How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft

How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Section 5: How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
• Rope ladder needling (rotating sites)
• Inserting sharp needles
• Buttonhole needling (constant sites)
• Inserting buttonhole needles
Rope ladder needling (for fistulas and grafts)
The rope ladder technique rotates needle sites for each dialysis treatment.
The rope ladder technique must ALWAYS be used when needling a graft.
Inserting sharp needles
1. Think clean.
Clean, clean, clean. Protect yourself from infection. Wash your hands and
access limb. Use the proper technique every time you insert your needles.
2. Plan ahead.
•
Choose your sites carefully. Choose the straightest points possible.
Remember that needles are not curved, even though your fistula might be.
Your training nurse will help you find appropriate sites.
•
Bruises and swelling can happen if the needle pierces through the underside
of the vessel (fistula/graft). To avoid this, plan ahead. Look, Listen and Feel
your fistula/graft every time. Draw a path where the needle is to go if you
need to. Fistulas have a tendency to move, so make sure you know where
you are going with your needle.
•
If the needle has gone through the wall of the fistula/graft and you feel
pain, take the needle out and try again. See troubleshooting guide in
Section 12.
Artery
Vein
HOME HEMODIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
1
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
How to insert sharp needles
Have machine set up and ready to go BEFORE needling.
What supplies are needed?
•
A clean towel or drape
•
Chlorhexidine swabs or other
disinfectant wipes
(ask your nurse).
•
Gauze 2–4 (2x2” squares)
•
3 (10mL) syringes
•
Heparin 1000 units/mL
•
1 21-gauge needle
•
Tape (1 inch and ½ inch)
•
2 sharp fistula needles
•
1 tourniquet (if you have a fistula)
Why is this important?
To keep blood off your table and to
keep your surfaces clean.
Cannula
Bevel
Bevel Up
Optional supplies
•
Numbing cream (Emla)
•
Blood detector (enuresis alarm)
if you will be sleeping on dialysis.
•
Gloves (have your helper use them)
To prevent contamination.
Notes from training
2
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions
Related points to note
1. Wash your hands and fistula/graft
arm for a full minute.
This initial wash removes oils from
your skin. Washing your hands
and arm is the best way to prevent
infections.
2. Prepare your needling surface and
assemble your supplies on your
drape or towel.
To provide a clean working area.
a) Draw up your initial dose of
heparin using a 21-gauge needle
and one 10mL syringe.
b) Attach two empty 10mL syringes
to the fistula needles (leave clamp
open).
c) Cut off pieces of tape
Swab the top of the heparin bottle
with an alcohol wipe and ensure clean
technique while drawing up heparin.
Some people may use “wet needles”
with saline in them instead of the
empty syringe.
Ensure that needles stay put.
approximately 6–10 inches long
3. Look, Listen and Feel your fistula
or graft.
Look for signs of infection, bruising,
discoloration or other skin problems.
Listen to your fistula with your ear.
Make sure you can hear a swishing
sound.
Feel the vessel and think about where
you are going to insert your 2 needles.
Imagine where the end of the needles
will be on both of your needle sites.
(Needle tips need to be more than
2 inches apart.) Change needle sites
each dialysis
(Report anything unusual to your
nurse.)
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
3
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
4. Apply tourniquet (for fistula only).
Do not use a tourniquet on a graft
as it will damage your graft.
Apply 4 inches higher than your
venous needle site.
Optional: Draw outline of the vessel.
Drawing on your skin helps identify
where your fistula/graft is and what
direction it is going in.
5. Clean fistula or graft.
Use 2 separate disinfectant swabs.
Clean each site in a circular motion,
from centre outwards. Use more
swabs if needed.
Ask your nurse about
what disinfectant to use.
6. Insert arterial needle first.
a) Hold the needle by the plastic
wings with the black dot facing
up. ie bevel up.
Remove the plastic cover.
To prevent infections make sure you
don’t touch the metal of the needle.
b) Insert your needle at 25° angle for
fistulas or a 45° angle for grafts.
Watch for the blood pulse (flash
back).
Flatten your angle once you see
the blood pulsing (flash back).
4
If the pulsing stops in the tubing
change your angle.
Discomfort or resistance may indicate
that you need to change needle direction
or angle.
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Slowly advance the needle
almost to the end in the same
direction as the fistula.
Related points to note…cont.
