E-Series Steer Axle Service Manual

E-Series Steer Axle Service Manual
Spicer Steer Axles
®
Service Manual
AXSM0038
September 2013
Warnings and Cautions
The description and specifications contained in this service
publication are current at the time of printing.
Dana reserves the right to discontinue or to modify its models
and/or procedures and to change specifications at any time
without notice.
Any reference to brand names in this publication is made as an
example of the types of tools and materials recommended for
use and should not be considered an endorsement. Equivalents,
if available, may be used.
Important Notice
This symbol is used throughout this
manual to call attention to procedures
where carelessness or failure to follow
specific instructions may result in
personal injury and/or component
damage.
Departure from the instructions, choice
of tools, materials and recommended
parts mentioned in this publication
may jeopardize the personal safety
of the service technician or vehicle
operator.
WARNING: Failure to follow indicated
procedures creates a high risk of personal
injury to the servicing technician.
CAUTION: Failure to follow indicated
procedures may cause component
damage or malfunction.
IMPORTANT: Highly recommended
procedures for proper service of this unit.
Note: Additional service information not
covered in the service procedures.
Tip: Helpful removal and installation
procedures to aid in the service of this unit.
Always use genuine Spicer replacement parts.
CAUTION
Welding or machining on any axle component is prohibited
unless noted otherwise in this document or other Spicer
service literature.
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of
all information in this guide. However, Dana makes no
expressed or implied warranty or representation based
on the enclosed information.
i
Warnings and Cautions
Warnings and Cautions
Warnings and Cautions
ii
General Information
Warnings and Cautions...................................................i
Important Notice...........................................................i
General Information................................................... 1-3
Axle Identification........................................................1
Axle Assembly Tag......................................................1
Model Information.......................................................2
Model Coverage...........................................................3
Inspection...................................................................4-8
Procedures and Intervals.............................................4
E Family Exploded View...............................................4
EFA Family Exploded View...........................................5
I and D Family Exploded View......................................6
General Inspection.......................................................7
Component Inspection.................................................7
Knuckle Vertical Play Inspection..................................7
Bushing Inspection (End-play).....................................8
Tie Rod Inspection................................................. 9-10
Tie Rod End Replacement............................................11
Straight Socket Tie Rod Ends.....................................11
Drop Socket Tie Rod Ends.........................................11
Alignment / Adjustment...............................................12
Wheel Alignment.......................................................12
Camber................................................................12-15
Caster Adjustment.....................................................16
Toe Setting................................................................17
Steering Stop Adjustment..........................................18
Disassembly, Overhaul, and Assembly................. 19-30
Steering Knuckle Disassembly............................. 19-20
Kingpin Bushing and Seal Replacement............... 20-22
Steering Knuckle Assembly................................. 23-24
Bushing End-play Verification.............................. 25-26
Replacing Staked Draw Keys with Threaded........ 27-28
Installing Dual Draw Keys..........................................28
Steer Axle Grease Procedure...............................29-30
Kingpin Joint Greasing Procedure............................. 29
Tie Rod End Greasing Procedure............................... 30
General Specifications........................................... 31-33
Wheel Bearing Adjustment.........................................31
Wheel Alignment.......................................................31
Kingpin Clearance – New...........................................31
Kingpin Clearance – In Service..................................31
E Family Fastener Torque Specifications....................32
EFA Family Fastener Torque Specifications................32
I and D Family Fastener Torque Specifications...........32
Wheel Bearing Adjustment....................................34-38
Wheel Bearing Adjustment........................................ 34
Stamped Locking Nut System................................... 35
Single Nut (Castle Nut) Locking System.................... 36
Pro-Torq Spindle Nut Service.....................................37
Additional Service Information.................................. 39
Appendix.................................................................40-43
Special Service Tools................................................ 40
Lubrication.......................................................... 41-42
Verify Wheel End-play Procedure.............................. 43
Readjust Wheel End-play Procedure......................... 43
General Information
Axle Identification
I Family
The Spicer front non-drive steering axles are identified with
a tag located between the spring pads on the front side of
the center beam section.
The axle tag contains the serial number, the model number,
and the assembly number.
Axle Assembly Tag
General Information
1
1 - Dana Part Number
2 - Serial Number
3 - Model Number
4 - Customer Part Number
5 - Line Set Number
6 - Julian Date
Julian Date Code
1 - Tag
9 8 17 0
E Family
Model Year
Day of Year
1 - Dana Part Number
EFA Family
1
General Information
Model Information
E Family
I Family
Series
Beam Type
I - I-Beam Standard
Overall Width
W - Over 96" Overall Width
T - Tubular Beam
C - Center (Top) Mount
Air Disk Brake
GAWR x 100 lbs.
Example:
120 x 100 = 12,000 lbs.
Beam Type/
Series
D Family
Nominal Load
Carrying Capacity
60 = 6,000 lbs.
80 = 8,000 lbs.
100 = 10,000 lbs.
120 = 12,000 lbs.
140 = 14,000 lbs.
160 = 16,000 lbs.
180 = 18,000 lbs.
200 = 20,000 lbs.
Design Level
0 - Standard
1 - Heavy Duty Beam
2 - Maximum Contact Kingpin Joint
3 - Maximum Contact Kingpin Joint
and Heavy-Duty Beam
SG = I-Beam Standard
Overall Width
SB = Coach Beam
W = Over 96"
Overall Width
EFA Family
D -85 0 F
Series
GAWR x 1,000 lbs.
(450 Kg)
Design Level
0 - Standard Axle
2
120 SG
I
E -120 2 I
EFA 12 F 4
Beam Type
F - Standard Width
W - Over 96"
Overall Width
N - Narrow Width
Series
Nominal Load
Capacity
12 - 12,000 lbs.
18 - 18,000 lbs.
22 - 22,000 lbs.
24 - 24,000 lbs.
Beam Drop
1 - 1.5 in. to Tube Centerline
4 - 3.5 in. to Spring Pad
5 - 5.1 in. to Tube Centerline
Beam Type
F = I-Beam Standard Overall Width
T = Tubular Beam
General Information
Model Coverage
I and D Family
E Family
Nominal Load Ratings lbs. [kg]
E-1000I
E-1000W
E-1002I
E-1002W
10,000 [4,536]
E-1200I
E-1200W
E-1201W
E-1202I
E-1202W
E-1203I
12,000 [5,443]
E-1320I
E-1320W
E-1322I
E-1322W
13,200 [5,987]
E-1460I
E-1460W
E-1462I
E-1462W
14,600 [6,622]
EFA Family
Nominal Load Rating lbs. [kg]
I-60S G
D-600N
6,000 [2,722]
D-700N
D-700F
7,000 [3,175]
D-800F
D-800W
I-80S G
8,000 [3,629]
D-850F
D-850W
8,500 [3,856]
I-100 S, SG
I-100W
10,000 [4,536]
I-120S, SG, SGL
I-120W
12,000 [5,443]
I-130SG
I-130W
13,000 [5,896]
I-132SG
13,200 [5,987]
I-140S, SG
I-140W
14,600 [6,622]
I-160S, SG
I-160W
I-160SB
16,000 [7,257]
I-180S, SG
I-180W
18,000 [8,165]
D-2000F
20,000 [9,072]
20,000 [9,072]
Model
Nominal Load Rating lbs. [kg]
EFA-12F3
Superseded by EFA-12F4
EFA-13F3
Superseded by EFA-12F4
EFA-12F4
EFA-13F5
12,000-13,200
[5,443-5,987]
EFA-18F3
Superseded by EFA-20F4
I-200S, SG
I-200W
EFA-20F4
20,000 [9,072]
D-2200F
22,800 [10,342]
EFA-22T2
EFA-22T5
22,000 [9,979]
I-220W
22,800 [10,342]
EFA-24T2
EFA-24T5
24,000 [10,886]
General Information
Model
Model
Note: These nominal ratings are general guidelines. Actual load
rating varies with application and duty cycle. Applications
require Spicer engineering approval.
3
Inspection
Inspection
Procedures and Intervals
Intervals of inspection or service are recommended for general or average vehicle use. It may be appropriate to increase
frequency of intervals depending on the type of vehicle service.
The following inspection procedures are consistent with
industry practice and are recommended as Inspection guidelines for periodic service. Use manufacturer’s instructions as
a primary guide.
