Figure 4
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AB51
Procedure :
1.
Connect Ohmmeter between Vin and Test point 3. Adjust resistance value to
15.9K by varying the potentiometer 22K of High pass filter to set the Low
cutoff frequency (fL) at 1K.
2.
Connect +12V and −12V DC power supplies at their indicated position from
external source or ST2612 Analog Lab.
3.
Switch ‘On’ the power supply.
4.
Connect a sinusoidal signal of amplitude 1V (p-p) of frequency
100 Hz to the Test point Vin of high pass filter from external source or ST2612
Analog Lab.
5.
Observe output on oscilloscope by connecting Test point Vout to oscilloscope.
6.
Increase the frequency of input signal step by step and observe the effect on
output Vout on oscilloscope.
7.
Tabulate different values of Vout, gain, gain (db) at different values of input
frequency shown in observation Table.
Observation Table :
Sr.
No.
Input
frequency
(Hz)
1
100
2
200
3
500
4
1K(fL)
5
5K
6
10 K
7
15 K
8
20 K
Vout
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
|Vout / Vin| = gain
Gain(db) = 20
Log |Vout / Vin|
13
AB51
8.
Plot the frequency response of high pass filter using the data obtained at
different input frequencies.
9.
Perform the same procedure at different Cutoff frequencies as shown below:
Resistance (Ω)
Capacitance (µF)
3 db frequency (Hz)
800
0.01
20K
1.59 K
0.01
10K
15.9 K
0.01
1K
Theoretical Calculations :
Calculate all the following values
1.
Pass band gain of Low pass filter AF = 1 + RF / R1
2.
Pass band gain (db) = 20 log |Vout / Vin|
3.
Low cutoff frequency fL = 1/2πRC
4.
Gain at Low cutoff frequency fL = 0.707 * AF
5.
Gain (db) at Low cutoff frequency fH = 20 log |Vout / Vin| where
Vout = (2)1/2 * Vin
6.
Roll off rate = −20db/decade
Results :
Theoretical
Practical
Pass band gain(Af)
Pass band gain(Af) in db
Low cutoff frequency (fL)
Gain at 3db frequency (fL ) in db
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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AB51
Data Sheet
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
15
AB51
Warranty
1.
We guarantee the product against all manufacturing defects for 24 months from
the date of sale by us or through our dealers. Consumables like dry cell etc. are
not covered under warranty.
2.
The guarantee will become void, if
a)
The product is not operated as per the instruction given in the operating
manual.
b)
The agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed.
c)
The customer resells the instrument to another party.
d)
Any attempt is made to service and modify the instrument.
3.
The non-working of the product is to be communicated to us immediately giving
full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the
type, serial number of the product and date of purchase etc.
4.
The repair work will be carried out, provided the product is dispatched securely
packed and insured. The transportation charges shall be borne by the customer.
For any Technical Problem Please Contact us at service@scientech.bz
List of Accessories
1.
2mm Patch Cord (Red) 16” ................................................................ 2 Nos.
2.
2mm Patch Cord (Black) 16”.............................................................. 2 Nos.
3.
2mm Patch Cord (Blue) 16” ............................................................... 3 Nos.
4.
e-Manual.............................................................................................. 1 No.
Updated 26-06-2009
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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