To avoid going through the back side
of the vessel.
c) Secure needle wings with tape.
To prevent needles from falling out.
d) Check the flow of the blood by
pulling up and down on the
syringe.
Watch for air! Ensure your syringe is
in a vertical position.
e) Syringe should be in a vertical
position.
See troubleshooting guide if there is
any pain or if it is difficult to push or
pull blood.
f) (Optional) Place folded gauze
under the needle if your fistula
or graft is deep to maintain the
angle
This is important if your fistula/graft
is deep, to ensure the angle doesn’t
change during dialysis.
g) Clamp the needle.
7. Insert venous needle.
Follow the instructions for inserting
the arterial needle (in #6 above).
Give yourself the initial heparin
dose by replacing the empty syringe
with the heparin-filled syringe.
Check your flows as you draw up
the blood into the syringe and mix
it with the heparin. Return blood
and heparin and close clamp.
8. Remove tourniquet.
Vessels can clot if tourniquet is left
on for long periods.
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
5
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
9. Connect to machine.
Double check both needles one
last time by withdrawing and
returning blood using the syringe.
To ensure needles haven’t clotted.
Close both clamps.
Review your machine training guide.
Connect to blood lines. Red to
lower needle, blue to top needle.
Open needle clamps and start
dialysis.
If you will be sleeping while on
dialysis, tape enuresis alarm to
venous site.
Enuresis alarm will sound if it detects
moisture. Make sure you use this if
you sleep while on dialysis.
End of dialysis — taking out your needles
What supplies are needed?
Why is this important?
•
1 clean towel or drape
To keep blood off your table and to
keep your surfaces clean.
•
Gauze _______
•
Tape (1 inch and ½ inch) or other
dressing
•
Sharps bin
To safely dispose of the needle
•
Gloves (have your helper use them)
To prevent contamination.
Instructions
Related points to note
1. Clean/Sanitize your hands.
Using hand sanitizer will help kill
any bacteria that may be living on
your hands.
This includes your helper. Your
helper should also wear gloves.
6
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
2. Prepare the supplies.
Ensure that you have at least a
500mL bag of saline.
You will need at least 500mL of saline
to safely rinse back your blood.
Prepare your supplies, open gauze,
prepare any tape and/or band aids.
3. Rinse back
Follow your machine manual or
flip chart.
4. Check blood pressures
Perform sitting and standing
blood pressures.
5. Check post dialysis weight.
If your blood pressure is lower
than____/___ and you are feeling
lightheaded, make sure there is
enough saline in your infusion bag,
turn the blood pump on again and
give yourself more saline until you
feel better. Turn the blood pump off
and clamp your needles and bloodlines. Repeat your blood pressure.
If your weight is above your goal
weight and you felt dizzy at take off
with low BP you may need to increase
your goal weight.
If you are below your goal weight and
you feel good and have a normal BP
this means it may be time to lower
your goal.Call your nurse to discuss
if you are unsure.
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
7
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
6. Take out needles.
If your puncture site is still bleeding,
reapply pressure for another 5 min.
Repeat as needed.
Remove needles one at a time by
grasping the needle tubing with
your fistula hand and placing
gauze over the puncture site with
your other hand. Pull the needle
out slowly while ensuring the
gauze is over the puncture site.
Do not apply pressure until needle
is out. Hold each puncture site for
at least 10 minutes with sterile
gauze.
If you consistently need to hold your
site for longer than 15 minutes,
contact your training nurse. You may
need to decrease your heparin or
have your fistula examined.
If after 1 hour your fistula is still
bleeding, call your nurse or go to
hospital emergency.
7. Apply band aids or dressing.
Keep band aids/dressing on for
4 hours, then remove and check if
scab is present. If your puncture site
has started to bleed, apply a new
dressing and check again in a few
hours.
8. Clean up.
Disinfecting your machine after every
dialysis is mandatory. Bacteria will
grow inside the machine if it is not
cleaned daily.
Safely dispose of used supplies and
clean your machine. All needles to
be disposed of in a sharps bin.
Follow your machine manual or
flip chart.
8
Make sure you also clean the outside
of your machine using a cloth and
warm soapy water. This will kill any
bacteria growing on the surface of
your machine.
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Buttonhole needling (for fistulas only)
1. How to establish a buttonhole track
Think about it like an earring hole.