E Family Exploded View
2
16
3
17
18
1
19
4
20
6
26
5
9
2
10
25
7
24
23
8
11
12
22
13
21
27
14
20
15
19
18
17
16
1 - Nut, Draw Key
10 - Pin, Cotter
19 - Gasket
2 - Seal, Grease
11 - Bolt, Clamp
20 - Bushing
3 - Shim
12 - Tube, Cross
21 - Kingpin
4 - Axle Beam
13 - Clamp
22 - Nut, outer Spindle*
5 - Key, Draw
14 - Nut
23 - Washer, Retainer*
6 - Bearing, Thrust
15 - Tie Rod End
24 - Washer, Spindle*
7 - Screw, Stop
16 - Lube Fitting
25 - Nut, Inner Spindle*
8 - Nut, Jam
17 - Cap, Knuckle
26 - Steering Knuckle
9 - Nut, Slotted
18 - Foam Insert
27 - Dual Draw Key Beam
* Nut, Pro-Torq (optional alternative for items 22-25)
4
Inspection
EFA Family Exploded View
29
27
24
25
26
1
2
13
21
3
14
4
17
11
28
12
5
16
18
13
15
22
19
10
20
7
Inspection
8
6
21
9
23
1 - Lubrication Fitting
11 - Cotter Pin
21 - Woodruff Key
2 - Hex Bolt
12 - Hex Nut, Steer Arm
22 - Cross Tube Assembly
3 - Washer
13 - Seal Knuckle
23 - Tie Rod Arm
4 - Knuckle Cap
14 - Shim
24 - Steer Arm Ball Stud
5 - Bushing
15 - Thrust Bearing
25 - Ball Stud Nut
6 - Knuckle Pin
16 - Draw Key
26 - Ball Stud Cotter Pin
7 - Washer, Spindle
17 - Nut, Draw Key
27 - Steer Arm
8 - Hex Nut, Spindle
18 - Stop Screw
28 - I-Beam
9 - Cotter Pin
19 - Nut, Jam
29 - Tubular Beam
10 - Steering Knuckle
20 - Cotter Pin
5
Inspection
I and D Family Exploded View
2
3
4
1
10
9
11
7
12
6
5
8
13
14
15
17
16
35
34
30
18
19
20
21
19
31
10
23
22
24 26
29
27
33 32
25
28
1 - I-Beam
13 - Bushing, Kingpin
25 - Nut, Tie Rod Clamp
2 - Seal, Kingpin
14 - Kingpin
26 - Clamp, Tie Rod
3 - Shim
15 - Pin, Cotter
27 - Tie Rod End
4 - Draw Key, Outer
16 - Nut, Slotted
28 - Grease Fitting
5 - Draw Key, Inner
17 - Knuckle, Steering
29 - Arm, Tie Rod
6 - Nut, Draw Key
18 - Bolt, Stop
30 - Pin, Spindle Cotter
7 - Washer, Belleville
19 - Key, Woodruff
31 - Spindle Nut, Inner
8 - Bearing Assembly, Thrust
20 - Arm, Steering
32 - Nut, Spindle Lock Washer
9 - Bolt, Kingpin Cap
21 - Nut, Tie Rod
33 - Spindle Nut, Outer
10 - Grease Fitting
22 - Pin, Cotter Tie Rod
34 - Washer, Bearing Retainer
11 - Cap, Kingpin
23 - Tube, Cross
35 - Nut, Slotted Spindle
12 - O-Ring
24 - Bolt, Tie Rod Clamp
6
Inspection
General Inspection
Inspect the axle to ensure proper assembly and to identify
broken parts and loose fasteners each time the vehicle is
lubricated. Make sure spring to axle beam mounting nuts and
steering connection fasteners are secure.
Wheel Alignment - Follow vehicle manufacturer’s instructions
for wheel alignment inspection intervals. If excessive steering
effort, vehicle wander, or uneven and/or excessive tire wear is
evident, check wheel alignment. Refer to Wheel Alignment.
3.
Zero the dial indicator.
4.
Using a lever, pry the steering knuckle upward. Note
indicator reading. If reading exceeds 0.040" (1.02
mm), refer to Removal and Disassembly for overhaul
procedures.
Note: Perform above inspection procedure with axle assembled and installed on vehicle with tires and wheels
attached. To check knuckle vertical play during axle
assembly. Refer to Steering Knuckle Assembly.
E Family
Steering Axle Stops - Inspect for missing, loose or bent steer
stops. Damaged or missing steering axle stops may indicate
other problems with the steering system. This can result in
damage to steering system components. Replace missing or
damaged stops and reset steering system geometry. Refer to
vehicle manufacturer’s instructions for proper steering system settings.
1
2
Tie Rod Ends - Inspect each time axle is lubricated. Check for
seal damage, worn ball socket or loose fasteners.
Kingpins - For maximum service life replace kingpins when
servicing knuckle assembly.
Component Inspection
4
3
Inspection
Knuckle Thrust Bearings - When disassembled, visually
inspect for any damage and check for smooth operation. For
maximum service life, replace the thrust bearing whenever the
knuckle assembly is serviced.
1 - Reference on top of knuckle
2 - Dial indicator
3 - Pry bar
4 - Pry knuckle downward
EFA, I Family
Prepare for axle inspection as follows:
1.
Set parking brake and block drive wheels to prevent
vehicle movement.
2.
Raise the vehicle until steering axle wheels are off
the ground. Support raised vehicle with safety
stands.
1
2
WARNING
Never work under a vehicle supported only by a jack.
Always use safety stands.
4
Knuckle Vertical Play Inspection
1.
Mount dial indicator on axle beam. Reference the dial
indicator probe on the knuckle cap.
2.
Using a lever, pry steering knuckle downward.
3
1 - Reference on top of knuckle
2 - Dial indicator
3 - Pry bar
4 - Pry knuckle downward
7
Inspection
Bushing Inspection (End-Play)
Following regular and thorough greasing practices will maximize bushing life.
Upper Bushing Lateral Inspection
This procedure measures upper bushing wear due to side and
vertical loading.
1.
Lower Bushing Lateral Inspection
This procedure measures lower bushing wear due to side and
vertical loading.
1.
Mount dial indicator on the axle. Reference the base
of the lower arm on the steering knuckle.
E Family
1
Mount dial indicator on the axle. Reference the upper
part of the steering knuckle.
E Family
1
20
30
0
50
10
40
20
10
40
30
40
0
50
40
10
30
20
30
10
20
2
2
3
1 - Attach to axle beam
2 - Reference on lower steering knuckle
3 - Dial indicator
EFA, I and D Family
3
1 - Dial indicator
2 - Reference on top lip of steering knuckle
3 - Attach to axle beam
EFA, I and D Family
1
2
3
2
1
1 - Attach to axle beam
2 - Reference on lower steering knuckle
3 - Dial indicator
3
1 - Dial indicator
2 - Reference on top lip of steering knuckle
3 - Attach to axle beam
8
2.
Move the tire and wheel assembly in and out with a
push/pull motion and have an assistant record the
dial indicator reading.
3.
Replace the upper bushing if readings are in excess
of .015" (0.38 mm).
2.
Move bottom of tire and wheel assembly in and out
with a push/pull motion and have an assistant record
dial indicator reading.
3.
Replace the lower bushing if dial indicator readings
are in excess of .015" (0.38 mm).
Note: To avoid inaccurate measurements, be careful not to let
the knuckle turn while moving assembly in and out.
Applying brakes will help lock wheel assembly.
Note: Locate indicator on a smooth, flat surface for best reading.
Inspection
Tie Rod Inspection
1.
3.
Make sure the boot completely covers the ball joint
of the tie rod end with no cracks or tears. If there is
damage to the boot, the entire tie rod end must be
replaced.
The threaded portion of each tie rod end must be
inserted completely in the cross tube split. This is
essential for adequate clamping. Replace components if this fit cannot be obtained.
CORRECT
The threaded portions of both
tie rod ends must be completely
inserted in cross tube split
1
Equal threads exposed on
left and right tie rod ends
INCORRECT
Threaded end is not completely
inserted in cross tube split
1 - Cracked or torn boot requires entire tie rod end replacement
2.
Make sure the tie rod nut is torqued to the proper
specifications and the cotter pin is correctly installed
in the nut. If the cotter pin is missing, the tie rod nut
could become loose and steering will be affected.
Where zerk fittings are necessary, make sure they
are installed correctly. (Non-greaseable tie rod ends
do not require zerk fittings.)
5.
To protect the cross tube, use only your hands or a
pipe wrench with jaw protectors to rotate the cross
tube. Make sure the cross tube will turn toward the
front and the back of the vehicle. Replace both of the
tie rod ends if they will not turn in both directions.
6.
If the cross tubes or clamps are bent, cracked or
damaged, replacement is necessary. Do not attempt
to repair a cross tube as this could result in damage
to the axle.
7.
Proper positioning of clamp relative to beam and
correct orientation of nut and bolt are required to
ensure clearance at high wheel cuts.
1
2
1 - Steering knuckle
2 - Missing cotter pin
Inspection
4.
Boot does not have purging capibilities.
All grease purging takes place through
pureable grease fitting.
Purgeable
grease fitting
Note: Tie rods end inspections should always be performed
prior to lubrication. If the inspection is performed after
lubrication, there may be a false indication that the tie
rod end is fully operative.
9
Inspection
8.
Park the vehicle with the wheels in the “straight
ahead” position, then turn the vehicle off.
9.
Place blocks in front of and behind the front and rear
tires to prevent the vehicle from moving.
10. If the seal and ring are acceptable, try to move the tie
rod cross tube by hand.
11. If movement or looseness is detected, set up a dial
indicator as shown below.
12. There are two separate methods that can be used to
check the degree of movement in the tie rod end:
a. To check axial (up and down) movement, set the
dial indicator so the base of the indicator is on the tie
rod arm. Then, place the tip of the indicator on the
bottom of the tie rod end at the area that is most flat.
b. To check radial (back and forth) movement, set
the dial indicator so that the base of the indicator is
on the tie rod arm. Then, place the tip of the indicator
on the socket of the tie rod end. Be sure to position
the dial indicator so that it is in line with the direction
of movement.
13. Set the dial indicator to zero.
14. Again, move the cross tube assembly up and down
or back and forth, depending on which direction you
are checking for looseness. If the indicator reading is
0.060" or more, replace the tie rod end immediately.
If the indicator reading is above 0.030", it should be
replaced at the next service interval.
CAUTION
CAUTION
Do not use a pry bar or other mechanical method on the
steering linkage. This could result in damage to the tie rod
end and/or create a false indication of wear.
10
Do not remove the tie rod end from the tie rod arm to check
for ball stud rotating torque. This may damage the seal if a
removal tool is used. Additionally, the tie rod end seal can
cause false indications of internal torque.
15. Repeat Steps 10 through 14 for the other tie rod
ends.
Note: When one tie rod end requires replacement, it is recommended to replace both to allow for even wear on both
sides of the vehicle.
Tie Rod End Replacement
1.
Disconnect the tie rod end.
2.
If the cross tube is being replaced, count the number
of exposed threads on the tie rod end.
3.
Loosen the clamp nut and unscrew the tie rod end.
4.
Install new tie rod ends or new cross tube.
Tie Rod End Replacement
Tie Rod End Replacement
Drop Socket Tie Rod Ends
Note: Cross tube has right-hand and left-hand threads for
corresponding sides of the vehicle.
5.
Thread tie rod end into cross tube past the tube split.
The number of threads exposed from the tube
should be equal on both left and right tie rod ends.
CORRECT
The threaded portions of both
tie rod ends must be completely
inserted in cross tube split
I-120SG, I-140SG, I-132SG,
E-1462I
55-70 ft. lbs.
(75-95 N•m)
E-1460I, E-1320W, E-1322W
E-1460W, E-1462W
80-90 ft. lbs.
(108-122 N•m)
I-200SG, I-200W, I-220W,
I-160W, I-180W
150-180 ft. lbs.
(203-244 N•m)
D-2000F, D2200F
Equal threads exposed on
left and right tie rod ends
INCORRECT
Threaded end is not completely
inserted in cross tube split
6.
150-180 ft. lbs.
(203-244 N•m)
8.
Install tie rod end into knuckle tie rod arm. Secure
with slotted nut and tighten to 120-160 ft. lbs. (163217 N•m).
9.
Install the cotter pin in the slotted nut and bend the
ends to secure. If necessary, tighten the nut until the
holes align.
For E and I straight socket tie rod ends, tighten the
clamp nut to 45-60 ft. lbs. (61-81N m). Make sure
the tab on the clamp holds the end of the cross tube.
3
Straight Socket Tie Rod Ends
1
D, E, & I Series
7.
45-60 ft.lbs. (61-81 N•m)
For drop socket tie rod ends, tighten as follows:
2
4
5
1 - Tie rod arm
2 - Tie rod end
3 - Slotted nut
4 - Cotter pin
5 - Position clamp fastener away from beam
10. Adjust toe-in.
Note: On tie rods with rotating clamp, position clamp with
fastener away from beam.
11
Alignment / Adjustment
Alignment / Adjustment
Wheel Alignment
Correct wheel alignment promotes longer tire wear and ease
of handling while minimizing strain on the steering system
and axle components. Use vehicle manufacturer’s instructions
to inspect wheel alignment.
“Negative” camber is an inward tilt of the wheel at the top.
1
2
Note: Total vehicle alignment is recommended when aligning
the steer axle.
Camber
Camber is the vertical tilt of the wheel as viewed from the
front of the vehicle. This is machined in at time of manufacture
and is not adjustable.
“Positive” camber is an outward tilt of the wheel at the top.
1
1 - Vertical center line
2 - Negative camber
2
CAUTION
Spicer expressly prohibits bending of axle beams (hot or
cold) to change camber or for any other purpose. Welding or machining on any axle component is prohibited
unless noted ot herwise in this document or other Spicer
service literature.
1 - Positive camber
2 - Vertical center line
Camber for E-1000I, E-1000W, E-1200I, E-1200W,
E-1201W, E-1320I, E-1320W, E-1460I, E-1460W
On Bench
Unloaded
(8000 lbs.)
Loaded
Left
1/2° (+/-7/16°)
3/16° (+/-7/16°)
0° (+/-7/16°)
Right
1/4° (+/-7/16°)
-1/16° (+/-7/16°)
-1/4° (+/-7/16°)
12
Alignment / Adjustment
Camber for E-1002I, E-1002W, E-1202I, E-1202W, E-1203I, E-1322I,
E-1322W, E-1462I, E-1462W, E1002C, E1202C, E1322C, E1462C
On Bench
Unloaded
(8000 lbs.)
Loaded
L eft
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
+1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
(8000 lbs.)
Loaded
L ef t
3/4° ( +/-7/16°)
7/16° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/16° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
(10,000 lbs.)
Loaded
L ef t
3/4° ( +/-7/16°)
1/2° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
(12,000 lbs.)
Loaded
L eft
1/2° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/2° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
(8,000 lbs.)
Loaded
L ef t
3/4° ( +/-7/16°)
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/2° ( +/-7/16°)
1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
Camber for EFA-12F3, EFA-12F4, EFA-13F3, EFA-13F5
Camber for EFA-18F3, EFA-20F4
Alignment / Adjustment
Camber for EFA-22T, EFA-24T
Camber for I-60SG, I-80SG
13
Alignment / Adjustment
Camber for D-600N, D-700F, D-700N, D-800F, D-800W
On Bench
Unloaded
(8,000 lbs.)
Loaded
L eft
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
+1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
(8,000 lbs.)
Loaded
L ef t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
(8,000 lbs.)
Loaded
L eft
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
+1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
Loaded
L ef t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded
Loaded
L ef t
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
+1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
Camber for I-100SG, I-120SG, I-130SG, I-132SG,
I-140SG, I-146SG, I-160SG, I-180SG, I-200SG prior to
Oct. 2001
Camber for I-100SG, I-120SG, I-140SG, I-146SG,
I-160SG, I-180SG, I-200SG after Oct. 2001
Camber for I-100NGV, I-120NGV, I-140NGV prior to
Oct. 2001
Camber for I-100NGV, I-120NGV, I-140NGV after Oct.
2001
14
Alignment / Adjustment
Camber for I-100W, I-120W, I-130W, I-140W, I-160W,
I-180W, I-200W, I-220W
On Bench
Unloaded
Loaded
L eft
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
+1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded (10,000 lbs)
Loaded
L ef t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-3/16° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
1/4° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
-3/16° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded (10,000 lbs)
Loaded
L ef t
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
13/32° ( +/-7/16°)
1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
5/32° ( +/-7/16°)
0° ( +/-7/16°)
On Bench
Unloaded (10,000 lbs)
Loaded
L ef t
5/8° ( +/-7/16°)
13/32° ( +/-7/16°)
1/8° ( +/-7/16°)
R ig h t
3/8° ( +/-7/16°)
5/32° ( +/-7/16°)
-1/16° ( +/-7/16°)
Camber for D-2000F (5" Drop)
Chamber for D-2000F
Alignment / Adjustment
Chamber for D-2200F
15
Alignment / Adjustment
Caster Adjustment
Caster is the fore and aft tilt (toward front or rear of vehicle) of
the steering kingpin as viewed from the side of the vehicle .
Also Reference RP 642, Guidelines for Total Vehicle Alignment
published by the Truck Maintenance Council.
“Positive” caster is the tilt of the top of the kingpin toward the
rear of the vehicle .
A caster angle more positive than specified may result in
excessive steering effort and/or shimmy. An angle less positive
may result in vehicle wander or poor steering return to
center. Caster angle is determined by the installed position of
the steer axle.
1
2
Caster is adjusted by adding or removing taper wedges
between the springs and axle beam mounting pad.
The caster angle is generally more positive with power steering,
since the power-assist overcomes excessive steering
effort. This enables the vehicle to exhibit maximum straight
ahead steering stability (common range for power steering
units is +2° to +4°).
3
4
Refer to OEM vehicle specifications.
Note: Adjust caster to vehicle manufacturer specifications.
CAUTION
1 - Vertical center line
2 - Kingpin center line
3 - Front of truck
4 - Rear of Truck
Spicer expressly prohibits twisting of axle beam for
caster adjustment or any straightening purposes.
“Negative” caster is the tilt of the top of the kingpin toward the
front of the vehicle.
1
3
1 - Kingpin center line
2 - Vertical center line
3 - Front of truck
4 - Rear of truck
16
2
4
Note: Changing the torquing sequence on U-bolts may result
in slight changes in caster.
Alignment / Adjustment
Toe Setting
1.
Use a work bay with a level floor.
2.
Drive the vehicle into bay slowly and straight ahead.
Try to roll to a stop without the use of brakes.
3.
Chock the rear wheels.
4.
Place a 5" (127 mm) long piece of masking tape parallel to the center tread rib on the rear of both tires,
half way up the tire height.
5.
Position a trammel bar behind the front tires. The
pointers should be raised/lowered until they are at
the hub’s centerline height.
6.
With the trammel bar pointers at the hub’s centerline
height, place the pointers at the outside edges of the
masking tape and secure the pointer set screws.
10. Position the trammel bar at the front of the tires.
Position the pointer to the edge of the tape on the
side that has the horizontal mark. The pointer and
the mark should be at the same height.
11. Measure the toe between the pointer and the edge of
the tape on the opposite tire to get the total toe measurement.
Note: Toe-in specification is 1/16" (1.587 mm) for unloaded
vehicles. This applies to a tract or (less trailer) or straight
truck with no load.
12. If the toe measurement is incorrect, loosen the tube
clamp and bolt on the end of each of the cross tubes.
Turn the cross tubes until the specified distance is
reached.
7.
Mark the location of one of the pointers with a simple horizontal mark on the masking tape.
13. Make sure the threaded portion of the tie ends are
inserted completely and are visible in the complete
cross tube slot. Tighten the bolt and nut on the ends
of the cross tube to the specified torque.
8.
Remove the trammel bars from behind the wheels.
14. Check the toe settings again.
9.
Roll the truck forward until the mark on the tape
travels 180-degrees.
Alignment / Adjustment
Also Reference RP 642, Guidelines for Total Vehicle Alignment
published by the Truck Maintenance Council.
Front of vehicle
A
Toe-In
Distance at front of tire is less
than distance at rear of tire
B
A
Toe-Out
Distance at front of tire is greater
than distance at rear of tire
B
17
Alignment / Adjustment
Steering Stop Adjustment
1.
Option B:
Check vehicle manufacturer’s manual to determine
correct steering stop angle.
1
3
2
5
4
1 - Front of vehicle
2 - Steering knuckle
3 - Axle beam
4 - Steering stop adjustment (both ends of axle)
5 - Degree of steering angle
2.
Check steering angle with alignment turntable set.
3.
If adjustment is required, loosen jam nut and turn
stop screw as necessary. See options A and B.
Option A:
1 2
3
1 - Extension
2 - Jam nut (30-45 lbs. ft. [41-61 N•m]
3 - Stop screw
4.
After adjustment, tighten stop screw jam nut to:
•
Option A: 90-120 lbs. ft. (122-163 N•m).
•
Option B: 30-45 lbs. ft. (41-61 N•m)
Note: Refer to OEM vehicle specifications.
Note: Adjust power steering unit so that power
assist stops approximately 3° or 1/8" (3.175 mm
before touching the stop screws. Follow vehicle
manufacture recommendations when making
this adjustment.
CAUTION
1
2
1 - Jam nut (90-120 lbs. ft. [122-163N•m])
2 - Stop screw
Note: Options for E-1203I and E-1462I are as follows.
18
Steering gear must be functioning properly or steering linkage damage may occur. Poppet relief must be checked after
adjusting stop screw setting.
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
Disassembly, Overhaul,
and Assembl y
Disassembly, Overhaul, and Assembly
Steering Knuckle Disassembly
7.
Disconnect tie rod end from tie rod arm using a suitable tool such as a pickle fork.
Preparation
1.
Set parking brake and block drive wheels to prevent
vehicle movement.
2.
Raise vehicle until steer axle tires are off the ground.
Support raised vehicle with safety stands.
1
WARNING
2
Never work under a vehicle supported by only a jack.
Always use safety stands.
Procedure
1.
Loosen the slack adjuster to return brake shoes to
the released position and clear drum.
2.
Remove hub cap, cotter pin, nut, washer, and outer
bearing cone assembly.
3.
Remove wheel and hub assembly.
4.
Disconnect air or hydraulic line from the brake
assembly.
Note: Plug or cap line to prevent brake system contamination.
5.
Remove brake assembly.
6.
Remove cotter pin and slotted nut.
3
1 - Tie rod arm
2 - Tie rod end
3 - Pickle fork
Note: If boot is torn during removal, tie rod end must be
replaced.
CAUTION
Do not use heat on any axle parts or fasteners.
8.
Disconnect drag link from steering arm by removing
cotter pin and slotted nut.
9.
Remove top and bottom knuckle caps.
10. Single draw key. Remove nut from draw key, then
drive key out using a brass hammer and drift.
1
3
2
1
2
1 - Tie rod arm
2 - Tie rod end
3 - Slotted nut
4 - Cotter pin
5 - Position clamp fastener away from beam
4
5
1 - Single draw key
2 - Brass drift
19
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
11. Dual draw keys. Remove both draw key nuts. Then
drive key out using a brass hammer and drift.
Remove Kingpin Bushings
2.
12. Drive kingpin out with a brass hammer and drift.
Drive bushings out of knuckles using suitable piloted
drift.
2
1
1
2
3
1 - Brass hammer
2 - Drift
13. Remove steering knuckle from axle beam.
WARNING
Never strike hardened metal parts with a steel hammer or
tool.
Cleaning
After disassembly and before attempting inspection, clean
parts as follows:
1.
Steel parts with ground or polished surfaces.
•
Wash in suitable cleaning solvent.
•
Rinse thoroughly to remove cleaning solution.
•
Dry parts with clean rags.
2.
Clean castings, forgings and other rough-surface
parts.
•
Wire brush or steam-clean areas that are susceptible
to accumulation of mud, road dirt, salt.
1 - Pilot
2 - Drift
3 - Steering knuckle
3.
Remove all foreign material from kingpin bore of
steering knuckle and axle beam bore.
4.
Wire brush machined surfaces taking care not to
damage them. Clean kingpin bores.
WARNING
1
Gasoline is not an acceptable cleaning solvent because of
its extreme combustibility. It is unsafe in the workshop
environment.
Kingpin Bushing and Seal Replacement
Removal
1.
20
Remove grease seals from knuckle arms using suitable tool.
1 - Clean all machined surfaces
WARNING
During removal and installation procedures, never use
steel hammer or tool to strike hardened metal parts.
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
5.
6.
•
Lightly lubricate outside diameter of bushings to
ease installation.
Hand start bushing in bore.
Disassembly, Overhaul,
and Assembl y
Bushing Installation
Use same method to install both upper and lower
bushings.
See Bushing Depth Chart
(Top)
Bushing
1
2
Recess
Grease Seals
.060" (1.52 mm) From
Knuckle Surface
See Bushing Depth Chart
(Bottom)
Note: When installing kingpin bushings, position seam in
areas marked “X”.
X
Bushing Seam
Locate in Either
Area Marked "X"
90˚
X
7.
Drive bushings in until they are located as shown.
Bushing Depth Chart
Bushing
Bushing Depth
D-600N, D-700F, D-700N,
D-800F, D-800W
.17" (4.3 mm) Top
.56" (14.2 mm) Bottom
D-2000F, D2200F
.55" (14.0 mm)
E-1000I, E-1002I, E-1200I,
E-1202I, E-1320I, E-1322I,
E-1201I, E-1203I
.55" (14.0 mm)
E-1000W, E-1200W,
E-1320W, E-1460I, E-1002W,
E-1202W, E-1322W,
E-1462I, E-1460W,
E-1462W
.55" (14.0 mm)
E1002C, E1202C, E1322C,
E1462C, E1202WC, E1322WC
.69" (17.5 mm) Top
.55" (14 mm) Bottom
EFA Family
.25" (6.4 mm)
I-100W, I-120W, I-140W,
I-160W, I-180W, I-200W,
I-220W, I-130W
.20" (5.1 mm) Top
I-130SG, I-132SG, I-140SG,
I-160SG, I-180SG, I-1200SG
.20" (5.1 mm) Top
.20" (5.1 mm) Bottom
I-60SG, I-80SG
.17" (4.3 mm) Top
.34" (8.6 mm) Bottom
I-100SG, I-100SGL, I-120SG,
I-120SGL
.40” (10.2 mm) Top
1.12” (28.4 mm) Bottom
21
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
8. Ream bushings to proper size using appropriate
Kent-Moore tool (or equivalent).
9. Install new seal, using suitable pilot drift or similar
device that will not damage seal as it is installed.
.060"
(1.52 mm)
.060" (1.52 mm)
Install
Top Seal
Lip Down
Lip
Install
Bottom
Seal
Lip Up
CAUTION
When installing grease seal, be sure lip is pointing toward
center of knuckle. This is essential for correct seal operation.
22
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
6.
Align the steering knuckle yoke holes with axle and
thrust bearing holes.
Note: Always replace kingpin, thrust bearing and bushings if
any component is faulty.
7.
Pre-adjust knuckle vertical play by wedging the
steering knuckle up and filling the gap at the top side
of the knuckle with shim(s).
1. Before installing the kingpins, lubricate inside of
bushing and outside of kingpins with Fleetrite EP2
Moly Grease or equivalent NLGI No. 2 multipurpose
lithium grease to provide initial lubrication.
Disassembly, Overhaul,
and Assembl y
Steering Knuckle Assembly
2
1
2. Make certain that kingpin hole in axle center is clean
and dry.
3. There may be two styles of thrust bearings. One type
is installed on thrust bearing with seal on top, as
show in the following figure. Position and support
the steering knuckle assembly on the axle end.
1
1 - Install shim(s) as needed
2 - Shim only top of knuckle
Note: Floor jack can be used to wedge up steering knuckle.
1 - Seal cap
2 - Thrust bearing
2
8.
4. The second style thrust bearing is a one piece design
with seal LIP installed TOWARDS the bottom of the
knuckles as show in the following figure.
Install kingpin from the top with notch and draw key
hole aligned. Hand start pin in bushing.
1
2
5. Slide the thrust bearing between the lower face of
axle center and lower steering knuckle yoke.
1
1 - Kingpin
2 - Steering knuckle
CAUTION
Never shim on the bottom side of the beam.
2
3
1 - Steering knuckle
2 - Thrust bearing
3 - Axle beam
23
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
9.
Install kingpin in knuckle and axle beam. Tap kingpin
in place using hammer and brass drift if necessary.
12. Simulate axle loading with a jack and note dial indicator reading.
1
1
2
Simulate axle
loading with
a jack
1 - Kingpin
2 - Protect with shim stock
2
1 - Steering knuckle
2 - Jack
CAUTION
Note: Floor jack can be used to wedge up steering knuckle.
Protect kingpins with a suitable material such as shim
stock.
13. Knuckle vertical play should be .002"- .012"
(.051 -.305 mm). Add or remove shims as necessary
to obtain correct end play. Center shims to prevent
damage during assembly.
Note: At this point in reassembly, check knuckle vertical play
and adjust if necessary.
14. When vertical play adjustment is correct, align draw
key opening and pin flat alignment.
10. Center steering components.
11. Mount dial indicator to steer beam and reference top
of the knuckle. Zero dial indicator.
4
Correct
5
1
2
3
4
1 - Reference on top of knuckle
2 - Dial indicator
3 - Pry bar
4 - Pry knuckle downward
24
1
Incorrect
3
2
1 - Kingpin notch
2 - Kingpin
3 - Steer knuckle
4 - Single draw key
5 - Dual draw keys
15. Now install the new draw keys. Before the draw keys
are seated, we need to verify the bushing end-play is
between .001" - .008"
Inspection
New Bushing End-Play Verification
Upper Bushing Lateral Inspection
This procedure measures upper bushing wear due to side and
vertical loading.
Mount dial indicator on the axle. Reference the upper
part of the steering knuckle.
1.
Mount dial indicator on the axle. Reference the base
of the lower arm on the steering knuckle.
E Family
1
E Family
1
20
30
30
20
30
40
10
0
50
10
40
Inspection
20
10
40
0
50
40
10
20
2
30
1.
Lower Bushing Lateral Inspection
This procedure measures lower bushing wear due to side and
vertical loading.
2
3
1 - Attach to axle beam
2 - Reference on lower steering knuckle
3 - Dial indicator
3
1 - Dial indicator
2 - Reference on top lip of steering knuckle
3 - Attach to axle beam
EFA, I and D Family
EFA, I and D Family
1
2
3
2
1
3
1 - Dial indicator
2 - Reference on top lip of steering knuckle
3 - Attach to axle beam
2.
Move the tire and wheel assembly in and out with a
push/pull motion and have an assistant record the
dial indicator reading.
3.
Replace the upper bushing if readings are in excess
of .008" (0.20 mm).
1 - Attach to axle beam
2 - Reference on lower steering knuckle
3 - Dial indicator
2.
Move bottom of tire and wheel assembly in and out
with a push/pull motion and have an assistant record
dial indicator reading.
3.
Replace the lower bushing if dial indicator readings
are in excess of .008" (0.20 mm).
Note: To avoid inaccurate measurements, be careful not to let
the knuckle turn while moving assembly in and out.
Applying brakes will help lock wheel assembly.
Note: Locate indicator on a smooth, flat surface for best reading.
25
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
22. Attach tie rod end to tie rod arm on knuckle. Install
nut and tighten. Refer to torque charts in Appendix.
1
23. Install cotter pin.
24. Grease all kingpin and tie rod assemblies.
2
1 - Draw key
2 - Brass hammer
17. Install draw key nut and tighten. Refer to torque
charts in Appendix.
1
1 - Draw key nut
18. Ensure draw key is fully seated by repeating step 16
and 17. Recheck draw key nut torque.
19. Install kingpin caps. Tighten caps. Refer to torque
charts in Appendix.
Note: Tighten nut to range minimum in steps 17 and 19, then
tighten just enough to align cotter pin hole.
20. Attach drag link to steering arm. Install and torque
nut to vehicle manufacturer recommended torque.
21. Install cotter pin.
26
Disassembly, Overhaul,
and Assembl y
16. Seat draw key with a hammer and punch.
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
I-100SA and Up
Threaded draw keys on axle codes I-100SA and up will
replace staked draw keys as follows:
1.
Install top draw key with the threaded end of key to
front of axle as shown.
Disassembly, Overhaul,
and Assembly
Replacing Staked Draw Keys with
Threaded
I-60SG and I-80SG
Axles coded I-60SG and I-80SG have one threaded and one
staked draw key.
For the staked keys the large end should seat flush to .060
inch (0.0 to 1.52 mm) recessed after being driven into place,
as shown in the following figure. Draw keys must be driven
into axle from opposite sides.
Front
4
1
3
2
1
2
4
Front
3
3
1 - Belleville washers
2 - Top draw key
3 - Bottom draw key
2.
To seat the draw key, strike the unthreaded end of
key with the drift and a hammer.
3.
Install Belleville washers as shown in the previous
illustration.
4.
Install nut and tighten as specified in the torque
chart in the Appendix.
5.
Install bottom draw key with threaded end to rear of
axle.
6.
Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 to finish installation of bottom draw key.
1
1 - I-beam axle
2 - Threaded draw key
3 - Staked draw key
4 - Kingpin
Note: Draw keys must be installed, one from each side of the
axle. Do not install both pins from the same side of the
axle.
27
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
Installing Dual Draw Keys
E-14621
1.
Align the draw key opening and the pin flat alignment.
4
I-Series
1.
Before staking the tapered draw keys, position kingpin vertically so it will not contact either the upper or
lower caps.
2.
Stake beam material adjacent to each key in three
places to lock key into place.
Correct
5
1
Incorrect
1
3
2
1 - Kingpin notch
2 - Kingpin
3 - Steer knuckle
4 - Single draw key
5 - Dual draw keys
2.
3.
Seat draw key with a hammer and punch.
4.
Install draw key spring washers as shown.
5.
Install draw key nut and tighten as specified in the
torque chart in the Appendix.
6.
Ensure that draw key is fully seated by reseating with
a hammer and punch.
7.
Recheck draw key nut torque.
2
1 - Staked draw key
2 - Threaded draw key
3 - Front
3.
Install kingpin caps and O-ring. Tighten cap bolts to
specified value in the torque chart in the Appendix.
4.
To make sure the kingpins will accept lubricant,
lubricate upper and lower kingpin bushings through
the cap grease fittings. If problems arise, you will not
have to remove the brakes again to make repairs.
5.
Reinstall tie rod ends in to the steering arms and
tighten the nuts to the specified value in the torque
chart. Then install the cotter pin. Refer to the Tie Rod
section for replacement of tie rod ends.
Install new draw key.
Note: Draw keys must be installed from one side of the axle.
Do not install pin on either side on the axle
28
3
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
Disassembly, Overhaul,
and Assemblyy
Steer Axle Grease Procedure
Kingpin Joint Greasing Procedure
1. With the vehicle on a level surface, block the front
and the back of at least one of the drive axle wheels
to keep the vehicle from moving. Set the parking brake.
4. Now apply grease to the bottom bushing fitting. Keep
greasing until you see clean grease being purged and
the thrust bearing is full of grease.
Important Note: Do not raise the vehicles off the ground
during greasing. If the wheels are off the ground grease
will not pass through the thrust bearing properly. This may
cause premature bearing wear and/or failure.
2. Clean all grease fittings before you apply new grease.
3. Start by greasing the top bushing grease fitting. Grease
must be applied until new (clean) grease comes from
between the shim pack and the steer knuckle and/or beam.
Grease Fitting
Grease Fitting
Bottom Bushing Grease Fitting
Top Bushing Grease Fitting
Grease Until Clean Grease is Purged
Important Note: Rotating the knuckle assembly during the
greasing process may help to complete the purge. Do not
raise the vehicle during this process.
Contaminated Grease – Continue Greasing
Important Note: The greasing of steer axle components is
not just to lubricate internal components. More importantly
it is to flush contamination that may have worked its way past
the seals. Greasing must continue until clean grease is purged.
29
Disassembly, Overhaul, and
Assembly
Steer Axle Grease Procedure
Tie Rod End Greasing Procedure
1. With the vehicle on a level surface, block the front
and the back of at least one of the drive axle wheels
to keep the vehicle from moving. Set the parking brake.
Important Note: Always measure tie rod end radial and/or
end-play before greasing. Greasing prior to taking measurements
will give you a false reading.
Important Note: The greasing of steer axle components is
not just to lubricate internal components. More importantly
it is to flush contamination that may have worked its way past
the seals. Greasing must continue until clean grease is purged
from the purge valve.
2. Clean both grease fittings before you apply new grease.
Grease Fitting
Always measure end-play before re-greasing
3. Apply grease to fitting. Grease must be applied until new
(clean) grease comes from the purge valve on the end of
the tie rod.
Purge Valve
30
General Specifications
General Specifications
Kingpin Clearance – In Service
End-play .001"- .005" (.025 - .125 mm)
Vertical – .040" max. (1.016 mm)
(See Wheel Bearing Adjustment for adjustment procedure.)
(See Component Inspection.)
Wheel Alignment
Bushing End-play – .015" max. (.381 mm)
(See vehicle manufacturer for specifications.)
(See Bushing Inspection.)
Note: Correct tightening torque values are extremely
important to assure long axle life and dependable
performance. Under-tightening of attaching parts
is just as harmful as over-tightening.
Kingpin Clearance – New
Vertical – .002" - .012" (.051-.305 mm)
(See Steering Knuckle Assembly.)
Note: Exact compliance with recommended torque values
will assure the best results.
Bushing End-play – New
Note: Some applications use 5/8-18-UNF for this fastener.
The same torque values apply.
General Specifications
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
.008" max (.20 mm)
Bolt head markings for
grade indentification
Grade 5
Grade 8
31
General Specifications
E Family Fastener Torque Specifications
Description
Fastener
Torques
lbs. ft. (N•m)
Socket Size
Nut, Draw Key (Single)
1/2-20-UNF-2B
30-45 (41-61)
3/4" 6 point
Nut, Draw Key (Dual)
3/8-16-UNC-2A
24-36 (33-49)
9/16" 6 point
Stop Screw
5/8-18-UNF-2A
—
5/8" open end wrench
Jam Nut, Stop Screw
5/8-18-UNF-3B
90-120 (122-163)
15/16" open end wrench
Nut, Slotted
7/8-14-UNF-2B
120-160 (163-217)
15/16" 6 point
Bolt, Tie Rod Clamp
5/8-11-UNC-2A*
45-60 (61-81)**
15/16" 6 point
Cap, Knuckle
2.375-16-UNF-2A
50-75 (68-102)
15/16" 6 point
Nut, Outer Spindle
1.5-18-UNEF-2B
100-150 (135-203)
2 1/4" 6 point
Nut, Inner Spindle
1.5-18-UNEF-2B
see wheel bearing adjustment
2 5/8" 6 point
Nut, Pro-Torque Spindle
1.5-18-UNEF-2B
see wheel bearing adjustment
2 1/2" 6 point
Torques
lbs. ft. (N•m)
Socket Size
EFA Family Fastener Torque Specifications
Description
Fastener
K n u c kl e C ap s c r e w
22-28 ( 30-38)
Steering and Ackermann
Arm Nuts - 12F, 13F Axle
350-490* (475-664)
Steering and Ackermann
Arm Nuts - 18F, 20F, 22T,
24T Axle
775-1050* (1051-1424)
W h eel B ear in g A d ju s tm en t
see wheel bearing adjustment
T ie R o d E n d N u t
165-230* ( 224-312)
S t eer i n g A r m B al l S t u d N u t
165-230* ( 224-312)
D r aw K ey N u t
30-45 ( 41-61)
C r o s s Tu b e C lam p S cr ew N u t
90-120 ( 122-163)
Note: Torque nut to the range minimum, then tighten further
to align cotter pin hole. Check torque to make sure it
does not exceed range maximum. If it does, use a new
nut.
32
General Specifications
I and D Family Fastener Torque Specifications
Description
Fastener
Torques
lbs. ft. (N•m)
120-160 (160-218)
Tie Rod Clamp Bolt
(Note 3)
45-60 (61-81)
Steering Arm Nut & Tie Rod
Arm Nut (Note 1)
450-650 (610-881)
775-1200 (1050-1625)
K i n g p i n D r aw K ey N u t ( N o t e 2 )
25-31 ( 34-42)
K i n g p i n C ap B o l t s
17-25 ( 23-34)
General Specifications
Tie Rod End Nut
(Note 1)
Socket Size
Note 1: Cotter pin cannot be installed after minimum torque is
attained, the nut must be advanced until the cotter pin can be
installed. Torque specified is for taper and threads which are
clean and oil free.
