CONSONANCE

CONSONANCE
CONSONANCE
5A, Standalone Li-ion Battery Charger
CN3704
General Descriptions:
The CN3704 is a PWM switch-mode lithium
ion battery charger controller for 4 cell li-ion
battery in a small package using few external
components.
The CN3704 is specially designed for
charging lithium ion batteries with constant
current and constant voltage mode. In constant
voltage mode, the regulation voltage is fixed
at 16.8V with ±1% accuracy. The constant
charging current is programmable with a
single sense resistor.
Deeply discharged batteries are automatically
trickle charged at 15% of the programmed
constant charging current until the cell voltage
exceeds 11.2V. The charge cycle is terminated
once the charging current drops to a level set
by an on-chip resistor and an external resistor,
and a new charge cycle automatically restarts
if the battery voltage falls below 16V. CN3704
will automatically enter sleep mode when
input voltage is lower than battery voltage.
Other features include undervoltage lockout,
battery temperature monitoring and status
indication, etc.
CN3704 is available in a space-saving 16-pin
TSSOP package.
Features:
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Pin Assignment:
Applications:

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Notebook Computers
Model Plane
Battery-Backup Systems
Portable Industrial and
Medical Equipment
Standalone Battery Chargers
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Rev.1.2
Wide Input Voltage: 7.5V to 28V
Complete Charger Controller for 4
cell Lithium-ion Battery
Charge Current Up to 5A
High PWM Switching Frequency:
300KHz
Constant Charging Voltage
Accuracy: ±1%
Charging Current is programmed
with a sense resistor
Automatic Conditioning of Deeply
Discharged Batteries
End-of-Charge Current can be set
by an external resistor
Battery Temperature Monitoring
Automatic Recharge
Charger Status Indication
Soft Start
Battery Overvoltage Protection
Operating Ambient Temperature
-40℃ to +85℃
Available in 16 Pin TSSOP Package
Pb-free , RoHS Compliant,
and Halogen Free
1
VG
1
16 DRV
PGND
2
15 VCC
GND
3
14 BAT
CHRG
4
DONE
5
TEMP
6
11 COM3
EOC
7
10 test
COM1
8
9 COM2
CN3704
13 CSP
12 NC
CONSONANCE
Typical Application Circuit:
Input Power Supply
D1
M1
RCS
L
C5
100nF
C1
C6
D2
15
R1
D3
1
VG
VCC
R5
13
BAT 14
CN3704 NC 12
4 CHRG
5 DONE
6 TEMP
7
R3
16
DRV
CSP
D4
R2
NTC
BAT
test 10
COM2 9
COM1 8
COM3
R4
120
11
EOC
C2
100nF
GND PGND
3
2
C3
470pF
C4
220nF
Figure 1 Typical Application Circuit
Ordering Information:
Part No.
CN3704
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Operating Ambient Temperature
-40℃
to +85℃
2
Constant Charging Voltage
16.8V(4 Li-ion Batteries)
Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
Pin Description:
Pin No.
Name
1
VG
2
PGND
Power Ground.
3
GND
Analog Ground.
4
5
Descriptions
Internal Voltage Regulator. VG internally supplies power to gate driver, connect a
100nF capacitor between VG pin and VCC pin.
CHRG
Open-Drain Output. When the battery is being charged, this pin is pulled low by
an internal switch. Otherwise this pin is in high impedance state.
DONE
Open-Drain Output. When the charging is terminated, this pin is pulled low by an
internal switch. Otherwise this pin is in high impedance state.
6
TEMP
Battery Temperature Monitoring Input. Connect an NTC resistor from this pin to
GND.
7
EOC
End-of-Charge Current Setting Pin. Connect this pin to GND directly or via a
resistor.
8
COM1
Loop Compensation Input 1. Connect a 470pF capacitor from this pin to GND.
9
COM2
Loop Compensation Input 2. Connect a 220nF capacitor in series with an 120Ω
resistor from this pin to GND.
10
test
11
COM3
12
NC
No Connection
CSP
Positive Input for Charging Current Sensing. This pin and the BAT pin measure
the voltage drop across the sense resistor RCS, to provide the current signals
required.
14
BAT
Battery Voltage Sensing Input and the Negative Input for Charging Current
Sensing. A precision resistor divider sets the regulation voltage on this pin in
constant voltage mode.
15
VCC
External DC Power Supply Input. VCC is also the power supply for internal
circuit. Bypass this pin with a capacitor.
16
DRV
Drive the gate of external P-channel MOSFET.
13
Test pin. Connected this pin to GND.
Loop Compensation Input 3. Connect an 100nF capacitor from this pin to GND.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Voltage from VCC, CHRG, DONE to GND………………..…-0.3V to 30V
Voltage from VG, DRV to GND……………………………….8V
Voltage from CSP, BAT to GND………………………………-0.3V to 28V
Voltage from COM3 to GND………………………………….6.5V
Voltage from Other Pins to GND………………………...……-0.3V to VCOM3+0.3V
Storage Temperature………………………………………...…-65℃---150℃
Operating Ambient Temperature………………………….……-40℃---85℃
Lead Temperature(Soldering, 10 seconds)………………..……260℃
Stresses beyond those listed under ‘Absolute Maximum Ratings’ may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress
ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational
sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating Conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
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Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
Electrical Characteristics:
(VCC=20V, TA=-40℃ to 85℃, unless otherwise noted)
Parameters
Input Voltage Range
Undervoltage
Threshold
lockout
Symbol
Conditions
Min
VCC
7.5
UVLO
4.2
Typ
Max
Unit
28
V
6
7.3
V
mA
Operating Current
IVCC
No switching
1.4
1.95
2.5
Regulation Voltage
VREG
Constant voltage mode
16.632
16.8
16.968
Current Sense
VCS
VBAT>11.2V, VCSP-VBAT
190
200
210
VBAT<11.2V, VCSP-VBAT
15
27
42
Current into BAT Pin
IBAT
Termination or Sleep Mode
15
25
uA
Precharge Threshold
VPRE
VBAT rising
11.2
11.6
V
Precharge
Hysteresis
HPRE
VBAT falling
0.4
V
Recharge Threshold
VRE
VBAT falling
16
V
Overvoltage Trip Level
Vov
VBAT rising
1.06
1.08
1.1
Overvoltage Clear Level
Vclr
VBAT falling
0.98
1
1.02
42
55
68
uA
Threshold
10.8
V
mV
VREG
TEMP Pin
Pull up Current
Iup
High Threshold
Vthh
TEMP Voltage Rising
1.57
1.61
1.65
V
Low Threshold
Vthl
TEMP Voltage Falling
0.145
0.175
0.205
V
ICHRG
ILK1
VCHRG=1V, charge mode
VCHRG=25V,termination mode
7
IDONE
ILK2
VDONE=1V, termination mode
7
CHRG Pin
CHRG Pin Sink Current
CHRG Leakage Current
12
18
mA
1
uA
18
mA
1
uA
360
kHZ
DONE Pin
Sink Current
Leakage Current
12
VDONE=25V, charge mode
Oscillator
Switching Frequency
Maximum Duty Cycle
240
fosc
Dmax
300
94
%
Sleep Mode
Sleep Mode Threshold
(measure VCC-VBAT)
Sleep mode
Threshold
VSLP
VCC falling
Release
VSLPR
VCC rising,
(measure VCC-VBAT)
VBAT=8V
0.06
0.1
0.14
VBAT=12V
0.1
0.14
0.18
VBAT=18V
0.18
0.23
0.28
VBAT=8V
0.26
0.32
0.39
VBAT=12V
0.32
0.42
0.52
VBAT=18V
0.38
0.47
0.58
V
V
DRV Pin
VDRV High (VCC-VDRV)
VH
IDRV=-10mA
VDRV Low (VCC-VDRV)
VL
IDRV=0mA
5
6.5
8
V
Cload=2nF, 10% to 90%
30
40
65
ns
Cload=2nF, 90% to 10%
30
40
65
ns
Rise Time
Fall Time
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tr
tf
4
60
mV
Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
Detailed Description:
The CN3704 is a constant current, constant voltage Li-Ion battery charger controller that adopts PWM
step-down (buck) switching architecture. The charge current is set by an external sense resistor (RCS) across the
CSP and BAT pins. The final battery regulation voltage in constant voltage mode is internally set to 16.8V with
1% accuracy.
A charge cycle begins when the voltage at the VCC pin rises above the UVLO level and is greater than the
battery voltage by VSLPR. At the beginning of the charge cycle, if the battery voltage is less than 11.2V, the
charger goes into trickle charge mode. The trickle charge current is internally set to 15%(Typical) of the
full-scale current. When the battery voltage exceeds 11.2V, the charger goes into the full-scale constant current
charge mode. In constant current mode, the charge current is set by the external sense resistor RCS and an internal
200mV reference, so the charge current equals to 200mV/RCS. When the battery voltage approaches the
regulation voltage, the charger goes into constant voltage mode, and the charge current will start to decrease.
When the charge current drops to a level that is set by the resistor at EOC pin, the charge cycle is terminated,
the DRV pin is pulled up to VCC, and an internal comparator turns off the internal pull-down N-channel
MOSFET at the
pin to indicate that the charge cycle is terminated. During the charge cycle termination
status, another internal pull-down N-channel MOSFET at the
pin is turned on to indicate the termination
status.
To restart the charge cycle, just remove and reapply the input voltage. Also, a new charge cycle will begin if the
battery voltage drops below the recharge threshold voltage of 16V.
When the input voltage is not present, the charger goes into sleep mode.
A 10kΩ NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistor can be connected from the TEMP pin to ground for
battery temperature qualification. The charge cycle is suspended if the battery’s temperature is outside of the
acceptable range.
An overvoltage comparator guards against voltage transient overshoots (>8% of regulation voltage). In this case,
P-channel MOSFET are turned off until the overvoltage condition is cleared. This feature is useful for battery
load dump or sudden removal of battery.
The charging profile is shown in Figure 2.
Precharge
Phase
Constant Current
Phase
Constant Voltage
Phase
16.8V
11.2V
Charge terminated
Charge Current
Battery Voltage
Figure 2 The Charging Profile
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Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
Application Information
Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
An undervoltage lockout circuit monitors the input voltage and keeps the charger off if VCC falls below
6V(Typical).
Trickle Charge Mode
At the beginning of a charge cycle, if the battery voltage is below 11.2V, the charger goes into trickle charge
mode with the charge current reduced to 15% of the full-scale current.
Charge Current Setting
The full-scale charge current, namely the charge current in constant current mode, is decided by the following
formula:
Where:
ICH is the full scale charge current
RCS is the resistor between the CSP pin and BAT pin
End-of-Charge Current Setting
End-of-charge current can be set by connecting a resistor from EOC pin to GND, and is decided by the following
equation:
Where:


IEOC is the end-of-charge current in Ampere
Rext is the external resistance from EOC pin to GND in Ω. Rext can not be great than 100KΩ,
otherwise the charging may not be terminated correctly.
 RCS is the current sense resistance between CSP pin and BAT pin in Ω
It is our interest to calculate the ratio between IEOC and ICH:
When Rext=0Ω, the minimum IEOC/ICH=9.17%
When Rext=100KΩ, the maximum IEOC/ICH=73%
Automatic Battery Recharge
After the charge cycle is completed and both the battery and the input power supply (wall adapter) are still
Connected, a new charge cycle will begin if the battery voltage drops below 16V due to self-discharge or
external loading. This will keep the battery capacity at more than 80% at all times without manually restarting
the charge cycle.
Battery Temperature Monitoring
A negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor located close to the battery pack can be used to monitor
battery temperature and will not allow charging unless the battery temperature is within an acceptable range.
Connect a 10kΩ thermistor from the TEMP pin to ground. Internally, for hot temperature, the low voltage
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Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
threshold is set at 175mV which is equal to 50℃(RNTC≈3.5kΩ). For cold temperature, the high voltage
threshold is set at 1.61V which is equal to 0℃(RNTC≈32kΩ) with 50uA of pull-up current.
Once the temperature is outside the window, the charge cycle will be suspended, and the charge cycle resumes if
the temperature is back to the acceptable range.
The TEMP pin’s pull up current is about 50uA, so the NTC thermistor’s resistance should be 10kΩ at 25℃,
about 3.5kΩ at hot temperature threshold, and about 32kΩ at cold temperature threshold. The NTC thermistor
such as TH11-3H103F, MF52(10 kΩ), QWX-103 and NCP18XH103F03RB can work well with CN3704. The
above mentioned part numbers are for reference only, the users can select the right NTC thermistor part number
based on their requirements.
If battery temperature monitoring function is not needed, just connect a 10KΩ resistor from TEMP pin to GND.
Status Indication
The CN3704 has 2 open-drain status outputs:
and
.
is pulled low when the charger is in
charging status, otherwise
becomes high impedance.
is pulled low if the charger is in charge
termination status, otherwise
becomes high impedance.
When the battery is not present, the charger charges the output capacitor to the regulation voltage quickly, then
the BAT pin’s voltage decays slowly to recharge threshold because of low leakage current at BAT pin, which
results in a ripple waveform at BAT pin, in the meantime,
pin outputs a pulse to indicate that the
battery’s absence. The pulse’s frequency is around 10Hz when a 10uF output capacitor is used.
The open drain status output that is not used should be tied to ground.
The table 1 lists the two indicator status and its corresponding charging status. It is supposed that red LED is
connected to
pin and green LED is connected to
pin
pin.
State Description
pin
Low(the red LED on)
High Impedance(the green LED off)
Charging
High Impedance(the red LED off)
Low(the green LED on)
Charge termination
Pulse signal
Pulse signal
Battery not connected
There are three possible state:
High Impedance(the red LED off)

the voltage at the VCC pin
below the UVLO level or

the voltage at the VCC pin
below VBAT or
abnormal battery’s temp
High Impedance(the green LED off)

Table 1 Indication Status
Gate Drive
The CN3704’s gate driver can provide high transient currents to drive the external pass transistor. The rise and
fall times are typically 40ns when driving a 2000pF load, which is typical for a P-channel MOSFET with Rds(on)
in the range of 50mΩ.
A voltage clamp is added to limit the gate drive to 8V max. below VCC. For example, if VCC is 20V, then the
DRV pin output will be pulled down to 12V min. This allows low voltage P-channel MOSFETs with superior
Rds(on) to be used as the pass transistor thus increasing efficiency.
Loop Compensation
In order to make sure that the current loop and the voltage loop are stable, the following compensation
components are necessary:
(1)A 470pF capacitor from the COM1 pin to GND
(2)A series 220nF ceramic capacitor and 120Ω resistor from the COM2 pin to GND
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7
Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
(3)An 100nF ceramic capacitor from the COM3 pin to GND
Battery Detection
CN3704 does not provide battery detection function, when the battery is not present, the charger charges the
output capacitor to the regulation voltage quickly, then the BAT pin’s voltage decays slowly to recharge
threshold because of low leakage current at BAT pin, which results in a ripple waveform at BAT pin, in the
meantime,
pin outputs a pulse to indicate that the battery’s absence. The pulse’s frequency is around
10Hz when a 10uF output capacitor is used.
It is generally not a good practice to connect a battery while the charger is running. The charger may provide a
large surge current into the battery for a brief time.
Input and Output Capacitors
Since the input capacitor is assumed to absorb all input switching ripple current in the converter, it must have an
adequate ripple current rating. Worst-case RMS ripple current is approximately one-half of output charge
current.
The selection of output capacitor is primarily determined by the ESR required to minimize ripple voltage and
load step transients. Generally speaking, a 10uF ceramic capacitor can be used.
Inductor Selection
During P-channel MOSFET’s on time, the inductor current increases, and decreases during P-channel
MOSFET’s off time, the inductor’s ripple current increases with lower inductance and higher input voltage.
Higher inductor ripple current results in higher charge current ripple and greater core losses. So the inductor’s
ripple current should be limited within a reasonable range.
The inductor’s ripple current is given by the following formula:
Where,
f is the switching frequency 300KHz
L is the inductor value
VBAT is the battery voltage
VCC is the input voltage
A reasonable starting point for setting inductor ripple current is △IL=0.4×ICH, ICH is the charge current.
Remember that the maximum △IL occurs at the maximum input voltage and the lowest inductor value. So
lower charge current generally calls for larger inductor value.
Use Table 2 as a guide for selecting the correct inductor value for your application.
Charge Current
1A
2A
3A
4A
5A
Input Voltage
Inductor Value
>20V
40uH
<20V
30uH
>20V
30uH
<20V
20uH
>20V
20uH
<20V
15uH
>20V
15uH
<20V
10uH
>20V
10uH
<20V
8uH
Table 2 Guide to Select Inductor Value
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Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
MOSFET Selection
The CN3704 uses a P-channel power MOSFET switch. The MOSFET must be selected to meet the efficiency
or power dissipation requirements of the charging circuit as well as the maximum temperature of the MOSFET.
The peak-to-peak gate drive voltage is set internally, this voltage is typically 6.5V. Consequently, logic-level
threshold MOSFETs must be used. Pay close attention to the BVDSS specification for the MOSFET as well;
many of the logic level MOSFETs are limited to 30V or less.
Selection criteria for the power MOSFET includes the “on” resistance Rds(on), total gate charge Qg, reverse
transfer capacitance CRSS, input voltage and maximum charge current.
The MOSFET power dissipation at maximum output current is approximated by the equation:
Where:
Pd is the power dissipation of the power MOSFET
VBAT is the maximum battery voltage
VCC is the minimum input voltage
Rds(on) is the power MOSFET’s on resistance at room temperature
ICH is the charge current
dT is the temperature difference between actual ambient temperature and room temperature(25℃)
In addition to the I2Rds(on) loss, the power MOSFET still has transition loss, which are highest at the highest
input voltage. Generally speaking, for VIN<20V, the I2Rds(on) loss may be dominant, so the MOSFET with
lower Rds(on) should be selected for better efficiency; for VIN>20V, the transition loss may be dominant, so
the MOSFET with lower CRSS can provide better efficiency. CRSS is usually specified in the MOSFET
characteristics; if not, then CRSS can be calculated using CRSS = QGD/ΔVDS.
The MOSFETs such as AO4459, STM9435(or WT9435), AO3407A can be used. The part numbers listed above
are for reference only, the users can select the right MOSFET based on their requirements.
Diode Selection
The diodes D1 and D2 in Figure 1 are schottky diode, the current rating of the diodes should be at least the
charge current limit, the voltage rating of the diode should exceed the maximum expected input voltage.
The diode that is much larger than that is sufficient can result in larger transition losses due to their larger
junction capacitance.
Disable Charging with TEMP Pin
The charging can be disabled with TEMP pin, as shown in Figure 3:
CN3704
Control
Signal
TEMP
M1
NTC
GND
Note:M1 is N-Channel MOSFET
Figure 3 Disable Charging With TEMP Pin
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9
Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
When control signal is high, N-channel MOSFET M1 is turned on, the voltage at TEMP pin is pulled down to
GND, which will disable the charging;
When control signal is low, N-channel MOSFET is turned off, the voltage at TEMP pin is determined by NTC
thermistor, which performs normal battery temperature monitoring function.
About Battery Current In Sleep Mode
In the typical application circuit shown in Figure 1, when input voltage is powered off or lower than battery
voltage, CN3704 will enter sleep mode. In sleep mode, the battery current includes:
(1) The current into BAT pin and CSP pin, which is about 14uA(VBAT=16.8V).
(2) The current from battery to VCC pin via diode D1, which is determined by D1’s leakage current.
The current will charge capacitance C1 at VCC pin, which will make VCC voltage a bit higher. To avoid
erratic operation, a resistor in parallel with capacitance C1 may be needed to discharge the capacitance, the
resistor value is determined by diode D1’s leakage, generally speaking, a 20KΩ resistor can achieve the
task.
The current from battery to GND via diode D2, which is also determined by D2’s leakage current.
PCB Layout Considerations
When laying out the printed circuit board, the following considerations should be taken to ensure proper
operation of the IC.
(1) To minimize radiation, the 2 diodes, pass transistor, inductor and the input bypass capacitor traces should be
kept as short as possible. The positive side of the input capacitor should be close to the source of the
P-channel MOSFET; it provides the AC current to the pass transistor. The connection between the catch
diode and the pass transistor should also be kept as short as possible.
(2) The compensation capacitor connected at the COM1, COM2 and COM3 pins should return to the analog
ground pin of the IC. This will prevent ground noise from disrupting the loop stability.
(3) Output capacitor ground connections need to feed into same copper that connects to the input capacitor
ground before tying back into system ground.
(4) Analog ground and power ground(or switching ground) should return to system ground separately.
(5) The ground pins also works as a heat sink, therefore use a generous amount of copper around the ground
pins. This is especially important for high VCC and/or high gate capacitance applications.
(6) Place the charge current sense resistor RCS right next to the inductor output but oriented such that the IC’s
CSP and BAT traces going to RCS are not long. The 2 traces need to be routed together as a single pair on the
same layer at any given time with smallest trace spacing possible.
(7) The CSP and BAT pins should be connected directly to the current sense resistor (Kelvin sensing) for best
charge current accuracy. See Figure 4 as an example.
Figure 4 Kelvin Sensing of Charge Current
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10
Rev.1.2
CONSONANCE
Package Information
Consonance does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described. Consonance reserves the
right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
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11
Rev.1.2
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