•
A consistent person (you or your helper) develops the track. It usually
takes between 8–18 times before you can start to use dull needles. Your
first buttonhole track happens during your initial home hemodialysis
training session.
•
Choose your sites carefully. Choose the straightest points possible.
Remember, needles are not curved although your fistula might be.
Your training nurse will help you find appropriate sites.
•
Consistency is important. Use the same hole, the same angle and the same
direction each time you insert a needle.
•
Use a separate sterile red blunt fill needle to remove each buttonhole
scab.
•
Soaking scabs with disinfectant will also help you remove them.
Never try to make a buttonhole track on a graft. The graft material does not
grow back.
2. How to care for your buttonhole track
•
Clean, clean, clean — make sure you clean your sites before and after
removing the scabs.
•
Don’t force the needles in, they should just slide in.
•
Report any redness, pain or swelling to your nurse.
•
If you think your fistula is infected, go to your nearest hospital emergency.
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
9
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Inserting buttonhole needles
Ensure the machine is set up and ready to run BEFORE needling.
What do you need?
•
1 clean towel or drape
•
Chlorhexidine swabs or other
disinfectant wipes
•
Gauze 4x4" and 2x2"
•
3 (10mL) syringes
•
Heparin 1000 units/mL
•
1 21-gauge needle
•
Tape (1 inch and ½ inch)
•
2 blunt buttonhole fistula needles
•
1 tourniquet
•
2 red blunt fill needles
Why is this important?
To keep blood off your table and to
keep your surfaces clean.
Optional supplies
•
Blood detector (enuresis alarm)
if you will be sleeping while on
dialysis
•
Gloves (have your helper use them)
To prevent contamination.
Notes from training
10
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions
Related points to note
1. Wash your hands and fistula arm
for a full minute.
This initial wash removes oils from
your skin. Washing your hands
and arm is the best way to prevent
infections.
2. Prepare your needling surface and
assemble your supplies on your
drape or towel.
To keep blood off your table and to
keep your surfaces clean.
a) Draw up your initial dose of
heparin using a 21-gauge needle
and one 10mL syringe.
b) Attach two empty 10mL syringes
to the fistula needles. (Leave
clamp open.)
c) Cut off pieces of tape
Swab the top of the heparin
bottle with an alcohol swab and
ensure clean technique while drawing
up heparin.
Some people may use “wet needles”
with saline in them instead of the
empty syringe.
Ensure that needles stay put.
approximately 6–10 inches long
or open tegaderm.
3. Look, Listen and Feel your fistula
Report anything unusual
to your nurse.
Look for signs of infection, bruising,
discoloration or other skin problems.
Listen to your fistula with your ear
make sure you can hear a swishing
sound.
Feel the vessel and think about where
you are going to insert your 2 needles.
Imagine where the end of the needles
will be on both of your needle sites.
(Needle tips must be more than
2 inches apart.)
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
11
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
4. Remove scabs.
Using a disinfectant swab, soak
scabs until scab is soft.
Talk to your nurse about what
disinfectant to use.
Gently lift scab off with a
disinfectant swab or a red blunt
fill needle if scab doesn’t come off
easily.
Soaking the scab helps lift it off
Try to avoid puncturing the skin.
5. Apply tourniquet.
Apply 4 inches higher than your
venous or top needle site.
Drawing on your skin will help you
find the direction of your fistula.
Optional: Draw an outline of the
vessel.
6. Clean fistula.
Use 2 separate disinfectant swabs
and clean each site in a circular
motion, centre first and then move
outward. Use more swabs if needed.
Ask your nurse which disinfectant
to use.
7. Insert arterial needle first.
a) Hold the needle by the plastic
wings with the black dot facing
up. ie bevel up.
To prevent infections make sure you
don’t touch the metal of the needle.
Carefully remove the plastic
needle cover without touching
the metal part
12
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
b) Insert your needle at 25° angle for
fistulas.
Watch for the bloodpulse (flash
back).
If the pulsing stops in the tubing
change your angle. You may needle
to slide a folded gauze 2x2 under the
needle wings to keep the angle
Flatten your angle once you
see the blood pulsing
(flash back).
Discomfort or resistance may mean
that you need to change needle direction or angle.
Slowly advance needle almost to
the end in the same direction as
the fistula.
To avoid going through the back side
of the vessel.
c) Tape down needle wings.