Note 2: Torque to specifications. Tap unthreaded end of draw
key sharply with a hammer, and re-torque draw key nut to
specifications.
Note 3: Drop tie rod ends: I-120SG and I-140SG = 55-70 lbs. ft.
[75-95 N•m]
I-200SG/I-200W/I-220W = 150-180 lbs. ft. [203-244 N•m]
D2000 Family Fastener Torque Specifications
Description
Fastener
Torques
lbs. ft. (N•m)
Tie Rod End Nut
(Note 1)
120-160 (160-218)
T i e R o d C l am p B o l t
S tr aig h t: 45-60 ( 61-81)
Drop: 150-180 (203-244)
Steering Arm Nut & Tie Rod
Arm Nut
775-1200 (1050-1625)
K i n g p i n D r aw K ey N u t
24-36 ( 32.5-49)
K i n g p i n C ap B o l t s
65-80 ( 88-108)
Socket Size
33
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Proper wheel bearing adjustment maximizes wheel bearing
and seal life. Proper adjustment can also extend brake lining
life by preventing lining contamination caused by seal leaks.
1. Inspect the spindle threads and spindle nuts for corrosion
and clean thoroughly or replace as required.
Note: Proper assembly and adjustment is not possible if the
spindle threads or adjusting nuts are corroded.
8. Loosen the inner nut one full turn.
9. Re-tighten the inner nut to 50 lbs. ft. (68 N•m) while
rotating the hub.
10. Again loosen the inner nut one-third turn (to one-half
turn maximum – three to five hub studs for a ten stud
pattern).
11. Install the locking spindle washer.
2. Pre-lubricate all bearings.
3. Install the inner bearing into the hub and install the
wheel seal.
Note: If the dowel pin and washer are not aligned, remove
washer, turn it over and re-install. If required, loosen
the inner nut just enough for alignment.
4. If grease lubricant is used, fill the hub cavity with the
appropriate lubricant.
5. Install the hub on the spindle with care, to prevent
damage or distortion to the wheel seal.
CAUTION
Never tighten inner nut to align dowel pin hole. This can
pre-load the bearing and cause premature bearing failure.
12. Install:
• The retainer washer.
• The outer spindle nut.
CAUTION
Never mix grease and oil lubricants.
13. Tighten the outer nut to 200±50 lbs. ft. (271-407
N•m).
6. Install:
• The outer bearing on the spindle.
• The inner spindle nut onto the spindle.
7. Seat the bearings by tightening the inner nut to
200 lbs. ft. (135 N•m) while rotating the hub.
14. Secure outer nut by bending the retainer washer
over one flat hex on the outer spindle nut.
15. Verify that the wheel end-play is between .001" and
.005" (.025 and .125 mm) using a dial indicator. If
reading does not fall within this range, repeat this
procedure.
3
2
1
16. Attach hub cap.
4
5
17. If oil lubricant is used, fill the hub cavity with the
appropriate lubricant. Install oil fill plug and tighten
to specified torque.
CAUTION
6
1 - Retainer washer
2 - Locking spindle washer
3 - Inner spindle nut
4 - Steering knuckle spindle
5 - Dowel pin
6 - Outer spindle nut
34
Never mix grease and oil lubricants.
Note: For steer axles with Spicer in axle speed sensors,
see AXSM-0034 for service and adjustment.
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Stamped Locking Nut System
Proper wheel bearing adjustment maximizes wheel bearing
and seal life. Proper adjustment can also extend brake lining
life by preventing lining contamination caused by seal leaks.
12. Install the stamped locking nut.
CAUTION
Never tighten the adjusting nut to align the cotter pin slot.
This can pre-load the bearings and cause a premature bearing failure.
1.
Inspect the spindle threads and spindle nut for corrosion and clean thoroughly or replace as required.
2.
Pre-lubricate all bearings.
3.
Install the inner bearing in to the hub and install the
wheel seal.
13. Verify that the wheel end play is between .001" and
.005" (.025 and .125mm) using a dial indicator. If
reading does not fall within the range, repeat this
procedure.
4.
If grease lubricant is used, fill the hub cavity with the
appropriate lubricant.
14. Install the cotter pin and bend legs around the
stamped locking nut.
5.
Install the hub on the spindle with care, to prevent
damage or distortion to the wheel seal.
CAUTION
Never mix grease and oil lubricants.
6.
Install the outer bearing on the spindle.
7.
Install the retaining washer and adjusting nut.
8.
Seat the bearing by tightening the adjusting nut to
100 lbs. ft. (135 N•m).
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
1
1 - Bend cotter pin legs
15. Attach the hub cap.
16. If oil lubricant is used, fill the hub cap cavity with the
appropriate lube. Install oil fill plug and tighten to
specified torque.
2
4
3
1
1 - Stamped locking nut
2 - Cotter pin
3 - Jam nut or Adjusting nut
4 - D-flat retaining washer
9.
Loosen the adjusting nut one-half turn.
10. Re-tighten the adjusting nut to 50 lbs. ft. (68 N•m)
while rotating the hub.
11. Back off the adjusting nut 1/8 turn.
35
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Single Nut (Castle Nut) Locking System
1.
Inspect the spindle threads and spindle nut for corrosion and clean thoroughly or replace as required.
Note: Proper assembly and adjustment is not possible if the
threads or adjusting nut are corroded.
2.
Pre-lubricate all bearings.
3.
Install the inner bearing in to the hub and install the
wheel seal.
4.
If grease lubricant is used, fill the hub cavity with the
appropriate lubricant.
5.
Install the hub on the spindle with care, to prevent
damage or distortion to the wheel seal.
CAUTION
Never mix grease and oil lubricants.
6.
Install the retaining washer.
7.
Install castle nut. Seat the bearing by tightening the
nut to 200 lbs. ft. while rotating the hub.
8.
Back off the adjusting nut 1/2 turn.
9.
Retighten the nut to 50 lbs. ft.
10. Back off the adjusting nut 1/8th turn.
11. Install cotter pin. If cotter pin hole is not lined-up,
loosen nut to first locking position.
12. Check endplay for .001" - .005".
13. Bend cotter pin legs to secure.
3
2
1
1 - Cotter pin
2 - Washer, retaining
3 - Castle nut
36
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Pro-Torq Spindle Nut Service
Removing Pro-Torq Spindle Nut
CAUTION
Do not attach, loosen, or tighten the Pro-Torq spindle nut
with the keeper ring in place. The keeper ring is a locking
device and must be removed before any adjustment of the
nut.
WARNING
Care must be taken when removing the keeper ring from the
spindle nut due to the spring-like properties of the ring. Use
appropriate eye protection and shielding when servicing
this part.
To remove Pro-Torq spindle nut, first remove the keeper ring.
Use a screwdriver-like device to carefully pry the keeper ring
from the undercut groove on either side of the spindle nut
until the keeper ring is released.
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
37
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Installing Pro-Torq Spindle Nut
Install spindle nut as follows:
1.
Do not attach, loosen, or tighten the Pro-Torq spindle nut
with the keeper ring in place. The keeper ring is a locking
device and must be removed before any adjustment of the
nut.
WARNING
Care must be taken when removing the keeper ring from the
spindle nut due to the spring-like properties of the ring. Use
appropriate eye protection and shielding when servicing
this part.
3.
To achieve the proper end-play, re-thread the ProTorq nut until hand tight. Torque to 75 lbs. ft. (102
N•m).
5.
Back nut off 1/3 turn, or one raised face mark on
surface of the Pro-Torq nut. Wheel should turn
freely.
6.
Check end-play using a dial indicator. End-play
should be within .001" – .003" (.025 –.076 mm).
Remove the keeper ring from the nut as described in
the Removing Pro-Torq Spindle Nut section.
CAUTION
2.
4.
CAUTION
After seating bearing at 150 lbs. ft. (204 N•m), Pro-Torq
spindle nut must be backed off. Failure to back off the nut
will cause the bearing to run hot and fail prematurely or to
be damaged. The final adjustment of 75 lbs. ft. (102 N•m)
of adjusting torque with a 1/3 turn back off will ensure the
necessary .001" – .003"(.025 –.076 mm) end-play.
7.
Insert the keeper ring into the undercut groove of the
spindle nut as shown.
To seat the steer axle bearing, thread the Pro-Torq
nut onto the axle spindle. While rotating the wheel,
torque the nut to 150 lbs. ft. (204 N•m).
8.
Engage the mating teeth of the keeper and the nut.
9.
Compress and insert the keeper arms one at a time
into the undercut groove of the nut.
After seating the bearing, back the nut off one full
turn.
10. Position the keeper ring as required to align teeth.
11. Do not turn the spindle nut to align teeth.
Use Raised Nubs
to Indicate 1/3 Turn
Back Off
38
Additional Service Information
Additional Service
Information
Additional Service Information
Additional parts and service information on these and related
Spicer products may be found in the following publications:
Service Manuals
Foundation Brakes
BRSM-0033
In Axle Speed Sensor
AXSM-0034
Parts Books
Brake Models ES (All Models)
BRIP-0065
Steer Axles (All Models except “E” Family)
AXIP-0090
Steer Axles E-1000, E-1002, E-1200, E-1202,
E-1320, E-1322, E-1460, and E1462
AXIP-0075
For the most current information visit the Dana website,
www.dana.com. These publications may be ordered
through the Spicer publications order system. An order
form may be obtained by calling Dana Service Support.
39
Appendix
Special Service Tools
Special service tools are available from the below suppliers:
OTC DIVISION
Service To ols
655 Eisenhower Drive
Owatonna, MN 55060
Telephone: 1-800-533-0492
Fax Number: 1-800-283-8665
The following is a list of tools needed to service the front axles in this manual. These tool numbers are from OTC Tool Division.
Dana makes no warranty or representation of these tools.
Models Serviced
Description
Tool Number
Tools to service all axle models
Kingpin Bushing Basic Set
ZTSE 4330A
Tools to service axle models
I-60SG & I-80SG
Bushing Installer
Seal Installer
ZTSE 4330-4A
ZTSE 4330-44
Tools to service axle models
I-100SA/SG through I-146SA/SG
Bushing Installer
Seal Installer
ZTSE 4330-5A
ZTSE 4330-55
Tools to service axle models
I-160SA/SG through I-200SA/SG
Bushing Installer
Seal Installer
ZTSE 4330-3A
ZTSE 4330-33
40
Appendix
Appendix
Lubrication
Proper lubrication practices are important in maximizing the
service life of your steer axle assembly.
Kingpins, Thrust Bearings and Tie Rod Ends
On-Highway Applications - Standard
Pressure lubricate every 6 months or 25,000 miles (40,000
km).
A more frequent lubrication cycle is required for axles used in
on/off highway, refuse, or other severe service applications.
Use heavy-duty, multipurpose lithium base (#2 grade) grease.
Do not mix with sodium base grease.
Note: If it is difficult to grease either the upper or lower bushing,
try greasing the bushings with the vehicle jacked up
and supported on axle stands to improve grease flow
and help flush out contamination.
CAUTION
Do not mix lubricants of different grades. Do not mix mineral
and synthetic lubes. Different brands of same grade
may be mixed. Do not pack bearings with grease when
using an oil bath system. This practice can restrict the flow
of lubricant to the wheel seal.
Grease Packed
Thoroughly clean bearings, spindle, hub cap, and hub cavity.
Parts may be washed in a suitable commercial solvent. Be
certain parts are free of moisture or other contaminants. Refer
to vehicle and/or wheel seal manufacturer’s recommendations
when using grease. Fill wheel hub with grease to inside diameter
of bearing cups. Fill hub cap. Grease bearing cones by
forcing grease between rollers, cones, and cage.
Appendix
Wheel Bearings
Lubricate wheel bearings with an approved drive axle lubricant
(oil bath) or heavy duty grease (grease packed) depending
on the type of axle lube system. Identify the type of
lubrication system on your vehicle before servicing wheel
bearings. Improper lubrication can result in reduced seal life
and potential damage to bearings and spindles.
Oil Bath
Lubricate wheel end assembly with a drive axle lubricant that
meets MIL-L-2105D specifications. Either 80W-90 mineral
based or 75W-90 synthetic lube is acceptable. Check lubricant
level at each greasing interval. Maintain lube level to centerline
of axle or fill line on hub cap. Always check lube level on
flat ground.
CAUTION
Never mix oil bath and grease packed wheel ends.
LMS Bearing System
Refer to Spicer information Bulletin ABIB-9606.
41
Appendix
Steer Axles
Type of Lube System
Lubricant
King Pin Joint Grease /
Tie Rod Ends
SAE
Change Interval for
Line Haul
Change Interval
for Vocational
Heavy-Duty Multipurpose #1 Grade*** or
Lithium Based**
#2 Grade
25,000 miles (40,000 Km) or
6 months
Every 50 hours
Type of Lube System
Lubricant
SAE
Change Interval for
Line Haul
Change Interval
for Vocational
Steer Axle
Oil Bath LMS
Synthetic
SAE 75W-90
500,000 miles (800,000 Km)
or 5 years
120,000 miles (193,000
Km) or 2 years
Steer Axle
Oil Bath (Adjusted)
Synthetic
SAE 75W-140,
SAE 50
120,000 miles (193,000 Km)
or 1 year
60,000 miles (95,000
Km) or 6 months
Steer Axle
Oil Bath (Adjusted)
Mineral Base
SAE 75W, 75W-90,
75W-140, 80W90, 85W-140
120,000 miles (193,000 Km)
or 1 year
60,000 miles (95,000
Km) or 6 months
Steer Axle
Semi-Fluid (Adjusted)
Semi-Fluid Synthetic
Grease
Delo SF, Mobil
SHC 007**
120,000 miles (193,000 Km)
or 1 year
60,000 miles (95,000
Km) or 6 months
Steer Axle
Grease Pack
(Adjusted)
Heavy-Duty Multipurpose #2 Grade
Lithium Base***
120,000 miles (193,000 Km)
or 1 year
60,000 miles (95,000
Km) or 6 months
Steer Axle Wheel Ends
**Do not mix with sodium base grease
Do not use greases other than what is indicated above
***#1 grade is used for extra cold
42
Appendix
Verify Wheel End-play Procedure
Adjust End-play with Wheel Hub
Verify that end-play meets specification using a dial indicator.
An indicator with .001" (.03 mm) resolution is required.
Wheel end-play is the free movement of the tire and wheel
assembly along the spindle axis.
Correct end-play is .001" – .005" (.025 – .125 mm).
1.
Attach a dial indicator with its magnetic base to the
hub or brake drum as shown below.
2.
Adjust the dial indicator so that its plunger or pointer
is against the end of the spindle with its line of action
approximately parallel to the axis of the spindle.
3.
Grasp the wheel assembly at the 3 o’clock and 9
o’clock positions. Push the wheel assembly in and
out while oscillating it to seat the bearings. Read
bearing end-play as the total indicator movement.
CAUTION
With indicator mounted at bottom,
Push/Pull at sides of drum
Readjust Wheel End-play Procedure
Adjust End-play with Tire and Wheel Assembly
Excessive End-play — If end-play is greater than .005" (.127
mm), remove the outer nut and pull the lock washer away
from the inner nut, but not off the spindle. Tighten the inner
nut to the next alignment hole of the dowel-type washer (if
used). Reassemble the washer and re-torque the outer nut.
Verify end-play with a dial indicator.
Appendix
If end-play is not within specification, readjustment is
required.
Insufficient End-play — If end-play is not present, remove the
outer nut and pull the lock washer away from the inner nut,
but not off the spindle. Loosen the inner nut to the next
adjustment hole of the dowel-type washer (if used). Reassemble the washer and re-torque the outer nut. Verify end-play
with a dial indicator.
Fine Tuning the End-play — If, after performing the readjustment procedures, end-play is still not within the .001" – .005"
(.025–.127 mm) range, disassemble and inspect the components. If parts are found to be defective, replace the defective
parts, reassemble and repeat wheel bearing adjustment procedure. Verify end-play with a dial indicator.
43
For spec‘ing or service assistance, call 1-877-777-5360 or visit our website at www.dana.com
Dana Commercial Vehicle Products Group
3939 Technology Drive
Maumee, Ohio, USA 43537
www.dana.com
All applications must be approved by the Application Engineering Department. Specifications and/or design are subject to change without notice or obligation.
Printed in USA
AXSM-0038 09/13
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