review on utlp based digital speedometer with fuel

review on utlp based digital speedometer with fuel
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084
Volume-2, Issue-7, July-2014
Pad. Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pimpri, Pune-18
Abstract- The consumption of fuel is increase in metropolitan cities due to enhanced trip lengths, shift of modal share
towards personalized modes of travel and congested intersections. When the vehicles are at signal and waiting for signal to
be green, many drivers does not switch off their vehicle and this will results in unwanted fuel consumption. Small amount of
fuel wasted, aggregated over number of cycles per day, number of days per month and number of signalized intersections
become huge quantity. Interfacing between external input and UTLP kit is done by the GPIO port which is at UTLP kit.
Implementing Digital Speedometer with Fuel consumption control using RF transceiver, reduction of fuel consumption at
traffic light signal and calculation of current Speed and Distance travel by particular vehicle takes place.
Keyword- Unified Technology Learning Platform (UTLP) Kit, RF Transceiver module, Fuel Consumption control.
signals at a particular frequency and a baud rate. The
RF receiver can receive these signals only if it is
configured for the predefined signal/data pattern. An
ideal solution for this application is provided by
compact transmitter and receiver modules, which
operate at a frequency of 434 MHz and are available
ready-made. Here, the radio frequency (RF)
transmission system employs Amplitude Shift Keying
(ASK) with transmitter (and receiver) operating at
434 MHz The use of the ready-made RF module
simplifies the construction of a wireless remote
control system and also makes it more reliable.
To implement Digital Speedometer with Fuel
consumption control using RF technology a
microprocessor comes out as a simple and cost
effective solution. But, on choosing omap3530, it has
a large amount of code and data memory and
sufficient RAM to accurately solve the given
problem. It has an inbuilt oscillator so we did not
have to connect an external crystal. The display used
in an HD44780 compatible 16x2 character display.
A speedometer or a speed meter is a gauge that
measures and displays the instantaneous speed of a
land vehicle. A computer converts the pulses obtained
from reed-magnet mechanism to a speed and displays
this speed on an electronically-controlled analog-style
needle or a digital display. Pulse information is also
used for a variety of other purposes by the ECU or
full-vehicle control system, e.g. triggering ABS or
traction control, calculating average trip speed, or
more mundanely to increment the odometer in place
of it being turned directly by the speedometer cable.
Now a day’s many wireless controlling technologies
are available. One of these most popular is RF
technology for wireless control system. Radio
Frequency technique (RF) uses a transmitter and
receiver for wireless transmission Using which fuel
consumption at traffic signal interactions can be
controlled. As per documents Specified in literature
survey it has been cleared that reduction of Fuel
consumption became most essential part in traffic
protocols. Using RF technology we can reduce it by
automatic turning ON and OFF the engines of vehicle
at traffic signal as per the requirement. It is often
required to switch electrical switch from a distance
without being a direct line of sight between the
transmitter and receiver. As you may well know, an
RF based wireless remote control system (RF
Transmitter & RF Receiver) can be used to control an
output load from a remote place. RF transmitter, as
the name suggests, uses radio frequency to send the
Coming year the people will suffer not only from
health risk but also for a place to walk on road. It is
just because, in India, the vehicular population in the
year of 1951 was just 0.31 Million, in 2009 figure
reached up to 115 Million and by 2040, the projected
populations of highway vehicles and two-wheelers
Would be 206 million to 309 million. The Projected
fuel demands by the transportation sector of 404
million to 719 million metric tons (8-15 million
barrels/day) and corresponding annual CO2
emissions would be 1.2-2.2 billion metric tons
excluding fuel wastage at idling. Global consultancy
firm Ernst & Young, states that the Indian market will
clock the fastest compound annual growth rate
(CAGR 14%) between 2009 and 2020, and it would
be more than twice that of China and the triad of
North America, Europe and Japan this study
Extremely busy traffic junctions of Indore city were
selected. Fuel wastage due to bad traffic systems can
be reduced by increasing the new vehicles fuel
economy and optimizing the traffic control measures.
There has been an approved ban on truck idling in the
many counties as part of their clean-air attainment
plan. To attain the effectiveness of idling-reduction
policies, such as incentives and bans, it will be
necessary to estimate the emissions reductions
Review on UTLP Based Digital Speedometer with Fuel Consumption Control Using RF Transceiver
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084
Volume-2, Issue-7, July-2014
associated with the decreased idling. The objectives
of the study are concise as follows:
As estimated in the study, Pune city generated about
4.7 million tonne of carbon-dioxide equivalents of
cumulative and 1.46 tCO2 per capita emissions in
2010–11. Electricity use had the maximum
contribution of 56.38% of the total CO2 emissions,
followed by petroleum products which generated
36.50%. Municipal solid waste and sewage
contributed to the rest of the share. Consumption of
petroleum products accounted for the second highest
amount of CO2 emissions in the city. During the
observation facts were come that about 90% of idle
four wheeler vehicles found in Regal crossing during
8AM to 2PM (refer to table) because it is locate at
central Indore however during 2PM- 10PM almost
98% of vehicles found in idle condition. Great
number of three wheel vehicles was in idle condition
at all crossings.
The traffic volume count at all the intersections in
Delhi is not available except for those where traffic
volume study has been conducted in past and in this
study. The traffic volume count at mid blocks and
intersections conducted in previous studies and also
in the present study undertaken by Central Road
Research Institute has provided extensive data on
traffic flows on the road network of Delhi.
Employing this data the traffic volume at the
intersections in Delhi was arrived at judiciously.
Besides this, growth factor method was also used to
arrive at the traffic volume of the intersections. It was
arrived upon that out of total 600 signalized
intersections, 69 intersections are low volume, 118
are medium volume and 413 high volume. It has been
worked out that on an average fuel worth Rs.19,696 ,
Rs.27,768 and Rs.53,344 is wasted per day at the low,
medium and high volume intersections respectively.
The average fuel loss accruing at intersections of
varying traffic volumes formed the basis for
estimating the fuel loss at signalized intersections in
entire city of Delhi. In Delhi, at 600 signalized
intersections 0.37 million kilograms of CNG, 0.13
million liters of diesel and 0.41 million liters of petrol
is wasted everyday due to idling of vehicles.
Converting these Figures into monetary terms, the
total losses work out to be Rs.27.25 million per day
for Delhi. It is evident that 135.9 million kilograms of
CNG, 47.4 million liters of Diesel, 14.78 million
liters of Petrol worth Rs. 9944.7 million are being
wasted at the signalized intersections while waiting
for the signal to turn green.
About 92% of three wheel vehicles were in starting
condition while waiting for green signal during 8AM
to 10PM at Palasia Main because Palasia crossing is
in all time busy route (AB Road) and many shopping
malls and market are situated near the Palasia.
Almost all two wheeler at every crossings of Indore
found idle.
Consequently 80 to 98% two wheeler was in idle
condition during 12hrs observation of sevens crossing
for seven days (refer to table). Limited number of
heavy vehicles was found at crossing except
Bhowarkua and Bengali crossing which are near
transport Nagar but in general, all heavy vehicles
(Bus and Truck) found in idle condition. It observed
that Palasia-1 was most crowded crossing where
more than 3400 two wheeler (100cc, 125cc, 150cc
and 180cc), 1400 three wheeler (auto rickshaw and
other goods three wheeler) and 2800 four wheeler
(800cc and 1000cc) found idle (refer to table) during
8AM to 10 PM per day.
In this period of time, 3072 number of two wheeler
and 604 numbers of heavy vehicles found idle
excluding vehicle in traffic jam. Poor Traffic flow
system experienced near the Bengali crossing just
because of Bengali square is in Ring Road and
connected with Palasia square and Khajrana Ganesh
An effective traffic control needed between 8AM to
10AM& 4PM to 6PM because many numbers of idle
vehicles taken into account at that period (refer to
table). Schools, colleges and offices are opened and
closed at this duration pollution caused in Indore city.
More than that of controlling parameters has to be
developed to minimize the fuel wastage and global
warming potential in Indore.
Review on UTLP Based Digital Speedometer with Fuel Consumption Control Using RF Transceiver
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084
Volume-2, Issue-7, July-2014
In this project for calculation of Speed and distance,
magnet is pasted on the front wheel of the vehicle.
Other circuitry of component like opto-coupler IC
(4N35), Reed switch is assembled at front shockabsorber. When the magnet which is mounted on
wheel, passes nearby the reed switch, the magnetic
contact inside the reed switch takes place which
generates the pulse in digital form. Interfacing of this
circuitry and UTLP kit is done through 25-pin Simple
Digital Interface connector which is also called as
GPIO ports of UTLP kit. The pulse generated by the
circuitry arrangement is then given to the core
processor IC OMAP 3530 of UTLP kit. Then OMAP
3530 IC will perform all the required calculation such
Circumference of wheel=C=2πr,.
Speed=S=N×C×3600/1000 km/hr
Where, r=radius of front wheel in cm
N=number of revolution per second
C= circumference of wheel
Fig.2 Circuit Diagram
External circuitry consists of reed switch, Optocoupler IC 4N35 and some supportive components
like resistor, capacitor and diode. External circuitry is
shown in fig.2. Reed switch used in the circuitry is
magnetically operates. When magnet passes nearby to
Reed switch then Reed switch operates. When there
is a one rotation of the wheel, then reed switch gives
a digital pulse (high to low) which is then sent to
Opto-coupler IC 4N35.Opto-coupler IC is used to
optically isolate the reed switch output from input of
processor. Opto-coupler gives digital pulse which is
then given to the OMAP3530 IC by GPIO interface
through 25-pin Simple Digital Interface connector.
The distance is calculated on the basis of revolution
of the wheel. The distance is updated at every 100
meters and to cover 100 meters the wheel required to
make approximately 100/C revolution. Where, ‘C’ is
circumference of the front wheel and which is
calculated by above given formula. A single trip
distance can also be calculated. Using above
mentioned formulae gives the current speed and total
distance traveled by the vehicle. The speed calculated
is further useful to turn-on and turn-off the moped
bike i.e. non-gear automobiles. The turn-on and turnoff of vehicle takes place, taking cell start mechanism
into account. Cell start mechanism gives the initial
sparking to engine to start. RF transmitter CC2500 is
fitted on the traffic light signal pole which transmits
the countdown of the signal when signal is RED and
when the signal is GREEN, RF transmitter does not
transmit any signal. The countdown of signal is
transmitted at a carrier frequency of 2.4 GHz. Same
type of RF transceiver is fitted on the vehicle, which
will receive the countdown transmitted by the
transmitter at traffic signal. When the vehicle enters
into the RF transmitter zone receiver receives the
countdown from the transmitter. This Receiver is
connected to the UTLP kit through UART. The
countdown receive by the receiver is given to the
processor OMAP 3530. When the countdown
transmitted is greater than 10 seconds, processor
checks the speed of vehicle (moped bike), if speed of
vehicle is zero (S=0) then with help of relay,
processor turn-off the vehicle automatically. When
the vehicle (moped bike) is at turn off condition at
signal, processor checks the countdown and when
time remaining signal to be GREEN is less than or
equal 10 seconds then processor turn-on the vehicle
automatically with help of relay by sending control
signal to relay. This will save 30% of fuel consumed
by vehicle.
Unified Learning Kit is based on Texas Instruments
OMAP3530 application processor & Spartan-6 FPGA
co-processor. The Spartan-6 family provides leading
system integration capabilities with the lowest total
cost for high-volume applications. The thirteenmember family delivers expanded densities ranging
from 3,840 to 147,443 logic cells, with half the power
consumption of previous Spartan families, and faster,
more comprehensive connectivity. Spartan-6 FPGAs
are the programmable silicon foundation for Targeted
Design Platforms that deliver integrated software and
hardware components that enable designers to focus
on innovation as soon as their development cycle
Fig.3 Top View of UTLP Kit
Review on UTLP Based Digital Speedometer with Fuel Consumption Control Using RF Transceiver
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084
RF transceiver used in this project is as shown in
fig.4. It has a carrier frequency of 2.4.GHz. The RF
transceiver is connected to the UTLP through RS232
UART interface. It is supported to the three baud
rates three baud rate but the default baud rate is 9600.
Volume-2, Issue-7, July-2014
total of 30 per cent of fuel savings and 18 per cent
savings in the economic loss shall be accrued. In
2010–11, a total of 0.5 Million Metric Tonne (MMT)
of petroleum products were sold in Pune, which are
estimated to have generated 1.7 million tonne CO2
emissions. The transport sector generated 51% of the
overall emissions from the use of petroleum products.
Petrol and diesel were responsible for about 30% and
19% of the emissions from the petroleum products
generating 0.5 million tonne CO2 and 0.320 million
tonne CO2 emissions, respectively. The other large
source of emissions was from the consumption of
domestic LPG, which generated 0.4 million tonne
CO2 emission. So it will also help to reduce
substantial amount CO2 emission which will be
beneficial for the environment.
Fig.4 RF Transceiver
The three baud rates supported by RF transceiver and
code required to set the as follow,
1. 9600bps
2. 19200bps
3. 38400bps
Implementing UTLP based Digital Speedometer with
Fuel consumption control using RF transceiver, 2530% of fuel consumption of vehicle at traffic signal is
reduced and also control the pollution to the some
extent. Mounting the Digital Speedometer on the
vehicle exact speed and distance traveled by the
vehicle is recorded with very high accuracy.
It has a half duplex communication protocol; it can
either transmit or receive the data at a time. It has
three modes and their selection command as follows,
1. Transceiver
2. Transmit only
3. Receiver only
Implementation of UTLP based Digital Speedometer
with Fuel consumption control using RF transceiver
is very much useful in the point of view repairing and
instant result of speed and distance. It saves the
consumption of fuel of a vehicle at traffic signal with
considerable amount and also some amount of CO2
emission, hence pollution reduces. This project also
has some drawbacks like for implementing this
project RF transceiver must be install at every signal.
This increases cost of implementation.
If any command for the baud rate and mode is not
given then is automatically consider the default
command i.e. 9600 baud rate and transceiver mode.
This RF transceiver is operated with input supply
voltage 5v to 12v. It also has two configurable modes
i.e. command mode and data mode. For programming
related part of RF transceiver at the traffic signal
Supporting Appliances:
The Spartan-6 FPGA supports interfaces such as
Ethernet, FPGA HDR2 20-pin Header, Keypad
connector(4X4), FPGA Expansion connector, Mictor
connector, ADC, 25-Pin simple digital interface
connector, Bluetooth module, DAC, LED, Graphical
display, 7-sement display, UART Transceiver, 7
segment LED, 16x2 Char LCD, Oscillators (10 &
100Mhz), DDR2 SDRAM, PROM, Dip Switches.
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[2]. Honghong Gao and Fang Luo, "Design of Motorcycle
Speed Measuring System," Small Internal Combustion
Engine and Motorcycle, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 46-48, April
[3]. B. Coifman and M. Cassidy, "Vehicle reidentification and
travel time measurement on congested freeways,"
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol.
36, no. 10, pp. 899-917, December 2002.
12 representative signalized intersections of varying
traffic volume have been selected in this study to as
certain fuel loss during idling of vehicles. In Delhi,
0.37 million kilograms of CNG, 0.13 million liters of
diesel and 0.41million liters of petrol is wasted
everyday due to idling of vehicles. Converting these
figures into monetary terms, the total losses work out
to be Rs.27.25 million per day and Rs.9944.5 million
per annum. After the implementation of this project, a
[4]. Garry A. Theile, Warren L. Stutzmann, "Antenna Theory
and Design," 1st ed, pp.15-515, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
[5]. Valerie H. Johnson, Keith B. Wipke. HEV control strategy
for real-time optimization of fuel economy and emissions,
SAE2000-01-1543, 2000.
Review on UTLP Based Digital Speedometer with Fuel Consumption Control Using RF Transceiver
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