To prevent needles from falling out.
d) Check the flow of the blood by
pulling up and down on the
syringe.
Watch for air! Ensure your syringe is
in a vertical position.
e) Syringe should be in a vertical
position.
See troubleshooting guide if it there
is any pain or if it is difficult to push
or pull blood.
f) (Optional) place folded gauze
under the needle if desired.
This is important if your fistula is
deep, to ensure the angle doesn’t
change during dialysis.
g) Clamp needle.
8. Insert venous needle.
Follow the instructions for inserting
the arterial needle (in #7 above).
Give yourself the initial heparin
dose by replacing the empty syringe
with the heparin-filled syringe.
Check your flows as you draw up
the blood into the syringe and mix
it with the heparin. Return blood
and heparin and close clamp.
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
13
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
9. Remove tourniquet.
Vessels can clot if tourniquet is left
on for long periods.
10. Connect to the machine.
Recheck flow in needles using
syringe.
See flipchart instructions.
To ensure needles have not clotted.
Clamp needles and connect to
bloodlines
Open clamps and start dialysis.
Tape enuresis alarm to venous
site.
Enuresis alarm will sound if it detects
moisture. If you sleep while on dialysis,
use the alarm.
End of dialysis — taking out your buttonhole needles
What supplies are needed.
Why is this important?
•
1 clean towel or drape
To keep blood off your table and to
keep your surfaces clean.
•
Gauze 2–4 (2x2 and 4x4 squares)
•
Hand sanitizer
•
Sharps bin
To safely dispose of needles.
•
2 sterile swab tip applicators
To apply the antibacterial ointment
•
Mupirocin ointment
to buttonhole sites once bleeding has
stopped.
Optional supplies
•
Gloves (have your helper use them)
To prevent contamination.
Instructions
Related points to note
1. Clean/Sanitize your hands.
Using hand sanitizer will help kill
any bacteria that may be living on
your hands.
This includes your helper. Your
helper should also wear gloves.
14
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
2. Prepare your supplies.
Ensure that you have at least half
a bag of saline hanging.
You will need at least 500mL of saline
to safely rinse back your blood.
Open gauze, prepare any tape and/or
band aids.
3. Rinse back
Follow flip chart instructions.
4. Check blood pressures.
Do sitting and standing blood
pressures before disconnecting
your bloodlines.
5. Check post dialysis weight.
If your blood pressure is lower
than____/___ turn the blood pump
on again to give yourself more saline
until you feel better. Turn blood
pump off and clamp your needles
and bloodlines. Repeat your blood
pressure.
If your weight is above your goal
weight and you felt dizzy at take off
with low BP you may need to increase
your goal weight.
If you are below your goal weight and
you feel good and have a normal BP
this means it may be time to lower
your goal.Call your nurse to discuss
if you are unsure.
INDEPENDENT DIALYSIS PATIENT WORKBOOK
15
How to Needle Your Fistula or Graft
Instructions…cont.
Related points to note…cont.
6. Take out needles.
If your puncture site is still bleeding,
reapply pressure for another 5 min.
Repeat as needed.
Remove needles one at a time by
grasping the needle tubing with
your fistula hand and placing
gauze over the puncture site with
your other hand. Pull the needle
out slowly while ensuring the
gauze is over the puncture site.
Do not apply pressure until needle
is out. Hold each puncture site for
at least 10 minutes with sterile
gauze.
If you consistently need to hold your
site for longer than 15 minutes,
contact your training nurse. You may
need to decrease your heparin or
have your fistula examined.
If after 1 hour your fistula is still
bleeding, call your nurse or go to
hospital emergency.
7. Mupirocin ointment.
Apply a small amount of Mupirocin
ointment to each buttonhole site
using 2 separate sterile swab tip
applicators. Cover with sterile gauze.
8. Clean up.
Safely dispose of used supplies and
clean your machine
All needles to be disposed of in a
sharps bin.
Follow your machine manual or
flip chart.
16
Keep gauze dressing on for at least
4 hours then remove and wipe off
excess ointment with a sterile gauze.
Disinfecting your machine after every
dialysis is mandatory. Bacteria will
grow inside the machine if it is not
disninfected after every treatment.
Clean the outside of your machine
using a cloth and warm soapy water.
This will kill any bacteria growing
on the surface of your machine.
BC PROVINCIAL RENAL AGENCY
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising